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Sample records for lithium phosphorous oxynitride

  1. High-k lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zheng-Wen; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Li, Chi-Lin; Qin, Qi-Zong; Yao, Yin; Lu, Fang

    2003-12-01

    Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon) thin films have been fabricated onto n-Si substrate at room temperature by nitrogen plasma-assisted deposition of electron-beam reactive evaporated Li3PO4. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and I-V characteristics of Al/Lipon/Si capacitors were measured. The accumulation, depletion, and inversion phenomena in the C-V curves of the as-deposited Lipon thin film could be clearly observed. The isothermal transient ionic current of Al/Lipon/Al as a function of time during voltage stepping from 0 to 3 V exhibits a large current response due to dipole orientation. The dielectric constant of Lipon thin films is found to be 16.6, and the leakage current density at an applied electric field of 5 kV/cm is about 6.0×10-7 A/cm2. These results suggest that lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films are high-k materials. The incorporation of N into amorphous of Li3PO4 could significantly increase the dielectric constant of Lipon thin films.

  2. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon Gu; Wadley, H. N. G.

    2008-01-15

    A plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon) thin films. A Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} source was first evaporated using a high voltage electron beam and the resulting vapor entrained in a nitrogen-doped supersonic helium gas jet and deposited on a substrate at ambient temperature. This approach failed to incorporate significant concentrations of nitrogen in the films. A hollow cathode technique was then used to create an argon plasma that enabled partial ionization of both the Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} vapor and nitrogen gas just above the substrate surface. The plasma-enhanced deposition process greatly increased the gas phase and surface reactivity of the system and facilitated the synthesis and high rate deposition of amorphous Lipon films with the N/P ratios between 0.39 and 1.49. Manipulation of the plasma-enhanced process conditions also enabled control of the pore morphology and significantly affected the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium ion conductivities in the 10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} S/m range. They appear to be well suited for thin-film battery applications.

  3. Mechanical measurements on lithium phosphorous oxynitride coated silicon thin film electrodes for lithium-ion batteries during lithiation and delithiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Kramer, Dominik; Boles, Steven T.; Mönig, Reiner; Thompson, Carl V.

    2016-08-01

    The development of large stresses during lithiation and delithiation drives mechanical and chemical degradation processes (cracking and electrolyte decomposition) in thin film silicon anodes that complicate the study of normal electrochemical and mechanical processes. To reduce these effects, lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) coatings were applied to silicon thin film electrodes. Applying a LiPON coating has two purposes. First, the coating acts as a stable artificial solid electrolyte interphase. Second, it limits mechanical degradation by retaining the electrode's planar morphology during cycling. The development of stress in LiPON-coated electrodes was monitored using substrate curvature measurements. LiPON-coated electrodes displayed highly reproducible cycle-to-cycle behavior, unlike uncoated electrodes which had poorer coulombic efficiency and exhibited a continual loss in stress magnitude with continued cycling due to film fracture. The improved mechanical stability of the coated silicon electrodes allowed for a better investigation of rate effects and variations of mechanical properties during electrochemical cycling.

  4. Nitride and Oxynitride Based Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yongchi

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the project is to advance the technology of the Lightscape Materials Inc. (Lightscape) proprietary nitride and oxynitride phosphors for solid state lighting (SSL) from the current level of maturity of applied research to advanced engineering development. This objective will be accomplished by optimizing the novel nitride and oxynitride phosphors, whose formulations are listed in Table 1, and establishing cost-effective preparation processes for the phosphors. The target performances of the phosphors are: • High luminescence efficiency: Quantum Yield = 90%. • Superior thermal stability of luminescence: Thermal Quenching Loss <10% at 150 °C. • Superior environmental stability: Luminescence Maintenance >90% after 5,000 hours at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity. • Scattering loss <10%. • Cost-effective preparation processes. The resulting phosphor materials and their preparation processes are anticipated to be a drop-in component for product development paths undertaken by LED lamp makers in the SSL industry. Upon program completion, Lightscape will target market insertion that enables high efficacy, high color rendering index (CRI), high thermal stability and long lifetime LED-based lighting products for general illumination that realizes substantial energy savings.

  5. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (oxy)nitride phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, R.-J.; Hirosaki, N.; Sakuma, K.; Kimura, N.

    2008-07-01

    (Oxy)nitride phosphors have attracted great attention recently because they are promising luminescent materials for phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This paper reports the luminescent properties of (oxy)nitride phosphors in the system of M-Si-Al-O-N (M = Li, Ca or Sr), and optical properties of white LEDs using a GaN-based blue LED and (oxy)nitride phosphors. The phosphors show high conversion efficiency of blue light, suitable emission colours and small thermal quenching. The bichromatic white LEDs exhibit high luminous efficacy (~55 lm W-1) and the multi-phosphor converted white LEDs show high colour rendering index (Ra = 82-95). The results indicate that (oxy)nitride phosphors demonstrate their superior suitability to use as down-conversion luminescent materials in white LEDs.

  6. Properties of Lithium Phosphorus Oxynitride (Lipon) for 3D Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Fan; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M; Kim, Yoongu; Erdonmez, Can; Lai, Wei; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The thin film electrolyte known as Lipon has proven successful for planar thin film battery applications. Here the sputter deposition of the amorphous lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte onto more complex 3D structures is examined. The 3D structures include off-axis alignment of planar substrates and also 10-100 m arrays of pores, columns and grooves. For magnetron sputtering in N2 gas at 2.6 Pa, the Lipon film deposition is not restricted by the line-of-sight to the target, but forms conformal and dense films over the 3D and off-axis substrates. The deposition rate decreases for areas and grooves that are less accessible for the sputtered flux. The composition varies, but remains within the range that gives sufficient Li+ ionic conductivity, 2 1 S/cm

  7. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  8. Lithium titanium oxynitride thin film with enhanced lithium storage and rate capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaozhe; Xu, Huarui; Zhu, Guisheng; Yan, Dongliang; Yu, Aibing

    2016-04-01

    The lithium titanium oxynitride (LTON) thin film electrode was prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition using a cubic spinel structure Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) powder target in a N2 atmosphere for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM test results showed that the thin film was composed of weak crystal or amorphous structure and that its surface was homogeneous. XPS analyses indicated that nitrogen atoms were actually incorporated into the LTO matrix framework. The substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the thin film created more abundant cross-linking structures, which favored the higher mobility of lithium ions. The LTON had a high capacity of 290 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, excellent rate capability of 160 mAh g-1 at 5C and only ≈7% capacity loss after 100 cycles at 5C charge and discharge rate. These properties make this thin film electrode a promising candidate material for use in thin film lithium ion batteries.

  9. Crystal structure and photoluminescence of Mn2+-Mg2+ codoped gamma aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON): A promising green phosphor for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Liu, Xue-Jian; Takeda, Takashi; Li, Hui-Li

    2008-05-01

    This letter reports on the crystal structure and luminescence of a green gamma aluminum oxynitride phosphor. This phosphor, codoped with Mn2+ and Mg2+, shows a single cubic spinel phase, with Mn2+ and Mg2+ substituting Al3+ in the tetrahedral sites. It shows a broad emission band centered at 520nm and a full width at half maximum of 44nm. The green phosphor exhibits a small thermal quenching and high internal quantum efficiency of 62% under the blue light irradiation, enabling it to be used in high color rendering white light-emitting diodes.

  10. Photoluminescence, energy transfer and tunable color of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+) activated oxynitride phosphors with high brightness.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei; Huo, Jiansheng; Feng, Yang; Zhao, Shuang; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-21

    New tuneable light-emitting Ca3Al8Si4O17N4:Ce(3+)/Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) oxynitride phosphors with high brightness have been prepared. When doped with trivalent cerium or divalent europium they present blue luminescence under UV excitation. The energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions is deduced from the spectral overlap between Ce(3+) emission and Tb(3+)/Eu(2+) excitation spectra. The energy-transfer efficiencies and corresponding mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the mechanisms of energy transfer from the Ce(3+) to Tb(3+) and Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) ions are demonstrated to be a dipole-quadrupole and dipole-dipole mechanism, respectively, by the Inokuti-Hirayama model. The International Commission on Illumination value of color tuneable emission as well as luminescence quantum yield (23.8-80.6%) can be tuned by controlling the content of Ce(3+), Tb(3+) and Eu(2+). All results suggest that they are suitable for UV light-emitting diode excitation. PMID:27226201

  11. Luminescence properties of blue La1-xCexAl(Si6-zAlz)(N10-zOz) (z˜1) oxynitride phosphors and their application in white light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kohsei; Hirosaki, Naoto; Xie, Rong-Jun; Harada, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Ken-ichi; Tomomura, Yoshitaka

    2007-08-01

    This letter reports blue oxynitride phosphors of La1-xCexAl(Si6-zAlz)(N10-zOz) (z˜1) (termed JEM crystal phase) and their application for the white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The JEM phosphor can be excited by 405nm light efficiently, and its spectrum can be tuned widely by changing the Ce concentration. The emission spectrum of this phosphor is as wide as 110nm in full width at half maximum, which is convenient to solid state lighting. The preparation of white LED was attempted by using a 405nm InGaN chip and oxynitride phosphors in this work. High color rendering index >95 was achieved in white LED with various correlated color temperatures, indicating the suitability of the JEM phosphor in solid-state lightings.

  12. Lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid-state thin-film electrolyte deposited and modified by bias sputtering and low temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, K.-F.; Chen, C. C.; Lin, K. M.; Lo, C. C.; Lin, H. C.; Ho, W.-H.; Jiang, C. S.

    2010-07-15

    Amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state thin-film electrolyte has been deposited and characterized. The thin films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering under various substrate biases. By fabricating under different substrate biases and applying low temperature annealing (473 K), the properties of the LiPON thin-film electrolytes and the electrolyte/cathode interfaces were modified. The ionic conductivity as high as 9.4x10{sup -4} S m{sup -1} can be obtained by depositing at optimal bias. The performances of the consequently fabricated SnO{sub 2}/LiPON/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} all-solid-state lithium ion thin-film batteries were improved using the bias sputtering technique, due to the enhanced the ionic conductivity and uniform interface.

  13. Niobium(V) oxynitride: synthesis, characterization, and feasibility as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Nesper, Reinhard; Jantsky, Laurent; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2012-05-01

    The decomposition reaction of niobium(V) oxytrichloride ammoniate to the oxynitride of niobium in the 5+ oxidation state was developed in a methodological way. By combining elemental analysis, Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron diffraction data, SEM and TEM, the sample compound was identified as approximately 5 nm-diameter particles of NbO(1.3(1))N(0.7(1)) crystallizing with baddeleyite-type structure. The thermal stability of this compound was studied in detail by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the electrochemical uptake and release by the galvanostatic cycling method of pure and carbon-coated NbO(1.3(1))N(0.7(1)) versus lithium was investigated as an example of an Li-free transition-metal oxynitride. The results showed that reversible capacities as high as 250 and 80 A h  kg(-1) can be reached in voltage ranges of 0.05-3 and 1-3 V, respectively. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for the charge-discharge reaction is proposed.

  14. Niobium(V) Oxynitride: Synthesis, Characterization, and Feasibility as Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Nesper, Reinhard; Jantsky, Laurent; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The decomposition reaction of niobium(V) oxytrichloride ammoniate to the oxynitride of niobium in the 5+ oxidation state was developed in a methodological way. By combining elemental analysis, Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron diffraction data, SEM and TEM, the sample compound was identified as approximately 5 nm-diameter particles of NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) crystallizing with baddeleyite-type structure. The thermal stability of this compound was studied in detail by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the electrochemical uptake and release by the galvanostatic cycling method of pure and carbon-coated NbO1.3(1)N0.7(1) versus lithium was investigated as an example of an Li-free transition-metal oxynitride. The results showed that reversible capacities as high as 250 and 80 A h kg−1 can be reached in voltage ranges of 0.05–3 and 1–3 V, respectively. Furthermore, a plausible mechanism for the charge–discharge reaction is proposed. PMID:22461147

  15. Graphene-molybdenum oxynitride porous material with improved cyclic stability and rate capability for rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ding; Wu, Haiping; Wei, Zhixiang; Han, Bao-Hang

    2013-10-21

    A graphene-molybdenum oxynitride (GMON) hybrid porous material was prepared by a thermal decomposition method and investigated as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. In the thermal decomposition reaction, a chemically homogeneous complex formed by ammonium molybdate and hexamethylenetetramine was used as the precursor for the synthesis of molybdenum oxynitride (MON), and graphene oxide was thermally reduced into graphene. Meanwhile, the graphene sheets were nitrogen doped by the ammonia generated during the thermal reaction. The GMON hybrid porous materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. Nitrogen sorption analysis showed that GMON possesses an enhanced porosity compared with the MON prepared in the same method. Owing to the improvement in the porosity and the conductivity, the GMON anode exhibited a reversible capacity of about 960 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), furthermore, the rate performance and the cycling stability of the GMON anode were dramatically enhanced in comparison with thermal reduced graphene oxide and MON.

  16. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  17. High-performance flexible all-solid-state microbatteries based on solid electrolyte of lithium boron oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Lee, Ki-Chang; Park, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly growing interest and demand for wearable electronics require the development of flexible and lightweight all-solid-state batteries as power sources that guarantee high performance and safety with the absence of the risk of fire or explosion that can occur with traditional liquid electrolyte systems. Herein, we successfully fabricate new flexible all-solid-state microbatteries integrating a solid electrolyte film of lithium boron oxynitride (LiBON) on a flexible substrate using sophisticated thin-film fabrication technology. The new microbattery of Li/LiBON/LiCoO2 exhibits excellent mechanical integrity even under severe bending and twisting test conditions, enabling the realization of flexible microbatteries. The microbatteries demonstrate superior electrochemical cycling stability relative to conventional batteries, delivering an outstanding capacity retention of 90% on the 1000th cycle. Furthermore, operation at various temperatures from -10 °C to +60 °C and fast charging within 3-6 min are achieved. With various types of flexible substrates, the microbatteries can provide diverse opportunities for flexible and wearable electronics.

  18. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  19. Enhanced luminescence properties in (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2.97}SiO{sub 3}N{sub 4/3}:0.03Eu{sup 2+} oxynitride phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xia; Qiu, Kehui; Lu, Xueguang; Zhao, Kun; Jiang, Zixu

    2014-12-15

    An oxynitride phosphor (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2.97}SiO{sub 3}N{sub 4/3}:0.03Eu{sup 2+} (SBSON) was synthesized by the solid-state reaction at 1550 °C for 4 h. XRD results show that the major phase of the synthesized phosphors is isostructural with Sr{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} when the content of Ba{sup 2+} is not greater than 0.5. Through the doping of Ba{sup 2+} ions, the particle morphology, luminescence intensities and thermal stability are all improved obviously. When the x equals 0.5 the luminescence intensity reaches maximum which is about 1.48 times as that of the phosphor free of Ba{sup 2+}. The emission peaks can be tuned from 583 nm to 601 nm by adjusting Ba{sup 2+} content. The doping of Ba{sup 2+} can also prolong the average lifetime from 1482 to 2122 ns. With high emission intensity and thermal stability, this novel oxynitride phosphor SBSON shows potential application in white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: Through the change of micro-structure by doping Ba{sup 2+} ions proved by the XRD patterns, (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2.97}SiO{sub 3}N{sub 4/3}:0.03Eu{sup 2+}phosphor eventually achieves the extension of lifetime and the improvement of luminescence properties and thermal stability. - Highlights: • (Sr{sub 1−x}Ba{sub x}){sub 2.97}SiO{sub 3}N{sub 4/3}:0.03Eu phosphors were prepared by the solid-state reaction. • The synthesized phosphor (x≤0.5) is isostructural with Sr{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}. • The emission peaks red shift to 601 nm then slightly blue shift by adding Ba{sup 2+}. • The emission intensity and thermal stability are both enhanced. • Fluorescent lifetime can be prolonged by doping Ba{sup 2+}.

  20. Active and Passive Application of the Phosphoric Acid on the Bond Strength of Lithium Disilicate.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Tatiana Cardona; Villada, Vanessa Roldan; Castillo, Mauricio Peña; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Bittencourt, Bruna Fortes; Dominguez, John Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of passive or active phosphoric acid (PA) application after hydrofluoric acid (HA) treatment on the microshear bond strength of lithium disilicate. Thirty ceramic discs were made with IPS Emax 2 (10 mm thick and 10 mm diameter). The specimens were divided into 3 groups, A: 9.6% HA application; AF: 9.6% HA application + cleaning with 37% PA in passive mode and AFF: 9.6% HA application + cleaning with 37% PA in active mode. For the microshear test, four tygons (0.9 mm diameter and 0.2 mm high) were filled with resin cement (RelyX Ultimate) and placed on the ceramic disks. After testing, the fracture modes were examined under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post test (α=0.05). The bond strength values were significantly higher in Group AFF (11.0±2.5 MPa) compared with group A (8.1±2.6 MPa) (p<0.002). AF group was not statistically different (9.4±2.5 MPa) from Group A. It was concluded that the active application of 37% PA after 9.6% HA increases the microshear bond strength values between the resin cement and lithium disilicate ceramic.

  1. Silver vanadium phosphorous oxide, Ag 2VO 2PO 4: Chimie douce preparation and resulting lithium cell electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    Recently, we have shown silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag 2VO 2PO 4, SVPO) to be a promising cathode material for lithium based batteries. Whereas the first reported preparation of SVPO employed an elevated pressure, hydrothermal approach, we report herein a novel ambient pressure synthesis method to prepare SVPO, where our chimie douce preparation is readily scalable and provides material with a smaller, more consistent particle size and higher surface area relative to SVPO prepared via the hydrothermal method. Lithium electrochemical cells utilizing SVPO cathodes made by our new process show improved power capability under constant current and pulse conditions over cells containing cathode from SVPO prepared via the hydrothermal method.

  2. Oxynitride glass fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Messier, Donald R.; Rich, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Research at the Army Materials Technology Laboratory (AMTL) and elsewhere has shown that many glass properties including elastic modulus, hardness, and corrosion resistance are improved markedly by the substitution of nitrogen for oxygen in the glass structure. Oxynitride glasses, therefore, offer exciting opportunities for making high modulus, high strength fibers. Processes for making oxynitride glasses and fibers of glass compositions similar to commercial oxide glasses, but with considerable enhanced properties, are discussed. We have made glasses with elastic moduli as high as 140 GPa and fibers with moduli of 120 GPa and tensile strengths up to 2900 MPa. AMTL holds a U.S. patent on oxynitride glass fibers, and this presentation discusses a unique process for drawing small diameter oxynitride glass fibers at high drawing rates. Fibers are drawn through a nozzle from molten glass in a molybdenum crucible at 1550 C. The crucible is situated in a furnace chamber in flowing nitrogen, and the fiber is wound in air outside of the chamber, making the process straightforward and commercially feasible. Strengths were considerably improved by improving glass quality to minimize internal defects. Though the fiber strengths were comparable with oxide fibers, work is currently in progress to further improve the elastic modulus and strength of fibers. The high elastic modulus of oxynitride glasses indicate their potential for making fibers with tensile strengths surpassing any oxide glass fibers, and we hope to realize that potential in the near future.

  3. Oxynitride glass production procedure

    DOEpatents

    Weidner, Jerry R.; Schuetz, Stanley T.; O'Brien, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the preparation of high quality oxynitride glasses without resorting to high pressures. Nitrogen-containing compounds such as Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 are first encapsulated in a low melting temperature glass. Particles of the encapsulated nitrogen-containing compound are mixed with other oxide glass-formers and melted in an atmosphere of flowing nitrogen and in the presence of buffering gas to form the oxynitride glass. Glasses containing up to 15 at % nitrogen have been prepared by this method.

  4. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  5. Study of electron-vibrational interaction and concentration quenching effect of Cu+ ions in lithium based sulphate phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoyar, Priyanka D.; Choithrani, Renu; Dhoble, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study electron-vibrational interaction (EVI) and concentration quenching and their manifestation in experimental photoluminescence spectra of Cu+ ion in various lithium based phosphors namely, Li2SO4, LiNaSO4 and LiKSO4. The main parameters of EVI, such as the Stokes shift, Huang-Rhys factor and zero-phonon line positions, were estimated. The studied systems shows strong electron lattice coupling. The validity of results was established by modeling the shape of the emission spectra, which was found to be in good agreement with experimental photoluminescence spectra. The concentration quenching study is also carried out for these compounds. The studied systems correspond to the nearest neighbor energy transfer mechanism.

  6. Study on lithium/air secondary batteries-Stability of NASICON-type lithium ion conducting glass-ceramics with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Tao; Xie, Jian; Hirano, Atsushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu

    The water stability of the fast lithium ion conducting glass-ceramic electrolyte, Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xSi yP 3- yO 12 (LATP), has been examined in distilled water, and aqueous solutions of LiNO 3, LiCl, LiOH, and HCl. This glass-ceramics are stable in aqueous LiNO 3 and aqueous LiCl, and unstable in aqueous 0.1 M HCl and 1 M LiOH. In distilled water, the electrical conductivity slightly increases as a function of immersion time in water. The Li-Al/Li 3- xPO 4- yN y/LATP/aqueous 1 M LiCl/Pt cell, where lithium phosphors oxynitrides Li 3- xPO 4- yN y (LiPON) are used to protect the direct reaction of Li and LATP, shows a stable open circuit voltage (OCV) of 3.64 V at 25 °C, and no cell resistance change for 1 week. Lithium phosphors oxynitride is effectively used as a protective layer to suppress the reaction between the LATP and Li metal. The water-stable Li/LiPON/LATP system can be used in Li/air secondary batteries with the air electrode containing water.

  7. Phosphorous pentasulfide as a novel additive for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries suffer from rapid capacity decay and low energy efficiency because of the low solubility of lithium sulfide (Li2S) in organic solvents and the intrinsic polysulfide shuttle phenomenon. Here, we report a novel additive of phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) in organic electrolyte to boost the cycling performance of Li-S batteries. The function of the additive is two-fold: (1) P2S5 promotes the dissolution of Li2S and alleviates the loss of capacity caused by the precipitation of Li2S; and (2) P2S5 passivates the surface of lithium metal and therefore eliminates the polysulfide shuttle phenomenon. A Li-S test cell demonstrates high reversible capacity of 900-1350 mAh g-1 and high coulombic efficiency of 90% for 40 stable cycles at 0.1 C.

  8. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0oxynitride dielectric layer.

  9. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Phosphorous-Based, Flame-Retardant Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Smith, Kiah A.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    2010-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars, the Moon, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications. In addition, many of these applications will require improved safety, due to their use by humans. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion (Li-ion) system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, abuse conditions can often lead to cell rupture and fire. The nature of the electrolyte can greatly affect the propensity of the cell/battery to catch fire, given the flammability of the organic solvents used within. Li-ion electrolytes have been developed that contain a flame-retardant additive in conjunction with fluorinated co-solvents to provide a safe system with a wide operating temperature range. Previous work incorporated fluorinated esters into multi-component electrolyte formulations, which were demonstrated to cover a temperature range from 60 to +60 C. This work was described in Fluoroester Co-Solvents for Low-Temperature Li+ Cells (NPO-44626), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 9 (September 2009), p. 37; and Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Con tain ing Fluorinated Ester Co-Solvents (NPO-45824), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 48. Other previous work improved the safety characteristics of the electrolytes by adding flame-retardant additives such as triphenyl phosphate (TPhPh), tri-butyl phosphate (TBuPh), triethyl phosphate (TEtPh), and bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) methyl phosphonate (TFMPo). The current work involves further investigation of other types of flame-retardant additives, including tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphate, tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite, triphenylphosphite, diethyl ethylphosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate added to an electrolyte composition intended for wide operating temperatures. In general, many of the formulations investigated in this

  10. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  11. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  12. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  13. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  15. [Lithium].

    PubMed

    Sparsa, A; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2004-03-01

    The mode of action of the cation lithium is not well known. It is at present used as a topical drug in dermatology. Lithium inhibits many enzymes: Na/K ATPase, adenylcyclase, enzymes of the prostaglandines E1 synthesis, inositol-1-phosphatase. It is active on neutrophils et T lymphocytes, explaining in part its anti-inflammatory activity. It has a dose-dependent action on levures. It has possibly a direct inhibitory activity on DNA synthesis of herpes viruses. Lithium has a good local safety. Percutaneous penetration is weak and plasma concentrations are very much lower than that observed after oral intake. Lithium has been studied in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Its efficacy was primarily observed in psychotic patients. An assay with oral lithium did not confirmed the first observations. Topical lithium was found more efficient. Topical lithium succinate associated with zinc sulfate and lithium gluconate had a greater efficacy than placebo. Comparison with topical ketoconazole showed a non inferiority of lithium gluconate. Oral lithium also showed a reduction of symptoms' duration of herpes simplex. Cutaneous side-effects of oral lithium are frequent and numerous. Some of them may be explained by a lithium pharmacological cell activity (such as psoriasis). Teratogenicity is observed in mice and rats. Drug interactions are not expected after topical application. Irritants side effects are mainly observed after topical application; they are moderate and transitory. Lithium gluconate treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis is a bid application during at least 8 weeks. It may be used in renal insufficiency. It is not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Synthesis and reactivity of new bimetallic oxynitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.T.; Ramanathan, S.; Yu, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    A new series of bimetallic oxynitride catalysts, M{sub 1}M{sub 2}O{sub x}N{sub y} (M{sub 1} = V{sub 1}, Nb, Cr, Mn and Co, M{sub 2} = Mo or W), was prepared by nitriding the bimetallic oxide precursors in an ammonia gas stream at 1000 cm{sup 3}/min (6.8x10{sup 2} {mu}mol s{sup -1}) while the temperature was raised at 5 K/min (8.3x10{sup -2} K s{sup -1}). The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, CO chemisorption and surface area measurements. The catalytic activity of these catalysts for mixture containing 3000 ppm sulfur (dibenzothiophene), 2000 ppm nitrogen (quinoline), 500 ppm oxygen (benzofuran), 20 wt% aromatics (15 wt% tetralin and 5 wt% amylbenzene) and balance aliphatics (tetradecane). The activities of the bimetallic oxynitrides were compared to a commercial sulfided Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst tested at the same conditions. The bimetallic oxynitrides were active for quinoline HDN and V-Mo-O-N exhibiting higher HDN activity than the commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The HDS activity of the bimetallic oxynitrides ranged from 9-37% with Co-Mo-O-N showing the highest HDS activity among the oxynitrides tested.

  17. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

  18. Strength of Shocked Aluminum Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Feng, R.; Dandekar, D. P.

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) is a polycrystalline and transparent ceramic. An accurate characterization of its shock response is critically important for its applications as transparent armor. Shock wave profiles measured in a series of plate impact experiments on AlON [Thornhill, et al., SCCM-2005, 143-146 (2006)] have been reanalyzed using finite element wave propagation simulations and considering an effective strength behavior that is pressure- and time-dependent. The results show a stiffer shock response than that calculated previously using the jump conditions. The material has a Hugoniot elastic limit of 10.37 GPa and sustains a maximum shear stress of 4.38 GPa for shock compressions up to a shock stress of 96 GPa. The mean stress response determined from the simulations displays no sign of phase transformation and corresponds to a linear shock speed-particle velocity relation with a slope of 0.857. These results have been successfully summarized into an AlON material model consisting of compression-dependent nonlinear elasticity, pressure-dependent equilibrium strength, and over-stress relaxation. The wave profiles simulated with the model show very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  19. Optical properties of ALON (aluminum oxynitride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, T. M.; Bernstein, S. D.; Maguire, E. A.; Tustison, R. W.

    1998-06-01

    The optical properties of ALON (aluminum oxynitride) are presented. Optical scatter and index of refraction, and absorption of several different compositions of ALON are compared. The temperature dependence of emissivity of ALON was measured in the temperature range 46°C to 1200°C.

  20. Advanced phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Xiaodong; Schultz, Peter G.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to new phosphor materials and to combinatorial methods of synthesizing and detecting the same. In addition, methods of using phosphors to generate luminescence are also disclosed.

  1. Silicon oxynitride: A field emission suppression coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Nimel D.

    We have studied coatings deposited using our inductively-coupled RF plasma ion implantation and desposition system to suppress field emission from large, 3-D electrode structures used in high voltage applications, like those used by Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in their DC-field photoelectron gun. Currently time and labor-intensive hand-polishing procedures are used to minimize field emission from these structures. Previous work had shown that the field emission from polished stainless steel (27 muA of field-emitted current at 15 MV/m) could be drastically reduced with simultaneous deposition of sputtered silicon dioxide during nitrogen implantation (167 pA of field-emitted current at 30 MV/m). We have determined that this unique implantation and deposition procedure produces high-purity silicon oxynitride films that can suppress field emission from stainless steel regardless of their initial surface polish. However, when this implantation procedure was applied to large, 3-D substrates, arcs occurred, damaging the coating and causing unreliable and unrepeatable field emission suppression. We have developed a novel reactive sputtering procedure to deposit high-purity silicon oxynitride coatings without nitrogen ion implantation. We can control the stoichometry and deposition rate of these coatings by adjusting the nitrogen pressure and incident RF-power. Using profilometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis, and current-voltage measurements, we have determined that the elemental composition, chemical bonding, density, and electrical properties of the reactively-sputtered silicon oxynitride coatings are similar to those produced by nitrogen implantation during silicon dioxide deposition. Furthermore, high voltage tests determined that both coatings similarly suppress field emission from 6" diameter, polished

  2. Thermoluminescent phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Lasky, Jerome B.; Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A thermoluminescent phosphor comprising LiF doped with boron and magnesium is produced by diffusion of boron into a conventional LiF phosphor doped with magnesium. Where the boron dopant is made to penetrate only the outer layer of the phosphor, it can be used to detect shallowly penetrating radiation such as tritium beta rays in the presence of a background of more penetrating radiation.

  3. Joining of silicon nitrides using oxynitride glasses

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.H.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a study on commercial silicon nitrides that were successfully joined using oxynitride glasses. Sintered silicon nitride was joined by either closed or glass-filled joints. Glass-filled joints were successfully used on hot-pressed silicon nitrides and were comparable in fast fracture strength to unjoined silicon nitrides up to approximately 1000C. Above that temperature, strengths decreased rapidly and glass flow failure began. The study observed that time-dependent failure currently limits the service temperatures of glass-filled joints. Creep failure occurred in excess of 1000C. Between 900 and 1000C, slow crack growth failure was observed. Cavitation (or viscous deformation) was the rate-controlling mechanism of slow crack growth.

  4. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  5. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  6. Rechargeable lithium battery for use in applications requiring a low to high power output

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1996-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries which employ characteristics of thin-film batteries can be used to satisfy power requirements within a relatively broad range. Thin-film battery cells utilizing a film of anode material, a film of cathode material and an electrolyte of an amorphorus lithium phosphorus oxynitride can be connected in series or parallel relationship for the purpose of withdrawing electrical power simultaneously from the cells. In addition, such battery cells which employ a lithium intercalation compound as its cathode material can be connected in a manner suitable for supplying power for the operation of an electric vehicle. Still further, by incorporating within the battery cell a relatively thick cathode of a lithium intercalation compound, a relatively thick anode of lithium and an electrolyte film of lithium phosphorus oxynitride, the battery cell is rendered capable of supplying power for any of a number of consumer products, such as a laptop computer or a cellular telephone.

  7. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Perovskite-related oxynitrides in photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Pokrant, Simone; Maegli, Alexandra E; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades photocatalytic water splitting has become of increasing importance for fundamental and applied research, since the direct conversion of sunlight into chemical energy via the production of H2 has the potential to contribute to the world's energy needs without CO2 generation. One of the unsolved challenges consists of finding a highly efficient photocatalyst that is cheap, environmentally friendly, contains exclusively abundant elements, is (photo)chemically stable and absorbs visible light. Photocatalytic efficiency is closely connected to both structural properties like crystallinity, particle size and surface area and to electronic properties like the band gap and the quantum efficiency. Hence extensive control over a large parameter field is necessary to design a good photocatalyst. A material class where the structure-composition-property relations and the influence of substitution effects are well studied is the perovskite-type family of compounds. The perovskite-related oxynitrides belong to this very flexible compound family where many of the necessary characteristics for a photocatalyst are already given and some of the intrinsic properties like the band gap can be tuned within the same crystal structure by substitution. In this work we present materials' design concepts to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of a perovskite-type catalyst and describe their effects on the photocatalytic activity. PMID:23574956

  9. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  10. Synthesis of zirconium oxynitride in air under DC electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisaki, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Matsui, Koji; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Sasaki, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2016-08-01

    We synthesized zirconium oxynitride from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in air by applying DC electric fields that produced a controlled electric current in the specimen. When YSZ was heated under an applied DC electric field, the electric current of the specimen steeply increased at a critical temperature, called a flash event, during flash sintering. By keeping the electric current of the specimen constant during the flash event and then holding the specimen at the critical temperature, YSZ was transformed into zirconium oxynitride under the optimal conditions of 50 V/cm, 500 mA, and 1000 °C. We confirmed that zirconium oxynitride formed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. To convert oxides to nitrides, reducing conditions are necessary to form excess oxygen vacancies. Our technique produced the strong reducing conditions necessary to form nitrides from the oxides by delivering a controlled electric current to the specimen.

  11. Decoupling of dynamic processes in surfactant-based liquid mixtures: the case of lithium-containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid/bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine systems.

    PubMed

    Nicotera, Isabella; Oliviero Rossi, Cesare; Turco Liveri, Vincenzo; Calandra, Pietro

    2014-07-22

    Pure surfactant liquids and their binary mixtures, because of the amphiphilic nature of the molecules involved, can exhibit nanosegregation and peculiar transport properties. The idea that inspired this work is that the possibility of including in such media salts currently used for technological applications should lead to a synergy between the properties of the salt and those of the medium. Therefore, the dynamic features of bis(2-ethylhexyl)amine (BEEA) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) liquid mixtures were investigated as a function of composition and temperature by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and rheometry. Inclusion of litium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiT) has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient NMR, and conductimetry methods to highlight the solubilizing and confining properties of these mixtures as well as the lithium conductivity. It was found that BEEA/HDEHP binary liquid mixtures show zero-threshold percolating self-assembly with a maximum in viscosity and a minimum in molecular diffusion at a 1:1 composition. Dissolution of LiT in such system can occur via confinement in the locally self-assembled polar domains. Despite this confinement, Li(+) conduction is scarcely dependent on the medium composition because of the possibility of a field-induced hopping decoupled by the structural and dynamical features of the medium.

  12. Glow discharge assisted oxynitriding process of titanium for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzchoń, Tadeusz; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Grzonka, Justyna; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Michał; Kamiński, Janusz; Kulikowski, Krzysztof; Borowski, Tomasz; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.

    2015-04-01

    The plasma oxynitriding process is a prospective method of producing titanium oxides as an integral part of a diffusive nitrided surface layer on titanium implants. This hybrid process, which combines glow discharge assisted nitriding and oxidizing, permits producing TiO2 + Ti2N + αTi(N)-type diffusive surface layers. The oxynitrided surface layers improve the corrosion and wear resistance of the substrate material. Additionally, the nanocrystalline titanium oxide TiO2 (rutile) improves the biological properties of titanium and its alloys when in contact with blood, whereas the TiN + Ti2N + αTi(N) zone eliminates the effect of metalosis.

  13. A Spinel Oxynitride with Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boppana, V.; Doren, D; Lobo, R

    2010-01-01

    Spinel zinc gallium oxynitride photocatalysts are prepared by the sol-gel method, at 550 C. In these materials, of base composition ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (octahedral Ga), reaction with ammonia leads to ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub x}N{sub y}, with a dramatic reduction of the bandgap to 2.7 eV, with just 1.3% N and no loss of Zn. At 850 C this phase is converted into wurzite (tetrahedral Ga). The novel oxynitrides also show visible-light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene blue.

  14. Compressibility of highly coordinated metal oxynitrides: LDA calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowther, J. E.

    2005-11-01

    The highest oxygen coordination number observed in any metal dioxide is when the material takes the cotunnite structure. This has been observed in several high pressure synthesized metal oxide based materials. Properties of similar hypothetical metal based oxynitrides are examined using ab initio electronic structure techniques. TaON in the cottunite, structure appears especially significant. Strong differences are found for the metal dioxide and the similar oxynitride depending on the metal’s character. The differences are attributed to the contribution of nitrogen to the density of states especially around the Fermi energy and a relative reduction in the volume of the unit cell.

  15. Processing and characterization of aluminum oxynitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Parimal Jagdish

    2000-10-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) ceramics are polycrystalline materials which have a cubic spinel structure. They have excellent mechanical and chemical properties and are transparent in the visible, mm, and IR frequency ranges. The combination of these properties qualifies AlON ceramics as primary candidate materials for electromagnetic windows, radomes, sensor protection and transparent armor applications. The major obstacle to its use is the lack of a low cost manufacturing method for obtaining a reproducible transparent material. The focus of this thesis is on defining processing parameters for producing AlON ceramics and characterization of their properties. After a careful review of the available literature, it was decided that transient liquid phase reactive sintering and hot pressed/reactive sintering techniques offered the potential for producing transparent AlON ceramics. Using these techniques, samples were prepared and thermally treated to different firing schedules, varying the temperatures and dwell times. The final samples all exhibited an unexpected high level of porosity. The origin of the porosity in the samples was shown to be due to the formation of a vapor phase present at the very high processing temperatures required. A strong nitrogen pressure dependence on composition was shown to occur at temperatures above 1900°C and a model was proposed to describe the mechanisms. As nitrogen pressure was reduced, an oxygen rich vapor phase forms resulting in unexpected increase in porosity. The phase relations of the system were investigated for temperatures above 1900°C to further understand this phenomena. Lattice parameter measurements were utilized for the first time to describe the reactions occurring at these temperatures and to determine the final composition of the AlON produced. It is anticipated that future investigations will rely on x-ray lattice parameter measurements to develop AlON ceramics with the required optical transparence.

  16. A high efficiency rare earth-free orange emitting phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpov, E.; Catalini, D.; Padmaperuma, A.; Das, P.; Lemmon, T.; Arey, B.; Fernandez, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    This communication provides a brief summary on rare earth (RE)-based and RE free-based nitrides and oxynitride phosphors reporting for the first time the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of a highly emissive AlN:Mn2+ obtained at relatively low temperatures. The PLQY of the AlN:Mn emitter was measured to be 82%, a value among the highest measured for non-RE phosphors. Though the AlN matrix shows an emission peak at a similar position to the emission peak observed for AlN:Mn product, the Mn-containing species generates orange emission by a different mechanism, which was supported by the emission life time studies and in accordance with previous reports on this material.

  17. Dosimetric properties of activated lithium tetraborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majchrowski, Andrzej; Malecki, M.; Zmija, Jozef; Warkocki, Stanislaw; Warkocki, Wodzislaw

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes preliminary investigations of Li2B4O7 thermoluminescent phosphors as candidates for gamma radiation dosimetry materials. Single crystals, glasses, and polycrystals of lithium tetraborate activated with different dopants have been investigated.

  18. Determination of the valence band structure of an alkali phosphorus oxynitride glass: A synchrotron XPS study on LiPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwöbel, André; Precht, Ruben; Motzko, Markus; Carrillo Solano, Mercedes A.; Calvet, Wolfram; Hausbrand, René; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2014-12-01

    Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) is a solid state electrolyte commonly used in thin film batteries (TFBs). Advanced TFBs face the issue of detrimental electrode-electrolyte interlayer formation, related to the electronic structure of the interface. In this contribution, we study the valence band structure of LiPON using resonant photoemission and synchrotron photoemission with variable excitation energies. The identification of different valence band features is done according to the known valence band features of meta- and orthophosphates. Additionally we compare our results with partial density of states simulations from literature. We find that the valence band structure is similar to the known metaphosphates with an additional contribution of nitrogen states at the top of the valence band. From the results we conclude that synchrotron X-ray photoemission (XPS) is a useful tool to study the valence band structure of nitridated alkali phosphate glasses.

  19. Boosting Responsivity of Organic-Metal Oxynitride Hybrid Heterointerface Phototransistor.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Ok, Kyung-Chul; Yang, Yang Michael; Chen, Huajun; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Wang, Chen; Huang, Yu; Park, Jin-Seong; Yang, Yang

    2016-06-15

    Amorphous metal oxides are attractive materials for various sensor applications, because of high electrical performance and easy processing. However, low absorption coefficient, slow photoresponse, and persistent photoconductivity of amorphous metal oxide films from the origin of deep-level defects are obstacles to their use as photonic applications. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh photoresponsivity of organic-inorganic hybrid phototransistors featuring bulk heterojunction polymers and low-bandgap zinc oxynitride. Spontaneous formation of ultrathin zinc oxide on the surface of zinc oxynitride films could make an effective band-alignment for electron transfer from the dissociation of excitons in the bulk heterojunction, while holes were blocked by the deep highest occupied molecular orbital level of zinc oxide. These hybrid structure-based phototransistors are ultrasensitive to broad-bandwidth photons in ultraviolet to near-infrared regions. The detectivity and a linear dynamic range exceeded 10(12) Jones and 122.3 dB, respectively. PMID:27193237

  20. Structural behaviour of niobium oxynitride under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bharat Bhooshan Poswal, H. K. Pandey, K. K. Sharma, Surinder M.; Yakhmi, J. V.; Ohashi, Y.; Kikkawa, S.

    2014-04-24

    High pressure investigation of niobium oxynitrides (NbN{sub 0.98}O{sub 0.02}) employing synchrotron based angle dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments was carried out in very fine pressure steps using membrane driven diamond anvil cell. Ambient cubic phase was found to be stable up to ∼18 GPa. At further high pressure cubic phase showed rhombohedral distortion.

  1. Overall water splitting on (oxy)nitride photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domen, Kazunari

    2008-08-01

    Overall water splitting to form hydrogen and oxygen on a heterogeneous photocatalyst using solar energy is an attractive process for large-scale hydrogen production. In recent years, numerous attempts have been made for the development of visible-light-responsive photocatalysts to efficiently utilize solar energy. In this article, recent research progress in the development of visible-light-driven photocatalysts is described, specifically focusing on our efforts made on the development of (oxy)nitride photocatalysts for overall water splitting.

  2. Radioluminescent properties of Eu2+-doped aluminum oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagodin, V. V.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Shulgin, B. V.; Kargin, Yu. F.; Akhmadullina, N. S.; Lysenkov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray luminescence (XRL) and pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) spectra of Eu2+-doped aluminum oxynitride Al5O6N (prepared using the standard sol-gel technique) have been investigated. The radioluminescence spectra, concentration dependences of light yield and time parameters of luminescence process have been measured and discussed. Some peculiarities of luminescence spectra as well as the possible excitation mechanism of AL5O6N with Eu2+ dopants are discussed too.

  3. Holey tungsten oxynitride nanowires: novel anodes efficiently integrate microbial chemical energy conversion and electrochemical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Minghao; Han, Yi; Cheng, Xinyu; Hu, Le; Zeng, Yinxiang; Chen, Meiqiong; Cheng, Faliang; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang

    2015-05-20

    Holey tungsten oxynitride nanowires with superior conductivity, good biocompatibility, and good stability achieve excellent performance as anodes for both asymmetric supercapacitors and microbial fuel cells. Moreover, an innovative system is devised based on these as-prepared tungsten oxynitride anodes, which can simultaneously realize both energy conversion from chemical to electric energy and its storage. PMID:25854325

  4. Modelling of silicon oxynitridation by nitrous oxide using the reaction rate approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dominique Krzeminski, Christophe

    2013-12-14

    Large technological progress in oxynitridation processing leads to the introduction of silicon oxynitride as ultra-thin gate oxide. On the theoretical side, few studies have been dedicated to the process modelling of oxynitridation. Such an objective is a considerable challenge regarding the various atomistic mechanisms occurring during this fabrication step. In this article, some progress performed to adapt the reaction rate approach for the modelling of oxynitride growth by a nitrous ambient are reported. The Ellis and Buhrman's approach is used for the gas phase decomposition modelling. Taking into account the mass balance of the species at the interface between the oxynitride and silicon, a minimal kinetic model describing the oxide growth has been calibrated and implemented. The influence of nitrogen on the reaction rate has been introduced in an empirical way. The oxidation kinetics predicted with this minimal model compares well with several experiments.

  5. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOEpatents

    Buchanan, Robert A.; Maple, T. Grant; Sklensky, Alden F.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  6. Analysis of nitrogen species in titanium oxynitride ALD films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowińska, Małgorzata; Brizzi, Simone; Das, Chittaranjan; Kärkkänen, Irina; Schneidewind, Jessica; Naumann, Franziska; Gargouri, Hassan; Henkel, Karsten; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Titanium oxynitride films are prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method using two different precursors and nitrogen sources. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the nitrogen species incorporated within these films depending on the deposition parameters. It is found that nitrogen atoms in these films are differently bonded. In particular, it can be distinguished between Tisbnd ON and Tisbnd N bonding configurations and molecular nitrogen species caused by precursor fragments.

  7. The interaction of molten silicon with silicon aluminum oxynitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, R. R.; Sekercioglu, I.; Niesz, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon aluminum oxynitride solid solutions (sialons) based on beta-Si3N4 and Si2N2O behave differently in contact with molten silicon. The Si2N2O-based sialons convert to almost pure Si3N4, apparently through a two-step decomposition and solution-precipitation reaction, whereas the beta-Si3N4 sialons are preferentially attacked at the grain boundaries. The composition of the grain-boundary phase appears to control the rate of reaction.

  8. TL-OSL study of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}: Mg, Cu phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Rahangdale, S. R. Wankhede, S. P.; Dhabekar, B. S.; Palikundwar, U. A.; Moharil, S. V.

    2015-08-28

    In the present work, we report the thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence properties of Mg and Cu doped Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} phosphor. The phosphor was synthesized by precipitation method. The thermoluminescence dosimetric peak temperature for the phosphor varies with concentrations of Mg and Cu. Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows good response to 470nm optical stimulation. The OSL sensitivity of the phosphor is approximately 12 times than that of standard Lithium magnesium phosphate. This study may help to develop this material for the application in real time dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence.

  9. Exploring order-disorder structural transitions in the Li-Nb-N-O system: The new antifluorite oxynitride Li{sub 11}NbN{sub 4}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Cabana, J.; Casas-Cabanas, M.; Santner, H.J.; Fuertes, A.; Palacin, M.R.

    2010-07-15

    A systematic exploratory study of the Li-Nb-N-O system at low oxygen and high lithium contents has been performed. As lithium and oxygen increase, an order-disorder transition has been identified using powder neutron diffraction data between Li{sub 16}Nb{sub 2}N{sub 8}O, which crystallizes in an antifluorite-type superstructure with cationic and anionic ordering, and Li{sub 11}NbN{sub 4}O{sub 2}, a new antifluorite-type oxynitride that shows structural disorder. A description of the synthetic conditions required to prepare these phases and their structural characterization is presented. - Graphical abstract: The Li-Nb-N-O system has been explored at low oxygen and high lithium contents and an order-disorder transition has been identified between ordered Li{sub 16}NbN{sub 8}O and the new disordered Li{sub 11}NbN{sub 4}O{sub 2} antifluorite-type oxynitrides.

  10. Self-activating and doped tantalate phosphors.

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May Devan; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2011-01-01

    An ideal red phosphor for blue LEDs is one of the biggest challenges for the solid-state lighting industry. The appropriate phosphor material should have good adsorption and emission properties, good thermal and chemical stability, minimal thermal quenching, high quantum yield, and is preferably inexpensive and easy to fabricate. Tantalates possess many of these criteria, and lithium lanthanum tantalate materials warrant thorough investigation. In this study, we investigated red luminescence of two lithium lanthanum tantalates via three mechanisms: (1) Eu-doping, (2) Mn-doping and (3) self-activation of the tantalum polyhedra. Of these three mechanisms, Mn-doping proved to be the most promising. These materials exhibit two very broad adsorption peaks; one in the UV and one in the blue region of the spectrum; both can be exploited in LED applications. Furthermore, Mn-doping can be accomplished in two ways; ion-exchange and direct solid-state synthesis. One of the two lithium lanthanum tantalate phases investigated proved to be a superior host for Mn-luminescence, suggesting the crystal chemistry of the host lattice is important.

  11. Synthesis of Eu x Si6- z Al z O z N8- z green phosphor and its luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jeong Ho; Won, Hyong Sik; Park, Youn-Gon; Kim, Sang Hyun; Song, Won Young; Suzuki, Hideo; Yoon, Chulsoo

    2009-06-01

    Rare-earth-doped oxynitride or nitride compounds have been reported to be photoluminescent and may then serve as new phosphors because of their good thermal and chemical stabilities. In this work, Eu2+-doped β-SiAlON phosphor with a composition of Eu x Si6- z Al z O z N8- z ( x=0.018, z=0.23) was prepared by gas-pressured solid state reaction. The crystallinity and particle morphology of the prepared phosphor were characterized. The Stokes shift and zero-phonon line were calculated mathematically and estimated from the spectral data. The temperature dependence of photoluminescence was measured from 25 to 250°C. The prepared Eu2+-doped β-SiAlON green phosphor showed superior thermal quenching property compared to silicate (SrBaSiO4:Eu2+) green phosphor. The white light-emitting diode (LED) back-lighting unit (BLU) using the prepared β-SiAlON:Eu2+ green phosphor exhibited higher color gamut than a commercial silicate phosphor.

  12. Evaluation of a silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column in saccharide and glycoside separations.

    PubMed

    Wan, Huihui; Sheng, Qianying; Zhong, Hongmin; Guo, Xiujie; Fu, Qing; Liu, Yanfang; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-01

    The retention characteristics of a silicon oxynitride stationary phase for carbohydrate separation were studied in hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode. Four saccharides including mono-, di-, and trisaccharides were employed to investigate the effects of water content and buffer concentration in the mobile phase on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography retention. For the tested saccharides, the silicon oxynitride column demonstrated excellent performance in terms of separation efficiency, hydrophilicity, and interesting separation selectivity for carbohydrates compared to the bare silica stationary phase. Finally, the silicon oxynitride hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column was employed in the separation of complex samples of fructooligosaccharides, saponins, and steviol glycoside from natural products. The resulting chromatograms demonstrated good separation efficiency and longer retention compared with silica, which further confirmed the advantages and potential application of silicon oxynitride stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation.

  13. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  14. Sulfide Stress Cracking and Electrochemical Corrosion of Precipitation Hardening Steel After Plasma Oxy-Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granda-Gutiérrez, E. E.; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Díaz-Guillén, J. A.; González, M. A.; García-Vázquez, F.; Muñóz, R.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a duplex plasma nitriding followed by an oxidizing stage process (which is also referred as oxy-nitriding) on the corrosion behavior of a 17-4PH precipitation hardening stainless steel. The formation of both, expanded martensite (b.c.t. α'N-phase) and chromium oxide (type Cr2O3) in the subsurface of oxy-nitrided samples at specific controlled conditions, leads in a noticeable increasing in the time-to-rupture during the sulfide stress cracking test, in comparison with an untreated reference sample. Oxy-nitriding improves the corrosion performance of the alloy when it is immersed in solutions saturated by sour gas, which extends the application potential of this type of steel in the oil and gas extraction and processing industry. The presence of the oxy-nitrided layer inhibits the corrosion process that occurs in the near-surface region, where hydrogen is liberated after the formation of iron sulfides, which finally produces a fragile fracture by micro-crack propagation; the obtained results suggest that oxy-nitriding slows this process, thus delaying the rupture of the specimen. Moreover, oxy-nitriding produces a hard, sour gas-resistant surface, but do not significantly affect the original chloride ion solution resistance of the material.

  15. Sulfide Stress Cracking and Electrochemical Corrosion of Precipitation Hardening Steel After Plasma Oxy-Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granda-Gutiérrez, E. E.; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Díaz-Guillén, J. A.; González, M. A.; García-Vázquez, F.; Muñóz, R.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a duplex plasma nitriding followed by an oxidizing stage process (which is also referred as oxy-nitriding) on the corrosion behavior of a 17-4PH precipitation hardening stainless steel. The formation of both, expanded martensite (b.c.t. α'N-phase) and chromium oxide (type Cr2O3) in the subsurface of oxy-nitrided samples at specific controlled conditions, leads in a noticeable increasing in the time-to-rupture during the sulfide stress cracking test, in comparison with an untreated reference sample. Oxy-nitriding improves the corrosion performance of the alloy when it is immersed in solutions saturated by sour gas, which extends the application potential of this type of steel in the oil and gas extraction and processing industry. The presence of the oxy-nitrided layer inhibits the corrosion process that occurs in the near-surface region, where hydrogen is liberated after the formation of iron sulfides, which finally produces a fragile fracture by micro-crack propagation; the obtained results suggest that oxy-nitriding slows this process, thus delaying the rupture of the specimen. Moreover, oxy-nitriding produces a hard, sour gas-resistant surface, but do not significantly affect the original chloride ion solution resistance of the material.

  16. Preliminary study on preparation of BCNO phosphor particles using citric acid as carbon source

    SciTech Connect

    Nuryadin, Bebeh W.; Pratiwi, Tripuspita; Faryuni, Irfana D.; Iskandar, Ferry Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal; Ogi, Takashi; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2015-04-16

    A citric acid was used as a carbon source in the preparation of boron carbon oxy-nitride (BCNO) phosphor particles by a facile process. The preparation process was conducted at relatively low temperature 750 °C and at ambient pressure. The prepared BCNO phosphors showed a high photoluminescence (PL) performance at peak emission wavelength of 470 nm under excitation by a UV light 365 nm. The effects of carbon/boron and nitrogen/boron molar ratios on the PL properties were also investigated. The result showed that the emission spectra with a wavelength peak ranging from 444 nm to 496 nm can be obtained by varying carbon/boron ratios from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the observations showed that the BCNO phosphor material has two excitation peaks located at the 365 nm (UV) and 420 nm (blue). Based on these observations, we believe that the citric acid derived BCNO phosphor particles can be a promising inexpensive material for phosphor conversion-based white LED.

  17. Kimzeyite garnet phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph

    2013-05-14

    A phosphor of formula I is included in a phosphor composition in a lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light, Ca.sub.3-x-zSr.sub.xCe.sub.zM.sup.1.sub.2M.sup.2AlSiO.sub.12 (I) wherein M.sup.1 is Hf, Zr, or a combination thereof; M.sup.2 is Al, or a combination of Al and Ga; z<3-x; and 0.2>x.gtoreq.0. The lighting apparatus includes a semiconductor light source in addition to the phosphor composition.

  18. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  19. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  20. Phosphor thermometry system

    DOEpatents

    Beshears, David L.; Sitter, Jr., David N.; Andrews, William H.; Simpson, Marc L.; Abston, Ruth A.; Cates, Michael R.; Allison, Steve W.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the temperature of a moving substrate includes an air gun with a powder inlet port in communication with the outlet port of a powder reservoir, an air inlet port in communication with a pressurized air source, and an outlet nozzle spaced from and directed toward the moving substrate. The air gun is activated by the air pulses to spray controlled amounts of the powdered phosphor onto the moving substrate, where the phosphor assumes the temperature of the moving substrate. A laser produces light pulses, and optics direct the light pulses onto the phosphor on the moving substrate, in response to which the phosphor emits a luminescence with a decay rate indicative of the temperature of the phosphor. A collection lens is disposed to focus the luminescence, and a photodetector detects the luminescence focused by the collection lens and produces an electrical signal that is characteristic of the brightness of the luminescence. A processor analyzes the electrical signal to determine the decay characteristic of the luminescence and to determine the temperature of the phosphor from the decay characteristic.

  1. Phosphors for LED lamps

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, James Edward; Manepalli, Satya Kishore; Kumar, Prasanth Nammalwar

    2013-08-13

    A phosphor, a phosphor blend including the phosphor, a phosphor prepared by a process, and a lighting apparatus including the phosphor blend are disclosed. The phosphor has the formula (Ca.sub.1-p-qCe.sub.pK.sub.q).sub.xSc.sub.y(Si.sub.1-rGa.sub.r).sub.zO.su- b.12+.delta. or derived from a process followed using disclosed amounts of reactants. In the formula, (0

  2. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-15

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO{sub 2}N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO{sub 2}N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO{sub 2}N and SrMoO{sub 3-x}N{sub x} have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO{sub 2}N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles.

  3. High mobility and high stability glassy metal-oxynitride materials and devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunha; Kim, Taeho; Benayad, Anass; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Gyeong-Su; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    In thin film technology, future semiconductor and display products with high performance, high density, large area, and ultra high definition with three-dimensional functionalities require high performance thin film transistors (TFTs) with high stability. Zinc oxynitride, a composite of zinc oxide and zinc nitride, has been conceded as a strong substitute to conventional semiconductor film such as silicon and indium gallium zinc oxide due to high mobility value. However, zinc oxynitride has been suffered from poor reproducibility due to relatively low binding energy of nitrogen with zinc, resulting in the instability of composition and its device performance. Here we performed post argon plasma process on zinc oxynitride film, forming nano-crystalline structure in stable amorphous matrix which hampers the reaction of oxygen with zinc. Therefore, material properties and device performance of zinc oxynitride are greatly enhanced, exhibiting robust compositional stability even exposure to air, uniform phase, high electron mobility, negligible fast transient charging and low noise characteristics. Furthermore, We expect high mobility and high stability zinc oxynitride customized by plasma process to be applicable to a broad range of semiconductor and display devices. PMID:27044371

  4. High mobility and high stability glassy metal-oxynitride materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunha; Kim, Taeho; Benayad, Anass; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Gyeong-Su; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-04-01

    In thin film technology, future semiconductor and display products with high performance, high density, large area, and ultra high definition with three-dimensional functionalities require high performance thin film transistors (TFTs) with high stability. Zinc oxynitride, a composite of zinc oxide and zinc nitride, has been conceded as a strong substitute to conventional semiconductor film such as silicon and indium gallium zinc oxide due to high mobility value. However, zinc oxynitride has been suffered from poor reproducibility due to relatively low binding energy of nitrogen with zinc, resulting in the instability of composition and its device performance. Here we performed post argon plasma process on zinc oxynitride film, forming nano-crystalline structure in stable amorphous matrix which hampers the reaction of oxygen with zinc. Therefore, material properties and device performance of zinc oxynitride are greatly enhanced, exhibiting robust compositional stability even exposure to air, uniform phase, high electron mobility, negligible fast transient charging and low noise characteristics. Furthermore, We expect high mobility and high stability zinc oxynitride customized by plasma process to be applicable to a broad range of semiconductor and display devices.

  5. Use of silicon oxynitride as a sacrificial material for microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Habermehl, Scott D.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.

    2001-01-01

    The use of silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.x N.sub.y) as a sacrificial material for forming a microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed. Whereas conventional sacrificial materials such as silicon dioxide and silicate glasses are compressively strained, the composition of silicon oxynitride can be selected to be either tensile-strained or substantially-stress-free. Thus, silicon oxynitride can be used in combination with conventional sacrificial materials to limit an accumulation of compressive stress in a MEM device; or alternately the MEM device can be formed entirely with silicon oxynitride. Advantages to be gained from the use of silicon oxynitride as a sacrificial material for a MEM device include the formation of polysilicon members that are substantially free from residual stress, thereby improving the reliability of the MEM device; an ability to form the MEM device with a higher degree of complexity and more layers of structural polysilicon than would be possible using conventional compressively-strained sacrificial materials; and improved manufacturability resulting from the elimination of wafer distortion that can arise from an excess of accumulated stress in conventional sacrificial materials. The present invention is useful for forming many different types of MEM devices including accelerometers, sensors, motors, switches, coded locks, and flow-control devices, with or without integrated electronic circuitry.

  6. High mobility and high stability glassy metal-oxynitride materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunha; Kim, Taeho; Benayad, Anass; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Gyeong-Su; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    In thin film technology, future semiconductor and display products with high performance, high density, large area, and ultra high definition with three-dimensional functionalities require high performance thin film transistors (TFTs) with high stability. Zinc oxynitride, a composite of zinc oxide and zinc nitride, has been conceded as a strong substitute to conventional semiconductor film such as silicon and indium gallium zinc oxide due to high mobility value. However, zinc oxynitride has been suffered from poor reproducibility due to relatively low binding energy of nitrogen with zinc, resulting in the instability of composition and its device performance. Here we performed post argon plasma process on zinc oxynitride film, forming nano-crystalline structure in stable amorphous matrix which hampers the reaction of oxygen with zinc. Therefore, material properties and device performance of zinc oxynitride are greatly enhanced, exhibiting robust compositional stability even exposure to air, uniform phase, high electron mobility, negligible fast transient charging and low noise characteristics. Furthermore, We expect high mobility and high stability zinc oxynitride customized by plasma process to be applicable to a broad range of semiconductor and display devices. PMID:27044371

  7. Etching of oxynitride thin films using inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byungwhan; Lee, Dukwoo; Kim, Nam Jung; Lee, Byung Teak

    2005-05-01

    In this study, silicon oxynitride (SiON) has been etched in a C{sub 2}F{sub 6} inductively coupled plasma. The process parameters examined include a radio frequency source power, bias power, pressure, and C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow rate. For process optimization, a statistical experimental design was employed to investigate parameter effects under various plasma conditions. The etch rate increased almost linearly with increasing the source or bias power. Main effect analysis revealed that the etch rate is dominated by the source power. The C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow rate exerted the least impact on both etch rate and profile angle. It was estimated that the C{sub 2}F{sub 6} effect is transparent only as the etchant is supplied sufficiently. Depending on the pressure levels, the etch rate varied in a complicated way. Parameter effects on the profile angle were very small and the profile angle varied between 83 deg. and 87 deg. for all etching experiments. In nearly all experiments, microtrenching was observed. The etch rate and profile angle, optimized at 1000 W source power, 30 W bias power, 6 mTorr pressure, and 60 sccm C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow rate, are 434 nm/min and 86 deg., respectively.

  8. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  9. Recent advances in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) optical ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Hartnett, Thomas M.; Wahl, Joseph M.; Ondercin, Robert J.; Olson, Karen R.

    2001-09-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride or ALON optical ceramic is transparent material, developed and patented by Raytheon, which is very similar to sapphire, being comprised mostly of Al2O3 with a small amount of additional nitrogen. This nitrogen addition has the effect of producing a cubic material whose optical and mechanical properties are isotropic. Importantly, this means that it can be produced by powder processing methods, which are scalable to larger sizes, and at lower prices than can be achieved by the single crystal growth techniques that are used to grow sapphire. Furthermore, its isotropic properties make it much easier to grind and polish than sapphire. Recently, the interest in ALON optical ceramic has grown substantially following impressive results in ballistic testing. Ballistic laminates, containing ALON layers, have demonstrated protection against armor piercing rounds, at half the areal density and thickness of conventional ballistic laminates. ALON plates as large as 14x20in are being produced, under Air Force funding, for evaluation as IR windows and transparent armor, using conventional powder processing techniques. The production processes themselves are now being scaled to produce large pieces and large quantities of ALON optical ceramic.

  10. Control of silicon nanoparticle size embedded in silicon oxynitride dielectric matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhardt, F.; Ferblantier, G.; Muller, D.; Slaoui, A.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Rinnert, H.

    2013-07-21

    In this study, silicon rich silicon oxynitride layers containing more than 15% nitrogen were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance assisted plasma enhanced vapor deposition in order to form silicon nanoparticles after a high temperature thermal annealing. The effect of the flows of the precursor gases on the composition and the structural properties of the layers was assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The morphological and crystallinity properties were investigated by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the excess of silicon in the silicon oxynitride layer controls the silicon nanoparticles size. On the other hand, the crystalline fraction of particles is found to be strongly correlated to the nanoparticle size. Finally, the photoluminescence measurements show that it is also possible to tune the photoluminescence peak position between 400 and 800 nm and its intensity by changing the silicon excess in the silicon rich silicon oxynitride matrix.

  11. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bakas, Michael P; Lillo, Thomas M; Chu, Henry S

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  12. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  13. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means.

  14. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  15. Optimization of silicon oxynitrides by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for an interferometric biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Sung Joong; Lee, Byung-Chul; Lee, Sang-Myung; Park, Jung Ho; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, silicon oxynitride layers deposited with different plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) conditions were fabricated and optimized, in order to make an interferometric sensor for detecting biochemical reactions. For the optimization of PECVD silicon oxynitride layers, the influence of the N2O/SiH4 gas flow ratio was investigated. RF power in the PEVCD process was also adjusted under the optimized N2O/SiH4 gas flow ratio. The optimized silicon oxynitride layer was deposited with 15 W in chamber under 25/150 sccm of N2O/SiH4 gas flow rates. The clad layer was deposited with 20 W in chamber under 400/150 sccm of N2O/SiH4 gas flow condition. An integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometric biosensor based on optical waveguide technology was fabricated under the optimized PECVD conditions. The adsorption reaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the silicon oxynitride surface was performed and verified with this device.

  16. TiN-buffered substrates for photoelectrochemical measurements of oxynitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Markus; Pergolesi, Daniele; Landsmann, Steve; Chawla, Vipin; Michler, Johann; Döbeli, Max; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Developing novel materials for the conversion of solar to chemical energy is becoming an increasingly important endeavour. Perovskite compounds based on bandgap tunable oxynitrides represent an exciting class of novel photoactive materials. To date, literature mostly focuses on the characterization of oxynitride powder samples which have undeniable technological interest but do not allow the investigation of fundamental properties such as the role of the crystalline quality and/or the surface crystallographic orientation toward photo-catalytic activity. The challenge of growing high quality oxynitride thin films arises from the availability of a suitable substrate, owing to strict material and processing requirements: effective lattice matching, sufficiently high conductivities, stability under high temperatures and in strongly reducing environments. Here, we have established the foundations of a model system incorporating a TiN-buffer layer which enables fundamental investigations into crystallographic surface orientation and crystalline quality of the photocatalyst against photo(electro)chemical performance to be effectively performed. Furthermore, we find that TiN as current collector enables control over the nitrogen content of oxynitride thin films produced by a modified pulsed laser deposition method and allows the growth of highly ordered LaTiO3-xNx thin films.

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of perovskite niobium oxynitrides with wide visible-light absorption bands.

    PubMed

    Siritanaratkul, Bhavin; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Hisatomi, Takashi; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-01-17

    Photocatalytic activities of perovskite-type niobium oxynitrides (CaNbO₂N, SrNbO₂N, BaNbO₂N, and LaNbON₂) were examined for hydrogen and oxygen evolution from water under visible-light irradiation. These niobium oxynitrides were prepared by heating the corresponding oxide precursors, which were synthesized using the polymerized complex method, for 15 h under a flow of ammonia. They possess visible-light absorption bands between 600-750 nm, depending on the A-site cations in the structures. The oxynitride CaNbO₂N, was found to be active for hydrogen and oxygen evolution from methanol and aqueous AgNO₃, respectively, even under irradiation by light at long wavelengths (λ<560 nm). The nitridation temperature dependence of CaNbO₂N was investigated and 1023 K was found to be the optimal temperature. At lower temperatures, the oxynitride phase is not adequately produced, whereas higher temperatures produce more reduced niobium species (e. g., Nb³(+) and Nb⁴(+)), which can act as electron-hole recombination centers, resulting in a decrease in activity.

  18. Structure and optical properties of cubic gallium oxynitride synthesized by solvothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Oberländer, Andreas; Kinski, Isabel; Zhu, Wenliang; Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Michaelis, Alexander

    2013-04-15

    Cubic gallium oxynitride was synthesized using a solvothermal processing route. Crystal structure, chemical composition, optical properties and the influence of heat treatment in either reactive or inert atmospheres have been investigated. Despite a strongly distorted lattice revealed using X-ray diffraction, the Raman active modes of a cubic gallium oxynitride structure could be observed. With diffusive reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy a band gap at around 4.8 eV has been observed. Additionally, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy exhibited observable luminescence caused by defect-related transitions within the optical gap. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra collected after heat treatments showed significant changes in the defect structure. In particular, for annealing in ammonia the main spectral modifications were related to the substitution of oxygen by nitrogen on anion sites. - Graphical abstract: CL spectra of gallium oxynitride: As-prepared and heat-treated at temperatures of 500 °C in different atmospheres. Highlights: ► Raman spectrum of cubic gallium oxynitride. ► Experimental determination of optical band gap. ► Shift of band gap energy due to heat treatment. ► Nitrogen incorporation leads to deep level acceptor states. ► Red shifted luminescence spectrum.

  19. Nitrogen-Rich Manganese Oxynitrides with Enhanced Catalytic Activity in the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Miura, Akira; Rosero-Navarro, Carolina; Masubuchi, Yuji; Higuchi, Mikio; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2016-07-01

    The catalytic activity of manganese oxynitrides in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated in alkaline solutions to clarify the effect of the incorporated nitrogen atoms on the ORR activity. These oxynitrides, with rock-salt-like structures with different nitrogen contents, were synthesized by reacting MnO, Mn2 O3 , or MnO2 with molten NaNH2 at 240-280 °C. The anion contents and the Mn valence states were determined by combustion analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis. An increase in the nitrogen content of rock-salt-based manganese oxynitrides increases the valence of the manganese ions and reinforces the catalytic activity for the ORR in 1 m KOH solution. Nearly single-electron occupancy of the antibonding eg states and highly covalent Mn-N bonding thus enhance the ORR activity of nitrogen-rich manganese oxynitrides. PMID:27193352

  20. Optical properties of metal oxynitride thin films grown with atmospheric plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovish, Michael Q.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of tantalum oxynitride (TaO x N y ) and titanium oxynitride (TiO x N y ) are deposited using atmospheric plasma deposition and a suite of optical properties are reported. Tantalum and titanium ethoxide are introduced into the afterglow of a radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma, facilitating the growth of oxynitride films on silicon and polycarbonate at temperatures below 180 °C. The plasma power and nitrogen flow within the plasma are varied between 60 and 120 W and between 0.1 and 0.3 LPM respectively. We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the optical properties of the metal oxynitride films grown in this study are comparable to those synthesized with sol-gel methods. Measurement of both the extinction coefficient and the transmission on polycarbonate substrates indicates good transparency in the visible wavelengths of light. Additionally, the refractive index increases when increasing the number of reactive nitrogen species within the discharge. We use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to correlate the higher indexes observed at large secondary gas flows to the presence of metal oxynitride bonding. Single layer anti-reflection coatings are deposited on silicon, with a five-fold and seven-fold reduction in reflection for TaO x N y and TiO x N y coatings, respectively. In total, we have found that the modulation of nitrogen concentration within the plasma discharge results in good control over optical constants. In addition, we observe similarities between films deposited with atmospheric plasma and those reported for sol-gel, indicating an alternative processing route where solution chemistries are currently applied.

  1. X-ray Rietveld refinement of structure of Ba-deficient Ba3Si6O12N2:Eu phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriga, Toshihiro; Fujigaki, Hiroshi; Ogita, Yuma; Muguruma, Issei; Bando, Fumika; Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I. N.

    2015-03-01

    Green oxynitride phosphors Ba3Si6O12N2 were prepared with metallic ratio of Si/Ba = 3. It was found that the nonstoichiometric mixture at Si/Ba = 3 formed the Ba3Si6O12N2-type phase easier than the stoichiometric one at Si/Ba = 2 after it was fired at 1200°C for 5 h under a diluted hydrogen flow (5%H2-95%N2). The excess Si source led to a formation of SiO2 glass, which can act as a flux in case of formation of Ba3Si6O12N2.

  2. Manganese valence and coordination structure in Mn,Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON green phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Takashi; Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Honma, Tetuso

    2012-10-15

    The valence and coordination structure of manganese in a Mn,Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON spinel-type oxynitride green phosphor were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and absorption fine structure measurements. The absorption edge position of the XANES revealed the bivalency of Mn. Two cation sites are available in the spinel structure for cation doping: a tetrahedral site and an octahedral site. The pre-edge of the XANES and the distance to the nearest neighbor atoms obtained from the EXAFS measurement showed that Mn was situated at the tetrahedral site. Rietveld analysis showed that the vacancy occupied the octahedral site. The preferential occupation of the tetrahedral site by Mn and the roles of N and Mg are discussed in relation to the spinel crystal structure. - Graphical Abstract: Fourier transform of EXAFS of Mn K-edge for Mn,Mg-codoped green phosphor and Mn coordination structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn, Mg-codoped {gamma}-AlON green phosphor for white LED. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The valence of Mn is divalent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn occupies the tetrahedral site in the spinel structure.

  3. Phosphorous trapped within buckminsterfullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, J. A.; Greer, J. C.; Harneit, W.; Weidinger, A.

    2002-05-01

    Under normal circumstances, when covalent molecules form, electrons are exchanged between atoms to form bonds. However, experiment and theoretical computations reveal exactly the opposite effect for the formation of group V elements nitrogen and phosphorous encapsulated within a buckminsterfullerene molecule. The C60 carbon cage remains intact upon encapsulation of the atom, whereas the electronic charge cloud of the N or P atom contracts. We have studied the chemical, spin, and thermodynamic properties of endohedral phosphorous (P@C60) and have compared our results with earlier findings for N@C60. From a combined experimental and theoretical vantage, we are able to elucidate a model for the interaction between the trapped group V atom and the fullerene cage. A picture emerges for the electronic structure of these complexes, whereby an atom is trapped within a fullerene, and interacts weakly with the molecular orbitals of the C60 cage.

  4. Tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotube arrays for the degradation of atrazine in vis-Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingxun; Zhao, Lu; Chang, Yuguang; Su, Yaling

    2012-07-30

    In order to overcome the limitation of the application of nanoparticles, tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotube arrays on a Ta foil were synthesized and introduced in vis (visible light)-Fenton-like system to enhance the degradation of atrazine. At first, the anodization of tantalum foil in a mild electrolyte solution containing ethylene glycol and water (v:v=2:1) plus 0.5wt.% NH(4)F produced tantala nanotubes with an average diameter of 30nm and a length of approximately 1μm. Then the nitridation of tantala nanotube arrays resulted in the replacement of N atoms to O atoms to form tantalum (oxy)nitrides (TaON and Ta(3)N(5)), as testified by XRD and XPS analyses. The synthesized tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotubes absorb well in the visible region up to 600nm. Under visible light, tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotube arrays were catalytically active for Fe(3+) reduction. With tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotube arrays, the degradation of atrazine and the formation of the intermediates in vis/Fe(3+)/H(2)O(2) system were significantly accelerated. This was explained by the higher concentration of Fe(2+) and thus the faster decomposition of H(2)O(2) with tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotubes. In addition, tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotubes exhibited stable performance during atrazine degradation for three runs. The good performance and stability of the tantalum (oxy)nitrides nanotubes film with the convenient separation, suggest that this film is a promising catalyst for vis-Fenton-like degradation.

  5. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  6. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  7. Eu3+ (orange/red) luminescence in LiXSO4Cl (X = Mg, Zn) halosulfate phosphor.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, I M; Dhoble, S J; Pode, R B

    2009-01-01

    The wet chemical synthesis, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence characteristics in alkaline halosulfate phosphors such as LiMgSO4Cl:Eu and LiZnSO4Cl:Eu are reported in this paper. The effect of Li ion on Eu3+ luminescence (5D(0) --> 7F(2) electronic transition) and incorporation of Eu3+ ion in lithium base alkaline halosulfate phosphor has been studied. PMID:19757498

  8. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  9. A new highly sensitive low-Z LiF-based OSL phosphor for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Patil, R R; Gaikwad, S U; More, Y K; Kulkarni, M S; Bhatt, B C; Moharil, S V

    2016-03-01

    A new low-Z lithium fluoride-based optical stimulated luminescent (OSL) phosphor is developed. The phosphor shows good OSL properties, and its sensitivity is comparable with that of the commercial Al2O3:C (Landauer, Inc.) phosphor. For the luminescence averaged over initial 3 s, blue stimulated luminescence (BSL) and green stimulated luminescence (GSL) sensitivities were found to be 0.27 and 4 times, respectively, than that of Al2O3:C (Landauer, Inc.). The BSL decay is fast, and the whole signal decays within 3 s; the GSL decay is relatively slow, and the signal decays in 25 s. The fast decay, good sensitivity, good linearity and its near tissue equivalence (Zeff ∼8.14) will make this phosphor suitable for radiation dosimetry particularly in personnel as well as in medical dosimetry. PMID:26347541

  10. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of perovskite oxynitride SrTaO2N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Y.-G.; Jeong, I.-K.

    2016-09-01

    Perovskite oxynitrides exhibit emergent physical properties driven by a substitution of nitrogen for oxygen. The nitrogen substitution distorts the octahedra and induces octahedral tilting which are responsible for a relaxor-like temperature-insensitive dielectric response. To study the local structural evolution of oxynitride SrTaO2N under pressure, we performed in-situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopy measurements with a diamond anvil cell up to a pressure of P = 19 GPa. We find that forbidden modes were active, indicating a lowering of local symmetry from non-polar I4/mcm due to the octahedral distortion. Under pressure, a mode associated with TaO4N2 exhibits a negative wavenumber shift and merges with a nearby mode at a pressure of P ≃ 4.2 GPa. This result indicates a suppression of octahedral tilting under pressure.

  11. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  12. Formation of microchannels from low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon oxynitride

    DOEpatents

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Bridges, Monica M.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming one or more fluid microchannels on a substrate is disclosed that is compatible with the formation of integrated circuitry on the substrate. The microchannels can be formed below an upper surface of the substrate, above the upper surface, or both. The microchannels are formed by depositing a covering layer of silicon oxynitride over a mold formed of a sacrificial material such as photoresist which can later be removed. The silicon oxynitride is deposited at a low temperature (.ltoreq.100.degree. C.) and preferably near room temperature using a high-density plasma (e.g. an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma or an inductively-coupled plasma). In some embodiments of the present invention, the microchannels can be completely lined with silicon oxynitride to present a uniform material composition to a fluid therein. The present invention has applications for forming microchannels for use in chromatography and electrophoresis. Additionally, the microchannels can be used for electrokinetic pumping, or for localized or global substrate cooling.

  13. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of the EuNbO 2N oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Esteban Climent; Gutierrez, Veronica Blanco; Subda, Michal; Sáez Puche, Regino

    2008-12-01

    EuNbO 2N oxynitride was synthesized by nitridation of the EuNbO 4 precursor oxide at 1113 K in ammonia flow for 12 h. X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the EuNbO 2N oxynitride crystallizes with the cubic perovskite-type structure, S.G. Pm3¯m and a lattice constant of a = 4.03244(10) Å. Thermogravimetric studies reveal that the oxynitride decomposes around 513 K under oxygen atmosphere, giving as a final product of decomposition the EuNbO 4 oxide. The extremely low value obtained for remanence and coercive field fully agrees the isotropic character of the 8S 7/2 ground state associated to the Eu 2+. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that EuNbO 2N behaves as paramagnetic over temperature range 10-300 K, the sudden increase in the susceptibility observed below 10 K, is characteristic of the onset of a ferromagnetic behaviour with an estimated Tc = 6.2 K. The saturation moment of 6.48 μ B which is smaller than 7 μ B expected for Eu 2+ can be due to the presence of Eu 3NbO 7 impurity, confirmed by the X-ray powder diffraction data.

  14. Preparation of niobium based oxynitride nanosheets by exfoliation of Ruddlesden-Popper phase precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Maia, Ary; Cheviré, François; Demange, Valérie; Bouquet, Valérie; Pasturel, Mathieu; Députier, Stéphanie; Lebullenger, Ronan; Guilloux-Viry, Marylline; Tessier, Franck

    2016-04-01

    A new oxynitride Ruddlesden-Popper phase K1.6Ca2Nb3O9.4N0.6.1.1H2O was synthesized by the topochemical ammonolysis reaction at 700 °C from the oxide Dion-Jacobson phase KCa2Nb3O10 in the presence of K2CO3. The oxynitride showed good stability with a little loss of nitrogen, even after a few months of exposure to air. Its crystal structure was solved by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data in space group P4/mmm and considering a two-phase mixture, due to the difference in the degree of hydration, with a = 3.894(2) Å and c = 17.90(8) Å for the most hydrated phase and a = 3.927(6) Å and c = 17.09(2) Å for the less one. Optical band gaps were measured by diffuse reflectance in the UV-Visible range indicating a red shift of Eg to the visible region. The oxynitride layered perovskite was then protonated and exfoliated into nanosheets. TEM images and SAED patterns of the nanosheets proved that exfoliation was successful, showing lattice parameters quite compatible with the Rietveld refinement.

  15. Single-Layer, Multicolor Electroluminescent Phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1988-01-01

    Etching eliminated in producing phosphor layers for displays. New process enables production of single-layer, two-color phosphor layer without etching. Method of construction, beginning with glass substrate with electrode and insulator layers, involves deposition of green phosphor masking with metal mask or photoresist; diffusion or ion implantation of manganese through mask to produce red phosphor and removal of mask.

  16. Polymorphism of phosphoric oxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.L.; Faust, G.T.; Hendricks, S.B.

    1943-01-01

    The melting points and monotropic relationship of three crystalline forms of phosphoric oxide were determined by the method of quenching. Previous vapor pressure data are discussed and interpreted to establish a pressure-temperature diagram (70 to 600??) for the one-component system. The system involves three triple points, at which solid, liquid and vapor (P4O10) coexist in equilibrium, namely: 420?? and 360 cm., 562?? and 43.7 cm. and 580?? and 55.5 cm., corresponding to the hexagonal, orthorhombic and stable polymorphs, respectively, and at least two distinct liquids, one a stable polymer of the other, which are identified with the melting of the stable form and the hexagonal modification, respectively. Indices of refraction of the polymorphs and glasses were determined. The density and the thermal, hygroscopic and structural properties of the several phases are discussed.

  17. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  18. Titanium oxynitride interlayer to influence oxygen reduction reaction activity and corrosion stability of Pt and Pt-Ni alloy.

    PubMed

    Tan, XueHai; Wang, Liya; Zahiri, Beniamin; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Karpuzov, Dimitre; Lotfabad, Elmira Memarzadeh; Li, Zhi; Eikerling, Michael H; Mitlin, David

    2015-01-01

    A key advancement target for oxygen reduction reaction catalysts is to simultaneously improve both the electrochemical activity and durability. To this end, the efficacy of a new highly conductive support that comprises of a 0.5 nm titanium oxynitride film coated by atomic layer deposition onto an array of carbon nanotubes has been investigated. Support effects for pure platinum and for a platinum (50 at %)/nickel alloy have been considered. Oxynitride induces a downshift in the d-band center for pure platinum and fundamentally changes the platinum particle size and spatial distribution. This results in major enhancements in activity and corrosion stability relative to an identically synthesized catalyst without the interlayer. Conversely, oxynitride has a minimal effect on the electronic structure and microstructure, and therefore, on the catalytic performance of platinum-nickel. Calculations based on density functional theory add insight with regard to compositional segregation that occurs at the alloy catalyst-support interface.

  19. Quantitative SIMS depth profiling of diffusion barrier gate-oxynitride structures in TFT-LCDs.

    PubMed

    Dreer, Sabine; Wilhartitz, Peter; Piplits, Kurt; Mayerhofer, Karl; Foisner, Johann; Hutter, Herbert

    2004-06-01

    Gate oxynitride structures of TFT-LCDs were investigated by SIMS, and successful solutions are demonstrated to overcome difficulties arising due to the charging effects of the multilayer systems, the matrix effect of the method, and the small pattern sizes of the samples. Because of the excellent reproducibility achieved by applying exponential relative sensitivity functions for quantitative analysis, minor differences in the barrier gate-oxynitride composition deposited on molybdenum capped aluminium-neodymium metallisation electrodes were determined between the centre and the edge of the TFT-LCD substrates. No differences were found for molybdenum-tungsten metallisations. Furthermore, at the edge of the glass substrates, aluminium, neodymium, and molybdenum SIMS depth profiles show an exponential trend. With TEM micrographs an inhomogeneous thickness of the molybdenum capping is revealed as the source of this effect, which influences the electrical behaviour of the device. The production process was improved after these results and the aging behaviour of TFT-LCDs was investigated in order to explain the change in control voltage occurring during the lifetime of the displays. SIMS and TEM show an enrichment of neodymium at the interface to the molybdenum layer, confirming good diffusion protection of the molybdenum barrier during accelerated aging. The reason for the shift of the control voltage was finally located by semi-quantitative depth profiling of the sodium diffusion originating from the glass substrate. Molybdenum-tungsten was a much better buffer for the highly-mobile charge carriers than aluminium-neodymium. Best results were achieved with PVD silicon oxynitride as diffusion barrier and gate insulator deposited on aluminium-neodymium metallisation layers.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of compact silicon oxynitride waveguides on silicon chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lianghong; Lu, Ming; Wielunski, Leszek; Song, Weiwei; Tan, Jun; Lu, Yicheng; Jiang, Wei

    2012-08-01

    We investigate silicon oxynitride (SiON) waveguides for long optical delay lines on a silicon chip. With the choice of a moderately low refractive index contrast, a balance can be achieved between compact waveguide cross-section and low loss. The material composition and refractive index are characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ellipsometry. High-temperature annealing is performed after waveguide fabrication so as to simultaneously remove light absorbing bonds in the materials and smooth the sidewall roughness at the core-cladding interface. A meter-long SiON waveguide is demonstrated on a centimeter scale chip.

  1. The study of titanium oxynitride coatings solubility deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonova, L. A.; Boytsova, E. L.; Pustovalova, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    To improve hemocompatibility of cardiovascular stents the coatings based on titanium oxides and oxynitrides were used. In the present work the morphology, surface properties (wettability and surface energy), and in vitro solubility of the ternary system Ti-N-O coating were investigated. Experimentally, low dissolution rate of the coating in saline NaCl (0,9%) was confirmed. Instrumental methods of quantitative analysis (XRF, AES) revealed that the Ti-N-O coating is chemical-resistant and does not change the qualitative and quantitative composition of body fluids.

  2. N-doped carbon-coated tungsten oxynitride nanowire arrays for highly efficient electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Cui, Wei; Tian, Jingqi; Xing, Zhicai; Liu, Qian; Xing, Wei; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2015-08-10

    It is highly desired but still challenging to develop active nonprecious metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts operating under all pH conditions. Herein, the development of three-dimensional N-doped carbon-coated tungsten oxynitride nanowire arrays on carbon cloth as a highly efficient and durable HER cathode was explored. The material delivers current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 106 and 172 mV, respectively, in acidic medium, and it also performs well in neutral and basic electrolytes.

  3. Nanopore fabrication in silicon oxynitride membranes by heating Au-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vreede, L. J.; Schmidt Muniz, M.; van den Berg, A.; Eijkel, J. C. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication of nanopores in a silicon oxynitride (SiON) membrane by heating a silicon rich-silicon nitride (SiRN) membrane with a gold nanoparticle array deposited on its surface. The gold nanoparticle array was realized by photolithography and the membrane by wet-etching. The entire process is wafer scale. Nanopore through-holes of an average diameter of 150 nm were produced in a ~22 nm thick membrane. Membranes and nanopores were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photo-electron spectrocopy.

  4. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialysis (machine) Medicines to treat symptoms Whole bowel irrigation with a special solution taken by mouth or through a tube through the nose into the stomach (to flush sustained-release lithium quickly through the stomach and intestines)

  5. Laser-activated remote phosphor conversion with ceramic phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Tchoul, Maxim; Mehl, Oliver; Sorg, Jörg; Zheng, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Direct laser activation of a remote phosphor, or LARP, is a highly effective approach for producing very high luminance solid-state light sources. Such sources have much smaller étendue than LEDs of similar power, thereby greatly increasing system luminous fluxes in projection and display applications. While several commercial products now employ LARP technology, most current configurations employ phosphor powders in a silicone matrix deposited on rotating wheels. These provide a low excitation duty cycle that helps limit quenching and thermal overload. These systems already operate close to maximum achievable pump powers and intensities. To further increase power scaling and eliminate mechanical parts to achieve smaller footprints, OSRAM has been developing static LARP systems based on high-thermal conductivity monolithic ceramic phosphors. OSRAM has recently introduced a static LARP product using ceramic phosphor for endoscopy and also demonstrated a LARP concept for automotive forward lighting1. We first discuss the basic LARP concept with ceramic phosphors, showing how their improved thermal conductivity can achieve both high luminous fluxes and luminance in a static configuration. Secondly, we show the importance of scattering and low optical losses to achieving high overall efficiency and light extraction. This is shown through experimental results and radiation transport calculations. Finally, we discuss some of the fundamental factors which limit the ultimate luminance achievable with ceramic converted LARP, including optical pumping effects and thermal quenching.

  6. Lithium anode for lithium-air secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Zhang, Tao; Hirano, Atushi; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu

    The lithium ion conducting solid lithium phosphorous nitride (LiPON) has been sputtered on the water-stable NASICON-type lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xP 3- ySi yO 12 (LATP). The stability and the interface resistance of the Li-Al/LiPON/LATP/LiPON/Li-Al cell have been examined. It is shown that the LiPON film protects LATP from reacting with the Li-Al alloy. The impedance of the Li-Al/LiPON/LATP/LiPON/Li-Al cell has been measured in the temperature range 25-80 °C. The total cell resistance is about 8600 Ω cm 2 at room temperature and 360 Ω cm 2 at 80 °C. The analysis of the impedance profiles suggests that the Li-Al/LiPON interface resistance is dominant at lower temperatures. The LATP plate immersed in water for 1 month shows only a slight degradation in the conductivity.

  7. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-08-17

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  8. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  9. High-speed phosphor thermometry.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, N; Baum, E; Brübach, J; Dreizler, A

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm. PMID:22047319

  10. Inorganic Phosphor Materials for Lighting.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chih; Karlsson, Maths; Bettinelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This chapter addresses the development of inorganic phosphor materials capable of converting the near UV or blue radiation emitted by a light emitting diode to visible radiation that can be suitably combined to yield white light. These materials are at the core of the new generation of solid-state lighting devices that are emerging as a crucial clean and energy saving technology. The chapter introduces the problem of white light generation using inorganic phosphors and the structure-property relationships in the broad class of phosphor materials, normally containing lanthanide or transition metal ions as dopants. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation mechanisms are briefly described. Phosphors emitting light of different colors (yellow, blue, green, and red) are described and reviewed, classifying them in different chemical families of the host (silicates, phosphates, aluminates, borates, and non-oxide hosts). This research field has grown rapidly and is still growing, but the discovery of new phosphor materials with optimized properties (in terms of emission efficiency, chemical and thermal stability, color, purity, and cost of fabrication) would still be of the utmost importance. PMID:27573146

  11. High-speed phosphor thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Baum, E.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm.

  12. High-speed phosphor thermometry.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, N; Baum, E; Brübach, J; Dreizler, A

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence in LiCaAlF6:Eu2+ phosphor.

    PubMed

    More, Y K; Wankhede, S P; Moharil, S V; Kumar, Munish; Chougaonkar, M P

    2015-09-01

    Results on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) are reported. Continuous wave OSL signal as recorded using blue (470 nm) stimulation was found to be ~31% that of standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate. The rate of OSL depletion for standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate is only three times less as compared with that of LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+). Strong photoluminescence (PL) in the near ultraviolet region is observed for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) with the characteristic Eu(2+) emission at 369 nm for 254 nm excitation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) was observed at around 180°C. The glow peak was about six times more intense compared with the dosimetric peak of the well known thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) phosphor LiF-TLD 100. Thus this phosphor deserves much more attention than it has received until now and may be useful as a dosimetric material in radiation dosimetry. PMID:25620581

  14. On the phase formation of sputtered hafnium oxide and oxynitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Sarakinos, K.; Music, D.; Mraz, S.; Baben, M. to; Jiang, K.; Nahif, F.; Braun, A.; Zilkens, C.; Schneider, J. M.; Konstantinidis, S.; Renaux, F.; Cossement, D.; Munnik, F.

    2010-07-15

    Hafnium oxynitride films are deposited from a Hf target employing direct current magnetron sputtering in an Ar-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. It is shown that the presence of N{sub 2} allows for the stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and the compound sputtering mode enabling deposition of films at well defined conditions of target coverage by varying the O{sub 2} partial pressure. Plasma analysis reveals that this experimental strategy facilitates control over the flux of the O{sup -} ions which are generated on the oxidized target surface and accelerated by the negative target potential toward the growing film. An arrangement that enables film growth without O{sup -} ion bombardment is also implemented. Moreover, stabilization of the transition sputtering zone and control of the O{sup -} ion flux without N{sub 2} addition is achieved employing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. Structural characterization of the deposited films unambiguously proves that the phase formation of hafnium oxide and hafnium oxynitride films with the crystal structure of HfO{sub 2} is independent from the O{sup -} bombardment conditions. Experimental and theoretical data indicate that the presence of vacancies and/or the substitution of O by N atoms in the nonmetal sublattice favor the formation of the cubic and/or the tetragonal HfO{sub 2} crystal structure at the expense of the monoclinic HfO{sub 2} one.

  15. Sputtered titanium oxynitride coatings for endosseous applications: Physical and chemical evaluation and first bioactivity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakh, Oksana; Moussa, Mira; Matthey, Joel; Pontearso, Alessandro; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Sanjines, Rosendo; Fontana, Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Durual, Stephane

    2014-10-01

    Titanium oxynitride coatings (TiNxOy) are considered a promising material for applications in dental implantology due to their high corrosion resistance, their biocompatibility and their superior hardness. Using the sputtering technique, TiNxOy films with variable chemical compositions can be deposited. These films may then be set to a desired value by varying the process parameters, that is, the oxygen and nitrogen gas flows. To improve the control of the sputtering process with two reactive gases and to achieve a variable and controllable coating composition, the plasma characteristics were monitored in-situ by optical emission spectroscopy. TiNxOy films were deposited onto commercially pure (ASTM 67) microroughened titanium plates by reactive magnetron sputtering. The nitrogen gas flow was kept constant while the oxygen gas flow was adjusted for each deposition run to obtain films with different oxygen and nitrogen contents. The physical and chemical properties of the deposited films were analyzed as a function of oxygen content in the titanium oxynitride. The potential application of the coatings in dental implantology was assessed by monitoring the proliferation and differentiation of human primary osteoblasts.

  16. Tantalum (oxy)nitrides: preparation, characterisation and enhancement of photo-Fenton-like degradation of atrazine under visible light.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingxun; Zhao, Lu; Su, Yaling

    2011-11-15

    Tantalum (oxy)nitrides were prepared by the nitridation of Ta(2)O(5) and were added to a photo-Fenton-like system to enhance Fe(3+) reduction and atrazine degradation under visible light. The samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, DRS and BET analyses. XPS analysis showed that the nitrogen content of the tantalum (oxy)nitride samples increased noticeably with the nitridation temperature and nitridation time but slightly with the flow rate of NH(3). XRD results showed Ta(2)O(5) was first converted to TaON and then to Ta(3)N(5) when the nitridation temperature increased. DRS analysis showed that the sample obtained at 800°C displayed the strongest absorption of visible light. However, the ability of the tantalum (oxy)nitrides to reduce Fe(3+) did not increase continuously with the nitrogen content. Sample 7 (700°C, [Formula: see text] , 6h) showed the highest level of photocatalytic activity for Fe(3+) reduction. This is because the photocatalytic activity of TaON for Fe(3+) reduction is higher than that of Ta(3)N(5). And a slight synergetic effect was observed between TaON and Ta(3)N(5). With the addition of sample 7, H(2)O(2) decomposition and atrazine degradation were significantly accelerated in a photo-Fenton-like system under visible light. The regenerated tantalum (oxy)nitrides catalyst displayed considerably stable performance for atrazine degradation.

  17. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 582.1073 Section 582.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1073 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phosphoric acid. 182.1073 Section 182.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1073 Phosphoric acid. (a) Product. Phosphoric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. Optical properties of zirconium oxynitride films: The effect of composition, electronic and crystalline structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, P.; Borges, J.; Rodrigues, M. S.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Espinós, J. P.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Cunha, L.; Marques, L.; Vasilevskiy, M. I.; Vaz, F.

    2015-12-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of zirconium oxynitride (ZrOxNy) films with varied optical responses prompted by the variations in their compositional and structural properties. The films were prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering of Zr, using Ar and a reactive gas mixture of N2 + O2 (17:3). The colour of the films changed from metallic-like, very bright yellow-pale and golden yellow, for low gas flows to red-brownish for intermediate gas flows. Associated to this colour change there was a significant decrease of brightness. With further increase of the reactive gas flow, the colour of the samples changed from red-brownish to dark blue or even to interference colourations. The variations in composition disclosed the existence of four different zones, which were found to be closely related with the variations in the crystalline structure. XRD analysis revealed the change from a B1 NaCl face-centred cubic zirconium nitride-type phase for films prepared with low reactive gas flows, towards a poorly crystallized over-stoichiometric nitride phase, which may be similar to that of Zr3N4 with some probable oxygen inclusions within nitrogen positions, for films prepared with intermediate reactive gas flows. For high reactive gas flows, the films developed an oxynitride-type phase, similar to that of γ-Zr2ON2 with some oxygen atoms occupying some of the nitrogen positions, evolving to a ZrO2 monoclinic type structure within the zone where films were prepared with relatively high reactive gas flows. The analysis carried out by reflected electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) revealed a continuous depopulation of the d-band and an opening of an energy gap between the valence band (2p) and the Fermi level close to 5 eV. The ZrN-based coatings (zone I and II) presented intrinsic colourations, with a decrease in brightness and a colour change from bright yellow to golden yellow, red brownish and dark blue. Associated to these changes, there was also a shift

  8. Structural Evolution of Silicon Oxynitride Fiber Reinforced Boron Nitride Matrix Composite at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunrong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Changrui; Wang, Siqing; Xie, Zhengfang; Shao, Changwei

    2016-02-01

    The structural evolution of a silicon oxynitride fiber reinforced boron nitride matrix (Si-N-Of/BN) wave-transparent composite at high temperatures was investigated. When heat treated at 1600 °C, the composite retained a favorable bending strength of 55.3 MPa while partially crystallizing to Si2N2O and h-BN from the as-received amorphous structure. The Si-N-O fibers still performed as effective reinforcements despite the presence of small pores due to fiber decomposition. Upon heat treatment at 1800 °C, the Si-N-O fibers already lost their reinforcing function and rough hollow microstructure formed within the fibers because of the accelerated decomposition. Further heating to 2000 °C led to the complete decomposition of the reinforcing fibers and only h-BN particles survived. The crystallization and decomposition behaviors of the composite at high temperatures are discussed.

  9. Chemically synthesized boron carbon oxynitride as a new cold cathode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Diptonil; Maity, Supratim; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of boron carbon oxynitride (BCNO) nanosheets at different temperature from amorphous to crystalline regime has been reported. The synthesis was done by a simple molten salt process using sodium borohydride and urea as precursors. Transmission electron microscopic study confirms the formation of sheet-like structure of the as-synthesized material. The performances of the as-synthesized BCNO nanosheets as cold cathode materials have been studied for the first time in the high vacuum electron field emission set up. It has been seen that the material gives considerable field emission current with turn on field as low as 2.95 V/μm with good stability and thus a new cold cathode material can be postulated.

  10. Effects of Calcination Condition on Porous Reduced Titanium Oxides and Oxynitrides via Preceramic Polymer Route

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, George; Sato, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Ren, Yang; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-03-16

    The preceramic polymer route from titanium-based inorganic-organic hybrid networks provides electro conductive N-doped reduced titanium oxides (TinO2n–1) and titanium oxynitrides (TiOxNy) with a monolithic shape as well as well-defined porous structure. This methodology demonstrates advantageously lower temperature of crystal phase transition compared to the reduction of TiO2 by carbon or H2. In this study, effects of calcination condition on various features of the products have been explored by adopting three different atmospheric conditions and varying the calcination temperature. The detailed crystallographic and elemental analyses disclose the distinguished difference in phase transition behavior with respect to calcination atmosphere. Correlation between the crystallization and nitridation behaviors, porous properties and electric conductivities in the final products has been discussed.

  11. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Leslie L.; Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer C.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a polycrystalline material that has proven difficult to polish due to its grain structure. Bound abrasives are an effective means for polishing ALON, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices were created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load were studied. Metrology procedures were developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate grain boundary decoration. Strategies were developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  12. Grain decoration in aluminum oxynitride (ALON) from polishing on bound abrasive laps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Anne E.; Hayes, Jennifer; Gregg, Leslie L.; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2003-05-01

    Aluminum oxynitride (ALON) is a material with desirable qualities for a variety of applications that has proven difficult to polish because of its grain structure. Bound abrasives may prove to be an effective means of polishing it, and work is being done with them to obtain good surfaces on ALON, with reasonable removal rates. Laps consisting of abrasives bound in epoxy matrices have been created for polishing ALON. The effects of varying abrasive type, abrasive concentration, lap shape, coolant and load are being studied. Metrology procedures are being developed to monitor different aspects of the grain structure and numerically evaluate its decoration. Strategies have been developed to polish ALON at acceptable rates with reasonably good surface quality. Work is directed toward finding optimal bound abrasive lap formulations that can be fabricated into ring and/or contour tools for testing on CNC machining platforms.

  13. Temperature dependence of the biaxial modulus, intrinsic stress and composition of plasma deposited silicon oxynitride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David R.; Ogbuji, Linus U. T.; Freeman, Mathieu J.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. The elemental composition was varied between silicon nitride and silicon dioxide: SiO(0.3)N(1.0), SiO(0.7)N(1.6), SiO(0.7)N(1.1), and SiO(1.7)N(0.%). These films were annealed in air, at temperatures of 40-240 C above the deposition temperature (260 C), to determine the stability and behavior or each composition. the biaxial modulus, biaxial intrinsic stress, and elemental composition were measured at discrete intervals within the annealing cycle. Films deposited from primarily ammonia possessed considerable hydrogen (up to 38 at.%) and lost nitrogen and hydrogen at anneal temperatures (260-300 C) only marginally higher than the deposition temperature. As the initial oxygen content increased a different mechanism controlled the behavior or the film: The temperature threshold for change rose to approximately equal to 350 C and the loss of nitrogen was compensated by an equivalent rise in the oxygen content. The transformation from silicon oxynitride to silica was completed after 50 h at 400 C. The initial biaxial modulus of all compositions was 21-3- GPa and the intrinsic stress was -30 to 85 MPa. Increasing the oxygen content raised the temperature threshold where cracking first occurred; the two film compositions with the highest initial oxygen content did not crack, even at the highest temperature (450 C) investigated. At 450 C the biaxial modulus increased to approximately equal to 100 GPa and the intrinsic stress was approximately equal to 200 MPa. These increases could be correlated with the observed change in the film's composition. When nitrogen was replaced by oxygen, the induced stress remained lower than the biaxial strength of the material, but, when nitrogen and hydrogen were lost, stress-relieving microcracking occurred.

  14. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  15. Radioluminescent nuclear batteries with different phosphor layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Yun-Peng; Chen, Da

    2014-11-01

    A radioluminescent nuclear battery based on the beta radioluminescence of phosphors is presented, and which consists of 147Pm radioisotope, phosphor layers, and GaAs photovoltaic cell. ZnS:Cu and Y2O2S:Eu phosphor layers for various thickness were fabricated. To investigate the effect of phosphor layer parameters on the battery, the electrical properties were measured. Results indicate that the optimal thickness ranges for the ZnS:Cu and Y2O2S:Eu phosphor layers are 12 mg cm-2 to 14 mg cm-2 and 17 mg cm-2 to 21 mg cm-2, respectively. ZnS:Cu phosphor layer exhibits higher fluorescence efficiency compared with the Y2O2S:Eu phosphor layer. Its spectrum properly matches the spectral response of GaAs photovoltaic cell. As a result, the battery with ZnS:Cu phosphor layer indicates higher energy conversion efficiency than that with Y2O2S:Eu phosphor layer. Additionally, the mechanism of the phosphor layer parameters that influence the output performance of the battery is discussed through the Monte Carlo method and transmissivity test.

  16. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  17. Three-Dimensional Cu2ZnSnS4 Films with Modified Surface for Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Guo, Jianlai; Liu, Chang; Guo, Hang

    2015-08-12

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is an important material in low-cost thin film solar cells and is also a promising candidate for lithium storage. In this work, a novel three-dimensional CZTS film coated with a lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) film is fabricated for the first time and is applied to thin-film lithium-ion batteries. The modified film exhibits an excellent performance of ∼900 mAh g(-1) (450 μAh cm(-2) μm(-1)), even after 75 cycles. Morphology integrity is still maintained after repeated lithiation/delithiation, and the main reaction mechanism is analyzed in detail. The significant findings from this study indicate the striking advantages of modifying both the surface and structure of alloy-based electrodes for energy storage. PMID:26192026

  18. Investigation of Remote-Phosphor White Light-Emitting Diodes with Multi-Phosphor Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yiting; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2010-10-01

    To understand how multiple phosphors in a mixture or stacked layers affect the performance of the remote-phosphor “scattered photon extraction (SPE)” white light-emitting diode (LED), a laboratory study was conducted with commercial yellow [quantum efficiency (QE)=0.91] and red (QE=0.59) phosphors in equal amounts. The highest light output was obtained when the longer-wavelength red phosphor was placed as the second layer. Experiments showed that when using two phosphors in an SPE package, several factors influence the performance: mixture or stacked layers; specific layer order; phosphor densities; phosphor external QE; overall spectral power distribution (SPD); phosphor excitation and emission spectra and efficiencies.

  19. Method and apparatus for reading thermoluminescent phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for rapidly reading thermoluminescent phosphors to determine the amount of luminescent energy stored therein. The stored luminescent energy is interpreted as a measure of the total exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to ionizing radiation. The thermoluminescent phosphor reading apparatus uses a laser to generate a laser beam. The laser beam power level is monitored by a laser power detector and controlled to maintain the power level nearly constant. A shutter or other laser beam interrupting means is used to control exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to the laser beam. The laser beam can be equalized using an optical equalizer so that the laser beam has an approximately uniform power density across the beam. The heated thermoluminescent phosphor emits a visible or otherwise detectable luminescent emission which is measured as an indication of the radiation exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphors. Also disclosed are preferred signal processing and control circuits.

  20. Phosphors with long-persistent green phosphorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence green phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: M.sub.k Al.sub.2 O.sub.4 :2xEu.sup.2+,2yR.sup.3+ wherein k-1-2x-2y, x is a number ranging from about 0.0001 to about 0.05, y is a number ranging from about x to about 3x, M is an alkaline earth metal, and R.sup.3+ is one or more trivalent metal ions. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  1. Corrosion resistance of zirconium oxynitride coatings deposited via DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering and spray pyrolysis-nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubillos, G. I.; Bethencourt, M.; Olaya, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    ZrOxNy/ZrO2 thin films were deposited on stainless steel using two different methods: ultrasonic spray pyrolysis-nitriding (SPY-N) and the DC unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique (UBMS). Using the first method, ZrO2 was initially deposited and subsequently nitrided in an anhydrous ammonia atmosphere at 1023 K at atmospheric pressure. For UBMS, the film was deposited in an atmosphere of air/argon with a Φair/ΦAr flow ratio of 3.0. Structural analysis was carried out through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and morphological analysis was done through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chemical analysis was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrOxNy rhombohedral polycrystalline film was produced with spray pyrolysis-nitriding, whereas using the UBMS technique, the oxynitride films grew with cubic Zr2ON2 crystalline structures preferentially oriented along the (2 2 2) plane. Upon chemical analysis of the surface, the coatings exhibited spectral lines of Zr3d, O1s, and N1s, characteristic of zirconium oxynitride/zirconia. SEM analysis showed the homogeneity of the films, and AFM showed morphological differences according to the deposition technique of the coatings. Zirconium oxynitride films enhanced the stainless steel's resistance to corrosion using both techniques. The protective efficacy was evaluated using electrochemical techniques based on linear polarization (LP). The results indicated that the layers provide good resistance to corrosion when exposed to chloride-containing media.

  2. Method of preparing a thermoluminescent phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Lasky, Jerome B.; Moran, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    A thermoluminescent phosphor comprising LiF doped with boron and magnesium is produced by diffusion of boron into a conventional LiF phosphor doped with magnesium. Where the boron dopant is made to penetrate only the outer layer of the phosphor, it can be used to detect shallowly penetrating radiation such as tritium beta ays in the presence of a background of more penetrating radiation.

  3. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:23948626

  4. Preparation, Characterization, and Device Applications of Zinc Tin Nitride and Zinc Tin Oxynitride Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shenglin

    This dissertation presents a comprehensively theoretical and experimental study on zinc tin nitride and zinc tin oxynitride materials. The purposes of this combinatorial study are to understand the fundamental properties of these two materials, and to examine the potential of these two materials for future optoelectronic applications. These fundamental properties are crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition, band structures, and optical as well as electrical properties. Zinc tin nitride (ZnSnN2) thin films have been synthesized on c-plane sapphire substrates and (0001) GaN templates by the reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The properties are investigated by theoretical calculations and experimental results. In terms of theoretical calculation, the lattice constants a, b and c are calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method. These constants are comparable to our experimental results as well as previous calculations. In the case of experimental results, the impacts of substrate temperatures and the ratios of N2/(N 2+Ar) on films' properties are fully characterized by using various kinds of techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall effect measurement, and UV-Vis-NIR spectrometry. By optimizing the growth conditions, ZnSnN2 thin films with an average grain size larger than reported results have been obtained. Additionally, for the first time, the valence band structure of ZnSnN2 has been investigated by XPS analysis. The result is consistent with our calculated density of states (DOS). The vibrational modes of ZnSnN2 are also studied by Raman spectroscopy. The Schottky-behavior diodes with a structure of ZnSnN2/GaN heterojunctions have been successfully fabricated, using the standard fabricating process for semiconductor devices. Standard electrical measurements such as C

  5. Development of ΔE-E telescope ERDA with 40 MeV 35Cl7+ beam at MALT in the University of Tokyo optimized for analysis of metal oxynitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, I.; Nagashima, K.; Hirose, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Sekiba, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a compact ΔE-E telescope elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) system, for the first time at Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem Accelerator (MALT) in the University of Tokyo, which consists of a gas ionization chamber and solid state detector (SSD) for the quantitative analysis of light elements. The gas ionization chamber is designed to identify the recoils of O and N from metal oxynitrides thin films irradiated with 40 MeV 35Cl7+. The length of the electrodes along the beam direction is 50 mm optimized to sufficiently separate energy loss of O and N recoils in P10 gas at 6.0 × 103 Pa. The performance of the gas ionization chamber was examined by comparing the ERDA results on the SrTaO2N thin films with semi-empirical simulation and the chemical compositions previously determined by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). We also confirmed availability of the gas ionization chamber for identifying not only the recoils of O and N but also those of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

  6. Li-DOPING Effect on the Cathodoluminescent Properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, J. S.; Yoon, J. H.; Park, S. K.; Kim, J. P.; Jeong, E. D.; Won, M. S.; Jeong, J. H.; Shim, K. S.; Yang, H. K.; Yi, S. S.

    Influence of lithium doping on the crystallization, the surface morphology, the chemical states and the luminescent properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors was investigated. The structural, surface morphology characteristics and chemical states of the phosphors were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The crystallinity, the surface morphology, and the cathodoluminescence (CL) of phosphors highly depended on the Li doping. The relationship between the crystalline and morphological structures and the luminescent properties was studied, and Li+ doping affected not only the crystallinity but also the luminescent brightness of Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors. In particular, the incorporation of the Li+ ion into the Y2O3 lattice could induce remarkable increase in the CL intensity. The enhanced photoluminescence brightness with Li doping may result both from the improved crystallinity leading to higher oscillating strengths for the optical transitions, and the increased surface area due to the larger particle sizes. The strongest emission intensity was observed with Li doped Y2O3:Eu3+ ceramics whose brightness was increased by a factor of 1.8 in comparison with that of Y2O3:Eu3+ ceramics.

  7. A method for solid phase synthesis of phosphors under increased pressure; creation of remote phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galashov, E. N.; Yusuf, A. A.; Mandrik, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    A method for phosphors solid-phase synthesis under high pressure is proposed. Using the method, phosphors based on rare earth garnets were synthesized at a temperature considerably lower (1300 °C) than the temperature of the synthesis by conventional method (above 1650 °C). Using organic, inorganic ligaments and synthesized phosphors, remote phosphors were created. The chromaticity coordinates of created LEDs on the base of blue LEDs and remote phosphors fall into the bin of white and green colours. Luminous efficiency reaches 140 lm/W.

  8. Thermoluminescence Characteristics of Nanocrystalline LiF Phosphors Synthesized at Different pH Values

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A. K.; Dogra, R.; Kumar, Shalendra; Mishra, S. K.; Lochab, S. P.; Kumar, Ravi

    2011-07-15

    Nanocrystalline lithium fluoride (LiF) phosphors have been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method at different pH values (7.0, 8.0, 9.0). The formation of nanocrystalline structure has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The thermolumniscence (TL) properties of LiF phosphors irradiated with gamma rays at different doses have been studied. The analysis of TL glow curve has revealed the existence of two well resolved glow peaks, one low temperature peak at around 145 deg. C and other one at higher temperature around 375 deg. C. The LiF nano-crystallites synthesized at 8.00 pH have been found to show maximum TL intensity at studied gamma doses (0.1 Gy-15 Gy).

  9. Abnormal anti-quenching and controllable multi-transitions of Bi3+ luminescence by temperature in a yellow-emitting LuVO4 :Bi3+ phosphor for UV-converted white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fengwen; Peng, Mingying; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-09-01

    Phosphors with an efficient yellow-emitting color play a crucial role in phosphor-converted white LEDs (pc-WLEDs), but popular yellow phosphors such as YAG:Ce or Eu(2+) -doped (oxy)nitrides cannot smoothly meet this seemingly simple requirement due to their strong absorptions in the visible range. Herein, we report a novel yellow-emitting LuVO(4) :Bi(3+) phosphor that can solve this shortcoming. The emission from LuVO(4) :Bi(3+) shows a peak at 576 nm with a quantum efficiency (QE) of up to 68 %, good resistance to thermal quenching (T(50 %) =573 K), and no severe thermal degradation after heating-cooling cycles upon UV excitation. The yellow emission, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), originates from the ((3)P(0),(3)P(1))→(1) S0 transitions of Bi(3+). Increasing the temperature from 10 to 300 K produces a temperature-dependent energy-transfer process between VO(4)(3-) groups and Bi(3+), and further heating of the samples to 573 K intensifies the emission. However, it subsequently weakens, accompanied by blueshifts of the emission peaks. This abnormal anti-thermal quenching can be ascribed to temperature-dependent energy transfer from VO(4)(3-) groups to Bi(3+), a population redistribution between the excited states of (3)P(0) and (3)P(1) upon thermal stimulation, and discharge of electrons trapped in defects with a trap depth of 359 K. Device fabrication with the as-prepared phosphor LuVO(4) :Bi(3+) has proved that it can act as a good yellow phosphor for pc-WLEDs. PMID:25048156

  10. Controlling Disorder and Superconductivity in Titanium Oxynitride Nanoribbons with Anion Exchange.

    PubMed

    Sluban, Melita; Umek, Polona; Jagličić, Zvonko; Buh, Jože; Šmitek, Petra; Mrzel, Aleš; Bittencourt, Carla; Guttmann, Peter; Delville, Marie-Helene; Mihailović, Dragan; Arčon, Denis

    2015-10-27

    In recent years, conversion chemical reactions, which are driven by ion diffusion, emerged as an important concept for formation of nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate that the slow anion diffusion in anion exchange reactions can be efficiently used to tune the disorder strength and the related electronic properties of nanoparticles. This paradigm is applied to high-temperature formation of titanium oxynitride nanoribbons, Ti(O,N), transformed from hydrogen titanate nanoribbons in an ammonia atmosphere. The nitrogen content, which determines the chemical disorder through random O/N occupancy and ion vacancies in the Ti(O,N) composition, increases with the reaction time. The presence of disorder has paramount effects on resistivity of Ti(O,N) nanoribbons. Atypically for metals, the resistivity increases with decreasing temperature due to the weak localization effects. From this state, superconductivity develops below considerably or completely suppressed critical temperatures, depending on the disorder strength. Our results thus establish the remarkable versatility of anion exchange for tuning of the electronic properties of Ti(O,N) nanoribbons and suggest that similar strategies may be applied to a vast number of nanostructures.

  11. Adsorption characteristics of brush polyelectrolytes on silicon oxynitride revealed by dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bijelic, Goran; Shovsky, Alexander; Varga, Imre; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2010-08-01

    Adsorption properties of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes have been investigated using dual polarization interferometry (DPI), which provides real time monitoring of adsorbed layer thickness and refractive index. The adsorption on silicon oxynitride was carried out from aqueous solution with no added inorganic salt, and the adsorbed polyelectrolyte layer was subsequently rinsed with NaCl solutions of increasing concentration. The bottle-brush polyelectrolytes investigated in this study have different ratios of permanent cationic charged segments and uncharged PEO side chains. Both the cationic groups and the PEO side chains have affinity for silica-like surfaces, and thus contribute to the adsorption process that becomes rather complex. Adsorption properties in water, responses to changes in ionic strength of the surrounding medium, adsorption kinetics and the layer structure are all strongly dependent on the ratio between backbone charges and side chains. The results are interpreted in terms of competitive adsorption of segments with different chemical nature. The adsorption kinetics is relatively fast, taking only tens to hundreds of seconds when adsorbed from dilute 100 ppm solutions. The DPI technique was found to be suitable for studying such rapid adsorption processes, including determination of the initial adsorption kinetics. We expect that the effects observed in this study are of general importance for synthetic and biological polymers carrying segments of different nature.

  12. Surface cleaning effects on reliability for devices with ultrathin oxides or oxynitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kafai; Hao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Wei-Ming; Lee, Jack C.

    1994-09-01

    A new wafer cleaning procedure has been developed for ultra-thin thermal oxidation process (oxynitrides grown in N2O (42 angstrom) were prepared using this new cleaning and other commonly used cleaning methods to investigate the effects of surface preparation on dielectric integrity. It has been found that this two-dip method produces dielectrics with reduced leakage current and stress-induced leakage current, which are believed to be the critical parameters for ultrathin oxides. Furthermore, this new cleaning procedure improves both intrinsic and defect-related breakdown as well as the uniformity of the current- voltage characteristics across a 4-inch wafer. The methanol/HF dip time has also been optimized. The improvement is believed to be due to enhanced silicon surface passivation by hydrogen, the reduced surface micro-roughness and the absence of native oxide.

  13. High mobility amorphous zinc oxynitride semiconductor material for thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Yan; Lim, Rodney; White, John M.

    2009-10-01

    Zinc oxynitride semiconductor material is produced through a reactive sputtering process in which competition between reactions responsible for the growth of hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) and for the growth of cubic zinc nitride (Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}) is promoted. In contrast to processes in which the reaction for either the oxide or the nitride is dominant, the multireaction process yields a substantially amorphous or a highly disordered nanocrystalline film with higher Hall mobility, 47 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} for the as-deposited film produced at 50 deg. C and 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} after annealing at 400 deg. C. In addition, it has been observed that the Hall mobility of the material increases as the carrier concentration decreases in a carrier concentration range where a multicomponent metal oxide semiconductor, indium-gallium-zinc oxide, follows the opposite trend. This indicates that the carrier transports in the single-metal compound and the multimetal compound are probably dominated by different mechanisms. Film stability and thin film transistor performance of the material have also been tested, and results are presented herein.

  14. Characterization of Ultra Thin Oxynitride Formed by Radical Nitridation with Slot Plane Antenna Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Seiji; Sasaki, Masaru; Nakanishi, Toshio; Murakawa, Shigemi; Katsuki, Jiro; Ozaki, Shigenori; Tada, Yoshihide; Ohta, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the plasma nitridation mechanisms for an ultra-thin gate oxynitride (SiON) formation to extend the downscaling limit of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). Using the slot plane antenna (SPA) plasma nitridation system, excellent gate SiON properties were obtained with low gate leakage and good carrier mobility down to less than 12 Å. From electrical and physical analysis results, the nitridation mechanism was discussed, which suggested that a control of oxygen partial pressure is important to achieve EOT reduction. A low electron temperature (Te) process under high-pressure condition leads to improved Gm and NBTI performance, which indicates that the reduction of a plasma damage under nitridation processes improve the performance and reliability of ultra thin SiON film. With optimized nitridation processes, the mobility degradation of nMOSFET is only 8% at \\textit{EOT}=11 Å. The NBTI reliability of pMOSFET is improved by more than 1 order compared with a low-pressure, high Te condition.

  15. First-principles study of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Fan, Weiliu; Li, Yanlu; Sun, Honggang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Zhao, Xian; Jiang, Minhua

    2010-08-01

    First-principles calculations of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride are performed with the density functional theory plane-wave pseudopotential method. The analysis of the electronic structure shows a covalent nature in Ta-N bonds and Ta-O bonds. The hybridization of anion 2p and Ta 5d states results in enhanced dispersion of the valence band, raising the top of the valence band and leading to the visible-light response in TaON. It has a high dielectric constant, and the anisotropy is displayed obviously in the lower energy region. Our calculation indicated that TaON has excellent dielectric properties along [010] direction. Various optical properties, including the reflectivity, absorption coefficient, refractive index, and the energy-loss spectrum are derived from the complex dielectric function. We also present phonon dispersion relation, zone-center optical mode frequency, density of phonon states, and some thermodynamic properties. The experimental IR modes (B(u) at 808 cm(-1) and A(u) at 863 cm(-1)) are reproduced well and assigned to a combination of stretching and bending vibrations for the Ta-N bond and Ta-O bond. The thermodynamic properties of TaON, such as heat capacity and Debye temperature, which were important parameters for the measurement of crystal physical properties, were first given for reference. Our investigations provide useful information for the potential application of this material.

  16. Surface modification of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and titanium oxynitride for lactate dehydrogenase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Saengdee, Pawasuth; Chaisriratanakul, Woraphan; Bunjongpru, Win; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Srisuwan, Awirut; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Promptmas, Chamras

    2015-05-15

    Three different types of surface, silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium oxynitride (TiON) were modified for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilization using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain an amino layer on each surface. The APTES modified surfaces can directly react with LDH via physical attachment. LDH can be chemically immobilized on those surfaces after incorporation with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain aldehyde layers of APTES-GA modified surfaces. The wetting properties, chemical bonding composition, and morphology of the modified surface were determined by contact angle (CA) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In this experiment, the immobilized protein content and LDH activity on each modified surface was used as an indicator of surface modification achievement. The results revealed that both the APTES and APTES-GA treatments successfully link the LDH molecule to those surfaces while retaining its activity. All types of tested surfaces modified with APTES-GA gave better LDH immobilizing efficiency than APTES, especially the SiO2 surface. In addition, the SiO2 surface offered the highest LDH immobilization among tested surfaces, with both APTES and APTES-GA modification. However, TiON and Si3N4 surfaces could be used as alternative candidate materials in the preparation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based biosensors, including lactate sensors using immobilized LDH on the ISFET surface.

  17. Carbon-assisted growth and high visible-light optical reflectivity of amorphous silicon oxynitride nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Large amounts of amorphous silicon oxynitride nanowires have been synthesized on silicon wafer through carbon-assisted vapor-solid growth avoiding the contamination from metallic catalysts. These nanowires have the length of up to 100 μm, with a diameter ranging from 50 to 150 nm. Around 3-nm-sized nanostructures are observed to be homogeneously distributed within a nanowire cross-section matrix. The unique configuration might determine the growth of ternary amorphous structure and its special splitting behavior. Optical properties of the nanowires have also been investigated. The obtained nanowires were attractive for their exceptional whiteness, perceived brightness, and optical brilliance. These nanowires display greatly enhanced reflection over the whole visible wavelength, with more than 80% of light reflected on most of the wavelength ranging from 400 to 700 nm and the lowest reflectivity exceeding 70%, exhibiting performance superior to that of the reported white beetle. Intense visible photoluminescence is also observed over a broad spectrum ranging from 320 to 500 nm with two shoulders centered at around 444 and 468 nm, respectively. PMID:21787429

  18. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  19. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  20. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  1. 46 CFR 153.558 - Special requirements for phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special requirements for phosphoric acid. 153.558... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.558 Special requirements for phosphoric acid. A phosphoric acid... phosphoric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-ENG); or (c) Made of a stainless steel that resists corrosion...

  2. 46 CFR 153.558 - Special requirements for phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special requirements for phosphoric acid. 153.558... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.558 Special requirements for phosphoric acid. A phosphoric acid... phosphoric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-ENG); or (c) Made of a stainless steel that resists corrosion...

  3. 46 CFR 153.558 - Special requirements for phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special requirements for phosphoric acid. 153.558... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.558 Special requirements for phosphoric acid. A phosphoric acid... phosphoric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-ENG); or (c) Made of a stainless steel that resists corrosion...

  4. 46 CFR 153.558 - Special requirements for phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for phosphoric acid. 153.558... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.558 Special requirements for phosphoric acid. A phosphoric acid... phosphoric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-522); or (c) Made of a stainless steel that resists corrosion...

  5. 46 CFR 153.558 - Special requirements for phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special requirements for phosphoric acid. 153.558... Equipment Special Requirements § 153.558 Special requirements for phosphoric acid. A phosphoric acid... phosphoric acid tanks by the Commandant (CG-522); or (c) Made of a stainless steel that resists corrosion...

  6. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  7. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  8. Phosphorous-Containing Polymers for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendan M.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2014-01-01

    Disease and injury have resulted in a large, unmet need for functional tissue replacements. Polymeric scaffolds can be used to deliver cells and bioactive signals to address this need for regenerating damaged tissue. Phosphorous-containing polymers have been implemented to improve and accelerate the formation of native tissue both by mimicking the native role of phosphorous groups in the body and by attachment of other bioactive molecules. This manuscript reviews the synthesis, properties, and performance of phosphorous-containing polymers that can be useful in regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24565855

  9. Phosphorous-containing polymers for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Watson, Brendan M; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2014-04-01

    Disease and injury have resulted in a large, unmet need for functional tissue replacements. Polymeric scaffolds can be used to deliver cells and bioactive signals to address this need for regenerating damaged tissue. Phosphorous-containing polymers have been implemented to improve and accelerate the formation of native tissue both by mimicking the native role of phosphorous groups in the body and by attachment of other bioactive molecules. This manuscript reviews the synthesis, properties, and performance of phosphorous-containing polymers that can be useful in regenerative medicine applications.

  10. Colorimetric determination of phosphoric acid leakage for phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yeon Hun; Jung, Ju Hae; Choi, Euiji; Han, Seungyoon; Begley, Alina Irene; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Kwan-Young; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-12-01

    A simple and precise colorimetric method for analyzing phosphoric acid leakage in phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells is described. The developed method is based on the colorimetric determination from a rapid formation of molybdenum blue color by the reduction reaction of molybdate ions in the presence of phosphoric acid in the acidic medium. The color is stable up to a few months and can be used for the sensitive and accurate detection of phosphoric acid electrolyte which is discharged from the fuel cell during operation. Tests with a wide concentration range of phosphate compounds showed that it permits determination of phosphoric acid up to nanogram quantities. The developed detection method assists monitoring the phosphoric acid contents and developing stable operation strategies of fuel cells.

  11. Influence of the chemical and electronic structure on the electrical behavior of zirconium oxynitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, P.; Chappé, J. M.; Cunha, L.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.; Alpuim, P.; Vaz, F.; Alves, E.; Rousselot, C.; Espinós, J. P.; González-Elipe, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of decorative zirconium oxynitride, ZrOxNy, films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering, using a 17:3 nitrogen-to-oxygen-ratio gas mixture. The color of the films changed from metallic-like, very bright yellow pale, and golden yellow, for low gas mixture flows [from 0 to about 9SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP)] to red brownish for intermediate gas flows (values up to 12SCCM). Associated to this color change there is a significant decrease of brightness. With further increase of the reactive gas flow, the color of the samples changed from red brownish to dark blue (samples prepared with 13 and 14SCCM). The films deposited with gas flows above 14SCCM showed only apparent colorations due to interference effects. This change in optical behavior from opaque to transparent (characteristic of a transition from metallic to insulating-type materials), promoted by the change in gas flow values, revealed that significant changes were occurring in the film structure and electronic properties, thus opening new potential applications for the films, beyond those of purely decorative ones. Taking this into account, the electrical behavior of the films was investigated as a function of the reactive gas flow and correlated with the observed chemical, electronic, and structural features. The variations in composition disclosed the existence of four different zones, which were correlated to different crystalline structures. For the so-called zone I, x-ray diffraction revealed the development of films with a B1 NaCl face-centered cubic zirconium nitride-type phase, with some texture changes. Increasing the reactive gas flow, the structure of the films is that of a poorly crystallized overstoichiometric nitride phase, which may be similar to that of Zr3N4, but with some probable oxygen inclusions within nitrogen positions. This region was characterized as zone II. Zone III was indexed as an oxynitride-type phase

  12. Lithium intercalation in porous carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-04-01

    Carbons derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon electrodes have a bulk density of 0.35-0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, relatively low surface areas (< 10 m{sup 2}/g), and micron-size cells. Pyrolysis temperature influences the reversible lithium intercalation and the irreversible capacity (associated with the formation of the passivating layer). Carbon electrodes pyrolyzed at 600{degrees}C have first-cycle capacity as high as 550 mAh/g as well as large irreversible capacity, 440 mAh/g. Electrodes prepared at 1050{degrees}C have reversible capacities around 270 mAh/g with relatively lower capacity losses (120 mAh/g). Doping the organic precursors with phosphoric acid, prior to pyrolysis at 1050{degrees}C, leads to carbon electrodes with reversible capacities as high as 450 mAh/g. The capacity of doped carbon increased with increasing phosphorus concentration in the samples. The doped carbon anodes exhibited good cycleability and excellent coulombic efficiency. The electrochemical performance is related to morphology, chemical composition, and local structural order.

  13. Incorporation of dopant impurities into a silicon oxynitride matrix containing silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Fabien; Ulhaq-Bouillet, Corinne; Muller, Dominique; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Ferblantier, Gérald

    2016-05-01

    Dopant impurities, such as gallium (Ga), indium (In), and phosphorus (P), were incorporated into silicon-rich silicon oxynitride (SRSON) thin films by the ion implantation technique. To form silicon nanoparticles, the implanted layers were thermally annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C for 60 min. This thermal treatment generates a phase separation of the silicon nanoparticles from the SRSON matrix in the presence of the dopant atoms. We report on the position of the dopant species within the host matrix and relative to the silicon nanoparticles, as well as on the effect of the dopants on the crystalline structure and the size of the Si nanoparticles. The energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy technique is thoroughly used to identify the chemical species. The distribution of the dopant elements within the SRSON compound is determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray mapping coupled with spectral imaging of silicon plasmons was performed to spatially localize at the nanoscale the dopant impurities and the silicon nanoparticles in the SRSON films. Three different behaviors were observed according to the implanted dopant type (Ga, In, or P). The In-doped SRSON layers clearly showed separated nanoparticles based on indium, InOx, or silicon. In contrast, in the P-doped SRSON layers, Si and P are completely miscible. A high concentration of P atoms was found within the Si nanoparticles. Lastly, in Ga-doped SRSON the Ga atoms formed large nanoparticles close to the SRSON surface, while the Si nanoparticles were localized in the bulk of the SRSON layer. In this work, we shed light on the mechanisms responsible for these three different behaviors.

  14. Radiation damage and luminescence properties of gamma aluminum oxynitride transparent ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xinhua; Yao, Shiyue; Jin, Xihai; Chen, Haohong; Li, Weifeng; Liang, Bo

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the radiation damage of gamma aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON) transparent ceramic, which remarkably degrades UV-vis transparency and hence limits its applications in optoelectronic devices. The radiation-induced optical absorption of the as-sintered γ-AlON consists of at least two subbands: one is in the UV region with a peak at 270 nm and the other optical absorption band centers at 550 nm, covering the whole visible light spectrum, which makes the sample colored. Interestingly, all the radiation-induced color centers can be completely ‘bleached’ by low temperature annealing. In the thermoluminescence curve, we observed a broad luminescence in the range of 25-300 °C with the peak at 120 °C. Furthermore, the x-ray excited luminescence spectra revealed that there exist multiple emission centers in the γ-AlON. Based on this experimental fact, the radiation damage and luminescent mechanisms were studied. These optical properties of the γ-AlON are considered to be related to defect states. In the as-sintered γ-AlON, charge balancing is realized by the co-existence of \\text{V}\\text{Al}\\prime\\prime \\prime and \\text{O}\\text{N}\\bullet , and the predominant defect form is ≤ft[\\text{V}\\text{Al}\\prime\\prime \\prime-\\text{3O}\\text{N}\\bullet\\right] , which is optically inactive and no optical absorption occurs. However, isolated \\text{V}\\text{Al}\\prime\\prime \\prime and \\text{O}\\text{N}\\bullet can be formed by irradiation and it is these that are responsible for the radiation damage of γ-AlON transparent ceramic. In the end, the UV absorption and visible-light absorption in the irradiated sample were ascribed to VAl-related and ON-related intrinsic defects, respectively.

  15. Combinatorial deposition by r.f. magnetron sputtering using subdivided powder targets as new development method for thin-film phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Yuu; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    A new technique incorporating combinatorial deposition to develop new multicomponent oxide and oxynitride thin-film phosphors by r.f. magnetron sputtering is demonstrated using subdivided powder targets. By sputtering with a powder target that is subdivided into two or more parts, phosphor thin films with a chemical composition that varied across the substrate surface could be successfully prepared. In Zn IISi 1-XGe XO 4:Mn thin films, for example, the chemical composition (Ge content (X)) could be optimized to obtain higher electroluminescent and photoluminescent emission intensities by using only one deposition with the new technique. As a result, a high luminances of 11800 and 1536 cd/m2 for green emission was obtained in Zn IISi 0.6Ge 0.4O 4:Mn TFEL device driven at 1 kHz and 60 Hz, respectively. In ((AlN) 1-X-(CaO) X):Eu thin films, for example, the chemical composition (CaO content (X)) could be optimized to obtain higher electroluminescent and photoluminescent emission intensities by using only one deposition with the new technique. As a result, a luminance of 170 cd/m2 for red emission was obtained in an ((AlN) 0.1-(CaO) 0.9):Eu TFEL device driven at 1 kHz.

  16. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Comparison analysis on the properties of the phosphor film according to the various composition ratio of phosphor slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Jeong Won; Heo, Young Moo; Won, Si Tae; Yoon, Gil Sang

    2016-03-01

    The conventional method of making a phosphor layer on the LED package by using a dispensing method is difficult to implement the specific color coordinate, color temperature and optical efficiency because the thickness of the phosphor layer is non-uniform due to precipitation of the phosphor. Besides, the dispensing method consume a large amount of phosphor and silicone to fill the LED package. Thus, studies that manufacture phosphor layer with a uniform thickness such as spray coating, screen printing, electrophoresis are active recently. The purpose of this study is to perform the basic research about the change of the characteristics of phosphor film that is molded with uniform thickness using the phosphor slurry according to various silicone resin and phosphor composition ratio. It is expected to be used as useful information for the fabricating properties when production environment of phosphor layer is changed dispensing method into phosphor film fabrication. In the experiment, it was selected three kinds of methyl-phenyl silicone based resin as the phosphor slurry constituents, and mixed with phosphor various amount of 20 ˜ 60wt% content per one silicone resin. Using this mixed phosphor slurry, it was molded the phosphor film with 300 μm thickness and analyzed the mechanical properties and optical properties of the phosphor film. Finally, the results of this study are presented below: (a) As the phenyl group content is increased, the total heat of reaction need to cure the silicone resin is decrease, and also lower the durometer hardness of the phosphor sheet. On the other hand, it was confirmed that there is no relationship between the phenyl group content in the phosphor film and optical characteristics of the phosphor film. (b) If the amount of the phosphor within the film are increased, then the values of shore hardness and CIE color coordinates are increased gradually but the value of CIE color temperature is decreased gradually in case of being

  18. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  19. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  20. Rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, M.; Plichta, E. J.

    1984-09-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide an improved rechargeable lithium cell. A more specific object of the invention is to provide a rechargeable lithium cell having an improved low temperature performance and rate capability. It has now been found that the aformentioned objects can be attained using lithium as the anode, a solution of a lithium salt such as LiF6 or LiAlC14 in a mixed organic solvent as the electrolyte and a lithium intercalating cathode.

  1. Stoichiometric silicon oxynitride thin films reactively sputtered in Ar/N2O plasmas by HiPIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Schmidt, Susann; Wissting, Jonas; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Silicon oxynitride (SiO x N y , x=0.2-1.3, y=0.2 -0.7) thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering from a pure silicon target in Ar/N2O atmospheres. It was found that the composition of the material can be controlled by the reactive gas flow and the average target power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that high average powers result in more silicon-rich films, while lower target powers yield silicon-oxide-like material due to more pronounced target poisoning. The amount of nitrogen in the films can be controlled by the percentage of nitrous oxide in the working gas. The nitrogen content remains at a constant level while the target is operated in the transition region between metallic and poisoned target surface conditions. The extent of target poisoning is gauged by the changes in peak target current under the different deposition conditions. XPS also shows that varying concentrations and ratios of oxygen and nitrogen in the films result in film chemical bonding structures ranging from silicon-rich to stoichiometric silicon oxynitrides having no observable Si-Si bond contributions. Spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the film optical properties depend on the amount and ratio of oxygen and nitrogen in the compound, with film refractive indices measured at 633 nm ranging between those of SiO2 and Si3N4.

  2. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  3. Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2013-09-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

  4. MULTI-PHOTON PHOSPHOR FEASIBILITY RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    R. Graham; W. Chow

    2003-05-01

    Development of multi-photon phosphor materials for discharge lamps represents a goal that would achieve up to a doubling of discharge (fluorescent) lamp efficacy. This report reviews the existing literature on multi-photon phosphors, identifies obstacles in developing such phosphors, and recommends directions for future research to address these obstacles. To critically examine issues involved in developing a multi-photon phosphor, the project brought together a team of experts from universities, national laboratories, and an industrial lamp manufacturer. Results and findings are organized into three categories: (1) Multi-Photon Systems and Processes, (2) Chemistry and Materials Issues, and (3) Concepts and Models. Multi-Photon Systems and Processes: This category focuses on how to use our current understanding of multi-photon phosphor systems to design new phosphor systems for application in fluorescent lamps. The quickest way to develop multi-photon lamp phosphors lies in finding sensitizer ions for Gd{sup 3+} and identifying activator ions to red shift the blue emission from Pr{sup 3+} due to the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 1}I{sub 6} transition associated with the first cascading step. Success in either of these developments would lead to more efficient fluorescent lamps. Chemistry and Materials Issues: The most promising multi-photon phosphors are found in fluoride hosts. However, stability of fluorides in environments typically found in fluorescent lamps needs to be greatly improved. Experimental investigation of fluorides in actual lamp environments needs to be undertaken while working on oxide and oxyfluoride alternative systems for backup. Concepts and Models: Successful design of a multi-photon phosphor system based on cascading transitions of Gd{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} depends critically on how the former can be sensitized and the latter can sensitize an activator ion. Methods to predict energy level diagrams and Judd-Ofelt parameters of multi

  5. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  6. Kidney function and lithium concentrations of rats given an injection of lithium orotate or lithium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F; Schou, M

    1979-03-01

    A recent study by Kling et al (1978) noted the finding of higher lithium concentrations in serum and brain of rats after an intraperitoneal injection (2 mmol lithium kg-1) of lithium orotate as a slurry than of lithium carbonate in solution. The authors suggested that lithium orotate might offer advantages in the treatment of patients. We repeated the experiments of Kling et al but in addition examined the kidney function of the rats. Glomerular filtration rate and urine flow were markedly lower in rats given lithium orotate than in rats given lithium carbonate, sodium chloride or a sham injection. The renal lithium clearance was significantly lower, the kidney weight and the lithium concentrations in serum, kidney and heart significantly higher after injection of lithium orotate than after injection of lithium carbonate. The higher lithium concentrations could be accounted for by the lower kidney function. It seems inadvisable to use lithium orotate for the treatment of patients. PMID:34690

  7. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  8. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-17

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of New Nonmetallic Photocatalysts -- Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin and Boron Carbon Oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ting

    This thesis describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of two kinds of nonmetallic photocatalysts: resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) resin and boron carbon oxynitride (BCNO). Part I: Catalyst-free hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize RF resin. It started with a solution containing only resorcinol and formaldehyde. The products were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectrometer and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The particle size (diameter: 100nm-4microm) of RF the spheres was controlled by changing the concentration of the reactants. With increasing particle size, visible light absorption of the product was also increased. These RF spheres could degrade Rhodamine B and generate OH radicals under visible light irradiation. Besides, highly concentrated starting reactants would form large macroporous gel instead of individual particles. This kind of gel could be easily shaped to dishes and tubes, which could be used in filtration and degradation of air pollutants. Part II: The BCNO was prepared by heating a mixture of boric acid, melamine and PEG in atmosphere. The optical properties of the products were measured by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy with integrating sphere. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that all BCNO compounds had the turbostratic boron nitride (t-BN) structure. Meanwhile, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) were used to determine the chemical composition of the catalyst. The BCNO could be identified as t-BN with N atoms partly substituted by O and C atoms. The degree of substitution affected its photocatalytic properties. Perdew--Burke--Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange model was introduced to simulate the density of state (DOS) of BCNO using these supercells. Simulation results indicated that C and O substitution induced occupied impurity states in the gap region which modified the band

  10. Mechanical and optical characterization of tungsten oxynitride (W-O-N) nano-coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, Oscar Roberto

    Aation and cation doping of transition metal oxides has recently gained attention as a viable option to design materials for application in solar energy conversion, photo-catalysis, transparent electrodes, photo-electrochemical cells, electrochromics and flat panel displays in optoelectronics. Specifically, nitrogen doped tungsten oxide (WO3) has gained much attention for its ability to facilitate optical property tuning while also demonstrating enhanced photo-catalytic and photochemical properties. The effect of nitrogen chemistry and mechanics on the optical and mechanical properties of tungsten oxynitride (W-O-N) nano-coatings is studied in detail in this work. The W-O-N coatings were deposited by direct current (DC) sputtering to a thickness of ˜100 nm and the structural, compositional, optical and mechanical properties were characterized in order to gain a deeper understanding of the effects of nitrogen incorporation and chemical composition. All the W-O-N coatings fabricated under variable nitrogen gas flow rate were amorphous. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements revealed that nitrogen incorporation is effective only for a nitrogen gas flow rates ?9 sccm. Optical characterization using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) indicate that the nitrogen incorporation induced effects on the optical parameters is significant. The band gap (Eg) values decreased from ˜2.99 eV to ˜1.89 eV indicating a transition from insulating WO3 to metallic-like W-N phase. Nano-mechanical characterization using indentation revealed a corresponding change in mechanical properties; maximum values of 4.46 GPa and 98.5 GPa were noted for hardness and Young?s modulus, respectively. The results demonstrate a clear relationship between the mechanical, physical and optical properties of amorphous W-O-N nano-coatings. The correlation presented in this thesis could

  11. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  12. Phosphor blends for high-CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan; Beers, William Winder; Toth, Katalin; Balazs, Laszlo D.

    2008-06-24

    A phosphor blend comprises at least two phosphors each selected from one of the groups of phosphors that absorb UV electromagnetic radiation and emit in a region of visible light. The phosphor blend can be applied to a discharge gas radiation source to produce light sources having high color rendering index. A phosphor blend is advantageously includes the phosphor (Tb,Y,LuLa,Gd).sub.x(Al,Ga).sub.yO.sub.12:Ce.sup.3+, wherein x is in the range from about 2.8 to and including 3 and y is in the range from about 4 to and including 5.

  13. Laser and phosphor hybrid source for projection display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fei; Li, Yi

    2013-03-01

    A light source based on blue laser and phosphor wheel is developed for portable projection displays. The phosphor wheel has multiple phosphor segments that can convert the blue laser to different color light. When the phosphor wheel is rotating, sequential color light will be generated. A color filter set is integrated with the phosphor wheel; therefore the color coordinates of each color light can be controlled to fulfill the requirements such as Rec. 709 standard. Thermal quenching of the phosphor is studied and improved to enhance the energy efficacy of this light source. Engineering samples were made to do performance, lifetime and reliability tests.

  14. Optical and thermal performance of a remote phosphor plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Xi; Narendran, Nadarajah; Zhu, Yiting; Perera, Indika U.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand how optical and thermal performances are impacted in a remote phosphor LED (light-emitting diode) system when the phosphor plate thickness and phosphor concentration change with a fixed amount of a commonly used YAG:Ce phosphor. In the first part of this two-part study, an optical raytracing analysis was carried out to quantify the optical power and the color properties as a function of remote phosphor plate thickness, and a laboratory experiment was conducted to verify the results obtained from the raytracing analysis and also to examine the phosphor temperature variation due to thickness change.

  15. Blue-green phosphor for fluorescent lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Venkatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-03-15

    A fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer including Sr.sub.4 Al.sub.14 O.sub.25 :Eu.sup.2+ (SAE) and at least one of each of a red, green and blue emitting phosphor. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional, deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of SAE in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over, the course of the lamp life.

  16. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  17. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Deshpande, Anirundha Rajendra; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev

    2014-04-29

    A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor material radiationally coupled to the light source. The phosphor material includes a color-stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor prepared by a process including providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof.

  18. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  19. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  20. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  1. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  2. Higher than 60% internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence from amorphous silicon oxynitride thin films at wavelength of 470 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengzhan; Chen, Kunji Zhang, Pei; Fang, Zhonghui; Li, Wei; Xu, Jun; Huang, Xinfan; Dong, Hengping

    2014-07-07

    We reported the study on the photoluminescence internal quantum efficiency (PL IQE) and external quantum efficiency (PL EQE) from the amorphous silicon oxynitride (a-SiNO) films, which were fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition followed by in situ plasma oxidation. We employed the direct measurement of absolute quantum efficiency within a calibrated integration sphere to obtain the PL EQE. Then, we calculated the PL IQE by combing the measured EQE and optical parameters of light extraction factor, reflectivity, and transmittance of the a-SiNO thin films. We also derived the PL QE through investigating the characteristic of the temperature dependent PL. These results show that the PL IQE as high as 60% has been achieved at peak wavelength of about 470 nm, which is much higher than that of Si nanocrystal embedded thin films.

  3. On the photoluminescence of as-deposited Tb-doped silicon oxides and oxynitrides fabricated by ECR-PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, J. M.; Wojcik, J.; Berencén, Y.; Mascher, P.; Garrido, B.

    2014-05-01

    In-situ doping of Tb3+ ions in silicon oxides and oxynitrides deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma enhanced chemical-vapour (ECR-PECVD) has been performed. Oxygen and nitrogen gas flow rates were changed to produce a gradual substitution of oxygen by nitrogen in the host matrix. Bright green luminescence from as-deposited layers is observed by the naked eye under daylight conditions. Tbdoped nitrogen-rich samples showed a considerable photoluminescence (PL) enhancement compared to Tb-doped silicon oxides. An optimum layer composition for efficient Tb3+ excitation under non-resonant optical pumping is obtained. The combination of a low temperature treatment with bright luminescence could be instrumental for the development of light emitting devices in other platforms with more restrictive temperature requirements.

  4. Optical and electrical properties of stainless steel oxynitride thin films deposited in an in-line sputtering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero, E.; Alonso, R.; Pelayo, C.

    2016-08-01

    The optical and electrical properties of stainless steel oxynitride thin films have been studied for different flow rates of the reactive gases during the deposition process. Films were deposited in an in-line magnetron sputtering system under similar conditions as those found in large area industrial systems. The study of the optical properties was performed by IR-VIS spectrophotometry, DC conductivity measurements were performed by the four point method and the microstructural study and chemical analysis were performed by XRD, FESEM and XPS. The results show the transition of sample films from metal to semiconductor, as well as the feasibility of obtaining visible absorbing coatings with low DC conductivity from low-cost materials. The deposited films show the typical growth structure for samples produced in in-line deposition systems commonly used in the large area coatings industry.

  5. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hänninen, Tuomas Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  6. Red phosphors for use in high CRI fluorescent lamps

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok; Comanzo, Holly; Manivannan, Vankatesan; Setlur, Anant Achyut

    2005-11-15

    Novel red emitting phosphors for use in fluorescent lamps resulting in superior color rendering index values compared to conventional red phosphors. Also disclosed is a fluorescent lamp including a phosphor layer comprising blends of one or more of a blue phosphor, a blue-green phosphor, a green phosphor and a red a phosphor selected from the group consisting of SrY.sub.2 O.sub.4 :Eu.sup.3+, (Y,Gd)Al.sub.3 B.sub.4 O.sub.12 :Eu.sup.3+, and [(Y.sub.1-x-y-m La.sub.y)Gd.sub.x ]BO.sub.3 :Eu.sub.m wherein y<0.50 and m=0.001-0.3. The phosphor layer can optionally include an additional deep red phosphor and a yellow emitting phosphor. The resulting lamp will exhibit a white light having a color rendering index of 90 or higher with a correlated color temperature of from 2500 to 10000 Kelvin. The use of the disclosed red phosphors in phosphor blends of lamps results in high CRI light sources with increased stability and acceptable lumen maintenance over the course of the lamp life.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10685 - Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10685 Phosphoric acid, mixed esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid, mixed esters (PMN P-13-170) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  20. NASA lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juvinall, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages of lithium systems are described and a general summary of their application in present and future NASA programs is presented. Benefits of the lithium systems include an increased payload weight and an increased cost effectiveness to the customer. This also allows for more flexibility in the design of future space transportation systems.

  1. Phosphor suspended in silicone, molded/formed and used in a remote phosphor configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Kolodin, Boris; Deshpande, Anirudha R

    2014-09-16

    A light emitting package comprising a support hosting at least one light emitting diode. A light transmissive dome comprised of a silicone including a phosphor material positioned to receive light emitted by the diode. A glass cap overlies said dome.

  2. Thermal management of the remote phosphor layer in LED systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2013-09-01

    Generally in a white light-emitting diode (LED), a phosphor slurry is placed around the semiconductor chip or the phosphor is conformally coated over the chip to covert the narrowband, short-wavelength radiation to a broadband white light. Over the past few years, the remote-phosphor method has provided significant improvement in overall system efficiency by reducing the photons absorbed by the LED chip and reducing the phosphor quenching effects. However, increased light output and smaller light engine requirements are causing high radiant energy density on the remotephosphor plates, thus heating the phosphor layer. The phosphor layer temperature rise increases when the phosphor material conversion efficiency decreases. Phosphor layer heating can negatively affect performance in terms of luminous efficacy, color shift, and life. In such cases, the performance of remote-phosphor LED lighting systems can be improved by suitable thermal management to reduce the temperature of the phosphor layer. To verify this hypothesis and to understand the factors that influence the reduction in temperature, a phosphor layer was embedded in a perforated metal heatsink to remove the heat; the parameters that influence the effectiveness of heat extraction were then studied. These parameters included the heatsink-to-phosphor layer interface area and the thermal conductivity of the heatsink. The temperature of the remote-phosphor surface was measured using IR thermography. The results showed that when the heat conduction area of the heatsink increased, the phosphor layer temperature decreased, but at the same time the overall light output of the remote phosphor light engine used in this study decreased due to light absorption by the metal areas.

  3. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  4. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  5. Lithium and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yumiko; Shimada, Kohei; Ishiguro, Koichi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-06-18

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation, in various neuropsychiatric conditions. In neurodegenerative diseases, lithium enhances degradation of aggregate-prone proteins, including mutated huntingtin, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein, and causes damaged mitochondria to degrade, while in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease autophagy downregulation by lithium is observed. The signaling pathway of lithium as an autophagy enhancer might be associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent pathway, which is involved in myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the mTOR-dependent pathway might be involved in inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in other diseases. Lithium's autophagy-enhancing property may contribute to the therapeutic benefit of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. A high sensitive phosphor for dosimetric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kore, Bhushan P. Dhoble, S. J.; Dhoble, N. S.; Lochab, S. P.

    2015-06-24

    In this study a novel TL phosphor CaMg{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} was prepared by acid distillation method. The TL response of this phosphor towards γ-rays and carbon ion beam was tested. Good dosimetric glow curve was observed which is stable against both the type of radiations. The CaMg{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor doped with 0.2 mol% of Dy{sup 3+}, irradiated with γ-ray shows nearly equal sensitivity to that of commercially available CaSO{sub 4}:Dy TLD phosphor whereas 3.5 times more sensitivity than CaSO{sub 4}:Dy, when irradiated with carbon ion beam. The change in glow peak intensities and glow peak temperature with variation in irradiation species and energy of ion beam is discussed here. The effect of these on trapping parameters is also illustrated.

  7. Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.

    1990-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

  8. Crystal structure study of dielectric oxynitride perovskites La1-xSrxTiO2+xN1-x (x=0, 0.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habu, Daiki; Masubuchi, Yuji; Torii, Shuki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    As is the case with SrTaO2N, both cis-ordering of nitride anions and octahedral titling are also preferable in La1-xSrxTiO2+xN1-x (x=0, 0.2) oxynitride perovskites. A larger dielectric constant of εr≈5.0×103 was estimated for the pure oxynitride with x=0.2, compared with εr≈750 for the product with x=0, by extrapolating the εr values obtained from powders mixed with paraffin at various mixing ratios. The crystal structure of x=0.2 with larger tolerance factor than x=0 increased the octahedral tilting, which contributes to the increased dielectric constant. The increased dielectric constant supports the exchange mechanism for the dielectric property between two kinds of -Ti-N- helical coils (clockwise and anticlockwise) derived from the above cis-ordering of nitride anions.

  9. AlN and Al oxy-nitride gate dielectrics for reliable gate stacks on Ge and InGaAs channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Li, H.; Robertson, J.

    2016-05-01

    AlN and Al oxy-nitride dielectric layers are proposed instead of Al2O3 as a component of the gate dielectric stacks on higher mobility channels in metal oxide field effect transistors to improve their positive bias stress instability reliability. It is calculated that the gap states of nitrogen vacancies in AlN lie further away in energy from the semiconductor band gap than those of oxygen vacancies in Al2O3, and thus AlN might be less susceptible to charge trapping and have a better reliability performance. The unfavourable defect energy level distribution in amorphous Al2O3 is attributed to its larger coordination disorder compared to the more symmetrically bonded AlN. Al oxy-nitride is also predicted to have less tendency for charge trapping.

  10. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  11. Intravascular imaging with a storage phosphor detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Petrek, Peter; Matthews, Kenneth L., II; Fritz, Shannon G.; Bujenovic, L. Steven; Xu, Tong

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test an intravascular positron imaging system based on a storage phosphor detector for imaging and detecting vulnerable plaques of human coronary arteries. The radiotracer F18-FDG accumulates in vulnerable plaques with inflammation of the overlying cap. The vulnerable plaques can, therefore, be imaged by recording positrons emitted from F18-FDG with a detector inserted into the artery. A prototype intravascular detector was constructed based on storage phosphor. The detector uses a flexible storage phosphor tube with 55 mm length, 2 mm diameter and 0.28 mm wall thickness. The intravascular detector is guided into the vessel using x-ray fluoroscopy and the accumulated x-ray signal must be erased prior to positron imaging. For this purpose, a light diffuser, 0.9 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, was inserted into the detector tube. The light diffuser was connected to a laser source through a 2 m long optical fiber. The diffuser redirected the 0.38 W laser light to the inner surface of the phosphor detector to erase it. A heart phantom with 300 cm3 volume and three coronary arteries with 3.2 mm diameter and with several plaques was constructed. FDG solution with 0.5 µCi cm-3 activity concentration was filled in the heart and coronary arteries. The detector was inserted in a coronary artery and the signal from the plaques and surrounding background activity was recorded for 2 min. Then the phosphor detector was extracted and read out using a storage phosphor reader. The light diffuser erased the signal resulting from fluoroscopic exposure to level below that encountered during positron imaging. Vulnerable plaques with area activities higher than 1.2 nCi mm-2 were visualized by the detector. This activity is a factor of 10-20 lower than that expected in human vulnerable plaques. The detector was able to image the internal surface of the coronary vessels with 50 mm length and 360° circumference. Spatial resolution was 0

  12. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Chris; Menkara, Hisham; Wagner, Brent

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  13. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  14. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  15. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  17. [Synthesis of porous spherical silicon oxynitride material and evaluation of its properties in reversed-phase chromatographic separation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hongmin; Zhang, Hua; Wan, Huihui

    2013-04-01

    Silica has been widely used as HPLC column packing material. However, the fact that base can attack the silanol and dissolve the silica embarrasses the utilization of silica stationary phase in high pH mobile phases (pH >8). In our previous research, the use of porous spherical silicon oxynitride (sph-SiON) material from high temperature nitridation of silica microspheres as stationary phase for HPLC has been explored, and the sph-SiON is stable to alkaline mobile phases and demonstrates excellent separation of a variety of polar compounds in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mode. Herein, the degree of nitridation was studied as a function of temperature of nitridation at 750-1 050 degrees C, yielding the silicon oxynitride with 0.40%-12.0% (mass fraction) nitrogen from elemental analysis. At the temperature of 1 050 degrees C, the nitrogen content increased from 12.0% to 24.5% with the nitridation time increasing from 20 h to 120 h. The sph-SiON is stable when disposed in different pH aqueous solutions for one week. The sph-SiON material can be modified to give hydrophobic surface through the reaction of surface Si-NHx with dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane. Elemental analysis and 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectrum of C18-sph-SiON prove the integration of C18 alkyl groups attached onto the sph-SiON surface. The chromatographic evaluation of C18-sph-SiON in reversed-phase separation mode was performed with alkylbenzenes as hydrophobic probes. Three alkylbenzene compounds can be separated and retained well on C18-sph-SiON even in the mobile phase of methanol/H2O (70/30, v/v) with 78 507 plates/m, and an excellent tailing factor (0.95) can be obtained for ethylbenzene. In comparison with C18-SiO2, C18-sph-SiON shows distinct differences with respect to different classes of analytes, i. e. neutral analyte naphthalene, acidic analyte ibuprofen, and basic analyte amitriptyline.

  18. Phosphor-Free Solid State Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nause, Jeff E; Ferguson, Ian; Doolittle, Alan

    2007-02-28

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a light emitting diode that emitted white light without the aid of a phosphor. The device was based on the combination of a nitride LED and a fluorescing ZnO substrate. The early portion of the work focused on the growth of ZnO in undoped and doped form. The doped ZnO was successfully engineered to emit light at specific wavelengths by incorporating various dopants into the crystalline lattice. Thereafter, the focus of the work shifted to the epitaxial growth of nitride structures on ZnO. Initially, the epitaxy was accomplished with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Later in the program, metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was successfully used to grow nitrides on ZnO. By combining the characteristics of the doped ZnO substrate with epitaxially grown nitride LED structures, a phosphor-free white light emitting diode was successfully demonstrated and characterized.

  19. Nickel cobalt phosphorous low stress electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolytic plating process is provided for electrodepositing a nickel or nickel cobalt alloy which contains at least about 2% to 25% by atomic volume of phosphorous. The process solutions contains nickel and optionally cobalt sulfate, hypophosphorous acid or a salt thereof, boric acid or a salt thereof, a monodentate organic acid or a salt thereof, and a multidentate organic acid or a salt thereof. The pH of the plating bath is from about 3.0 to about 4.5. An electroplating process is also provided which includes electroplating from the bath a nickel or nickel cobalt phosphorous alloy. This process can achieve a deposit with high microyield of at least about 84 kg/mm.sup.2 (120 ksi) and a density lower than pure nickel of about 8.0 gm/cc. This process can be used to plate a deposit of essentially zero stress at plating temperatures from ambient to 70.degree. C.

  20. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  1. [Change traits of phosphorous consumption structure in China and their effects on environmental phosphorous loads].

    PubMed

    Ma, Dun-Chao; Hu, Shan-Ying; Chen, Ding-Jiang; Li, You-Run

    2012-04-01

    Substance flow analysis was used to construct a model to analyze change traits of China's phosphorous (P) consumption structure from 1980 to 2008 and their influences on environmental phosphorous loads, then the correlation between several socioeconomic factors and phosphorous consumption pollution was investigated. It is found that phosphorous nutrient inputs of urban life and rural life on a per capita level climbed to 1.20 kg x a(-1) and 0.99 kg x a(-1) from 0.83 kg x a(-1) and 0.75 kg x a(-1) respectively, but phosphorous recycling ratios of urban life fell to 15.6% from 62.6%. P inputs of animal husbandry and planting also kept increasing, but the recycling ratio of the former decreased from 67.5% to 40.5%, meanwhile much P input of the latter was left in agricultural soil. Correlation coefficients were all above 0.90, indicating that population, urbanization level, development levels of planting and animal husbandry were important incentives for P consumption pollution in China. Environmental Kuznets curve showed that China still stayed in the early development stage, promoting economic growth at an expense of environmental quality. This study demonstrates that China's P consumption system is being transformed into a linear and open structure, and that P nutrient loss and environmental P loads increase continually.

  2. Effect of surface moisture on chemically bonded phosphor for thermographic phosphor thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tao; Kim, Dong; Kim, Mirae; Liu, Ying Zheng; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the effect of surface moisture on the calibration lifetime in chemically bonded phosphor paint preparation. Mg4FGeO6:Mn was used as a sensor material, which was excited by a pulsed UV LED. A high-speed camera with a frequency of 8000 Hz was used to conduct phosphor thermometry. Five samples with different degrees of surface moisture were selected during the preparation process, and each sample was calibrated 40 times at room temperature. A conventional post-processing method was used to acquire the phosphorescent lifetime for different samples with a 4  ×  4-pixel interrogation window. The measurement error and paint uniformity were also studied. The results showed that there was no obvious phosphorescence boundary between the wet parts and dry parts of phosphor paint. The lifetime increased by about 0.0345% per hour during the preparation process, showing the degree of surface moisture had almost no influence on the lifetime measurement. The lifetime changed only after annealing treatment. There was also no effect on the measurement error and uniformity. These results provide a reference for developing a real-time measurement method using thermographic phosphor thermometry. This study also provides a feasible basis for chemically bonded phosphor thermometry applications in humid and low-temperature environments.

  3. Photoluminescence and energy transfer properties of Eu2+ and Tb3+ co-doped gamma aluminum oxynitride powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiantao; Ma, Chaoyang; Wen, Zicheng; Du, Miaomiao; Long, Jiaqi; Ma, Ran; Yuan, Xuanyi; Li, Junting; Cao, Yongge

    2016-08-01

    Gamma-AlON: 0.2Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphors were firstly synthesized via a high temperature solid-state reaction. For the phosphors, luminescence properties as well as energy transfer mechanism were investigated in detail. The energy transfer from Eu2+ to Tb3+ in the γ-AlON host was ascribed to the dipole-dipole mechanism, and the efficiency and critical distance in the energy transfer process were also estimated. γ-AlON: 0.2Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphors showed a broad-band emission centered at about 405 nm and other several emission peaks, which were assigned to the 5d-4f transition of Eu2+ ions and the 5D4-7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4, and 3) characteristic transitions of Tb3+ ions, respectively. The results indicated that γ-AlON: 0.2Eu2+, Tb3+ phosphors have great potential application in white light-emitting diodes due to its broad-band excitation in the ultraviolet range and the high-efficient green light emission.

  4. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  5. High Temperature Thermographic Phosphor Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goedeke, Shawn; Allison, S. W.; Beshears, D. L.; Bencic, T.; Cates, M. R.; Hollerman, W. A.; Guidry, R.

    2003-01-01

    For many years, phosphor thermometry has been used for non-contact temperature measurements. A large number of applications have been associated with high temperatures, especially for aerospace systems where blackbody radiation backgrounds are large and in challenging environments, such as vibration, rotation, flame, or noise. These environments restrict the use of more common thermocouples or infrared thermometric techniques. In particular, temperature measurements inside jet turbines, rocket engines, or similar devices are especially amenable to phosphor techniques. Often the fluorescent materials are used as powders, either suspended in binders and applied like paint or applied as high-temperature sprays. Thin coatings that are less than 50 m thick are used on the surfaces of interest. These coatings will quickly assume the same temperature as the surface to which they are applied. The temperature dependence of fluorescent materials is a function of the base matrix atoms and a small quantity of added activator or dopant ions. Often for high temperature applications, the selected materials are refractory and include rare earth ions. Phosphors like Y3Al5O12 (YAG) doped with Eu, Dy, or Tm, Y2O3 doped with Eu, or similar rare earth compounds, will survive high temperatures and can be configured to emit light that changes rapidly in lifetime and intensity. For example, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently observed fluorescence from YAG:Dy and YAG:Tm at temperatures above 1400 C. One of the biggest challenges is to locate a binder material that can withstand tremendous variations in temperature in an adverse aerospace environment. This poster will provide an overview into our attempt to utilize phosphors for thermometry purposes. Emphasis will be placed on the use of selected binder materials that can withstand high temperatures. This research was completed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland

  6. Sorohalide scintillators, phosphors, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Pin; Deng, Haoran; Doty, F. Patrick; Zhou, Xiaowang

    2016-05-10

    The present invention relates to sorohalide compounds having formula A.sub.3B.sub.2X.sub.9, where A is an alkali metal, B is a rare earth metal, and X is a halogen. Optionally, the sorohalide includes a dopant D. Such undoped and doped sorohalides are useful as scintillation materials or phosphors for any number of uses, including for radiation detectors, solid-state light sources, gamma-ray spectroscopy, medical imaging, and drilling applications.

  7. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.; Prokopius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented both for multimegawatt systems for electric utility applications and for multikilowatt systems for on-site integrated energy system applications. Improving fuel cell performance, reducing cost, and increasing durability are the technology drivers at this time. Electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, and fuel selection are discussed.

  8. Lithium counterdoped silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I. (Inventor); Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The resistance to radiation damage of an n(+)p boron doped silicon solar cell is improved by lithium counterdoping. Even though lithium is an n-dopant in silicon, the lithium is introduced in small enough quantities so that the cell base remains p-type. The lithium is introduced into the solar cell wafer by implantation of lithium ions whose energy is about 50 keV. After this lithium implantation, the wafer is annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 375 C for two hours.

  9. Aluminum-lithium for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Fielding, P.S.; Wolf, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum-lithium alloys were developed primarily to reduce the weight of aircraft and aerospace structures. Lithium is the lightest metallic element, and each 1% of lithium added to aluminum reduces alloy density by about 3% and increases modulus by about 5%. Though lithium has a solubility limit of 4.2% in aluminum, the amount of lithium ranges between 1 and 3% in commercial alloys. Aluminum-lithium alloys are most often selected for aerospace components because of their low density, high strength, and high specific modulus. However, other applications now exploit their excellent fatigue resistance and cryogenic toughness.

  10. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  11. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  12. Lithium to the Rescue.

    PubMed

    Jope, Richard S; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Lithium, an element that Mother Nature has put in some drinking water sources, has been used for its curative powers for centuries. Today, it's given in capsule form as a mood stabilizer for bipolar disorder and depression. New research, however, reveals its role as a neuroprotector, and suggests that a better understanding of the role enzymes modulated by lithium play could lead to new treatments for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27408673

  13. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.50 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric... defluorination of phosphoric acid. Wet process phosphoric acid is dehydrated by application of heat and...

  14. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.50 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric... defluorination of phosphoric acid. Wet process phosphoric acid is dehydrated by application of heat and...

  15. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.50 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric... defluorination of phosphoric acid. Wet process phosphoric acid is dehydrated by application of heat and...

  16. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.50 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric... defluorination of phosphoric acid. Wet process phosphoric acid is dehydrated by application of heat and...

  17. 40 CFR 422.50 - Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defluorinated phosphoric acid subcategory. 422.50 Section 422.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.50 Applicability; description of the defluorinated phosphoric... defluorination of phosphoric acid. Wet process phosphoric acid is dehydrated by application of heat and...

  18. Cathode catalyst for primary phosphoric fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, F.

    1980-01-01

    Alkylation of Vulcan XC-72 provided the most stable bond type for linking CoTAA to the surface of the carbon; this result is based on data obtained by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and by release of 14C from bonded CoTAA. Half-cell tests at 100 C in 85% phosphoric acid showed that CoTAA bonded to the surface of carbon (Vulcan XC-72) via an alkylation procedure is a more active catalyst than is platinum based on a factor of two improvement in Tafel slope; dimeric CoTAA has catalytic activity equal to platinum. Half-cell tests also showed that bonded CoTAA catalysts do not suffer a loss in potential when air is used as a fuel rather than oxygen. Commercially available PTFE was shown to be stable for four months in 200 C 85% phosphoric acid based on lack of change in surface wetting properties, IR and physical characteristics. When stressed electrochemically in 150 C 85% phosphoric acid, PTFE also showed no changes after one month.

  19. Thermal history sensing with thermographic phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, A. L.; Rabhiou, A.; Feist, J. P.; Kempf, A.

    2013-09-01

    The ability to measure temperatures on high thermal loaded components in gas turbines and similar prime movers is critical during the design phase if the performance of cooling strategies is to be confirmed. Restricted access and the extreme environment mean that on-line temperature measurement is not always possible and that off-line temperature techniques employing thermal history sensors are sometimes necessary. The authors have developed a new type of sensor based on ceramic phosphors. These show bright narrow band emission that is easily detected and distinguished from the background. Crystallization, phase change and diffusion are all temperature dependent processes that affect the emission characteristics and that, with proper calibration, can be used to form a phosphor based thermal history sensor. Results from the calibration of crystallization in Y2SiO5:Tb and its application in the form of a temperature indicating paint are reviewed. A new embodiment of the phosphor thermal history sensor concept is then presented comprising a YSZ/YAG:Dy composite applied using air plasma spraying in the form of a thermal barrier coating. The coating is shown to function as a thermal history sensor albeit with a limited dynamic range.

  20. [Neuroprotective actions of lithium].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Fujimaki, Koichiro; Jeong, Mi Ra; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Christ, Lori; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has long been one of the primary drugs used to treat bipolar mood disorder. However, neither the etiology of this disease nor the therapeutic mechanism(s) of this drug is well understood. Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that lithium has neurotrophic actions. For example chronic lithium treatment increases the volume of gray matter and the content of N-acetyl-aspartate, a cell survival marker, in bipolar mood disorder patients (Moore et al., 2000). Moreover, treatment with this mood-stabilizer suppresses the decrease in the volume of the subgenual pre-frontal cortex found in bipolar patients (Drevets, 2001). To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of lithium, we employed a preparation of cultured cortical neurons prepared form embryonic rats. We found that treatment with therapeutic doses (0.2-1.2 mM) of lithium robustly protects cortical neurons from multiple insults, notably glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. The neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is time-dependent, requiring treatment for 5-6 days for maximal effect, and is associated with a reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. The latter is correlated with a decrease in Tyrosine 1472 phosphorylation levels in the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors and a loss of Src kinase activity which is involved in NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Neither the activity of total tyrosine protein kinase nor that of tyrosine protein phosphatase is affected by this drug, indicating the selectivity of the modulation. Lithium neuroprotection against excitotoxicity is inhibited by a BDNF-neutralizing antibody and K252a, a Trk antagonist. Lithium treatment time-dependently increases the intracellular level of BDNF in cortical neurons and activates its receptor, TrkB. The neuroprotection can be completely blocked by either heterozygous or homozygous knockout of the BDNF gene. These results suggest a central role of BDNF and TrkB in mediating the

  1. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  2. Preparation of fibrous titania oxynitride - carbon catalyst and oxygen reduction reaction analysis in both acidic and alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinumoto, Taro; Sou, Yoshinori; Ono, Kohei; Matsuoka, Miki; Arai, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Tomoki; Toyoda, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    A fibrous catalyst of titania oxynitride and carbon is prepared and its catalytic behavior in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are investigated in both HClO4 and KOH aqueous solutions. TiO2 particles are successfully deposited on activated carbon fibers by a liquid phase deposition technique using (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3. The catalyst obtained after subsequent ammonia nitridation at 1273 K had a fibrous structure with TiOxNy and TiN components. Interestingly, the product demonstrates catalytic activity for the ORR in not only HClO4 but also KOH aqueous solution. The onset potential in HClO4 solution is assumed to be moderate, at 0.85 V; on the other hand, that in KOH solution is relatively high at 0.95 V. Furthermore, it is considered from the Tafel plot analysis of the KOH solution result that the ORR mechanism follows a peroxide intermediate pathway and the rate-determining step would be a one-electron-transfer reaction to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the active site.

  3. Sonochemical Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Gallium Oxynitride Nanosheets and their Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Applications

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Naseer; Khan, Ibrahim; Yamani, Zain H.; Qurashi, Ahsanullhaq

    2016-01-01

    Gallium oxynitride (GaON) nanosheets for photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis are synthesized via direct solvothermal approach. Their FE-SEM revealed nanosheets morphology of GaON prepared at a reaction time of 24 hours at 180 °C. The elemental composition and mapping of Ga, O and N are carried out through electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The cubic structure of GaON nanosheets is elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)analysis. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms Ga, O and N in their respective ratios and states. The optical properties of GaON nanosheets are evaluated via UV-Visible, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy’s. The band gap energy of ~1.9 eV is calculated from both absorption and diffused reflectance spectroscopy’s which showed stronger p-d repulsions in the Ga (3d) and N (2p) orbitals. This effect and chemical nitridation caused upward shift of valence band and band gap reduction. The GaON nanosheets are investigated for PEC studies in a standard three electrode system under 1 Sun irradiation in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The photocurrent generation, oxidation and reduction reactions during the measurements are observed by Chronoampereometry, linear sweep Voltametry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltametry (CV) respectively. Henceforward, these GaON nanosheets can be used as potential photocatalyts for solar water splitting. PMID:27561646

  4. Sonochemical Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Gallium Oxynitride Nanosheets and their Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Applications.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Naseer; Khan, Ibrahim; Yamani, Zain H; Qurashi, Ahsanullhaq

    2016-01-01

    Gallium oxynitride (GaON) nanosheets for photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis are synthesized via direct solvothermal approach. Their FE-SEM revealed nanosheets morphology of GaON prepared at a reaction time of 24 hours at 180 °C. The elemental composition and mapping of Ga, O and N are carried out through electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The cubic structure of GaON nanosheets is elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)analysis. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms Ga, O and N in their respective ratios and states. The optical properties of GaON nanosheets are evaluated via UV-Visible, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy's. The band gap energy of ~1.9 eV is calculated from both absorption and diffused reflectance spectroscopy's which showed stronger p-d repulsions in the Ga (3d) and N (2p) orbitals. This effect and chemical nitridation caused upward shift of valence band and band gap reduction. The GaON nanosheets are investigated for PEC studies in a standard three electrode system under 1 Sun irradiation in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The photocurrent generation, oxidation and reduction reactions during the measurements are observed by Chronoampereometry, linear sweep Voltametry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltametry (CV) respectively. Henceforward, these GaON nanosheets can be used as potential photocatalyts for solar water splitting. PMID:27561646

  5. Sonochemical Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Gallium Oxynitride Nanosheets and their Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Naseer; Khan, Ibrahim; Yamani, Zain H.; Qurashi, Ahsanullhaq

    2016-08-01

    Gallium oxynitride (GaON) nanosheets for photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis are synthesized via direct solvothermal approach. Their FE-SEM revealed nanosheets morphology of GaON prepared at a reaction time of 24 hours at 180 °C. The elemental composition and mapping of Ga, O and N are carried out through electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The cubic structure of GaON nanosheets is elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)analysis. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms Ga, O and N in their respective ratios and states. The optical properties of GaON nanosheets are evaluated via UV-Visible, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy’s. The band gap energy of ~1.9 eV is calculated from both absorption and diffused reflectance spectroscopy’s which showed stronger p-d repulsions in the Ga (3d) and N (2p) orbitals. This effect and chemical nitridation caused upward shift of valence band and band gap reduction. The GaON nanosheets are investigated for PEC studies in a standard three electrode system under 1 Sun irradiation in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The photocurrent generation, oxidation and reduction reactions during the measurements are observed by Chronoampereometry, linear sweep Voltametry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltametry (CV) respectively. Henceforward, these GaON nanosheets can be used as potential photocatalyts for solar water splitting.

  6. Elasticity, Hardness and Thermal Conductivity of Si-Ge-Based Oxynitrides (SiGeN2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yingchun; Chen, Min; Wu, Wenjuan; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Capitalizing on density functional theory, the novel Si-Ge-based oxynitrides (SiGeN2O) have been studied in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. Regarding α- or β-SiGeN2O, the SiGeN2O exhibits smaller mechanical moduli, suggesting a compressible and soft material. Our calculated lattice constants of two SiGeN2O phases are very consistent with other values. In addition, the hardness for SiGeN2O is investigated in details according to different semi-empirical methods. The results indicate a small hardness of two phases of SiGeN2O. Furthermore, the mechanical anisotropy, Debye temperature and the minimum thermal conductivity of two SiGeN2O compounds are clearly estimated for both SiGeN2O compounds. It is found that the SiGeN2O compounds show low thermal conductivity, which is suitable to be used as a thermal barrier coating.

  7. Sonochemical Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Gallium Oxynitride Nanosheets and their Solar-Driven Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Applications.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Naseer; Khan, Ibrahim; Yamani, Zain H; Qurashi, Ahsanullhaq

    2016-08-26

    Gallium oxynitride (GaON) nanosheets for photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis are synthesized via direct solvothermal approach. Their FE-SEM revealed nanosheets morphology of GaON prepared at a reaction time of 24 hours at 180 °C. The elemental composition and mapping of Ga, O and N are carried out through electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The cubic structure of GaON nanosheets is elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)analysis. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms Ga, O and N in their respective ratios and states. The optical properties of GaON nanosheets are evaluated via UV-Visible, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy's. The band gap energy of ~1.9 eV is calculated from both absorption and diffused reflectance spectroscopy's which showed stronger p-d repulsions in the Ga (3d) and N (2p) orbitals. This effect and chemical nitridation caused upward shift of valence band and band gap reduction. The GaON nanosheets are investigated for PEC studies in a standard three electrode system under 1 Sun irradiation in 0.5 M Na2SO4. The photocurrent generation, oxidation and reduction reactions during the measurements are observed by Chronoampereometry, linear sweep Voltametry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltametry (CV) respectively. Henceforward, these GaON nanosheets can be used as potential photocatalyts for solar water splitting.

  8. A complex perovskite-type oxynitride: the first photocatalyst for water splitting operable at up to 600 nm.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chengsi; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Nakabayashi, Mamiko; Matsumoto, Takao; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Domen, Kazunari

    2015-03-01

    One of the simplest methods for splitting water into H2 and O2 with solar energy entails the use of a particulate-type semiconductor photocatalyst. To harness solar energy efficiently, a new water-splitting photocatalyst that is active over a wider range of the visible spectrum has been developed. In particular, a complex perovskite-type oxynitride, LaMg(x)Ta(1-x)O(1+3x)N(2-3x)(x≥1/3), can be employed for overall water splitting at wavelengths of up to 600 nm. Two effective strategies for overall water splitting were developed. The first entails the compositional fine-tuning of a photocatalyst to adjust the bandgap energy and position by forming a series of LaMg(x)Ta(1-x)O(1+3x)N(2-3x) solid solutions. The second method is based on the surface coating of the photocatalyst with a layer of amorphous oxyhydroxide to control the surface redox reactions. By combining these two strategies, the degradation of the photocatalyst and the reverse reaction could be prevented, resulting in successful overall water splitting.

  9. Phosphor Systems for Illumination Quality Solid State Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    Setlur, Anant; Briel, Linda; Cleaver, Robert; Clothier, Brent; Gao, Yan; Harlow, Richard; Henderson, Claire; Heward, William; Hill, M Christine; Lyons, Robert; Murphy, James; Siclovan, Oltea; Stoklosa, Stan; Happek, Uwe; Aanegola, Srinath; Aesram, Danny; Deshpande, Anirudha; Jacob, Cherian; Kolodin, Boris; Stoklosa, Emil; Beers, Williams

    2010-03-31

    The objective of this program is to develop phosphor systems that will enable LED lamps with 96 lm/W efficacy at correlated color temperatures, (CCTs) ~3000 K, and color rendering indices (CRIs) >80 and 71 lm/W efficacy at CCT<3100 K and CRI~95 using phosphor downconversion of LEDs. This primarily involves the invention and development of new phosphor materials that have improved efficiency and better match the eye sensitivity curves.

  10. Persistence of phosphor glow in microchannel plate image intensifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Image intensifier tubes using microchannel plate amplification stages and phosphor output stages are being increasingly used in various detection applications. In this paper, measurements of the decay times of what are attributed to be the P20 phosphors in various image intensifiers are reported. It is found that the long tail on the decay curve of the phosphor following illumination can be a limitation for certain observations. In addition, the background level of phosphor glow (which is seen by the subsequent detection system as a light signal) continues to build with continuing illumination.

  11. Rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The cycling performance of a secondary lithium cell with a 2-methyl THF lithium hectofluorarsenate electrolyte is discussed. Stripping efficiency, dendritization, passivation on standing, and discharge efficiency are considered.

  12. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  13. US Navy lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

  14. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on mixed oxy-nitride non-noble catalyst: Ab-initio simulation, elaboration and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifitokaldani, Ali

    In this project, titanium oxy-nitride (TiOxN y) has been studied as a new non-noble electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A comprehensive comparison between four different sol-gel methods was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the produced electro-catalysts. Among them, a new urea-based sol-gel method (simply called U method) is introduced to prepare TiOxNy at a fairly low temperature and duration, with higher electro-catalytic activity for the ORR. The prepared electro-catalysts with different N/O ratios showed different properties from a less conductive behavior in oxygen-rich (low N/O ratio) materials to more conductive electro-catalyst behavior in nitrogen-rich (high N/O ratio) oxy-nitrides, respectively. Generally, electro-catalysts prepared by the U method had more titanium nitride in their structures than the electro-catalysts prepared by the other methods. Nevertheless, heat treatment had a key role in this phase transferring from having high oxide structure to high nitride structure. According to the elemental analysis done by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), nitrogen percentage in the bulk material increased from 9 to 24 percent by increasing the temperature from 700 to 1100 °C, while the oxygen percentage was decreasing inversely. In addition, based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data, in the case of U method, the TiN characteristic peaks were obvious, even at lower temperatures. Increasing the temperature also made the peaks much sharper indicating the growth of the crystallite size. The calculated crystallite size showed the crystallite size of samples prepared by U method (20 to 40 nm) was almost in the same range of the TiN crystallite size, but the crystallite size of the samples prepared by the other sol-gel methods (40 to 60 nm) was in the same range of the TiO2 crystallite size. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and B.E.T. surface area analyzer were used to evaluate the particle

  15. Lithium question for nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, P.S.S.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the lithium reserve (the economically recoverable lithium) for the tritium breeding in D-T fusion reactors and other uses. Similar development patterns for fusion energy and fission energy are assumed to estimate the future lithium requirements. These requirements are grouped into three categories; the commercial uses, the lithium batteries for electric cars, and the fusion reactor uses. 5 refs.

  16. Cu(I) complexes of phosphorous amides

    SciTech Connect

    Nifant'ev, E.E.; Antipin, M.Y.; Blokhin, V.I.; Teleshev, A.T.

    1985-11-01

    The authors prepare and investigate copper complexes of phosphorous amides. The IR spectra of the systems investigated contain an absorption band at 920-940 cm/sup -1/ corresponding to P-N vibrations. The coordinates of the nonhydrogen atoms and their isotropic equivalent temperature factors are given with bond lengths and angles. The general form of the molecule of (IId) with the numbering of atoms, which are represented as probability ellipsoids of the thermal vibrations is shown. Copper complexes of phosphorus amides are phosphorylating agents for mono- and di-hydric alcohols.

  17. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  18. A Z-scheme photocatalyst constructed with an yttrium-tantalum oxynitride and a binuclear Ru(ii) complex for visible-light CO2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Kanemichi; Kumagai, Hiromu; Eguchi, Miharu; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-14

    An yttrium-tantalum oxynitride having a band gap of 2.1 eV (absorbing visible light at <580 nm) was applicable as a semiconductor component of a Z-scheme CO2 reduction system operable under visible light, in combination with a binuclear Ru(ii) complex that has strong absorption in the visible region (<600 nm). Excitation of this system with visible light under a CO2 atmosphere induced photocatalytic formation of formic acid with very high selectivity (>99%). PMID:27251369

  19. Selective Formic Acid Production via CO2 Reduction with Visible Light Using a Hybrid of a Perovskite Tantalum Oxynitride and a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Fumiaki; Sekizawa, Keita; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Ishitani, Osamu

    2015-06-17

    A hybrid material consisting of CaTaO2N (a perovskite oxynitride semiconductor having a band gap of 2.5 eV) and a binuclear Ru(II) complex photocatalytically produced HCOOH via CO2 reduction with high selectivity (>99%) under visible light (λ>400 nm). Results of photocatalytic reactions, spectroscopic measurements, and electron microscopy observations indicated that the reaction was driven according to a two-step photoexcitation of CaTaO2N and the Ru photosensitizer unit, where Ag nanoparticles loaded on CaTaO2N with optimal distribution mediated interfacial electron transfer due to reductive quenching.

  20. Lithium overdosage and related tests.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2016-12-01

    Lithium acts biochemically through the inositol depletion in brain cortex. At low doses, however, it is partly effective and/or ineffective, whereas in high concentrations is toxic. We would like to make one point about this review. In fact, in our view, the patient should be given a support to correct hypernatremia and even sodium levels should be tested serially-along with serum lithium concentrations-because high sodium levels reduce the rate of elimination of lithium. Lithium is mainly a neurotoxicant. Lithium-related central nervous system toxicity as well as the cardiovascular and thyroid changes are most likely due to the cations (Na2 (+) and K(+)) competition. PMID:26753697

  1. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  2. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  3. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  4. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Gary A [Kennewick, WA; Smith, Jeffrey W [Lancaster, OH; Ihle, Nathan C [Walla Walla, WA

    1984-01-01

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with portland cement to form concrete.

  5. Method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, G.A.; Smith, J.W.; Ihle, N.C.

    1982-07-08

    A method for incorporating radioactive phosphoric acid solutions in concrete is described wherein the phosphoric acid is reacted with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to form a precipitate of hydroxyapatite and the hydroxyapatite is mixed with Portland cement to form concrete.

  6. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  7. Synthesis of silicon oxynitride by ion beam sputtering and the effects of nitrogen ion-assisted bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrinos, M. F.; Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J. S.

    1997-05-01

    Thin silicon oxynitride (SiO xN y) films were synthesised without substrate heating by means of N 2+ ion-beam sputtering of a silicon nitride target at an energy of 1000 eV in a N 2 and O 2 ambient with and without 200 eV N 2+ ion assistance. Unassisted films were deposited in a controlled O 2 partial pressure ranging from ambient to 5.0 × 10 -3 Pa whereas assisted films were deposited at a fixed O 2 partial pressure of 1.0 × 10 -3 Pa. The O/(O+N) atomic fraction and the SiO xN y asymmetric stretch mode IR absorption peak wavenumber of unassisted films increased almost linearly with increasing O 2 partial pressure, from 0.2 to 1.0 and 860 cm -1 to 1050 cm -1, respectively, while their refractive indices decreased from 1.92 to 1.46. The behaviour of the SiO xN y film refractive index with the SiO 2 fraction has been compared to that predicted by Drude, Lorentz-Lorenz and Bruggeman models under the assumption that the film is a mixture of SiO 2 and Si 3N 4 phases. For a fixed O 2 partial pressure, the O content of the N 2+ ion-assisted films increased with an increase in the N + ion to Si atom arrival ratio from 0 to 3. This increase in O content correlate with changes in the film refractive index and SiO xN y asymmetric stretch mode absorption peak position, from 1.56 to 1.43 and 1014 cm -1 to 1054 cm -1, respectively, indicating that the O/N atomic ratio increases with increasing N + ion to Si atom ratio until film properties consistent with stoichiometric SiO 2 are obtained.

  8. Compositional study of silicon oxynitride thin films deposited using electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, H.; Sah, R.E.

    2005-05-01

    We have used backscattering spectrometry and {sup 15}N({sup 1}H,{alpha},{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction analysis techniques to study in detail the variation in the composition of silicon oxynitride films with deposition parameters. The films were deposited using 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique from mixtures of precursors argon, nitrous oxide, and silane at deposition temperature 90 deg. C. The deposition pressure and nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow rates ratio have been found to have a pronounced influence on the composition of the films. When the deposition pressure was varied for a given nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow ratio, the amount of silicon and nitrogen increased with the deposition pressure, while the amount of oxygen decreased. For a given deposition pressure, the amount of incorporated nitrogen and hydrogen decreased while that of oxygen increased with increasing nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow rates ratio. For nitrous oxide-to-silane gas flow ratio of 5, we obtained films which contained neither chemically bonded nor nonbonded nitrogen atoms as revealed by the results of infrared spectroscopy, backscattering spectrometry, and nuclear reaction analysis. Our results demonstrate the nitrogen-free nearly stoichiometric silicon dioxide films can be prepared from a mixture of precursors argon, nitrous oxide, and silane at low substrate temperature using high-density PECVD technique. This avoids the use of a hazardous and an often forbidden pair of silane and oxygen gases in a plasma reactor.

  9. Model calculations for enhanced fluorescence in photonic crystal phosphor.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyungtaek; Choi, Yun-Kyoung; Jeon, Heonsu

    2012-01-30

    We propose a novel photonic structure, based on the photonic crystal (PC) effect, which simulations show results in an improved fluorescence efficiency from embedded phosphor. To be specific, the phosphor pumping efficiency can be significantly improved by tuning the pump photon energy to a photonic band-edge (PBE) of the PC phosphor. We have confirmed this theoretically by calculating optical properties of one-dimensional PC phosphor structures using the transfer-matrix method and plane-wave expansion method. For a particular model structure based on a quantum dot phosphor, the fluorescence enhancement factor was estimated to be as high as 6.9 for a monochromatic pump source and 2.2 for a broad bandwidth (20 nm) pump source.

  10. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  11. X-ray imaging with photostimulable phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Seggern, Heinz

    1992-11-01

    Image plates based on photostimulable X-ray storage phosphors establish a promissing alternative to conventionally utilized two-dimensional X-ray detectors. These image plates consist of a layer of powdered X-ray storage phosphor, usually the alkaline-earth halide BaFBr:Eu 2+, mixed with an organic binder and mounted on a polymeric film. Upon absorption of ionizing radiation, electrons and holes are produced efficiently. Both species are trapped in the immediate surrounding of their creation thereby forming a latent image. The readout of this image occurs by photostimulation whereby the trapped electrons are liberated and recombine radiatively with the trapped holes under emission of Eu 2+ light. In the present paper the principle of the imaging system is introduced followed by a brief review of the underlying physics explaining the nature of the involved traps and the mechanism of photostimulation. Advantages and disadvantages of image plate detectors and their physical nature are discussed and possible improvements suggested. Present and future fields of application are presented.

  12. A comparison of film and phosphor scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Chancellor, T.; Morris, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and spatial distortions have been measured for three types of scanners: the Molecular Dynamics (MD) and DuPont film scanners and the MD phosphor scanner. The MD film scanner is a deployable and compact scanner that gives a peak SNR of 110 for low (< 2.0) optical densities (ODs), but the spatial distortions across the digitized film plane are significant. The authors compare this with the DuPont film scanner, which has equally good SNRs at low ODs, but very low spatial distortions. The DuPont also allows the user to define an OD range and contains a prescan function to find the suitable range if the user cannot input such a value; its scan times are quick, and the hardware allows for internal data averaging before being stored to disk. The MD phosphor imager has excellent low-dose capability, producing usable images at a 10-{mu}rad dose (from a 150-pkeV source) but its SNRs are low compared to the film scanner, but they can be increased by adjusting the photomultiplier tube voltage and laser radius across the scan arc.

  13. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  14. [Phosphoric stress and antioxidative power of wheat roots].

    PubMed

    Lutsishina, O G; Panchenko, O K; Prisiazhniuk, L M

    1997-01-01

    The change of antioxydative power of metabolites in the wheat root system (cv Polesskaya 90 and cv Polesskaya 92) under effect of stress doses of phosphoric nutrition (4-fold dose and phosphoric deficit in nutrient mixture of water culture) proves that phosphoric stress causes peroxidation of membrane lipids. These changes are a nonspecific reaction of membranes in root epithelial cells. Stress and responsive changes in the membrane system are recorded by an antioxydative power decreasing root metabolites. This is the first stage of plant biochemical adaptation (7 to 14 days of growth). The second stage (21 to 28 days of growth) is characterised by the increasing of antioxydative power. However, nonspecific character of the primary reaction of membrane system in root cells at high doses and phosphoric deficite in nutrient mixture changes into clear specific reaction at physiological adaptation level. This is revealed in the change of growth function and kinetics of phosphoric accumulation. Phosphoric deficiency at critical phosphoric concentration in plant roots (0.2% P2O5 of dry mass) results in the increase of growth processes. This is revealed in accumulation of root biomass. At high phosphoric concentrations (1.04% P2O3) the development of root system is inactivated and phosphoric absorption is decreased. The similar specificity in the changes of growth and absorption function of root system is considered to be adapting. The changes of antioxydative power and hence the destroying apparatus in epithelial cells of root system advance the damage at physiological and morphological level and can define wheat adaptation ability to extreme conditions of phosphoric nutrition.

  15. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  16. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  18. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  19. Debonding behavior between [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] whiskers and oxynitride glasses with or without an epitaxial [beta]-SiAlON interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, E.Y.; Becher, P.F.; Hsueh, C.H.; Painter, G.S.; Waters, S.B.; Hwang, S.L. . Metals and Ceramics Div.); Hoffmann, M.J. . Inst. of Ceramics in Mechanical Engineering)

    1999-07-09

    In order to gain insight on the influence of intergranular glass on the fracture toughness of silicon nitride, the debonding behavior of the interface between the prismatic faces of [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] whiskers and oxynitride glasses was investigated in model systems based on various Si-(Al)-Y(Ln)-O-N (Ln: rare-earth) oxynitride glasses. It was found that while the interfacial debonding strength increased when an epitaxial [beta][prime]-SiAlON layer grew on the [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] whiskers, the critical angle for debonding was lowered with increasing Al and O concentrations in the SiAlON layer. Only in the absence of a SiAlON epitaxial layer, were debonding conditions altered by residual stresses imposed on the interface due to thermal-mechanical mismatch. A possible explanation for the effect of SiAlON formation and its composition on the debonding behavior is suggested by first-principles atomic cluster calculations. It is concluded that by tailoring the densification additives and hence the chemistry of the intergranular glass, it is possible to improve the fracture resistance of silicon nitride.

  20. Octahedral and trigonal-prismatic coordination preferences in Nb-, Mo-, Ta-, and W-based ABX2 layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Akira; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Takahiro, Takei; Kumada, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Crystallographic and electronic structures of Nb-, Mo-, Ta-, and W-based layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides were analyzed to elucidate the structural relationship between layered oxides and nitrides consisting of octahedral and trigonal-prismatic layers. The electron density, as derived by synchrotron X-ray analysis of LiNbO2 and Ta5-x(O,N)6, showed orbital overlaps between Nb-Nb and Ta-Ta metals in the trigonal layers. Computational calculations based on DFT exhibited that these overlaps stabilized these structures by lowering the hybridization states composed of the dxy, dx2-y2, and dz2 orbitals below the Fermi level. Crystal structures and formation energies suggest that tuning the Fermi level through the substitutions and vacancies of the cation/anion sites determines the structural preferences of the coordination. The properties and syntheses of these compounds are briefly described. This study enhances the understanding of layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides to further the development of new synthetic approaches, compounds, and applications.

  1. Growth of (Sr,La)-(Ta,Ti)-O-N perovskite oxide and oxynitride films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering: Influence of the reactive atmosphere on the film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Paven, C.; Le Gendre, L.; Benzerga, R.; Cheviré, F.; Tessier, F.; Jacq, S.; Traoré-Mantion, S.; Sharaiha, A.

    2015-03-01

    In the search for new dielectric and ferroelectric compounds, we were interested in the perovskite (Sr1-xLax)2(Ta1-xTix)2O7 solid solution with ferroelectric end members Sr2Ta2O7 (TCurie=-107 °C) and La2Ti2O7 (TCurie=1461 °C). In order to achieve a Curie temperature close to room temperature, the formulation with x=0.01 was chosen and synthetized as thin films by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. In oxygen rich plasma, a (Sr0.99La0.01)2(Ta0.99Ti0.01)2O7 film is deposited, characterized by a band-gap Eg=4.75 eV and an (1 1 0) epitaxial growth on (0 0 1)MgO substrate. The use of nitrogen rich plasma allows to synthesize (Sr0.99La0.01)(Ta0.99Ti0.01)O2N oxynitride films, with band gap Eg~2.10 eV and a polycrystalline, textured or epitaxial growth on (0 0 1)MgO substrate. Nitrogen-substoichiometric oxynitride films with larger lattice cells are produced for low dinitrogen percentages in the sputtering plasma.

  2. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  3. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Reddy, C. Narayana; Gowda, Veeranna

    2011-07-01

    Glasses in the system xLi2SO4-20Li2O-(80-x) [80P2O5-20V2O5] (5⩾x⩾20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aωs where `s' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  4. Multilayer design of hybrid phosphor film for application in LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güner, Tuǧrul; Köseoǧlu, Devrim; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2016-10-01

    Crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite coatings containing luminescent micrometer-sized yellow Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce3+) particles were prepared by spraying for potential applications in solid-state lighting. Blue light was down converted by phosphor particles to produce white light, yet poor color properties of YAG:Ce3+ stemmed from a deficiency of red. When nitride-based red phosphor was simply blended into the system, the electrostatic interaction of negatively charged YAG:Ce3+ and positively charged red phosphor particles caused remarkable clustering and heterogeneity in particle dispersion. Consequently, the light is dominantly blue and shifted to cold white. In other case, phosphor particles were sprayed onto the diffused polycarbonate substrate in stacked layers. Coatings with >80% inorganic content by mass with a thickness of 60 μm were subjected to thermal crosslinking, which the presence of the phosphor particles obstructed, presumably due to the hindrance of large phosphor particles in the diffusion of PDMS precursors. The coating of YAG:Ce3+ first followed by red phosphor in stacked layers produced better light output and color properties than the coating obtained by spraying the mixture at once. Monte Carlo simulation validated the hypothesis.

  5. Development of a Blue Emitting Calcium-Aluminate Phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doory; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report methodological advances that enhance the phosphorescence efficiency of a blue-emitting calcium aluminate phosphor (CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+). The investigation of long-persistence blue-emitting phosphors is highly desirable due to their promising applications, such as white LEDs; however, the development of highly efficient blue-emitting phosphors is still challenging. Here, we have quantitatively characterized the phosphorescence properties of the blue-emitting phosphor CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ with various compositions and directly related these properties to the quality of its luminescence. We optimized the composition of the activator Eu2+ and the co-activator Nd3+, the doping conditions with alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, and Si to create crystallographic distortions and, finally, the flux conditions to find the best parameters for bright and persistent blue-emitting phosphors. Our research has identified several doping compositions with good to excellent performance, with which we have demonstrated bright and persistent phosphors with afterglow characteristics superior to those of conventional phosphors. PMID:27648560

  6. A relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merski, N. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The NASA LaRC has developed a relative-intensity two-color phosphor thermography system. This system has become a standard technique for acquiring aerothermodynamic data in LaRC Hypersonic Facilities Complex (HFC). The relative intensity theory and its application to the LaRC phosphor thermography system is discussed along with the investment casting technique which is critical to the utilization of the phosphor method for aerothermodynamic studies. Various approaches to obtaining quantitative heat transfer data using thermographic phosphors are addressed and comparisons between thin-film data and thermographic phosphor data on an orbiter-like configuration are presented. In general, data from these two techniques are in good agreement. A discussion is given on the application of phosphors to integration heat transfer data reduction techniques (the thin film method) and preliminary heat transfer data obtained on a calibration sphere using thin-film equations are presented. Finally, plans for a new phosphor system which uses target recognition software are discussed.

  7. Development of a Blue Emitting Calcium-Aluminate Phosphor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doory; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report methodological advances that enhance the phosphorescence efficiency of a blue-emitting calcium aluminate phosphor (CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+). The investigation of long-persistence blue-emitting phosphors is highly desirable due to their promising applications, such as white LEDs; however, the development of highly efficient blue-emitting phosphors is still challenging. Here, we have quantitatively characterized the phosphorescence properties of the blue-emitting phosphor CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ with various compositions and directly related these properties to the quality of its luminescence. We optimized the composition of the activator Eu2+ and the co-activator Nd3+, the doping conditions with alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, and Si to create crystallographic distortions and, finally, the flux conditions to find the best parameters for bright and persistent blue-emitting phosphors. Our research has identified several doping compositions with good to excellent performance, with which we have demonstrated bright and persistent phosphors with afterglow characteristics superior to those of conventional phosphors. PMID:27648560

  8. Apparatuses and methods for laser reading of thermoluminescent phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1989-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for rapidly reading thermoluminescent phosphors to determine the amount of luminescent energy stored therein. The stored luminescent energy is interpreted as a measure of the total exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to ionizing radiation. The thermoluminescent phosphor reading apparatus uses a laser to generate a laser beam. The laser beam power level is monitored by a laser power detector and controlled to maintain the power level at a desired value or values which can vary with time. A shutter or other laser beam interrupting means is used to control exposure of the thermoluminescent phosphor to the laser beam. The laser beam can be equalized using an opitcal equalizer so that the laser beam has an approximately uniform power density across the beam. The heated thermoluminescent phosphor emits a visible or otherwise detectable luminescent emission which is measured as an indication of the radiation exposure of the thermoluminscent phosphors. Also disclosed are preferred signal processing and control circuits including one system using a digital computer. Also disclosed are time-profiled laser power cycles for pre-anneal, read and post-anneal treatment of phosphors.

  9. Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. ); Robertson, J.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Radioactivity measurements using storage phosphor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.T.; Hwang, J.; Hutchinson, M.R.

    1995-12-31

    We propose to apply a recently developed charged particle radiation imaging concept in bio-medical research for fast, cost-effective characterization of radionuclides in contaminated sites and environmental samples. This concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor (SPP) technology as radiation detectors. They exhibit high sensitivity for all types of radiation and the response is linear over a wide dynamic range (>10{sup 5}), essential for quantitative analysis. These new sensors have an active area of up to 35 cm x 43 cm in size and a spatial resolution as fine as 50 {mu}m. They offer considerable promise as large area detectors for fast characterization of radionuclides with an added ability to locate and identify hot spots.

  11. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst supported on a carbon substrate. During operation, the small platinum crystallites sinter, causing loss in cell performance. A support was developed that stabilizes platinum in the high surface area condition by retarding or preventing the sintering process. The approach is to form etch pits in the carbon by oxidizing the carbon in the presence of a metal oxide catalyst, remove the metal oxide by an acid wash, and then deposit platinum in these pits. Results confirm the formation of etch pits in each of the three supports chosen for investigation: Vulcan XC-72R, Vulcan XC-72 that was graphized at 2500 C, and Shawinigan Acetylene Black.

  12. Phosphor thermometry signal analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. W.; Gillies, G. T.

    2013-09-01

    Since the last International Temperature Symposium, phosphor thermometry has continued to mature with considerable attention given to combustion and turbine engine applications. More recently the utility to problems on the micro-and nano-scales has appreciated, particularly in regard to biological and biomedical situations. The method is therefore used for a wide range of situations. Signal interpretation is important and experience teaches that without sufficient care phosphor signals can be misleading. In order to advance the method, signal analysis investigations should prove fruitful. The specific aspect addressed here is the question of waveform sampling. A simple phenomenological approach is described that explores how the number of points digitized per waveform affects the measurement repeatability and accuracy. This is demonstrated for single shot signals and the average of 512 sequential waveforms. A bright temperature-independent luminescence signal from YVO4:Eu is sampled every 800 ps (1.25 GS/s) for a highly sampled condition and every 8 microseconds (125 kS/s) for a low sampled condition. When the average of 512 waveforms are compared for the two sampling conditions, they differ by only 0.4%. For the highly sampled case, a noisy single shot waveform compared to the averaged waveform differed by 1.8%. Future efforts on this subject will address intermediate and lower sampling rates. Also, variable window techniques should be explored that are especially important for non-log-linear signals. Investigations, such as this, give the developer the requisite information for designing analysis systems appropriate for the intended application in terms of precision, accuracy, and response time.

  13. Phosphor Thermometry Signal Analysis and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Stephen W; Gillies, George T.

    2013-01-01

    Since the last International Temperature Symposium, phosphor thermometry has continued to mature with considerable attention given to combustion and turbine engine applications. More recently the utility to problems on the micro- and nano-scales has appreciated, particularly in regard to biological and biomedical situations. The method is therefore used for a wide range of situations. Signal interpretation is important and experience teaches that without sufficient care phosphor signals can be misleading. In order to advance the method, signal analysis investigations should prove fruitful. The specific aspect addressed here is the question of waveform sampling. A simple phenomenological approach is described that explores how the number of points digitized per waveform affects the measurement repeatability and accuracy. This is demonstrated for single shot signals and the average of 512 sequential waveforms. A bright temperature-independent luminescence signal from YVO4:Eu is sampled every 800 ps for a highly sampled condition and every 8 microseconds for a low sampled condition. When the average of 512 waveforms are compared for the two sampling conditions, they differ by only 0.4%. For the highly sampled case, a noisy single shot waveform compared to the averaged waveform differed by 1.8%. Future efforts on this subject will address intermediate and lower sampling rates. Also, variable window techniques should be explored that are especially important for non-log-linear signals. Investigations, such as this, give the developer the requisite information for designing analysis systems appropriate for the intended application in terms of precision, accuracy, and response time.

  14. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  15. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled silver particles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Min; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Dong Hyuk; Jeon, Duk Young

    2011-07-01

    We elucidate that the luminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor excited by the electron collision can be modified on location near the metallic nanoparticles. The Eu3+-doped phosphor was fabricated on the nanoscaled Ag particles ranging of 5 nm to 30 nm diameter. As a result of the cathodoluminescence measurements, the phosphor films on the Ag particles showed up to twofold more than that of an isolated phosphor film. Enhanced cathodoluminescence originated from the resonant coupling between the localized surface plasmon of Ag nanoparticles and radiating energy of the phosphor. Cathodoluminescent phosphor for high luminous display devices can be addressed by locating phosphor near the surface of metallic nanoparticles. PMID:21747476

  16. Proton Conductivity in Phosphoric Acid: The Role of Quantum Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heres, M.; Wang, Y.; Griffin, P. J.; Gainaru, C.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    Phosphoric acid has one of the highest intrinsic proton conductivities of any known liquids, and the mechanism of this exceptional conductivity remains a puzzle. Our detailed experimental studies discovered a strong isotope effect in the conductivity of phosphoric acids caused by (i) a strong isotope shift of the glass transition temperature and (ii) a significant reduction of the energy barrier by zero-point quantum fluctuations. These results suggest that the high conductivity in phosphoric acids is caused by a very efficient proton transfer mechanism, which is strongly assisted by quantum effects.

  17. Reflectives: Phosphors and lasers - shedding light on rare earths

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    The first powder electroluminescent phosphor was introduced in 1936. Today, phosphors, particularly those made of high-purity rare earths, have found their way into a variety of products: industrial, commercial, and consumer, alike. The fluorescent lamp industry which remains the leading market for the use of high-purity rare earths, lit the way for the future of rare earths in the optical, x-ray, and display screen applications. Light combined with rare earth materials is also a successful recipe for reflectivity needed in filtering applications such as optics, lasers, and conductors. This article discusses the applications and markets for phosphors and rare earths.

  18. New developments in LED lighting by novel phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, Bert; Bogner, Georg; Brunner, H.; Kraeuter, G.; Hoehn, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    Recently new phosphors from various material classes have been developed for LED applications by Osram OS and partners. Excitation wavelengths of these phosphors range from below 400 nm to 470 nm, enabling the creation of purple and unsaturated LED colors and even the efficient conversion of near UV-radiation into white light. By addition of red and green phosphors to white LEDs, a warm white color impression can be achieved. These LEDs are suitable for all purposes of general lighting, where a high color rendering is required. An outlook to new applications with unsaturated and warm white LEDs will be given.

  19. Optimized Phosphors for Warm White LED Light Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Setlur, Anant; Brewster, Megan; Garcia, Florencio; Hill, M. Christine; Lyons, Robert; Murphy, James; Stecher, Tom; Stoklosa, Stan; Weaver, Stan; Happek, Uwe; Aesram, Danny; Deshpande, Anirudha

    2012-07-30

    The objective of this program is to develop phosphor systems and LED light engines that have steady-state LED efficacies (using LEDs with a 60% wall-plug efficiency) of 105–120 lm/W with correlated color temperatures (CCT) ~3000 K, color rendering indices (CRI) >85, <0.003 distance from the blackbody curve (dbb), and <2% loss in phosphor efficiency under high temperature, high humidity conditions. In order to reach these goals, this involves the composition and processing optimization of phosphors previously developed by GE in combination with light engine package modification.

  20. First-principles and angle-resolved photoemission study of lithium doped metallic black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Fink, J.; Krellner, C.; Petaccia, L.; Chikina, A.; Usachov, D. Yu; Grüneis, A.; Profeta, G.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations demonstrate the metallization of phosphorene by means of Li doping filling the unoccupied antibonding p z states. The electron–phonon coupling in the metallic phase is strong enough to eventually lead to a superconducting phase at T c = 17 K for LiP8 stoichiometry. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we confirm that the surface of black phosphorus can be chemically functionalized using Li atoms which donate their 2s electron to the conduction band. The combined theoretical and experimental study demonstrates the semiconductor-metal transition indicating a feasible way to induce a superconducting phase in phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus.

  1. First-principles and angle-resolved photoemission study of lithium doped metallic black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Fink, J.; Krellner, C.; Petaccia, L.; Chikina, A.; Usachov, D. Yu; Grüneis, A.; Profeta, G.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations demonstrate the metallization of phosphorene by means of Li doping filling the unoccupied antibonding p z states. The electron-phonon coupling in the metallic phase is strong enough to eventually lead to a superconducting phase at T c = 17 K for LiP8 stoichiometry. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we confirm that the surface of black phosphorus can be chemically functionalized using Li atoms which donate their 2s electron to the conduction band. The combined theoretical and experimental study demonstrates the semiconductor-metal transition indicating a feasible way to induce a superconducting phase in phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus.

  2. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  3. Reduced graphene oxide enwrapped phosphors for long-term thermally stable phosphor converted white light emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Anoop, Gopinathan; Rani, Janardhanan R.; Lim, Juhwan; Jang, Myoung Soo; Suh, Dong Wook; Kang, Shinill; Jun, Seong Chan; Yoo, Jae Soo

    2016-01-01

    The long-term instability of the presently available best commercial phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pcLEDs) is the most serious obstacle for the realization of low-cost and energy-saving lighting applications. Emission from pcLEDs starts to degrade after approximately 200 h of operation because of thermal degradation of the phosphors. We propose a new strategy to overcome this thermal degradation problem of phosphors by wrapping the phosphor particles with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Through the rGO wrapping, we have succeeded in controlling the thermal degradation of phosphors and improving the stability of fabricated pcLEDs. We have fabricated pcLEDs with long-term stability that maintain nearly 98% of their initial luminescence emission intensity even after 800 h of continuous operation at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity. The pcLEDs fabricated using SrBaSi2O2N2:Eu2+ phosphor particles wrapped with reduced graphene oxide are thermally stable because of enhanced heat dissipation that prevents the ionization of Eu2+ to Eu3+. We believe that this technique can be applied to other rare-earth doped phosphors for the realization of highly efficient and stable white LEDs. PMID:27671271

  4. Reduced graphene oxide enwrapped phosphors for long-term thermally stable phosphor converted white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoop, Gopinathan; Rani, Janardhanan R.; Lim, Juhwan; Jang, Myoung Soo; Suh, Dong Wook; Kang, Shinill; Jun, Seong Chan; Yoo, Jae Soo

    2016-09-01

    The long-term instability of the presently available best commercial phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pcLEDs) is the most serious obstacle for the realization of low-cost and energy-saving lighting applications. Emission from pcLEDs starts to degrade after approximately 200 h of operation because of thermal degradation of the phosphors. We propose a new strategy to overcome this thermal degradation problem of phosphors by wrapping the phosphor particles with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Through the rGO wrapping, we have succeeded in controlling the thermal degradation of phosphors and improving the stability of fabricated pcLEDs. We have fabricated pcLEDs with long-term stability that maintain nearly 98% of their initial luminescence emission intensity even after 800 h of continuous operation at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity. The pcLEDs fabricated using SrBaSi2O2N2:Eu2+ phosphor particles wrapped with reduced graphene oxide are thermally stable because of enhanced heat dissipation that prevents the ionization of Eu2+ to Eu3+. We believe that this technique can be applied to other rare-earth doped phosphors for the realization of highly efficient and stable white LEDs.

  5. Method to produce nanocrystalline powders of oxide-based phosphors for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Loureiro, Sergio Paulo Martins; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Williams, Darryl Stephen; Manoharan, Mohan; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2007-12-25

    Some embodiments of the present invention are directed toward nanocrystalline oxide-based phosphor materials, and methods for making same. Typically, such methods comprise a steric entrapment route for converting precursors into such phosphor material. In some embodiments, the nanocrystalline oxide-based phosphor materials are quantum splitting phosphors. In some or other embodiments, such nanocrystalline oxide based phosphor materials provide reduced scattering, leading to greater efficiency, when used in lighting applications.

  6. Photostimulated luminescence properties of Eu2+ -doped barium aluminate phosphor.

    PubMed

    He, Quanlong; Qiu, Guangyu; Xu, Xuhui; Qiu, Jianbei; Yu, Xue

    2015-03-01

    An intense green photostimulated luminescence in BaAl2 O4 :Eu(2+) phosphor was prepared. The thermoluminescence results indicate that there are at least three types of traps (T1 , T2 , T3 ) with different trap depths in BaAl2 O4 :Eu(2+) phosphor according to the bands located at 327, 361 and 555 K, respectively, which are closely associated with the phosphor's long persistent luminescence and photostimulated luminescence properties. In addition, as a novel optical read-out form, a photostimulated persistent luminescence signal can be repeatedly obtained in BaAl2 O4 :Eu(2+) phosphor. This shows that re-trapping of the electron released from a deep trap plays an important role in photostimulated persistent luminescence.

  7. Inorganic phosphors in lead-silicate glass for white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonorov, N. V.; Kolobkova, E. V.; Aseev, V. A.; Bibik, A. Yu.; Nekrasova, Ya. A.; Tuzova, Yu. V.; Novogran, A. I.

    2016-09-01

    Luminescent composites of the "phosphor-in-glass" type, based on a highly reflective lead-silicate matrix and fine-grained powders of YAG:Ce3+ and SiAlON:Eu2+ crystals, are developed and synthesized. Phosphor and glass powders are sintered at a temperature of 550°C to obtain phosphor samples for white LEDs. The composites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and luminescence spectroscopy. The dependence of the light quantum yield on the SiAlON:Eu2+ content in the samples is investigated. A breadboard of a white LED is designed using a phosphor-in-glass composite based on lead-silicate glass with a low glasstransition temperature. The total emission spectra of a blue LED and glass-based composites are measured. The possibility of generating warm white light by choosing an appropriate composition is demonstrated.

  8. Silicon carbidonitride based phosphors and lighting devices using the same

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael Dennis; Tian, Yongchi

    2013-09-17

    Disclosed herein are novel families of silicon carbidonitride phosphor compositions. In certain embodiments, optimal ranges of carbon content have been identified which provide excellent luminescence and thermal stability characteristics.

  9. Oxycarbonitride phosphors and light emitting devices using the same

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael Dennis; Tian, Yongchi

    2014-07-08

    Disclosed herein is a novel family of oxycarbonitride phosphor compositions and light emitting devices incorporating the same. Within the sextant system of M--Al--Si--O--N--C--Ln and quintuplet system of M--Si--O--N--C--Ln (M=alkaline earth element, Ln=rare earth element), the phosphors are composed of either one single crystalline phase or two crystalline phases with high chemical and thermal stability. In certain embodiments, the disclosed phosphor of silicon oxycarbonitrides emits green light at wavelength between 530-550 nm. In further embodiments, the disclosed phosphor compositions emit blue-green to yellow light in a wavelength range of 450-650 nm under near-UV and blue light excitation.

  10. Oxycarbonitride phosphors and light emitting devices using the same

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael Dennis; Tian, Yongchi

    2013-10-08

    Disclosed herein is a novel family of oxycarbidonitride phosphor compositions and light emitting devices incorporating the same. Within the sextant system of M--Al--Si--O--N--C--Ln and quintuplet system of M--Si--O--N--C--Ln (M=alkaline earth element, Ln=rare earth element), the phosphors are composed of either one single crystalline phase or two crystalline phases with high chemical and thermal stability. In certain embodiments, the disclosed phosphor of silicon oxycarbidonitrides emits green light at wavelength between 530-550 nm. In further embodiments, the disclosed phosphor compositions emit blue-green to yellow light in a wavelength range of 450-650 nm under near-UV and blue light excitation.

  11. Thermographic properties of eight blue-emitting phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.M.; Allison, S.W.; Smith, D.B.

    1993-05-01

    We examined the effect of temperature on the light absorption and emission properties of eight phosphorescent compounds. These phosphors are commercially produced powders that emit mainly in the blue region when illuminated with ultraviolet light in the range 220 to 400 mn. Excitation and emission spectra measured over the range 20 to 350{degrees}C are examined for these phosphors. Data from the emission spectra indicate that there is a significant temperature dependence in this temperature range. In all eight phosphors, the maximum relative intensity decreased as the temperature increased. In some samples, the emission bandwidth and position also changed with temperature. Of these phosphors, BaMg{sub 2}Al{sub 16}O{sub 27}:Eu and Ba{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Eu are candidates for studies at higher temperatures.

  12. Phosphors containing boron and metals of Group IIIA and IIIB

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2006-10-31

    A phosphor comprises: (a) at least a first metal selected from the group consisting of yttrium and elements of lanthanide series other than europium; (b) at least a second metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and scandium; (c) boron; and (d) europium. The phosphor is used in light source that comprises a UV radiation source to convert UV radiation to visible light.

  13. Ionic conductivity and glass transition of phosphoric acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yangyang; Lane, Nathan A; Sun, Che-Nan; Fan, Fei; Zawodzinski, Thomas; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

  14. Materials characterization of phosphoric acid fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesh, Srinivasan

    1986-01-01

    The component materials used in the fabrication of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) must have mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical stability to withstand the moderately high temperature (200 C) and pressure (500 kPa) and highly oxidizing nature of phosphoric acid. This study discusses the chemical and structural stability, performance and corrosion data on certain catalysts, catalyst supports, and electrode support materials used in PAFC applications.

  15. Ionic Ckonductivity and Glass Transition of Phosphoric Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yangyang; Lane, Nathan A; Sun, Che-Nan; Fan, Fei; Zawodzinski, Thomas; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the low-temperature dielectric and viscoelastic properties of phosphoric acids in the range of H2O:P2O5 1.5 5. Both dielectric and viscosity measurements allow us to determine the glass-transition temperatures of phosphoric acids. The obtained glass-transition temperatures are in good agreement with previous differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Moreover, our analysis reveals moderate decoupling of ionic conductivity from structural relaxation in the vicinity of the glass transition.

  16. Rat brain and serum lithium concentrations after acute injections of lithium carbonate and orotate.

    PubMed

    Kling, M A; Manowitz, P; Pollack, I W

    1978-06-01

    Eight hours after intraperitoneal injections of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0m equiv Li kg-1, the serum and brain lithium concentrations of rats were significantly greater after lithium orotate than after lithium carbonate. While little serum lithium remained at 24 h after injection of 2.0 m equiv kg-1 lithium carbonate, two-thirds of the 2 h serum lithium concentration was present 24h after lithium orotate. Furthermore, the 24 h brain concentration of lithium after lithium orotate was approximately three times greater than that after lithium carbonate. These data suggest the possibility that lower doses of lithium orotate than lithium carbonate may achieve therapeutic brain lithium concentrations and relatively stable serum concentrations. PMID:26768

  17. Composition-induced structural, electrical, and magnetic phase transitions in AX-type mixed-valence cobalt oxynitride epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Jumpei; Oka, Daichi; Hirose, Yasushi Yang, Chang; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Nakao, Shoichiro; Harayama, Isao; Sekiba, Daiichiro

    2015-12-07

    Synthesis of mid- to late-transition metal oxynitrides is generally difficult by conventional thermal ammonolysis because of thermal instability. In this letter, we synthesized epitaxial thin films of AX-type phase-pure cobalt oxynitrides (CoO{sub x}N{sub y}) by using nitrogen-plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition and investigated their structural, electrical, and magnetic properties. The CoO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with 0 ≤ y/(x + y) ≤ 0.63 grown on MgO (100) substrates showed a structural phase transition from rock salt (RS) to zinc blend at the nitrogen content y/(x + y) ∼ 0.5. As the nitrogen content increased, the room-temperature electrical resistivity of the CoO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films monotonically decreased from the order of 10{sup 5} Ω cm to 10{sup −4} Ω cm. Furthermore, we observed an insulator-to-metal transition at y/(x + y) ∼ 0.34 in the RS-CoO{sub x}N{sub y} phase, which has not yet been reported in Co{sup 2+}/Co{sup 3+} mixed-valence cobalt oxides with octahedral coordination. The low resistivity in the RS-CoO{sub x}N{sub y} phase, on the 10{sup −3} Ω cm order, may have originated from the intermediate spin state of Co{sup 3+} stabilized by the lowered crystal field symmetry of the CoO{sub 6−n}N{sub n} octahedra (n = 1, 2,…5). Magnetization measurements suggested that a magnetic phase transition occurred in the RS-CoO{sub x}N{sub y} films during the insulator-to-metal transition. These results demonstrate that low-temperature epitaxial growth is a promising approach for exploring novel electronic functionalities in oxynitrides.

  18. Development of Thermographic Phosphor Diagnostics for Gas Turbine Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Wing Yin

    Laser induced phosphorescence (LIP) thermometry can provide spatially and temporally resolved temperature fields in harsh environment like gas turbine combustors with high-accuracy and a relatively simple setup. For measurement in gas turbine combustor, the employed thermographic phosphor (TP) should have high sensitivity and signal yield at high temperatures. It is known that phosphor composition, crystallinty, and morpholgy can affect the TP phosphorescence properties. Four high-temperature phosphors with different composition were prepared with sol-gel synthesis (SGS) here, viz. YAG:Dy, YAG:Dy:Er, YABNG:Dy, and YABG:Dy. The phosphor crystallinity and morphology were determined by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The phosphor emissions were measured with a setup consisted of a UV laser, high temperature oven, and spectrometer. The integral of YABNG:Dy emission was 1.5 to 2 times higher than other investigated phosphors at temperatures above 1200 K. The increment in emission intensity improved the precision at high temperatures.

  19. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0phosphors made accordingly to these formulations maintain emission intensity across a wide range of temperatures. The phosphors may be used in lighting systems, such as LEDs and fluorescent tubes, among others, to produce blue and blue/green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  20. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  1. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  2. Improved measurement precision in decay time-based phosphor thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Nada, F.; Knappe, C.; Aldén, M.; Richter, M.

    2016-06-01

    This study comprises a continuation of the previous efforts of the authors to characterize different sources of errors in phosphor thermometry based on the determination of luminescence decays from thermographic phosphors. Whereas earlier investigations focused on point detectors utilizing different sensor technology, this work presents a comparison of four PMTs that are identical in terms of their product type. These detectors are supposedly identical, but the investigations revealed that their response is strictly individual. This study also shows a linear excitation energy dependence for the decay time of cadmium tungstate (CdWO4), the phosphor being used in this work. In addition, the potential influence of the intense and short fluorescence peak preceding the weaker and longer exponential decay in some phosphor materials was investigated using the electrical signal gating capability of the PMT. Finally, the evaluated decay time also appeared to be affected by the oscilloscope settings used when recording the phosphorescence signals. The presented results indicate that all operating parameters from the calibration measurement need to be rigorously reproduced in order to avoid systematic temperature errors in phosphor thermometry experiments that are based on reproducible measurements of the decay time. These results should be of more general interest also outside the phosphor community as the findings, presented herein, in principal concern all kinds of measurements that are dependent on reproducible measurements of signal shapes or time transients.

  3. Thermoluminescence characteristics of LiF: Cu nanocrystalline phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Pooja; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2016-05-01

    Copper (Cu) activated LiF phosphor in nanocrystalline form has been prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method for radiation dosimetry application. The formation of nanocrystalline structure has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. Cubical shaped nanostructure with average particle size of 33nm has been formed. The sample was prepared at different concentration of Cu from 0.01mol% to 3 mol%. TL properties were investigated by studying the glow curve after irradiating the phosphor to gamma ray Co60 source with dose of 15 Gy. It has been found that nanocrystalline LiF: Cu show simple glow curve structure with a single glow peak at 404 K where as commercially available phosphors exhibits multi peak complex glow curve structure. The effect of different normality on the TL properties of phosphor has been studied. Maximum TL intensity for LiF: Cu (0.1mol %) phosphor is observed at the normality of 0.5N and annealing temperature of 200°C. The phosphor showed good linearity up to 10 KGy.

  4. Waterproof Alkyl Phosphate Coated Fluoride Phosphors for Optoelectronic Materials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang-Duy; Lin, Chun Che; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2015-09-01

    A facile approach for coating red fluoride phosphors with a moisture-resistant alkyl phosphate layer with a thickness of 50-100 nm is reported. K2 SiF6 :Mn(4+) particles were prepared by co-precipitation and then coated by esterification of P2 O5 with alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol). This route was adopted to encapsulate the prepared phosphors using transition-metal ions as cross-linkers between the alkyl phosphate moieties. The coated phosphor particles exhibited a high water tolerance and retained approximately 87 % of their initial external quantum efficiency after aging under high-humidity (85 %) and high-temperature (85 °C) conditions for one month. Warm white-light-emitting diodes that consisted of blue InGaN chips, the prepared K2 SiF6 :Mn(4+) phosphors, and either yellow Y3 Al5 O12 :Ce(3+) phosphors or green β-SiAlON: Eu(2+) phosphors showed excellent color rendition. PMID:26214154

  5. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  6. Surface Patterning of Ceramic Phosphor Plate for Light Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, An

    Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are expected to replace traditional lighting sources in the near future due to their energy-efficiency, optical design flexibility and good reliability over traditional lighting sources. III-V nitride blue LEDs with powdered phosphors have been used commercially to get white emission. However, due to scattering losses, thermal issues as well as the surface reactivity with common encapsulants, LEDs fabricated with powdered phosphors have limitations in achieving high luminous efficacy, high chromatic stability and good color-rendering properties. Solid, non-scattering phosphors could avoid many of these limitations, but issues of light extraction and coupling of excitation radiation to the phosphor require development to insure efficient operation. Photonic crystal structures fabricated into or on non-scattering phosphors can be used to address these challenges. In this thesis, a lift-off process with bilayer resist system is developed to create nanopatterns. A photonic crystal structure is fabricated by low cost molecular transfer lithography (MxL) with bi-layer resist system on non-scattering phosphor plate used for white emission to increase the extraction efficiency. In Chapter 1, some basic background concepts which appear frequently in this thesis are introduced. These concepts include the Stokes shift and backscattering phenomenon for powder phosphors as well as non-scattering phosphors. In Chapter 2, a non-scattering single crystal phosphor with a patterned surface is proposed to replace the powdered phosphors used for color converted LEDs. A non-scattering phosphor YAG:Ce ceramic phosphor plate (CPP) patterned with TiO2 photonic crystal structure is selected for convenience to demonstrate the concept. The physical origin of light extraction of the proposed structure is discussed. The simulation principles and results are discussed in this chapter to find the optimized photonic crystal structure for light extraction. In Chapter 3

  7. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  8. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  9. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  10. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  11. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  12. New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickles, R. P.; Breuer, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on site total energy systems, industrial cogeneration, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting are power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.

  13. New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stickles, R.P.; Breuer, C.T.

    1983-11-01

    New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on-site total energy systems, industrial co-generation, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting is power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.

  14. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  15. Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D F

    1976-01-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion. PMID:1260219

  16. Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F

    1976-04-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion. PMID:1260219

  17. Elaboration and characterization of a free standing LiSICON membrane for aqueous lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, Laurent; Cantau, Christophe; Vinatier, Philippe; Toussaint, Gwenaëlle; Stevens, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop a LISICON separator for an aqueous lithium-air battery, a thin membrane was prepared by a tape-casting of a Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7 (PO4)3-AlPO4 based slip followed by a sintering step. By optimizing the grain sizes, the slip composition and the sintering treatment, the mechanical properties were improved and the membrane was reduced to a thickness of down to 40 μm. As a result, the ionic resistance is relatively low, around 38 Ω for a 55 μm membrane of 1 cm2. One side of the membrane was coated with a lithium oxynitrured phosphorous (LiPON) thin film to prevent lithium metal attack. Lithium metal was electrochemically deposited on the LiPON surface from a saturated aqueous solution of LiOH. However, the ionic resistance of the LiPON film, around 67 Ω for a 1.2 μm film of 1 cm2, still causes an important ohmic loss contribution which limits the power performance of a lithium-air battery.

  18. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  19. Glycine lithium nitrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Valenzuela, R.; Hernández-Paredes, J.; Medrano-Pesqueira, T.; Esparza-Ponce, H. E.; Jesús-Castillo, S.; Rodriguez-Mijangos, R.; Terpugov, V. S.; Alvarez-Ramos, M. E.; Duarte-Möller, A.

    Crystals of glycine lithium nitrate with non-linear optical properties have been grown in a solution by slow evaporation at room temperature. The crystal shows a good thermal stability from room temperature to 175 °C where the crystal begins to degrade. This property is desirable for future technological applications. Also, a good performance on the second harmonic generation was found, characterizing the emitted dominant wavelength by a customized indirect procedure using luminance and chromaticity measured data based on the CIE-1931 standard. Additionally, the 532 nm signal was detected by using a variant to the Kurtz and Perry method.

  20. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  1. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  2. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  3. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  4. Applicability of micro-channel plate followed by phosphor screen to charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himura, H.; Nakata, S.; Sanpei, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the applicability of a micro-channel plate (MCP) followed by a phosphor screen to charged particles along with a calibration method for estimating the acceptable limit of input particle flux and appropriate operation parameters of a particular MCP. For the first time, plasmas consisting of only lithium ions are injected into the MCP. Despite large ion numbers (Ni) on the order of ≃107, no deterioration in the effective gain (αG) of the MCP owing to an excess amount of the extracted charge occurs in a certain range of the amplifier voltage (ΔUM) applied to the MCP. The measured αG nearly agrees with the expected value. However, once ΔUM exceeds a limit value, αG eventually begins to saturate. This is also verified in experiments using pure electron plasmas. An appropriate range of ΔUM is presented to avoid saturation and, finally, derive Ni directly from the secondary electron current outputted from the MCP only after the indispensable calibration.

  5. Narrow spectral emission CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} phosphor crystals for white light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, A.; Dutta, P.S.

    2013-02-15

    Alkaline earth metal molybdates are promising candidates as a host material for high efficiency narrow spectral emission phosphors. These phosphors could potentially be used for the fabrication of phosphor-converted light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). Phosphor crystals of calcium molybdate doped with rare earth dopant Ln{sup 3+}(Ln=Eu, Dy, Tb) grown using flux growth method have been shown to exhibit higher excitation efficiency than the powders synthesized by solid-state reaction process. Molybdenum (VI) oxide has been found to be a suitable flux for growing large size optically transparent high quality crystals at a temperature around 1100 Degree-Sign C. Using the excitation wavelengths of 465 nm, 454 nm and 489 nm for CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+}, CaMoO{sub 4}: Dy{sup 3+} and CaMoO{sub 4}: Tb{sup 3+}, respectively, intense emission lines at wavelengths of 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm were observed. The optimized doping concentrations of 12%, 2% and 5% for Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}, respectively, provided the highest luminescence intensity. - Graphical Abstract: CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphor crystals grown using a molybdenum (VI) oxide flux exhibited around 1.5 times the emission intensity of powders obtained from solid-state reaction at the same synthesis temperature. These crystals were found to efficiently emit 615 nm red light when excited by near UV light up to a wavelength of 395 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals were successfully grown using high temperature flux (solutions) containing molybdenum (VI) oxide or lithium chloride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Narrow spectral emission at 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm, respectively, was observed from CaMoO{sub 4}: Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) phosphor crystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimized doping concentrations of Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} in CaMoO{sub 4} for highest

  6. Radioactivity measurements using storage phosphor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.T.; Hwang, J.; Hutchinson, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    We propose to apply a recently developed charged particle radiation imaging concept in bio-medical research for fast, cost-effective characterization of radionuclides in contaminated sites and environmental samples. This concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor (SPP) technology as radiation detectors. They exhibit high sensitivity for all types of radiation and the response is linear over a wide dynamic range (>10{sup 5}), essential for quantitative analysis. These new sensors have an Active area of up to 35 cm x 43 cm in size and a spatial resolution as fine as 50 {mu}m. They offer considerable promise as large area detectors for fast characterization of radionuclides with an added ability to locate and identify hot spots. Tests with SPP sensors have found that a single alpha particle effect can be observed and an alpha field of 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} or a beta activity of 0.1 dpm/mm{sup 2} or gamma radiation of few {mu}R/hr can all be measured in minutes. Radioactive isotopes can further be identified by energy discrimination which is accomplished by placing different thicknesses of filter material in front of the sensor plate. For areas with possible neutron contamination, the sensors can be coupled to a neutron to charged particle converter screen, such as dysprosium foil to detect neutrons. Our study has shown that this approach can detect a neutron flux of 1 n/cm{sup 2}s or lower, again with only minutes of exposure time. The utilization of these new sensors can significantly reduce the time and cost required for many site characterization and environmental monitoring tasks. The {open_quotes}exposure{close_quotes} time for mapping radioactivity in an environmental sample may be in terms of minutes and offer a positional resolution not obtainable with presently used counting equipment. The resultant digital image will lend itself to ready analysis.

  7. Laser discrimination by stimulated emission of a phosphor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Chakrabarti, K.

    1991-01-01

    A method for discriminating sources of UV, near infrared, and far infrared laser radiation was discovered. This technology is based on the use of a single magnesium sulfide phosphor doubly doped with rare earth ions, which is thermally/optically stimulated to generate colors correlatable to the incident laser radiation. The phosphor, after initial charging by visible light, exhibits green stimulated luminescence when exposed to a near infrared source (Nd: YAG laser). On exposure to far infrared sources (CO2 laser) the phosphor emission changes to orange color. A UV laser produces both an orange red as well as green color. A device using this phosphor is useful for detecting the laser and for discriminating between the near infrared, far infrared, and UV lasers. The technology is also capable of infrared laser diode beam profiling since the radiation source leaves an imprint on the phosphor that can be photographed. Continued development of the technology offers potential for discrimination between even smaller bandwidths within the infrared spectrum, a possible aid to communication or wavemixing devices that need to rapidly identify and process optical signals.

  8. From natural attapulgite to phosphor materials: Characterization, photoluminescence and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Gu, Zheng; Gao, Xiuping; Jiang, Huie; Liu, Weisheng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Sr{sub 2.965}Al{sub 0.08}Si{sub 0.92}O{sub 5}:0.025Ce{sup 3+}, 0.01Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was synthesized from natural attapulgite. • Pure Sr{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} phase can be easily obtained. • It provides a new application field as phosphor for natural attapulgite. - Abstract: Sr{sub 2.965}Al{sub 0.08}Si{sub 0.92}O{sub 5}:0.025Ce{sup 3+}, 0.01Eu{sup 2+} (SrAlSiO:Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 2+}) phosphor from natural attapulgite (ATP) was synthesized by solid-state reaction method. For the use of ATP as a source of Si and Al, pretreatment process including mechanical grinding and acid leaching were involved. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of silicates in a wide temperature field, whereas Sr{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} within a single step. The ATP fibers were tuning into phosphor particles (about 1.5–3.0 μm) after calcination. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectra of the SrAlSiO:Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was also in good agreement with the literature results, indicating a promising potential application as an effective candidate for warm-white LEDs materials.

  9. Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, C.; Maulana, Dwindra W.

    2016-02-01

    Fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles has advanced properties compare to conventional particles applied for compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) as three band phosphor. However, suspension of fine particles easily agglomerated during preparation of spray coating of the CFL tube. Therefore, it is introduced newly developed beads mill system to disperse fine phosphor. The beads mill consist of glass beads, dispersing chamber (impellers), separator chamber, slurry pump and motors. The first important performance of beads mill is the performance of the designed on separating the beads with the suspended fine particles. We report the development of beads mill and its separation performance vary in flow rate and separator rotation speeds. The 27 kg of glass beads with 30 µm in size was poured into dispersing chamber and then water was pumped continuously through the slurry pump. The samples for the separation test was obtained every 1 hours vary in rotation speed and slurry flow rate. The results shows that the separation performance was 99.99 % obtained for the rotation speed of >1000 rpm and flow rate of 8 L/minute. The performances of the system was verified by dispersing fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ particles with concentration 1 wt.%. From the observed size distribution of particles after beads mill, it is concluded that the current design of bead mill effectively dispersed fine phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+.

  10. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  11. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  12. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  13. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  14. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  15. A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  16. Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1998-05-08

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  17. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  18. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  19. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous. PMID:26809017

  20. Machine for preparing phosphors for the fluorimetric determination of uranium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, R.E.; Wood, W.H.; Goetz, K.G.; Horr, C.A.

    1956-01-01

    The time saved by use of a machine for preparing many phosphors at one time increases the rate of productivity of the fluorimetric method for determining uranium. The machine prepares 18 phosphors at a time and eliminates the tedious and time-consuming step of preparing them by hand, while improving the precision of the method in some localities. The machine consists of a ring burner over which the platinum dishes, containing uranium and flux, are rotated. By placing the machine in an inclined position the molten flux comes into contact with all surfaces within th dish as the dishes rotate over the flame. Precision is improved because the heating and cooling conditions are the same for each of the 18 phosphors in one run as well as for successive runs.

  1. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence of phosphors for remote cryogenic thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, D. L.; Capps, G. J.; Cates, M. R.; Simmons, C. M.; Schwenterly, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    Remote cryogenic temperature measurements can be made by inducing fluorescence in phosphors with temperature-dependent emissions and measuring the emission lifetimes. The thermographic phosphor technique can be used for making precision, noncontact, cryogenic-temperature measurements in electrically hostile environments, such as high dc electric or magnetic fields. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is interested in using these thermographic phosphors for mapping hot spots on cryogenic tank walls. Europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La2O2S:Eu) and magnesium fluorogermanate doped with manganese (Mg4FGeO6:Mn) are suitable for low-temperature surface thermometry. Several emission lines, excited by a 337-nm ultraviolet laser, provide fluorescence lifetimes having logarithmic dependence with temperature from 4 to above 125 K. A calibration curve for both La2O2S:Eu and Mg4FGeO6:Mn is presented, as well as emission spectra taken at room temperature and 11 K.

  3. Ultraviolet /UV/ sensitive phosphors for silicon imaging detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Cowens, M. W.; Butner, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescence properties of UV sensitive organic phosphors and the radiometric properties of phosphor coated silicon detectors in the VUV, UV, and visible wavelengths are described. With evaporated films of coronene and liumogen, effective quantum efficiencies of up to 20% have been achieved on silicon photodiodes in the vacuum UV. With thin films of methylmethacrylate (acrylic), which are doped with organic laser dyes and deposited from solution, detector quantum efficiencies of the order of 15% for wavelengths of 120-165 nm and of 40% for wavelengths above 190 nm have been obtained. The phosphor coatings also act as antireflection coatings and thereby enhance the response of coated devices throughout the visible and near IR.

  4. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  5. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  6. Green chemistry-mediated synthesis of nanostructures of afterglow phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pooja; Haranath, D.; Chander, Harish; Singh, Sukhvir

    2008-04-01

    Various nanostructures of SrAl 2O 4:Eu 2+, Dy 3+ (SAC) afterglow phosphor were prepared in a single-step reaction using a green chemistry-mediated modified combustion process. The evolution of hazardous NxOx gases during the customary combustion reaction was completely eliminated by employing an innovative complex formation route. Another fascinating feature of the process was that, a slight change in the processing conditions ensured the synthesis of either nanoparticles or nanowires. The photoluminescence spectrum of nanophosphor showed a slight blue shift in emission (˜511 nm) as compared to the bulk phosphor (˜520 nm). The afterglow (decay) profiles of SAC nanoparticles, nanowires and bulk phosphor were compared. The chemistry underlying the nanostructure synthesis and the probable afterglow mechanism were discussed.

  7. Electrical and physical characterizations of the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Hiromu; Kitai, Hidenori; Tsujimura, Masatoshi; Kiuchi, Yuji; Nakata, Daisuke; Ono, Shuichi; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Yamasaki, Kimiyohi; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    The effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}) were investigated using both electrical and physical characterization methods. Hall measurements and split capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements revealed that the difference in field-effect mobility between wet oxide and dry oxynitride interfaces was mainly attributed to the ratio of the mobile electron density to the total induced electron density. The surface states close to the conduction band edge causing a significant trapping of inversion carriers were also evaluated. High-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HR-RBS) analysis and high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HR-ERDA) were employed to show the nanometer-scale compositional profile of the SiC-MOS interfaces for the first time. These analyses, together with cathode luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggested that the deviations of stoichiometry and roughness at the interface defined the effects of oxynitridation and wet oxidation at the interface of SiO2/4H-SiC(0001) and (000\\bar{1}).

  8. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  13. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  14. Galileo lithium/SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blagdon, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the Galileo lithium SO2 battery is described. The following general requirements of the battery are discussed: (1) electrical characteristics, (2) storage, (3) reliability, and (4) performance.

  15. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  16. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  17. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  18. Secondary lithium batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

  19. Activated phosphors having matrices of yttrium-transition metal compound

    DOEpatents

    De Kalb, E.L.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-07-01

    A method is described for preparing a phosphor composition containing a lanthanide activator element with a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO$sub 4$ with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On x-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence. (auth)

  20. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The status of technology for the manufacturing and testing of 1200 sq. cm cell materials, components, and stacks for on-site integrated energy systems is assessed. Topics covered include: (1) preparation of thin layers of silicon carbide; (2) definition and control schemes for volume changes in phosphoric acid fuel cells; (3) preparation of low resin content graphite phenolic resin composites; (4) chemical corrosion of graphite-phenolic resin composites in hot phosphoric acid; (5) analysis of electrical resistance of composite materials for fuel cells; and (6) fuel cell performance and testing.

  1. Timing properties of phosphor-coated polished LSO crystals.

    PubMed

    Schmall, Jeffrey P; Roncali, Emilie; Berg, Eric; Viswanath, Varsha; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates a time-of-flight (TOF)-depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector design for positron emission tomography (PET), based on phosphor-coated lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to fast single channel photomultiplier tubes. Interaction of the scintillation light with the phosphor coating changes the pulse shape in a depth-dependent manner. 3 × 3 × 10 mm(3) LSO scintillation crystals with polished surfaces were characterized, with and without phosphor coating, to assess DOI capability and timing properties. Two different phosphor coating geometries were studied: coating of the top surface of the crystal, and the top plus half of the crystal sides. There was negligible depth dependency in the decay time when coating only the top surface, however there was a ∼10 ns difference in end-to-end decay time when coating the top plus half of the crystal sides, sufficient to support the use of three DOI bins (3.3 mm DOI bin width). The rise time of the half-coated phosphor crystal was slightly faster at all depths, compared to uncoated crystals, however the signal amplitude was lower. Phosphor coating resulted in depth-dependent photopeak positions with an energy resolution of 13.7%, at a depth of 1 mm, and 15.3%, at a depth of 9 mm, for the half-coated crystal. Uncoated LSO crystals showed no change in photopeak position as a function of depth, with an energy resolution of 10.4%. The head-on coincidence timing resolution (CTR) of two uncoated LSO crystals was 287 ps using constant fraction discrimination for time pick-off. With phosphor coating, the CTR of the top-coated crystal was 314 ps, compared to 384 ps for the half-coated crystal. We demonstrate that the trade-off between timing resolution and DOI resolution can be controlled by the phosphor coating geometry. Here we present preliminary results demonstrating that good DOI resolution can be achieved with only a modest 26% degradation in CTR.

  2. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  3. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  4. Air breathing lithium power cells

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  5. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1210 - Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1210 Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of phosphorous acid and...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1210 - Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphorous acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1210 Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of phosphorous acid and...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1210 - Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphorous acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1210 Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of phosphorous acid and...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1210 - Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1210 Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of phosphorous acid and...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1210 - Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphorous acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1210 Phosphorous acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of phosphorous acid and...

  16. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1985-03-12

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  17. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1982-05-04

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  18. A new lithium salt with dihydroxybenzene and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhao-Ming; Sun, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2011-10-01

    A new unsymmetrical lithium salt containing F-, C6H4O22- [dianion of 1,2-benzenediol], lithium difluoro(1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (LDFBDB) is synthesized and characterized. Its thermal decomposition in nitrogen begins at 170 °C. The cyclic voltammetry study shows that the LDFBDB solution in propylene carbonate (PC) is stable up to 3.7 V versus Li+/Li. It is soluble in common organic solvents. The ionic dissociation properties of LDFBDB are examined by conductivity measurements in PC, PC+ ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), PC + dimethyl ether (DME), PC + ethylene carbonate (EC) + EMC solutions. The conductivity values of the 0.564 mol dm-3 LDFBDB electrolyte in PC + DME solution is 3.90 mS cm-1. All these properties of the new lithium salt including the thermal characteristics, electrochemical stabilities, solubilities, ionic dissociation properties are studied and compared with those of its derivatives, lithium difluoro(3-fluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (FLDFBDB), lithium [3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-o,o‧ oxalato]borate (FLBDOB), and lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LBOB).

  19. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium wallsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.; Tritz, K.

    2015-05-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  20. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  1. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2016-07-12

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Thackeray, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  4. The first catalytic asymmetric thioacetalization by chiral phosphoric acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Sheng; Wu, Wen-Biao; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-21

    We report here the first catalytic asymmetric thioacetalization of salicylaldehyde and dithiol. Chiral phosphoric acid STRIP C5 is identified as a powerful catalyst for this reaction to afford various chiral dithioacetals in high to excellent yields and enantioselectivities under mild conditions. PMID:26810819

  5. WATERSHED LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHOROUS EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory



    The distribution of different types of land cover across a watershed is a principal factor in controlling the amount of nitrogen and phosphorous exported from a watershed. A well developed literature of nutrient export coefficients by land-cover class was used to model t...

  6. Sediment and Total Phosphorous Contributors in Rock River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total phosphorous (TP) and total suspended sediment (TSS) pollution is a problem in the US Midwest and is of particular concern in the Great Lakes region where many water bodies are already eutrophic. Increases in monoculture corn planting to feed ethanol based biofuel productio...

  7. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  8. 21. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 541) AT LEFT AND POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS 321 AND 325) AT CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. A novel yellow phosphor for white light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Pan-Lai; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin; Li, Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that a novel yellow phosphor, LiSrBO3:Eu2+, was synthesized by the solid-state reaction. The excitation and emission spectra indicate that this phosphor can be effectively excited by ultraviolet (360 and 400 nm) and blue (425 and 460 nm) light, and exhibits a satisfactory yellow performance (565 nm). The role of concentration of Eu2+ on the emission intensity in LiSrBO3 is studied, and it is found that the critical concentration is 3 mol%, and the concentration self-quenching mechanism is the dipole-dipole interaction according to the Dexter theory. White light emitting diodes were generated by using an InGaN chip (460 nm or 400 nm) with LiSrBO3:Eu2+ phosphor, the CIE chromaticity is (x = 0.341, y = 0.321) and (x = 0.324, y = 0.318), respectively. Therefore, LiSrBO3:Eu2+ is a promising yellow phosphor for white light emitting diodes.

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term... transported in bulk cargo tanks except upon authorization by the Commandant (CG-522). (f) The requirements...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term... transported in bulk cargo tanks except upon authorization by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (f) The requirements...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term... transported in bulk cargo tanks except upon authorization by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (f) The requirements...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term... transported in bulk cargo tanks except upon authorization by the Commandant (CG-ENG). (f) The requirements...

  14. 46 CFR 151.50-23 - Phosphoric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-23 Phosphoric acid. (a) The term... transported in bulk cargo tanks except upon authorization by the Commandant (CG-522). (f) The requirements...

  15. Sixty years of lithium responders.

    PubMed

    Grof, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It has been 60 years since Cade first described patients who responded to antimanic lithium treatment. Two decades later, responders to lithium stabilization emerged in larger numbers. The responses of many severely ill bipolar patients to lithium were striking and called for an explanation. Remarkable reactions to a simple ion generated hope for an uncomplicated laboratory test of response and an extensive search for suitable biological markers ensued. But despite promising reports, particularly from molecular genetics, we are still waiting for a biological elucidation of the stabilizing effects of lithium. The most useful predictor of lithium stabilization has to date been the patient's clinical profile, based on a comprehensive clinical assessment: complete remissions and other characteristics of episodic clinical course, bipolar family history, low psychiatric comorbidity and a characteristic presenting psychopathology. In brief, the responders approximate the classical Kraepelinian description of a manic-depressive patient. But the most intriguing findings have recently emerged from prospective observations of the next generation: the children of lithium responders, their counterparts coming from parents who did not respond to lithium and controls. Overall, they indicate that parents and offspring suffer from a comparable brain dysfunction that manifests clinically in distinct stages. If the child's predicament starts early in childhood, it presents with varied, nonaffective or subclinical manifestations that are usually nonresponsive to standard treatments prescribed according to the symptoms. The next stage then unfolds in adolescence, first with depressive and later with activated episodes. The observations have a potential to markedly enrich the prevailing understanding and management of mood disorders. PMID:20453530

  16. Sub-Microsecond Decay Time Phosphors for Pressure Sensitive Paint Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.

    2001-03-22

    The results suggest that garnet phosphors can be engineered to function thermographically over desired temperature ranges by adjusting gallium content. Substituting gadolinium for the yttrium in the host matrix also has an effect but it is not as large. A silicate phosphor showed the greatest temperature dependence though it could not be excited to fluoresce by a blue LED. All the garnet phosphors could be excited with such a blue source. Two phosphors tested showed an increase in intensity with temperature. Other garnet and silicate materials as mentioned above will be tested in the future. In addition, some perovskite phosphors, such as GdAlO{sub 3}:Ce, will also be investigated.

  17. Modeling of reflection-type laser-driven white lighting considering phosphor particles and surface topography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Ho; Joo, Jae-Young; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents a model of blue laser diode (LD)-based white lighting coupled with a yellow YAG phosphor, for use in the proper design and fabrication of phosphor in automotive headlamps. First, the sample consisted of an LD, collecting lens, and phosphor was prepared that matches the model. The light distribution of the LD and the phosphor were modeled to investigate an effect of the surface topography and phosphor particle properties on the laser-driven white lighting systems by using the commercially available optical design software. Based on the proposed model, the integral spectrum distribution and the color coordinates were discussed.

  18. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  19. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  20. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  1. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  2. Lithium in Medicine: Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Leverson, Brian D; Goossens, Jesse L

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the mechanism of action of lithium salts from a chemical perspective. A description on how lithium salts are used to treat mental illnesses, in particular bipolar disorder, and other disease states is provided. Emphasis is not placed on the genetics and the psychopharmacology of the ailments for which lithium salts have proven to be beneficial. Rather we highlight the application of chemical methodologies for the characterization of the cellular targets of lithium salts and their distribution in tissues.

  3. Rare earth activated yttrium aluminate phosphors with modulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Muresan, L E; Popovici, E J; Perhaita, I; Indrea, E; Oro, J; Casan Pastor, N

    2016-06-01

    Yttrium aluminate (Y3 A5 O12 ) was doped with different rare earth ions (i.e. Gd(3+) , Ce(3+) , Eu(3+) and/or Tb(3+) ) in order to obtain phosphors (YAG:RE) with general formula,Y3-x-a Gdx REa Al5 O12 (x = 0; 1.485; 2.97 and a = 0.03). The synthesis of the phosphor samples was done using the simultaneous addition of reagents technique. This study reveals new aspects regarding the influence of different activator ions on the morpho-structural and luminescent characteristics of garnet type phosphor. All YAG:RE phosphors are well crystallized powders containing a cubic-Y3 Al5 O12 phase as major component along with monoclinic-Y4 Al2 O9 and orthorhombic-YAlO3 phases as the impurity. The crystallites dimensions of YAG:RE phosphors vary between 38 nm and 88 nm, while the unit cell slowly increase as the ionic radius of the activator increases. Under UV excitation, YAG:Ce exhibits yellow emission due to electron transition in Ce(3+) from the 5d level to the ground state levels ((2) F5/2 , (2) F7/2 ). The emission intensity of Ce(3+) is enhanced in the presence of the Tb(3+) ions and is decreased in the presence of Eu(3+) ions due to some radiative or non-radiative processes that take place between activator ions. By varying the rare earth ions, the emission colour can be modulated from green to white and red. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26553167

  4. Laser-activated remote phosphor light engine for projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Martin; Mehl, Oliver; Hartwig, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in blue emitting laser diodes enable attractive solutions in projection applications using phosphors for efficient light conversion with very high luminance levels. Various commercially available projectors incorporating this technology have entered the market in the past years. While luminous flux levels are still comparable to lamp-based systems, lifetime expectations of classical lamp systems are exceeded by far. OSRAM GmbH has been exploring this technology for several years and has introduced the PHASER® brand name (Phosphor + laser). State-of-the-art is a rotating phosphor wheel excited by blue laser diodes to deliver the necessary primary colors, either sequentially for single-imager projection engines, or simultaneously for 3-panel systems. The PHASER® technology enables flux and luminance scaling, which allows for smaller imagers and therefore cost-efficient projection solutions. The resulting overall efficiency and ANSI lumen specification at the projection screen of these systems is significantly determined by the target color gamut and the light transmission efficiency of the projection system. With increasing power and flux level demand, thermal issues, especially phosphor conversion related, dominate the opto-mechanical system design requirements. These flux levels are a great challenge for all components of an SSL-projection system (SSL:solid-state lighting). OSRAḾs PHASER® light engine platform is constantly expanded towards higher luminous flux levels as well as higher luminance levels for various applications. Recent experiments employ blue laser pump powers of multiple 100 Watts to excite various phosphors resulting in luminous flux levels of more than 40 klm.

  5. NASA/Marshall's lithium battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    A general lithium battery is described and a summary of lithium battery applications is presented. Four aspects of a particular lithium battery, the inducement environmental contamination monitoring battery, are discussed-design and construction details, thermal vacuum tests, projection tests, and acceptance tests.

  6. Army position on lithium battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E.

    1982-01-01

    User requirements for lithium sulfur batteries are presented. They include careful analysis of design and quality control, along with certain equipment specifications. Some of the specifications include: hermetically sealed cells; lithium limited cells with stoichiometry of lithium to sulfur dioxide as a ratio of one; low moisture content in the cells; and battery capacity.

  7. Aplastic anemia associated with lithium therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Z.; Khan, A. G.; Chaudhry, Z. A.

    1973-01-01

    A case is reported of fatal aplastic anemia developing in a 50-year-old woman who received lithium carbonate in the generally accepted dosage for a manic-depressive disorder. The serum lithium had been determined at regular intervals and never exceeded what is considered a safe level. Patients for whom lithium is prescribed should have periodic hematologic examinations. PMID:4691107

  8. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

    2013-07-01

    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. PMID:23670967

  9. Electrochemical isotope effect and lithium isotope separation.

    PubMed

    Black, Jay R; Umeda, Grant; Dunn, Bruce; McDonough, William F; Kavner, Abby

    2009-07-29

    A large electrochemical isotopic effect is observed upon the electrodeposition of lithium from solutions of propylene carbonate producing isotopically light metal deposits. The magnitude of fractionation is controlled by the applied overpotential and is largest close to equilibrium. Calculated partition function ratios for tetrahedrally coordinated lithium complexes and metallic lithium predict an equilibrium fractionation close to that measured experimentally.

  10. [Lithium induced dysfunction of the parathyroid hormone].

    PubMed

    Valeur, Nana; Andersen, Rikke Steen

    2002-01-28

    The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in patients treated with lithium is higher than that in controls. Lithium seems to affect calcium metabolism, by acting directly parathyroid hormone cells, and distal tubuli in the kidneys. Because hypercalcaemic HPT can cause psychiatric symptoms mistakenly attributed to the lithium treatment, ionised calcium should be a standard control.

  11. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  12. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  13. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

    2013-07-01

    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  14. Enzymatic saccharification coupling with polyester recovery from cotton-based waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Xiao, Wenxiong; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

    2013-02-01

    In order to recycle the cotton-based waste textiles, a novel process was designed for pretreating waste textiles with phosphoric acid to recover polyester and fermentable sugar. The effects of pretreatment conditions including, phosphoric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, time, and ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid were thoroughly investigated. Results indicated the mentioned four factors had significant influences on sugar and polyester recovery. Almost complete polyester recovery was achieved by enhancing phosphoric acid concentration, temperature and pretreatment time or reducing the ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid. However, these behaviors decreased the sugar recovery seriously. 100% polyester recovery with a maximum sugar recovery of 79.2% was achieved at the optimized conditions (85% phosphoric acid, 50°C, 7h, and the ratio of 1:15). According to the technical and cost-benefit analysis, it was technically feasible and potentially profitable to recover polyester and sugar from waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.

  15. Recent developments in the new inorganic solid-state LED phosphors.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhiguo; Xu, Zihan; Chen, Mingyue; Liu, Quanlin

    2016-07-28

    Stable and efficient phosphor systems for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are highly important with respect to their application in solid-state lighting beyond the technical limitations of traditional lighting technologies. Therefore, inorganic solid-state conversion phosphors must be precisely selected and evaluated with regard to their special material properties and synergistic optical parameters. In this perspective, we present an overview of the recent developments of LED phosphors; firstly, general photoluminescence-controlling strategies for phosphors to match LED applications have been evaluated; secondly, state-of-the-art and emerging new LED phosphors have been demonstrated. Then, methodologies for the discovery of new LED phosphors by mineral-inspired prototype evolution and new phase construction, as well as combinatorial optimization screening, and the single-particle-diagnosis approach, have been analyzed and exemplified. Finally, future developments of LED phosphors have been proposed. PMID:27302569

  16. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  17. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  18. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Imam, M. A.

    2008-05-15

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  19. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N R; Imam, M A

    2008-05-01

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  20. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  1. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lekha; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Singh, Kanwal J.

    2009-01-01

    Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C reveal substantial accelerations by as little as 0.5 mol % LiCl (relative to LDA). Substrate dependencies suggest a specific range of reactivity within which the LiCl catalysis is optimal. Standard protocols using unpurified commercial samples of n-butyllithium to prepare LDA or commercially available LDA show marked batch-dependent rates--up to 100-fold--that could prove significant to the unwary practitioner. Other lithium salts elicit more modest accelerations. The mechanism is not discussed. PMID:19191711

  2. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  4. Changing the physical and chemical properties of titanium oxynitrides TiN{sub 1-x}O{sub x} by changing the composition

    SciTech Connect

    Graciani, Jesus; Sanz, Javier Fdez.; Hamad, Said

    2009-11-01

    The stability and structural properties of titanium oxynitrides, TiN{sub 1-x}O{sub x}, of different compositions are theoretically analyzed by means of first-principles periodic density-functional calculations. We show that at x=0.55-0.6 there is a change in the preferred structure from that of NaCl type to the {alpha}-TiO arrangement. For the NaCl-type structure the cell volume increases with x while it decreases with x for the {alpha}-TiO structure. The bulk moduli are always much larger for NaCl-type structures than for {alpha}-TiO and they decrease as the amount of O increases, moving from 280 GPa for TiN to 226 GPa for TiO (NaCl-type structure) or 197 GPa for {alpha}-TiO. Changes in the electronic structure with the composition are also considered. In general we found that in the two types of structure (NaCl and {alpha}-TiO), both the band gap and the ionic character increase with the O concentration.

  5. Effect of additive gases and injection methods on chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2} remote plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Y. B.; Park, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, N.-E.; Kim, K. S.; Bae, G. H.

    2007-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of various additive gases and different injection methods on the chemical dry etching of silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride, and silicon oxide layers in F{sub 2} remote plasmas. N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} gases in the F{sub 2}/Ar/N{sub 2} and F{sub 2}/Ar/N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} remote plasmas effectively increased the etch rate of the layers. The addition of direct-injected NO gas increased the etch rates most significantly. NO radicals generated by the addition of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}+O{sub 2} or direct-injected NO molecules contributed to the effective removal of nitrogen and oxygen in the silicon nitride and oxide layers, by forming N{sub 2}O and NO{sub 2} by-products, respectively, and thereby enhancing SiF{sub 4} formation. As a result of the effective removal of the oxygen, nitrogen, and silicon atoms in the layers, the chemical dry etch rates were enhanced significantly. The process regime for the etch rate enhancement of the layers was extended at elevated temperature.

  6. Intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and quantum dots using sputter-deposited silicon oxynitride capping layers

    SciTech Connect

    McKerracher, Ian; Fu Lan; Hoe Tan, Hark; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-12-01

    Various approaches can be used to selectively control the amount of intermixing in III-V quantum well and quantum dot structures. Impurity-free vacancy disordering is one technique that is favored for its simplicity, however this mechanism is sensitive to many experimental parameters. In this study, a series of silicon oxynitride capping layers have been used in the intermixing of InGaAs/GaAs quantum well and quantum dot structures. These thin films were deposited by sputter deposition in order to minimize the incorporation of hydrogen, which has been reported to influence impurity-free vacancy disordering. The degree of intermixing was probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy and this is discussed with respect to the properties of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} films. This work was also designed to monitor any additional intermixing that might be attributed to the sputtering process. In addition, the high-temperature stress is known to affect the group-III vacancy concentration, which is central to the intermixing process. This stress was directly measured and the experimental values are compared with an elastic-deformation model.

  7. Indium and gallium oxynitrides prepared in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} by ammonolysis of the oxide precursors obtained via the citrate route

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaake, Azumi; Masubuchi, Yuji; Takeda, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2010-04-15

    Ammonia nitridation of indium and gallium oxide precursors obtained through a soft solution route led to their oxynitrides [In{sub 0.97}{open_square}{sub 0.03}][N{sub 0.92}O{sub 0.08}] at 660 {sup o}C and [Ga{sub 0.89}{open_square}{sub 0.11}][N{sub 0.66}O{sub 0.34}] at 850 {sup o}C, respectively, where {open_square} refers to a In or Ga vacancy. Cation vacancies in their wurtzite-type lattice were eliminated in similar preparations with the co-presence of Zn{sup 2+} by forming complete solid solutions of (InN){sub 1-x}(ZnO){sub x} and (GaN){sub 1-y}(ZnO){sub y}. The optical absorption edge shape was found to be relatively steep at the solid solution limits of x {approx} 0.23 and y {approx} 0.33 compared to the case without zinc.

  8. Oxynitrided Surface Layer Produced On Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy Under Low Temperature Glow Discharge Conditions For Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wierzchon, T.; Ossowski, M.; Borowski, T.; Morgiel, J.; Czarnowska, E.

    2011-01-17

    In spite that titanium oxides increase biocompatibility of titanium implants but their functional life is limited due to the problems arising from brittles and metalosis. Therefore technology, that allow to produce composite surface layer with controlled microstructure, chemical and phase composition and surface morphology on titanium alloy and eliminates the oxides disadvantages has been existing till now is searched. The requirements of titanium and its alloys implants can be fulfill by the low-temperature glow discharge assisted oxynitriding.The paper describes the surface layer of TiO{sub 2}+TiN+Ti{sub 2}N+{alpha}Ti(N) type produced at temperature 680 deg. C that preserves mechanical properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Characteristics of produced diffusion multi-phase surface layers in range of phase composition, microstructure (SEM, TEM, XRD) and its properties, such as frictional wear resistance are presented. The biological properties in dependency to the applied sterilization method are also analyzed.Properties of produced surface layers are discussed with reference to titanium alloy. The obtained data show that produced surface layers improves titanium alloy properties both frictional wear and biological. Preliminary in vitro examinations show good biocompatibility and antithrombogenic properties.

  9. Site-Specific Atomic and Electronic Structure Analysis of Epitaxial Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film on SiC(0001) by Photoelectron and Auger Electron Diffractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, Naoyuki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Matsui, Hirosuke; Goto, Kentaro; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Satoru; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The film and interface structures of epitaxial silicon oxynitride (SiON) thin film grown on a SiC(0001) surface were investigated by photoelectron diffraction. Forward focusing peaks (FFPs) corresponding to the directions from the photoelectron emitter atom to the surrounding atoms appeared in the photoelectron intensity angular distribution (PIAD). By comparing N 1s PIAD with those of Si 2p and C 1s, we confirmed that the nitrogen atoms at SiON/SiC interface replace carbon atoms at stacking fault sites. Two kinds of oxygen atom sites exist in the previously proposed model [T. Shirasawa et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 136105 (2007)]. FFP corresponding to Si-O-Si perpendicular bonds was observed in the O 1s PIAD, while diffraction rings were observed in the KLL Auger electron intensity angular distribution (AIAD), which were attributed to the diffraction patterns from outermost oxygen sites. Furthermore, O K-edge X-ray absorption spectra combined with AIAD were analyzed. An electronic structure specific to each oxygen atom site was successfully separated.

  10. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  11. Phthalocyanine cathode materials for secondary lithium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, J.; Yamaji, A.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge and charge characteristics of various phthalocyanine cathodes coupled with lithium metal are studied. The best capacity based only on cathode active material weight is 1440 A-hr/kg in the lithium/iron phthalocyanine system, and the cycle life of the lithium/Cu phthalocyanine system is more than 100 times at the discharge depth of 157 A-hr/kg. The cathode reaction mechanism is supposed to be lithium intercalation between phthalocyanine molecules. The results indicate that these phthalocyanines are promising cathode active materials for lithium secondary batteries.

  12. Lithium-cupric sulfide cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, A.J.; Bump, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Lithium cells have become the primary power source for cardiac pacemakers due to their reliability and longevity at low current drain rates. A lithium-cupric sulfide cell was developed which makes maximum use of the shape of a pacemaker's battery compartment. The cell has a stable voltage throughout 90% of its lifetime. It then drops to a second stable voltage before depletion. The voltage drop creates a small decrease in pacemaker rate, which alerts the physician to replace the pacemaker. No loss of capacity due to self-discharge as been seen to date, and cells have proven to be safe under extreme conditions. 2 refs.

  13. US Army lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legath, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The how, why and where the Army is applying lithium batteries are addressed. The Army is committing its efforts to the utilization of lithium batteries in new equipment that will be going into the field possibly from FY-80 and thereafter. The Army's philosophy is to guide their users and the equipment designers, to use battery packs are opposed to singel cells. After a detailed description of the battery types that are being considered, a discussion is presented in which questions and comments are exchanged among the Workshop participants.

  14. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

  15. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Galanina, L. I. Zelenskaja, N. S.

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  16. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis.

  17. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  18. Lithium Abundance in Planet Search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Justin; Yale Exoplanets

    2016-01-01

    Since most lithium in the universe is primordial and is destroyed in stars, lithium abundance can be used as a stellar age indicator. Some research seems to show that planet formation may also affect lithium abundance in exoplanet host stars (EHS). However, small and heterogenous samples have made both of these phenomena unclear. Further study of lithium abundance in EHS is needed to better understand possible physical roles of lithium in planet formation theory. We use a large homogenous sample with accurate stellar parameters on which we will use equivalent width analysis to determine precise lithium abundances. From these abundance values we determine an age vs. abundance relation. Additionally, we aim to explore correlation between lithium abundance and planet formation.

  19. Liquid lithium experiments in CDX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeski, R.; Efthimion, P.; Hoffman, D.; Jones, B.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Menard, J.; Munsat, T.; Raftopoulos, S.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Soukhanovski, V.; Stutman, D.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Whyte, D.; Maingi, R.; Causey, R.; Buchanauer, D.

    2000-10-01

    The research goal of the Current Drive eXperiment - Upgrade (CDX-U) is to investigate the use of liquid lithium as a plasma-facing component in an operating spherical torus. A liquid lithium rail limiter system has been constructed at UCSD and will be installed in CDX-U in late July 2000. A liquid lithium toroidal belt limiter is to follow in October 2000. Modifications to CDX-U to accommodate in-vessel inventories of approximately 1 liter of liquid lithium, techniques for loading lithium onto the limiters, and other preparations will be described. Results of CDX-U experiments with lithium limiter systems on lithium influx, core and edge plasma modifications associated with very low recycling edges, and the effect of forced disruptions and halo currents on the liquid metal will be presented as available.

  20. Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect

    R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

    2000-11-15

    The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.