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Sample records for lithium salt nature

  1. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  2. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  3. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  4. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  5. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  6. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; ...

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition,more » these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.« less

  7. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; Fang, Youxing; Reeves, Kimberly Shawn; Chi, Miaofang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition, these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.

  8. A Molten Salt Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Vincent; Tozier, Dylan; Tan, Hongjin; Burke, Colin M; Gallant, Betar M; Uddin, Jasim; Greer, Julia R; McCloskey, Bryan D; Chase, Gregory V; Addison, Dan

    2016-03-02

    Despite the promise of extremely high theoretical capacity (2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2, 1675 mAh per gram of oxygen), many challenges currently impede development of Li/O2 battery technology. Finding suitable electrode and electrolyte materials remains the most elusive challenge to date. A radical new approach is to replace volatile, unstable and air-intolerant organic electrolytes common to prior research in the field with alkali metal nitrate molten salt electrolytes and operate the battery above the liquidus temperature (>80 °C). Here we demonstrate an intermediate temperature Li/O2 battery using a lithium anode, a molten nitrate-based electrolyte (e.g., LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic) and a porous carbon O2 cathode with high energy efficiency (∼95%) and improved rate capability because the discharge product, lithium peroxide, is stable and moderately soluble in the molten salt electrolyte. The results, supported by essential state-of-the-art electrochemical and analytical techniques such as in situ pressure and gas analyses, scanning electron microscopy, rotating disk electrode voltammetry, demonstrate that Li2O2 electrochemically forms and decomposes upon cycling with discharge/charge overpotentials as low as 50 mV. We show that the cycle life of such batteries is limited only by carbon reactivity and by the uncontrolled precipitation of Li2O2, which eventually becomes electrically disconnected from the O2 electrode.

  9. Plasma and Brain Pharmacokinetics of Previously Unexplored Lithium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam J.; Kim, Seol-Hee; Tan, Jun; Sneed, Kevin B.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Shytle, R. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Despite its narrow therapeutic window, lithium is still regarded as the gold standard comparator and benchmark treatment for mania. Recent attempts to find new drugs with similar therapeutic activities have yielded new chemical entities. However, these potential new drugs have yet to match the many bioactivities attributable to lithium's efficacy for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. Consequently, an intense effort for re-engineering lithium therapeutics using crystal engineering is currently underway. We sought to improve the likelihood of success of these endeavors by evaluating the pharmacokinetics of previously unexplored lithium salts with organic anions (lithium salicylate and lithium lactate). We report that these lithium salts exhibit profoundly different pharmacokinetics compared to the more common FDA approved salt, lithium carbonate, in rats. Remarkably, lithium salicylate produced elevated plasma and brain levels of lithium beyond 48 hours post-dose without the sharp peak that contributes to the toxicity problems of current lithium therapeutics. These findings could be important for the development of the next generation of lithium therapeutics. PMID:25045517

  10. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-02-12

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

  11. Application of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Gourishankar, K. V.

    1998-11-11

    Metallothermic reductions have been extensively studied in the field of extractive metallurgy. At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), we have developed a molten-salt based reduction process using lithium. This process was originally developed to reduce actinide oxides present in spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary thermodynamic considerations indicate that this process has the potential to be adapted for the extraction of other metals. The reduction is carried out at 650 C in a molten-salt (LiCl) medium. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), produced during the reduction of the actinide oxides, dissolves in the molten salt. At the end of the reduction step, the lithium is regenerated from the salt by an electrowinning process. The lithium and the salt from the electrowinning are then reused for reduction of the next batch of oxide fuel. The process cycle has been successfully demonstrated on an engineering scale in a specially designed pyroprocessing facility. This paper discusses the applicability of lithium in molten-salt reduction processes with specific reference to our process. Results are presented from our work on actinide oxides to highlight the role of lithium and its effect on process variables in these molten-salt based reduction processes.

  12. New MALDI matrices based on lithium salts for the analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters.

    PubMed

    Horká, Petra; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Pecková, Karolina; Cvačka, Josef

    2014-07-01

    Lithium salts of organic aromatic acids (lithium benzoate, lithium salicylate, lithium vanillate, lithium 2,5-dimethoxybenzoate, lithium 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalate, lithium α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and lithium sinapate) were synthesized and tested as potential matrices for the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters. The analytes were desorbed using nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) and ionized via the attachment of a lithium cation, yielding [M + Li](+) adducts. The sample preparation and the experimental conditions were optimized for each matrix using stearyl behenate and n-triacontane standards. The performance of the new matrices in terms of signal intensity and reproducibility, the mass range occupied by matrix ions and the laser power threshold were studied and compared with a previously recommended lithium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate matrix (LiDHB) (Cvačka and Svatoš, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2003, 17, 2203). Several of the new matrices performed better than LiDHB. Lithium vanillate offered a 2-3 times and 7-9 times higher signal for wax esters and hydrocarbons, respectively. Also, the signal reproducibility improved substantially, making this matrix a suitable candidate for imaging applications. In addition, the diffuse reflectance spectra and solubility of the synthesized compounds were investigated and discussed with respect to the compound's ability to serve as MALDI matrices. The applicability of selected matrices was tested on natural samples of wax esters and hydrocarbons.

  13. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9538 - Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9538 Lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo... substance identified generically as lithium salt of sulfophenyl azo phenyl azo disulfostilbene (PMN...

  18. Effect of organo and inorganic lithium salt on human blood plasma glutathione- A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hashmat; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Hashmat, Farwa

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of toxicological effect of various metals is the field of interest for toxicological scientists since four to five decades and especially the toxicological effect of those drugs containing metals and there use is common because there is no other choice except to use these metal containing drugs. Inorganic as well as organic salts of lithium are commonly used in prophylaxis and treatments of many psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to see the difference between the effect of organic and inorganic salt of lithium commonly used in psychiatric disorders on the GSH of human blood plasma. It is the scientific fact that ionic dissociation of organic and inorganic salts of any metal is always quite different hence to prove this fact, the effect of lithium citrate (organic salt of lithium) and lithium carbonate (inorganic salt of lithium) was investigated on human blood plasma GSH to find the difference between the effect of two. Ellman's method was used for the quantification of glutathione contents in plasma. It was found that lithium citrate decrease plasma GSH contents less than lithium carbonate indicating that organic salts of lithium are safe than inorganic salts of lithium when are used in psychiatric disorders. Further to analyze the effect of organic and inorganic salt of lithium on blood plasma GSH with the increase in incubation time was also evaluated and was found that both concentration and time dependent effect of organic salt of lithium shows that this salt has decreased plasma GSH contents of human blood less than inorganic salt of lithium either by promoting oxidation of GSH into GSSG or by lithium glutathione complex formation. These results suggest the physicians that the use of organic lithium salts is much safer than inorganic salts of lithium in terms of depletion of blood plasma GSH contents.

  19. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  20. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; ...

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  1. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  2. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine

  3. Correlating Microstructural Lithium Metal Growth with Electrolyte Salt Depletion in Lithium Batteries Using ⁷Li MRI.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hee Jung; Ilott, Andrew J; Trease, Nicole M; Mohammadi, Mohaddese; Jerschow, Alexej; Grey, Clare P

    2015-12-09

    Lithium dendrite growth in lithium ion and lithium rechargeable batteries is associated with severe safety concerns. To overcome these problems, a fundamental understanding of the growth mechanism of dendrites under working conditions is needed. In this work, in situ (7)Li magnetic resonance (MRI) is performed on both the electrolyte and lithium metal electrodes in symmetric lithium cells, allowing the behavior of the electrolyte concentration gradient to be studied and correlated with the type and rate of microstructure growth on the Li metal electrode. For this purpose, chemical shift (CS) imaging of the metal electrodes is a particularly sensitive diagnostic method, enabling a clear distinction to be made between different types of microstructural growth occurring at the electrode surface and the eventual dendrite growth between the electrodes. The CS imaging shows that mossy types of microstructure grow close to the surface of the anode from the beginning of charge in every cell studied, while dendritic growth is triggered much later. Simple metrics have been developed to interpret the MRI data sets and to compare results from a series of cells charged at different current densities. The results show that at high charge rates, there is a strong correlation between the onset time of dendrite growth and the local depletion of the electrolyte at the surface of the electrode observed both experimentally and predicted theoretical (via the Sand's time model). A separate mechanism of dendrite growth is observed at low currents, which is not governed by salt depletion in the bulk liquid electrolyte. The MRI approach presented here allows the rate and nature of a process that occurs in the solid electrode to be correlated with the concentrations of components in the electrolyte.

  4. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells can be enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) in a carbonate solvent mixture. The cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperform those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles. The Li||NCA cells with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on the Li metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  5. Characterization of Lithium Polysulfide Salts in Homopolymers and Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dunyang; Wujcik, Kevin; Balsara, Nitash

    Ion-conducting polymers are important for solid-state batteries due to the promise of better safety and the potential to produce higher energy density batteries. Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes can provide high ionic conductivity and mechanical strength through microphase separation. One of the potential use of block copolymer electrolytes is in lithium-sulfur batteries, a system that has high theoretical energy density wherein the reduction of sulfur leads to the formation of lithium polysulfide intermediates. In this study we investigate the effect of block copolymer morphology on the speciation and transport properties of the polysulfides. The morphology and conductivities of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) containing lithium polysulfides were studies using small-angle X-ray scattering and ac impedance spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy is being used to determine nature of the polysulfide species in poly(ethylene oxide) and SEO. Department of Energy, Soft Matter Electron Microscopy Program and Battery Materials Research Program.

  6. Ionic liquid-based electrolyte with binary lithium salts for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Qizhen; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Nan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Qian, Ji; Li, Li

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable Li-S batteries have suffered several technical obstacles, such as rapid capacity fading and low coulombic efficiency. To overcome these problems, we design new electrolytes containing N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (Pyr1,2O1TFSI) and tri(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (TEGDME) in mass ratio of 7:3. Moreover, Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) is introduced for the modification. Although the addition of LiODFB as additive lead to extremely high viscosity of electrolyte and inferior performance of the cells, the electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, 0.84 nm) and LiODFB (0.60 nm) mixture with a total molar concentration of 0.4 mol kg-1 as binary lithium salt shows excellent electrochemical performance. The Pyr1,2O1TFSI/TEGDME electrolyte with LiTFSI/LiODFB binary lithium salts in mole ratio of 6:4 is obtained after optimizing ratio. The Li-S cells containing this electrolyte system show excellent capacity and cycle performance, whose initial discharge capacity is 1264.4 mAh g-1, and retains 911.4 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the coulombic efficiency more than 95%. It can be attributed the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability of LiODFB which protect Li anode from suffering lithium dendrites and prevent the shuttle phenomenon. The novel electrolytes provide good cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency for the Li-S batteries, which is suggested as a promising electrolyte for Li-S batteries.

  7. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates. Acyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect

    Afroz, Taliman; Seo, D. M.; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2015-03-06

    Solvate crystal structures serve as useful models for the molecular-level interactions within the diverse solvates present in liquid electrolytes. Although acyclic carbonate solvents are widely used for Li-ion battery electrolytes, only three solvate crystal structures with lithium salts are known for these and related solvents. The present work, therefore, reports six lithium salt solvate structures with dimethyl and diethyl carbonate: (DMC)2:LiPF6, (DMC)1:LiCF3SO3, (DMC)1/4:LiBF4, (DEC)2:LiClO4, (DEC)1:LiClO4 and (DEC)1:LiCF3SO3 and four with the structurally related methyl and ethyl acetate: (MA)2:LiClO4, (MA)1:LiBF4, (EA)1:LiClO4 and (EA)1:LiBF4.

  8. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Hanjun; Driscoll, Peter; Lucht, Brett; Kerr, John

    2011-09-30

    A new class of lithium salts of malonatoborate anions has been synthesized. These six-membered-ring salts provided slightly lower ionic conductivity than that of LiBOB and LiBF4. Nevertheless, compared with LiBOB and LiPF6, the lowered ring strains in the malonatoborate structures and reduced numbers of fluorine atoms in the molecules was found to enhance the thermal and water stabilities and compatibilities of these salts with ether solvents. Small amount LiDMMDFB when used as an additive, was found to stabilize LiPF6 in carbonate electrolytes at 80°C for one month. Employing LiMDFB as the electrolyte in Li/Li cells and full cells, large interfacial impedances were observed on lithium metal and the cathode. Moreover, the large impedances are at least partially attributed to the acidic hydrogen atoms in the malonate structure. This issue can be addressed by replacing the acidic atoms with methyl groups.

  9. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Zhang, Jian; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Yaohui; Johnson, Bradley R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Blake, Thomas A.; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-04

    The application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable batteries is hindered by Li dendrite growth during Li deposition and low Li Coulombic efficiency (CE), where the nonaqueous electrolyte plays a critical role. In this work, the effects of different carbonate solvents and Li salts on Li deposition morphology and CE were systematically investigated. Typically cyclic carbonates are found to favor the formation of uniform Li film and improve Li CE than linear carbonates do. Several specific cyclic carbonates that are conventionally used as solid electrolyte interface formation additives in Li ion batteries can also improve the CE of Li anode. Furthermore, among the nine electrolyte salts studied, LiAsF6 and LiBOB lead to the highest CE for Li anode. LiBOB also leads to much smoother Li morphology than other salts do. Considering the better safety of LiBOB as compared to LiAsF6, LiBOB is a promising Li salt for rechargeable Li metal batteries with high CE. By combining the best electrolyte solvent/salt that can lead to high Li CE and novel electrolyte additives that can prevent dendrite formation, it is possible to find an electrolyte that not only prevents Li dendrite formation but also lead to high CE during Li deposition/stripping processes.

  10. Enhanced charging capability of lithium metal batteries based on lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-lithium bis(oxalato)borate dual-salt electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Chen, Xilin; Mei, Donghai; Bowden, Mark E.; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries with conventional LiPF6-carbonate electrolytes have been reported to fail quickly at charging current densities of about 1.0 mA cm-2 and above. In this work, we demonstrate the rapid charging capability of the Li||LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cells enabled by a dual-salt electrolyte of LiTFSI-LiBOB in a carbonate solvent mixture. It is found that the thickness of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode largely increases with increasing charging current density. However, the cells using the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte significantly outperforms those using the LiPF6 electrolyte at high charging current densities. At the charging current density of 1.50 mA cm-2, the Li||NCA cells with the dual-salt electrolyte can still deliver a discharge capacity of 131 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention of 80% after 100 cycles, while those with the LiPF6 electrolyte start to show fast capacity fading after the 30th cycle and only exhibit a low capacity of 25 mAh g-1 and a low retention of 15% after 100 cycles. The reasons for the good chargeability and cycling stability of the cells using LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt electrolyte can be attributed to the good film-formation ability of the electrolyte on lithium metal anode and the highly conductive nature of the sulfur-rich interphase layer.

  11. Room temperature molten salt as medium for lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. S.; Zhou, R. Q.

    Due to the wide electrochemical window and high ionic conductivity, the 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MeEtImCl) room temperature molten salt (RTMS) was investigated as the medium for lithium battery in the present work. The addition of C 6H 5SO 2Cl to the RTMS was shown to improve its chemical stability and the reversibility of the lithium electrode because of the removal of Al 2Cl 7- from the melt. Electrochemical reaction which occurred at the LiCoO 2 was studied and the carbon current collector was found to interact with the melt. Out of the various carbon materials studied, graphite was found to be the best material. A LiAl/LiCoO 2 battery using RTMS as the electrolyte was assembled for battery test. Satisfactory results were obtained in preliminary cycling, showing a cell voltage of 3.45 V with better than 90% coulombic efficiency and a discharging capacity of 112 mA h/g LiCoO 2 at current density of 1 mA/cm 2.

  12. Effects of lithium salts on ASR gel composition and expansion of mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Mitsunori; Fuwa, Hirohito

    2003-06-01

    Suppression of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion in mortar and concrete by the addition of lithium salts has been confirmed by some workers. It has been revealed that lithium hydroxide tended to reduce the reaction between sodium or potassium hydroxide and reactive silica, and that the ASR gel incorporating lithium was less expansive. However, it has not been reported how the addition of a lithium salt influenced the composition of the ASR gel. The calcium in ASR gel is considered to play an important role in the expansion of the gel. Thus, it is significant to characterize ASR gel composition in mortars containing lithium salts by BSE-EDS analysis. This study aims to discuss the mechanisms of suppression of ASR expansion in mortar by lithium salts from the viewpoint of ASR gel composition. The average CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio in ASR gels decreased with increasing amount of added lithium salts. It should be noted that the extent of variations in the CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio in ASR gels significantly decreased with increasing amount of lithium salts. The addition of relatively small amounts of LiOH and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} resulted in increased expansion. We also obtained an unexpected result that ASR gels became homogeneous with respect to their CaO contents at high dosage levels. However, the reduction in average CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratios and the homogenization in the CaO content of ASR gels due to the addition of lithium salts may not be related to the expansion of mortars.

  13. New glyme-cyclic imide lithium salt complexes as thermally stable electrolytes for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takashi; Hachida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    New glyme-Li salt complexes were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of a novel cyclic imide lithium salt LiN(C 2F 4S 2O 4) (LiCTFSI) and a glyme (triglyme (G3) or tetraglyme (G4)). The glyme-Li salt complexes, [Li(G3)][CTFSI] and [Li(G4)][CTFSI], are solid and liquid, respectively, at room temperature. The thermal stability of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is much higher than that of pure G4, and the vapor pressure of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is negligible at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Although the viscosity of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is high (132.0 mPa s at 30 °C), because of its high molar concentration (ca. 3 mol dm -3), its ionic conductivity at 30 °C is relatively high, i.e., 0.8 mS cm -1, which is slightly lower than that of a conventional organic electrolyte solution (1 mol dm -3 LiTFSI dissolved in propylene carbonate). The self-diffusion coefficients of a Li + cation, a CTFSI - anion, and a glyme molecule were measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR method (PGSE-NMR). The ionicity (dissociativity) of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] at 30 °C is ca. 0.5, as estimated from the PGSE-NMR diffusivity measurements and the ionic conductivity measurements. Results of linear sweep voltammetry revealed that [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is electrochemically stable in an electrode potential range of 0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li +. The reversible deposition-stripping behavior of lithium was observed by cyclic voltammetry. The [LiCoO 2|[Li(G4)][CTFSI]|Li metal] cell showed a stable charge-discharge cycling behavior during 50 cycles, indicating that the [Li(G4)][CTFSI] complex is applicable to a 4 V class lithium secondary battery.

  14. Lithium insertion in graphite from ternary ionic liquid-lithium salt electrolytes. I. Electrochemical characterization of the electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appetecchi, Giovanni B.; Montanino, Maria; Balducci, Andrea; Lux, Simon F.; Winterb, Martin; Passerini, Stefano

    In this paper we report the results of chemical-physical investigation performed on ternary room temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt mixtures as electrolytes for lithium-ion battery systems. The ternary electrolytes were made by mixing N-methyl- N-propyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (PYR 13FSI) and N-butyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR 14TFSI) ionic liquids with lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6) or lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The mixtures were developed based on preliminary results on the cyclability of graphite electrodes in the IL-LiX binary electrolytes. The results clearly show the beneficial synergic effect of the two ionic liquids on the electrochemical properties of the mixtures.

  15. Electrochemical studies on epoxidised natural rubber-based gel polymer electrolytes for lithium-air cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S. N.; Johari, N. A.; Ali, A. M. M.; Harun, M. K.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    Gel polymer electrolyte films comprised of 50% epoxidised natural rubber polymer host, lithium triflate salt (LiCF 3SO 3), and ethylene carbonate (EC) or propylene carbonate (PC) plasticizer are prepared using the solution-casting technique. AC impedance studies show that the electrical conductivity of the electrolytes is dependent on both the salt and plasticizer concentrations. The highest room temperature conductivity of 4.92 × 10 -4 S cm -1 is achieved when 10 wt.% propylene carbonate is introduced into the system containing 1.0 g 50% epoxidised natural rubber polymer doped with 35 wt.% LiCF 3SO 3. Conductivity studies of these polymer electrolytes are carried out at various temperatures and are found to obey the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) rule. The highest conducting plasticized sample is used as a gelled electrolyte for lithium-air cells.

  16. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-03-11

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10{sup -10} Scm{sup -1} is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system is 1.36x10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  17. Concentrated dual-salt electrolytes for improving the cycling stability of lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Liu; Qiang, Ma; Zheng, Fang; Jie, Ma; Yong-Sheng, Hu; Zhi-Bin, Zhou; Hong, Li; Xue-Jie, Huang; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable Li batteries, due to its high theoretical specific capacity (3860 mAh/g), low density (0.534 g/cm3), and low negative electrochemical potential (-3.040 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode). In this work, the concentrated electrolytes with dual salts, composed of Li[N(SO2F)2] (LiFSI) and Li[N(SO2CF3)2] (LiTFSI) were studied. In this dual-salt system, the capacity retention can even be maintained at 95.7% after 100 cycles in Li|LiFePO4 cells. A Li|Li cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 600 h, and a Li|Cu cell can be cycled at 0.5 mA/cm2 for more than 200 cycles with a high average Coulombi efficiency of 99%. These results show that the concentrated dual-salt electrolytes exhibit superior electrochemical performance and would be a promising candidate for application in rechargeable Li batteries. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210, 51472268, 51421002, and 11234013) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010300).

  18. Combined gettering and molten salt process for tritium recovery from lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Finn, P.A.; Bartlit, J.; Tanaka, S.; Teria, T.; Yamawaki, M.

    1988-02-01

    A new tritium recovery concept from lithium has been developed as part of the US/Japan collaboration on Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor Design Studies. This concept combines the ..gamma..-gettering process as the front end to recover tritium from the coolant, and a molten salt recovery process to extract tritium for fuel processing. A secondary lithium is used to regenerate the tritium from the gettering bed and, in the process, increases the tritium concentration by a factor of about 20. That way, the required size of the molten salt process becomes very small. A potential problem is the possible poisoning of the gettering bed by the salt dissolved in lithium. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  20. Thermophysical Properties and Corrosion Characterization of Low Cost Lithium Containing Nitrate Salts Produced in Northern Chile for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Angel G.; Gomez, Judith C.; Galleguillos, Hector; Fuentealba, Edward

    2016-05-31

    In recent years, lithium containing salts have been studied for thermal energy storage (TES) systems applications, because of their optimal thermophysical properties. In solar power plants, lithium is seen as a way to improve the properties of molten salts used today. Lithium nitrate is a good candidate for sensible heat storage, due to its ability to increase the salt mixture's working temperature range. In the present research, thermophysical properties characterization of lithium nitrate containing salts, produced in Chile, have been carried out. Corrosion evaluations of carbon and low chromium steels were performed at 390 degrees C for 1000 hours. Thermophysical properties of the salt mixtures, such as thermal stability and heat capacity, were measured before and after corrosion tests. Chemical composition of the salts was also determined and an estimation of Chilean production costs is reported. Results showed that purity, thermal stability and heat capacity of the salts were reduced, caused by partial thermal decomposition and incorporation of corrosion products from the steel.

  1. A new class of Solvent-in-Salt electrolyte for high-energy rechargeable metallic lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan

    2013-01-01

    Liquid electrolyte plays a key role in commercial lithium-ion batteries to allow conduction of lithium-ion between cathode and anode. Traditionally, taking into account the ionic conductivity, viscosity and dissolubility of lithium salt, the salt concentration in liquid electrolytes is typically less than 1.2 mol l(-1). Here we show a new class of 'Solvent-in-Salt' electrolyte with ultrahigh salt concentration and high lithium-ion transference number (0.73), in which salt holds a dominant position in the lithium-ion transport system. It remarkably enhances cyclic and safety performance of next-generation high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries via an effective suppression of lithium dendrite growth and shape change in the metallic lithium anode. Moreover, when used in lithium-sulphur battery, the advantage of this electrolyte is further demonstrated that lithium polysulphide dissolution is inhibited, thus overcoming one of today's most challenging technological hurdles, the 'polysulphide shuttle phenomenon'. Consequently, a coulombic efficiency nearing 100% and long cycling stability are achieved.

  2. Dual effectiveness of lithium salt in controlling both delayed ettringite formation and ASR in concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Ekolu, S.O. . E-mail: stephen.ekolu@wits.ac.za; Thomas, M.D.A.; Hooton, R.D.

    2007-06-15

    The influence of lithium nitrate on expansions due to delayed ettringite formation (DEF) and alkali-silica reaction (ASR) has been investigated. Effects of the lithium salt were examined in heat-cured mortars and concretes containing one or both damage mechanisms. The mortars and concretes made using reactive and/or non-reactive aggregates were subjected to heat treatment consisting of a hydration delay period of 4 h at 23 deg. C followed by steam-curing at 95 deg. C and then stored in limewater. Results showed that the lithium salt admixture was able to reduce the occurrence of deleterious expansion due to delayed ettringite formation in addition to controlling alkali-silica reaction in cementitious systems containing one or both mechanisms. In concretes made using non-reactive limestone aggregates, incorporation of lithium nitrate in a proportion of 0.74 M ratio of Li to (Na + K) was found to control delayed ettringite formation during the one-year period of this study. By analyzing the leaching properties of lithium and other alkalis from mortars during storage, it was found that a substantial amount of lithium was retained in the cementitious system in a slightly soluble form, and is expected to be responsible for reducing DEF.

  3. Deep eutectic solvents based on N-methylacetamide and a lithium salt as suitable electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Boisset, Aurélien; Menne, Sebastian; Jacquemin, Johan; Balducci, Andrea; Anouti, Mérièm

    2013-12-14

    In this work, we present a study on the physical and electrochemical properties of three new Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) based on N-methylacetamide (MAc) and a lithium salt (LiX, with X = bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, TFSI; hexafluorophosphate, PF6; or nitrate, NO3). Based on DSC measurements, it appears that these systems are liquid at room temperature for a lithium salt mole fraction ranging from 0.10 to 0.35. The temperature dependences of the ionic conductivity and the viscosity of these DESs are correctly described by using the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) type fitting equation, due to the strong interactions between Li(+), X(-) and MAc in solution. Furthermore, these electrolytes possess quite large electrochemical stability windows up to 4.7-5 V on Pt, and demonstrate also a passivating behavior toward the aluminum collector at room temperature. Based on these interesting electrochemical properties, these selected DESs can be classified as potential and promising electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For this purpose, a test cell was then constructed and tested at 25 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C by using each selected DES as an electrolyte and LiFePO4 (LFP) material as a cathode. The results show a good compatibility between each DES and LFP electrode material. A capacity of up to 160 mA h g(-1) with a good efficiency (99%) is observed in the DES based on the LiNO3 salt at 60 °C despite the presence of residual water in the electrolyte. Finally preliminary tests using a LFP/DES/LTO (lithium titanate) full cell at room temperature clearly show that LiTFSI-based DES can be successfully introduced into LIBs. Considering the beneficial properties, especially, the cost of these electrolytes, such introduction could represent an important contribution for the realization of safer and environmentally friendly LIBs.

  4. Studies on lithium salts to mitigate ASR-induced expansion in new concrete: a critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X. . E-mail: k488i@unb.ca; Thomas, M.D.A.; Bremner, T.W.; Balcom, B.J.; Folliard, K.J.

    2005-09-01

    This paper provides a critical review of the research work conducted so far on the suppressive effects of lithium compounds on expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete and on the mechanism or mechanisms by which lithium inhibits the expansion. After a thorough examination of the existing literature regarding lithium salts in controlling ASR expansion, a summary of research findings is provided. It shows that all the lithium salts studied, including LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiOH, LiOH.H{sub 2}O, LiNO{sub 3}, LiNO{sub 2}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, are effective in suppressing ASR expansion in new concrete, provided they are used at the appropriate dosages. Among these compounds, LiNO{sub 3} appears to be the most promising one. Although the mechanism(s) for the suppressive effects of lithium are not well understood, several mechanisms have been proposed. A detailed discussion about these existing mechanisms is provided in the paper. Finally, some recommendations for future studies are identified.

  5. Influence of lithium salts on the discharge chemistry of Li-air cells

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Nanda, Jagjit; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Dudney, Nancy J

    2012-01-01

    In this work we show that the use of a high boiling point ether solvent (tetraglyme) promotes the formation of Li2O2 in a lithium-air cell. In addition, another major constituent in the discharge product of a Li-air cell contains halides, from the lithium salt, and the tetraglyme used as the solvent. This information is critical to the development of Li-air electrolytes which are stable and promote the formation of the desired Li2O2 products.

  6. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  7. Lithium-Salt-Containing High-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene-block-Polyethylene Oxide Block Copolymer Films.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Rasool, Majid; Brunner, Simon; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-08-10

    Ionic conductivity in relation to the morphology of lithium-doped high-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer films was investigated as solid-state membranes for lithium-ion batteries. The tendency of the polyethylene (PEO) block to crystallize was highly suppressed by increasing both the salt-doping level and the temperature. The PEO crystallites completely vanished at a salt-doping ratio of Li/EO>0.08, at which the PEO segments were hindered from entering the crystalline unit of the PEO chain. A kinetically trapped lamella morphology of PS-b-PEO was observed, due to PEO crystallization. The increase in the lamella spacing with increasing salt concentration was attributed to the conformation of the PEO chain rather than the volume contribution of the salt or the previously reported increase in the effective interaction parameter. Upon loading the salt, the PEO chains changed from a compact/highly folded conformation to an amorphous/expanded-like conformation. The ionic conductivity was enhanced by amorphization of PEO and thereby the mobility of the PEO blocks increased upon increasing the salt-doping level.

  8. Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water using multivariate curve resolution of near-infrared spectra.

    PubMed

    Barba, M Isabel; Larrechi, M Soledad; Coronas, Alberto

    2016-05-05

    The hydration process of lithium iodide, lithium bromide, lithium chloride and lithium nitrate in water was analyzed quantitatively by applying multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to their near infrared spectra recorded between 850 nm and 1100 nm. The experiments were carried out using solutions with a salt mass fraction between 0% and 72% for lithium bromide, between 0% and 67% for lithium nitrate and between 0% and 62% for lithium chloride and lithium iodide at 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. Three factors were determined for lithium bromide and lithium iodide and two factors for the lithium chloride and lithium nitrate by singular value decomposition (SVD) of their spectral data matrices. These factors are associated with various chemical environments in which there are aqueous clusters containing the ions of the salts and non-coordinated water molecules. Spectra and concentration profiles of non-coordinated water and cluster aqueous were retrieved by MCR-ALS. The amount of water involved in the process of hydration of the various salts was quantified. The results show that the water absorption capacity increases in the following order LiI < LiBr < LiNO3 < LiCl. The salt concentration at which there is no free water in the medium was calculated at each one of the temperatures considered. The values ranged between 62.6 and 65.1% for LiBr, 45.5-48.3% for LiCl, 60.4-61.2% for LiI and 60.3-63.7% for LiNO3. These values are an initial approach to determining the concentration as from which crystal formation is favored.

  9. Discharge characteristics of lithium/molten nitrate thermal battery cells using silver salts as solid cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManis, G. E.; Miles, M. H.; Fletcher, A. N.

    1985-12-01

    Thermal battery cells using molten nitrate electrolytes and liquid lithium anodes have been evaluated using several silver salts with low solubility in molten nitrates as solid cathode materials. These cathode materials do not readily diffuse into the anolyte and, thus, do not have parasitic reactions with the lithium anode. Furthermore, the solid cathode materials have voltammetric characteristics as favorable as many soluble silver salt cathodes. This paper presents the effects of temperature, current density, and cathode material on cell discharge characteristics.

  10. Molten Salt Electrolytically Produced Carbon/Tin Nanomaterial as the Anode in a Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Rajshekar; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2017-03-01

    A carbon/tin nanomaterial, consisting of predominantly Sn-filled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, is prepared by molten salt electrochemistry, using electrodes of graphite and an electrolyte of LiCl salt containing a small admixture of SnCl2. The C/Sn hybrid material generated is incorporated into the active anode material of a lithium ion battery and tested with regard to storage capacity and cycling behavior. The results demonstrate that the C/Sn material has favorable properties, in terms of energy density and in particular long-term stability, that exceed those of the individual components alone. The initial irreversible capacity of the material is somewhat larger than that of conventional battery graphite which is due to its unique nanostructure. Overall the results would indicate the suitability of this material for use in the anodes of lithium ion batteries with high rate capability.

  11. Lithium recovery from salt lake brine by H2TiO3.

    PubMed

    Chitrakar, Ramesh; Makita, Yoji; Ooi, Kenta; Sonoda, Akinari

    2014-06-21

    The details of the ion exchange properties of layered H2TiO3, derived from the layered Li2TiO3 precursor upon treatment with HCl solution, with lithium ions in the salt lake brine (collected from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia) are reported. The lithium adsorption rate is slow, requiring 1 d to attain equilibrium at room temperature. The adsorption of lithium ions by H2TiO3 follows the Langmuir model with an adsorptive capacity of 32.6 mg g(-1) (4.7 mmol g(-1)) at pH 6.5 from the brine containing NaHCO3 (NaHCO3 added to control the pH). The total amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium adsorbed from the brine was <0.30 mmol g(-1). The H2TiO3 was found capable of efficiently adsorbing lithium ions from the brine containing competitive cations such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in extremely large excess. The results indicate that the selectivity order Li(+) ≫ Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) originates from a size effect. The H2TiO3 can be regenerated and reused for lithium exchange in the brine with an exchange capacity very similar to the original H2TiO3.

  12. A new look at an old drug: neuroprotective effects and therapeutic potentials of lithium salts

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Osso, Liliana; Del Grande, Claudia; Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia; Musetti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence highlights bipolar disorder as being associated with impaired neurogenesis, cellular plasticity, and resiliency, as well as with cell atrophy or loss in specific brain regions. This has led most recent research to focus on the possible neuroprotective effects of medications, and particularly interesting findings have emerged for lithium. A growing body of evidence from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies has in fact documented its neuroprotective effects from different insults acting on cellular signaling pathways, both preventing apoptosis and increasing neurotrophins and cell-survival molecules. Furthermore, positive effects of lithium on neurogenesis, brain remodeling, angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells functioning, and inflammation have been revealed, with a key role played through the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase-3, a serine/threonine kinase implicated in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. These recent evidences suggest the potential utility of lithium in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders, and hypoxic–ischemic/traumatic brain injury, with positive results at even lower lithium doses than those traditionally considered to be antimanic. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the potential benefits of lithium salts on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, emphasizing preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting new therapeutic potentials of this drug beyond its mood stabilizing properties. PMID:27468233

  13. Interconnected Nanoflake Network Derived from a Natural Resource for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2016-10-06

    Numerous natural resources have a highly interconnected network with developed porous structure, so enabling directional and fast matrix transport. Such structures are appealing for the design of efficient anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, although they can be challenging to prepare. Inspired by nature, a novel synthesis route from biomass is proposed by using readily available auricularia as retractable support and carbon coating precursor to soak up metal salt solution. Using the swelling properties of the auricularia with the complexation of metal ions, a nitrogen-containing MnO@C nanoflake network has been easily synthesized with fast electrochemical reaction dynamics and a superior lithium storage performance. A subsequent carbonization results in the in situ synthesis of MnO nanoparticles throughout the porous carbon flake network. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, an excellent reversible capacity is achieved of 868 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1) over 300 cycles and 668 mA h g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) over 500 cycles, indicating a high tolerance to the volume expansion. The approach investigated opens up new avenues for the design of high performance electrodes with highly cross-linked nanoflake structures, which may have great application prospects.

  14. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne; Williams, David F; Elkassabgi, Yousri M.; Caja, Joseph; Caja, Mario; Jordan, John; Salinas, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  15. Enhanced cycling performance of a Li metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide-based electrolyte using highly concentrated lithium salt for a lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togasaki, Norihiro; Momma, Toshiyuki; Osaka, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Stable charge-discharge cycling behavior for a lithium metal anode in a dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-based electrolyte is strongly desired of lithium-oxygen batteries, because the Li anode is rapidly exhausted as a result of side reactions during cycling in the DMSO solution. Herein, we report a novel electrolyte design for enhancing the cycling performance of Li anodes by using a highly concentrated DMSO-based electrolyte with a specific Li salt. Lithium nitrate (LiNO3), which forms an inorganic compound (Li2O) instead of a soluble product (Li2S) on a lithium surface, exhibits a >20% higher coulombic efficiency than lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, and lithium perchlorate, regardless of the loading current density. Moreover, the stable cycling of Li anodes in DMSO-based electrolytes depends critically on the salt concentration. The highly concentrated electrolyte 4.0 M LiNO3/DMSO displays enhanced and stable cycling performance comparable to that of carbonate-based electrolytes, which had not previously been achieved. We suppose this enhancement is due to the absence of free DMSO solvent in the electrolyte and the promotion of the desolvation of Li ions on the solid electrolyte interphase surface, both being consequences of the unique structure of the electrolyte.

  16. Solvation of lithium salts in protic ionic liquids: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Cabeza, Óscar; Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2014-01-23

    The structure of solutions of lithium nitrate in a protic ionic liquid with a common anion, ethylammonium nitrate, at room temperature is investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, spatial distribution functions, and coordination numbers, are analyzed in order to get a picture of the solvation of lithium cations in this hydrogen-bonded, amphiphilically nanostructured environment. The results reveal that the ionic liquid mainly retains its structure upon salt addition, the interaction between the ammonium group of the cation and the nitrate anion being only slightly perturbed by the addition of the salt. Lithium cations are solvated by embedding them in the polar nanodomains of the solution formed by the anions, where they coordinate with the latter in a solid-like fashion reminiscent of a pseudolattice structure. Furthermore, it is shown that the average coordination number of [Li](+) with the anions is 4, nitrate coordinating [Li](+) in both monodentate and bidentate ways, and that in the second coordination layer both ethylammonium cations and other lithiums are also found. Additionally, the rattling motion of lithium ions inside the cages formed by their neighboring anions, indicative of the so-called caging effect, is confirmed by the analysis of the [Li](+) velocity autocorrelation functions. The overall picture indicates that the solvation of [Li](+) cations in this amphiphilically nanostructured environment takes place by means of a sort of inhomogeneous nanostructural solvation, which we could refer to as nanostructured solvation, and which could be a universal solvation mechanism in ionic liquids.

  17. Modeling viscosity and conductivity of lithium salts in γ-butyrolactone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnes, A.; Carré, B.; Willmann, P.; Lemordant, D.

    Viscosity and conductivity properties of Li-salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF 4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF 6), lithium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfone)-imide (LiTFSI)) dissolved in γ-butyrolactone (BL) have been investigated. The B- and D-coefficients of the Jones-Dole (JD) equation for the relative viscosity of concentrated electrolyte solutions (concentration: C=0.1-1.5 M): ηr=1+ AC1/2+ BC+ DC2, have been determined as a function of the temperature. The B-coefficient is linked to the hydrodynamic volume of the solute and remains constant within the temperature range investigated (25-55 °C). The D-coefficient, which originates mainly from long-range coulombic ion-ion interactions, is a reciprocal function of the temperature. The variations of the molar conductivity ( Λ) with C follow the cube root law Λ= Λ0'- S' C1/3 issued from quasi-lattice theory of electrolyte solutions. From the Walden product W= Λη which does not vary with C and the JD equation, the bell shape of the conductivity-concentration relationship is explained and it is shown that the concentration in salt at the maximum of conductivity is linked to the D-coefficient. Raman spectroscopy has been used as an additional tool to investigate ion pairing in BL. Ions pairs have been evidenced for LiClO 4 solutions in BL but not for LiPF 6. As little variations occur for the ions pairs dissociation coefficient when the salt concentration is increased, the cube root law remains valid, at least in the concentration range investigated.

  18. Ionic conductivity of dual-phase polymer electrolytes comprised of NBR/SBR latex films swollen with lithium salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Ichino, Toshihiro; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro . NTT Interdisciplinary Research Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    Dual-phase polymer electrolytes (DPE) with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength were prepared by swelling poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) rubber (NBR) and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) rubber (SBR) mixed latex films with lithium salt solutions (e.g., 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-butyrolactone). The latex films retain particle morphology in the solid state. The NBR phase (formed from fused NBR latex particles) is polar and is impregnated selectively with polar lithium salt solutions, yielding ion-conductive channels, whereas the SBR phase (formed from fused SBR latex particles) is nonpolar and is not impregnated, providing a mechanically supportive matrix. The ionic conductivity of the DPE increased dramatically with increasing content of lithium salt solution, and higher amounts of solution were imbibed with increasing content of NBR relative to SBR. Several factors which affect the ionic conductivity of this system were examined, and the highest ionic conductivity (>10[sup [minus]3] S/cm) was obtained when either an NBR/SBR 70/30 (w/w) or a 50/50 (w/w) latex film was saturated with 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL solution or 1M LiClO[sub 4]/[gamma]-BL/DME solution. Ion-conductive behavior changed critically with increasing lithium salt solution uptake. At low levels of lithium salt solution uptake, evidence suggested that ionic conductivity of the absorbed lithium salt solution was strongly influenced by the presence of the NBR in the ion-conductive channel, but at higher levels, the effects of the NBR were reduced and free'' lithium salt solution was present.

  19. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic Carbonates and Esters

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, D. M.; Afroz, Taliman; Allen, Joshua L.; Boyle, Paul D.; Trulove, Paul C.; De Long, Hugh C.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-11-13

    Only limited information is available regarding the manner in which cyclic carbonate and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine crystalline solvate structures. To this end, eight new solvate structures are reported with ethylene carbonate, γ-butyrolactone and γ-valerolactone: (EC)3:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiClO4, (EC)2:LiBF4, (GBL)4:LiPF6, (GBL)1:LiClO4, (GVL)1:LiClO4, (GBL)1:LiBF4 and (GBL)1:LiCF3SO3. The crystal structure of (EC)1:LiCF3SO3 is also re-reported for comparison. These structures enable the factors which govern the manner in which the ions are coordinated and the ion/solvent packing—in the solid-state—to be scrutinized in detail.

  20. Thermophysical properties and corrosion characterization of low cost lithium containing nitrate salts produced in northern Chile for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ángel G.; Gomez, Judith C.; Galleguillos, Hector; Fuentealba, Edward

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, lithium containing salts have been studied for thermal energy storage (TES) systems applications, because of their optimal thermophysical properties. In solar power plants, lithium is seen as a way to improve the properties of molten salts used today. Lithium nitrate is a good candidate for sensible heat storage, due to its ability to increase the salt mixture's working temperature range. In the present research, thermophysical properties characterization of lithium nitrate containing salts, produced in Chile, have been carried out. Corrosion evaluations of carbon and low chromium steels were performed at 390°C for 1000 hours. Thermophysical properties of the salt mixtures, such as thermal stability and heat capacity, were measured before and after corrosion tests. Chemical composition of the salts was also determined and an estimation of Chilean production costs is reported. Results showed that purity, thermal stability and heat capacity of the salts were reduced, caused by partial thermal decomposition and incorporation of corrosion products from the steel.

  1. Solid lithium electrolyte via addition of lithium salts to metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Wiers, Brian M.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2016-03-29

    Various embodiments of the invention disclose that the uptake of LiO.sup.iPr in Mg.sub.2(dobdc) (dobdc.sup.4-=1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate) followed by soaking in a typical electrolyte solution leads to a new solid lithium electrolyte Mg.sub.2(dobdc).0.35LiO.sup.iPr.0.25LiBF.sub.4.EC.DEC. Two-point ac impedance data show a pressed pellet of this material to have a conductivity of 3.1.times.10.sup.-4 S/cm at 300 K. In addition, the results from variable-temperature measurements reveal an activation energy of approximately 0.15 eV, while single-particle data suggest that intraparticle transport dominates conduction.

  2. Solid lithium electrolyte via addition of lithium salts to metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiers, Brian M.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2016-12-20

    Various embodiments of the invention disclose that the uptake of LiO.sup.iPr in Mg.sub.2(dobdc) (dobdc.sup.4-=1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate) followed by soaking in a typical electrolyte solution leads to a new solid lithium electrolyte Mg.sub.2(dobdc).0.35LiO.sup.iPr.0.25LiBF.sub.4.EC.DEC. Two-point ac impedance data show a pressed pellet of this material to have a conductivity of 3.1.times.10.sup.-4 S/cm at 300 K. In addition, the results from variable-temperature measurements reveal an activation energy of approximately 0.15 eV, while single-particle data suggest that intraparticle transport dominates conduction.

  3. Lithium insertion in graphite from ternary ionic liquid-lithium salt electrolytes: II. Evaluation of specific capacity and cycling efficiency and stability at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, Simon F.; Schmuck, Martin; Appetecchi, Giovanni B.; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin; Balducci, Andrea

    In this paper we report the results about the use of ternary room temperature ionic liquid-lithium salt mixtures as electrolytes for lithium-ion battery systems. Mixtures of N-methyl- N-propyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide, PYR 13FSI, and N-butyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) imide, PYR 14TFSI, with lithium hexafluorophosphate, LiPF 6 and lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl) imide, LiTFSI, containing 5 wt.% of vinylene carbonate (VC) as additive, have been used in combination with a commercial graphite, KS6 TIMCAL. The performance of the graphite electrodes has been considered in term of specific capacity, cycling efficiency and cycling stability. The results clearly show the advantage of the use of ternary mixtures on the performance of the graphite electrode.

  4. Second hyperpolarizabilities of the lithium salt of pyridazine Li-H3C4N2 and lithium salt electride Li-H3C4N2⋯Na2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Orlando; Castro, Marcos A.; Leão, Salviano A.; Fonseca, Tertius L.

    2015-07-01

    This Letter reports static and dynamic second hyperpolarizabilities of the lithium salt of pyridazine Li-H3C4N2 and lithium salt electride Li-H3C4N2⋯Na2. The results show strong dependence of the computed values with respect to the electron correlation treatment. The static value obtained at the CCSD level with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set for the Li-H3C4N2⋯Na2 is 1.1 × 109 au. This extremely large value of the second hyperpolarizability reinforces the potential of this system for application in nonlinear optics.

  5. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  6. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  7. The corrosion protection of AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy by leaching of lithium-containing salts from organic coatings.

    PubMed

    Visser, Peter; Liu, Yanwen; Zhou, Xiaorong; Hashimoto, Teruo; Thompson, George E; Lyon, Stuart B; van der Ven, Leendert G J; Mol, Arjan J M C; Terryn, Herman A

    2015-01-01

    Lithium carbonate and lithium oxalate were incorporated as leachable corrosion inhibitors in model organic coatings for the protection of AA2024-T3. The coated samples were artificially damaged with a scribe. It was found that the lithium-salts are able to leach from the organic coating and form a protective layer in the scribe on AA2024-T3 under neutral salt spray conditions. The present paper shows the first observation and analysis of these corrosion protective layers, generated from lithium-salt loaded organic coatings. The scribed areas were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy before and after neutral salt spray exposure (ASTM-B117). The protective layers typically consist of three different layered regions, including a relatively dense layer near the alloy substrate, a porous middle layer and a flake-shaped outer layer, with lithium uniformly distributed throughout all three layers. Scanning electron microscopy and white light interferometry surface roughness measurements demonstrate that the formation of the layer occurs rapidly and, therefore provides an effective inhibition mechanism. Based on the observation of this work, a mechanism is proposed for the formation of these protective layers.

  8. Carbon Cathodes in Rechargeable Lithium-Oxygen Batteries Based on Double-Lithium-Salt Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Eunjoo; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-06-08

    The use of carbon materials as air electrodes in lithium-oxygen (Li-O2 ) batteries is known to be advantageous owing to their good conductivity and because they offer sites suitable for the reversible electrode reactions. However, the exact influence of carbon materials on the electrochemical performance of Li-O2 batteries is not clear. In this study the electrochemical performance of four different types of carbon materials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), CMK-3, graphene nanosheets (GNSs), and Ketjen Black (KB)) as air electrodes is examined. We find that a Li-O2 cell based on an electrode of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) demonstrates good rate performance and cycle stability, when using LiNO3 -LiTFSI/DMSO as electrolyte. Li-O2 cells based on such MWCNT electrodes, with a cut-off capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) , can undergo around 90 cycles without obvious losses of capacity. Even when the discharge depth is increased to 2000 mA h g(-1) , stable cycling is maintained for 45 cycles at a charge potential below 4.0 V.

  9. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  10. Effects of lithium salt concentration on graphited carbon microbead anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kun; Li, Shu-Dan

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: “Lithium aggregates” usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. Therefore, as important as the problem of SEI, the content of lithium salt and the interaction between Li{sup +} and ILs’ anions should be taken into consideration in the optimization of ILs-based electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • “Lithium aggregates” in piperidinium-based electrolytes are evidenced by IR and NMR. • High LiPF{sub 6} content could decrease Li{sup +} mobility due to “ionic aggregates”. • Lithium salt concentration is an important factor affecting graphite performances. - Abstract: The variations in LiPF{sub 6} concentration lead to the very different electrochemical performances of carbon microbeads anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes. The “two peaks” behaviors of lithium plating observed in cyclic voltammetry tests, and some detailed changes in infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance indicates that the formation of “ionic aggregates” related to lithium ions”. Therefore, the excessive lithium salts in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes, usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. The main behaviors are that, when LiPF{sub 6} concentrations increased from 0.2 to 1.2 mol kg{sup −1}, the apparent migration energies (E{sub a}) increase largely from 8.83 to 21.16 kJ mol{sup −1}, while the lithium transference numbers (t{sub Li{sup +}}) drop markedly from 0.538 to 0.292.

  11. Nanostructure of mixtures of protic ionic liquids and lithium salts: effect of alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; Rodríguez, Julio R; Cabeza, Óscar; Gallego, Luis J; Russina, Olga; Varela, Luis M

    2015-02-21

    The bulk structure of mixtures of two protic ionic liquids, propylammonium nitrate and butylammonium nitrate, with a salt with a common anion, is analyzed at room temperature by means of small angle X-ray scattering and classical molecular dynamics simulations. The study of several structural properties, such as density, radial distribution functions, spatial distribution functions, hydrogen bonds, coordination numbers and velocity autocorrelation functions, demonstrates that increasing the alkyl chain length of the alkylammonium cation results in more segregated, better defined polar and apolar domains, the latter having a larger size. This increase, ascribed to the erosion of the H-bond network in the ionic liquid polar regions as salt is added, is confirmed by means of small angle X-ray scattering measurements, which show a clear linear increase of the characteristic spatial sizes of the studied protic ionic liquids with salt concentration, similar to that previously reported for ethylammonium nitrate (J. Phys. Chem. B, 2014, 118, 761-770). In addition, larger ionic liquid cations lead to a lower degree of hydrogen bonding and to more sparsely packed three-dimensional structures, which are more easily perturbed by the addition of lithium salts.

  12. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ˜2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ˜127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ˜76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  13. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  14. Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) as conducting salt for nonaqueous liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hong-Bo; Zhou, Si-Si; Zhang, Dai-Jun; Feng, Shao-Wei; Li, Li-Fei; Liu, Kai; Feng, Wen-Fang; Nie, Jin; Li, Hong; Huang, Xue-Jie; Armand, Michel; Zhou, Zhi-Bin

    Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) has been studied as conducting salt for lithium-ion batteries, in terms of the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the neat LiFSI salt and its nonaqueous liquid electrolytes. Our pure LiFSI salt shows a melting point at 145 °C, and is thermally stable up to 200 °C. It exhibits far superior stability towards hydrolysis than LiPF 6. Among the various lithium salts studied at the concentration of 1.0 M (= mol dm -3) in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (3:7, v/v), LiFSI shows the highest conductivity in the order of LiFSI > LiPF 6 > Li[N(SO 2CF 3) 2] (LiTFSI) > LiClO 4 > LiBF 4. The stability of Al in the high potential region (3.0-5.0 V vs. Li +/Li) has been confirmed for high purity LiFSI-based electrolytes using cyclic voltammetry, SEM morphology, and chronoamperometry, whereas Al corrosion indeed occurs in the LiFSI-based electrolytes tainted with trace amounts of LiCl (50 ppm). With high purity, LiFSI outperforms LiPF 6 in both Li/LiCoO 2 and graphite/LiCoO 2 cells.

  15. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  16. Association constants in solutions of lithium salts in butyrolactone and a mixture of propylene carbonate with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (1 : 1), according to conductometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernozhuk, T. V.; Sherstyuk, Yu. S.; Novikov, D. O.; Kalugin, O. N.

    2016-02-01

    A conductometric study is performed with solutions of lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) in γ-butyrolactone (γ-BL) at 278.15-388.15 K and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), LiBOB, and lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) in mixtures of propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxyethane (PC + 1,2-DME) (1 : 1) at 278.15-348.15 K. Limiting molar electrical conductivities (LMECs) and association constants ( K a) in the studied solutions of electrolytes are determined using the Lee-Wheaton equation. The effect temperature, the nature of the solvent, and the properties of the anion have on the conductivity and interparticle interactions in solutions of lithium salts in γ-BL and PC + 1,2-DME (1 : 1) is established. It was concluded that the studied solutions are characterized by low values of their association constants. It was found that the BOB;- anion destroys the structure of the solvent.The thickness of the dynamic solvation shell of ions (Δ R) remains constant for both solvents over the studied range of temperatures, and Δ R is significantly greater for Li+ than for other ions.

  17. A study on natural radioactivity in Khewra Salt Mines, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Muzahir Ali; Qureshi, Aziz Ahmed; Waheed, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad; Ali, Nawab; Tufail, Muhammad; Batool, Saima; Akram, Muhammad; Iftikhar, Poonam; Qayyum, Hamza; Manzoor, Shahid; Khan, Hameed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The Khewra Salt Mines, the second largest salt mines in the world, are located 160 km south of Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. Around 1000 workers are involved in the removal of salt from these mines. More than 40,000 visitors come annually to see the mines. The visitors and workers are directly exposed to the internal and external radiological hazards of radon and gamma rays in these mines. The general public is affected by the intake of the salt containing the naturally occurring radionuclides. Therefore the concentration of radon (²²²Rn) in the Khewra Salt Mines and activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in the salt samples from these mines were measured. Both active and passive techniques were employed for the measurement of radon with Radon Alpha Detector (RAD-7) and SSNTD respectively. The concentration of ²²²Rn was 26 ± 4 Bq m⁻³ measured by the active method while 43 ± 8 Bq m⁻³ was measured by the passive method. The activity concentration of the radionuclides was measured using gamma ray spectrometry with HPGe detector. The mean activity of ⁴⁰K in salt samples was found to be 36 ± 20 Bq kg⁻¹ and the concentration of ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th in the salt samples was below the detection limits. Gamma radiation hazard was assessed in terms of the external gamma dose from salt slabs and the rooms made of salt and the annual effective dose due to gamma radiation. The exposure to radon daughters, annual effective dose and excessive lifetime cancer risk due to radon in the mines were estimated. The mean annual effective dose due to an intake of ⁴⁰K from the salt was calculated as 20.0 ± 11.1 µSv, which is lower than the average annual effective dose rate of 0.29 mSv, received by the ingestion of natural radionuclides. Due to the low concentration values of primordial radionuclides in the salt and radon ²²²Rn) in the mines, a 'low level activity measurement laboratory' is suggested to be established in these

  18. β - NMR Measurements of Lithium Ion Transport in Thin Films of Pure and Lithium-Salt-Doped Poly(ethylene oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Iain; Harada, Masashi; Cortie, David L.; Kiefl, Robert F.; Levy, C. D. Philip; Macfarlane, W. Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M. L.; Morris, Gerald D.; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R.; Sugiyama, Jun

    2015-03-01

    β - Detected nuclear spin relaxation of 8Li+ has been used to study the microscopic diffusion of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PEO with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), PEO with lithium triflate (LiTf) and PEO with lithium trifluoroacetic acid (LiTFA) with monomer-to-salt ratios of 8.3:1. Hopping of Li + above ~ 250 K follows an Arrhenius law in all of the films. Diffusion of Li+ is fastest in pure PEO and decreases in order LiTFSI >LiTf >LiTFA. We observed the activation energy for hopping (EA) and the intrinsic hop rate (τ0-1) both increasing in order LiTFA salt.

  19. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  20. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  1. Lithium salt of end-substituted nanotube: Structure and large nonlinear optical property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fang; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Li, Zhi-Ru; Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2010-03-01

    Lithium salt of substituted nanotube is suggested as a new kind of nonlinear optical (NLO) material. It is found that the combination of the lithiation effect and the donor substitution effect can greatly enhance the static first hyperpolarizability ( β0). Specially, the unusual donor - acceptor(nanotube) - donor system Li-NT(6,0)-(NH 2) 2 has considerable β0 to be 6.8 × 10 5 au, due to its small transition energy and large transition moment. Further, the relationships between β0 and the number of Li atoms m and the substituents R for Li m-NT(6,0)-( R) 2 ( m = 1, 6 and R = -CN, -NH 2) systems are explored.

  2. Toward the design of high voltage magnesium-lithium hybrid batteries using dual-salt electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yingwen; Choi, Daiwon; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2016-04-07

    We report a design of high voltage magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) hybrid batteries through rational control of the electrolyte chemistry, electrode materials and cell architecture. Prototype devices with a structure of Mg-Li/LiFePO4 (LFP) and Mg-Li/LiMn2O4 (LMO) have been investigated. A Mg-Li/LFP cell using a dual-salt electrolyte 0.2 M [Mg2Cl2(DME)4][AlCl4]2 and 1.0 M LiTFSI exhibits voltages higher than 2.5 V (vs. Mg) and a high specific energy density of 246 W h kg(-1) under conditions that are amenable for practical applications. The successful demonstrations reported here could be a significant step forward for practical hybrid batteries.

  3. Salt or cocrystal of salt? Probing the nature of multicomponent crystal forms with infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Cameron Capeletti; Guimarães, Freddy Fernandes; Ribeiro, Leandro; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-10-01

    The recognition of the nature of a multicomponent crystal form (solvate, salt, cocrystal or cocrystal of salt) is of great importance for pharmaceutical industry because it is directly related to the performance of a pharmaceutical ingredient, since there is interdependence between the structure, its energy and its physical properties. In this context, here we have identified the nature of multicomponent crystal forms of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine with mandelic acid through infrared spectroscopy. These investigated crystal forms were the known S-mandelic acid cocrystal of lamivudine R-mandelate trihydrate (1), a cocrystal of salt, and lamivudine R-mandelate (2), a salt. This approach also supports the identification and distinction of both ionized and unionized forms of mandelic acid in the infrared spectrum of 1. In this way, infrared spectroscopy can be useful to distinguish a cocrystal of salt from either salt or cocrystal forms. In the course of this study, for the first time we have also characterized and determined the crystal structure of R-mandelic acid cocrystal of sodium R-mandelate (3).

  4. Mixed-Salt Effects on the Ionic Conductivity of Lithium-Doped PEO-Containing Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Wen-Shiue; Albert, Julie N.L.; Schantz, A. Benjamin; Epps, III, Thomas H.

    2012-10-10

    We demonstrate a simple, yet effective, mixed-salt method to increase the room temperature ionic conductivity of lithium-doped block copolymer electrolyte membranes by suppressing the crystalline phases in the conducting block. We examined a mixed-salt system of LiClO{sub 4} and LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} (LiTFSI) doped into a lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymer. The domain spacings, morphologies, thermal behavior, and crystalline phases of salt-doped PS-PEO samples were characterized, and the ionic conductivities of block copolymer electrolytes were obtained through ac impedance measurements. Comparing the ionic conductivity profiles of salt-doped PS-PEO samples at different mixed-salt ratios and total salt concentrations, we found that the ionic conductivity at room temperature can be improved by more than an order of magnitude when coinhibition of crystallite growth is promoted by the concerted behavior of the PEO:LiClO{sub 4} and PEO:LiTFSI phases. Additionally, we examined the influence of mixed-salt ratio and total salt concentration on copolymer energetics, and we found that the slope of the effective interaction parameter ({chi}{sub eff}) vs salt concentration in our lamellae-forming PS-PEO system was lower than that reported for a cylinder-forming PS-PEO system due to the balance between chain stretching and salt segregation in the PEO domains.

  5. Mixed-salt Effects on the Ionic Conductivity of Lithium-doped PEO-containing Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    W Young; J Albert; A Schantz; T Epps

    2011-12-31

    We demonstrate a simple, yet effective, mixed-salt method to increase the room temperature ionic conductivity of lithium-doped block copolymer electrolyte membranes by suppressing the crystalline phases in the conducting block. We examined a mixed-salt system of LiClO{sub 4} and LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} (LiTFSI) doped into a lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymer. The domain spacings, morphologies, thermal behavior, and crystalline phases of salt-doped PS-PEO samples were characterized, and the ionic conductivities of block copolymer electrolytes were obtained through ac impedance measurements. Comparing the ionic conductivity profiles of salt-doped PS-PEO samples at different mixed-salt ratios and total salt concentrations, we found that the ionic conductivity at room temperature can be improved by more than an order of magnitude when coinhibition of crystallite growth is promoted by the concerted behavior of the PEO:LiClO{sub 4} and PEO:LiTFSI phases. Additionally, we examined the influence of mixed-salt ratio and total salt concentration on copolymer energetics, and we found that the slope of the effective interaction parameter (x{sub eff}) vs salt concentration in our lamellae-forming PS-PEO system was lower than that reported for a cylinder-forming PS-PEO system due to the balance between chain stretching and salt segregation in the PEO domains.

  6. PC based electrolytes with LiDFOB as an alternative salt for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Brandon M.

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been greatly sought after as a source of renewable energy storage. LIBs have a wide range of applications including but not limited portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and power tools. As a direct result of their commercial viability an insatiable hunger for knowledge, advancement within the field of LIBs has been omnipresent for the last two decades. However, there are set backs evident within the LIB field; most notably the limitations of standard electrolyte formulations and LiPF6 lithium salt. The standard primary carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) has a very limited operating range due to its innate physical properties, and the LiPF6 salt is known to readily decompose to form HF which can further degrade LIB longevity. The goal of our research is to explore the use of a new primary salt LiDFOB in conjunction with a propylene carbonate based electrolyte to establish a more flexible electrolyte formulation by constructing coin cells and cycling them under various conditions to give a clear understanding of each formulation inherent performance capabilities. Our studies show that 1.2M LiDFOB in 3:7 PC/EMC + 1.5% VC is capable of performing comparably to the standard 1.2M LiPF6 in 3:7 EC/EMC at 25°C and the PC electrolyte also illustrates performance superior to the standard at 55°C. The degradation of lithium manganese spinel electrodes, including LiNi 0.5Mn1.5O4, is an area of great concern within the field of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Manganese containing cathode materials frequently have problems associated with Mn dissolution which significantly reduces the cycle life of LIB. Thus the stability of the cathode material is paramount to the performance of Mn spinel cathode materials in LIBs. In an effort to gain a better understanding of the stability of LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4 in common LiPF6/carbonate electrolytes, samples were stored at elevated temperature in the presence of electrolyte. Then after storage both

  7. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  8. Chemistry of carbon nanomaterials: Uses of lithium nanotube salts in organic syntheses and functionalization of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Jayanta

    The effective utilization of carbon nanomaterials, such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphite, has been hindered due to difficulties (poor solubility, poly-dispersity) in processing. Therefore, a high degree of sidewall functionalization, either covalent or non-covalent, is often required to overcome these difficulties as the functionalized nanomaterials exhibit better solubility (either in organic solvents or in water), dispersity, manipulation, and processibility. This thesis presents a series of convenient and efficient organic synthetic routes to functionalize carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanotube salts, prepared by treating SWNTs with lithium in liquid ammonia, react readily with aryl halides to yield aryl-functionalized SWNTs. These arylated SWNTs are soluble in methanol and water upon treatment with oleum. Similarly, SWNTs can be covalently functionalized by different heteroatoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur). Using the reductive alkylation approach, a synthetic scheme is designed to prepare long chain carboxylic acid functionalized SWNTs [SWNTs-(RCOOH)] that can react with (1) amine-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains to yield water-soluble biocompatible PEGylated SWNTs that are likely to be useful in a variety of biomedical applications; (2) polyethyleneimine (PEI) to prepare a SWNTs-PEI based adsorbent material that shows a four-fold improvement in the adsorption capacity of carbon dioxide over commonly used materials, making it useful for regenerable carbon dioxide removal in spaceflight; (3) chemically modified SWNTs-(RCOOH) to permit covalent bonding to the nylon matrix, thus allowing the formation of nylon 6,10 and nylon 6,10/SWNTs-(RCOOH) nanocomposites. Furthermore, we find that the lithium salts of carbon nanotubes serve as a source of electrons to induce polymerization of simple alkenes and alkynes onto the surface of carbon nanotubes. In the presence of sulfide/disulfide bonds, SWNT salts can initiate the single electron

  9. Particle formation above natural and simulated salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina; Ofner, Johannes; Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Held, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Thus, the ground-water level rose and brought dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. Nowadays, Western Australia is known for a great plenty of salt lakes with pH levels reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The land is mainly used for wheat farming and livestock and becomes drier due to the lack of rain periods. One possible reason could be the formation of ultrafine particles from salt lakes, which increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei and thus potentially suppresses precipitation. Several field campaigns have been conducted between 2006 and 2011 with car-based and airborne measurements, where new particle formation has been observed and has been related to the Western Australian salt lakes (Junkermann et al., 2009). To identify particle formation directly above the salt lakes, a 1.5 m³ Teflon chamber was set up above several lakes in 2012. Inside the chamber, photochemistry may take place whereas mixing through wind or advection of already existing particles is prevented. Salt lakes with a low pH level lead to strongly increased aerosol formation. As salt lakes have been identified as a source for reactive halogen species (RHS; Buxmann et al., 2012) and RHS seem to interact with precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), they could be producers of halogen induced secondary organic aerosol (XOA) (Ofner et al., 2012). As reference experiments, laboratory based aerosol smog-chamber runs were performed to examine XOA formation under atmospheric conditions using simulated sunlight and the chemical composition of a chosen salt lake. After adding α-pinene to the simulated salt lake, a strong nucleation event began in the absence of ozone comparable to the observed events in Western Australia. First results from the laboratory based aerosol smog-chamber experiments indicate a halogen-induced aerosol

  10. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach.

  11. Chemical stability of Lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide, an electrolyte salt for Li-ion cells

    DOE PAGES

    Shkrob, Ilya A.; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Gilbert, James A.; ...

    2016-12-01

    Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is ubiquitous in commercial lithium-ion batteries, but it is hydrolytically unstable and corrosive on electrode surfaces. Using a more stable salt would confer multiple benefits for high-voltage operation, but many such electrolyte systems facilitate anodic dissolution and pitting corrosion of aluminum current collectors that negate their advantages. Lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI) is a new salt that was designed specifically for high-voltage cells. In this study we demonstrate that in carbonate electrolytes, LiTDI prevents anodic dissolution of Al current collectors, which places it into a select group of corrosion inhibitors. However, we also demonstrate that LiTDI becomes reduced onmore » lithiated graphite, undergoing sequential defluorination and yielding a thick and resistive solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), which increases impedance and lowers electrode capacity. The mechanistic causes for this behavior are examined using computational chemistry methods in the light of recent spectroscopic studies. Here, we demonstrate that LiTDI reduction can be prevented by certain electrolyte additives, which include fluoroethylene carbonate, vinylene carbonate and lithium bis(oxalato)borate. This beneficial action is due to preferential reduction of these additives over LiTDI at a higher potential vs. Li/Li+, so the resulting SEI can prevent the direct reduction of LiTDI at lower potentials on the graphite electrode.« less

  12. Chemical stability of Lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide, an electrolyte salt for Li-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, Ilya A.; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Gilbert, James A.; Trask, Stephen E.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-12-01

    Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is ubiquitous in commercial lithium-ion batteries, but it is hydrolytically unstable and corrosive on electrode surfaces. Using a more stable salt would confer multiple benefits for high-voltage operation, but many such electrolyte systems facilitate anodic dissolution and pitting corrosion of aluminum current collectors that negate their advantages. Lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI) is a new salt that was designed specifically for high-voltage cells. In this study we demonstrate that in carbonate electrolytes, LiTDI prevents anodic dissolution of Al current collectors, which places it into a select group of corrosion inhibitors. However, we also demonstrate that LiTDI becomes reduced on lithiated graphite, undergoing sequential defluorination and yielding a thick and resistive solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), which increases impedance and lowers electrode capacity. The mechanistic causes for this behavior are examined using computational chemistry methods in the light of recent spectroscopic studies. Here, we demonstrate that LiTDI reduction can be prevented by certain electrolyte additives, which include fluoroethylene carbonate, vinylene carbonate and lithium bis(oxalato)borate. This beneficial action is due to preferential reduction of these additives over LiTDI at a higher potential vs. Li/Li+, so the resulting SEI can prevent the direct reduction of LiTDI at lower potentials on the graphite electrode.

  13. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  14. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  15. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector

    2015-04-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  16. Analysis of secondary cells with lithium anodes and immobilized fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Rogers, G. L.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Secondary cells with liquid lithium anodes, liquid bismuth or tellurium cathodes, and fused lithium halide electrolytes immobilized as rigid pastes operate between 380 and 485 degrees. Applications include power sources in space, military vehicle propulsion and special commercial vehicle propulsion.

  17. Crystal structure of a lithium salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid.

    PubMed

    Gubitosi, Marta; Meijide, Francisco; D'Annibale, Andrea; Vázquez Tato, José; Jover, Aida; Galantini, Luciano; Travaglini, Leana; di Gregorio, Maria Chiara; Pavel, Nicolae V

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure of a Li(+) salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid (lithium 3α-(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-5β-cholan-24-oate) has been solved. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, P212121 spatial group, and includes acetone and water in the structure with a 1:1:2 stoichiometry. Monolayers, having a hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic edges, are recognized in the crystal structure. Li(+) is coordinated to three hydroxyl groups of three different glucose residues, with two of them belonging to the same monolayer. A fourth molecule, located in this monolayer, is involved in the coordination of the cation through the carboxylate ion by an electrostatic interaction, thus completing a distorted tetrahedron. All Li(+)-oxygen distances values are very close to the sum of the ionic radius of Li(+) and van der Waals radius of oxygen. Each steroid molecule is linked to other five steroid molecules through hydrogen bonds. Water and acetone are also involved in the hydrogen bond network. A hierarchical organization can be recognized in the crystal, the helical assembly along 21 screw axes being left-handed.

  18. "Ionic liquids-in-salt"--a promising electrolyte concept for high-temperature lithium batteries?

    PubMed

    Marczewski, Maciej J; Stanje, Bernhard; Hanzu, Ilie; Wilkening, Martin; Johansson, Patrik

    2014-06-28

    A novel electrolyte concept for lithium-ion batteries, termed "ionic liquid-in-salt", is introduced. Our feasibility study on (1 - x)EMIMTFSI:(x)LiTFSI, 0.66 ≤ x ≤ 0.97, showed that at elevated temperatures the various dual liquid and solid phase regions are characterized by a wide thermal stability window, high ionic conductivities and appreciable mechanical integrity. The highest conductivity values are obtained for the compositions x = 0.70 and x = 0.75 (σ ≈ 6 × 10(-3) S cm(-1)) and are related to the final melting of the materials. Overall, high conductivities are observed for 0.70 < x < 0.90 while low ones are found for x > 0.90. Raman and NMR spectroscopies reveal the presence of highly mobile Li-containing species, partly identified as [Li(TFSI)2](-), albeit rather unexpected for these high x values, which might explain the high ionic conductivities observed. To prove the general value of our concept in more detail, some first results on BMIMTFSI and PY13TFSI based systems are also presented.

  19. LiPF 6 and lithium oxalyldifluoroborate blend salts electrolyte for LiFePO 4/artificial graphite lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Xujie; Li, Fanqun; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Liu, Ping; Wang, Xinyu

    The electrochemical behaviors of LiPF 6 and lithium oxalyldifluoroborate (LiODFB) blend salts in ethylene carbonate + propylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate (EC + PC + DMC, 1:1:3, v/v/v) for LiFePO 4/artificial graphite (AG) lithium-ion cells have been investigated in this work. It is demonstrated by conductivity test that LiPF 6 and LiODFB blend salts electrolytes have superior conductivity to pure LiODFB-based electrolyte. The results show that the performances of LiFePO 4/Li half cells with LiPF 6 and LiODFB blend salts electrolytes are inferior to pure LiPF 6-based electrolyte, the capacity and cycling efficiency of Li/AG half cells are distinctly improved by blend salts electrolytes, and the optimum LiODFB/LiPF 6 molar ratio is around 4:1. A reduction peak is observed around 1.5 V in LiODFB containing electrolyte systems by means of CV tests for Li/AG cells. Excellent capacity and cycling performance are obtained on LiFePO 4/AG 063048-type cells tests with blend salts electrolytes. A plateau near 1.7-2.0 V is shown in electrolytes containing LiODFB salt, and extends with increasing LiODFB concentration in charge curve of LiFePO 4/AG cells. At 1 C discharge current rate, the initial discharge capacity of 063048-type cell with the optimum electrolyte is 376.0 mAh, and the capacity retention is 90.8% after 100 cycles at 25 °C. When at 65 °C, the capacity and capacity retention after 100 cycles are 351.3 mAh and 88.7%, respectively. The performances of LiFePO 4/AG cells are remarkably improved by blending LiODFB and LiPF 6 salts compared to those of pure LiPF 6-based electrolyte system, especially at elevated temperature to 65 °C.

  20. 78 FR 2430 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT... February 11, 2013. ADDRESSES: Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt Lake... funerary objects should contact Duncan Metcalfe, Natural History Museum of Utah, 301 Wakara Way, Salt...

  1. Synthesis of Ultrathin Si Nanosheets from Natural Clays for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jaegeon; Hong, Dongki; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin

    2016-02-23

    Two-dimensional Si nanosheets have been studied as a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery anode materials. However, Si nanosheets reported so far showed poor cycling performances and required further improvements. In this work, we utilize inexpensive natural clays for preparing high quality Si nanosheets via a one-step simultaneous molten salt-induced exfoliation and chemical reduction process. This approach produces high purity mesoporous Si nanosheets in high yield. As a control experiment, two-step process (pre-exfoliated silicate sheets and subsequent chemical reduction) cannot sustain their original two-dimensional structure. In contrast, one-step method results in a production of 5 nm-thick highly porous Si nanosheets. Carbon-coated Si nanosheet anodes exhibit a high reversible capacity of 865 mAh g(-1) at 1.0 A g(-1) with an outstanding capacity retention of 92.3% after 500 cycles. It also delivers high rate capability, corresponding to a capacity of 60% at 20 A g(-1) compared to that of 2.0 A g(-1). Furthermore, the Si nanosheet electrodes show volume expansion of only 42% after 200 cycles.

  2. Investigation of the Decomposition Mechanism of Lithium Bis(oxalate)borate (LiBOB) Salt in the Electrolyte of an Aprotic Li–O2 Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Kah Chun; Lu, Jun; Low, John; Peng, Du; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M.; Al-Hady, D. Abd; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-03-13

    The stability of the lithium bis(oxalate) borate (LiBOB) salt against lithium peroxide (Li2O2) formation in an aprotic Li–O2 (Li–air) battery is investigated. From theoretical and experimental findings, we find that the chemical decomposition of LiBOB in electrolytes leads to the formation lithium oxalate during the discharge of a Li–O2 cell. According to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the formation of lithium oxalate as the reaction product is exothermic and therefore is thermodynamically feasible. This reaction seems to be independent of solvents used in the Li–O2 cell, and therefore LiBOB is probably not suitable to be used as the salt in Li–O2 cell electrolytes.

  3. A novel electrolyte salt additive for lithium-ion batteries with voltages greater than 4.7 V

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yunchao; Wan, Shun; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao -Guang

    2016-11-07

    Here, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), as an additive in conventional electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, exhibits improved coulombic efficiencies and cycling stability. Cyclic voltammograms indicate the cells with additive form good SEIs during the first cycle whereas no additive cell needs more cycles to form a functional SEI. XPS reveals LiBMFMB could reduce the decomposition of LiPF6 salt and solvents, resulting in thinner SEI.

  4. A novel electrolyte salt additive for lithium-ion batteries with voltages greater than 4.7 V

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yunchao; Wan, Shun; Veith, Gabriel M.; ...

    2016-11-07

    Here, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), as an additive in conventional electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, exhibits improved coulombic efficiencies and cycling stability. Cyclic voltammograms indicate the cells with additive form good SEIs during the first cycle whereas no additive cell needs more cycles to form a functional SEI. XPS reveals LiBMFMB could reduce the decomposition of LiPF6 salt and solvents, resulting in thinner SEI.

  5. Dendrite Suppression by Synergistic Combination of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Crosslinked with Natural Terpenes and Lithium Powder Anode for Lithium Metal Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Lee, Jae Won; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2017-04-03

    Lithium metal anode has fundamental problems concerning formation and growth of lithium dendrites which prevents practical applications of next generation of high-capacity lithium metal batteries. The synergistic combination of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) crosslinked with naturally occurring terpenes and lithium powder anode is promising solution to resolve the dendrite issues by substituting conventional liquid electrolyte/separator and lithium foil anode system. A series of SPEs based on polysiloxane crosslinked with natural terpenes are prepared by facile thiol-ene click reaction under mild condition and structural effect of terpene crosslinkers on electrochemical properties is studied. Lithium powder with large surface area is prepared by droplet emulsion technique (DET) and used as anode materials. The effect of physical state of electrolyte (solid/liquid) and morphology of lithium metal anode (powder/foil) on dendrite growth behavior is systematically studied. The synergistic combination of SPE and lithium powder anode suggests effective solution to suppress the dendrite growth due to formation of stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and delocalized current density.

  6. Electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries based on a sulfur cathode obtained by H2S gas treatment of a lithium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Carina B.; Jha, Himendra; Eberle, Anna-Marietta; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2016-03-01

    A new technique to produce Li2S/C composites and Li2S cathodes as well as their application in high-capacity Li-S batteries is demonstrated. The simple but effective method converts an easy-to-handle lithium salt-containing composite or electrode to Li2S using H2S. The main advantage is that the conversion to Li2S can be performed towards the final stage of the electrode preparation process, which significantly reduces the need of controlled atmosphere otherwise required for Li2S handling. LiOH is used to demonstrate the technique, and such fabricated Li2S electrode is successfully used in a Li-S battery (half-cell) where it shows discharge capacities of up to 770 mAh g-1(Li2S) and retained >410 mAh g-1(Li2S) after 100 cycles at C/5.

  7. β-NMR measurements of lithium ion transport in thin films of pure and lithium-salt-doped poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain; Harada, Masashi; Kiefl, Robert F; Levy, C D Philip; MacFarlane, W Andrew; Morris, Gerald D; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R; Sugiyama, Jun

    2014-06-04

    β-Detected nuclear spin relaxation of (8)Li(+) has been used to study the microscopic diffusion of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), where the implanted lithium ions are present in extremely low concentration, and PEO with 30 wt % LiCF3SO3 over a wide range of temperatures both above and below the glass transition temperature. Recent measurements by Do et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2013, 111, 018301] found that the temperature dependence of the Li(+) conductivity was identical to that of the dielectric α relaxation and was well described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation, implying the α relaxation dominates the Li(+) transport process. In contrast, we find the hopping of Li(+) in both samples in the high temperature viscoelastic phase follows an Arrhenius law and depends significantly on the salt content. We propose that the hopping of Li(+) between cages involves motion of the polymer but that it is only for long-range diffusion where the α relaxation plays an important role.

  8. Physicochemical and electrochemical properties of N-methyl-N-methoxymethylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide and its lithium salt composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shunsuke; Yoshizawa-Fujita, Masahiro; Takeoka, Yuko; Rikukawa, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    The ionic liquid (IL) N-Methyl-N-methoxymethylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide ([Pyr1,1O1][FSA]) was synthesized, and its physicochemical and electrochemical properties were investigated with respect to its application as an electrolyte in lithium-ion secondary batteries operating over a wide temperature range. [Pyr1,1O1][FSA]/Li salt (0.34 mol kg-1) composites were prepared by adding lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) into the IL. [Pyr1,1O1][FSA] and [Pyr1,1O1][FSA]/LiTFSA exhibited melting temperatures (Tm) below -30 °C. [Pyr1,1O1][FSA] exhibited a higher ionic conductivity value as compared with that of the corresponding IL with only alkyl substituents. The electrochemical window for both [Pyr1,1O1][FSA] and [Pyr1,1O1][FSA]/LiTFSA was 5.1 V. Stable lithium deposition and dissolution occurred on a Ni electrode at 25 °C.

  9. The equilibrium structure of lithium salt solutions in ether-functionalized ammonium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Pedro Henrique; Siqueira, Leonardo J A; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2012-10-11

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for ionic liquids based on a ternary mixture of lithium and ammonium cations and a common anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [Tf(2)N](-). We address structural changes resulting from adding Li(+) in ionic liquids with increasing length of an ether-functionalized chain in the ammonium cation. The calculation of static structure factors reveals the lithium effect on charge ordering and intermediate range order in comparison with the neat ionic liquids. The charge ordering is modified in the lithium solution because the coordination of [Tf(2)N](-) toward Li(+) is much stronger than ammonium cations. Intermediate range order is observed in neat ionic liquids based on ammonium cations with a long chain, but in the lithium solutions, there is also a nonhomogenous distribution of Li(+) cations. The presence of Li(+) enhances interactions between the ammonium cations due to correlations between the oxygen atom of the ether chain and the nitrogen atom of another ammonium cation.

  10. 78 FR 2434 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Natural History Museum of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT..., Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801) 581-3876. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here given in..., Salt Lake City, UT 84108, telephone (801) 581-3876, before February 11, 2013. Repatriation of the...

  11. Natural sea salt consumption confers protection against hypertension and kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bog-Hieu; Yang, Ae-Ri; Kim, Mi Young; McCurdy, Sara; Boisvert, William A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although sea salts are widely available to consumers nowadays, whether its consumption over refined salt has any real health benefits is largely unknown. This study was conducted to compare hypertension-inducing propensity of natural sea salt (SS) to refined salt (RS) in a well-established animal model of hypertension. Five groups of male Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed rat chow diet supplemented with various amounts of salt for 15 weeks. The groups were: control (CON, n = 10), 4% RS (RS4), 4% SS (SS4), 8% RS (RS8), 8% SS (SS8) (n = 12 for each group). After 15 weeks, both SS4 and SS8 groups had significantly lower systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) compared to RS4 and RS8 rats, respectively. RS8 rats had markedly higher SBP and DBP compared to all other groups. Echocardiography just prior to sacrifice showed abnormalities in RS4, SS8 and RS8 hearts, while CON and SS4 hearts displayed normal measurements. Plasma renin and aldosterone levels of high salt groups were lower than those of CON, and serum electrolytes were similar amongst all groups. Abnormal kidney pathology and high glomerulosclerosis index scores were seen in RS4 and RS8 rats, but SS4 and SS8 kidneys showed relatively normal morphology similar to CON kidneys. Our findings show that consumption of natural sea salt induces less hypertension compared to refined salt in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat. PMID:28325999

  12. STORAGE OF CHILLED NATURAL GAS IN BEDDED SALT STORAGE CAVERNS

    SciTech Connect

    JOel D. Dieland; Kirby D. Mellegard

    2001-11-01

    This report provides the results of a two-phase study that examines the economic and technical feasibility of converting a conventional natural gas storage facility in bedded salt into a refrigerated natural gas storage facility for the purpose of increasing the working gas capacity of the facility. The conceptual design used to evaluate this conversion is based on the design that was developed for the planned Avoca facility in Steuben County, New York. By decreasing the cavern storage temperature from 43 C to -29 C (110 F to -20 F), the working gas capacity of the facility can be increased by about 70 percent (from 1.2 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 4.4 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 2.0 x 10{sup 8} Nm{sup 3} or 7.5 Bcf) while maintaining the original design minimum and maximum cavern pressures. In Phase I of the study, laboratory tests were conducted to determine the thermal conductivity of salt at low temperatures. Finite element heat transfer calculations were then made to determine the refrigeration loads required to maintain the caverns at a temperature of -29 C (-20 F). This was followed by a preliminary equipment design and a cost analysis for the converted facility. The capital cost of additional equipment and its installation required for refrigerated storage is estimated to be about $13,310,000 or $160 per thousand Nm{sup 3} ($4.29 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf)) of additional working gas capacity. The additional operating costs include maintenance refrigeration costs to maintain the cavern at -29 C (-20 F) and processing costs to condition the gas during injection and withdrawal. The maintenance refrigeration cost, based on the current energy cost of about $13.65 per megawatt-hour (MW-hr) ($4 per million British thermal units (MMBtu)), is expected to be about $316,000 after the first year and to decrease as the rock surrounding the cavern is cooled. After 10 years, the cost of maintenance refrigeration based on the $13.65 per MW-hr ($4 per MMBtu) energy cost is

  13. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  14. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  15. The effect of lithium salts on the urinary excretion of α-oxoglutarate in man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, P. A.; Jenner, F. A.; Lee, C. R.; Lenton, Elizabeth; Pollitt, R. J.; Sampson, Gwyneth A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Lithium ions in therapeutic doses cause an increase in the renal excretion of α-oxoglutarate and glutaric acid. 2. The excretion is probably due to reduced renal tubular reabsorption. 3. Neither citrate, lactate nor pyruvate excretion rises. PMID:5084816

  16. Li+ solvation and transport properties in ionic liquid/lithium salt mixtures: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Smith, Grant D; Bedrov, Dmitry

    2012-10-25

    Molecular dynamics simulations of N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium (pyr(13)) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Ntf(2)) ionic liquid [pyr(13)][Ntf(2)] mixed with [Li][Ntf(2)] salt have been conducted using a polarizable force field. Mixture simulations with lithium salt mole fractions between 0% and 33% at 363 and 423 K yield densities, ion self-diffusion coefficients, and ionic conductivities in very good agreement with available experimental data. In all investigated electrolytes, each Li(+) cation was found to be coordinated, on average, by 4.1 oxygen atoms from surrounding anions. At lower concentrations (x ≤ 0.20), the Li(+) cation was found to be, on average, coordinated by slightly more than three Ntf(2) anions with two anions contributing a single oxygen atom and one anion contributing two oxygen atoms to Li(+) coordination. At the highest [Li][Ntf(2)] concentration, however, there were, on average, 3.5 anions coordinating each Li(+) cation, corresponding to fewer bidendate and more monodentate anions in the Li(+) coordination sphere. This trend is due to increased sharing of anions by Li(+) at higher salt concentrations. In the [pyr(13)][Ntf(2)]/[Li][Ntf(2)] electrolytes, the ion diffusivity is significantly smaller than that in organic liquid electrolytes due to not only the greater viscosity of the solvent but also the formation of clusters resulting from sharing of anions by Li(+) cations. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, with the effect being greater at the higher temperature. Finally, we found that the contribution of Li(+) to ionic conductivity does not increase proportionally to Li(+) concentration but saturates at higher doping levels.

  17. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  18. Growth of lithium triborate single crystals from molten salt solution under various temperature gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guretskii, S. A.; Ges, A. P.; Zhigunov, D. I.; Ignatenko, A. A.; Kalanda, N. A.; Kurnevich, L. A.; Luginets, A. M.; Milovanov, A. S.; Molchan, P. V.

    1995-12-01

    Single crystals of lithium triborate LiB 3O 5 (LBO) have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method with B 2O 3 as a solvent using different temperature gradients in the zone of crystallization. Optical and nonlinear optical properties of LBO single crystals have been investigated. The influence of post-growth thermal treatment in oxygen atmosphere on the optical properties has been studied.

  19. [Lithium nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  20. The Salts of Mars: A Rich and Ubiquitous Natural Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeff S.

    1998-01-01

    The Viking and Pathfinder Mars landers have shown that martian soil is highly enriched in Cl, S, P, and perhaps Br. which, in all likelihood, occur as salts (chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, and perhaps bromides). Carbonates also may be present Many martian salt minerals are believed to be hydrated. These water-soluble constituents of the soil will offer the first colonists a rich source of many industrial commodities needed to sustain and grow the colony. Being hydrous, martian salts hold a tremendous potential to supply water in regions of Mars where otherwise preferable ice may be absent or difficult to access A caliche-like form of concrete or adobe may be manufactured by the drying of briny mud. Sulfates and phosphates may be used as additives for the manufacture of soil prepared and balanced for agriculture. Sulfates and chlorides offer a raw material for the manufacture of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. Electrolytic processes applied to magnesium sulfate solution may yield metallic Mg. In short, martian salts will offer colonists abroad industrial base of chemical substances potentially useful in development of indigenous construction, chemical, and agricultural industries. Best of all, such salty dust deposits are among the most widespread and chemically uniform (i.e., dependable) raw materials on Mars. A simple method of preprocessing martian soil to extract and isolate the major salt consituents and to obtain water will be presented, as will a more thorough presentation of possible industrial uses of these materials in a Mars base.

  1. Toward the design of high voltage magnesium–lithium hybrid batteries using dual-salt electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yingwen; Choi, Daiwon; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2016-02-26

    We report a design of high voltage magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) hybrid batteries through rational controls of the electrolyte chemistry, electrode materials and cell architectures. Prototype devices with LiFePO4 and LiMn2O4 cathodes exhibit voltages higher than 2.5 V (vs. Mg) and a high specific energy density of 246 Wh/kg under conditions that are amenable for practical applications. The successful demonstrations reported here could be a significant step forward for practical hybrid batteries.

  2. Inverse Vulcanization of Sulfur using Natural Dienes as Sustainable Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Iñaki; Leonet, Olatz; Blazquez, J Alberto; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-12-20

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are among the most promising next-generation battery systems due to the high capacity of sulfur as cathodic material. Beyond its interesting intrinsic properties, sulfur possesses a very low conductivity and complex electrochemistry, which involves the high solubility of the lithium sulfides in the electrolyte. These two characteristics are at the core of a series of limitations of its performance as active cathode material, which leads to batteries with low cyclability. Recently, inverse vulcanized sulfur was shown to retain capacity far better than elemental sulfur, leading to batteries with excellent cyclability. Nevertheless, the diene co-monomers used so far in the inverse vulcanization process are man-made molecules. Herein, a tentative work on exploring inverse vulcanization using two naturally available monomers, diallyl sulfide and myrcene, is presented. The inverse vulcanization of sulfur was successfully completed, and the resulting polymers were characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Afterwards these polymers were tested as cathodic materials in lithium-sulfur cells. The sulfur-natural dienes materials exhibited high capacity at different C rates and high lifetime over 200 cycles with very high capacity retention at a moderate C rate of C/5. Altogether, these materials made from inexpensive and abundant chemicals are an excellent option as sustainable materials for electrochemical energy storage.

  3. Polymer electrolytes with multiple conductive channels prepared from NBR/SBR latex films impregnated with lithium salt and plasticizer

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Morihiko; Rutt, J.S.; Nishi, Shiro

    1995-09-01

    Polymer electrolytes, composed of a polar polymer acting as a host matrix for lithium-salt solutions, have high ionic conductivity and have been studied for application in advanced electronic devices such as the rechargeable lithium battery. Polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) and good tensile strength were prepared by swelling poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) (NBR)/poly(styrene-co-butadiene) (SBR)/LiClO{sub 4} latex films with {gamma}-butyrolactone ({gamma}-BL) or LiClO{sub 4}/{gamma}-BL plasticizer. Before swelling, the LiClO{sub 4} phase is formed at the particle interface. After politicization, two ion-conductive channels are present: the LiClO{sub 4} phase is present at the interface of the latex particles, and the NBR phase is formed from NBR latex particles. These regions are polar and impregnated selectively with polar {gamma}-BL solvent or LiClO{sub 4}/{gamma}-BL solution, building primary and secondary ion-conductive channels, respectively. The SBR phase (formed from SBR latex particles) is nonpolar and not impregnated, providing a mechanically supportive matrix. High ionic conductivity on the order of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm is achieved when NBR/SBR(50/50)/LiClO{sub 4} latex film was saturated on 0.2 to 0.4M LiClO{sub 4}/{gamma}-BL solutions. Various microscopic and macroscopic analyses suggest that two types of ion-conductive channels exist in the polymer electrolyte film.

  4. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-05-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} (10{sup {minus}4} darcy to 10{sup {minus}6}). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ``heal`` or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required.

  5. Particle formation above natural and simulated salt lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamilli, Katharina A.; Ofner, Johannes; Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Held, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Originally, Western Australia was covered with Eucalyptus trees. Large scale deforestation for agricultural purposes led to rising ground water levels and brought dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. Nowadays, Western Australia is known for a great plenty of salt lakes with pH levels reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The land is mainly used for wheat farming and livestock and becomes drier due to the lack of rain periods. One possible reason could be the formation of ultrafine particles from salt lakes, which increases the number of cloud condensation nuclei, and thus potentially suppresses precipitation. Several field campaigns have been conducted between 2006 and 2011 with car-based and airborne measurements, where new particle formation has been observed and has been related to the Western Australian salt lakes (Junkermann et al., 2009). To identify particle formation directly above the salt lakes, a 2.35 m³ PTFE chamber was set up above several lakes in 2012 and 2013. Inside the chamber, photochemistry may take place whereas mixing through wind or advection of already existing particles is prevented. Salt lakes with a low pH level led to strongly increased aerosol formation. Also, the dependence on meteorological conditions has been examined. To obtain chemical information of the newly formed particles, during the chamber experiments also aerosol filter samples have been taken. The analysis of the anions by ion chromatography in 2012 showed an 8 to 17 times higher concentration of Cl- than SO42-, which led to the assumption that particle formation may have been influenced by halogens. As reference experiments, laboratory based aerosol smog-chamber runs were performed to examine halogen induced aerosol formation under atmospheric conditions using simulated sunlight and the simplified chemical composition of a salt lake. The mixture included FeSO4, NaCl and Na2SO4. After adding α-pinene to the simulated salt lake, a strong nucleation event began comparable to

  6. Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke Christopher

    Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites

  7. Combining piracetam and lithium salts: ionic co-crystals and co-drugs?

    PubMed

    Braga, Dario; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Capucci, Davide; Nanna, Saverio; Wouters, Johan; Aerts, Luc; Quéré, Luc

    2012-08-25

    Mechanochemical reaction of solid piracetam with the inorganic salts LiCl and LiBr yields ionic co-crystals which are also co-drugs, characterized by markedly different thermal properties with respect to pure components, also depending on the method for preparation and/or conditions of measurements; single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction at variable temperatures, DSC, TGA, hot stage microscopy (HSM) and intrinsic dissolution rate have been used to fully characterize the solid products.

  8. Novel polymer electrolytes based on thermoplastic polyurethane and ionic liquid/lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/propylene carbonate salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavall, R. L.; Ferrari, S.; Tomasi, C.; Marzantowicz, M.; Quartarone, E.; Magistris, A.; Mustarelli, P.; Lazzaroni, S.; Fagnoni, M.

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared from thermoplastic polyurethane with addition of mixture of ionic liquid N-ethyl(methylether)-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonimmide (PYRA 12O1TFSI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfoneimide) salt and propylene carbonate. The electrolytes characterization was performed by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties were investigated in detail by impedance spectroscopy with the aid of equivalent circuit fitting of the impedance spectra. A model describing temperature evolution of ionic conductivity and the properties of electrolyte/blocking electrode interface was developed. The electrochemical stability of the electrolytes was studied by linear voltammetry. Our results indicate that the studied electrolytes have good self-standing characteristics, and also a sufficient level of thermal stability and a fairly good electrochemical window. The ionic conductivity increases with increasing amount of mixture, and the character of temperature dependence of conductivity indicates decoupling of ion transport from polymer matrix. For studied system, the highest value of ionic conductivity measured at room temperature was 10 -4 S cm -1.

  9. Dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have studied the dynamics and relaxation of charge carriers in poly(methylmethacrylate)-lithium salt based polymer electrolytes plasticized with ethylene carbonate. Structural and thermal properties have been examined using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. We have analyzed the complex conductivity spectra by using power law model coupled with the contribution of electrode polarization at low frequencies and high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity and crossover frequency exhibits Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher type behavior indicating a strong coupling between the ionic and the polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity indicates that relaxation dynamics of charge carriers follows a common mechanism for all temperatures and ethylene carbonate concentrations. The analysis of the ac conductivity also shows the existence of a nearly constant loss in these polymer electrolytes at low temperatures and high frequencies. The fraction of free anions and ion pairs in polymer electrolyte have been obtained from the analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. It is observed that these quantities influence the behavior of the composition dependence of the ionic conductivity.

  10. Salinity tolerance in soybean is modulated by natural variation in GmSALT3.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rongxia; Qu, Yue; Guo, Yong; Yu, Lili; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Jinghan; Chen, Jiangang; Ren, Yulong; Liu, Guangyu; Tian, Lei; Jin, Longguo; Liu, Zhangxiong; Hong, Huilong; Chang, Ruzhen; Gilliham, Matthew; Qiu, Lijuan

    2014-12-01

    The identification of genes that improve the salt tolerance of crops is essential for the effective utilization of saline soils for agriculture. Here, we use fine mapping in a soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) population derived from the commercial cultivars Tiefeng 8 and 85-140 to identify GmSALT3 (salt tolerance-associated gene on chromosome 3), a dominant gene associated with limiting the accumulation of sodium ions (Na+) in shoots and a substantial enhancement in salt tolerance in soybean. GmSALT3 encodes a protein from the cation/H+ exchanger family that we localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and which is preferentially expressed in the salt-tolerant parent Tiefeng 8 within root cells associated with phloem and xylem. We identified in the salt-sensitive parent, 85-140, a 3.78-kb copia retrotransposon insertion in exon 3 of Gmsalt3 that truncates the transcript. By sequencing 31 soybean landraces and 22 wild soybean (Glycine soja) a total of nine haplotypes including two salt-tolerant haplotypes and seven salt-sensitive haplotypes were identified. By analysing the distribution of haplotypes among 172 Chinese soybean landraces and 57 wild soybean we found that haplotype 1 (H1, found in Tiefeng 8) was strongly associated with salt tolerance and is likely to be the ancestral allele. Alleles H2-H6, H8 and H9, which do not confer salinity tolerance, were acquired more recently. H1, unlike other alleles, has a wide geographical range including saline areas, which indicates it is maintained when required but its potent stress tolerance can be lost during natural selection and domestication. GmSALT3 is a gene associated with salt tolerance with great potential for soybean improvement.

  11. Intergranular fracture of lithium fluoride-22 percent calcium fluoride hypereutectic salt at 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Subramanium V.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Substantial strain-hardening was noted during the initial stages of deformation in constant-velocity compression tests conducted on as-cast samples of the LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic salt at 800 K. The deformed specimens exhibited extensive grain-boundary cracking and cavitation, suggesting that such cracking, in conjunction with interfacial sliding, is important for cavity nucleation at grain boundaries and at the LiF-CaF2 interfaces. Cavity growth and interlinkage occur through the preferential failure of the weaker LiF phase.

  12. Applying hyperspectral imaging to explore natural plant diversity towards improving salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Olsovska, Katarina; Kovar, Marek; Shao, Hongbo; He, Xiaolan

    2017-02-01

    Salinity represents an abiotic stress constraint affecting growth and productivity of plants in many regions of the world. One of the possible solutions is to improve the level of salt resistance using natural genetic variability within crop species. In the context of recent knowledge on salt stress effects and mechanisms of salt tolerance, this review present useful phenomic approach employing different non-invasive imaging systems for detection of quantitative and qualitative changes caused by salt stress at the plant and canopy level. The focus is put on hyperspectral imaging technique, which provides unique opportunities for fast and reliable estimate of numerous characteristics associated both with various structural, biochemical and physiological traits. The method also provides possibilities to combine plant and canopy analyses with a direct determination of salinity in soil. The future perspectives in salt stress applications as well as some limits of the method are also identified.

  13. The SALT NORM : a quantitative chemical-mineralogical characterization of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodine, Marc W.; Jones, Blair F.

    1986-01-01

    The new computer program SNORM calculates the salt norm from the chemical composition of a natural water. The salt norm is the quantitative ideal equilibrium assemblage that would crystallize if the water evaporated to dryness at 25 C and 1 bar pressure under atmospheric partial pressure of CO2. SNORM proportions solute concentrations to achieve charge balance. It quantitatively distributes the 18 acceptable solutes into normative salts that are assigned from 63 possible normative salts to allow only stable associations based on the Gibbs Phase Rule, available free energy values, and observed low-temperature mineral associations. Although most natural water compositions represent multiple solute origins, results from SNORM identify three major categories: meteoric or weathering waters that are characterized by normative alkali-bearing sulfate and carbonate salts: connate marine-like waters that are chloride-rich with a halite-bischofite-carnallite-kieserite-anhydrite association; and diagenetic waters that are frequently of marine origin but yield normative salts, such as Ca-bearing chlorides (antarcticite and tachyhydrite) and sylvite, which suggest solute alteration by secondary mineral reactions. The solute source or reaction process within each of the above categories is commonly indicated by the presence or absence of diagnostic normative salts and their relative abundance in the normative salt assemblage. For example, salt norms: (1) may identify lithologic source; (2) may identify the relative roles of carbonic and sulfuric acid hydrolysis in the evolution of weathering waters; (3) may identify the origin of connate water from normal marine, hypersaline, or evaporite salt resolution processes; and (4) may distinguish between dolomitization and silicate hydrolysis or exchange for the origin of diagenetic waters. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Lithium in Medicine: Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Leverson, Brian D; Goossens, Jesse L

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the mechanism of action of lithium salts from a chemical perspective. A description on how lithium salts are used to treat mental illnesses, in particular bipolar disorder, and other disease states is provided. Emphasis is not placed on the genetics and the psychopharmacology of the ailments for which lithium salts have proven to be beneficial. Rather we highlight the application of chemical methodologies for the characterization of the cellular targets of lithium salts and their distribution in tissues.

  15. Synthesis of rock-salt type lithium borohydride and its peculiar Li{sup +} ion conduction properties

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, R.; Maekawa, H.; Takamura, H.

    2014-05-01

    The high energy density and excellent cycle performance of lithium ion batteries makes them superior to all other secondary batteries and explains why they are widely used in portable devices. However, because organic liquid electrolytes have a higher operating voltage than aqueous solution, they are used in lithium ion batteries. This comes with the risk of fire due to their flammability. Solid electrolytes are being investigated to find an alternative to organic liquid. However, the nature of the solid-solid point contact at the interface between the electrolyte and electrode or between the electrolyte grains is such that high power density has proven difficult to attain. We develop a new method for the fabrication of a solid electrolyte using LiBH{sub 4,} known for its super Li{sup +} ion conduction without any grain boundary contribution. The modifications to the conduction pathway achieved by stabilizing the high pressure form of this material provided a new structure with some LiBH{sub 4}, more suitable to the high rate condition. We synthesized the H.P. form of LiBH{sub 4} under ambient pressure by doping LiBH{sub 4} with the KI lattice by sintering. The formation of a KI - LiBH{sub 4} solid solution was confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically. The obtained sample was shown to be a pure Li{sup +} conductor despite its small Li{sup +} content. This conduction mechanism, where the light doping cation played a major role in ion conduction, was termed the “Parasitic Conduction Mechanism.” This mechanism made it possible to synthesize a new ion conductor and is expected to have enormous potential in the search for new battery materials.

  16. A new family of anion receptors and their effects on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.; Okamoto, Y.

    1994-08-01

    A new family of anion receptors based on aza-ether compounds have been synthesized. Since the anion complexation of these compounds is not based on either positively charged sites or hydrogen bonding, they have a potential to be used in lithium batteries as electrolyte additives. When these compounds are added into nonaqueous electrolytes using lithium salts, such as LiCl/BF or LiBr/THF, the ionic conductivity can be dramatically increased. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NF-XAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} anions are completed with the nitrogen groups in these compounds. The increase in ionic conductivity and the degree of complexation, are both related to the number of R=CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds.

  17. A general salt-templating method to fabricate vertically aligned graphitic carbon nanosheets and their metal carbide hybrids for superior lithium ion batteries and water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jixin; Sakaushi, Ken; Clavel, Guylhaine; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick

    2015-04-29

    The synthesis of vertically aligned functional graphitic carbon nanosheets (CNS) is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate a general approach for the fabrication of vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS composites via a facile salt templating induced self-assembly. The resulting vertically aligned CNS and metal carbide@CNS structures possess ultrathin walls, good electrical conductivity, strong adhesion, excellent structural robustness, and small particle size. In electrochemical energy conversion and storage such unique features are favorable for providing efficient mass transport as well as a large and accessible electroactive surface. The materials were tested as electrodes in a lithium ion battery and in electrochemical water splitting. The vertically aligned nanosheets exhibit remarkable lithium ion storage properties and, concurrently, excellent properties as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

  18. Ion pair dissociation effects of aza-based anion receptors on lithium salts in polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.; McBreen, J.; Choi, L.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The addition of aza-based anion receptors greatly increases the conductivity of polymer electrolytes based on LiCl and KI complexes with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In some cases the conductivity increase is more than two orders of magnitude. Also the addition of the anion acceptors imparts a rubber like consistency to the normally stiff PEO salt films. Ion-ion, ion-polymer and anion-complex interactions were studied using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the K and Cl K edges and at the I L{sub I} edge. The NEXAFS results show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with the nitrogen groups of the anion receptors. The degree of complexation is related the chain length of the complexing agent and the number of R{double_bond}CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} groups that are used to substitute for the amine hydrogen atoms in these aza-ether compounds. NEXAFS spectra at potassium K edge provide supplemental evidence for the ion pair dissociation effects of the anion receptors. The results show that dissociated K{sup +} cations are complexed with oxygen atoms of the PEO chains.

  19. Self-tracking, solvent-free low-dimensional polymer electrolyte blends with lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Chia, F.; Ungar, G.; Wright, P. V.

    Solvent-free polymer electrolyte blends of the amphiphilic polyethoxide ( I) and the polytetrahydrofuran copolymer ( II) with LiClO 4 or LiClO 4/LiBF 4 mixture have been prepared. In II A is either CH 2 ( IIC1) or CH 2C(CH 2)CH 2 ( IID4), dc measurements using Li electrodes on the cells (Li | I/ II-Li salt | Li) demonstrate a 'self-tracking' process over ca. 24 h during which time conductivities increase from ca. 10 -6 to 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 and 30°C. The dc results are supported by ac impedance measurements using indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in which the complexes undergo transitions at ca. 90°C to give a conductivity after cooling of 6×10 -4 S cm -1 at 20°C with low temperature dependence. Structural analysis and molecular dynamics modelling indicate that the cations occupy unimpeded helices of I and anions are located in the interhelical spaces. Mechanisms of 'tracking' involving shear-induced orientation of polymer I by polymer II and the redistribution of ions between I and II following imposition of the field are proposed.

  20. Natural sisal fibers derived hierarchical porous activated carbon as capacitive material in lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhewei; Guo, Huajun; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Yan, Zhiliang; Wang, Yansen

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a novel advanced electrochemical energy storage (EES) system bridging gap between lithium ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (ECC). In this work, we report that sisal fiber activated carbon (SFAC) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by KOH activation and served as capacitive material in LIC for the first time. Different particle structure, morphology, specific surface area and heteroatoms affected the electrochemical performance of as-prepared materials and corresponding LICs. When the mass ratio of KOH to char precursor was 2, hierarchical porous structured SFAC-2 was prepared and exhibited moderate specific capacitance (103 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), superior rate capability and cyclic stability (88% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A g-1). The corresponding assembled LIC (LIC-SC2) with optimal comprehensive electrochemical performance, displayed the energy density of 83 Wh kg-1, the power density of 5718 W kg-1 and superior cyclic stability (92% energy density retention after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). It is worthwhile that the source for activated carbon is a natural and renewable one and the synthesis method is eco-friendly, which facilitate that hierarchical porous activated carbon has potential applications in the field of LIC and other energy storage systems.

  1. Surface passivation of natural graphite electrode for lithium ion battery by chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Mazej, Zoran; Zemva, Boris; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Surface lattice defects would act as active sites for electrochemical reduction of propylene carbonate (PC) as a solvent for lithium ion battery. Effect of surface chlorination of natural graphite powder has been investigated to improve charge/discharge characteristics of natural graphite electrode in PC-containing electrolyte solution. Chlorination of natural graphite increases not only surface chlorine but also surface oxygen, both of which would contribute to the decrease in surface lattice defects. It has been found that surface-chlorinated natural graphite samples with surface chlorine concentrations of 0.5-2.3 at% effectively suppress the electrochemical decomposition of PC, highly reducing irreversible capacities, i.e. increasing first coulombic efficiencies by 20-30% in 1 mol L-1 LiClO4-EC/DEC/PC (1:1:1 vol.). In 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/EMC/PC (1:1:1 vol.), the effect of surface chlorination is observed at a higher current density. This would be attributed to decrease in surface lattice defects of natural graphite powder by the formation of covalent C-Cl and C=O bonds.

  2. Resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of salt transport under natural hydraulic gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.D.; Sandberg, S.K.

    2000-04-01

    The authors demonstrate the use of resistivity/induced polarization (IP) monitoring of salt transport under natural hydraulic loads. Electrical monitoring of saline tracer transport during forced injection has been demonstrated previously. Detection of tracer transport under natural hydraulic loading is difficult because neither the hydraulic load nor the tracer resistivity can be controlled. In one study, the authors identify the electrical response to salt transport in a dynamic beach environment. Resistivity/IP imagine resolved the structure of the saltwater-freshwater interface and evidence for tide-induced groundwater transport. Resistivity increases in the near surface and at depth, upbeach of the high-tide mark, accompanied by tidal transgression. They attribute this to desaturation and decreasing salinity in the near surface and to decreasing salinity at depth, despite tidal transgression. Monitoring of groundwater levels indicates a phase lag between the tide level and groundwater level, supporting the electrical data. IP was insensitive to groundwater salinity variation. In a second study, the authors identify the electrical response to recharge-induced salt transport from a road-sale storage facility. Conductivity and IP models for monitoring lines, located on the basis of an EM31 survey, resolved the subsurface salt distribution, IP modeling resolved the sediment-bedrock interface. Modeling of monthly conductivity differences revealed conductivity increases and decreases at the locations of salt contamination, which correlate with the recharge pattern. They attribute near-surface conductivity increases after heavy rainfall to increasing saturation and ion dissolution. Corresponding conductivity decreases at depth are attributed to flushing of the bedrock with freshwater. Essentially, the opposite response was observed during a quiet monitoring period following heavy recharge. Near-surface IP changes are consistent with this interpretation. Salt

  3. Highly reversible lithium metal secondary battery using a room temperature ionic liquid/lithium salt mixture and a surface-coated cathode active material.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shiro; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Ohno, Yasutaka; Usami, Akira; Mita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Terada, Nobuyuki

    2006-02-07

    For the purpose of realizing high-voltage, high-capacity, long-life and safe rechargeable batteries, a lithium secondary battery that uses high-voltage stable ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 cathode powder and a nonvolatile high-safety room temperature ionic liquid was fabricated.

  4. Preparation of nanocrystalline silicon from SiCl4 at 200 °C in molten salt for high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Han, Ying; Wang, Liangbiao; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-03-16

    Crystalline Si nanoparticles are prepared by reduction of SiCl4 with metallic magnesium in the molten salt of AlCl3 at 200 °C in an autoclave. AlCl3 not only acts as molten salt, but also participates in the reaction. The related experiments confirm that metallic Mg reduces AlCl3 to create nascent Al which could immediately reduce SiCl4 to Si, and the by-product MgCl2 would combine with AlCl3 forming complex of MgAl2Cl8. As anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the as-prepared Si delivers the reversible capacity of 3083 mAh g(-1) at 1.2 A g(-1) after 50 cycles, and 1180 mAh g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) over 500 cycles.

  5. Stability of SG1 nitroxide towards unprotected sugar and lithium salts: a preamble to cellulose modification by nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guillaume; Charles, Laurence; Major, Mohamed; Vacandio, Florence; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Lefay, Catherine; Gigmes, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The range of applications of cellulose, a glucose-based polysaccharide, is limited by its inherently poor mechanical properties. The grafting of synthetic polymer chains by, for example, a "grafting from" process may provide the means to broaden the range of applications. The nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) method is a technique of choice to control the length, the composition and the architecture of the grafted copolymers. Nevertheless, cellulose is difficult to solubilize in organic media because of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. One possibility to circumvent this limitation is to solubilize cellulose in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) with 5 to 10 wt % of lithium salts (LiCl or LiBr), and carry out grafted polymerization in this medium. The stability of nitroxides such as SG1 has not been studied under these conditions yet, even though these parameters are of crucial importance to perform the graft modification of polysaccharide by NMP. The aim of this work is to offer a model study of the stability of the SG1 nitroxide in organic media in the presence of unprotected glucose or cellobiose (used as a model of cellulose) and in the presence of lithium salts (LiBr or LiCl) in DMF or DMA. Contrary to TEMPO, SG1 proved to be stable in the presence of unprotected sugar, even with an excess of 100 molar equivalents of glucose. On the other hand, lithium salts in DMF or DMA clearly degrade SG1 nitroxide as proven by electron-spin resonance measurements. The instability of SG1 in these lithium-containing solvents may be explained by the acidification of the medium by the hydrolysis of DMA in the presence of LiCl. This, in turn, enables the disproportionation of the SG1 nitroxide into an unstable hydroxylamine and an oxoammonium ion. Once the conditions to perform an SG1-based nitroxide-mediated graft polymerization from cellobiose have been established, the next stage of this work will be the modification of cellulose and

  6. Novel binary deep eutectic electrolytes for rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on mixtures of alkyl sulfonamides and lithium perfluoroalkylsulfonimide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiculescu, O. E.; DesMarteau, D. D.; Creager, S. E.; Haik, O.; Hirshberg, D.; Shilina, Y.; Zinigrad, E.; Levi, M. D.; Aurbach, D.; Halalay, I. C.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquids (IL's) were proposed for use in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), in order to mitigate some of the well-known drawbacks of LiPF6/mixed organic carbonates solutions. However, their large cations seriously decrease lithium transference numbers and block lithium insertion sites at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, leading to poor LIB rate performance. Deep eutectic electrolytes (DEEs) (which share some of the advantages of ILs but possess only one cation, Li+), were then proposed, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with ILs. We report herein on the preparation, thermal properties (melting, crystallization, and glass transition temperatures), transport properties (specific conductivity and viscosity) and thermal stability of binary DEEs based on mixtures of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide or lithium bis(fluoro)sulfonimide salts with an alkyl sulfonamide solvent. Promise for LIB applications is demonstrated by chronoamperometry on Al current collectors, and cycling behavior of negative and positive electrodes. Residual current densities of 12 and 45 nA cm-2 were observed at 5 V vs. Li/Li+ on aluminum, 1.5 and 16 nA cm-2 at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively for LiFSI and LiTFSI based DEEs. Capacities of 220, 130, and 175 mAh· g-1 were observed at low (C/13 or C/10) rates, respectively for petroleum coke, LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 (a.k.a. NMC 111) and LiAl0.05Co0.15Ni0.8O2 (a.k.a. NCA).

  7. Treatment of effluents of poultry slaughterhouse with aluminum salts and natural polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, E; Rodrigues, D G; Nozaki, J

    2002-08-01

    A mixture of aluminum salts and natural polyelectrolytes, extracted from the cactus Opuntia ficus indica, has been used for cleaning of wastewater from poultry slaughterhouse. The aggregation and settling properties of colloids and complex organics such as oil, grease, fats, proteins, and suspended solids, was increased if compared with conventional methods of wastewater treatment using only aluminum or iron sulfate. A mixture of aluminum salt in a concentration range of 300 to 600 mg l(-1) and natural polyelectrolytes of 0.6 to 0.8 mg l(-1) was used for flocculation and coagulation. The combination of coagulant and natural polyelectrolytes was able to remove chemical oxygen demand (86%), oil and grease (93%), turbidity (89%), and suspended solids (93%). Methanization activity was also investigated for the effluents in natura.

  8. Nature of chalcogen hor ellipsis chalcogen contact interactions in organic donor-molecule salts

    SciTech Connect

    Novoa, J.J.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan . Dept. of Chemistry); Williams, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The nature of chalcogen{hor ellipsis}chalcogen contact interactions in organic donor-molecule salts was examined by performing ab initio SCF-MO/MP2 calculations on H{sub 2}X{hor ellipsis}XH{sub 2}(X = O, S, SE, Te) and MM2 calculations on donor dimers (TXF){sub 2} (X = S, SE, Te) and (BEDX-TTF){sub 2} (X = O, S). 14 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Fry spacing of deformed and undeformed modeled and natural salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Roennlund, P.; Koyi, H.

    1988-05-01

    Fry's center-point spacing strain analysis is applied to experiments of gravity-driven overturn of horizontal fluid layers on scales of centimeters or decimeters, and to natural salt diapirs on scales of kilometers to tens of kilometers. Laboratory experiments in which about 100 diapirs formed from initially plane horizontal layers resulted in laterally isotropic spacing and yielded an open circle on a Fry plot with a radius equal to the wavelength (W). Lateral deformation and initial departures from horizontal layers with uniform properties may influence W. Sample experiments of diapirism with and without lateral deformation are compared to natural equivalents. The spacing of post-Late Triassic diapirs in the Zechstein salt of Germany and of post-Jurassic diapirs in the Hormuz salt of Arabia yields circles on Fry plots which indicate that these gravity structures developed without additional lateral forces. Fry plots of the spacing of salt diapirs in the Zagros Mountains define a strain ellipse with the long axis (=W in Arabia) parallel and the short axis perpendicular to post-Miocene regional fold axes. The ratio of the Zagros strain ellipse is about 1.7, which suggests a northeast-southwest shortening of 41%, rather than 10%-21% as estimated from folding alone. This mismatch may be a result of unquantified shortening due to thrusts and/or layer-parallel shortening. Center-point spacing of post-Late Triassic domes of Zechstein salt in the central North Sea also gives an ellipse. Here, the long axis coincides with the direction of Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous extension. The axial ratio of the North Sea strain ellipse is about 2.8, compared to estimates of about 1.5-2.0 by Sclater and Christie, and 1.8 by Wood and Barton.

  10. Ultralong Cycle Life Achieved by a Natural Plant: Miscanthus × giganteus for Lithium Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Bi, Xuanxuan; Tao, Ran; Wang, Qingzhen; Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong

    2017-02-08

    Large energy-storage systems and electric vehicles require energy devices with high power and high energy density. Lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries could achieve high energy density, but they are still facing problems such as low practical capacity and poor cyclability. Here, we prepare activated carbons (MGACs) based on the natural plant Miscanthus × giganteus (MG) through slow pyrolysis. It possesses a large surface area, plenty of active sites, and high porosity, which are beneficial to the utilization of oxygen electrode in Li-O2 batteries. The MGACs-based oxygen electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 9400 mAh/g at 0.02 mA/cm(2), and long cycle life of 601 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 500 mAh/g) and 295 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh/g) at 0.2 mA/cm(2), respectively. Additionally, the material exhibits high rate capability and high reversibility, which is a promising candidate for the application in Li-O2 batteries.

  11. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-25

    referred to as a separator. An electrolyte composed of an organic solvent and dissolved lithium salt provides the medium for lithium ion transport. A...inorganic solvents containing dissolved ionic lithium salts. Where the electrolytes are not organic esters/carbonate mixtures, they are inorganic

  12. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  13. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  14. Alternative natural seasoning to improve the microbial stability of low-salt beef patties.

    PubMed

    García-Lomillo, Javier; González-SanJosé, M A Luisa; Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, M A Dolores; Muñiz-Rodríguez, Pilar

    2017-07-15

    The meat industry is seeking new strategies to reduce the sodium content of meat products without shortening their shelf-life. Natural seasonings as salt alternatives are more appreciated than chemical preservatives and also enable the incorporation of interesting nutrients. The present work studies the potential of a new red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS), derived from wine pomace, to inhibit spoilage growth in beef patties with different salt levels (2%, 1.5% and 1%) held in storage at 4°C. The use of RWPS (2% w/w) improved the microbial stability of the patties, delaying total aerobic mesophilic, and lactic acid bacteria growth, especially in samples with low salt levels. Satisfactory results were obtained in modified-atmosphere and air-packaged patties. RWPS also enabled the incorporation of fiber and phenolic compounds, and increased potassium and calcium levels. In summary, RWPS presented an interesting potential as a seasoning in meat products, enabling salt reduction without compromising their microbial stability.

  15. In situ synthesis of ultra-fine, porous, tin oxide-carbon nanocomposites via a molten salt method for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Guo, Zai Ping; Du, Guodong; Nuli, Yanna; Hassan, Mohd Faiz; Jia, Dianzeng

    Ultra-fine, porous, tin oxide-carbon (SnO 2/C) nanocomposites are fabricated by a molten salt method at 300 °C, and malic acid is decomposed as the carbon source. In situ synthesis is favourable for the combination of carbon and SnO 2. The structure and morphology are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, specific surface-area measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Examination of TEM images reveals that the SnO 2 nanoparticles are embedded in the carbon matrix, with sizes between 2 and 5 nm. The electrochemical measurements show that the nanocomposite delivers a high capacity with good capacity retention as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, due to the combination of the ultra-fine porous structure and the carbon component.

  16. From the Disordered State to the Frank-Kasper Sigma Phase: Readily Tuning the Phase Behavior of Block Polymers via Lithium Salt Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Matthew; Hickey, Robert; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    Sphere-forming block copolymers have long been known to assemble onto a body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice, but recent work has demonstrated that with the correct thermal treatments, more exotic morphologies such as dodecagonal quasicrystals or the Frank-Kasper sigma phase can be observed. In this presentation, we show that a similar variety of morphologies can be obtained by simply adding small amounts of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI), which preferentially partitions into one of the domains. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we have found that block copolymers, which are disordered when neat, can form spheres with liquid-like packing, BCC crystals, the Frank-Kasper sigma phase, or hexagonally close packed crystals upon increasing the salt loading. This work demonstrates a unique, alternative route to highly segregated sphere-forming block copolymers and examines the universality of the formation of these complex morphologies.

  17. Recommended design for more accurate duplication of natural conditions in salt marsh creation.

    PubMed

    Darnell, T M; Smith, E H

    2002-06-01

    Construction of 653 ha of salt marsh habitat from dredged material near the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, has been proposed, with the goal of increasing the area of habitat available to endangered whooping cranes ( Grus americana). We assessed prototype created wetlands, and their similarity to natural reference sites, in terms of topography, vegetation, and hydrology. The created sites were steeply sloped relative to natural sites and were dominated by monotypic stands of Spartina alterniflora. Natural sites were dominated by vegetation more tolerant of desiccation and hypersalinity and by unvegetated salt pans. Differences in vegetation communities and distributions of habitat types resulted from efforts to enhance habitat diversity in created marsh cells through manipulation of marsh topography. However, the scale at which this diversity occurred in natural marsh of the study area was not considered. When constructing wetlands in cellular configurations, we recommend creation of large complexes of adjoining, hydrologically linked, cells wherein the desired habitat diversity is created at the scale of the entire complex, rather than within a single cell. Suggested design modifications would increase the similarity of created marshes to natural reference sites, potentially improving habitat function.

  18. In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Studies on Concentration of Electrolyte Salt in Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Ultrafine Multifiber Probes.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Hiroe; Tsubouchi, Shigetaka; Domi, Yasuhiro; Doi, Takayuki; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2017-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted considerable attention due to their high power density. The change in concentration of salt in the electrolyte solution in lithium-ion batteries during operation causes serious degradation of battery performance. Herein, a new method of in situ Raman spectroscopy with ultrafine multifiber probes was developed to simultaneously study the concentrations of ions at several different positions in the electrolyte solution in deep narrow spaces between the electrodes in batteries. The total amount of ions in the electrolyte solution clearly changed during operation due to the low permeability of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) at the anode for Li(+) permeation. The permeability, which is a key factor to achieve high battery performance, was improved (enhanced) by adding film-forming additives to the electrolyte solution to modify the properties of the SEI. The results provide important information for understanding and predicting phenomena occurring in a battery and for designing a superior battery. The present method is useful for analysis in deep narrow spaces in other electrochemical devices, such as capacitors.

  19. Effect of the salting-out agent anion nature on the phase separation of a potassium salt-potassium bis(alkyl polyoxyethylene)phosphate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elokhov, A. M.; Lesnov, A. E.; Kudryashova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The effect the salting-out agent anion nature has on the temperature and concentration intervals of the existence of the separation area is established by analyzing the phase diagrams of pseudoternary KCl (KBr, KI, KNO3, K2SO4, K4P2O7)-potassium bis(alkyl polyoxyethylene)phosphate (oxyphos B)-water systems. It is concluded that the anionic salting-out capability is reduced in the order P2O 7 4- > SO 4 2- > Cl- > Br‒> NO 7 4- > SO 3 - > I-. The thermodynamic parameters of phase separation used to interpret the results are calculated. The observed pattern of a change in the salting-out ability of the investigated salts relative to aqueous solutions of the surfactants is in good agreement with the lyotropic (Hofmeister) series.

  20. Marine fungal diversity: a comparison of natural and created salt marshes of the north-central Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Walker, Allison K; Campbell, Jinx

    2010-01-01

    Marine fungal communities of created salt marshes of differing ages were compared with those of two reference natural salt marshes. Marine fungi occurring on the lower 30 cm of salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus were inventoried with morphological and molecular methods (ITS T-RFLP analysis) to determine fungal species richness, relative frequency of occurrence and ascomata density. The resulting profiles revealed similar fungal communities in natural salt marshes and created salt marshes 3 y old and older with a 1.5 y old created marsh showing less fungal colonization. A 26 y old created salt marsh consistently exhibited the highest fungal species richness. Ascomata density of the dominant fungal species on each host was significantly higher in natural marshes than in created marshes at all three sampling dates. This study indicates marine fungal saprotroph communities are present in these manmade coastal salt marshes as early as 1 y after marsh creation. The lower regions of both plant hosts were dominated by a small number of marine ascomycete species consistent with those species previously reported from salt marshes of the East Coast of USA.

  1. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  2. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  3. Comparison of wetland structural characteristics between created and natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, K.R.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of dredge material is a well-known technique for creating or restoring salt marshes that is expected to become more common along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the future. However, the effectiveness of this restoration method is still questioned. Wetland structural characteristics were compared between four created and three natural salt marshes in southwest Louisiana, USA. The created marshes, formed by the pumping of dredge material into formerly open water areas, represent a chronosequence, ranging in age from 3 to 19 years. Vegetation and soil structural factors were compared to determine whether the created marshes become more similar over time to the natural salt marshes. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1997, 2000, and 2002 using the line-intercept technique. Site elevations were measured in 2000. Organic matter (OM) was measured in 1996 and 2002, while bulk density and soil particle-size distribution were determined in 2002 only. The natural marshes were dominated by Spartina alterniflora, as were the oldest created marshes; these marshes had the lowest mean site elevations ( 35 cm NGVD) and became dominated by high marsh (S. patens, Distichlis spicata) and shrub (Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens) species. The higher elevation marsh seems to be following a different plant successional trajectory than the other marshes, indicating a relationship between marsh elevation and species composition. The soils in both the created and natural marshes contain high levels of clays (30-65 %), with sand comprising < 1 % of the soil distribution. OM was significantly greater and bulk density significantly lower in two of the natural marshes when compared to the created marshes. The oldest created marsh had significantly greater OM than the younger created marshes, but it may still take several decades before equivalency is reached with the natural marshes. Vegetation structural characteristics in the created marshes take only a few years to become similar

  4. Advanced High Energy Lithium Polymer Electrolyte Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of the two phase nature of the latter materials.5,6 These materials are also always intrinsically ’ wet ’ in physical appearance. The above...into polymeric matrix of respectively PVC or PAN and radiation polymerized polyethers (so called gel or " wet " electrolytes). In spite of rather...The most widely studied material was polyethylene oxide ) (PEO), incorporating lithium salts such as LiC104 and LiCF3S03. This material however

  5. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Leon D.; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J.; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D.; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO2 to U metal in LiCl–KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl–KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems. PMID:28244437

  6. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leon D; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J; Atwood, Robert C; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO2 to U metal in LiCl-KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems.

  7. The synthesis of a new family of boron-based anion receptors and the study of their effect on ion pair dissociation and conductivity of lithium salts in nonaqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J.; Choi, L.S.

    1998-08-01

    A new family of anion receptors based on boron compounds has been synthesized. These compounds can be used as anion receptors in lithium battery electrolytes. This family includes various borane and borate compounds with different fluorinated aryl and fluorinated alkyl groups. When these anion receptors are used as additives in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) solutions containing various lithium salts, the ionic conductivities of these solutions are greatly increased. The electrolytes tested in this study were DME solutions containing the following lithium salts: LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, CF{sub 3}COOLi, and C{sub 2}F{sub 5}COOLi. Without the additive the solubility of LiF in DME (and all other nonaqueous solvents) is very low. With some of these boron compounds as additives, LiF solutions in DME with concentration as high as 1 M were obtained. The solubilities of the other salts were also increased by these additives. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies show that Cl{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} anions are complexed with these compounds in DME solutions containing LiCl or LiI salts. The degree of complexation is also closely related to the structures of the fluorinated aryl and alkyl groups, which act as electron-withdrawing groups. The NEXAFS results are in good agreement with ionic conductivity studies.

  8. Natural macromolecule based carboxymethyl cellulose as a gel polymer electrolyte with adjustable porosity for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. S.; Xiao, S. Y.; Li, M. X.; Chang, Z.; Wang, F. X.; Gao, J.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-08-01

    A porous membrane of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from natural macromolecule as a host of a gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries is reported. It is prepared, for the first time, by a simple non-solvent evaporation method and its porous structure is fine-adjusted by varying the composition ratio of the solvent and non-solvent mixture. The electrolyte uptake of the porous membrane based on CMC is 75.9%. The ionic conductivity of the as-prepared gel membrane saturated with 1 mol L-1 LiPF6 electrolyte at room temperature can be up to 0.48 mS cm-1. Moreover, the lithium ion transference in the gel membrane at room temperature is as high as 0.46, much higher than 0.27 for the commercial separator Celgard 2730. When evaluated by using LiFePO4 cathode, the prepared gel membrane exhibits very good electrochemical performance including higher reversible capacity, better rate capability and good cycling behaviour. The obtained results suggest that this porous polymer membrane shows great attraction to the lithium ion batteries requiring high safety, low cost and environmental friendliness.

  9. Radiation defects and energy storage in natural polycrystalline rock salt. Results of an in-situ test in the Permian rock salt of the Asse

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, H.; Rothfuchs, T.; Celma, A.G.; Haas, J.B.M. de; Pederson, L.

    1994-12-31

    Radiation damage development and the corresponding energy storage in pure undeformed single crystals have frequently been studied in laboratory experiments, however little is known of irradiation experiments on natural rock salt (polycrystalline, deformed and impure) under geological conditions. The relevance of these parameters to the defect formation was revealed by a joint United States/Federal Republic of Germany in-situ test in the Asse Mine. Natural rock salt was heated and irradiated using Co-60 sources. Calculations of the amount of halite expected to be decomposed by radiolysis during the experiment were performed using the 1985 version of the Jain-Lidiard model. Qualitative agreement between theory and analyses was found for all the performed analyses. Quantitative and qualitative deviations of the natural samples behaviour from that of single undeformed crystals were observed and attributed to the influence of sulfatic admixtures, polycrystallinity and strain on radiation damage development and anneal. Special chemical methods, such as iodometric titration and uv-visible spectroscopy were applied in order to measure the hypochlorite ion, which forms in irradiated salt. Composite samples located closet to the Co-60 source averaged 0,4 micromoles neutral chlorine atoms per gram salt, a factor of two more than from other positions. Uv-vis analyses revealed more than a factor of ten greater neutral chlorine concentrations in coloured halite. Similarly, optical absorption measurements indicated a factor of ten difference in sodium metal colloid concentrations.

  10. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples.

  11. Synthesis of Ti-based electrodes using Ti-salt flocculated sludge and their application in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jungwon; Rai, Alok Kumar; Kim, Sungjin; Choi, Eunseok; Yoo, Insun; Kim, Jongho; Kim, Jaekook

    2012-10-15

    We report a simple strategy to synthesize the nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples by a solid state reaction using Ti-salt flocculated sludge. The structure and morphology of the Ti-salt flocculated sludge, nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples and pure commercial Aldrich TiO{sub 2} powder were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical performances were evaluated in coin type cells. Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples, obtained by Ti-salt flocculated sludge shows a higher capacity and better cycling performances than pure commercial Aldrich TiO{sub 2} powder at the cutoff of 1.0–2.5 V especially at high current rate. The enhanced cycling performance can be attributed to the facts that their high crystallinity and uniform nano-sized distribution.

  12. Salt Lakes of Western Australia - Emissions of natural volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinfried; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Atlas, Elliot

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters. This area has been repeatedly investigated since 2006 and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater sourced lakes with a pH reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The semi-/arid region was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Today the region is mostly used for growing wheat and live stock. The deforestation led to a rising groundwater table, bringing dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. In the last decades, a concurrent alteration of rain periods has been observed. A reason could be the regional formation of ultra-fine particles that were measured with car-based and airborne instruments around the salt lakes in several campaigns between 2006 and 2011. These ultra-fine particles emitted from the lakes and acting as cloud condensation nuclei can modify cloud microphysics and thus suppress rain events [1]. New data from a campaign in 2012 accentuates the importance of these hyper saline environments for the local climate. Ground-based particle measurements around the salt lakes in 2012 were accompanied by novel chamber experiments directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was constructed from transparent PTFE foil permitting photochemistry within while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking the measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Another advantage of the PTFE chamber is the enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted from salt lakes as possible precursors for the ultra-fine particles. Chamber air was sampled using stainless steel canisters. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC emissions in

  13. Potassium Retention under Salt Stress Is Associated with Natural Variation in Salinity Tolerance among Arabidopsis Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanling; Kong, Xiangpei; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Yongxiu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses during their life cycle such as salt, drought and cold. Natural variation mediated plant growth adaptation has been employed as an effective approach in response to the diverse environmental cues such as salt stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In the present study, a collection of 82 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (ecotypes) was screened with a view to identify variation for salinity tolerance. Seven accessions showed a higher level of tolerance than Col-0. The young seedlings of the tolerant accessions demonstrated a higher K+ content and a lower Na+/K+ ratio when exposed to salinity stress, but its Na+ content was the same as that of Col-0. The K+ transporter genes AtHAK5, AtCHX17 and AtKUP1 were up-regulated significantly in almost all the tolerant accessions, even in the absence of salinity stress. There was little genetic variation or positive transcriptional variation between the selections and Col-0 with respect to Na+-related transporter genes, as AtSOS genes, AtNHX1 and AtHKT1;1. In addition, under salinity stress, these selections accumulated higher compatible solutes and lower reactive oxygen species than did Col-0. Taken together, our results showed that natural variation in salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis seems to have been achieved by the strong capacity of K+ retention. PMID:25993093

  14. Asymmetric bromine-lithium exchange: application toward the synthesis of natural product.

    PubMed

    Graff, Julien; Debande, Thibaut; Praz, Jézabel; Guénée, Laure; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2013-08-16

    Asymmetric bromine-lithium exchange has been successfully employed to synthesize bicoumarin chiral building blocks of (+)-isokotanin A and (-)-kotanin in good yields and with an excellent level of enantioselectivity. This is the first reported example of formal syntheses, using this direct methodology, leading to the single (M)-atropoisomer of (+)-isokotanin A and (-)-kotanin building blocks, without any resolution step.

  15. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF 6/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) and 1.0 M LiBF 4/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, w/w/w) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm -2. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF 6/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, v/v/v) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge-discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO 2 electrodes.

  16. Electrochemical and impedance investigation of the effect of lithium malonate on the performance of natural graphite electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Lithium malonate (LM) was coated on the surface of a natural graphite (NG) electrode, which was then tested as the negative electrode in the electrolytes of 0.9 M LiPF6/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) and 1.0 M LiBF4/EC-PC-DMC (1/1/3, by weight) under a current density of 0.075 mA cm-2. LM was also used as an additive to the electrolyte of 1.0 M LiPF6/EC-DMC-DEC (1/1/1, by volume) and tested on a bare graphite electrode. It was found that both the surface coating and the additive approach were effective in improving first charge discharge capacity and coulomb efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the decreased interfacial impedance was coupled with improved coulomb efficiency of the cells using coated graphite electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) on fresh bare and coated natural graphite electrodes confirmed that all the improvement in the half-cell performance was due to the suppression of the solvent decomposition through the surface modification with LM. The CV data also showed that the carbonate electrolyte with LM as the additive was not stable against oxidation, which resulted in lower capacity of the full cell with commercial graphite and LiCoO2 electrodes.

  17. Equilibria and effect of diluent in the solvent extraction of lithium salts by highly alkylated 14-crown-4-ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Sun, Y.; Driver, J.L.; Chen, Z. Cavenaugh, K.L.; Carter, R.W.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    As shown by survey experiments, 14-crown-4 ethers bearing certain aliphatic substituents exhibit strong selectivity for lithium. Both selectivity and overall extraction efficiency depend markedly on type of ring substituents and on diluent properties. To understand such effects in greater detail, extraction of LiCl by the crown ether 2,2,3,3,6,9,9,10,10-nonamethyl-14-crown-4 (NM14C4) was subjected to equilibrium analysis. By use of the program SXLSQI (a solvent-extraction modeling program), the extraction behavior as determined by ion chromatography has been modeled quantitatively in terms of four equilibrium in 1-octanol. The following neutral and ionic organic-phase species have been considered: LiCl, Li+, Cl{sup {minus}}, LiCECl, and LiCE+ (CE = crown ether). Parallel measurements of the same system by {sup 7}Li NMR techniques agree with the ion-chromatography results. The NMR experiment affords the advantage of distinguishing between free and bound lithium and thus provides a check on the species indicated by the modeling. Extraction of LiCl by NM 14C4 correlates with diluent properties, including the Shmidt-Marcus diluent parameter and Reichardt`s E{sub T} parameter; as diluent polarity increases, LiCl extraction increases steeply.

  18. Climate engineering by mimicking natural dust climate control: the iron salt aerosol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeste, Franz Dietrich; de Richter, Renaud; Ming, Tingzhen; Caillol, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Power stations, ships and air traffic are among the most potent greenhouse gas emitters and are primarily responsible for global warming. Iron salt aerosols (ISAs), composed partly of iron and chloride, exert a cooling effect on climate in several ways. This article aims firstly to examine all direct and indirect natural climate cooling mechanisms driven by ISA tropospheric aerosol particles, showing their cooperation and interaction within the different environmental compartments. Secondly, it looks at a proposal to enhance the cooling effects of ISA in order to reach the optimistic target of the Paris climate agreement to limit the global temperature increase between 1.5 and 2 °C. Mineral dust played an important role during the glacial periods; by using mineral dust as a natural analogue tool and by mimicking the same method used in nature, the proposed ISA method might be able to reduce and stop climate warming. The first estimations made in this article show that by doubling the current natural iron emissions by ISA into the troposphere, i.e., by about 0.3 Tg Fe yr-1, artificial ISA would enable the prevention or even reversal of global warming. The ISA method proposed integrates technical and economically feasible tools.

  19. Qualitative evaluation of the adesive interface between lithium disilicate, luting composite and natural tooth

    PubMed Central

    Mobilio, Nicola; Fasiol, Alberto; Catapano, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim of this work was to qualitatively evaluate the interface between tooth, luting composite and lithium disilicate surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An extracted restoration-free human molar was stored in physiological solution until it was embedded in an autopolimerysing acrylic resin. A standard preparation for overlay was completed and after preparation an anatomic overlay was waxed on the tooth and then hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. After cementation the sample was dissected and the section was analysed using an Automatic Micromet (Remet s.a.s) and the section was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM evaluation of the tooth showed the three layers seamlessly; by increasing the enlargement the interface did not change. PMID:27486504

  20. Qualitative evaluation of the adesive interface between lithium disilicate, luting composite and natural tooth.

    PubMed

    Mobilio, Nicola; Fasiol, Alberto; Catapano, Santo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this work was to qualitatively evaluate the interface between tooth, luting composite and lithium disilicate surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An extracted restoration-free human molar was stored in physiological solution until it was embedded in an autopolimerysing acrylic resin. A standard preparation for overlay was completed and after preparation an anatomic overlay was waxed on the tooth and then hot pressed using lithium disilicate ceramic. After cementation the sample was dissected and the section was analysed using an Automatic Micromet (Remet s.a.s) and the section was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM evaluation of the tooth showed the three layers seamlessly; by increasing the enlargement the interface did not change.

  1. Ionic liquid and plastic crystalline phases of pyrazolium imide salts as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser; Abouimrane, Ali; Alarco, Pierre-Jean; Armand, Michel

    A new member of the plastic crystal, pyrazolium imide family, N, N‧-diethyl-3-methylpyrazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMPyr123) was prepared. It showed a single, plastic crystalline phase that extends from 4.2 °C to its melting at 11.3 °C. When 10 mol% LiTFSI salt was added, the mixture showed ionic conductivities reaching 1.7 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 20 °C, in the liquid state and 6.9 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at 5 °C, in the solid, plastic phase. A wide electrochemical stability window's of 5.5 V was observed by cyclic voltammetry of the molten salt mixture. Batteries were assembled with LiFePO 4/Li 4Ti 5O 12 electrodes and the salt mixture as an electrolyte. They showed a charge/discharge efficiency of 93% and 87% in the liquid and the plastic phase, respectively. The capacity retention was very good in both states with 90% of the initial capacity still available after 40 cycles. In general, the batteries showed good rate capability and cycle life performance in the ionic liquid phase that were sustained when the electrolyte transformed to the plastic phase. Comparison of the battery results with those of a classic (non-plastic crystal) ionic liquid has proven the advantage of the dual state of matter character in this electrolyte.

  2. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  3. Graphite electrode thermal behavior and solid electrolyte interphase investigations: Role of state-of-the-art binders, carbonate additives and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestier, Coralie; Grugeon, Sylvie; Davoisne, Carine; Lecocq, Amandine; Marlair, Guy; Armand, Michel; Sannier, Lucas; Laruelle, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    The risk of thermal runaway is, for Li-ion batteries, a critical issue for large-scale applications. This results in manufacturers and researchers placing great emphasis on minimizing the heat generation and thereby mitigating safety-related risks through the search for suitable materials or additives. To this end, an in-depth stepwise investigation has been undertaken to provide a better understanding of the exothermic processes that take place at the negative electrode/electrolyte interface as well as an increased visibility of the role of the state-of-the-art electrode binders, additives and lithium salt by means of the classical DSC technique. A reliable experimental set up helped quantify the beneficial or harmful contribution of binder polymers to the exothermic behavior of the CMC/SBR containing graphite electrode film in contact with 1 M LiPF6 in EC:DMC:EMC (1:1:1 v/v/v) electrolyte. Further, the role of the VC, FEC and VEC electrolyte additives (2 wt%) in reinforcing the protective SEI layer towards thermally induced electrolyte reduction is discussed in the light of infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyzes results. Moreover, after a preliminary corrosion study of LiPF6/LiFSI mixtures, we showed that the 0.66/0.33 M composition can be used in commercial NMC-based LiBs with a positive effect on the thermal runaway.

  4. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria strains with ornithine producing capacity from natural sea salt.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Ju; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2010-08-01

    Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having ornithine-producing capacity were isolated from Korean natural sea salt. They were Gram-positive, short rod-type bacteria, and able to grow anaerobically with CO(2) production. The isolates grew well on MRS broth at 30-37 degrees C and a pH of 6.5-8.0. The optimum temperature and pH for growth are 37 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolates fermented D-ribose, D-galactose, D-lactose, D-maltose, Dcellobiose, D-tagatose, D-trehalose, sucrose, D-melezitose, gentiobiose, D-glucose but not D-melibiose, inositol, and L-sorbose. The 16S rDNA sequences of the two isolates showed 99.5% and 99.6% homology with the Weissella koreensis S5623 16S rDNA (Access no. AY035891). They were accordingly identified and named as Weissella koreensis MS1-3 and Weissella koreensis MS1-14, and produced intracellular ornithine at levels of 72 mg/100 g cell F.W. and 105 mg/100 g cell F.W. and extracellular ornithine at levels of 4.5 mg/100 ml and 4.6 mg/100 ml medium, respectively, by culturing in MRS broth supplemented with 1% arginine. High cell growth was maintained in MRS broth with a NaCl concentration of 0-6%. These results show for the first time that Korean natural sea salts contain lactic acid bacteria Weissella koreensis strains having ornithine producing capacity.

  5. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  6. Corrosion behavior of Ni-Base alloys in a hot lithium molten salt under an oxidizing atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo-Haeng; Cho, Il-Je; You, Gil-Sung; Yoon, Ji-Sup; Park, Seong-Won

    2007-08-01

    The electrolytic reduction of a spent oxide fuel involves the liberation of the oxygen in molten LiCl electrolyte, which is a chemically aggressive environment that is excessively corrosive for typical structural materials. Accordingly, it is essential to choose the optimum material for the processing equipment that handles the molten salt. In this study, the corrosion behaviors of Haynes 263, Haynes 75, Inconel 718 and Inconel X-750 in a molten LiCl-Li2O salt under an oxidizing atmosphere were investigated at 650°C for 72 to 216 hrs. The Haynes 263 alloy showed the best corrosion resistance among the examined alloys. The corrosion products of Haynes 263 were Li(Ni,Co)O2 and LiTiO2; those of Haynes 75 were Cr2O3, NiFe2O4, LiNiO2 and Li2FiFe2O4; while Cr2O3, NiFe2O4 and CrNbO4 were identified as the corrosion products of Inconel 718. Inconel X-750 produced Cr2O3, NiFe2O4 and (Cr, Nb, Ti)O2 as its corrosion products. Haynes 263 showed a localized corrosion behavior while Haynes 75, Inconel 718 and Inconel X-750 showed a uniform corrosion behavior.

  7. Polyfluorinated boron cluster-based salts: A new electrolyte for application in Li 4Ti 5O 12/LiMn 2O 4 rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionica-Bousquet, C. M.; Muñoz-Rojas, D.; Casteel, W. J.; Pearlstein, R. M.; GirishKumar, G.; Pez, G. P.; Palacín, M. R.

    The cycling performance of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and LiMn 2O 4 electrode materials has been studied in half and complete Li-ion cells with two new polyfluorinated boron cluster lithium salts (Li 2B 12F xH 12- x) as the electrolytes. The results were compared with those obtained for the standard electrolyte, 1 M LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate (EC:DMC; 1:1, v/v). Three different technologies were employed for electrode fabrication: powder mixture, self-standing films and films deposited on the current collector. The latter exhibit the most interesting behavior and best performance. Cells assembled using the new electrolyte salts show excellent reversibility, coulombic efficiency, rate capability and cyclability comparable with the standard electrolyte. These features confirm the feasibility of using these polyfluorinated boron cluster-based salts as new stable Li-ion battery electrolytes.

  8. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  9. Characterization of halophiles in natural MgSO 4 salts and laboratory enrichment samples: Astrobiological implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Ian S.; King, Penelope L.; Hyde, Brendt C.; Southam, Gordon

    2010-03-01

    The presence of sulfate salts and limited subsurface water (ice) on Mars suggests that any liquid water on Mars today will occur as (magnesium) sulfate-rich brines in regions containing sources of magnesium and sulfur. The Basque Lakes of British Columbia, Canada, represent a hypersaline terrestrial analogue site, which possesses chemical and physical properties similar to those observed on Mars. The Basque Lakes also contain diverse halophilic organisms representing all three Kingdoms of life, growing in surface and near-subsurface environments. Of interest from an astrobiological perspective, crushed magnesium sulfate samples that were analyzed using a modified Lowry protein assay contained biomass in every crystal inspected, with biomass values from 0.078 to 4.21 mg biomass/g salt; average=0.74±0.7 mg biomass/g salt. Bacteria and Archaea cells were easily observed even in low-biomass samples using light microscopy, and bacteria trapped within magnesium sulfate crystals were observed using confocal microscopy. Regions within the salt also contained bacterial pigments, e.g., carotenoids, which were separate from the cells, indicating that cell lysis might have occurred during entrapment within the salt matrix. These biosignatures, cells, and any 'soluble' organic constituents were primarily found trapped within fluid inclusions or fluid-filled void spaces between intergrown crystals. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (reflectance IR) analysis of enrichment cultures, containing cyanobacteria, Archaea, or dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria, highlighted molecular biosignature features between 550-1650 and 2400-3000 cm -1. Spectra from natural salts demonstrated that we can detect biomass within salt crystals using the most sensitive biosignatures, which are the 1530-1570 cm -1, C-N, N-H, -COOH absorptions and the 1030-1050 cm -1 C-OH, C-N, PO 43- bond features. The lowest detection limit for a biosignature absorption feature using

  10. Structure of salts of lithium chloride and lithium hexafluorophosphate as solvates with pyridine and vinylpyridine and structural comparisons: (C5H5N)LiPF6, [p-(CH2=CH)C5H4N]LiPF6, [(C5H5N)LiCl]n, and [p-(CH2=CH)C5H4N]2Li(μ-Cl)2Li[p-(CH2=CH)C5H4N]2.

    PubMed

    Jalil, AbdelAziz; Clymer, Rebecca N; Hamilton, Clifton R; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Gau, Michael R; Zdilla, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Due to the flammability of liquid electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries, solid lithium ion conductors are of interest to reduce danger and increase safety. The two dominating general classes of electrolytes under exploration as alternatives are ceramic and polymer electrolytes. Our group has been exploring the preparation of molecular solvates of lithium salts as alternatives. Dissolution of LiCl or LiPF6 in pyridine (py) or vinylpyridine (VnPy) and slow vapor diffusion with diethyl ether gives solvates of the lithium salts coordinated by pyridine ligands. For LiPF6, the solvates formed in pyridine and vinylpyridine, namely tetrakis(pyridine-κN)lithium(I) hexafluorophosphate, [Li(C5H5N)4]PF6, and tetrakis(4-ethenylpyridine-κN)lithium(I) hexafluorophosphate, [Li(C7H7N)4]PF6, exhibit analogous structures involving tetracoordinated lithium ions with neighboring PF6(-) anions in the I-4 and Aea2 space groups, respectively. For LiCl solvates, two very different structures form. catena-Poly[[(pyridine-κN)lithium]-μ3-chlorido], [LiCl(C5H5N)]n, crystalizes in the P212121 space group and contains channels of edge-fused LiCl rhombs templated by rows of π-stacked pyridine ligands, while the structure of the LiCl-VnPy solvate, namely di-μ-chlorido-bis[bis(4-ethenylpyridine-κN)lithium], [Li2Cl2(C7H7N)4], is described in the P21/n space group as dinuclear (VnPy)2Li(μ-Cl)2Li(VnPy)2 units packed with neighbors via a dense array of π-π interactions.

  11. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.

  12. Molecular dynamics analysis of the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids and lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M.

    2016-11-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.

  13. Molecular dynamics analysis of the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids and lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M

    2016-11-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  15. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  16. A method for determining and exploring the distribution of organic matters and hardness salts in natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, Suren

    2016-12-01

    A question regarding how organic matters in water are associated with hardness salts hasn't been completely studied. For partially clarifying this question, a water fractional separation and investigation method has been recommended. The experiments carried out by the recommended method showed that the dynamics of the distribution of total hardness and permanganate oxidation values in the fractions of frozen and melted water samples coincided completely based on which it has been concluded that organic matters in natural waters are associated with hardness salts and always distributed in this form. All these findings are useful information for the deep study of macro- and microelements in water.

  17. [Investigation of the structure of magnesium and lithium salts of T2 phage DNA by the method of x-ray diffraction. The possible mechanisms of the participation of cations in the structural transformation of double-stranded DNA].

    PubMed

    Skuratovskii, I Ia; Bartenev, V N

    1978-01-01

    The secondary structure of DNA is known to be largely determined by the kind of counterion bound to it. We have used the X-ray diffraction method to study the structure of magnesium and lithium salts of T2 phage DNA in oriented fibres. The structural behaviour of this glucosylated DNA in the form of magnesium and lithium salts was shown to be identical to the behaviour of the same salts of "normal" calf thymus DNA throughout the studied range of relative humidities (44-95%). However these two DNAs in the form of sodium salt are known to behave quite differently. One can presume that Mg2+ and Li+ influence the structural behaviour of double-stranded DNA so effectively as to be able to "ignore" the fact that T2 phage DNA contains glucoside residues. The results of this work and the already known facts concerning the structure of DNA in the form of various cation salts (in solution and in "solid" fibres) indicate that the structural behaviour of double-stranded DNA is mainly determined by the cation located in the region of the narrow groove of the double helix. If cations are graded according to the efficiency of their influence on the structural behaviour of DNA in fibres, the scale will coincide with that of their DNA-binding strength in water solution, that is: Mg2+ greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than K+ greater than Rb+. A qualitative consideration of electrostatic interaction between the cations and the negatively charged DNA strands leads one to suppose that this interaction must obstruct the transition of individual DNA molecules from the B-form to the A-form. Aggregation of self-aggregation of DNA molecules is presumed necessary to enable them to adopt the A-conformation.

  18. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  19. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  20. Antimicrobial activities and cellular responses to natural silicate clays and derivatives modified by cationic alkylamine salts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Tseng, Hsiang-Jung; Hung, Huey-Shan; Wang, Ming-Chien; Hung, Chiung-Hui; Li, Pei-Ru; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Nanometer-scale silicate platelet (NSP) materials were previously developed by increasing the interlayer space and exfoliation of layered silicate clays such as montmorillonite and synthetic fluorinated mica by the process of polyamine exfoliation. In this study, the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of these nanometer-scale silicate clays were evaluated. The derivatives of NSP (NSP-S) which were modified by C18-fatty amine salts via ionic exchange association exhibited the highest antibacterial activity in the aqueous state among all clays. The high antibacterial activity, however, was accompanied by elevated cytotoxicity. The variations of cell surface markers (CD29 and CD44) and type I collagen expression of fibroblasts treated with the clays were measured to clarify the mechanism of the silicate-induced cytotoxicity. The signal transduction pathway involved the downregulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which appeared to participate in silicate-induced cytotoxicity. This study helped to understand the antibacterial potential of NSP and the interaction of natural and modified clays with cellular activities.

  1. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide on natural clinoptilolite chemically modified with salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Emilia; Koumanova, Bogdana

    2009-08-15

    Various ion exchange forms of preliminary partly decationised zeolite (hydrogen forms) were obtained by indirect modification with metal salt solutions, as well as by direct treatment of natural clinoptilolite taken from Bulgarian deposits. Direct modification leads to a higher extent of samples enrichment with corresponding ion. Independently of the conditions, the alkaline and alkaline earth metal ions (especially sodium and calcium) were inserted at a greater extent, while the transitional metals-at a comparatively lower extent. The cationic forms of clinoptilolite were used for adsorption and desorption experiments. The breakthrough adsorption curves and the concentration curves at temperature-programmed desorption were obtained and compared. The breakthrough and saturation times, the adsorption capacity, the distribution coefficient, the adsorbed SO(2), the portions desorbed as SO(2) and SO(3), respectively, as well as the not desorbed portion of SO(2), were determined using these curves. It was established that a definite quantity of undesorbed SO(2) has remained in the zeolite forms modified with transitional metal cations. This statement was proved not only by the comparison between the adsorbed and desorbed quantities, but also by three-cycle adsorption-desorption experiments for the Cu(2+)-form. The results demonstrate a decrease in the capacity for each following cycle in an extent similar to the undesorbed SO(2) quantity. It was not observed a visible difference in the values of the distribution coefficients for adsorption on identical cation forms, directly or indirectly obtained. However, the breakthrough time of the samples obtained by ion exchange of the hydrogen form was longer in all cases. Definite quantities of desorbed SO(3) were registered for all forms, except for the natural clinoptilolite and the samples enriched with alkaline and alkaline earth metal cations.

  2. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    SciTech Connect

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  3. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  4. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  5. Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-31

    metal tetrafluoroborates were examined for similar behavior. Commercial samples of the lithium, sodium and potassium salts were used, while the...REPORT a PERID C £0 inal, 1 June 1980-31 March Molten Salt Electrochemical Systems 1983 6 PERFORMING OŘG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) I CONTRACT OR...dilfferent from Reporl) IS. KEY WORDS (Continue ora ow... side 55 n~cssay and Identify by block number ) Molten Salt , Phase Diagram, Electrolyte 30

  6. Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Change on Habitat Use and Movement of Endangered Salt Marsh Harvest Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine R.; Barthman-Thompson, Laureen; Gould, William R.; Mabry, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The northern salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris halicoetes) is an endangered species endemic to the San Francisco Bay Estuary. Using a conservation behavior perspective, we examined how salt marsh harvest mice cope with both natural (daily tidal fluctuations) and anthropogenic (modification of tidal regime) changes in natural tidal wetlands and human-created diked wetlands, and investigated the role of behavioral flexibility in utilizing a human-created environment in the Suisun Marsh. We used radio telemetry to determine refuge use at high tide, space use, and movement rates to investigate possible differences in movement behavior in tidal versus diked wetlands. We found that the vast majority of the time salt marsh harvest mice remain in vegetation above the water during high tides. We also found no difference in space used by mice during high tide as compared to before or after high tide in either tidal or diked wetlands. We found no detectable difference in diurnal or nocturnal movement rates in tidal wetlands. However, we did find that diurnal movement rates for mice in diked wetlands were lower than nocturnal movement rates, especially during the new moon. This change in movement behavior in a relatively novel human-created habitat indicates that behavioral flexibility may facilitate the use of human-created environments by salt marsh harvest mice. PMID:25310800

  7. Thermal and structural study of the crystal phases and mesophases in the lithium and thallium(i) propanoates and pentanoates binary systems: formation of mixed salts and stabilization of the ionic liquid crystal phase.

    PubMed

    Martínez Casado, F J; Ramos Riesco, M; da Silva, I; Labrador, A; Redondo, M I; García Pérez, M V; López-Andrés, S; Rodríguez Cheda, J A

    2010-08-12

    The temperature and enthalpy vs composition phase diagrams of the binary systems [xC(2)H(5)CO(2)Li + (1 - x)C(2)H(5)CO(2)Tl], and [x(n-C(4)H(9)CO(2)Li) + (1 - x)n-C(4)H(9)CO(2)Tl], where x is the mole fraction, were determined by DSC. Both binary systems display the formation of one 2:1 mixed salt each (at x = 0.667) that appear as a peritectic (incongruent melting) at T(fus) = 512.0 K, and T(fus) = 461.1 K, with Delta(fus)H(m) = 13.76 and 8.08 kJ.mol(-1) for Li-Tl (I) propanoates, and n-pentanoate mixed salts, respectively. The thermotropic liquid crystal of the thallium(I) n-pentanoate transforms into a more stable liquid-crystal phase, which appears in the phase diagram between 380 and 488 K and for x = 0 up to x = 0.56. The crystal structure of thallium(I) propanoate and of the two mixed salts were obtained via X-ray synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements. These compounds present a bilayered structure similar to the two pure lithium salts previously found by our group.

  8. Ultrasonic wave velocities, gas permeability and porosity in natural and granular rock salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T.; Kern, H.

    Gas-permeability and P- and S-wave velocities were measured simultaneously as a function of pressure in core samples of rock salt from the Gorleben borehole Go 1002. In addition, compaction experiments were carried out on granular salt in order to establish velocity-porosity systematics. The initial permeabilities of the Gorleben rock salt vary between 10 -16 and 2∗10 -20 m 2 and are found to be controlled by the grain size of the halite matrix minerals and the amount and distribution of “impurities” (anhydrite, polyhalite) on grain boundaries. Increase of effective pressure to 30 MPa gives rise to a marked decrease of permeability and a significant increase of P- and S-wave velocities due to the closure of grain boundary cracks. Our results are in agreement with literature data reported for in situ permeability and acoustic properties of single crystals, respectively. Compaction of granular rock salt gives rise to a reduction of porosity from about 40% to 2% exhibiting linear relationships between porosity and P- and S-wave velocities for porosities <25%. The combined measurements of gas permeability and ultrasonic wave velocities are found to provide powerful tools for the investigation of dilatancy in rock salt.

  9. Evidence of sealing and brine distribution at grain boundaries in natural fine-grained Halite (Qum Kuh salt fountain, Central Iran): implications for rheology of salt extrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.; de Bresser, J. H. P.

    2010-05-01

    When grain boundary movement is stopped, surface energy related forces reassert themselves driving the system to its equilibrium conditions ([2], [6], [7], [8]). This could result in growth of islands and shrinking of channels and hence in healing the boundary by internal redistribution of fluid and solid in the contact region. Such islands are proposed to grow preferentially close to the contact rim and promote the healing of the grain-grain contact, which in turn prevents transport in or out the boundary region and thus traps the fluids in isolated inclusions. This contribution is focused on observation of grain boundary microstructures in natural mylonitic rocksalt collected from the distal part of Kum-Quh salt fountain (central Iran) in order to give unprecedented insight of grain boundary microstructures using argon-beam cross-sectioning to prepare high quality polished surfaces suitable for high-resolution SEM imaging. The possibility to use our SEM under cryogenic conditions allows also imaging the in-situ distribution of fluids. Results show that brine at grain boundaries occurs as thick layers (> µm in scale) corresponding to cross-sectioned wetted triple junction tubes, as filling at triple junction and as array of isolated fluids inclusions at grain-grain contacts. Close observations at islands contacts suggest the presence of a very thin fluid film (<100 nm). The most remarkable is evidence for sealing of pore space appearing as subhedral crystals filling the void space and decoupled from surrounding crystals by a thin brine layer. In parallel to this microstructural study, we deformed the same samples in order to simulate the simple shear flow at very low mean stress as in the salt fountain. First results suggest a complicated rheology. Samples loaded at σ < 0.7 MPa show no measurable deformation in a month, indicating strain rates less than 10-12 s-1 though, in fully activated pressure-solution (PS) creep, strain rates of several orders of magnitude

  10. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Functionalized Tannic Acids from Natural Resources for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-12-21

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are prepared by simple one-pot polymerization induced by ultraviolet (UV) light using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as an ion-conducting monomeric unit and tannic acid (TA)-based crosslinking agent and plasticizer. The crosslinking agent and plasticizer based on natural resources are obtained from the reaction of TA with glycidyl methacrylate and glycidyl poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Dimensionally stable free-standing SPE having a large ionic conductivity of 5.6×10(-4)  Scm(-1) at room temperature can be obtained by the polymerization of PEGMA into P(PEGMA) with a very small amount (0.1 wt %) of the crosslinking agent and 2.0 wt % of the plasticizer. The ionic conductivity value of SPE with a crosslinked structure is one order of magnitude larger than that of linear P(PEGMA) in the waxy state.

  11. [The new directions in the physiotherapeutic applications of the natural potassium salts of the Western Ural].

    PubMed

    Chereshnev, V A; Barannikov, V G; Kirichenko, L V; Varankina, S A; Khokhryakova, V P; Dement'ev, S V

    2016-01-01

    Salt therapy (halotherapy) as a non-traditional method for the treatment of various pathological conditions has become an increasingly popular therapeutic modality in Russia and abroad. The Perm region houses one of the largest sylvinite-bearing potash deposits in the world. These salts are possessed of special physical and chemical properties of great value for the treatment of different diseases. The objective of the present work was to develop novel approaches to the application of sylvinite for the treatment and prevention of various diseases.

  12. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use of a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.

  13. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  14. Bile salts: natural detergents for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Herold, B C; Kirkpatrick, R; Marcellino, D; Travelstead, A; Pilipenko, V; Krasa, H; Bremer, J; Dong, L J; Cooper, M D

    1999-04-01

    The development of new, safe, topical microbicides for intravaginal use for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is imperative. Previous studies have suggested that bile salts may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, their activities against other sexually transmitted pathogens have not been reported. To further explore the potential role of bile salts in preventing sexually transmitted diseases, we examined the in vitro activities and cytotoxicities of select bile salts against Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human immunodeficiency virus in comparison to those of nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride using both primary cells and cell lines derived from the human female genital tract. We found that taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate and a combination of glycocholic acid and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate showed excellent activity against all of the pathogens assayed. Moreover, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate alone or in combination was less cytotoxic than nonoxynol-9 and benzalkonium chloride. Thus, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate alone or in combination warrants further evaluation as a candidate topical microbicidal agent.

  15. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of salts in natural sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Lieb-Lappen, Ross M.; Nordick, Katherine V.; Golden, Ellyn J.; Leonard, Jeremiah R.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Mathew G.

    2016-11-01

    We describe the use of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to examine the microstructural location of specific elements, primarily salts, in sea ice. This work was part of an investigation of the location of bromine in the sea ice-snowpack-blowing snow system, where it plays a part in the heterogeneous chemistry that contributes to tropospheric ozone depletion episodes. We analyzed samples at beamline 13-ID-E of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Using an 18 keV incident energy beam, we produced elemental maps of salts for sea ice samples from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The distribution of salts in sea ice depends on ice type. In our columnar ice samples, Br was located in parallel lines spaced roughly 0.5 mm apart, corresponding to the spacing of lamellae in the skeletal region during initial ice growth. The maps revealed concentrations of Br in linear features in samples from all but the topmost and bottommost depths. For those samples, the maps revealed rounded features. Calibration of the Br elemental maps showed bulk concentrations to be 5-10 g/m3, with concentrations ten times larger in the linear features. Through comparison with horizontal thin sections, we could verify that these linear features were brine sheets or layers.

  16. Air breathing lithium power cells

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  17. Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  18. Natural abundance 17O nuclear magnetic resonance and computational modeling studies of lithium based liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  19. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  20. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  1. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  2. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2016-10-25

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  3. Lithium isotopes in large rivers reveal the cannibalistic nature of modern continental weathering and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Mathieu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Bouchez, Julien; Calmels, Damien; Galy, Valier; Hilton, Robert G.; Louvat, Pascale; France-Lanord, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The erosion of major mountain ranges is thought to be largely cannibalistic, recycling sediments that were deposited in the ocean or on the continents prior to mountain uplift. Despite this recognition, it has not yet been possible to quantify the amount of recycled material that is presently transported by rivers to the ocean. Here, we have analyzed the Li content and isotope composition (δLi7) of suspended sediments sampled along river depth profiles and bed sands in three of the largest Earth's river systems (Amazon, Mackenzie and Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers). The δLi7 values of river-sediments transported by these rivers range from +5.3 to -3.6‰ and decrease with sediment grain size. We interpret these variations as reflecting a mixture of unweathered rock fragments (preferentially transported at depth in the coarse fraction) and present-day weathering products (preferentially transported at the surface in the finest fraction). Only the finest surface sediments contain the complementary reservoir of Li solubilized by water-rock interactions within the watersheds. Li isotopes also show that river bed sands can be interpreted as a mixture between unweathered fragments of igneous and sedimentary rocks. A mass budget approach, based on Li isotopes, Li/Al and Na/Al ratios, solved by an inverse method allows us to estimate that, for the large rivers analyzed here, the part of solid weathering products formed by present-day weathering reactions and transported to the ocean do not exceed 35%. Li isotopes also show that the sediments transported by the Amazon, Mackenzie and Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems are mostly sourced from sedimentary rocks (>60%) rather than igneous rocks. This study shows that Li isotopes in the river particulate load are a good proxy for quantifying both the erosional rock sources and the fingerprint of present-day weathering processes. Overall, Li isotopes in river sediments confirm the cannibalistic nature of erosion and weathering.

  4. EVALUATING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE & ORGANIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER (SALT LAKE CITY, UT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for radionuclides and inorganic contaminants is dependent on naturally occurring processes in the subsurface that act without human intervention to reduce the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume or concentration of contaminants. EPA is developing ...

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the rotational and translational motions of ionic liquids composed of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2011-08-28

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium (EMIm, EMI) is a popular and important cation that produces thermally stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoro-methanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO(2)CF(3))(2), TFSA, TFSI, NTf(2), or Tf(2)N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [(N(SO(2)F)(2), FSA, or FSI] were investigated by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. In addition to EMIm-TFSA and EMIm-FSA, lithium-salt-doped binary systems were prepared (EMIm-TFSA-Li and EMIm-FSA-Li). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) were measured by (1)H, (19)F, and (7)Li NMR spectroscopy and the correlation times of (1)H NMR, τ(c)(EMIm) (8 × 10(-10) to 3 × 10(-11) s) for the librational molecular motion of EMIm and those of (7)Li NMR, τ(c)(Li) (5 × 10(-9) to 2 × 10(-10) s) for a lithium jump were evaluated in the temperature range between 253 and 353 K. We found that the bulk viscosity (η) versus τ(c)(EMIm) and cation diffusion coefficient D(EMIm) versus the rate 1/τ(c)(EMIm) have good relationships. Similarly, linear relations were obtained for the η versus τ(c)(Li) and the lithium diffusion coefficient D(Li) versus the rate 1∕τ(c)(Li). The mean one-jump distances of Li were calculated from τ(c)(Li) and D(Li). The experimental values for the diffusion coefficients, ionic conductivity, viscosity, and density in our previous paper were analyzed by the Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein, and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations for the neat and binary ILs to clarify the physicochemical properties and mobility of individual ions. The deviations from the classical equations are discussed.

  6. Validity and slopes of the linear equation of state for natural brines in salt lake systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfahl, C.; Post, V. E. A.; Hamann, E.; Prommer, H.; Simmons, C. T.

    2015-04-01

    Many density-dependent groundwater flow simulations rely on a linear equation of state that relates the fluid density to the total dissolved solute content (TDS). This approach ignores non-linear volume of mixing effects, as well as the impact of any chemical reactions. These effects can be considered by using geochemical codes that implement algorithms that calculate the density of a fluid based on the concentration of individual solute species. While in principle such algorithms could be used in-lieu of a linear equation of state in a groundwater model, the computational overhead is such that the use of a more simplified equation of state is preferred. This requires that the assumption of linearity as well as the appropriate value of the linear slope have to be determined. Here, published density measurements of 7 chemically-distinct salt lake brines are compared with densities calculated by PHREEQC-3, confirming the applicability of PHREEQC's algorithm to salt lake brines, as well as to seawater brines and artificial brines from laboratory experiments. Further, calculations with PHREEQC-3 are used to assess the impact of mineral precipitation reactions during evaporative concentration. Results show that the density-TDS relationship is essentially linear over a wide concentration range, and that slopes range between 0.64 and 0.75, with the upper end of the range applying to Na-CO3-Cl brines and the lower end to Na-Cl brines. Mineral precipitation of highly-soluble evaporate minerals such as halite and trona limit TDS, and may lead to considerable errors in coupled flow simulations based on a linear equation of state at high concentrations. Misrepresentation of the slope may lead to an error of up to 20% in the calculated length of the brine nose bordering a salt lake, or of the Rayleigh number, which indicates if a density stratification is stable or not.

  7. Sulfide variation in the pore and surface waters of artificial salt-marsh ditches and a natural tidal creek

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, J.R.; Shaffer, J.; Kain, T.; Stahl, R.; Crossman, R. )

    1992-09-01

    Pore and surface water sulfide variation near artificial ditches and a natural creek are examined in salt marshes bordering the Indian River Lagoon in east-central Florida. Pore water sulfide concentrations ranged from 0 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1] to 1,640 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1]. On average, the natural creek had the lowest sulfide concentrations (mean < 1.0 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1]) and the perimeter ditch of a managed salt marsh impoundment the highest (436.5 [mu]g-at l[sup [minus]1]). There was a trend of increasing sulfide concentration in the summer, and sharp peaks in late fall-early winter which correspond with peak litter input into the sediments. Significant differences in sulfide concentration between sites are attributed to differences in water flow and in organic matter content. Delaying the seasonal opening of culverts (which connect impounded marshes with the lagoon) until lagoon water levels rise in fall may prevent massive fish kills that have been associated with high sulfide levels in the impoundment perimeter ditches. 35 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, California, as a near-field natural analog of a radioactive waste repository in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-11-01

    Since high concentrations of radionuclides and high temperatures are not normally encountered in salt domes or beds, finding an exact geologic analog of expected near-field conditions in a mined nuclear waste repository in salt will be difficult. The Salton Sea Geothermal Field, however, provides an opportunity to investigate the migration and retardation of naturally occurring U, Th, Ra, Cs, Sr and other elements in hot brines which have been moving through clay-rich sedimentary rocks for up to 100,000 years. The more than thirty deep wells drilled in this field to produce steam for electrical generation penetrate sedimentary rocks containing concentrated brines where temperatures reach 365/sup 0/C at only 2 km depth. The brines are primarily Na, K, Ca chlorides with up to 25% of total dissolved solids; they also contain high concentrations of metals such as Fe, Mn, Li, Zn, and Pb. This report describes the geology, geophysics and geochemistry of this system as a prelude to a study of the mobility of naturally occurring radionuclides and radionuclide analogs within it. The aim of this study is to provide data to assist in validating quantitative models of repository behavior and to use in designing and evaluating waste packages and engineered barriers. 128 references, 33 figures, 13 tables.

  9. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  10. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  11. Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC

  12. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  13. Improving lithium therapeutics by crystal engineering of novel ionic cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam J; Kim, Seol-Hee; Duggirala, Naga K; Jin, Jingji; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ehrhart, Jared; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas

    2013-12-02

    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium's polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics.

  14. The application of high resolution X-ray computed tomography on naturally deformed rock salt: Multi-scale investigations of the structural inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemeyer, Nicolas; Habersetzer, Jörg; Peinl, Mark; Zulauf, Gernold; Hammer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) represents a useful technique providing new perspectives and insights for the structural investigation of naturally-deformed rock salt. Several samples of Permian rock salt from Gorleben, Asse and Teutschenthal (Germany) were investigated by exploiting the non-destructive nature of μCT and nCT techniques particularly for salt rocks. CT imaging enabled the visualization and quantification of anhydrite impurities, pore space and fluid phases located along grain-boundaries or trapped as intracrystalline inclusions. Disseminated grains and aggregates of anhydrite in rock salt of the Gorleben salt dome have been visualized and quantified by μCT for the first time in order to portray their spatial occurrence. The visualization of anhydrite aggregates and pore space shows no correlation between their spatial distributions. This independence excludes the anhydrite to be responsible for elevated porosity (0.87 ± 0.07 vol.-%). High-resolution nCT scans (≤1 μm voxel size) of single intracrystalline and grain-boundary fluid inclusions from Gorleben and Asse rock salt allowed the visualization and quantification of their various phase components. A major achievement is the detailed description of the morphology and shape of the fluid inclusions and of their phase components, which has not been conducted in rock salt research by high-resolution X-ray CT imaging before.

  15. Design of Complex Systems to Achieve Passive Safety: Natural Circulation Cooling of Liquid Salt Pebble Bed Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Raluca Olga

    This dissertation treats system design, modeling of transient system response, and characterization of individual phenomena and demonstrates a framework for integration of these three activities early in the design process of a complex engineered system. A system analysis framework for prioritization of experiments, modeling, and development of detailed design is proposed. Two fundamental topics in thermal-hydraulics are discussed, which illustrate the integration of modeling and experimentation with nuclear reactor design and safety analysis: thermal-hydraulic modeling of heat generating pebble bed cores, and scaled experiments for natural circulation heat removal with Boussinesq liquids. The case studies used in this dissertation are derived from the design and safety analysis of a pebble bed fluoride salt cooled high temperature nuclear reactor (PB-FHR), currently under development in the United States at the university and national laboratories level. In the context of the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) methodology, new tools and approaches are proposed and demonstrated here, which are specifically relevant to technology in the early stages of development, and to analysis of passive safety features. A system decomposition approach is proposed. Definition of system functional requirements complements identification and compilation of the current knowledge base for the behavior of the system. Two new graphical tools are developed for ranking of phenomena importance: a phenomena ranking map, and a phenomena identification and ranking matrix (PIRM). The functional requirements established through this methodology were used for the design and optimization of the reactor core, and for the transient analysis and design of the passive natural circulation driven decay heat removal system for the PB-FHR. A numerical modeling approach for heat-generating porous media, with multi-dimensional fluid flow is presented. The application of this modeling

  16. Synthesis of tetraaza bromide macrocyclic and studies of its effect on poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) - lithium tertrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) films

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Siti Nor; Yamin, Bohari M.; Ahmad, Azizan

    2013-11-27

    Good Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Grafted natural Rubber (MG49) films with homogeneous and smooth surface were obtained in the presence of Lithium Tertrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) and 5,5,7,12,12,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-7,14-dienium bromide, (Me{sub 6}N{sub 4}H{sub 4})Br{sub 2} as dopants. The conductivity was found to be 3.63×10{sup −6} S/cm an increase by seven fold compare to the undoped MG49.

  17. Development of a bipolar cell for electrochemical production of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Mack, G.; Peterman, K.; Weinland, S.; McKenzie, P.

    1995-02-22

    Lithium metal can be electrolytically refined from aqueous solutions of its compounds by partial reduction to form a lithium amalgam, followed by reduction of the amalgam to liquid lithium in a molten salt cell at 225 C. A bipolar cell (with a continuous, amalgam electrode circulating between the aqueous and salt cells) was designed, constructed and successfully tested on the bench scale, as a proof of principle of an efficient, safe and low-temperature alternative to existing processes.

  18. Electrophysical behavior of ion-conductive organic-inorganic polymer system based on aliphatic epoxy resin and salt of lithium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkovska, Liubov; Iurzhenko, Maksym; Mamunya, Yevgen; Matkovska, Olga; Demchenko, Valeriy; Lebedev, Eugene; Boiteux, Gisele; Serghei, Anatoli

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, ion-conductive hybrid organic-inorganic polymers based on epoxy oligomer of diglycide aliphatic ester of polyethylene glycol (DEG) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) were synthesized. The effect of LiClO4 content on the electrophysical properties of epoxy polymers has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). The effect of LiClO4 content on the structure has been studied by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). It was found that LiClO4 impacts on the structure of the synthesized hybrid epoxy polymers, probably, by formation of coordinative complexes {ether oxygen-lithium cations-ether oxygen} as evidenced from a significant increase in their glass transition temperatures with increasing LiClO4 concentration and WAXS studies. The presence of ether oxygen in DEG macromolecules provides a transfer mechanism of the lithium cations with the ether oxygen similar to polyethylene oxide (PEO). Thus, the obtained hybrid polymers have high values of ionic conductivity σ' (approximately 10-3 S/cm) and permittivity ɛ' (6 × 105) at elevated temperatures (200°C). On the other hand, DEG has higher heat resistance compared to PEO that makes these systems perspective as solid polymer electrolytes able to operate at high temperature.

  19. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Manis Kumar Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  20. Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. ); Robertson, J.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  2. Effects of the anion salt nature on the rate constants of the aqueous proton exchange reactions.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Jose M; Garzon, Andres; Crovetto, Luis; Orte, Angel; Lopez, Sergio G; Alvarez-Pez, Jose M

    2012-04-28

    The proton-transfer ground-state rate constants of the xanthenic dye 9-[1-(2-methyl-4-methoxyphenyl)]-6-hydroxy-3H-xanthen-3-one (TG-II), recovered by Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS), have proven to be useful to quantitatively reflect specific cation effects in aqueous solutions (J. M. Paredes, L. Crovetto, A. Orte, J. M. Alvarez-Pez and E. M. Talavera, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 1685-1694). Since these phenomena are more sensitive to anions than to cations, in this paper we have accounted for the influence of salts with the sodium cation in common, and the anion classified according to the empirical Hofmeister series, on the proton transfer rate constants of TG-II. We demonstrate that the presence of ions accelerates the rate of the ground-state proton-exchange reaction in the same order than ions that affect ion solvation in water. The combination of FLCS with a fluorophore undergoing proton transfer reactions in the ground state, along with the desirable feature of a pseudo-dark state when the dye is protonated, allows one unique direct determination of kinetic rate constants of the proton exchange chemical reaction.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  4. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  5. Synthesis of nano-sized silicon from natural halloysite clay and its high performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Wu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Tang, Jingjing; Xi, Lihua; Wang, Biao

    2016-08-01

    Recently, nanostructured Si has been intensively studied as a promising anode candidate for lithium ion batteries due to its ultrahigh capacity. However, the downsizing of Si to nanoscale dimension is often impeded by complicated and expensive methods. In this work, natural halloysite clay was utilized for the production of Si nanoparticles through selective acid etching and modified magnesiothermic reduction processes. The physical and chemical changes of these samples during the various processes have been analyzed. The as-prepared Hsbnd Si from halloysite clay is composed of many interconnected Si nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20-50 nm. Owing to the small size and porous nature, the Hsbnd Si nanoparticles exhibit a satisfactory performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries. Without further modification, a stable capacity over 2200 mAh g-1 at a rate of 0.2 C after 100 cycles and a reversible capacity above 800 mAh g-1 at a rate of 1 C after 1000 cycles can be obtained. As a result, this synthetic route is cost-effective and can be scaled up for mass production of Si nanoparticles, which may facilitate valuable utilization of halloysite clay and further commercial application of Si-based anode materials.

  6. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Godshall, Ned A.; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  7. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  8. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The salt water may be disposed of by impounding it in reservoirs for evaporation or by injecting it underground through oil wells, oil tests, or wells drilled for saltwater disposal. Sediments in which the salt water possibly could be injected underlie the. Dove Creek Salt Flats at depths of less than 7,000 feet.

  9. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  10. Effect of natural antioxidants, irradiation, and cooking on lipid oxidation in refrigerated, salted ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Schevey, Christian T; Toshkov, Stoyan; Brewer, M Susan

    2013-11-01

    Antioxidant effects of natural antioxidants in 73%-lean ground beef patties during refrigeration were studied. Samples were subject to an antioxidant treatment (pomegranate extract, grape seed extract, butylated hydroxyanisole, or no treatment) and an irradiation treatment (0 or 1.5 kGy) before being evaluated for both uncooked and cooked indicators of lipid oxidation. Chemical evaluation of antioxidant activity were determined over 9 d through measurement of thiobarbituric reactive substances values. Physical evaluation of antioxidant activity was monitored by changes in physical color and sensory odor analysis on patties before and after cooking. Butylated hydroxyanisole extended the induction period of oxidation in all unirradiated beef patties better than the natural antioxidants. Panelists were able to distinguish a difference (in terms of oxidation attributes) between patty samples of different antioxidant and irradiation treatments while samples were uncooked, but unable to distinguish a difference between patties after cooking.

  11. Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-21

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P(13), Py(13), PYR(13), or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO(2)CF(3))(2), TFSA, TFSI, NTf(2), or Tf(2)N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO(2)F)(2), FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P(13)-TFSA and P(13)-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P(13)-TFSA-Li and P(13)-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) were measured by (1)H, (19)F, and (7)Li NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and density (ρ) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P(13), TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)(2), and Li(FSA)(3) were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P(13)-TFSA and P(13)-FSA, the NE parameter 1-ξ was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-ξ had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P(13) and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

  12. Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13, Py13, PYR13, or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO2CF3)2, TFSA, TFSI, NTf2, or Tf2N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO2F)2, FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P13-TFSA-Li and P13-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured by H1, F19, and L7i NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and density (ρ) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P13, TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)2, and Li(FSA)3 were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, the NE parameter 1-ξ was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-ξ had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P13 and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

  13. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  14. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  15. Selective Cleavage of the Aryl Ether Bonds in Lignin for Depolymerization by Acidic Lithium Bromide Molten Salt Hydrate under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Ning; Lin, Xuliang; Pan, Xuejun; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-11-09

    The present study demonstrates that the concentrated lithium bromide (LiBr) solution with acid as catalyst was able to selectively cleave the β-O-4 aryl ether bond and lead to lignin depolymerization under mild conditions (e.g., in 60% LiBr with 0.3 M HCl at 110 °C for 2 h). Four industrial lignins from different pulping and biorefining processes, including softwood kraft lignin (SKL), hardwood kraft lignin (HKL), softwood ethanol organosolv lignin (EOL), and acid corncob lignin (ACL), were treated in the LiBr solution. The molecular weight, functional group, and interunit linkages of the lignins were characterized using GPC, FTIR, and NMR. The results indicated that the β-O-4 aryl ether bonds of the lignins were selectively cleaved, and both LiBr and HCl played crucial roles in catalyzing the cleavage of the ether bonds.

  16. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    PubMed Central

    Julkowska, Magdalena M.; Klei, Karlijn; Fokkens, Like; Haring, Michel A.; Schranz, M. Eric; Testerink, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments were performed on two populations consisting of 160 Arabidopsis accessions each. Multiple traits, including projected rosette area, and fresh and dry weight were collected as an estimate for salinity tolerance. Our results reveal a correlation between rosette size under salt stress conditions and developmental differences between the accessions grown in control conditions, suggesting that in general larger plants were more salt tolerant. This correlation was less pronounced when plants were grown under severe salt stress conditions. Subsequent genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed associations with novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance such as LRR-KISS (At4g08850), flowering locus KH-domain containing protein and a DUF1639-containing protein. Accessions with high LRR-KISS expression developed larger rosettes under salt stress conditions. Further characterization of allelic variation in candidate genes identified in this study will provide more insight into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance due to enhanced shoot growth. PMID:26873976

  17. Novel hierarchically porous carbon materials obtained from natural biopolymer as host matrixes for lithium-sulfur battery applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Xiao, Min; Wang, Shuanjin; Han, Dongmei; Song, Shuqin; Chen, Guohua; Meng, Yuezhong

    2014-08-13

    Novel hierarchically porous carbon materials with very high surface areas, large pore volumes and high electron conductivities were prepared from silk cocoon by carbonization with KOH activation. The prepared novel porous carbon-encapsulated sulfur composites were fabricated by a simple melting process and used as cathodes for lithium sulfur batteries. Because of the large surface area and hierarchically porous structure of the carbon material, soluble polysulfide intermediates can be trapped within the cathode and the volume expansion can be alleviated effectively. Moreover, the electron transport properties of the carbon materials can provide an electron conductive network and promote the utilization rate of sulfur in cathode. The prepared carbon-sulfur composite exhibited a high specific capacity and excellent cycle stability. The results show a high initial discharge capacity of 1443 mAh g(-1) and retain 804 mAh g(-1) after 80 discharge/charge cycles at a rate of 0.5 C. A Coulombic efficiency retained up to 92% after 80 cycles. The prepared hierarchically porous carbon materials were proven to be an effective host matrix for sulfur encapsulation to improve the sulfur utilization rate and restrain the dissolution of polysulfides into lithium-sulfur battery electrolytes.

  18. Molten salt-directed synthesis method for LiMn2O4 nanorods as a cathode material for a lithium-ion battery with superior cyclability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Mesfin A.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2017-02-01

    A molten salt synthesis technique has been used to prepare nanorods of Mn2O3 and single-crystal LiMn2O4 nanorods cathode material with superior capacity retention. The molten salt-directed synthesis involved the use of NaCl as the eutectic melt. The as-synthesized LiMn2O4 nanorods cathode material showed superior electrochemical performance compared to the LiMn2O4 sample obtained via the solid state method. The as-synthesized LiMn2O4 nanorods maintained more than 95% of the initial discharge capacity of 107 mA h g‑1 over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.1 C, whereas the LiMn2O4 sample synthesized using the solid state reaction method maintained 88% of the initial discharge capacity of 98 mA h g‑1 over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.1 C. Compared to the literature, the molten salt-directed method for the preparation of high-performance LiMn2O4 is simpler and less expensive, with greater potential for industrial scale-up.

  19. Tungsten carbide production from ore concentrates by molten salt-natural gas sparging treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, T.G.; Kazonich, G.; Raddatz, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a bench-scale study to delineate the important parameters in a three-step process to produce commercial-quality tungsten carbide (WC) directly from tungsten minerals. In the process, tungsten concentrates of wolframite or wolframite and scheelite are decomposed at 1,050{sup 0}C in a molten mixture of NcCl and Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} that forms two immiscible phases. Tungsten, as sodium tungstate, reports to the halide phase and is separated from the gangue constituents, which report to the silicate phase. After decanting to separate the two phases, natural gas is sparged into the molten halide phase a 1,070{sup 0}C. Submicrometer crystals of WC are initially produced. These crystals grow into thin triangular-shaped plates up to 100 {mu}m on a side or into popcorn-shaped conglomerates. Sparged WC was examined for its suitability for use in sintered carbide products. In physical evaluations, sparged WC ground to an average particle size of 1.52 {mu}m and compacted with 10 pct Co binder into standard 6-by 22-mm test bars had a density of 14.35 and a Rockwell A hardness of 89.6. This compared favorably with 14.39 and 89.7 respectively, for test bars made from a standard commercial 1.52-{mu}m WC powder. Test bars made from Bureau of Mines WC had no C'' porosity or eta phase.

  20. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted.

  1. Ternary mixtures of ionic liquids for better salt solubility, conductivity and cation transference number improvement

    PubMed Central

    Karpierz, E.; Niedzicki, L.; Trzeciak, T.; Zawadzki, M.; Dranka, M.; Zachara, J.; Żukowska, G. Z.; Bitner-Michalska, A.; Wieczorek, W.

    2016-01-01

    We hereby present the new class of ionic liquid systems in which lithium salt is introduced into the solution as a lithium cation−glyme solvate. This modification leads to the reorganisation of solution structure, which entails release of free mobile lithium cation solvate and hence leads to the significant enhancement of ionic conductivity and lithium cation transference numbers. This new approach in composing electrolytes also enables even three-fold increase of salt concentration in ionic liquids. PMID:27767069

  2. Chemical and morphological characteristics of lithium electrode surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Lithium electrode surfaces were analyzed for chemical and morphological characteristics, using electron spectroscopy chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples included lithium metal and lithium electrodes which were cycled in a 1.5 M lithium arsenic hexafluoride/two-methyl tetrahydrofuran electrolyte. Results show that the surface of the as-received lithium metal was already covered by a film composed of LiO2 and an Li2O/CO2 adduct with a thickness of approximately 100-200 A. No evidence of Ni3 was found. Upon exposure of the lithium electrode to a 1.5 M LiAsF6/2-Me-THF electrochemical environment, a second film was observed to form on the surface, consisting primarily of As, Si, and F, possibly in the form of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides or lithium fluorosilicates. It is suggested that the film formation may be attributed to salt degradation.

  3. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  4. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. Nano-biphasic ionic liquid systems composed of hydrophobic phosphonium salts and a hydrophilic ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Satomi; Ichikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Takashi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-28

    A combination of a phosphonium-type-zwitterions-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide complex and a hydrophilic ammonium salt provides a nanosegregated liquid-crystalline matrix consisting of hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) domains and hydrophobic IL domains.

  6. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  7. Variation in the natural abundance of (15)N in the halophyte, Salicornia virginica, associated with groundwater subsidies of nitrogen in a southern California salt-marsh.

    PubMed

    Page, Henry M

    1995-10-01

    To provide insight into the importance of the salt-marsh ecotone as a sink for inorganic nitrogen in perched groundwater, measurements were made of the natural abundance of (15)N in dissolved NO3-N and NH4-N and in the salt-marsh halophyte, Salicornia virginica, along an environmental gradient from agricultural land into a salt-marsh. The increase in the natural abundance of (15)N (expressed by convention as δ(15)N) of NO3-N, accompanied by the decrease in NO3-N (and total dissolved inorganic N, DIN) concentration along the gradient, suggested that the salt-marsh ecotone is a site of transformation, most likely through denitrification, of inorganic nitrogen in groundwater. (15)N enrichment in S. virginica (and the parasitic herb, Cuscuta salina), along the tidal marsh boundary, relative to high and middle marsh locations, indicated the retention of groundwater nitrogen as vegetative biomass. The correlation between δ(15)N Salicornia and δ(15)NNH4 suggested a preference for NH4-N over NO3-N during uptake by this plant. Groundwater inputs enhanced the standing crop, above-ground productivity, and nitrogen content of S. virginica but the ralative effects of pore water salinity and DIN concentration on these parameters were not determined. (15)N enrichment of marsh plants by groundwater DIN inputs could prove useful in tracing the fate of these inputs in the marsh food web.

  8. Lithium Ion Polymer Electrolyte Based on Pva-Pan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F. Kingslin Mary; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Rajeswari, N.; Devi, S. Siva; Karthikeyan, S.; Raja, C. Sanjeevi

    2013-07-01

    The polymer blend electrolytes based on polyvinylalcohol(PVA) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) doped with lithium per chlorate (LiClO4) have been prepared by solution casting technique using DMF as solvent. The complex formation between blend polymer and the salt has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the blend polymer electrolyte has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The ionic conductivity of the prepared blend polymer electrolyte has been found by ac impedence spectroscopic analysis. The highest ionic conductivity has been found to be 5.0 X10-4 S cm -1 at room temperature for 92.5 PVA: 7.5PAN: 20 molecular wt. % of LiClO4. The effect of salt concentration on the conductivity of the blend polymer electrolyte has been discussed.

  9. Lithium Fast-Ion Conductors: Polymer Based Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-30

    syntheses and room temperature conductivities of a wide variety of simple and polymeric lithium salts have been explored without finding mater- ials with...significant ambient temperature ionic conductivities. Some of the -aterials may be of interest in other contexts. A study of lithium tetra...fluoroborate in polyacrylonitrile showed that t ..e composites could form the basis for a sensitive humidity sensor. Preliminary studies of a number of lithium

  10. Salt-inducible isoform of plasma membrane H+ATPase gene in rice remains constitutively expressed in natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Binod Bihari; Shaw, Birendra Prasad

    2009-07-01

    To look into a possible involvement of plasma membrane H+ATPase (PM-H+ATPase, EC 3.6.3.6) in mitigation of physiological disturbances imposed by salt stress, response of the enzyme was studied in two Oryza sativa Indica cultivars, salt-tolerant Lunishri and non-tolerant Badami, and a natural halophyte Suaeda maritima after challenge of the young plants with NaCl. Significant increase in activity of the enzyme was observed in response to NaCl in all the test plants with S. maritima showing maximum increase. Protein blot analysis, however, did not show any increase in the amount of the enzyme (protein). RNA blot analysis, on the other hand, revealed significant increase in transcript level of the enzyme upon NaCl treatment. In the rice cultivars, salt treatment also induced expression of a new isoform of PM-H+ATPase gene, not reported so far. The induced transcript showed maximum homology to OSA7 (O. sativa PM-H+ATPase isoform 7). Similar transcript message, however, remained constitutively present in S. maritima, along with the transcript of another isoform of PM-H+ATPase showing resemblance to OSA3 (O. sativa PM-H+ATPase isoform 3). The latter was the only PM-H+ATPase isoform expressed in both the rice cultivars not exposed to NaCl. In the salt-treated test plants, both rice and S. maritima, the salt-inducible PM-H+ATPase isoform resembling OSA7 was expressed in much greater amount than that resembling OSA3. Appearance of a new PM-H+ATPase transcript, besides increase in the enzyme activity, indicates the important role of the enzyme in maintaining ion-homeostasis in plants under salt stress, enabling them to survive under saline conditions.

  11. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lithonate Note: Lithium is also commonly found in batteries, lubricants, high performance metal alloys, and soldering supplies. ... Kidney failure Memory problems Movement disorders Problems ... your body Psychosis (disturbed thought processes, unpredictable ...

  12. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  13. Method for forming thin composite solid electrolyte film for lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A composite solid electrolyte film is formed by dissolving a lithium salt such as lithium iodide in a mixture of a first solvent which is a co-solvent for the lithium salt and a binder polymer such as polyethylene oxide and a second solvent which is a solvent for the binder polymer and has poor solubility for the lithium salt. Reinforcing filler such as alumina particles are then added to form a suspension followed by the slow addition of binder polymer. The binder polymer does not agglomerate the alumina particles. The suspension is cast into a uniform film.

  14. Method for forming thin composite solid electrolyte film for lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A composite solid electrolyte film is formed by dissolving a lithium salt such as lithium iodide in a mixture of a first solvent which is a cosolvent for the lithium salt and a binder polymer such as polyethylene oxide and a second solvent which is a solvent for the binder polymer and has poor solubility for the lithium salt. Reinforcing filler such as alumina particles are then added to form a suspension followed by the slow addition of binder polymer. The binder polymer does not agglomerate the alumina particles. The suspension is cast into a uniform film.

  15. Expanding Mg-Zn hybrid chemistry: inorganic salt effects in addition reactions of organozinc reagents to trifluoroacetophenone and the implications for a synergistic lithium-magnesium-zinc activation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; McCall, Matthew D; Russo, Luca; Hevia, Eva

    2011-07-18

    Numerous organic transformations rely on organozinc compounds made through salt-metathesis (exchange) reactions from organolithium or Grignard reagents with a suitable zinc precursor. By combining X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, this study sheds new light on the constitution of the organometallic species involved in this important synthetic tool. Investigations into the metathesis reactions of equimolar amounts of Grignard reagents (RMgX) and ZnCl(2) in THF led to the isolation of novel magnesium-zinc hybrids, [{(thf)(2)Mg(μ-Cl)(3)ZnR}(2)] (R=Et, tBu, nBu or o-OMe-C(6)H(4)), which exhibit an unprecedented structural motif in mixed magnesium-zinc chemistry. Furthermore, theoretical modelling of the reaction of EtMgCl with ZnCl(2) reveals that formation of the mixed-metal compound is thermodynamically preferred to that of the expected homometallic products, RZnCl and MgCl(2). This study also assesses the alkylating ability of hybrid 3 towards the sensitive ketone trifluoroacetophenone, revealing a dramatic increase in the chemoselectivity of the reaction when LiCl is introduced as an additive. This observation, combined with recent related breakthroughs in synthesis, points towards the existence of a trilateral Li/Mg/Zn synergistic effect.

  16. Li-cycling properties of molten salt method prepared nano/submicrometer and micrometer-sized CuO for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M V; Yu, Cai; Jiahuan, Fan; Loh, Kian Ping; Chowdari, B V R

    2013-05-22

    We report the synthesis of CuO material by molten salt method at a temperature range, 280 to 950 °C for 3 h in air. This report includes studies on the effect of morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical properties of CuO prepared at different temperatures. Obtained CuO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area methods. Samples prepared at ≥410 °C showed a single-phase material with a lattice parameter value of a = 4.69 Å, b = 3.43 Å, c = 5.13 Å and surface area values are in the range 1.0-17.0 m(2) g(-1). Electrochemical properties were evaluated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic cycling studies. CV studies showed a minor difference in the peak potentials depending on preparation temperature and all compounds exhibit a main anodic peak at ~2.45 V and cathodic peaks at ~0.85 V and ~1.25 V vs Li. CuO prepared at 750 °C showed high and stable capacity of ~620 mA h g(-1) at the end of 40th cycle.

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of the Cultural Resources in the Brazos Natural Salt Pollution Control Project, Kent, King and Stonewall Counties, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    reviewing various alter- native approaches to the control of natural salt pollution in the upper Brazos River basin for more than a decade (Allen et al...8217 life cycles and with any successional development. The disruption of the native , naturally 344 Figu re 29 WCL) z 0 0 -,w 0 0 z -J COo -j (I) 0 CL 0...U) UNCLASSIFIED NOV 81 J P TURMOND, N 0 REE NAN, S L ANWrS DACW6361.-O900 MEM;I INDEllllEllllEllE llEEEEEElllllI EIEL PART 2: HISTORIC RESOURCES

  18. Ambient temperature secondary lithium cells containing inorganic electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    The history and current status of rechargeable lithium cells using electrolytes based on liquid sulfur dioxide are reviewed. Three separate approaches currently under development include lithium/lithium dithionite/carbon cells with a supporting electrolyte salt; lithium/cupric chloride cells using sulfur dioxide/lithium tetrachloroaluminate; and several adaptations of a lithium/carbon cell using sulfur dioxide/lithium tetrachloroaluminate in which the discharge reaction involves the incorporation of aluminum into the positive electrode. The latter two chemistries have been studied in prototype hardware. For AA size cells with cupric chloride, 157 Whr/1 at 24 W/1 for 230 cycles was reported. For AA size cells containing 2LiCl-CaCl2-4AlCl3-12SO2, energy densities as high as 265 Whr/liter and 100 Whr/kg have been observed, but, at 26 W/1, for only 10 cycles. The advantages and remaining problems are discussed.

  19. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  20. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  1. Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-05-12

    An electroactive composition includes an anodic material; a poly(arylene oxide); and stabilized lithium metal particles; where the stabilized lithium metal particles have a size less than about 200 .mu.m in diameter, are coated with a lithium salt, are present in an amount of about 0.1 wt % to about 5 wt %, and are dispersed throughout the composition. Lithium secondary batteries including the electroactive composition along with methods of making the electroactive composition are also discussed.

  2. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  3. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  4. Enhanced performance of spherical natural graphite coated by Li4Ti5O12 as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mi; Tian, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Gao, Jun; Huang, Bing

    2012-12-01

    The natural graphite (NG) is coated with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and the composite shows a markedly enhanced rate performance due to the decrease of charge transfer resistance after LTO coating. The specific capacity of the NG charge-discharged at 2 C is increased by 60.3% (128.7 vs. 80.3 mAh g-1) by coating it with 1 wt.% of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO). The comparison of the NG and that coated with 1 wt.% LTO at 0.1 C shows that the initial reversible capacity is increased from 318.1 mAh g-1 to 357.5 mAh g-1 after coating, while the total irreversible capacity loss after 50 cycles is decreased from 122.8 mAh g-1 to 103.9 mAh g-1. The composite improves the energy and power densities, safety, cycle life and lowers the price of the lithium-ion battery while avoiding the gas-swelling of full battery caused by Ti4+ because the final coating material is the lithiated LTO (Li7Ti5O12 or Li9Ti5O12).

  5. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2004-10-28

    The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification.

  6. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  7. Low temperature electrolytes for lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuhovak, Denise R.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1991-01-01

    Combinations of methyl formate (MF) and propylene carbonate (PC) using salt concentrations of 0.6 to 2.4 M, with lithium hexafluoroarsenate and lithium tetrafluoroborate in a five to one molar ratio, were investigated as electrolytes in lithium/silver vanadium oxide batteries. The composition of the electrolyte affected cell performance at low temperature, self-discharge and abuse resistance as characterized by short circuit and crush testing. The electrolyte that provided the best combination of good low temperature performance, low cell self-discharge and abuse resistance was 0.6 M salt in 10:90 PC/MF.

  8. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  9. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hitzman, Murray W.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  10. Electrochemical and in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy studies of bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide based ionic liquids on graphite and gold electrodes and lithium salt influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Chunlei; Yan, Jiawei; Mao, Bingwei

    2015-10-01

    We report electrochemical and in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of surface processes on graphite and Au(111) electrodes in N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Py13FSI) and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Py13TFSI) ionic liquids in the absence and presence of LiTFSI salt. In both of neat ionic liquids, the intercalation of cations and exfoliation of HOPG layers occur during cathodic excursion. However, the surface decomposition of FSI anions can form an effective protection film on the surface, which suppresses the intercalation and exfoliation processes, while the surface decomposition of TFSI anions mainly causes etching of the surface, which makes the intercalation and exfoliation easier to proceed. The addition of Li salt can promote the formation of the protective film, especially in Py13FSI, and thus significantly suppress the intercalation and exfoliation processes. The discrepancies between these two ionic liquids are caused by the different anion interactions with graphite. Additionally, comparisons of the behaviors on HOPG and on Au(111) confirm that the surface processes are crucially dependent on the nature of the electrode. Trace amounts of oxygen and water can cause the formation of a film-like structure on Au(111), but show no apparent influence on HOPG.

  11. Benzimidazole-derived anion for lithium-conducting electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzicki, Leszek; Oledzki, Piotr; Bitner, Anna; Bukowska, Maria; Szczecinski, Przemyslaw

    2016-02-01

    In this work we announce new lithium salt of 5,6-dicyano-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzimidazolide (LiTDBI) designed for application in lithium conductive electrolytes. It was synthesized and completely characterized by NMR techniques. Studies show salt's thermal stability up to 270 °C and electrochemical stability in liquid solvents up to +4.7 V vs. metallic lithium anode. Basic characterization of electrolytes made with this salt show conductivity over 1 mS cm-1 and unusually high transference number at high concentrations (0.74 in EC:DMC 1:2 ratio mixture) along with low onset of conductivity peak. As a final proof of concept, cycling in half-cell was performed and electrolyte based on LiTDBI showed perfect capacity retention. Such properties show remarkable progress in creating efficient lithium-conducting electrolytes with use of weakly-coordinating anions.

  12. Seed dispersal and seedling emergence in a created and a natural salt marsh on the Gulf of Mexico coast in Southwest Louisiana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Early regeneration dynamics related to seed dispersal and seedling emergence can contribute to differences in species composition among a created and a natural salt marsh. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether aquatic and aerial seed dispersal differed in low and high elevations within a created marsh and a natural marsh and (2) whether seedling emergence was influenced by marsh, the presence of openings in the vegetation, and seed availability along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. Aerial seed traps captured a greater quantity of seeds than aquatic traps. Several factors influenced aquatic and aerial seed dispersal in a created and a natural salt marsh, including distance from the marsh edge, cover of existing vegetation, and water depth. The natural marsh had a high seed density of Spartina alterniflora and Distichlis spicata, the low-elevation created marsh had a high seed density of S. alterniflora, and the high-elevation created marsh had a high seed density of Aster subulatus and Iva frutescens. The presence of adult plants and water depth above the marsh surface influenced seed density. In the natural marsh, openings in vegetation increased seedling emergence for all species, whereas in the low-elevation created marsh, S. alterniflora had higher seedling density under a canopy of vegetation. According to the early regeneration dynamics, the future vegetation in areas of the low-elevation created marsh may become similar to that in the natural marsh. In the high-elevation created marsh, vegetation may be upland fringe habitat dominated by high-elevation marsh shrubs and annual herbaceous species. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  13. Assessment of phosphogypsum impact on the salt-marshes of the Tinto river (SW Spain): role of natural attenuation processes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Castillo, Julio; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Nieto, José M

    2011-12-01

    About 120 Mton of phosphogypsum from the fertiliser industry were stack-piled on the salt-marshes of the Tinto river (Spain). This paper investigates the capacity of salt-marshes to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from phosphogypsum. Solids and pore-waters were characterized at different depths of the pile to reach the marsh-ground. In superficial zones, metals were highly mobile, and no reduced sulphur was found. However, pollutant concentration decreased in the pore-water in deeper oxygen-restricted zones. Metal removal occurred by precipitation of newly formed sulphides, being this process main responsible for the contamination attenuation. Pyrite-S was the main sulphide component (up to 2528 mg/kg) and occurred as framboids, leading to high degrees of pyritization (up to 97%). The sulphidization reaction is Fe-limited; however, excess of acid-volatile sulphide over other metals cause precipitation of other sulphides, mainly of Cu and As. This decrease in metal mobility significantly minimises the impact of phosphogypsums on the salt-marshes.

  14. The nature of Martian fluids based on mobile element studies in salt-assemblages from Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Wentworth, S. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Garrison, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    The S, Cl, and Br abundances determined in salt assemblages in Nakhla and Lafayette olivine fracturefillings and in gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses from Shergotty and EET79001 Lithologies A & B using EMPA/EDS/APS X-ray Microprobe techniques are compared with the S and Cl abundances determined by Gooding and coworkers in similar samples using quadrupole mass-spectrometric techniques. All the analytical methods yield relatively high Cl and low SO3 abundances in Nakhla indicating a SO3/Cl ratio of ~0.2. The same ratio in Lafayette secondary salts seems to be ~2. In the case of GRIM glasses from Shergotty and EET79001 Lith A & Lith B, the SO3 abundance is found to be high whereas the Cl abundance is low yielding a SO3/Cl ratio of ~5-300 (large errors are associated with these ratios because of low Cl signals). The salts found in Nakhla fracturefillings are inferred to have formed from Cl-rich fluids (high pH) near nakhlite source region on Mars, whereas the secondary minerals found in shergottite GRIM glasses seem to be associated with SO3-rich fluids (low pH) near shergottite source region on Mars. The Cl-rich fluids seem to have infiltrated into the nakhlite source region ~600 Ma ago, whereas the SO3-rich fluids likely percolated into the shergottite source region at ~180 Ma (or less) suggesting the possible existence of two types of fluid sources on Mars.

  15. Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (composite dimensional manganese oxide: CDMO) as positive material for a lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohma, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishio, K.; Nakane, I.; Furukawa, N.

    1990-12-01

    Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (CDMO) has been developed as the positive material for lithium secondary batteries. CDMO is prepared from lithium salt and manganese dioxide by heat treatment. It is a composite oxide of γ/β-MnO 2 and Li 2MnO 3. The influence on rechargeability of lithium salts, heat-treatment temperature, and manganese dioxide type has been investigated by conducting cycle tests with flat cells. Lithium hydroxide is more reactive with MnO 2 in the production of Li 2MnO 3 than either Li 2O or Li 2CO 3. The optimum condition for preparing CDMO is to heat treat LiOH and MnO 2 at about 375 °C. CDMO prepared from EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) yields a larger and more stable capacity than CDMO prepared from CMD (chemical manganese dioxide). Sodium-free EMD exhibits the largest discharge capacity.

  16. Molten salt electrolyte battery cell with overcharge tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte battery having an increased overcharge tolerance employs a negative electrode with two lithium alloy phases of different electrochemical potential, one of which allows self-discharge rates which permits battery cell equalization.

  17. Technical report on galvanic cells with fused-salt electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, E. J.; Crouthamel, C. E.; Fischer, A. K.; Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Johnson, C. E.; Shimotake, H.; Tevebaugh, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Technical report is presented on sodium and lithium cells using fused salt electrolytes. It includes a discussion of the thermally regenerative galvanic cell and the secondary bimetallic cell for storage of electricity.

  18. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  19. Effects of the Nature and Concentration of Salt on the Interaction of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein with SL3 RNA§

    PubMed Central

    Athavale, Shreyas S.; Ouyang, Wei; McPike, Mark P.; Hudson, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The mature nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1, NCp7, and the NC-domains in gag-precursors are attractive targets for anti-AIDS drug discovery. The stability of the 1:1 complex of NCp7 with a 20mer mimic of stem-loop 3 RNA (SL3, also called psi-RNA, in the packaging domain of genomic RNA) is strongly affected by changes in ionic strength. NC-domains recognize and specifically package genomic HIV-1 RNA, while electrostatic attractions and high concentrations of protein and RNA drive NCp7 to completely coat the RNA in the mature virion. The specific interactions from NCp7-binding to loop bases of SL3 produce 1:1 complexes in solutions that have [NaCl] at or above 0.2 M, while the electrostatic interactions can dominate at and below 0.15 M NaCl, leading to complexes that have mainly 1:2 RNA:protein. Persistent, non-equilibrium mixtures of 1:1 and protein-excess complexes can exist at these lower salt concentrations, where the distribution of complexes depends on the order of addition of RNA and protein. Adding salt causes rapid rearrangement of metastable multi-protein complexes to 1:1. The stability of complexes is also affected by the nature of the added salt, with 0.018 M MgCl2 and 0.200 M added NaCl producing the same Kd (21 ± 2 nM); acetate ion stabilizes the 1:1 complex by more than a factor of two compared to the same concentration of chloride ion. Maintaining a salt concentration of 0.2 M NaCl or 18 mM MgCl2 is sufficient for experiments to distinguish drug candidates that disrupt the specific SL3-NCp7 interactions in the 1:1 complex. PMID:20359247

  20. A highly reversible lithium metal anode.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Sik; Ma, Sang Bok; Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-22

    Lithium metal has shown a lot of promise for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries owing to its high theoretical capacity. However, it does not meet the cycle life and safety requirements of rechargeable batteries owing to electrolyte decomposition and dendrite formation on the surfaces of the lithium anodes during electrochemical cycling. Here, we propose a novel electrolyte system that is relatively stable against lithium metal and mitigates dendritic growth. Systematic design methods that combined simulations, model-based experiments, and in situ analyses were employed to design the system. The reduction potential of the solvent, the size of the salt anions, and the viscosity of the electrolyte were found to be critical parameters determining the rate of dendritic growth. A lithium metal anode in contact with the designed electrolyte exhibited remarkable cyclability (more than 100 cycles) at a high areal capacity of 12 mAh cm(-2).

  1. A Highly Reversible Lithium Metal Anode

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Sik; Ma, Sang Bok; Lee, Dong Joon; Im, Dongmin; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown a lot of promise for use as an anode material in rechargeable batteries owing to its high theoretical capacity. However, it does not meet the cycle life and safety requirements of rechargeable batteries owing to electrolyte decomposition and dendrite formation on the surfaces of the lithium anodes during electrochemical cycling. Here, we propose a novel electrolyte system that is relatively stable against lithium metal and mitigates dendritic growth. Systematic design methods that combined simulations, model-based experiments, and in situ analyses were employed to design the system. The reduction potential of the solvent, the size of the salt anions, and the viscosity of the electrolyte were found to be critical parameters determining the rate of dendritic growth. A lithium metal anode in contact with the designed electrolyte exhibited remarkable cyclability (more than 100 cycles) at a high areal capacity of 12 mAh cm−2. PMID:24448586

  2. Single-Ion Block Copoly(ionic liquid)s as Electrolytes for All-Solid State Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Porcarelli, Luca; Shaplov, Alexander S; Salsamendi, Maitane; Nair, Jijeesh R; Vygodskii, Yakov S; Mecerreyes, David; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-27

    Polymer electrolytes have been proposed as replacement for conventional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their intrinsic enhanced safety. Nevertheless, the power delivery of these materials is limited by the concentration gradient of the lithium salt. Single-ion conducting polyelectrolytes represent the ideal solution since their nature prevents polarization phenomena. Herein, the preparation of a new family of single-ion conducting block copolymer polyelectrolytes via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technique is reported. These copolymers comprise poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate blocks. The obtained polyelectrolytes show low Tg values in the range of -61 to 0.6 °C, comparatively high ionic conductivity (up to 2.3 × 10(-6) and 1.2 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 25 and 55 °C, respectively), wide electrochemical stability (up to 4.5 V versus Li(+)/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (0.83). Owing to the combination of all mentioned properties, the prepared polymer materials were used as solid polyelectrolytes and as binders in the elaboration of lithium-metal battery prototypes with high charge/discharge efficiency and excellent specific capacity (up to 130 mAh g(-1)) at C/15 rate.

  3. Fluid distribution in grain boundaries of natural fine-grained rock salt deformed at low shear stress: implications for rheology and transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, G.; Urai, J. L.; De Bresser, J. H. P.

    2012-04-01

    We used a combination of broad ion beam (BIB) cross-sectioning and high resolution (cryogenic) SEM to image polished surfaces and corresponding pairs of fractured grain boundaries in an investigation of grain boundary (GB) microstructures and fluid distribution in naturally deformed halite from a salt glacier (Kum Quh, central Iran). At the scale of observations, four types of fluid or gas filled grain boundaries can be distinguished: (1) straight boundaries with thick (up to 10 µm) GB tubes (2) straight boundaries with narrow (about 50 nm) GB tubes (3) wavy (tens of µm wavelength) GB with isolated inclusions of a few µm, and (4) wavy (µm wavelength) GB with small (µm) isolated inclusions. Grain boundary fluid inclusions can have three types of morphologies: the inclusion of Type 1 is intruded completely in one grain, inclusion of Type 2 has its major part included in one grain with a minor part in the second grain and the inclusion of Type 3 is located in both grains. Solid second phases in GB are mainly euhedral anhydrite crystals. The mobility of the brine is shown after cutting the inclusions by BIB in vacuum and fine-grained halite forms efflorescence and precipitates on internal walls of inclusions. At cryogenic temperature, in-situ brine is seen as continuous film in GB of type (1) and (2), and in isolated inclusions in GB of type (3) and (4). The structure of halite-halite contact between isolated fluid inclusions in GB of type (3) and (4) is below the resolution of SEM. GB of type (3) and (4) are interpreted to have formed by healing of mobile fluid films. First results of deformation experiments on the same samples under shear stress corresponding to conditions of natural salt glacier, show very low strain rates (7.43x10-10 s-1 and 1x10-9 s-1), up to one order of magnitude below of expected strain rates by solution precipitation creep. Both microstructures and deformation experiments suggest interfacial energy-driven GB healing, in agreement with the

  4. RESOURCE ASSESSMENT OF THE IN-PLACE AND POTENTIALLY RECOVERABLE DEEP NATURAL GAS RESOURCE OF THE ONSHORE INTERIOR SALT BASINS, NORTH CENTRAL AND NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-04-16

    The University of Alabama and Louisiana State University have undertaken a cooperative 3-year, advanced subsurface methodology resource assessment project, involving petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling, to facilitate exploration for a potential major source of natural gas that is deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas. The project is designed to assist in the formulation of advanced exploration strategies for funding and maximizing the recovery from deep natural gas domestic resources at reduced costs and risks and with minimum impact. The results of the project should serve to enhance exploration efforts by domestic companies in their search for new petroleum resources, especially those deeply buried (below 15,000 feet) natural gas resources, and should support the domestic industry's endeavor to provide an increase in reliable and affordable supplies of fossil fuels. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project is data compilation and petroleum system identification. The research focus for the first nine (9) months of Year 1 is on data compilation and for the remainder of the year the emphasis is on petroleum system identification. The objectives of the study are: to perform resource assessment of the in-place deep (>15,000 ft) natural gas resource of the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling and to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the in-place deep gas resource that is potentially recoverable and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential to recover commercial quantities of the deep gas resource. The project objectives will be achieved through a 3-year effort. First, emphasis is on petroleum system identification and characterization in the North

  5. Neutron and X-ray scattering experiments on lithium polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors are carrying out structural, dynamical and transport measurements of lithium polymer electrolytes, in order to provide information needed to improve the performance of secondary lithium battery systems. Microscopically, they behave as liquids under conditions of practical interest. Development of batteries based on these materials has focused on rechargeable systems with intercalation/insertion cathodes and lithium or lithium-containing materials as anodes. The electrolytes are generally composites of a polyethylene oxide (PEO) or another modified polyether and a salt such as LiClO{sub 4}, LiAsF{sub 6} or LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. Research on electrolyte materials for lithium batteries has focused on synthesis, characterization, and development of practical devices. Some characterization work has been carried out to determine the properties of the ion polymer and ion interactions, principally through spectroscopic, thermodynamic and transport measurements. It is generally believed that ionic conduction is a property of the amorphous phase of these materials. It is also believed that ion association, ion polymer interactions and local relaxations of the polymer strongly influence the ionic mobility. However, much about the nature of the charge carriers, the ion association processes, and the ion polymer interactions and the role that these play in the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes remains unknown. The authors have initiated a combined experimental and theoretical study of the structure and dynamics of lithium polymer electrolytes. They plan to investigate the effects of the polymer host on ion solvation and the attendant effects of ion pairing, which affect the ionic transport in these systems.

  6. Δ17O Isotopic Investigation of Nitrate Salts Found in Co-Occurrence with Naturally Formed Perchlorate in the Mojave Desert, California, USA and the Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Parker, D.; Rech, J.; Prellwitz, J.; Michalski, G.

    2009-12-01

    Perchlorate is both a naturally occurring and manmade contaminant that has been identified in soil, groundwater and surface water. Perchlorate directly affects human health by interfering with iodide uptake in the thyroid gland, which may in turn lower the production of key hormones that are needed for proper growth and development. Until recently, the Atacama Desert, Chile was thought to be the only location where perchlorate salts formed naturally. Recent work has documented the occurrence of these salts in several semi-arid regions of the United States. This study identified putatively natural sources of perchlorate in the Mojave Desert of California. Soil samples were collected from six field sites varying in geologic age. The co-occurrence of perchlorate and nitrate in caliches from the Atacama Desert and soils from the Mojave Desert was also investigated. Although the former are richer in NO3-, near-ore-grade (~5%) deposits occur in the vicinity of Death Valley National Park. Weak but significant correlations exist between ClO4- and NO3- at both locations, but the perchlorate levels are much higher (up to 800 mg/kg) in the Chilean samples than in California (<25 mg/kg). Oxygen isotopes in the nitrate were examined to identify variation within the Mojave Desert field sites, and to compare with those in samples collected from the Atacama Desert. The Mojave Desert Δ17O values ranged from 7-13‰ and those from the Atacama were between 17-21‰. This isotopic analysis revealed a dominantly atmospheric origin for the Atacama nitrate salts, and a mixture between biological nitrate and atmospherically-derived nitrate for the Mojave samples. When corrected for the percentage of atmospheric nitrate measured in the Atacama samples, the Mojave samples still contain much lower perchlorate concentrations than would be expected if the occurrence of perchlorate correlated strictly with atmospherically derived nitrate. These results indicate that the variation in the

  7. The nature of Martian fluids based on mobile element studies in salt-assemblages from Martian meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.N.; Nyquist, L.E.; Wentworth, S.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Garrison, D.H.

    2008-08-04

    The S, Cl, and Br abundances determined in salt assemblages in Nakhla and Lafayette olivine fracture fillings and in gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses from Shergotty and EET79001 Lithologies A & B using EMPA/EDS/APS X-ray Microprobe techniques are compared with the S and Cl abundances determined by Gooding and coworkers in similar samples using quadrupole mass-spectrometric techniques. All the analytical methods yield relatively high Cl and low SO{sub 3} abundances in Nakhla indicating a SO{sub 3}/Cl ratio of {approx}0.2. The same ratio in Lafayette secondary salts seems to be {approx}2. In the case of GRIM glasses from Shergotty and EET79001 Lith A & Lith B, the SO{sub 3} abundance is found to be high whereas the Cl abundance is low yielding a SO{sub 3}/Cl ratio of {approx}5--300 (large errors are associated with these ratios because of low Cl signals). The salts found in Nakhla fracturefillings are inferred to have formed from Cl-rich fluids (high pH) near nakhlite source region on Mars, whereas the secondary minerals found in shergottite GRIM glasses seem to be associated with SO{sub 3}-rich fluids (low pH) near shergottite source region on Mars. The Cl-rich fluids seem to have infiltrated into the nakhlite source region {approx}600 Ma ago, whereas the SO{sub 3}-rich fluids likely percolated into the shergottite source region at {approx}180 Ma (or less) suggesting the possible existence of two types of fluid sources on Mars.

  8. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  9. Lithium ion phase-transfer reaction at the interface between the lithium manganese oxide electrode and the nonaqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-14

    The lithium ion phase-transfer reaction between the spinel lithium manganese oxide electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte was investigated by the ac impedance spectroscopic method. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the electrochemical potential of the lithium ion in the electrode, the lithium salt concentration in the electrolyte, the kind of solvent, and the measured temperature were examined. Nyquist plots, obtained from the impedance measurements, consist of two semicircles for high and medium frequency and warburg impedance for low frequency, indicating that the reaction process of two main steps for high and medium frequency obey the Butler-Volmer type equation and could be related to the charge-transfer reaction process accompanied with lithium ion phase-transfer at the interface. The dependency on the solvent suggests that both steps in the lithium ion phase-transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface include the desolvation process and have high activation barriers.

  10. Cooking without salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor and nutrition. Plant-based foods -- carrots, spinach, apples, and peaches -- are naturally salt-free. Sun-dried ... types of pepper, including black, white, green, and red. Experiment with vinegars (white and red wine, rice ...

  11. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  12. Kinetics Tuning the Electrochemistry of Lithium Dendrites Formation in Lithium Batteries through Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ran; Bi, Xuanxuan; Li, Shu; Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Cunzhong; Lu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Lithium batteries are one of the most advance energy storage devices in the world and have attracted extensive research interests. However, lithium dendrite growth was a safety issue which handicapped the application of pure lithium metal in the negative electrode. In this investigation, two solvents, propylene carbonate (PC) and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), and four Li(+) salts, LiPF6, LiAsF6, LiBF4 and LiClO4 were investigated in terms of their effects on the kinetics of lithium dendrite formation in eight electrolyte solutions. The kinetic parameters of charge transfer step (exchange current density, j0, transfer coefficient, α) of Li(+)/Li redox system, the mass transfer parameters of Li(+) (transfer number of Li(+), tLi+, diffusion coefficient of Li(+), DLi+), and the conductivity (κ) of each electrolyte were studied separately. The results demonstrate that the solvents play a critical role in the measured j0, tLi+, DLi+, and κ of the electrolyte, while the choice of Li(+) salts only slightly affect the measured parameters. The understanding of the kinetics will gain insight into the mechanism of lithium dendrite formation and provide guidelines to the future application of lithium metal.

  13. Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

    1999-11-12

    Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

  14. Comparative Study of Ether-Based Electrolytes for Application in Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Gobet, Mallory; Peng, Jing; Devany, Matthew; Scrosati, Bruno; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the characteristics of electrolytes using various ether-solvents with molecular composition CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3, differing by chain length, and LiCF3SO3 as the lithium salt. The electrolytes, considered as suitable media for lithium-sulfur batteries, are characterized in terms of thermal properties (TGA, DSC), lithium ion conductivity, lithium interface stability, cyclic voltammetry, self-diffusion properties of the various components, and lithium transference number measured by NMR. Furthermore, the electrolytes are characterized in lithium cells using a sulfur-carbon composite cathode by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results clearly evidence the influence of the solvent chain length on the species mobility within the electrolytes that directly affects the behavior in lithium sulfur cell. The results may effectively contribute to the progress of an efficient, high-energy lithium-sulfur battery.

  15. Nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotube/graphene sandwiches: facile catalytic growth on bifunctional natural catalysts and their applications as scaffolds for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Tian, Gui-Li; Peng, Hong-Jie; Wei, Fei

    2014-09-17

    Nitrogen-doped aligned CNT/graphene sandwiches are rationally designed and in-situ fabricated by a facile catalytic growth on bifunctional natural catalysts that exhibit high-rate performances as scaffolds for lithium-sulfur batteries, with a high initial capacity of 1152 mA h g(-1) at 1.0 C. A remarkable capacity of 770 mA h g(-1) can be achieved at 5.0 C. Such a design strategy for materials opens up new perspectives to novel advanced functional composites, especially interface-modified hierarchical nanocarbons for broad applications.

  16. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  17. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, G.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-07-01

    A new type of highly conductive Li{sup +} polymer electrolyte, referred to as the Innovision polymer electrolyte, is completely amorphous at room temperature and has an ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. This report discusses the electrochemical characteristics (lithium oxidation and reduction), conductivity, and physical properties of Innovision electrolytes containing various dissolved salts. These electrolytes are particularly interesting since they appear to have some of the highest room-temperature lithium ion conductivities yet observed among polymer electrolytes. 13 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Dysprosium(III) hydroxide coprecipitation system for the separation and preconcentration of heavy metal contents of table salts and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Peker, Dondu Serpil Kacar; Turkoglu, Orhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-05-08

    A procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) is described, that combines atomic absorption spectrometry-dysprosium hydroxide coprecipitation. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), centrifugation time, sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of concomitant ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95.00-104.00%. The detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank for the analytes were in the range of 14.1-25.3 microg/L. The method was applied to the determination of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese ions in natural waters and table salts good results were obtained (relative standard deviations <10%, recoveries >95%).

  19. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkow, Krystyna W.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    Some recent work on a lithium-oxygen secondary battery is reported in which stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes were used for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions. The electroactive material consisted of alloys possessing the general composition Li(x)FeSi2 immersed in a ternary molten salt comprising LiF, LiCl, and Li2O. The manufacture of the cell is described, and discharge-current voltage curves for partially charged cells are shown and discussed. A galvanostatic IR free-changing curve and an IR-free charge-discharge curve are also shown.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Lithium Reactions with Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrod, Roman; Skinner, C. H.; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Liquid lithium plasma facing components (PFCs) are being developed to handle long pulse, high heat loads in tokamaks. Wetting by lithium of its container is essential for this application, but can be hindered by lithium oxidation by residual gases or during tokamak maintenance. Lithium PFCs will experience elevated temperatures due to plasma heat flux. This work presents measurements of lithium reactions at elevated temperatures (298-373 K) when exposed to natural air. Cylindrical TZM wells 300 microns deep with 1 cm2 surface area were filled with metallic lithium in a glovebox containing argon with less than 1.6 ppm H20, O2, and N2. The wells were transferred to a hot plate in air, and then removed periodically for mass gain measurements. Changes in the surface topography were recorded with a microscope. The mass gain of the samples at elevated temperatures followed a markedly different behavior to that at room temperature. One sample at 373 K began turning red indicative of lithium nitride, while a second turned white indicative of lithium carbonate formation. Data on the mass gain vs. temperature and associated topographic changes of the surface will be presented. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  1. Process for manufacturing a lithium alloy electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, William R.

    1992-10-13

    A process for manufacturing a lithium alloy, metal sulfide cell tape casts slurried alloy powders in an organic solvent containing a dissolved thermoplastic organic binder onto casting surfaces. The organic solvent is then evaporated to produce a flexible tape removable adhering to the casting surface. The tape is densified to increase its green strength and then peeled from the casting surface. The tape is laminated with a separator containing a lithium salt electrolyte and a metal sulfide electrode to form a green cell. The binder is evaporated from the green cell at a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the lithium salt electrolyte. Lithium alloy, metal sulfide and separator powders may be tape cast.

  2. A new application of high-efficient silver salts-based photocatalyst under natural indoor weak light for wastewater cleaning.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xia; Teng, Fei; Zhao, Yunxuan; Xu, Juan; Xu, Chuangye; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiqi; Paul, Shashi; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Mindong; Zhao, Xudong

    2015-09-15

    As a high-quantum-efficiency photocatalyst, the serious photo-corrosion of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4), limits the practical applications in water purification and challenges us. Herein, Ag3PO4 is found to have a high stability under natural indoor weak light irradiation, suggesting that we can employ it by adopting a new application strategy. In our studies, rhodamine B (RhB, cationic dye), methyl orange (MO, anionic dye) and RhB-MO mixture aqueous solutions are used as the probing reaction for the degradation of organic wastewater. It is found that RhB, MO and RhB-MO can be completely degraded after 28 h under natural indoor weak light irradiation, indicating that multi-component organic contaminants can be efficiently degraded by Ag3PO4 under natural indoor weak light irradiation. The density of natural indoor weak light is measured to be 72cd, which is merely one-thousandth of 300 W xenon lamp (68.2 × 10(3)cd). Most importantly, Ag3PO4 shows a high stability under natural indoor weak light irradiation, demonstrated by the formation of fairly rare Ag. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of inorganic ions on organic dyes degradation. It shows that the Cl(-) and Cr(6+) ions with high concentrations in wastewater have significantly decreased the degradation rate. From the viewpoint of energy saving and stability, this study shows us that we can utilize the Ag-containing photocatalysts under natural indoor weak light, which could be extended to indoor air cleaning process.

  3. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Xu, Wu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Burton, Sarah D.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gross, Mark E.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-02-05

    It is well known that the stability of nonaqueous electrolyte is critical for the rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. Although stability of many solvents used in the electrolytes has been investigated, considerably less attention has been paid to the stability of electrolyte salt which is the second major component. Herein, we report the systematic investigation of the stability of seven common lithium salts in tetraglyme used as electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries. The discharge products of Li-O2 reaction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The performance of Li-O2 batteries was strongly affected by the salt used in the electrolyte. Lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) decompose and form LiF and lithium borates, respectively during the discharge of Li-O2 batteries. Several other salts, including lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI), lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiTf), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) , and lithium bromide (LiBr) led to the discharge products which mainly consisted of Li2O2 and only minor signs of decomposition of LiTFSI, LiTf, LPF6 and LiClO4 were detected. LiBr showed the best stability during the discharge process. As for the cycling performance, LiTf and LiTFSI were the best among the studied salts. In addition to the instability of lithium salts, decomposition of tetraglyme solvent was a more significant factor contributing to the limited cycling stability. Thus a more stable nonaqueous electrolyte including organic solvent and lithium salt still need to be further developed to reach a fully reversible Li-O2 battery.

  4. Arctic Sea Salt Aerosol from Blowing Snow and Sea Ice Surfaces - a Missing Natural Source in Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, M. M.; Norris, S. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Nishimura, K.; Jones, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric particles in the polar regions consist mostly of sea salt aerosol (SSA). SSA plays an important role in regional climate change through influencing the surface energy balance either directly or indirectly via cloud formation. SSA irradiated by sunlight also releases very reactive halogen radicals, which control concentrations of ozone, a pollutant and greenhouse gas. However, models under-predict SSA concentrations in the Arctic during winter pointing to a missing source. It has been recently suggested that salty blowing snow above sea ice, which is evaporating, to be that source as it may produce more SSA than equivalent areas of open ocean. Participation in the 'Norwegian Young Sea Ice Cruise (N-ICE 2015)' on board the research vessel `Lance' allowed to test this hypothesis in the Arctic sea ice zone during winter. Measurements were carried out from the ship frozen into the pack ice North of 80º N during February to March 2015. Observations at ground level (0.1-2 m) and from the ship's crows nest (30 m) included number concentrations and size spectra of SSA (diameter range 0.3-10 μm) as well as snow particles (diameter range 50-500 μm). During and after blowing snow events significant SSA production was observed. In the aerosol and snow phase sulfate is fractionated with respect to sea water, which confirms sea ice surfaces and salty snow, and not the open ocean, to be the dominant source of airborne SSA. Aerosol shows depletion in bromide with respect to sea water, especially after sunrise, indicating photochemically driven release of bromine. We discuss the SSA source strength from blowing snow in light of environmental conditions (wind speed, atmospheric turbulence, temperature and snow salinity) and recommend improved model parameterisations to estimate regional aerosol production. N-ICE 2015 results are then compared to a similar study carried out previously in the Weddell Sea during the Antarctic winter.

  5. High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10 mA cm−2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm−2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

  6. Lithium Batteries: A Practical Application of Chemical Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treptow, Richard S.

    2003-09-01

    In recent years batteries have emerged in the marketplace that take advantage of the unique properties of lithium. Lithium metal is an attractive choice to serve as a battery anode because it is easily oxidized and it produces an exceptionally high amount of electrical charge per unit-weight. The electrolytes used in lithium batteries contain lithium salts dissolved in polar organic solvents. A variety of substances can serve as the battery cathode. They include inorganic solids, liquids, and dissolved gas. The cell potentials of lithium-metal batteries can be calculated from thermodynamic principles. These open-circuit voltages can be compared to the operating voltages of batteries delivering a current. Some lithium batteries employ intercalation compounds as their cathodes. These solids have layered or tunneled crystal structures into which lithium ions insert during the reduction process. When an intercalation cathode is paired with a lithiated-graphite anode, the resulting battery has the advantage of being rechargeable. It is known as a lithium-ion battery because no lithium metal is present.

  7. Strong tendency of homeotropic alignment and anisotropic lithium ion conductivity of sulfonate functionalized zwitterionic imidazolium ionic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rondla, Rohini; Lin, Joseph C Y; Yang, C T; Lin, Ivan J B

    2013-09-17

    Here, we report the first attempt to investigate the liquid crystal (LC) behavior of SO3(-) functionalized imidazolium zwitterionic (SO3(-)ImZI) salts, which display homeotropic alignment on a glass slide without the aid of any aligning approach. Doping lithium salt to ImZI salts lowers the melting temperatures and raises the clearing temperatures substantially to form room temperature ImZILCs. Excellent anisotropic lithium ion conductivity is achieved; which is strengthened by their tendency for homeotropic alignment.

  8. Performance and properties of arsenic passivated lithium-titanium disulfide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Fitzgerald, D.; Vasquez, R. P.; Somoano, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to inhibit chemical degradation associated with the lithium-electrolyte interaction in ambient temperature lithium cells, an attempt was made to synthetically passivate the anode via ion implantation of arsenic. Solvent reduction is reduced although salt reaction with lithium is still present. The performance of the Li-TiS2 cell differs from those with standard electrodes, but further work is necessary to clarify the efficacy of this mode of passivation.

  9. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  10. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion.

  11. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  12. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  13. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to perform resource assessment of the thermogenic gas resources in deeply buried (>15,000 ft) natural gas reservoirs of the onshore interior salt basins of the north central and northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas through petroleum system identification, characterization and modeling; and (2) to use the petroleum system based resource assessment to estimate the volume of the deep thermogenic gas resource that is available for potential recovery and to identify those areas in the interior salt basins with high potential for this thermogenic gas resource. Petroleum source rock analysis and petroleum system characterization and modeling, including thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling, have shown that the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation served as the regional petroleum source rock in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Thus, the estimates of the total hydrocarbons, oil, and gas generated and expelled are based on the assumption that the Smackover Formation is the main petroleum source rock in these basins and subbasins. The estimate of the total hydrocarbons generated for the North Louisiana Salt Basin in this study using a petroleum system approach compares favorably with the total volume of hydrocarbons generated published by Zimmermann (1999). In this study, the estimate is 2,870 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the method of Schmoker (1994), and the estimate is 2,640 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated using the Platte River software application. The estimate of Zimmermann (1999) is 2,000 to 2,500 billion barrels of total hydrocarbons generated. The estimate of gas generated for this basin is 6,400 TCF using the Platte River software application, and 12,800 TCF using the method of Schmoker (1994). Barnaby (2006) estimated that the total gas volume generated for this basin ranges from 4,000 to 8,000 TCF. Seventy

  14. Partitioning of Pb, Cd, and Cu in natural and disturbed salt marshes of eastern San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Alai, M.; Fegan, N. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Sediment from different marsh systems along eastern San Francisco Bay was analyzed to determine how metals are partitioned in different environments influenced by human activity. Human influences in the marshes may have altered the geochemical processes controlling the metal partitioning. The three marsh systems analyzed include a natural marsh (San Francisco Wildlife Refuge), a natural marsh influenced by landfill leachate (Triangle Marsh), and a disturbed marsh constructed of artificial fill (Hayward Landing). The trace metal concentrations were compared in: easily exchangeable, weakly acid soluble, reducible, and oxidizable fractions representing the sediment phases of: clays, carbonates, Mn or Fe oxyhydroxides, and sulfides or organic material, respectively. The sediment fractions were analyzed for Pb, Cd, and Cu. In all three marshes, the pattern of metal partitioning with depth is similar; however, there are some inconsistencies. The Pb, Cd, and Cu in the reducible fraction typically decrease with depth while the metals in the oxidizable fraction generally increase or remain approximately constant with depth. This data suggests that the partitioning of metals in all three environments is initially controlled by sorption of metals onto Mn or Fe oxyhydroxides at the surface and shifts to organic or sulfides as the sediments is buried and the environment becomes more reducing.

  15. Electrochemical analysis of lithium polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong-Bong

    Lithium batteries consist of lithium anode, polymer electrolyte separator, and the porous, composite cathode. Lithium batteries have been very attractive to the battery industries because lithium metal has an extremely high energy density. The use of lithium metal can cause dendrite formation by uneven electro-deposition during charge. The lithium battery can explode in a liquid electrolyte when it is shorted by the dendrite. It has been reported that the mechanical properties of a polymer electrolyte can retard the dendrite initiation. We have attempted to study the dendrite initiation quantitatively by developing a mathematical model that evaluates the behavior of the interface and by performing dendrite-initiation experiments with the use of cross-linked polymer electrolytes to vary the mechanical properties of the electrolyte. Cross-linking the polymer backbone may decrease the transport properties of the polymer electrolyte. The transport properties are diffusion coefficient, ionic conductivity, and transference number of the electrolyte. When poor transport properties of the polymer electrolyte cause salt depletion at the cathode at low salt concentrations, side reactions and dendrite initiation can be accelerated. In order to study how cross-linking the polymer backbone affects the transport properties, the transport properties are measured experimentally by LBNL method which is based on concentrated solution theory. Porous electrodes are commonly used as the cathode in lithium battery systems. Because the electrochemical reaction occurs at the active particles in the porous, composite cathode during charge and discharge, the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction at the active particles in the cathode affects the battery performance. AC impedance has been broadly used to study the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction in the cathode. However, the AC impedance spectra have been analyzed by regarding the porous cathode as a planar electrode by most

  16. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  17. Large natural pH, CO2 and O2 fluctuations in a temperate tidal salt marsh on diel, seasonal, and interannual time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Hannes; Wallace, Ryan; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine organisms experience dynamic pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in their natural habitats, which may impact their susceptibility to long-term anthropogenic changes. Robust characterizations of all temporal scales of natural pH and DO fluctuations in different marine habitats are needed; however, appropriate time series of pH and DO are still scarce. We used multiyear (2008–2012), high-frequency (6 min) monitoring data to quantify diel, seasonal, and interannual scales of pH and DO variability in a productive, temperate tidal salt marsh (Flax Pond, Long Island, US). pHNBS and DO showed strong and similar seasonal patterns, with average (minimum) conditions declining from 8.2 (8.1) and 12.5 (11.4) mg l−1 at the end of winter to 7.6 (7.2) and 6.3 (2.8) mg l−1 in late summer, respectively. Concomitantly, average diel fluctuations increased from 0.22 and 2.2 mg l−1 (February) to 0.74 and 6.5 mg l−1 (August), respectively. Diel patterns were modulated by tides and time of day, eliciting the most extreme minima when low tides aligned with the end of the night. Simultaneous in situ pCO2 measurements showed striking fluctuations between ∼330 and ∼1,200 (early May), ∼2,200 (mid June), and ∼4,000 μatm (end of July) within single tidal cycles. These patterns also indicate that the marsh’s strong net heterotrophy influences its adjacent estuary by ‘outwelling’ acidified and hypoxic water during ebb tides. Our analyses emphasize the coupled and fluctuating nature of pH and DO conditions in productive coastal and estuarine environments, which have yet to be adequately represented by experiments.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugmann, Sandra; Moosbauer, Dominik; Amereller, Marius; Schreiner, Christian; Wudy, Franz; Schmitz, René; Schmitz, Raphael; Isken, Philipp; Dippel, Christian; Müller, Romek; Kunze, Miriam; Lex-Balducci, Alexandra; Winter, Martin; Gores, Heiner Jakob

    The salt lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) showed some promising results for lithium-ion-cells. It was synthesized via a new synthetic route that avoids chloride impurities. Here we report the properties of its solutions (solvent blend ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3:7, mass ratio), including its conductivity, cationic transference number, hydrolysis, Al-current collector corrosion-protection ability and its cycling performance with some electrode materials. Some Al-corrosion studies were also performed with the help of our recently developed computer controlled impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) that proofed to be a useful tool for battery material investigations.

  19. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  20. A diverse group of halophilic bacteria exist in Lunsu, a natural salt water body of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sonika; Sharma, Parul; Dev, Kamal; Srivastava, Malay; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Five halophilic bacterial isolates namely SS1, SS2, SS3, SS5 and SS8 were isolated from soil sediments of Lunsu, a salty water body. All the bacterial isolates showed growth in LB medium containing up to 8.7% NaCl, pH 7-8 and at temperature range of 30-37°C. The bacterial isolates SS1 and SS3 require at least 3.8% NaCl for their growth, indicating their strict halophilic nature. Interestingly, bacterial isolates SS2, SS5 and SS8 but not SS1 and SS3 exhibited growth in medium supplemented with KCl. Accordingly, Na(+) and K(+) ions were detected at 1.39 and 0.0035%, respectively in Lunsu water. All the bacterial isolates were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using four different random primers and produced PCR fragments ranging from 0.1 to 5 kb in size. Phylogenetic tree based on RAPD finger prints showed that SS1 and SS3 formed one group, while SS2 and SS5 formed the second group, whereas SS8 was out group. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA identified SS1 and SS3 as Halobacillus trueperi, SS2 as Shewanella algae, SS5 as Halomonas venusta, and SS8 as Marinomonas sp. were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KM260166, KF751761, KF751760, KF751762 and KF751763, respectively. This is the first report on the presence of diverse halophilic bacteria in the foot hills of Himalayas.

  1. Lithium Cell Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Page 1. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND PARASITIC REACTIONS IN LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS ....... ................. 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION...OF LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS. ................ 56 1.4.1 Carbon Limited Overdischarge...............56 1.4.1.1 Background... LITHIUM THIONYL - CHLORIDE CELLS. .. ............ ...... 101 1.5.1 Background. ....... ............ .... 101 1.5.2 Microphotography

  2. Lithium Cell Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse .,ide if necessary and Identify by block number) Batteries Thionyl Chloride Batteries Lithium ...Batteries Lithium Cells Primary Batteries Thionyl Chloride Cells Non Rechargeable Batteries Electrochemical Reactions 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse...INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND PARASITIC REACTIONS IN LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS .......................................... 1 1.0 IN TRO D UC

  3. Review of lithium effects on brain and blood.

    PubMed

    Young, Wise

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians have long used lithium to treat manic depression. They have also observed that lithium causes granulocytosis and lymphopenia while it enhances immunological activities of monocytes and lymphocytes. In fact, clinicians have long used lithium to treat granulocytopenia resulting from radiation and chemotherapy, to boost immunoglobulins after vaccination, and to enhance natural killer activity. Recent studies revealed a mechanism that ties together these disparate effects of lithium. Lithium acts through multiple pathways to inhibit glycogen synthetase kinase-3beta (GSK3 beta). This enzyme phosphorylates and inhibits nuclear factors that turn on cell growth and protection programs, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and WNT/beta-catenin. In animals, lithium upregulates neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 (NT3), as well as receptors to these growth factors in brain. Lithium also stimulates proliferation of stem cells, including bone marrow and neural stem cells in the subventricular zone, striatum, and forebrain. The stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells may explain why lithium increases brain cell density and volume in patients with bipolar disorders. Lithium also increases brain concentrations of the neuronal markers n-acetyl-aspartate and myoinositol. Lithium also remarkably protects neurons against glutamate, seizures, and apoptosis due to a wide variety of neurotoxins. The effective dose range for lithium is 0.6-1.0 mM in serum and >1.5 mM may be toxic. Serum lithium levels of 1.5-2.0 mM may have mild and reversible toxic effects on kidney, liver, heart, and glands. Serum levels of >2 mM may be associated with neurological symptoms, including cerebellar dysfunction. Prolonged lithium intoxication >2 mM can cause permanent brain damage. Lithium has low mutagenic and carcinogenic risk. Lithium is still the most effective therapy for depression. It "cures" a third

  4. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  5. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  6. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  7. Crystallization of lithium borate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goktas, A. A.; Neilson, G. F.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of lithium borate compositions, in the diborate-to-metaborate-range, were studied. In particular, the nature and sequence of formation of crystalline phases and the tendency toward devitrification were investigated as functions of temperature, thermal history and batch composition. It was found that the sequence of crystalline phase formation was sensitive to all of the three latter factors, and it was observed that under certain conditions metastable defect structures of the metaborate can appear.

  8. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  9. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Toyota, Yoshiyuki; Joshi, Prerna; Puneet, Puhup; Vedarajan, Raman; Takekawa, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide) (LiNTf2), the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN) to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported. PMID:25405738

  10. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  11. Possible use of non-flammable phosphonate ethers as pure electrolyte solvent for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J. K.; Ai, X. P.; Cao, Y. L.; Yang, H. X.

    Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) was selected and tested as a non-flammable solvent for primary and secondary lithium batteries, because of its non-flammability, good solvency of lithium salts and appropriate liquidus properties. Experimental results demonstrated that DMMP can solvate considerable amount of commonly used lithium salts to form non-flammable and Li +-conducting electrolyte, which has very wide electrochemical window (>5 V vs. Li) and excellent electrochemical compatibility with metallic lithium anode and oxide cathodes. Primary Li-MnO 2 cells using DMMP-based electrolyte showed almost the same discharge performances as those using organic carbonate electrolytes, and also, Li-LiMn 2O 4 cells using DMMP electrolyte exhibited greatly improved cycleability and dischargeability, suggesting a feasible application of this new electrolyte for constructing high performance and non-flammable lithium batteries.

  12. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  13. Studies of Absorption in Salt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    Pressed Salt ........................................... 9 2.5.2 Natural Salt ........................................... 14 3.0 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS ...micrographs with sufficient contrast could not be obtained. 2.3 Crack Decoration We found that the most effective method to enhance the grain boundaries and...corrections based on the methods developed by Johnson (1946), Saltikov (1958) and more recently discussed by Underwood (1968). Corrected values for grain

  14. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered.

  15. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  16. Coating protects magnesium-lithium alloys against corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Coating protects newly developed magnesium-lithium alloys against corrosion. The procedure includes heating the ingots in a salt bath and rolling them to the desired sheet thickness. The black coating, which is tough though thin and ductile, is derived mainly from chromium.

  17. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  18. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  19. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    (Great Salt Lake, Searles Lake), geothermal systems (Salton Sea) and oil fields contain lithium, but in low concentrations that add relatively little to estimated global resources. Igneous deposits, which constitute 26% of estimated global resources, consist largely of pegmatites, including past and present producers at Kings Mountain-Bessemer City (USA), Greenbushes (Australia) and Bikita (Zimbabwe), as well as numerous active prospects, especially in Canada and China. Amenability of these deposits to economic extraction is controlled by mineralogy and zoning of lithium, which vary considerably from deposit to deposit. An additional 8% of global lithium resources is estimated to be present in unusual deposits including largely hectorite clays in volcaniclastic rocks at Kings Valley (USA) and jadarite in lacustrine evaporite deposits (Serbia), which present new challenges to both mining and processing. If this highly varied population of deposits can be converted to reserves, lithium supplies for the 21st century EV market are relatively secure.

  20. New lithium borates with bistetrazolato(2-) and pyrazinediolato(2-) ligands - potentially interesting lithium electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Finger, Lars H; Venker, Alexander; Schröder, Fabian G; Sundermeyer, Jörg

    2017-02-28

    We present a convenient synthesis of the first silylated bistetrazole via a catalyzed twin [2 + 3] cycloaddition of TMS-azide at cyanogen and its application to access bistetrazolatoborates, structurally characterized by a unique unsaturated ten-membered B2N4C4 heterocyclic system. Furthermore, new borate anions with two pyrazine-2,3-diolato ligands were synthesized from tetrafluoroborate salts and structurally characterized. Their organic cation can be exchanged for Li(+)via cation exchange. The conceptual relation of these new salts to lithium ion battery bisoxalalatoborate additive LiBOB, a prominent solid electrolyte interface (SEI) generator, is discussed.

  1. Surface stabilized electrodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2015-09-08

    A stabilized electrode comprising a metal oxide or lithium-metal-oxide electrode material is formed by contacting a surface of the electrode material, prior to cell assembly, with an aqueous or a non-aqueous acid solution having a pH greater than 4 but less than 7 and containing a stabilizing salt, to etch the surface of the electrode material and introduce stabilizing anions and cations from the salt into said surface. The structure of the bulk of the electrode material remains unchanged during the acid treatment. The stabilizing salt comprises fluoride and at least one cationic material selected from the group consisting of ammonium, phosphorus, titanium, silicon, zirconium, aluminum, and boron.

  2. Hot filament technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Perry, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Molten salts, such as lithium fluoride, are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage in solar dynamic space power systems because of their high latent heat of fusion. However, these same salts have poor thermal conductivities which inhibit the transfer of heat into the solid phase and out of the liquid phase. One concept for improving the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storage system is to add a conductive filler material to the molten salt. High thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite fibers are being considered for this application. Although there is some information available on the thermal conductivity of lithium fluoride solid, there is very little information on lithium fluoride liquid, and no information on molten salt graphite fiber composites. This paper describes a hot filament technique for determining the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The hot filament technique was used to find the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride at 930 C, and the thermal conductivity values ranged from 1.2 to 1.6 W/mK. These values are comparable to the slightly larger value of 5.0 W/mK for lithium fluoride solid. In addition, two molten salt graphite fiber composites were characterized with the hot filament technique and these results are also presented.

  3. Veins in Paleo-reservoir as a Natural Indication of Coupled Changes in Pore Pressure and Stress, Salt Wash Graben of SE Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, S.; Edwards, P.; Kim, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofracturing associated with elevated fluid pressure coupled with changes in stress has been crucial in enhancing the production and recovery of hydrocarbons. Furthermore, it is also an important issue to access the efficiency and stability of long-term CO2 geologic storage reservoirs. Veins are mineral-filled extension fractures developed along the plane of σ1-σ2 and perpendicular to σ3, and the fluid pressure must exceed σ3applied to the plane when the vein opens. Therefore, vein is a well-known natural analogue for fluid migration in a paleo-reservoir. In the Salt Wash Graben of SE Utah, CO2-charged vein systems hosted in the bleached Entrada Formation are well developed and examined to understand the conditions of fluid pressure and stress during the injections of CO2-charged fluid. Based on color and relative cross-cutting relationship in the field, veins are subdivided into two sets; sub-vertical black mineral-rich veins and orthogonal calcite veins that have previously been described as 'grid-lock fractures'. The vein distribution and fluid leakage along through-going fractures in mechanic units allow us to determine the stress regime and driving stress condition through 3D-Mohr circle reconstruction. The results of this statistical analysis for the veins show that the orthogonal veins indicate a 'stress transition' with maximum principal stress direction changing from vertical to NNW-SSE sub-horizontal which coincides with the current regional stress regime. The possible causes of the stress transition can be considered. The process of repeated sealing, reactivation and localization of veins within the bleached zone is a natural indication of a coupled change in pore pressure and stress in the reservoir. Thus, an understanding of the effect of stress changes due to the volumetric injection of CO2 in the subsurface as well as a knowledge of how pre-existing fractures affect fluid flow with respect to elevated pore pressures in layered rocks are

  4. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium if you have heart disease. Fluid retention (edema): Avoid using phosphate salts that contain sodium if ... heart failure, or other conditions that can cause edema. High levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia): ...

  5. Bath Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic attacks depression suicidal thoughts paranoia delusions and hallucinations distorted sense of reality decreased ability to think ... of bath salts may cause people to have hallucinations, hear voices, feel paranoid, and develop a psychosis ...

  6. Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 Microspheres by Salt-Assisted Spray Drying for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ruan, Dianbo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Microsized, spherical, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based composites as electrode materials exhibit improved tap density and electrochemical properties. In this study, we report 3D LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4/reduced graphene oxide microspheres synthesized by one-step salt-assisted spray drying using a mixed solution containing a precursor salt and graphene oxide and a subsequent heat treatment. During this process, it was found that the type of metal salt used has significant effects on the morphology, phase purity, and electrochemical properties of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, the amount of the chelating agent used also affects the phase purity and electrochemical properties of the samples. The composite exhibited a high tap density (1.1 g cm−3) as well as a gravimetric capacity of 161 mA h g−1 and volumetric capacity of 281 mA h cm−3 at 0.05 C-rate. It also exhibited excellent rate capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g−1 at 60 C-rate. Furthermore, the microspheres exhibited high energy efficiency and good cyclability, showing a capacity retention rate of 93% after 1000 cycles at 10 C-rate. PMID:27220812

  7. Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 Microspheres by Salt-Assisted Spray Drying for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ruan, Dianbo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-05-01

    Microsized, spherical, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based composites as electrode materials exhibit improved tap density and electrochemical properties. In this study, we report 3D LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4/reduced graphene oxide microspheres synthesized by one-step salt-assisted spray drying using a mixed solution containing a precursor salt and graphene oxide and a subsequent heat treatment. During this process, it was found that the type of metal salt used has significant effects on the morphology, phase purity, and electrochemical properties of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, the amount of the chelating agent used also affects the phase purity and electrochemical properties of the samples. The composite exhibited a high tap density (1.1 g cm‑3) as well as a gravimetric capacity of 161 mA h g‑1 and volumetric capacity of 281 mA h cm‑3 at 0.05 C-rate. It also exhibited excellent rate capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g‑1 at 60 C-rate. Furthermore, the microspheres exhibited high energy efficiency and good cyclability, showing a capacity retention rate of 93% after 1000 cycles at 10 C-rate.

  8. Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4 Microspheres by Salt-Assisted Spray Drying for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Ruan, Dianbo; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Sang Hyun; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-05-25

    Microsized, spherical, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based composites as electrode materials exhibit improved tap density and electrochemical properties. In this study, we report 3D LiMn0.75Fe0.25PO4/reduced graphene oxide microspheres synthesized by one-step salt-assisted spray drying using a mixed solution containing a precursor salt and graphene oxide and a subsequent heat treatment. During this process, it was found that the type of metal salt used has significant effects on the morphology, phase purity, and electrochemical properties of the synthesized samples. Furthermore, the amount of the chelating agent used also affects the phase purity and electrochemical properties of the samples. The composite exhibited a high tap density (1.1 g cm(-3)) as well as a gravimetric capacity of 161 mA h g(-1) and volumetric capacity of 281 mA h cm(-3) at 0.05 C-rate. It also exhibited excellent rate capability, delivering a discharge capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 60 C-rate. Furthermore, the microspheres exhibited high energy efficiency and good cyclability, showing a capacity retention rate of 93% after 1000 cycles at 10 C-rate.

  9. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    PubMed

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries.

  10. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  11. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  12. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  13. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  14. Lithium and hematopoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R. D.; Galbraith, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Some of lithium's effects on blood cell formation suggest that the element may be of value in treating hematologic disorders. Lithium enhances granulopoiesis and thereby induces neutrophilia. Two possible mechanisms of action are suggested: a direct action on the pluripotent stem cells, or an inhibition of the suppressor cells (thymus-dependent lymphocytes) that limit hematopoiesis. Lithium also inhibits erythropoiesis. Although most studies use concentrations at or above pharmacologic levels there is evidence that lithium plays a role in normal cell metabolism. PMID:6336655

  15. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.

    PubMed

    Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

    2009-05-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known.

  16. [Parkinsonism during lithium use].

    PubMed

    Walrave, T R W M; Bulens, C

    2009-01-01

    Two patients with bipolar disorder had been treated for years with lithium without any complications but began to develop symptoms of rigidity and an altered gait, namely symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of Parkinsonism with an action tremor. In both patients lithium levels were within the therapeutic range. Medication-induced Parkinsonism occurs frequently in patients using antipsychotic medication, but is a rare complication in patients receiving long term treatment with lithium. The lithium dosage was reduced gradually and within a few months all neurological symptoms subsided completely.

  17. Effect of impurities and moisture on lithium bisoxalatoborate (LiBOB) electrolyte performance in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Furczon, M. M.; Xiao, A.; Lucht, B. L.; Zhang, Z.; Abraham, D. P.

    Electrolytes containing LiB(C 2O 4) 2 (LiBOB) salts are of increasing interest for lithium-ion cells for several reasons that include their ability to form a stable solid electrolyte interphase on graphite electrodes. However, cells containing these electrolytes often show inconsistent performance because of impurities in the LiBOB salt. In this work we compare cycling and impedance data from cells containing electrolytes with LiBOB that was obtained commercially and LiBOB purified by a rigorous recrystallization procedure. We relate the difference in performance to a lithium oxalate impurity that may be a residual from the salt manufacturing process. We also examine the reaction of LiBOB with water to determine the effect of salt storage in high-humidity environments. Although LiBOB electrolytes containing trace amounts (∼100 ppm) of moisture appear relatively stable, higher moisture contents (∼1 wt%) lead to observable salt decomposition resulting in the generation of B(C 2O 4)(OH) and LiB(C 2O 4)(OH) 2 compounds that do not dissolve in typical carbonate solutions and impair lithium-ion cell performance.

  18. Influence of Phosphatidylcholine and Calcium on Self-Association and Bile Salt Mixed Micellar Binding of the Natural Bile Pigment, Bilirubin Ditaurate.

    PubMed

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-11-17

    Recently [Neubrand, M. W., et al. (2015) Biochemistry 54, 1542-1557], we determined a concentration-dependent monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium in aqueous bilirubin ditaurate (BDT) solutions and explored the nature of high-affinity binding of BDT monomers with monomers and micelles of the common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). We now investigate, employing complementary physicochemical methods, including fluorescence emission spectrophotometry and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the influence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the predominant phospholipid of bile and calcium, the major divalent biliary cation, on these self-interactions and heterointeractions. We have used short-chain, lyso and long-chain PC species as models and contrasted our results with those of parallel studies employing unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as the fully charged dianion. Both bile pigments interacted with the zwitterionic headgroup of short-chain lecithins, forming water-soluble (BDT) and insoluble ion-pair complexes (UCB), respectively. Upon micelle formation, BDT monomers apparently remained at the headgroup mantle of short-chain PCs, but the ion pairs with UCB became internalized within the micelle's hydrophobic core. BDT interacted with the headgroups of unilamellar egg yolk (EY) PC vesicles; however, with the simultaneous addition of CaCl2, a reversible aggregation took place, but not vesicle fusion. With mixed EYPC/BS micelles, BDT became bound to the hydrophilic surface (as with simple BS micelles), and in turn, both BDT and BS bound calcium, but not other divalent cations. The calcium complexation of BDT and BS was enhanced strongly with increases in micellar EYPC, suggesting calcium-mediated cross-bridging of hydrophilic headgroups at the micelle's surface. Therefore, the physicochemical binding of BDT to BS in an artificial bile medium is influenced not only by BS species and concentration but also by long-chain PCs and calcium ions that exert a specific rather

  19. Natural protein engineering: a uniquely salt-tolerant, but not halophilic, alpha-type carbonic anhydrase from algae proliferating in low- to hyper-saline environments.

    PubMed

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Gokhman, Irena; Savchenko, Tatyana; Sussman, Joel L; Zamir, Ada

    2004-02-01

    Dunaliella salina is a unicellular green alga thriving in environments ranging from fresh water to hyper-saline lakes, such as the Dead Sea. An unusual, internally duplicated, 60 kDa alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (dCA I), located on the surface of this alga, is expected to function over a broad range of salinities. It would therefore differ from other carbonic anhydrases that already lose activity at low salinities and also from halophilic proteins that require high salinities for conformational stability. Enzymatic analyses indeed indicated that dCA I retained activity at salt concentrations ranging from low salt to at least 1.5 M NaCl or KCl for CO(2) hydration, 2.0 M NaCl for esterase activity and 0.5 M for bicarbonate dehydration. Although measurements at higher salinities were constrained by the interference of salt in the respective assayed reactions, activity was noticeable even at 4.0 M NaCl. Comparisons of the internally duplicated dCA I to single-domain derivatives indicated that inter-domain interactions played a decisive role in the stability, activity, salt tolerance and pH responses of dCA I. Hence dCA I is a uniquely salt- tolerant protein, retaining an active conformation over a large range of salinities and, as a Zn metalloenzyme, largely immune to the specific inhibitory effects of anions. Its unique features make dCA I a useful model to understand the physico-chemical basis of halotolerance and protein-salt interactions in general.

  20. Phosphate-stabilized Lithium intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2002-07-22

    Four manganese and iron phosphates with alluaudite or fillowite structures have been prepared by solid state reactions: Na2FeMn2(PO4)3, LiNaFeMn2(PO4)3, NaFe3(PO4)3, and Na2Mn3(PO4)3. LixNa2-xFeMn2(PO4)3 with x close to 2 was prepared from Na2FeMn2(PO4)3 by molten salt ion exchange. These materials are similar in stoichiometry to the phospho-olivines LiFe(Mn)PO4, but have a more complex structure that can accommodate mixed transition metal oxidation states. They are of interest as candidates for lithium battery cathodes because of their somewhat higher electronic conductivity, high intercalant ion mobility, and ease of preparation. Their performance as intercalation electrodes in non-aqueous lithium cells was, however, poor.

  1. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-04-26

    The principal research effort for the first half of Year 3 of the project has been resource assessment. Emphasis has been on estimating the total volume of hydrocarbons generated and the potential amount of this resource that is classified as deep (>15,000 ft) gas in the North Louisiana Salt Basin, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Manila Subbasin and the Conecuh Subbasin. The amount of this resource that has been expelled, migrated and entrapped is also the focus of the first half of Year 3 of this study.

  2. Trimethylene oxide containing polymers for lithium polymer battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, Craig Loren

    2007-12-01

    Lithium polymer batteries are attractive energy sources for powering electric vehicles, satellites, and consumer electronic items, among others. Batteries using binary salt solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are attractive because of their low cost and safety of operation. For room temperature applications, however, existing SPEs suffer from poor cation transport and failure from dendritic growths on the lithium electrode surface. With the aim to improve the properties of existing SPEs, polymer cation-solvating groups were altered from established ethylene oxide (EO) structures to trimethylene oxide (TMO). Poly(trimethylene oxide) (PTMO), used as a model system, was synthesized along with comb copolymers containing EO or TMO side-groups terminated by methyl or allyl functionalities, whose backbones were derived from oxirane or oxetane functionalities. Electrolytes consisting of PTMO and dissolved lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium bis(pentafluoroethanesulfonyl)imide (LiBETI) salts were evaluated by electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical methods to determine their applicability to SPEs. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) were measured by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. Ionic conductivities (kappa) and exchange current densities (i0) were determined by AC impedance spectroscopy. Salt diffusion coefficients (Ds) were determined by restricted diffusion measurements and cationic transference numbers ( t0+ ) were measured by a method based on concentrated solution theory. Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to measure mechanical properties of electrolyte films, such as the viscoelastic moduli. Values of Tg, kappa, Ds, t0+ , and i0 were measured for PTMO LiTFSI and PTMO LiBETI electrolytes from salt concentrations of 0.1 to 2.5 mols/L. The salt anion plays an important role in lithium transport, as evidenced by the difference in the values obtained for LiTFSI and LiBETI. When compared to EO

  3. LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed. PMID:21927211

  4. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  5. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  6. Lithium: a versatile tool for understanding renal physiology

    PubMed Central

    Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationships of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to 1) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; 2) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and 3) highlighting the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Lithium-induced remodeling of the collecting duct has the potential to shed new light on collecting duct remodeling in disease conditions, such as diabetes insipidus. The finding that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) has opened an avenue for studies on the role of GSK3β in urinary concentration, and GSK isoforms in renal development. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic profiling of the kidney and urine in rats treated with lithium is providing insights into how the kidney adapts its metabolism in conditions such as acquired NDI and the multifactorial nature of lithium-induced NDI. This review provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lithium as a versatile tool for understanding the molecular physiology of the kidney, and a comprehensive view of how this tool is challenging some of our long-standing concepts in renal physiology, often with paradigm shifts, and presenting paradoxical situations in renal pathophysiology. In addition, this review points to future directions in research where lithium can lead the renal community. PMID:23408166

  7. High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and lithium (Mg/Li) hybrid batteries that combine Mg and Li electrochemistry, consisting of a Mg anode, a lithium-intercalation cathode and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions, were constructed and examined in this work. Our results show that hybrid (Mg/Li) batteries were able to combine the advantages of Li-ion and Mg batteries, and delivered outstanding rate performance (83% for capacities at 15C and 0.1C) and superior cyclic stability (~5% fade after 3000 cycles).

  8. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  9. Development and utility of manganese oxides as cathodes in lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher S.

    Manganese oxides have a long history of serving as a cathode in charge storage applications. Electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is widely used in alkaline batteries and MnO 2 originally was part of the Leclanché wet cell patented in 1866. Leclanché wet cells used a naturally occurring MnO 2 ore with Zn metal as anode and ammonium chloride electrolyte. While there are a vast number of topics to discuss on manganese oxides, in this short paper, two topics researched at Argonne over the last 12 years are highlighted. First, the addition of lithia (Li 2O) as a stabilizing component in 3 V alpha-MnO 2 is examined. Second, an overview of the evolution of layered-layered composite-structured electrodes derived from the lithium-manganese oxide (Li 2MnO 3) layered rock-salt phase is presented.

  10. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  11. Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Solid Electrolyte Membrane and Lithium Polysulfide Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingwen; Bi, Zhonghe; Zhao, Feng; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-08-05

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are receiving great attention as the most promising next-generation power source with significantly high charge-storage capacity. However, the implementation of Li-S batteries is hampered by a critical challenge because of the soluble nature of the intermediate polysulfide species in the liquid electrolyte. The use of traditional porous separators unavoidably allows the migration of the dissolved polysulfide species from the cathode to the lithium-metal anode and results in continuous loss of capacity. In this study, a LiSICON (lithium super ionic conductor) solid membrane is used as a cation-selective electrolyte for lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries to suppress the polysulfide diffusion. Ionic conductivity issue at the lithium metal/solid electrolyte interface is successfully addressed by insertion of a "soft", liquid-electrolyte integrated polypropylene interlayer. The solid LiSICON lithium-ion conductor maintains stable ionic conductivity during the electrochemical cycling of the cells. The Li-PS battery system with a hybrid solid/liquid electrolyte exhibits significantly enhanced cyclability relative to the cells with the traditional liquid-electrolyte integrated porous separator.

  12. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  13. Synthesis of lithium cobaltate in halide melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modenov, D. V.; Dokutovich, V. N.; Khokhlov, V. A.; Antonov, B. D.; Kochedykov, V. A.; Zakir'yanova, I. D.

    2013-02-01

    A new method for the synthesis of lithium cobaltate LiCoo2 in salt melts is proposed and tested. The method is based on the oxidation of halide ions with molecular oxygen in Li X-CoCl2 mixtures ( X = Cl, Br, I). The chemical and phase compositions of the prepared powders and the crystal structure of the synthesized compound are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The average size of LiCoO2 crystallites is estimated from the X-ray diffraction data.

  14. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R.; Lu, Wenquan

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  15. Is violence in part a lithium deficiency state?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Mark R; Mascitelli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Violence, particularly firearm violence, leading to suicide and homicide is a significant problem worldwide. A majority of suicidal and homicidal violence involves males; homicidal violence is prevalent among young men and suicide is the leading cause of violence worldwide. Lithium, in pharmacological doses, has been used successfully for decades in treating bipolar disorders, and has been shown to decrease violent crime in this situation. Interestingly, lithium, in trace amounts, as occurs in some drinking water, has been inversely related to aggression, and suicidal and homicidal violence. Lithium is naturally found in vegetables, grains and drinking water, and dietary intake varies from nearly zero to 3mg daily. Elemental lithium, in trace doses, has been shown to improve mood in weeks. Moreover, lithium, in trace amounts, has no toxicity. In order to ensure adequate dietary intakes of elemental lithium daily for the purpose of decreasing aggression and violence, we propose considering the fortification of cereal grain products with lithium and also the addition of lithium to vitamin preparations for adults. Importantly, randomized trials in various populations are needed to test this hypothesis.

  16. Lithium and cognition in those with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Amelia; Parker, Gordon

    2017-03-01

    Although a percentage of patients report cognitive side-effects when taking lithium, it can be difficult to determine from the literature whether any cognitive changes reflect lithium itself, the lithium serum level, residual mood symptoms, the underlying nature of bipolar disorder, or biological alterations such as hypothyroidism. This review was carried out to synthesize and evaluate relevant literature examining any cognitive impact of lithium in those with bipolar disorder. The effect of lithium in those with bipolar disorder was examined across the cognitive domains of attention, psychomotor speed, processing speed, working memory, intellectual functioning, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning by reviewing the published empirical literature. Any impact of hypothyroidism and lithium toxicity was also examined. The literature supports the conclusion that lithium has a distinct impact on psychomotor speed in participants with bipolar disorder. In contrast, there appears to be no impact on attention. Any impact of lithium on memory in patients with bipolar disorder is unclear as the literature is contradictory and any such effect may be overshadowed by the greater impact of residual mood symptoms. The impact on processing speed, intellectual abilities, and executive functioning also remains unclear. Several clinical management strategies are recommended.

  17. Perchlorate (ClO4) and Perchlorate Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Perchlorate ( ClO4 - ) and Perchlorate Salts CASRN 7790 - 98 - 9 Ammonium perchlorate CASRN 7791 - 03 - 9 Lithium perchlorate CASRN 7778 - 74 - 7 Potassium perchlorate CASRN 7601 - 89 - 0 Sodium perchlorate This U.S . EPA IRIS Summary is based on the U.S . Government - sponsored technical review of

  18. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  19. UV cross-linked, lithium-conducting ternary polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. T.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Carewska, M.; Joost, M.; Balducci, A.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.

    In this manuscript is reported an attempt to prepare high ionic conductivity lithium polymer electrolytes by UV cross-linking the poly(ethyleneoxide) (briefly called PEO) polymer matrix in presence of the plasticizing lithium salt, lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and an ionic liquid of the pyrrolidinium family (N-alkyl- N-methylpyrrolidinium TFSI) having a common anion with the lithium salt. It is demonstrated that polymer electrolytes with room temperature ionic conductivities of nearly 10 -3 S cm -1 could be obtained as a result of the reduced crystallinity of the ternary electrolytes. The results clearly indicate that the cross-linked ternary electrolyte shows superior mechanical properties with respect to the non-cross-linked electrolytes and higher conductivities with respect to polymer electrolytes containing none or less ionic liquid.

  20. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  1. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  2. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  3. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  4. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  5. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  6. 21 CFR 172.660 - Salts of furcelleran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of furcelleran. 172.660 Section 172.660 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.660 Salts of furcelleran. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  7. 21 CFR 172.626 - Salts of carrageenan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of carrageenan. 172.626 Section 172.626 Food... Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances § 172.626 Salts of carrageenan. The food additive salts... the concentration of one of the naturally occurring salts (ammonium, calcium, potassium, or sodium)...

  8. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  9. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  10. The influence of the amorphous polymer on conductivity, morphologies and thermal properties of polyether-based blends with addition of inorganic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. H.; Sim, L. H.; Kammer, H. W.; Tan, W.

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic control of the dispersion of lithium (Li) salt in different phases of semicrystalline/amorphous polymer blends is elucidated in this study. Solid polymer electrolytes of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), random copolymer of poly(acrylate) (PAc) and as well as polymer blends of PEO with ENR and PAc doped with various concentrations of Li salt were studied. The salt concentrations (CLi) of solid polymer electrolytes vary between CLi = 0.02 and 0.15. The influence of the ENR or PAc on the properties of PEO after addition of Li salt is discussed. Blends of PEO/ENR and PEO/PAc are immiscible by elucidation of the glass transition temperature (Tg) as well as the morphological analyses. PEO, ENR and PAc possess oxygen in their respective chemical structures, which may be able to coordinate with the Li salt added. Non uniformity of Li salt concentration in different phases of the blends is highlighted for both systems. The conductivity of PEO/ENR and PEO/PAc blends doped with Li salt is primarily governed by PEO. The results for Tg suggest that higher solubility of Li salt in PEO as compared to ENR in the former case and restricted ion transport in the glassy PAc (with Tg≈30°C after addition of Li salt in the latter system. These may be the attributing factors for the enhancement of conductivity of the doped-PEO/ENR blends as compared to that of the doped-PEO/PAc blends. This suggests that PEO exhibits greater extent of complexation with LiClO4 as compared to that of the ENR and PAc as supported by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) studies.

  11. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    lithium vapors generated with air formed an intense white flame that produced branched- chain condensation aerosol particles, of concentrations 򓆄 mg/im3...generated chain -aggregate lithium combustion aerosols in dry, COg-free air prior to reaction with 0, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 1.75, or 5.0% CO in air at a...In order to burn in gaseous chlorine or in bromine or iodine vapor, lithium needs to be heated. With iodine vapor, the reaction is accompanied by

  12. Sealed Lithium Inorganic Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    MuWrn , 1,ad iw..am m4 IdM.D to We"L406W) Inorganic Electrolyte lattery Carbon Cathode Evaluation Thionyl Chloride Gas Generation Lithium C ell sign...hardware surface to carry the reductIon of thionyl chloride when in contact with lithium (self discharge) and the corro,’ion of hardware materials... Lithium - Aluminum Chloride 10) AOSTSAC? (Cmawl/e o ade H .m.eewr W MWO, AV 600 nwe w) Stdies were continued of the effects of hardware materials on the

  13. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  14. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  15. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  16. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  17. Conductivity through Polymer Electrolytes and Its Implications in Lithium-Ion Batteries: Real-World Application of Periodic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Owen C.; Egan, Martin; Kanakaraj, Rupa; Higgins, Thomas B.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2012-01-01

    Periodic conductivity trends are placed in the scope of lithium-ion batteries, where increases in the ionic radii of salt components affect the conductivity of a poly(ethyleneoxide)-based polymer electrolyte. Numerous electrolytes containing varying concentrations and types of metal salts are prepared and evaluated in either one or two laboratory…

  18. A stable graphite negative electrode for the lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Jeschull, Fabian; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina; Lacey, Matthew J

    2015-12-14

    Efficient, reversible lithium intercalation into graphite in ether-based electrolytes is enabled through a protective electrode binder, polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PAA-Na). In turn, this enables the creation of a stable "lithium-ion-sulfur" cell, using a lithiated graphite negative electrode with a sulfur positive electrode, using the common DME:DOL solvent system suited to the electrochemistry of the lithium-sulfur battery. Graphite-sulfur lithium-ion cells show average coulombic efficiencies of ∼99.5%, compared with <95% for lithium-sulfur cells, and significantly better capacity retention, taking into account cell balancing considerations. The high efficiency derives from the considerably better interfacial stability of the graphite electrode, which suppresses the polysulfide redox shuttle and self-discharge.

  19. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  20. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D; Hammel, C J

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  1. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C. J.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EV's). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  2. Geospatial examination of lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lithium as a substance occurring naturally in food and drinking water may exert positive effects on mental health. In therapeutic doses, which are more than 100 times higher than natural daily intakes, lithium has been proven to be a mood-stabilizer and suicide preventive. This study examined whether natural lithium content in drinking water is regionally associated with lower suicide rates. Methods Previous statistical approaches were challenged by global and local spatial regression models taking spatial autocorrelation as well as non-stationarity into account. A Geographically Weighted Regression model was applied with significant independent variables as indicated by a spatial autoregressive model. Results The association between lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality can be confirmed by the global spatial regression model. In addition, the local spatial regression model showed that the association was mainly driven by the eastern parts of Austria. Conclusions According to old anecdotic reports the results of this study support the hypothesis of positive effects of natural lithium intake on mental health. Both, the new methodological approach and the results relevant for health may open new avenues in the collaboration between Geographic Information Science, medicine, and even criminology, such as exploring the spatial association between violent or impulsive crime and lithium content in drinking water. PMID:22695110

  3. Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen from Seawater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    Experimental: Synthesis of Li+ adsorbents: Lithium adsorbing ion-sieve LiMg0.5Mn1.5O4 was prepared by solid state reaction. 6.1g of Li2CO3 , 8.9g of...E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 01/26/2011 Quarterly Progress Report 10/26/2010-01/25/2011 Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen...of electrolytic process and to develop effective membranes for the diffusion of lithium ion from natural seawater to an extractant. Process variables

  4. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  5. Towards more thermally stable Li-ion battery electrolytes with salts and solvents sharing nitrile functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Manfred; Lim, Du-Hyun; Jeschke, Steffen; Rydholm, Tomas; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Scheers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The overall safety of Li-ion batteries is compromised by the state-of-the-art electrolytes; the thermally unstable lithium salt, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), and flammable carbonate solvent mixtures. The problem is best addressed by new electrolyte compositions with thermally robust salts in low flammability solvents. In this work we introduce electrolytes with either of two lithium nitrile salts, lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) or lithium 4,5-dicyano-2-trifluoromethylimidazolide (LiTDI), in solvent mixtures with high flashpoint adiponitrile (ADN), as the main component. With sulfolane (SL) and ethylene carbonate (EC) as co-solvents the liquid temperature range of the electrolytes are extended to lower temperatures without lowering the flashpoint, but at the expense of high viscosities and moderate ionic conductivities. The anodic stabilities of the electrolytes are sufficient for LiFePO4 cathodes and can be charged/discharged for 20 cycles in Li/LiFePO4 cells with coulombic efficiencies exceeding 99% at best. The excellent thermal stabilities of the electrolytes with the solvent combination ADN:SL are promising for future electrochemical investigations at elevated temperatures (> 60 °C) to compensate the moderate transport properties and rate capability. The electrolytes with EC as a co-solvent, however, release CO2 by decomposition of EC in presence of a lithium salt, which potentially makes EC unsuitable for any application targeting higher operating temperatures.

  6. Lithium and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation, in various neuropsychiatric conditions. In neurodegenerative diseases, lithium enhances degradation of aggregate-prone proteins, including mutated huntingtin, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein, and causes damaged mitochondria to degrade, while in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer’s disease autophagy downregulation by lithium is observed. The signaling pathway of lithium as an autophagy enhancer might be associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent pathway, which is involved in myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. However, the mTOR-dependent pathway might be involved in inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in other diseases. Lithium’s autophagy-enhancing property may contribute to the therapeutic benefit of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24738557

  7. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  8. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  9. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dominica H C; Thelen, Jacob L; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A; Battaglia, Vincent S; Balsara, Nitash P; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-03-04

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity.

  10. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  11. Stabilizing lithium metal using ionic liquids for long-lived batteries

    PubMed Central

    Basile, A.; Bhatt, A. I.; O'Mullane, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Suppressing dendrite formation at lithium metal anodes during cycling is critical for the implementation of future lithium metal-based battery technology. Here we report that it can be achieved via the facile process of immersing the electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes for a period of time before battery assembly. This creates a durable and lithium ion-permeable solid–electrolyte interphase that allows safe charge–discharge cycling of commercially applicable Li|electrolyte|LiFePO4 batteries for 1,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiencies >99.5%. The tailored solid–electrolyte interphase is prepared using a variety of electrolytes based on the N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid containing lithium salts. The formation is both time- and lithium salt-dependant, showing dynamic morphology changes, which when optimized prevent dendrite formation and consumption of electrolyte during cycling. This work illustrates that a simple, effective and industrially applicable lithium metal pretreatment process results in a commercially viable cycle life for a lithium metal battery. PMID:27292652

  12. Stabilizing lithium metal using ionic liquids for long-lived batteries.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Bhatt, A I; O'Mullane, A P

    2016-06-13

    Suppressing dendrite formation at lithium metal anodes during cycling is critical for the implementation of future lithium metal-based battery technology. Here we report that it can be achieved via the facile process of immersing the electrodes in ionic liquid electrolytes for a period of time before battery assembly. This creates a durable and lithium ion-permeable solid-electrolyte interphase that allows safe charge-discharge cycling of commercially applicable Li|electrolyte|LiFePO4 batteries for 1,000 cycles with Coulombic efficiencies >99.5%. The tailored solid-electrolyte interphase is prepared using a variety of electrolytes based on the N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide room temperature ionic liquid containing lithium salts. The formation is both time- and lithium salt-dependant, showing dynamic morphology changes, which when optimized prevent dendrite formation and consumption of electrolyte during cycling. This work illustrates that a simple, effective and industrially applicable lithium metal pretreatment process results in a commercially viable cycle life for a lithium metal battery.

  13. Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile-Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sang D.; Borodin, Oleg; Seo, D. M.; Zhou, Zhi B.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-09-30

    Electrolytes with the salt lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) have been evaluated relative to comparable electrolytes with other lithium salts. Acetonitrile (AN) has been used as a model electrolyte solvent. The information obtained from the thermal phase behavior, solvation/ionic association interactions, quantum chemical (QC) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (with an APPLE&P many-body polarizable force field for the LiFSI salt) of the (AN)n-LiFSI mixtures provides detailed insight into the coordination interactions of the FSI- anions and the wide variability noted in the electrolyte transport property (i.e., viscosity and ionic conductivity).

  14. Determination of discretionary salt intake in an iodine deficient area of East Java-Indonesia using three different methods.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Annasari; Muslimatun, Siti; Untoro, Juliawati; Lan, Maria C P J; Kristianto, Yohanes

    2006-01-01

    As salt is a potential vehicle for delivering iodine to a population, study on salt intake is important. Many methods have been used to measure iodised-salt intake, but the methods were suspected to be inaccurate. A new method, called a lithium-marker technique, has been considered as suitable and safe; hence it has been proposed as a gold standard for measuring the actual salt intake of an individual. We conducted a study to determine discretionary salt intake using the lithium marker technique. The study shows that the total salt intake for children (N = 15) and mothers (N = 15) were 5.4+/-2.1 g/d and 5.8+/-1.7 g/d respectively in which 48.5+/-17.1% and 50.5?17.3% were discretionary salt. The discretionary salt intake measured using lithium marker (2.53 +/- 1.2 g/d for children and 2.99 +/- 1.5 g/d for mother) were significantly lower than using 24-hour salt recall (7.01+/-2.44 g/cap/d) and salt weighing (6.00+/-1.8 g/cap/d) (p<0.001). In conclusion, the discretionary salt intake by 24-hour salt recall and salt weighing were over estimated as compared to the lithium-labelled salt measurement. It is recommended that the level of iodine fortification in salt be increased up to 80-100 ppm of KIO3 to provide iodine intake of 150 microg/d.

  15. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  16. Transient existence of crystalline lithium disulfide Li2S2 in a lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolella, Andrea; Zhu, Wen; Marceau, Hugues; Kim, Chi-su; Feng, Zimin; Liu, Dongqiang; Gagnon, Catherine; Trottier, Julie; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Hovington, Pierre; Vijh, Ashok; Demopoulos, George P.; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Crystalline lithium disulfide (Li2S2) is identified, for the first time, as a transient species in the lithium-sulfur cell, by using an operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The observed XRD pattern precisely matches with the predicted pattern based on the density function theory. The formation of Li2S2 crystals is repetitively found in the highly concentrated (7 M Li+) electrolyte at high voltage region (>2 V) near the end of the first charge cycle and before the end of the second discharge cycle. These conditions indicate that crystalline Li2S2 exists in the non-equilibrium regime. The formation of crystalline Li2S2 under only the specified conditions suggests that it is not formed as an intermediate discharge product, contrary to what is generally believed, but as a transient species by the disproportionation reaction from higher order polysulfides which is facilitated by the "solvent-in-salt" conditions.

  17. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  18. Evaluation of the Impacts of Marine Salts and Asian Dust on the Forested Yakushima Island Ecosystem, a World Natural Heritage Site in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takanori; Yokoo, Yoriko; Okumura, Masao; Jean, Seo-Ryong; Satake, Kenichi

    2012-11-01

    To elucidate the influence of airborne materials on the ecosystem of Japan's Yakushima Island, we determined the elemental compositions and Sr and Nd isotope ratios in streamwater, soils, vegetation, and rocks. Streamwater had high Na and Cl contents, low Ca and HCO(3) contents, and Na/Cl and Mg/Cl ratios close to those of seawater, but it had low pH (5.4 to 7.1), a higher Ca/Cl ratio than seawater, and distinct (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios that depended on the bedrock type. The proportions of rain-derived cations in streamwater, estimated by assuming that Cl was derived from sea salt aerosols, averaged 81 % for Na, 83 % for Mg, 36 % for K, 32 % for Ca, and 33 % for Sr. The Sr value was comparable to the 28 % estimated by comparing Sr isotope ratios between rain and granite bedrock. The soils are depleted in Ca, Na, P, and Sr compared with the parent materials. At Yotsuse in the northwestern side, plants and the soil pool have (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios similar to that of rainwater with a high sea salt component. In contrast, the Sr and Nd isotope ratios of soil minerals in the A and B horizons approach those of silicate minerals in northern China's loess soils. The soil Ca and P depletion results largely from chemical weathering of plagioclase and of small amounts of apatite and calcite in granitic rocks. This suggests that Yakushima's ecosystem is affected by large amounts of acidic precipitation with a high sea salt component, which leaches Ca and its proxy (Sr) from bedrock into streams, and by Asian dust-derived apatite, which is an important source of P in base cation-depleted soils.

  19. Thermodynamics of salt-doped polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2013-03-01

    There is much current interest in salt-doped polymers as materials for energy applications. For example, a promising system for rechargeable battery applications consists of diblock copolymers of an ion-dissolving block, such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a nonconducting block such as polystyrene. Experimentally, it has been shown that the addition of lithium salts significantly alters the order-order and order-disorder transition (ODT) temperatures. In particular, the ODT temperature can increase substantially upon adding even a small amount of lithium salt, and the domain spacing in the ordered phases also increases significantly. Both changes are found to depend on the anion type. In this talk, I describe a simple theory for explaining these phenomena. A key effect is the solvation energy of the anions by the polymers, which we approximate using the Born solvation model. The difference in the Born energy between different polymers provides a driving force towards phase separation. By studying the shift in the mean-field spinodal of the disordered phase, we can identify an effective χ parameter, with a systematic dependence on the anion radius, in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, by studying the behavior of the domain spacing with salt concentration, we clarify the relationship between different definitions of the effective χ parameter. We propose that the effective χ parameter determined from the structure factor of the disordered phase is a more robust measure of the change in miscibility between the two blocks. Finally, we demonstrate that salt doping induces a strongly first-order transition from the disordered phase to the lamellar phase, with different salt concentrations in the two phases.

  20. Influence of the nature of the alcohol on the principles of the photocatalytic liberation of hydrogen from aqueous-organic solutions of europium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Myakon'kii, A.G.; Rozenkevich, M.B.; Potapova, G.V.

    1988-09-01

    The process of photocatalytic liberation of hydrogen from aqueous alcohol (ROH - CH/sub 3/OH, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/OH, iso-C/sub 3/H/sub 7/OH) solutions of europium salts was investigated. In solutions containing sodium formate as a second organic component, HCOONa and ROH take part in the photoreduction of Eu(III), whereas the main role in the photooxidation of Eu(II) is played by ROH molecules. Such behavior of the system is explained by transfer of an electron in these reactions according to outer- and inner-sphere mechanism, respectively.

  1. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  2. A Car-Parrinello and path integral molecular dynamics study of the intramolecular lithium bond in the lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlak, Piotr; Latajka, Zdzisław; Berski, Sławomir

    2009-07-01

    Lithium bonding in lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate has been investigated using classic Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) and the path integral approach [path integrals molecular dynamics (PIMD)]. The simulations have been performed in 300 K. Structures, energies, and lithium trajectories have been determined. The CPMD results show that the lithium atom is generally equidistant between heavy atoms in the (O⋯Li⋯O) bridge. Applying quantum effects through the PIMD leads to similar conclusion. The theoretical lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate infrared spectrum has also been determined using the CPMD calculations. This shows very good agreement with available experimental results and reproduces well the broad low-frequency band observed experimentally. In order to gain deeper understanding of the nature of the lithium bonding topological analysis of the electron localization function has been applied.

  3. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  4. Energy Storage Materials from Nature through Nanotechnology: A Sustainable Route from Reed Plants to a Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2015-08-10

    Silicon is an attractive anode material in energy storage devices, as it has a ten times higher theoretical capacity than its state-of-art carbonaceous counterpart. However, the common process to synthesize silicon nanostructured electrodes is complex, costly, and energy-intensive. Three-dimensional (3D) porous silicon-based anode materials have been fabricated from natural reed leaves by calcination and magnesiothermic reduction. This sustainable and highly abundant silica source allows for facile production of 3D porous silicon with very good electrochemical performance. The obtained silicon anode retains the 3D hierarchical architecture of the reed leaf. Impurity leaching and gas release during the fabrication process leads to an interconnected porosity and the reductive treatment to an inside carbon coating. Such anodes show a remarkable Li-ion storage performance: even after 4000 cycles and at a rate of 10 C, a specific capacity of 420 mA h g(-1) is achieved.

  5. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  6. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  7. US Navy lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

  8. Lithium Abundance Of The Solar-Type Superflare Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Satoshi; Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2016-07-01

    We performed the high dispersion spectroscopy of solar-type superflare stars by Subaru/HDS, and estimate the stellar parameters and lithium abundance of the stars to compare with the Sun. Our spectroscopic analysis of superflare stars show more than half of targets have no evidence of binary system and the stellar parameters are in the range of solar-type stars (Notsu et al. 2015a&b). We also investigate the correlations of Lithium abundance with stellar atmospheric parameters, rotational velocity, and superflare activities to understand the nature of superflare stars and the possibility of the nucleosynthesis of lithium by superflares. The derived lithium abundance in superflare stars do not show the correlation with stellar parameters. As compared with the lithium abundance in Hyades cluster which is younger than the sun, it is suggested that half of observed stars are young. However, there are some objects which show the low lithium and slowly rotate from the estimated v sin(i) and period of brightness variation. These results indicate that the superflare stars are not only young stars but also old stars like our sun. In our observations, we could not find the any evidence of lithium productions by superflare.

  9. Natural abundance 17O, 6Li NMR and molecular modeling studies of the solvation structures of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Chuan; Hu, Mary Y.; Borodin, Oleg; Qian, Jiangfeng; Qin, Zhaohai; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Natural abundance 17O and 6Li NMR experiments, quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics studies were employed to investigate the solvation structures of Li+ at various concentrations of LiFSI in DME electrolytes in an effort to solve this puzzle. It was found that the chemical shifts of both 17O and 6Li changed with the concentration of LiFSI, indicating the changes of solvation structures with concentration. For the quantum chemistry calculations, the coordinated cluster LiFSI(DME)2 forms at first, and its relative ratio increases with increasing LiFSI concentration to 1 M. Then the solvation structure LiFSI(DME) become the dominant component. As a result, the coordination of forming contact ion pairs between Li+ and FSI- ion increases, but the association between Li+ and DME molecule decreases. Furthermore, at LiFSI concentration of 4 M the solvation structures associated with Li+(FSI-)2(DME), Li+2(FSI-)(DME)4 and (LiFSI)2(DME)3 become the dominant components. For the molecular dynamics simulation, with increasing concentration, the association between DME and Li+ decreases, and the coordinated number of FSI- increases, which is in perfect accord with the DFT results. These results provide more insight on the fundamental mechanism on the very high CE of Li deposition in these electrolytes, especially at high current density conditions.

  10. Natural abundance 17O, 6Li NMR and molecular modeling studies of the solvation structures of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/1,2-dimethoxyethane liquid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chuan; Hu, Mary Y.; Borodin, Oleg; Qian, Jiangfeng; Qin, Zhaohai; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Natural abundance 17O and 6Li NMR experiments, quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics studies were employed to investigate the solvation structures of Li+ at various concentrations of LiFSI in DME electrolytes. It was found that the chemical shifts of both 17O and 6Li changed with the concentration of LiFSI, indicating the changes of solvation structures with concentration. For the quantum chemistry calculations, the coordinated cluster LiFSI(DME)2 forms at first, and its relative ratio increases with increasing LiFSI concentration to 1 M. Then the solvation structure LiFSI(DME) become the dominant component. As a result, the coordination of forming contact ion pairs between Li+ and FSI- ion increases, but the association between Li+ and DME molecule decreases. Furthermore, at LiFSI concentration of 4 M the solvation structures associated with Li+(FSI-)2(DME), Li+2(FSI-)(DME)4 and (LiFSI)2(DME)3 become the dominant components. For the molecular dynamics simulation, with increasing concentration, the association between DME and Li+ decreases, and the coordinated number of FSI- increases, which is in perfect accord with the DFT results.

  11. Lithium Inorganic Electrolyte Battery Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    rjp 3.2 PRISMATIC CELLS This subsection presents the results of the investigations conducted on large prismatic lithium thionyl chloride cells, both...91 5.0 PASSIVATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION Passivation in Li/SOC12 cells consists of the surface reaction of lithium directly with thionyl chloride to...produce a film of lithium chloride (LiCI). This film prevents the complete and rapid reaction of lithium and thionyl chloride at moderate temperatures. On

  12. Plasticized Polymer Composite Single-Ion Conductors for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Asfour, Fadi; Fu, Yanbao; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Bai, Ying; Ling, Min; Hu, Heyi; Baker, Gregory; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-02

    Lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonamide (TFSI) is a promising electrolyte salt in lithium batteries, due to its good conductivity and high dissociation between the lithium cation and its anion. By tethering N-pentane trifluoromethane sulfonamide (C5NHTf), a TFSI analogue molecule, onto the surface of silica nanoparticle as a monolayer coverage should increase the Li(+) transference number to unity since anions bound to particles have reduced mobilities. Silica polymer composite has better mechanical property than that of the pure PEO. Analogously trifluoromethane sulfonic aminoethyl methacrylate (TfMA), a TFSI analogue vinyl monomer, was polymerized on silica nanoparticle surface as a multilayer coverage. Anchored polyelectrolytes to particle surfaces offer multiple sites for anions, and in principle the carrier concentration would increase arbitrarily and approach the carrier concentration of the bulk polyelectrolyte. Monolayer grafted nanoparticles have a lithium content of 1.2 × 10(-3) g Li/g, and multilayer grafted nanoparticles have a lithium content over an order higher at 2 × 10(-2) g Li/g. Electrolytes made from monolayer grafted particles exhibit a weak conductivity dependence on temperature, exhibiting an ionic conductivity in the range of 10(-6) S/cm when temperatures increase to 80 °C. While electrolytes made from multilayer grafted particles show a steep increase in conductivity with temperature with an ionic conductivity increase to 3 × 10(-5) S/cm at 80 °C, with an O/Li ratio of 32.

  13. Characterization of natural wax esters by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Míková, Radka; Cvacka, Josef

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to the analysis of wax esters (WEs) was investigated. A series of metal salts of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was synthesized and tested as possible matrices. Alkali metal (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) and transition metal (Cu, Ag) salts were studied. The matrix properties were evaluated, including solubility in organic solvents, threshold laser power that should be applied for successful desorption/ionization of WEs, the nature of the matrix ions and the mass range occupied by them, and the complexity of the isotope clusters for individual metals. Lithium salt of dihydroxybenzoic acid (LiDHB) performed the best and matrices with purified lithium isotopes ((6)LiDHB or (7)LiDHB) were recommended for WEs. Three sample preparation procedures were compared: (1) mixing the sample and matrix in a glass vial and deposition of the mixture on a MALDI plate (Mix), (2) deposition of sample followed by deposition of matrix (Sa/Ma), and (3) deposition of matrix followed by deposition of sample (Ma/Sa). Morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The best sample preparation technique was Ma/Sa with the optimum sample to matrix molar ratio 1 : 100. Detection limit was in the low picomolar range. The relative response of WEs decreased with their molecular weight, and minor differences between signals of saturated and monounsaturated WEs were observed. MALDI spectra of WEs showed molecular adducts with lithium [M + Li](+). Fragments observed in postsource decay (PSD) spectra were related to the acidic part of WEs [RCOOH + Li](+) and they were used for structure assignment. MALDI with LiDHB was used for several samples of natural origin, including insect and plant WEs. A good agreement with GC/MS data was achieved. Moreover, MALDI allowed higher WEs to be analyzed, up to 64 carbon atoms in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract.

  14. The effect of lithium ions on the hydrophobic effect: does lithium affect hydrophobicity differently than other ions?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, David L; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2012-04-01

    Ionic species have been shown to significantly perturb the interactions between non-polar solutes in aqueous solution. These perturbations are often analyzed in terms of the interactions existing between hydrophobic surfaces and ions. It has been known for some time, that ions with a high charge density are repelled from hydrophobic surfaces while ions with a low charge density tend to stick to these surfaces. Therefore, from a continuum model standpoint, small monovalent ions promote hydrophobicity by minimizing the exposed hydrophobic surface area, while "sticky" large monovalent ions interact with the hydrophobic surfaces and discourage aggregation. However, the charge-dense lithium ion often exhibits anomalous behaviour different from these predicted trends: instead of enhancing, the addition of lithium ions often seems to weaken the hydrophobic effect and on the contrary help dissolve hydrophobic molecules. This weakening of apparent hydrophobicity is considered to be one of the reasons for the protein denaturing properties of lithium salts. Recent theoretical and experimental results however have shown that lithium cations can interact with a variety of molecular functional groups. This suggests that this apparent lithium-induced lowering of hydrophobicity, that is often reported in the literature may be a result of specific interactions between these molecular functional groups and lithium, rather than weakening the interaction between hydrophobic surfaces. This work examines these possibilities by studying the effect of various cations on the simple hydrophobic interaction existing between methyl and phenyl contact-pairs and demonstrates that the effect of lithium cations on the hydrophobic effect follows the trend predicted by continuum models. In other words, the influence of an ion on the hydrophobic interaction between two non-polar surfaces is a function of the interaction of that ion and each non-polar surface.

  15. ION EXCHANGE IN FUSED SALTS. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALI METAL AND ALKALINE EARTH IONS BETWEEN CHABAZITE AND FUSED LINO3, NANO3, AND KNO3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ION EXCHANGE, SALTS ), (*ALKALI METALS, ION EXCHANGE), (*ALKALINE EARTH METALS, ION EXCHANGE), (*NITRATES, ION EXCHANGE), SODIUM , CALCIUM, POTASSIUM...BARIUM, RUBIDIUM, CESIUM, LITHIUM COMPOUNDS, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS, DISTRIBUTION, MINERALS, IONS

  16. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium.

  17. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... you cook, replace salt with other seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. ...

  18. A green and efficient technology for the degradation of cellulosic materials: structure changes and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of natural cellulose pretreated by synergistic interaction of mechanical activation and metal salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Huang, Zuqiang; Lu, Yinghua; Sun, Guosong; Yang, Mei; Huang, Aimin; Hu, Huayu; Zhu, Yuanqin

    2015-02-01

    A new technology for the pretreatment of natural cellulose was developed, which combined mechanical activation (MA) and metal salt treatments in a stirring ball mill. Different valent metal nitrates were used to investigate the changes in degree of polymerization (DP) and crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose after MA+metal salt (MAMS) pretreatment, and Al(NO3)3 showed better pretreatment effect than NaNO3 and Zn(NO3)2. The destruction of morphological structure of cellulose was mainly resulted from intense ball milling, and the comparative studies on the changes of DP and crystal structure of MA and MA+Al(NO3)3 pretreated cellulose samples showed a synergistic interaction of MA and Al(NO3)3 treatments with more effective changes of structural characteristics of MA+Al(NO3)3 pretreated cellulose and substantial increase of reducing sugar yield in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. In addition, the results indicated that the presence of Al(NO3)3 had significant enhancement for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

  19. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  20. Lithium tetraborate transducer cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosinski, John; Ballato, Arthur; Lukaszek, Theodore

    1990-03-01

    Lithium tetraborate is a tetragonal material of considerable promise for frequency control and signal processing applications. It exhibits piezoelectric coupling values that fall between those of lithium niobate and quartz, but possesses orientations for which the temperature coefficient of frequency and delay time is zero for bulk and surface acoustic waves. In this report, we discuss the properties of two doubly rotated bulk wave resonator orientations having both first- and second-order temperature coefficients equal to zero. These are suitable for shear and compressional wave transducers in applications where very low temperature sensitivity is required simultaneously with moderately strong piezocoupling coefficients.

  1. Lithium tetraborate transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Arthur; Kosinski, John A.; Lukaszek, Ted J.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium tetraborate is a tetragonal material of considerable promise for frequency control and signal processing applications. It exhibits piezoelectric coupling values that fall between those of lithium niobate and quartz, but possesses orientations for which the temperature coefficient of frequency and delay time is zero for bulk and surface acoustic waves. The properties of two doubly rotated bulk wave resonator orientations having first- and second-order temperature coefficients equal to zero are discussed. These are suitable for shear and compressional wave transducers in applications where very low temperature sensitivity is required simultaneously with moderately strong piezocoupling coefficients.

  2. Community solar salt production in Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa’s riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans. Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1–2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested. Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced. The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa’s history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the

  3. Community solar salt production in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Kabilan; Salgaonkar, Bhakti B; Das, Deepthi; Bragança, Judith M

    2012-12-01

    Traditional salt farming in Goa, India has been practised for the past 1,500 years by a few communities. Goa's riverine estuaries, easy access to sea water and favourable climatic conditions makes salt production attractive during summer. Salt produced through this natural evaporation process also played an important role in the economy of Goa even during the Portuguese rule as salt was the chief export commodity. In the past there were 36 villages involved in salt production, which is now reduced to 9. Low income, lack of skilled labour, competition from industrially produced salt, losses incurred on the yearly damage of embankments are the major reasons responsible for the reduction in the number of salt pans.Salt pans (Mithagar or Mithache agor) form a part of the reclaimed waterlogged khazan lands, which are also utilised for aquaculture, pisciculture and agriculture. Salt pans in Goa experience three phases namely, the ceased phase during monsoon period of June to October, preparatory phase from December to January, and salt harvesting phase, from February to June. After the monsoons, the salt pans are prepared manually for salt production. During high tide, an influx of sea water occurs, which enters the reservoir pans through sluice gates. The sea water after 1-2 days on attaining a salinity of approximately 5ºBé, is released into the evaporator pans and kept till it attains a salinity of 23 - 25ºBé. The brine is then released to crystallizer pans, where the salt crystallises out 25 - 27ºBé and is then harvested.Salt pans form a unique ecosystem where succession of different organisms with varying environmental conditions occurs. Organisms ranging from bacteria, archaea to fungi, algae, etc., are known to colonise salt pans and may influence the quality of salt produced.The aim of this review is to describe salt farming in Goa's history, importance of salt production as a community activity, traditional method of salt production and the biota

  4. Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/GSFC is interested in flying lithium ion cells for geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. To determine the preferred solstice storage conditions for the lithium ion chemistry, we have been studying either a constant current storage with a maximum voltage clamp or storage with only a voltage clamp. The cells used for this study are two 4Ah SAFT cylindrical lithium ion cells, two 1.5Ah Wilson Great Batch lithium ion cells, and one 8Ah Lithium Technology lithium polymer cell. In each pair, one cell is clamped at 4V, and the other is trickle charged at C/500 with a 4.lV clamp. The Lithium Technology cell is only undergoing voltage clamped storage testing. After each storage period the cells are subjected to a capacity test (C/2 discharge, C/10 charge) and a charge retention test at room temperature. Results after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of storage testing will be presented here.

  5. Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach: part III: clinical safety.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Etienne Marc; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptoms, 'pseudotumour cerebri' or occasionally cerebellar symptoms. Severe neurological sequelae are exceptional. Cognitive disturbances are often mentioned as a lithium-related adverse effect. The few controlled studies do show a statistically significant negative effect of lithium on memory, vigilance, reaction time and tracking. There are frequent reports of mild effects of lithium on cognition at therapeutic serum concentrations. A number of deaths associated with lithium treatment have been reported. The most serious issue is that of non-accidental overdose, i.e. either long-term overdosage or acute overdose on long-term treatment. Progressive renal insufficiency, an exceptional complication of long-term lithium therapy, may also have a fatal outcome. In relation to pregnancy, lithium salts are rated as category D (positive evidence of risk). Therefore, prescription of lithium should be avoided during the first trimester of pregnancy unless the benefit to the mother exceeds the risk to the fetus. Although lithium transfer into breast milk is well established, the long-term fate of babies breast-fed by mothers receiving lithium therapy is unknown. Whether lithium therapy is safe in breast-feeding women is controversial. Although there is no absolute contraindication, it is known that the kidney is particularly sensitive to lithium just after birth. Intoxication in patients on long-term treatment with lithium in the absence of history of acute ingestion is not rare. Contributing factors include change in daily dose, long-term high dosage, kidney disease or drug interaction. In suspected cases, serum concentrations should be obtained early and repeatedly. In addition to supportive measures, haemodialysis is the treatment of choice for severe cases. Thorough knowledge of the limitations and drawbacks of lithium therapy is mandatory for its optimal use, especially at a time when its risk/benefit profile needs to be compared accurately with that of antiepileptic

  6. Use of Ionic Liquids in Rod-Coil Block Copolyimides for Improved Lithium Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.; Chapin, Kara; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent-free, solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to improve safety, increase design flexibility and enhance performance of rechargeable lithium batteries. Solution based electrolytes are flammable and typically incompatible with lithium metal anodes, limiting energy density. We have previously demonstrated use of polyimide rod coil block copolymers doped with lithium salts as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polyimide rod blocks provide dimensional stability while the polyethylene oxide (PEO) coil portions conduct ions. Phase separation of the rods and coils in these highly branched polymers provide channels with an order of magnitude improvement in lithium conduction over polyethylene oxide itself at room temperature. In addition, the polymers have been demonstrated in coin cells to be compatible with lithium metal. For practical use at room temperature and below, however, at least an order of magnitude improvement in ion conduction is still required. The addition of nonvolatile, room temperature ionic liquids has been shown to improve the ionic conductivity of high molecular weight PEO. Herein we describe use of these molten salts to improve ionic conductivity in the rod-coil block copolymers.

  7. Lithium induced toxicity in rats: a hematological, biochemical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Som Datta; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2005-05-01

    Lithium (Li(+)) salts are commonly used in treating bipolar diseases. As physicians frequently keep the patients on long-term lithium therapy, awareness of the numerous side effects and pathogenesis of this lightest alkali metal is needed for such treatments. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of small doses of lithium nitrate in rats. In the present study we showed that the oral gavage feeding of lithium nitrate (20 mg Li/kg body wt) for 7 weeks on every alternate day to male albino wistar rats elicited a significant alterations in gross hematological values owing to hypochromic anemia and leucocytosis. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and clotting time depicted higher values and animals exhibited icteric condition. Serum levels of hexose, cholesterol and blood urea elevated; however, proteins depleted markedly. A significant increase in serum calcium and phosphorus has also been registered in lithium salt treated animals. The enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (Alpase) and acid phosphatase (Acpase) diminished depicting the disturbed general physiological status while there was a marked rise in the activities of transaminases (GOT and GPT) reflecting a stimulating transamination reaction in hepatic and renal tissues. The histopathological picture of the kidney tissues revealed many deformative alterations. Necrosis, binucleated cells and Kuffer's cells are visible in renal tissue. The epithelium lining of renal tissue was damaged and there were also some marked changes in glomerular region apart from intracellular alterations in corticomedulary region. The results of present study suggest that small doses of lithium induce toxicity in rats.

  8. Multiphysics modeling of lithium ion battery capacity fading process with solid-electrolyte interphase growth by elementary reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-02-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for a lithium ion battery, integrating the elementary reaction based solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth model with multiple transport processes. The model is validated using the experimental data. Simulation results indicate that the operating temperature has great effect on the SEI layer generation and growth. Under different charging-discharging rates, it is found that high charging-discharging rate can intensify the battery capacity fading process. Different cooling conditions are then applied and show that enhanced surface convective cooling condition can effectively slow down the battery capacity fading. After that, the effect of electrolyte salt concentration and exchange current density are studied. It is found that raising the electrolyte salt concentration can improve the diffusion property of lithium ions, and stabilize the battery performance under lithium ion consumption induced resistance rising. It also suggests that improving exchange current density could greatly decrease the lithium ion battery capacity fading.

  9. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  10. Rheological contrasts in salt and their effects on flow in salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2014-05-01

    The majority of numerical and analogue models of salt tectonics assume homogeneous rheological models, and consequently produce simple internal structures. This is in contrast to observations in salt mines and 3D seismic, showing complex folding at a wide range of scales, in combination with boudinage and fracturing, which point to large rheological contrasts in salt bodies. The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation can be both Newtonian and Power law. Dislocation creep and dissolution-precipitation processes, such as solution-precipitation creep and dynamic recrystallisation, both play a significant role and grain boundary healing in deforming salt may result in cyclic softening and hardening behaviour. The switch between these processes can cause major changes in rock salt rheology, at time scales both relevant to geologic evolution and subsurface operations. In the dislocation creep field, a compilation of laboratory data show that different rock salts can creep at four orders of magnitude different strain rates under otherwise the same conditions. Potassium - Magnesium salts are in turn much weaker, and Anhydrite much stronger than rock salt. Anhydrite - carbonate inclusions embedded in deforming salt bodies respond to the movements of the salt in a variety of ways including boudinage and folding. New methods of microstructure analysis integrated with paleorheology indicators observed in natural laboratories allows an integration of these data and the development of a unified model for salt creep for both underground cavities and natural deformation, including the effect of high fluid pressures in salt which lead to a dramatic increases in permeability. For example, modeling of anhydrite stringer sinking is an important way to obtain the long term rheology of the halite, indicating that the rheology of Zechstein salt during the Tertiary was dominated by dislocation creep. These form the basis of a new generation of mechanical models to predict the

  11. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  12. Helping crops stand up to salt

    SciTech Connect

    Raeburn, P.

    1985-05-01

    A new approach to the problem of increasing soil salinity is to raise salt-tolerant plants. The search for such plants involves finding new applications for naturally occurring salt-resistant plants (halophytes), using conventional breeding techniques to identify and strengthen crop varieties known to have better-than-average salt tolerance, and applying recombinant DNA methods to introduce salt resistance into existing plants. One promising plant is salicornia, which produces oil high in polyunsaturates at a greater yield than soybeans. Two varieties of atriplex yield as much animal feed as alfalfa and can be harvested several times a year. Seed companies are supporting the research.

  13. The enthalpy of occlusion of the LiC1-KC1 eutectic salt in zeolite 4A.

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, D.; Chemical Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature {Delta}{sub 9cc}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that up to a mole fraction of the salt x = 0.931 in the (salt + zeolite) mixture, which is near the expected zeolite occlusion limit, {Delta}{sub occ}H{sub m}(T{sub fus}) was negative and directly proportional to x . Thus, within this composition range, the partial molar enthalpy of occlusion of the (lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A at the salt melting temperature is constant and equal to - (24 {+-}1)kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}.

  14. Conductivity and self-diffusivity measurements on molten lithium electrolytes for battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videa, Marcelo Vargas

    Several lithium salt systems, classified in this work as solvent-free and solvent containing, have been investigated with the purpose of determining their qualities as potential electrolytes for applications in lithium batteries. With this objective, their thermal. properties, of which the glassforming ability was considered of fundamental importance, and their experimental conductivities and lithium self-diffusivities were determined to build a body of information that could be considered complete insofar as the evaluation of the material was concerned. Mixtures of lithium salts with fluorine-based anions, including LiCF 3SO3, LiBF4 and LiN(SO2CF3) 2 (or LiIm), were studied as part of a search for chemically and electrochemically stable glassforming lithium salts. Although the observation of the glassforming ability of some binary and ternary systems was considered a partial success, the high glass transition temperatures recorded and their inability to avoid crystallization discouraged the author from any attempt of using these materials as practical electrolytes. Attention was then placed on a family of tetrahaloaluminate lithium salts among which LiAlCl4, although non-glassforming when pure, can be easely vitrified upon the addition of small amounts of a second component or plasticizing agent. By extrapolation to zero content of plasticizing agent it was found that Tg for this salt is -35°C, the lowest value recorded for an ionic system. Although the LiAlCl4-based systems obtained by introducing LiIm, LiIm-AlCl3 or LiAl(SO3Cl)4 as second components produce room temperature, non-crystallizing liquids, they unfortunately fail in providing conductivities with values acceptable for the applications intended. In the case of the system LiAlC14-LiAl(SO3Cl) 4, lithium self-diffusivity measurements are compared via the Nernst-Einstein relation to the conductivity values in order to obtain insight on lithium-ion transport properties. Solvent-containing electrolytes

  15. Lithium in staurolite and its petrologic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrow, Barbara L.; Holdaway, M. J.; Hinton, R. W.

    1986-12-01

    Natural metapelitic staurolites contain appreciable amounts of lithium. Lithium contents were determined by ion microprobe with concentrations of representative samples independently analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for calibration. Seventy-one percent of the analyzed staurolites contain >0.1 wt.% Li2O, although the distribution is skewed to values less than 0.3 wt.%. High Li contents observed in staurolite are attributed to one or more of several factors: initiation of staurolite breakdown, lack of additional host phases for lithium (e.g. biotite), pre-metamorphic Li-rich bulk rock composition, and/or interaction of the rock with Li-rich fluids. Li content is generally not correlated with the modal amount of staurolite in the rock, rather Li values tend to reflect variable host rock Li. Lithium most likely resides in the R2+ tetrahedral site. Its incorporation into the structure is probably related to a coupled substitution with Al: ivLi viA1/3 ivR{-1/2+} vi□-1/3 When staurolite analyses yield low R2+ and high Al values, the possibility of high Li should be considered after accounting for variable H. Lithium partitions into common pelitic metamorphic minerals in the order staurolite>cordierite>biotite>muscovite> garnet, tourmaline, and chloritoid. Partitioning is non-ideal in staurolite and a function of Fe content. Li in staurolite expands its stability field to a higher T relative to garnet and sillimanite, and to a lower T relative to chloritoid and Al-silicate. Analysis of staurolites for Li may provide further insight into this enigmatic mineral.

  16. Two-Dimensional Wavelike Spinel Lithium Titanate for Fast Lithium Storage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiehua; Wei, Xiangfeng; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Safe fast-charging lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have huge potential market size on demand according to their shortened charging time for high-power devices. Zero-strain spinel Li4Ti5O12 is one of ideal candidates for safe high-power batteries owing to its good cycling performance, low cost and safety. However, the inherent insulating characteristic of LTO seriously limits its high-rate capability. In this work, we successfully synthesize novel wavelike spinel LTO nanosheets using a facile ‘co-hydrolysis’ method, which is superior to molten-salt approach and traditional solvothermal method in some respects. The unique 2D structures have single-crystal framework with shortened path for Li ion transport. As a result, the N-doped 2D wavelike LTO with 0.6 wt.% of ‘carbon joint’ not only exhibits exciting capacity of ~180 and ~150 mA h g−1 for fast lithium storage at high discharge/charge rates of 1.7 and 8.5 A g−1 (10C and 50C) respectively, but also shows excellent low-temperature performance at −20°C. In addition, the cost may be further decreased due to recycled functional reagents. This novel nanostructured 2D LTO anode material makes it possible to develop safe fast-charging high-power lithium ion batteries. PMID:25985465

  17. Comparison of shallow-water and marsh-surface habitats associated with pipeline canals and natural channels in Louisiana salt marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozas, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    The primary objective of the study was to assess the effects of pipeline canals on the habitat function of inside-levee marshes. The degree to which inside-levee marshes function as nursery habitat for nekton residing in canals was examined by comparing densities of nekton on marshes adjacent to pipeline canals (inside-levee marshes) and natural tidal creeks. In addition, shallow subtidal habitats in the two environments (canals and natural channels) were compared by sampling nekton along the marsh edge at low tide and measuring predator encounter rates in both habitats.

  18. Design and synthesis of new electrolyte systems for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Amartya

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in consumer electronic products, including laptop computers, cellular phones, cameras, camcorders, and medical devices. They have great potential for application in electric and hybrid electric vehicles by virtue of their high energy and power density. Research and development in this direction have been focused all around the globe. The major challenges include the higher cost, safety issues related to the solvents, and conductivities at lower ambient temperature of the solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems. In this dissertation, three different approaches are presented to achieve an improved electrolyte system for lithium-ion batteries. A plasticizer was synthesized and incorporated into a conventional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolyte system. The ambient temperature ionic conductivity observed at room temperature was noteworthy, due to the decrease of the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Secondly, a branched polymer was synthesized and used as the base matrix in SPEs. Polymers with a higher order of branching remained undissolved in common organic solvents, thereby limiting the scope of their use for making films for the study. The ones with a lower order of branching exhibited ionic conductivities comparable to regular PEO-based electrolytes. The third and most successful approach involved the strategic design and synthesis of a series of low lattice energy lithium salts and their chemical, thermal and electrochemical characterization. In this methodology, the two-to-three step synthetic strategy involved chlorosulfonation of an activated aromatic ring, reaction of the corresponding sulfonyl chloride with trifluoromethanesulfonamide in the presence of triethylamine as a base, followed by lithiation of the resulting triethylammonium salt to generate monolithium, dilithium and scaffolded polylithium salts. The mono- and dilithium salts were tested in

  19. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  20. Preparation and physical characteristics of a lithium-beryllium-substituted fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Lexa, D.

    1999-01-01

    A lithium-beryllium-substituted fluorapatite, Li{sub 0.50}Be{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 4.50}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F, has been prepared by means of a high-temperature reaction between lithium beryllium fluoride, Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}, and tricalcium phosphate, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. This material has potential application as a waste form for radioactive and toxic fluoride salts. Monitoring of the reaction progress by differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the reaction was initiated by melting of the fluoride salt and that it was fast and complete. While reactive sintering of lithium beryllium fluoride with tricalcium phosphate led to a rather porous product, melting of the reactants with subsequent solidification readily produced a substituted fluorapatite with a near-theoretical bulk density.

  1. Observations of the freeze/thaw performance of lithium fluoride by motion picture photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Perry, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    To gain direct observation of the molten salt phase change, a novel containerless technique was developed where the high surface tension of lithium fluoride was used to suspend a bead of the molten salt inside a specially designed wire cage. By varying the current passing through the wire, the cage also served as a variable heat source. In this way, the freeze/thaw performance of the lithium fluoride could be photographed by motion picture photography without the influence of container walls. The motion picture photography of the lithium fluoride sample revealed several zones during the phase change, a solid zone and a liquid zone, as expected, and a slush zone that was predicted by thermal analysis modeling.

  2. Measurement of Solubility of Metallic Lithium Dissolved in Molten LiCl-Li2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Adam J.; Simpson, Michael F.

    2016-10-01

    The solubility of lithium metal in molten LiCl-Li2O mixtures has been measured at various concentrations of Li2O ranging from 0 wt.% to 2.7 wt.% at a temperature of approximately 670-680°C. After contacting molten lithium with molten LiCl-Li2O for several hours to achieve equilibrium saturation, samples were taken by freezing the salt onto a room-temperature steel rod and dissolving in water for analysis. Both volume of hydrogen gas generated and volume of titrated HCl were measured to investigate two different approaches to calculating the lithium concentration. There appeared to be no effect of Li2O concentration on the Li solubility in the salt. But the results vary between different methods of deducing the amount of dissolved Li. The H2 collection method is recommended, but care must be taken to ensure all of the H2 has been included.

  3. Cyclic Voltammetry of Silver Chloride in Lithium Chloride-Potassium Chloride Eutectic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    TRY), Fused salts, Silver, Reduction(Chemistry), Dissolving, ChloridesSilver chloride, Cyclic voltammetry , *VoltammetryThe technique of cyclic ... voltammetry was employed to study the deposition and dissolution of silver metal at platinum wire electrodes in molten lithium chloride-potassium chloride

  4. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  5. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  6. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  7. [Nursing care of a patient with bipolar disorder and lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    García de la Orden, Lucía; García Carretero, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is one of the most common, severe and persistent mental disorders. The evaluation of all data and variables related to bipolar disorder is a difficult task, because there is no clear agreement on what should be included in this category. One of the traditional treatments for this disease is the lithium metal that is administered in the form of lithium salt. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic window and there is a significant risk of complications arising from its use, mainly neurological and renal. In the case presented, the preparation of a care plan is described for a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder who suffered a complication with lithium treatment. To do this, it was decided to use a standardized care plan and later completed it with diagnostic, objectives and interventions to the specific needs of the patient, aimed at achieving optimal levels of independence.

  8. Effect of Branching on Rod-coil Polyimides as Membrane Materials for Lithium Polymer Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Cubon, Valerie A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a series of rod-coil block co-polymers that produce easy to fabricate, dimensionally stable films with good ionic conductivity down to room temperature for use as electrolytes for lithium polymer batteries. The polymers consist of short, rigid rod polyimide segments, alternating with flexible, polyalkylene oxide coil segments. The highly incompatible rods and coils should phase separate, especially in the presence of lithium ions. The coil phase would allow for conduction of lithium ions, while the rigid rod phase would provide a high degree of dimensional stability. An optimization study was carried out to study the effect of four variables (degree of branching, formulated molecular weight, polymerization solvent and lithium salt concentration) on ionic conductivity, glass transition temperature and dimensional stability in this system.

  9. Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by

  10. Degradation diagnostics for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkl, Christoph R.; Roberts, Matthew R.; McTurk, Euan; Bruce, Peter G.; Howey, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery cells is the result of a complex interplay of a host of different physical and chemical mechanisms. The measurable, physical effects of these degradation mechanisms on the cell can be summarised in terms of three degradation modes, namely loss of lithium inventory, loss of active positive electrode material and loss of active negative electrode material. The different degradation modes are assumed to have unique and measurable effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV) of Li-ion cells and electrodes. The presumptive nature and extent of these effects has so far been based on logical arguments rather than experimental proof. This work presents, for the first time, experimental evidence supporting the widely reported degradation modes by means of tests conducted on coin cells, engineered to include different, known amounts of lithium inventory and active electrode material. Moreover, the general theory behind the effects of degradation modes on the OCV of cells and electrodes is refined and a diagnostic algorithm is devised, which allows the identification and quantification of the nature and extent of each degradation mode in Li-ion cells at any point in their service lives, by fitting the cells' OCV.

  11. Cold neutron depth profiling of lithium-ion battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamaze, G. P.; Chen-Mayer, H. H.; Becker, D. A.; Vereda, F.; Goldner, R. B.; Haas, T.; Zerigian, P.

    We report the characterization of two thin-film battery materials using neutron techniques. Neutron depth profiling (NDP) has been employed to determine the distribution of lithium and nitrogen simultaneously in lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) deposited by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The depth profiles are based on the measurement of the energy of the charged particle products from the 6Li(n,α) 3H and 14N(n,p) 14C reactions for lithium and nitrogen, respectively. Lithium at the level of 10 22 atoms/cm 3 and N of 10 21 atoms/cm 3, distributed in the film thickness on the order of 1 μm, have been determined. This information provides insights into nitrogen incorporation and lithium concentration in the films under various fabrication conditions. NDP of lithium has also been performed on IBAD LiCoO 2 films, in conjunction with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the cobalt concentration. The Li/Co ratio thus obtained serves as an ex situ control for the thin-film evaporation process. The non-destructive nature of the neutron techniques is especially suitable for repeated analysis of these materials and for actual working devices.

  12. Lithium-oxygen batteries-Limiting factors that affect performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padbury, Richard; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2011-05-01

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have recently received attention due to their extremely high theoretical energy densities, which far exceed that of any other existing energy storage technology. The significantly larger theoretical energy density of the lithium-oxygen batteries is due to the use of a pure lithium metal anode and the fact that the cathode oxidant, oxygen, is stored externally since it can be readily obtained from the surrounding air. Before the lithium-oxygen batteries can be realized as high performance, commercially viable products, there are still many challenges to overcome, from designing their cathode structure, to optimizing their electrolyte compositions and elucidating the complex chemical reactions that occur during charge and discharge. The scientific obstacles that are related to the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries open up an exciting opportunity for researchers from many different backgrounds to utilize their unique knowledge and skills to bridge the knowledge gaps that exist in current research projects. This article is a summary of the most significant limiting factors that affect the performance of the lithium-oxygen batteries from the perspective of the authors. The article indicates the relationships that form between various limiting factors and highlights the complex yet captivating nature of the research within this field.

  13. Mixed solvent electrolytes for ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Deligiannis, Fotios (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention comprises an improved electrolyte for secondary lithium-based cells as well as batteries fabricated using this electrolyte. The electrolyte is a lithium containing salt dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent, which is made from a mixture of ethylene carbonate, ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, 2-methylfuran, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. This improved, mixed solvent electrolyte is more conductive than prior electrolytes and much less corrosive to lithium anodes. Batteries constructed with this improved electrolyte utilize lithium or lithium alloy anodes and cathodes made of metal chalcogenides or oxides, such as TiS.sub.2, NbSe.sub.3, V.sub.6 O.sub.13, V.sub.2 O.sub.5, MoS.sub.2, MoS.sub.3, CoO.sub.2, or CrO.sub.2, dissolved in a supporting polymer matrix, like EPDM. The preferred non-aqueous solvent mixture comprises approximately 5 to 30 volume percent ethylene carbonate, approximately 0.01 to 0.1 weight percent ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, and approximately 0.2 to 2 percent 2-methylfuran, with the balance being 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The most preferred solvent comprises approximately 10 to 20 volume percent ethylene carbonate, about 0.05 weight percent ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, and about 1.0 percent 2-methylfuran, with the balance being 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The concentration of lithium arsenic hexafluoride can range from about 1.0 to 1.8 M; a concentration 1.5 M is most preferred. Secondary batteries made with the improved electrolyte of this invention have lower internal impedance, longer cycle life, higher energy density, low self-discharge, and longer shelf life.

  14. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions.

  15. Electrophoretic NMR measurements of lithium transference numbers in polymer gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, H.; Sanderson, S.; Davey, J.; Uribe, F.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Polymer gel electrolytes are of increasing interest for plastic lithium batteries largely because of their high room temperature conductivity. Several studies have probed their conductivity and electrochemical stability but very little work has been done related to lithium transference numbers. Lithium ion transference numbers, the net number of Faradays carried by lithium upon the passage of 1 Faraday of charge across a cell, are key figures of merit for any potential lithium battery electrolytes. The authors describe here their application of electrophoretic NMR (ENMR) to the determination of transference numbers of lithium ions in polymer gel electrolytes. Two types of polymer gel electrolytes were selected for this study: PAN/PC/EC/LiX and Kynar/PC/LiX. Results obtained for the two types of gels are compared and the effects of anion, polymer-ion interactions and ion-ion interactions on lithium transference numbers are discussed. Significant differences in the behavior of transference numbers with salt concentration are observed for the two types of gels. This may be due to the extent of interaction between the polymer and the ions. Implications for solid polymer electrolytes are discussed.

  16. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal geometry of the Gorleben diapir reflect an asymmetric salt supply driven by an asymmetric differential loading. The Kłodawa Salt Structure of Poland is also an asymmetric salt structure driven by asymmetric differential loading from the overlying sediments. The KSS is a salt ridge built of Zechstein evaporite series located in the axial part of the former Mid-Polish Trough. This extensional basin was filled with Zechstein to Cretaceous sediments and was inverted in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene time. The diapir was triggered in Triassic above a basement fault. In late Triassic, after intruding cover sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir was upbuilt by the sand cover above the basement fault. The ductile layer was allowed to extrude a wide overhang at the model "late Triassic" time. The diapir was later downbuilt

  17. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  18. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  19. Lithium-Boron Alloy Anodes for Molten Salt Batteries (II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-15

    Chemical Company Attn: Library Callery, PA 16024 Catalyst Research Corporation Attn: G. Bowser N. Issacs F. Tepper 1421 Clarkview Road Baltimore, MD 21209...19 W. College Avenue Yardley, PA 19067 EIC Corporation Attn: J. R. Driscoll 55 Chapel Street Newton , MA 02158 Electrochemica Corporation 2485

  20. Salt deposits in Arizona promise gas-storage opportunities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauzi, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    Massive salt formations and their proximity to pipeline systems and power plants make Arizona attractive for natural gas storage. Caverns dissolved in subsurface salt are used to store LPG at Ferrellgas Partners LP facility near Holbrook and the AmeriGas Partners LP facility near Glendale. Three other companies are investigating the feasibility of storing natural gas in Arizona salt: Copper Eagle Gas Storage LLC, Desert Crossing Gas Storage and Transportation System LLC, and Aquila Inc. The most extensive salt deposits are in the Colorado Plateau Province. Marine and nonmarine salt deposits are present in Arizona.