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Sample records for lithuania shows unanimous

  1. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  2. Cancer education in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Mineikyte, Ramune; Janulionis, Ernestas; Liutkeviciute-Navickiene, Jurgita; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe cancer education in Lithuania according to the data of 2013. In Lithuania, there are the following stages of education for physicians: basic education through integrated studies of medicine (six years), postgraduate education through residency studies (four to five years), and continuing professional development. In recent years, integrated studies of medicine have been the most popular specialty. Oncology is incorporated into the teaching courses in medicine programmes. In each university, an oncology course is mandatory during these studies. In Lithuania, there are two types of specialists related to oncology: medical oncologists and radiation oncologists. These oncologists complete multidisciplinary residency study programmes in the clinics. To receive a doctoral degree, specialists may join PhD programmes at any of the accredited universities. In recent years the number of dissertations in oncology has grown. Notably, oncology is chosen not only by students in the field of medicine. It also becomes the choice of those seeking a doctorate in the fields of nursing, public health, biochemistry, and physics. The professional development of oncologists is a lifelong commitment. In Lithuania, continuing specialist medical training is mandatory. This requirement is ensured with the process of licensing of medical practice. All Lithuanian study programmes are certificated by an independent public agency and are recognised by a number of other countries as well. PMID:25525465

  3. Mapping ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood as the benefits that humans get from ecosystems functions. They are divided in providing, regulating, supporting and cultural. The correct management of ES is fundamental to achieve sustainable development goals. A good assessment of ES potential can be obtained using GIS techniques, in order to have a spatial dimension of ES distribution. This will help to have a better territorial planning, improve ES capacity, and have more benefits. ES potential analysis can be carried out based on the ES matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009). This method is based on the attribution a rank from 0 to 5 (0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity) to the land use classes of the corine land cover (CLC). This represents an important advantage since a determined land use can be related with a certain number of services. The objective of this work is to Map the ES potential in Lithuania. The results showed that Lithuania has a high potential for regulating services, followed by cultural and provisioning services. Urban areas provide a very small amount of services, contrary to forest, where the highest potential is observed. The most comon land covers in Lithuania are non-irrigated arable land, complex cultivation patterns, mixed and coniferous forest. Total and regulating and cultural ES had dispersed pattern showing that they are scattered in the territory. They are located mainly in forested and coastal areas. In relation to provisioning services they had a clustered distribution, and they were mainly observed in the central part of Lithuania. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services - a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landsc. Online. 15:1-22

  4. Staff Group Unanimity in the Care of Juveniles in Institutional Treatment: Routines, Rituals, and Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Lia; Degner, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    One prerequisite for effective institutional care is that staff agree on how to deliver treatment and have a unified view of how to achieve change--in other words, to have staff group unanimity (SGU). This study used the Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI) 2000, interviews with key staff, and observations of daily activities to…

  5. Toward Unanimous Projections for Sea Ice Using CMIP5 Multi-model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Christensen, J. H.; Langen, P. P.; Thejll, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled global climate models have been used to provide future climate projections as major objective tools based on physical laws that govern the dynamics and thermodynamics of the climate system. However, while climate models in general predict declines in Arctic sea ice cover (i.e., ice extent and volume) from late 20th century through the next decades in response to increase of anthropogenic forcing, the model simulated Arctic sea ice demonstrates considerable biases in both the mean and the declining trend in comparison with the observations over the satellite era (1979-present). The models also show wide inter-model spread in hindcast and projected sea ice decline, raising the question of uncertainty in model predicted polar climate. In order to address the model uncertainty in the Arctic sea ice projection, we analyze the Arctic sea ice extent under the context of surface air temperature (SAT) as simulated in the historical, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 experiments by 27 CMIP5 models. These 27 models are all we could obtain from the CMIP5 archive with sufficient gird information for processing the sea ice data. Unlike many previous studies in which only limited number of models were selected based on metrics of modeled sea ice characteristics for getting projected ice with reduced uncertainty, our analysis is applied to all model simulations with no discrimination. It is found that the changes in total Arctic sea ice in various seasons from one model are closely related to the changes in global mean SAT in the corresponding model. This relationship appears very similar in all models and agrees well with that in the observational data. In particular, the ratio of the total Arctic sea ice changes in March, September and annual mean with respect to the baseline climatology (1979-2008) are seen to linearly correlate to the global mean annual SAT anomaly, suggesting unanimous projection of the sea ice extent may be possible with this relationship. Further analysis is

  6. Changes in precipitation chemistry in Lithuania for 1981-2004.

    PubMed

    Sopauskiene, Dalia; Jasineviciene, Dalia

    2006-03-01

    This paper considers the spatial and temporal variability in concentrations of the potentially acidifying ions in precipitation in Lithuania during the 1981-2004 period. Chemical analysis of precipitation included measurements of pH, conductivity, sulfate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3-), chloride (Cl-), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca2+). Temporal trends in the potentially acidifying ion concentrations in precipitation and wet deposition were evaluated using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. A statistically significant decline was observed in non-sea salt sulfate (nssSO4(2-)) and hydrogen (H+) ions concentrations (82% and 79%, respectively) and wet depositions (88% and 74%, respectively). Temporal trends both in concentration and wet deposition of nitrate and ammonium were not as pronounced as trends in sulfate concentration. Analysis of air mass backward trajectories was applied to reveal the influence of air mass originating in different regions on wet deposition of acidifying species in Lithuania. Sector analysis clearly showed that wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Lithuania is to a large extent anthropogenic and the main source regions of acidifying species contributing to wet deposition in Lithuania are in South and Central Europe.

  7. The nursing education programme in Lithuania: voices of student nurses.

    PubMed

    Kapborg, I

    2000-10-01

    The nursing education programme in Lithuania has passed through many changes. The latest change has been carried out with support from Denmark. Ten female student nurses have been interviewed with the assistance of an interpreter. The purpose of this paper is to describe how student nurses perceived their preregistration training. The most outstanding feature of the nursing education programme in Lithuania was lack of adequate textbooks and students found this disadvantage caused a heavy workload. Students were spending the whole day in school, then studying during the evening. They were constantly tired. Although students were encouraged to be independent and to think actively during lectures, in reality this was difficult because of their workload. Students as a group were satisfied with their education, but they were doubtful about how to manage work as an independent nurse. Nowadays, many nurses in Lithuania view their work professionally and have taken over responsibility for some tasks that were carried out previously by physicians. Nurses trained previously may cause problems for newly graduated nurses because these nurses still work in a traditional manner. It will be impossible to evaluate the usefulness of the new nursing education programme in Lithuania until further investigations show how students qualify and manage their work as nurses.

  8. Implementing a National Qualifications Framework in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2011-01-01

    The design of the national qualifications framework (NQF) in Lithuania started in 2006. The NQF was officially approved by the government decree in May 2010. This article explores the influence of the processes of institutional change on the reform of the national system of qualifications in Lithuania through the implementation of the NQF, looking…

  9. Positive Unanimous Voting Algorithm for Focal Cortical Dysplasia Detection on Magnetic Resonance Image.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jian; Ma, Shaodong; Bai, Tingzhu; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions. Feature maps are further compared with the feature distributions of healthy controls to obtain feature difference maps. PUV driven by feature and feature difference maps is then applied to classify image voxels into lesion and non-lesion. The connected region analysis then refines the classification results by removing the tiny fragment regions consisting of falsely classified positive voxels. The proposed method correctly identified 8/10 patients with FCD lesions and 30/31 healthy people. Experimental results on the small FCD samples demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce the number of false positives and guarantee correct detection of lesion regions compared with four single classifiers and two recent methods. PMID:27092069

  10. Positive Unanimous Voting Algorithm for Focal Cortical Dysplasia Detection on Magnetic Resonance Image

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jian; Ma, Shaodong; Bai, Tingzhu; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions. Feature maps are further compared with the feature distributions of healthy controls to obtain feature difference maps. PUV driven by feature and feature difference maps is then applied to classify image voxels into lesion and non-lesion. The connected region analysis then refines the classification results by removing the tiny fragment regions consisting of falsely classified positive voxels. The proposed method correctly identified 8/10 patients with FCD lesions and 30/31 healthy people. Experimental results on the small FCD samples demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce the number of false positives and guarantee correct detection of lesion regions compared with four single classifiers and two recent methods. PMID:27092069

  11. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  12. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals.

  13. Curonian Spit, Lithuania and Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania and the Russian Federation was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat erosion through stabilization and reforestation projects.

    The image covers an area of 55.8 x 109.5 km, was acquired on July 25, 2006, and is located near 55.3 degrees north latitude, 20.9 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  15. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Godfrey, Katrina; Hermann, Zoltán; Nusche, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This report for Lithuania forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad…

  16. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout.

  17. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic.

  18. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic. PMID:22613222

  19. The k -Unanimity Rule for Self-Organized Decision-Making in Swarms of Robots.

    PubMed

    Scheidler, Alexander; Brutschy, Arne; Ferrante, Eliseo; Dorigo, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a collective decision-making method for swarms of robots. The method enables a robot swarm to select, from a set of possible actions, the one that has the fastest mean execution time. By means of positive feedback the method achieves consensus on the fastest action. The novelty of our method is that it allows robots to collectively find consensus on the fastest action without measuring explicitly the execution times of all available actions. We study two analytical models of the decision-making method in order to understand the dynamics of the consensus formation process. Moreover, we verify the applicability of the method in a real swarm robotics scenario. To this end, we conduct three sets of experiments that show that a robotic swarm can collectively select the shortest of two paths. Finally, we use a Monte Carlo simulation model to study and predict the influence of different parameters on the method.

  20. The k -Unanimity Rule for Self-Organized Decision-Making in Swarms of Robots.

    PubMed

    Scheidler, Alexander; Brutschy, Arne; Ferrante, Eliseo; Dorigo, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a collective decision-making method for swarms of robots. The method enables a robot swarm to select, from a set of possible actions, the one that has the fastest mean execution time. By means of positive feedback the method achieves consensus on the fastest action. The novelty of our method is that it allows robots to collectively find consensus on the fastest action without measuring explicitly the execution times of all available actions. We study two analytical models of the decision-making method in order to understand the dynamics of the consensus formation process. Moreover, we verify the applicability of the method in a real swarm robotics scenario. To this end, we conduct three sets of experiments that show that a robotic swarm can collectively select the shortest of two paths. Finally, we use a Monte Carlo simulation model to study and predict the influence of different parameters on the method. PMID:27093717

  1. Tornadoes in Lithuania in the period of 1950-2002 including analysis of the strongest tornado of 29 May 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinoniene, Izolda

    Lithuania is a small European country situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The main "weather factory" in these middle latitudes is the Atlantic Ocean. On the other hand, being close to continental weather conditions in the east, Lithuania encounters a variety of weather patterns. According to the data of Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service, there were 23 tornadoes recorded in Lithuania in the period of 1950-2002. It has been established that tornadoes occur mostly in the warm period of the year—in spring and summer. The afternoon, between 12 and 15 UTC, is the most favorable part of the day for tornadoes to occur. Synoptic situation of the very strongest tornado (F2 on the Fujita Scale) of 29 May 1981 in the eastern part of the country was typical for most of the tornadoes there. A cold front was moving from the southwest of Lithuania to the northeast alongside a low, passing in parallel to the upper level flow. A closed surface low developed along the front. Convergence at the surface level, associated with divergence at higher levels, was the main cause of upward vertical motion. The powerful storm formed over the Eastern Lithuania at the point of coincidence of the wet bulb maximum potential temperature and the strongest convergence. Unfortunately, there was no good proximity sounding to the tornado. The Kaunas upper air station's data did not fully represent the convection process, as Kaunas was already in the cold air mass when the tornado developed in the warm air, so the Minsk (Belarus) data was analyzed in addition and compared to the Kaunas soundings. The analysis of tornadoes in Lithuania shows their initiation conditions to be similar to those in the rest of Europe and the USA.

  2. Alone against the group: A unanimously disagreeing group leads to conformity, but cardiovascular threat depends on one's goals.

    PubMed

    Seery, Mark D; Gabriel, Shira; Lupien, Shannon P; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2016-08-01

    A long history of research in psychology has studied the consequences of when individuals face a group that unanimously disagrees with them. However, relatively little research has attempted to understand individuals' internal reactions to such disagreement while it is experienced. Psychophysiological measures are particularly well suited for this purpose. We used the perspective of the biopsychosocial model of challenge/threat to test whether and under what circumstances expressing one's political opinion to a disagreeing group led to a cardiovascular threat response (high total peripheral resistance, low cardiac output). We hypothesized that, when participants were provided with a goal to fit in with the group, a disagreeing group would elicit cardiovascular responses consistent with greater threat than an agreeing group, but that this effect would disappear if not reverse when participants were provided with a goal to express their individuality. Results supported hypotheses and further revealed a divergence between cardiovascular responses and conformity behavior, such that a disagreeing group fostered conformity regardless of goal condition. These findings suggest that (a) facing the prospect of a disagreeing group need not necessarily result in the negative experience of threat (reflecting evaluating low resources/high demands), and (b) conformity behavior can mask a range of internal states.

  3. A summary of the recommendations adopted unanimously at the Fourth World Conference on Women (4-15 September 1995).

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the platform of action recommendations adopted unanimously at the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. The Platform called for the empowerment of women; the protection of human rights and freedoms throughout the life cycle; and equity at home, at work, and abroad, items that reinforced the Beijing Declaration. This article identifies recommended actions on poverty, education and training, health, domestic violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, mass media, environment, the girl-child, and institutional and financial arrangements. The Platform recommends, for example, action to create macroeconomic policies and development strategies that address the needs of women in poverty. It recommends changes in laws and administrative practices to ensure women's equal rights and access to economic resources. It recommends action to ensure equal access to education throughout the life cycle, to eradicate illiteracy among women, to develop nondiscriminatory education and training, and to allocate sufficient resources for educational reform. It recommends action to increase women's access throughout the life cycle to appropriate, affordable, and quality health care, information, and related services. Action should reduce maternal mortality by at least 50% of 1990 levels by the year 2000, and a further 50% by 2015. Legislation must be adopted to end violence against women in peace and wartime. Action must promote women's economic and human rights and women's equal access to and full participation in power structures and government decision-making. PMID:12179429

  4. Ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Girgzdiene, Rasa; Serafinaviciūte, Brigita; Stakenas, Vidas; Bycenkiene, Steigvile

    2009-12-01

    Continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in Lithuania have been performed since 1982. Long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. Several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of Lithuanian forests. A strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold of 40 ppb index and the defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior trees in Lithuanian forests during 1991-2008. A strong correlation was found between ozone exposure and the proportion of healthy F. excelsior, Betula sp., and Alnus incana, trees indicating that in Lithuania the deciduous species are more sensitive to ozone than conifers and that healthier trees may be better indicators of the changing environment. The results of the studies suggest that the observed levels of ozone are sufficiently high to have negative effects on the vegetation in Lithuania.

  5. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Teskeviciene, Birute

    2008-01-15

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel

  6. The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1996-02-01

    This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.

  7. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  8. Pre-School Education in Lithuania: Historical Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montvilaite, Sigita

    During the 20th century, preschool education in Lithuania evolved within a context of a changing society, ideology, and politics, including the experience of national independence, two world wars, political exile and occupation, and regained independence. This paper demonstrates the connection between past and present preschool educational…

  9. Onshore Wind Farms: Value Creation for Stakeholders in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskienė, Marija; Rudzkis, Paulius; Kanopka, Adomas

    With the costs of fossil fuel consistently rising worldwide over the last decade, the development of green technologies has become a major goal in many countries. Therefore the evaluation of wind power projects becomes a very important task. To estimate the value of the technologies based on renewable resources also means taking into consideration social, economic, environmental, and scientific value of such projects. This article deals with economic evaluation of electricity generation costs of onshore wind farms in Lithuania and the key factors that have influence on wind power projects and offer a better understanding of social-economic context behind wind power projects. To achieve these goals, this article makes use of empirical data of Lithuania's wind power farms as well as data about the investment environment of the country.Based on empirical data of wind power parks, the research investigates the average wind farm generation efficiency in Lithuania. Employing statistical methods the return on investments of wind farms in Lithuania is calculated. The value created for every party involved and the total value of the wind farm is estimated according to Stakeholder theory.

  10. Information Needs Research in Russia and Lithuania, 1965-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceviciute, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The invisibility of research on information needs from the East and Central Europe in the West suggested an exploration of the published research output from Lithuania and Russia from 1965 to 2003. Method: The data were collected from the abstracting journal Informatika-59. The publications were retrieved from Lithuanian and Russian…

  11. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Lithuania. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Reform of education, training, and human resource development is an integral part of the transition to a democratic society and market economy. The talents, skills, and knowledge base of the Lithuanian population are crucial in this process, motivating the ambitious scale and urgency of the reforms being advanced for education. Lithuania has made…

  12. Comparisons organized by Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of FTMC, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I

    2016-03-01

    The newly established Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute (FTMC) in Lithuania organized four comparisons in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements in water. For gamma-ray emitters, the activity concentration in the samples was in the range 1-25Bq/kg, while for tritium it was around 2Bq/g. The assigned values of all comparisons were traceable to the primary standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI). PMID:26585643

  13. Study on Customer Satisfaction with Facilities Management Services in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Žūkaitė-Jefimovienė, Giedrė

    2012-12-01

    The article introduces the concept and content of facilities management (FM) services. The paper presents the concept of customer satisfaction and discusses the key factors which influence the opinions of customers and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the services provided. The article presents two studies: a brief survey of several FM service providers and a survey of customer satisfaction with FM services in Lithuania. The conclusions are given at the end of the article.

  14. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  15. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  16. Health care reform and job satisfaction of primary health care physicians in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Bliudziute, Egle

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this research paper is to study job satisfaction of physicians and general practitioners at primary health care institutions during the health care reform in Lithuania. Methods Self-administrated anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and general practitioners (N = 243, response rate – 78.6%), working at Kaunas primary health care level establishments, in October – December 2003. Results 15 men (7.9%) and 176 women (92.1%) participated in the research, among which 133 (69.6%) were GPs and 58 (30.4%) physicians. Respondents claimed to have chosen to become doctors, as other professions were of no interest to them. Total job satisfaction of the respondents was 4.74 point (on a 7 point scale). Besides 75.5% of the respondents said they would not recommend their children to choose a PHC level doctor's profession. The survey also showed that the respondents were most satisfied with the level of autonomy they get at work – 5.28, relationship with colleagues – 5.06, and management quality – 5.04, while compensation (2.09), social status (3.36), and workload (3.93) turned to be causing the highest dissatisfaction among the respondents. The strongest correlation (Spearmen's ratio) was observed between total job satisfaction and such factors as the level of autonomy – 0.566, workload – 0.452, and GP's social status – 0.458. Conclusion Total job satisfaction of doctors working at primary health care establishments in Lithuania is relatively low, and compensation, social status, and workload are among the key factors that condition PHC doctors' dissatisfaction with their job. PMID:15748299

  17. Educational differences in incidence of cancer in Lithuania, 2001-2009: evidence from census-linked cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, Giedre; Jasilionis, Domantas; Vincerzevskiene, Ieva; Krilaviciute, Agne; Ambrozaitiene, Dalia; Stankuniene, Vladislava; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2015-05-01

    This study used population-based census-linked cancer incidence data to identify patterns of educational differentials in the risk of cancer by detailed sites of cancer in Lithuania. The study is based on the linkage between all records of the 2001 population census, all records from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence), and all death and emigration records from Statistics Lithuania for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009. The study population (cohort) includes all permanent residents of Lithuania aged 30-74 years on the day of the census (6 April 2001). The study found that cancers of the lip, mouth, and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, urinary bladder, pancreas, and lung for men and cancers of the cervix uteri, lung, and colon for women show a statistically significant inverse educational gradient with excess incidence in the lowest educational group. At the same time, a reversed cancer risk gradient with the highest incidence for the higher education group was observed for thyroid cancer, melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This group also includes prostate cancer, kidney cancer, and multiple myeloma for men and cancer of the pancreas, breast cancer, cancer of the colon, and cancer of the uterus for women. The associations between education and cancer incidence observed in this study reflect the concordance between social status and lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer. Cancer awareness in society has also contributed toward the observed higher risk of cancer, which is usually promoted more by patients with higher education.

  18. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2014-05-01

    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  19. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  20. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Honeybee Products in Lithuania: The First Analysis of Archival Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Simaitiene, Zenona; Pranskunas, Andrius; Mekas, Tauras

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has old ethnomedicine traditions, consisting of many recipes with herbal, animal, and mineral original ingredients. All these findings were mostly collected in Lithuanian language, often in local community's dialects, and stored only in archives. We analyzed archival sources about honeybee and its products used for medicinal purposes dated from 1886 till 1992 in different parts of Lithuania. We systematized and presented the most important information about bees and their products: indication for usage, ingredients used in the recipe, their preparation techniques, and application for therapeutic purposes. Researchers in Lithuania are now looking for new evidence based indications and preparation and standardization methods of bee products. Archival sources are a foundation for studies in Lithuania. The results can be integrated into scientifically approved folk medicine practices into today's healthcare. PMID:27642360

  1. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Honeybee Products in Lithuania: The First Analysis of Archival Sources.

    PubMed

    Pranskuniene, Zivile; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Simaitiene, Zenona; Pranskunas, Andrius; Mekas, Tauras

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has old ethnomedicine traditions, consisting of many recipes with herbal, animal, and mineral original ingredients. All these findings were mostly collected in Lithuanian language, often in local community's dialects, and stored only in archives. We analyzed archival sources about honeybee and its products used for medicinal purposes dated from 1886 till 1992 in different parts of Lithuania. We systematized and presented the most important information about bees and their products: indication for usage, ingredients used in the recipe, their preparation techniques, and application for therapeutic purposes. Researchers in Lithuania are now looking for new evidence based indications and preparation and standardization methods of bee products. Archival sources are a foundation for studies in Lithuania. The results can be integrated into scientifically approved folk medicine practices into today's healthcare.

  2. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Honeybee Products in Lithuania: The First Analysis of Archival Sources.

    PubMed

    Pranskuniene, Zivile; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Simaitiene, Zenona; Pranskunas, Andrius; Mekas, Tauras

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has old ethnomedicine traditions, consisting of many recipes with herbal, animal, and mineral original ingredients. All these findings were mostly collected in Lithuanian language, often in local community's dialects, and stored only in archives. We analyzed archival sources about honeybee and its products used for medicinal purposes dated from 1886 till 1992 in different parts of Lithuania. We systematized and presented the most important information about bees and their products: indication for usage, ingredients used in the recipe, their preparation techniques, and application for therapeutic purposes. Researchers in Lithuania are now looking for new evidence based indications and preparation and standardization methods of bee products. Archival sources are a foundation for studies in Lithuania. The results can be integrated into scientifically approved folk medicine practices into today's healthcare. PMID:27642360

  3. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Honeybee Products in Lithuania: The First Analysis of Archival Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Simaitiene, Zenona; Pranskunas, Andrius; Mekas, Tauras

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has old ethnomedicine traditions, consisting of many recipes with herbal, animal, and mineral original ingredients. All these findings were mostly collected in Lithuanian language, often in local community's dialects, and stored only in archives. We analyzed archival sources about honeybee and its products used for medicinal purposes dated from 1886 till 1992 in different parts of Lithuania. We systematized and presented the most important information about bees and their products: indication for usage, ingredients used in the recipe, their preparation techniques, and application for therapeutic purposes. Researchers in Lithuania are now looking for new evidence based indications and preparation and standardization methods of bee products. Archival sources are a foundation for studies in Lithuania. The results can be integrated into scientifically approved folk medicine practices into today's healthcare.

  4. Modeling of radionuclide releases from the geological repository for RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, Povilas; Brazauskaite, Asta

    2007-07-01

    During 2002-2005 the assessment of possibilities for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Lithuania was performed with support of Swedish experts. Potential geological formations for disposal of SNF were selected, disposal concept was developed, reference disposal site was defined and preliminary generic safety assessment was performed. Performing safety assessment the analysis of radionuclides migration from the repository as well as their impact to human and environment were also very important issues. In this paper results on the analysis of the radionuclide releases from the reference geological repository site for RBMK-1500 SNF in crystalline rocks in Lithuania are presented. For radionuclide migration in the near field region of the repository integrated finite difference method and the concept of compartments were used. For radionuclide migration in the far field the discrete channel network concept was used. The assessment of radionuclide migration in the near and far field region was performed using computer codes AMRER4.5 and CHAN3D. The results of analysis show that most of safety relevant radionuclides of RBMK-1500 SNF are effectively retarded in the near field region. The exposure due to possible release of the radionuclides from the crystalline rocks would be dominated by 1291 firstly while after approx. 250 thousand years {sup 226}Ra is dominating already. (authors)

  5. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  6. Molecular identification of Phytoplasmas infecting diseased pine trees in the UNESCO-protected Curonian Spit of Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although mainly known as pathogens that affect angiosperms, phytoplasmas have recently been detected in diseased coniferous plants. In 2008-2014, we observed, in the Curonian Spit of western Lithuania and in forests of southern Lithuania (Varena district), diseased trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest...

  7. Varena suite in the crystalline crust of the Southern Lithuania: implication to the genesis and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkliauskaite, Vaida; Motuza, Gediminas; Skipityte, Raminta

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Lithuania, Proterozoic, Varena suite, rare earth elements, metasomatosis. Crystalline crust in Southern Lithuania is covered by 200-500 m thick sedimentary cover and is investigated by potential field mapping and drilling. It is composed by amphibolites (metabasalts), biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneisses (metapsammites and porphyry metadacite and metaandesite) of Orosirian period. Each lithology is predominant in alternating bands extended NNE-SSW. Supracrustals are metamorphosed on the level of amphibolite facies and migmatized. Intrusive rocks are represented by coeval rare bodies of gabbro, peridotite and widespread Calymmian granitic plutons. Varena suite comprises olivine, enstatite, diopside, olivine-magnetite, magnetite, apatite-bearing, and presumably also dolomite rocks. They form integrated bodies few sq. km large, concentrated in the ˜300 km2area extended in N-S direction.Bodies of particular rocks from Varena suite fixed in the boreholes are few tenths up to few hundred meters thick, except apatite-bearing rocks, forming decimeter up to meter scale lenses and veins. Rocks of Varena suite are affected by strong metasomatic alteration. Olivine is substituted by serpentine, and phlogopite, pyroxenes with amphibols (hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, rarely richterite). The country rocks (amphibolites, metaporphyres) also affected by alkaline (mainly sodic) metasomatosis manifested by formation of scapolite, albite, clynopyroxene (often sodic), phlogopite, carbonates. The mineralization of REE (up to 2759-3100 ppm of La and Ce respectively), Th, U, P hosted by monazite, apatite, allanite is spatially related to the Varena suite and some metasomatized supracrustals. The views on the genesis of Varena suite are contradicting. By various authors they are regarded as skarns, presuming metasomatic origin, as layered intrusions or products of alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism. In this presentation the genetic model is reviewed based on

  8. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    A southwestward younging of Palaeoproterozoic terranes in the crystalline basement in the western part of the East European Craton has been recently suggested by numerous isotopic datings (TIMS, SIMS zircon, EPMA monazite and 40Ar/39Ar). Along with geochemical and geophysical data this allows to decipher a multistage accretionary history. In the east, the Belarus-Podlasie Granulite belt (BPG) is dominated by 1.88 Ga dioritic-granodioritic (calc-alkaline) magmatism in Belarus (Claesson et al., 2001). Remnants of c. 1.89 Ga metadiorites, c. 1.90 Ga magmatic zircon cores in c. 1.80 Ga granites (Vejelyte, 2011) in S and E Lithuania and 1.88 Ga metagranodiorites in E Poland (Radzyn area) confirm the c. 1.90 Ga accretion-related magmatism in the BPG and the East Lithuanian domain. Together with the coeval juvenile granitoids in the adjacent Okolovo terrane this indicates the formation of the Lithuanian-Belarus composite terrane at 1.90-1.88 Ga. At c. 1.86-1.84 Ga, abundant gabbro-diorite-granodiorite-granite intrusions were emplaced further southwest in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland. In Lithuana, within the Polish-Lithuanian terrane the TTG suite of deformed and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies calc-alkaline tonalitic, quartz dioritic and dioritic rocks is characteristic for the Randamonys massif. The strongly deformed granitoids in the adjacent NW Belarus, mafic granulites and gneissic granites of igneous origin in central Lithuania, garnet-cordierite bearing granites further north display similar c. 1.84 Ga magmatic age (Motuza et al., 2008). This shows that various tectonic settings including island and continental magmatic arcs were possible. They were accreted to the Lithuanian-Belarus terrane sometime at 1.84-1.81 Ga while voluminous charnockitic magmatism took place in W Lithuania (e.g. Claesson et al., 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). A chain of younger c. 1.83 Ga volcanic arcs was developed in W and S Lithuania and N Poland (Wiszniewska et al., 2005). The

  9. Land use impacts on lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Laukonis, Rymvidas

    2016-04-01

    Land use has important impacts on soils, surface and ground water quality. Urban agricultural areas are an important source of pollutants, which can reach lakes through surface runoff and underground circulation. Human intervention in the landscape is one of the major causes pollution and land degradation, thus it is very important to understand the impacts of and use on environment and if they have some spatial pattern (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015; Brevik et al., 2016). The identification of the spatial pattern of lakes pollution is in Alytus area (Lithuania) is fundamental, since they provide an important range of ecosystem services to local communities, including food and recreational activities. Thus, the degradation of these environments can induce important economic losses. In this context, it is import to identify the areas with high pollutant accumulation and the environmental and human factors responsible for it. The objective of this work is to study identify the amount of some important nutrients resultant from human activities in lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania). Alytus region is located in southern part of Lithuania and has an approximate area of 40 km2. Inside this region we analyzed several water quality parameters of 55 lakes, including, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended materials (SM), water clarity (WC) biochemical oxygen demand (BDO), total phosphorous (TP), total Nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as other environmental variables as altitude, lake maximum deep (MD), lake area and land use according Corine land cover classification (CLC2006). Previous to data analysis, data normality and homogeneity of the variances, was assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Leven's test, respectively. The majority of the data did not respect the Gaussian distribution and the heteroscedasticity, even after a logarithmic, and box-cox transformation. Thus, in this work we used the logarithmic transformed data to do a principal

  10. Forecasting medical waste generation using short and extra short datasets: Case study of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of various mathematical modelling methods, while forecasting medical waste generation using Lithuania's annual medical waste data. Only recently has a hazardous waste collection system that includes medical waste been created and therefore the study access to gain large sets of relevant data for its research has been somewhat limited. According to data that was managed to be obtained, it was decided to develop three short and extra short datasets with 20, 10 and 6 observations. Spearman's correlation calculation showed that the influence of independent variables, such as visits at hospitals and other medical institutions, number of children in the region, number of beds in hospital and other medical institutions, average life expectancy and doctor's visits in that region are the most consistent and common in all three datasets. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four non-parametric regression methods were conducted on the collected datasets. The best and most promising results were demonstrated by generalised additive (R(2) = 0.90455) in the regional data case, smoothing splines models (R(2) = 0.98584) in the long annual data case and multilayer feedforward artificial neural networks in the short annual data case (R(2) = 0.61103). PMID:26879908

  11. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project.

    PubMed

    Turusbekova, N; Ljungqvist, I; Davidavičiene, E; Mikaityte, J; van der Werf, M J

    2016-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan.

  12. "Lyderiu Laikas" (Time for Leaders): Lithuania's Response to Changing Leadership and Learning in Their Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Coleen; Blandford, Sonia; Pranckuniene, Egle; Vildziuniene, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the Ministry of Education in Lithuania has approached policy change to the leadership of their schools. The aim of the Time for Leaders Project and subsequent policy is to recapture the enthusiasm of teachers and school leaders that had been in evidence immediately after the country regaining independence in 1990. The Time…

  13. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  14. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Lithuania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaulytiene, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    Artistic education at general education schools in Lithuania is organised by teaching separate art subjects. Art education based on the integrated approach or project method may be organized at primary school, in grades one to four, according to the individual curriculum prepared by the teacher. Arts subjects included in Lithuanian arts curriculum…

  15. Pioneers in Academia: Higher Education for Nurses in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalnins, Irene

    1995-01-01

    In Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, postgraduate nursing curricula were reformed, but discrepancies appeared between stated goals and actual content, due largely to inexperience with nursing education. Other difficulties included lack of literature in native languages and insufficient reading ability in English. (SK)

  16. Gap Year Students in Lithuania: The Value Orientations of Children from Wealthy Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonavicius, Vylius; Ozolinciute, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand the trajectories of students who defer entry to university. The study was conducted in Lithuania, a former Soviet Union republic. The phenomenon of a "gap year" is usually associated with young people, who decide not to enter higher education schools immediately after receiving secondary education, instead…

  17. Evolution of Competence Concept in Lithuania: From VET Reform to Development of National Qualifications System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzackas, Rimantas; Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the development of the concept of competence in Lithuania beginning from the period of transition from the Soviet planned economy and post-totalitarian regime to the market economy and democratic society and ending with the designing and implementation of the National Qualifications System and Qualifications…

  18. Re-Learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence: Example of Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvydiene, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Since May of 1999, 46 European countries have been engaged in reconstructing their higher education systems to bring about a greater degree of "convergence," i.e. a move toward common reference points and operating procedures to create a European Higher Education Area. Education has always played an important role in the development of Lithuania,…

  19. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  20. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  1. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  2. Vocational Education and Training and Employment Services in Lithuania. Monographs: Candidate Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleckiene, Giedre; Zimina, Natalija; Corcoran, Terry; McKerracher, Moira; Faudel, Henrik

    Lithuania experienced strong negative changes to gross domestic product (GDP) after independence, but the trend has reversed since 1994. Labor force participation and employment rates for 15-64 year-olds has decreased; the unemployment rate is 17 percent. Employment has increased in the services sector but decreased in agriculture, which accounts…

  3. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  4. Teamwork in primary care: perspectives of general practitioners and community nurses in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A team approach in primary care has proven benefits in achieving better outcomes, reducing health care costs, satisfying patient needs, ensuring continuity of care, increasing job satisfaction among health providers and using human health care resources more efficiently. However, some research indicates constraints in collaboration within primary health care (PHC) teams in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of teamwork in Lithuania by exploring the experiences of teamwork by general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) involved in PHC. Methods Six focus groups were formed with 29 GPs and 27 CNs from the Kaunas Region of Lithuania. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis of these data was then performed. Results The analysis of focus group data identified six thematic categories related to teamwork in PHC: the structure of a PHC team, synergy among PHC team members, descriptions of roles and responsibilities of team members, competencies of PHC team members, communications between PHC team members and the organisational background for teamwork. These findings provide the basis for a discussion of a thematic model of teamwork that embraces formal, individual and organisational factors. Conclusions The need for effective teamwork in PHC is an issue receiving broad consensus; however, the process of teambuilding is often taken for granted in the PHC sector in Lithuania. This study suggests that both formal and individual behavioural factors should be targeted when aiming to strengthen PHC teams. Furthermore, this study underscores the need to provide explicit formal descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of PHC team members in Lithuania, which would include establishing clear professional boundaries. The training of team members is an essential component of the teambuilding process, but not sufficient by itself. PMID:23945286

  5. Land use impacts on lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Laukonis, Rymvidas

    2016-04-01

    Land use has important impacts on soils, surface and ground water quality. Urban agricultural areas are an important source of pollutants, which can reach lakes through surface runoff and underground circulation. Human intervention in the landscape is one of the major causes pollution and land degradation, thus it is very important to understand the impacts of and use on environment and if they have some spatial pattern (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015; Brevik et al., 2016). The identification of the spatial pattern of lakes pollution is in Alytus area (Lithuania) is fundamental, since they provide an important range of ecosystem services to local communities, including food and recreational activities. Thus, the degradation of these environments can induce important economic losses. In this context, it is import to identify the areas with high pollutant accumulation and the environmental and human factors responsible for it. The objective of this work is to study identify the amount of some important nutrients resultant from human activities in lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania). Alytus region is located in southern part of Lithuania and has an approximate area of 40 km2. Inside this region we analyzed several water quality parameters of 55 lakes, including, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended materials (SM), water clarity (WC) biochemical oxygen demand (BDO), total phosphorous (TP), total Nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as other environmental variables as altitude, lake maximum deep (MD), lake area and land use according Corine land cover classification (CLC2006). Previous to data analysis, data normality and homogeneity of the variances, was assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Leven's test, respectively. The majority of the data did not respect the Gaussian distribution and the heteroscedasticity, even after a logarithmic, and box-cox transformation. Thus, in this work we used the logarithmic transformed data to do a principal

  6. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  7. The development of medical sociology in the post-Soviet society: the case of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kaminskas, Raimundas; Peicius, Eimantas

    2007-06-01

    This article explores the historical development of medical sociology and analyses the social problems that have had impacted the changes of health care institutionalization particularly in Lithuania during the Soviet and post-soviet period. Approaching the interaction between sociology and public health sciences, it is intended to apply the concept of medical sociology and its determinants in the context of health care and education systems. By analyzing the case past of medical sociology in Lithuania, we claim that its prospects should be associated with the study of new challenges in the biomedical sciences. In order to improve the importance of medical sociology in developing democracies we should focus on the questions, for instance, to what extent modern biotechnologies should be applied, how to improve the situation with patients' rights, and how to combine the knowledge of social sciences and biomedicine in order to improve the quality of healthcare services and to ensure better functioning of the healthcare system in particular district.

  8. Teaching ethics in a masters program in public health in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Bankauskaite, Vaida

    2007-07-01

    This article aims to present 10 years of experience of teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania, and to discuss the content, skills, teaching approach and tools of this programme. In addition, the article analyses the links between ethics and law, identifies the challenges of the teaching process and suggests future teaching strategies. The important role of teaching ethics in countries that are in transition owing to a radically changing value system is emphasised.

  9. Teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Bankauskaite, Vaida

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to present 10 years of experience of teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania, and to discuss the content, skills, teaching approach and tools of this programme. In addition, the article analyses the links between ethics and law, identifies the challenges of the teaching process and suggests future teaching strategies. The important role of teaching ethics in countries that are in transition owing to a radically changing value system is emphasised. PMID:17601872

  10. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time.

  11. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  12. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  13. Social Network Structure and HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in Lithuania: Gatekeepers as Bridges of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess—while controlling for individual risk characteristics—how certain social network structural characteristics (degree, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality) are related to HIV infections. Injecting drug users (N = 299) in Vilnius, Lithuania were recruited using incentivized chain referral sampling for a cross-sectional study. Sociometric social links were established between participants, and UCINET was used to calculate network measures. HIV prevalence was 10 %, and all except two knew they were infected. Of the five variables that remained significant in the final multivariate model, one showed temporal cumulative infection risk (more years since first drug injecting), three reflected informed altruism (always using condoms, less distributive syringe sharing and having not more than one sex partner), and one pointed to the importance of social network structure (betweenness centrality, indicating bridge populations). Loess regression indicates that betweenness may have the highest impact on HIV prevalence (about 60 vs. 20 % estimated HIV prevalence for the highest betweenness centrality values vs. highest age values). This analysis contributes to existing evidence showing both potential informed altruism (or maybe social desirability bias) in connection with HIV infection, and a link between HIV infection risk and the role of bridges within the social network of injecting drug user populations. These findings suggest the importance of harm reduction activities, including confidential testing and counseling, and of social network interventions. PMID:24469223

  14. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis rileyi sporocysts in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Liaugaudaitė, Simona; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Švažas, Saulius

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that Sarcocystis rileyi is one of the earliest described species of the genus Sarcocystis forming macrocysts in ducks, the life cycle of this species is still unknown in Europe. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were observed in faeces of four of 23 (17.4 %) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of four of 20 (20.0 %) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of seven of 13 (53.8 %) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) hunted in Lithuania. A very small number of Sarcocystis sporocysts measuring 11.9 × 8.3 μm (n = 5) was found in faecal samples, whereas considerably more sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts and free sporocysts were detected in the small intestines of red foxes and raccoon dogs. These sporocysts measured 12.9 × 8.1 μm (n = 16) and 12.1 × 8.1 μm (n = 54) in red foxes and raccoon dogs, respectively. Using species-specific PCR and subsequent sequencing, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region partial sequences of oocysts/sporocysts from small intestine mucosal scrapings of six raccoon dogs and three red foxes were identified as belonging to S. rileyi. The present study provides strong evidence showing that the red fox and the raccoon dog can serve as final hosts of S. rileyi in Europe; however, transmission experiments are needed for the ultimate approval.

  15. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  16. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  17. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention.

  18. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, p<0.001). The Z score of providing services (0.096±2.239) were significantly higher than the total (0.093±2.045), cultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These

  19. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  20. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm3 in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  1. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  2. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 p<0.001). On average the probability of SWR was high with the OK (0.58±0.08) followed by PK (0.49±0.18), SK (0.32±0.16), DK (0.32±0.15) and IK (0.31±0.16). The most accurate probability methods predicted a lower probability of SWR in the studied plot. The spatial distribution of SWR was different according to the tested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods

  3. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis taeniata and Sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. from the sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Butkauskas, Dalius; Rudaitytė, Eglė; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Pūraitė, Irma

    2016-08-01

    The diaphragm muscles of eight sika deer (Cervus nippon) bred in Lithuania were examined for Sarcocystis cysts. Two Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis taeniata, which were previously reported in Canadian moose (Alces alces) and Argentinean red deer (Cervus elaphus), and Sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. were described using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) sequences analysis. By LM, cysts of S. taeniata were 424.8 × 57.9 (200-837 × 30-100) μm in size and had a thin (up to 1 μm) and smooth cyst wall, while short ribbon-like protrusions arising from broadened cone-shaped bases were seen under TEM. Cysts of S. pilosa (by LM) were ribbon-shaped, measured 848.5 × 63.8 (350-1700 × 30-125) μm and had thin 7-8-μm long hair-like protrusions. By TEM, cyst wall was type 7a-like; protrusions arose from 0.3 μm wide dome-shaped base with minute indentations of the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane near it, the surface of protrusions seemed to be smooth, and the ground substance layer was thin (0.18-0.22 μm). The 18S rDNA, in contrast to the cox1, lacked variability to discriminate S. pilosa from closely related Sarcocystis hjorti from the red deer and moose. S. taeniata, but not S. pilosa, showed a considerable intraspecific variation in both genes analyzed. The phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA and cox1 sequences suggest that canids are definitive hosts of both S. taeniata and S. pilosa. This paper represents the first identification of Sarcocystis species in the sika deer by morphological and molecular methods. PMID:27086872

  5. Copper, zinc, tin and lead in canned evaporated milk, produced in Lithuania: the initial content and its change at storage.

    PubMed

    Ramonaityte, D T

    2001-01-01

    The study has been carried out to elucidate what contents of heavy metals were typical for canned milk products--evaporated (TS 25.5-28.5%) sterilized milk and condensed sweetened milk, produced in Lithuania in the period 1983-1997. The influence of storage time upon the level of Sn, Pb, Cu and Zn in the products has also been determined. The results show that the most considerable changes occurred in Cu concentration, which gradually decreased from the maximum level in 1983-1985 (2.23 +/- 0.18 mg/kg) to the minimum level in the latest years (0.44 +/- 0.01 mg/kg). Such variation of copper content in canned milks can be closely connected with its changes in raw milk. Zinc content in canned milk products also was in good agreement with raw milk. The content of tin and lead in the canned products many times exceeded their concentration in raw milk and ranged from 28 +/- 2 and 0.093 +/- 0.005 to 114 +/- 4 and 0.29 +/- 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. It has been determined that the dependence of the concentration of tin and lead on the storage time of concentrated (or evaporated) sterilized milk is nearest to the parabolic, and in sweetened condensed milk to the exponential function, whereas the small increase of copper and zinc concentrations can be described by straight-line function. The functional dependence obtained enables one to predict the Sn and Pb level in canned evaporated milk products after storage and to foresee the safe initial concentration of these metals in freshly produced evaporated milk, assigned for storage.

  6. Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania, 1997–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bubnaitienė, Vilija; Kalėdienė, Ramunė; Kėvalas, Rimantas

    2005-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome relevant in Lithuania. Methods A nationwide case-control study surveying parents of 35 infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome during the period of 1997–2000 and parents of 145 control infants matched with SIDS infants for date of birth and for region of birth was carried out. Results Deaths incidence was greater in the warm period (60%) vs. cold period (40%). Prone and side sleeping positions both carried no increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome compared with supine because of a rare prone sleeping (4.1% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants) and more prevalent side than supine sleeping (84.8% of controls vs. 94.3% of dead infants) in the controls as well as the cases. Bed sharing for the whole night as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome has not been confirmed, either, as bed sharing was common only for the controls (13.8% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants). Routine sleeping environment factors such as heavy wrapping (≥4 togs) of an infant (odds ratio 8.49; 95% confidence interval 2.38 to 30.32), sleeping in a bassinet (4.22; 1.16 to 15.38) and maternal factors such as maternal education ≤12 years (4.48; 1.34 to 14.94), unplanned pregnancy (5.22; 1.49 to 18.18) and ≥2 previous live births (3.90; 1.00 to 15.10) were significantly associated with sudden infant death syndrome on multivariate analysis. Conclusion The results of this first population-based case-control study have shed some light on the epidemiology of the syndrome in Lithuania. Although the mortality of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania is not high, it might be lowered moreover by public informing about sudden infant death syndrome and related risk factors. Special attention must be paid to mothers with low education on potentially modifiable risk factors such as routine heavy wrapping of an infant during sleep, routine sleeping in a bassinet and unplanned pregnancy. PMID:16283946

  7. Stakeholder perception about urban sprawl impacts in land degradation in Lithuania. The importance of profession and education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiune, Ieva; Mierauskas, Pranas; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders have an important impact on land use planning. Their visions and culture, shape and influence the decision makers and the legislation (Schwilch et al., 2009; Fleskens and Stringer, 2014; Pereira et al., 2016; Subiros et al., 2016). Nowadays, urban sprawl is one the causes of land degradation, causing important, environmental, social and economic problems. This expansion to rural areas is caused mainly by lifestyle changes, cultural views, increase of mobility, house price in city centers, poor air quality, noise, small apartments, unsafe environments, lack of green areas, competition among municipalities, development of transport network and social problems. Urban sprawl is currently an important problem in Lithuania, especially in Vilnius. Vilnius residents are concerned about the impacts of urban sprawl in environmental, social and economic aspects. Nevertheless, this depends very much on the age of and the occupation of the residents (Pereira et al., 2014). However, very little information is available about the vision of stakeholders regarding this position. The objective of this work is to study the stakeholder's perception about urban sprawl impacts on land degradation in Lithuania. A total of 86 stakeholders from different institutions were interviewed and asked to rate from 1 to 5 according to the importance of the question (1=very low; 2=low; 3=medium; 4=high and 5=very high). The questions carried out were. Does urban sprawl have impacts on a) consumption of land and soil, b) loss of soil permeability, c) loss of soil biodiversity, d) loss of best agricultural land, e) increase in the use of water and fertilizers in less productive areas, f) increase in soil erosion in remote areas, and g) loss of natural habitats. These variables were analyzed according to the gender, age, place of residence (urban/countryside), Profession, field of studies, study level and if the participant was a member of a NGO. A general regression was carried out in

  8. Epiphytic lichen community dynamics in deciduous forests around a phosphorus fertiliser factory in Central Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Motiejūnaite, Jurga

    2007-03-01

    The detailed dynamics of epiphytic lichen communities were observed while studying permanent quadrats in the zone of influence of a phosphorus fertiliser factory in central Lithuania. The most significant changes were induced by several factors: changes in macroenvironment (increase of illumination), bark scaling, succession processes, individual growth characteristics of the community members, and influence of fungal infection and invertebrate grazing. None of these changes could be directly linked with air pollution. These observations have shown that in conditions of more or less stable pollution, epiphytic community dynamics should be evaluated with care, the best indicators of the characteristics of the communities being species richness and presence/absence and abundance of indicator (nitrophilous or acidophilous) species.

  9. Power politics: National energy strategies of the nuclear newly independent states of Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabonis-Chafee, Theresa Marie

    The successor states of Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine arrived at independence facing extraordinary challenges in their energy sectors. Each state was a net importer, heavily dependent on cheap energy supplies, mostly from Russia. Each state also inherited a nuclear power complex over which it had not previously exercised full control. In the time period 1991--1996, each state attempted to impose coherence on the energy sector, selecting a new course for the pieces it had inherited from a much larger, highly integrated energy structure. Each state attempted to craft national energy policies in the midst of severe supply shocks and price shocks. Each state developed institutions to govern its nuclear power sector. The states' challenges were made even greater by the fact that they had few political or economic structures necessary for energy management, and sought to create those structures at the same time. This dissertation is a systematic, non-quantitative examination of how each state's energy policies developed during the 1991--1996 time period. The theoretical premise of the analysis (drawn from Statist realism) is that systemic variables---regional climate and energy vulnerability---provide the best explanations for the resulting energy policy decisions. The dependent variable is defined as creation and reform of energy institutions. The independent variables include domestic climate, regional climate, energy vulnerability and transnational assistance. All three states adopted rhetoric and legislation declaring energy a strategic sector. The evidence suggests that two of the states, Armenia and Lithuania, which faced tense regional climates and high levels of energy vulnerability, succeeded in actually treating energy strategically, approaching energy as a matter of national security or "high politics." The third state, Ukraine, failed to do so. The evidence presented suggests that the systemic variables (regional climate and energy vulnerability) provided a

  10. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  11. Mapping optimal areas of ecosystem services potential in Vilnius (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Maps are fundamental to understand the spatial pattern of natural and human impacts on the landscape (Brevik et al., 2016; Lavado Contador et al., 2009; Pereira et al., 2010a,b). Urban areas are subjected to an intense human pressure (Beniston et al., 2015), contributing to the degradation of the ecosystems, reducing their capacity to provide services in quality and quantity (Requier-Desjardins et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011). Environments that can provide a high number and quality of ecosystem services (ES) must be identified and managed correctly, since are spaces that can mitigate the impacts of human settlements and improve their quality. thus is of major importance have identify the areas that can provide better ES (Deppelegrin and Pereira, 2015). The aim of this work is to identify areas with high ES potential in Vilnius city. Here, we identified a total of 4 different land uses, agricultural areas (32.48%), water bodies (1.46%), forest and semi-natural (31.91%) areas and artificial surfaces (34.16%). CORINE land cover 2006 was used as base information to classify ES potential. The assessment of each land cover potential was carried out using expert assessment. Each land use type was ranked from 0 (no potential) to 5 (High potential). In this work the sum of total regulating, providing and cultural ES were assessed. The areas with optimal ES were the ones with the sum of all ranks equal or higher than the 3rd Quartil of each distribution. After identifying these areas, data was mapped using ArcGIS software. The results showed that on average Vilnius city has a higher potential for regulating services (20.35±15.92), followed by cultural (14.43±8.81) and providing (14.26±8.87). There was a significant correlation among the different type of services. Regulating vs cultural (0.92, p<0.001), regulating vs providing (0.72, p<0.001) and providing vs cultural (0.65, p<0.001). The results of Morans I autocorrelation index showed that regulating (Z-score: 10

  12. Mapping optimal areas of ecosystem services potential in Vilnius (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Maps are fundamental to understand the spatial pattern of natural and human impacts on the landscape (Brevik et al., 2016; Lavado Contador et al., 2009; Pereira et al., 2010a,b). Urban areas are subjected to an intense human pressure (Beniston et al., 2015), contributing to the degradation of the ecosystems, reducing their capacity to provide services in quality and quantity (Requier-Desjardins et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011). Environments that can provide a high number and quality of ecosystem services (ES) must be identified and managed correctly, since are spaces that can mitigate the impacts of human settlements and improve their quality. thus is of major importance have identify the areas that can provide better ES (Deppelegrin and Pereira, 2015). The aim of this work is to identify areas with high ES potential in Vilnius city. Here, we identified a total of 4 different land uses, agricultural areas (32.48%), water bodies (1.46%), forest and semi-natural (31.91%) areas and artificial surfaces (34.16%). CORINE land cover 2006 was used as base information to classify ES potential. The assessment of each land cover potential was carried out using expert assessment. Each land use type was ranked from 0 (no potential) to 5 (High potential). In this work the sum of total regulating, providing and cultural ES were assessed. The areas with optimal ES were the ones with the sum of all ranks equal or higher than the 3rd Quartil of each distribution. After identifying these areas, data was mapped using ArcGIS software. The results showed that on average Vilnius city has a higher potential for regulating services (20.35±15.92), followed by cultural (14.43±8.81) and providing (14.26±8.87). There was a significant correlation among the different type of services. Regulating vs cultural (0.92, p<0.001), regulating vs providing (0.72, p<0.001) and providing vs cultural (0.65, p<0.001). The results of Morans I autocorrelation index showed that regulating (Z-score: 10

  13. Semiotic evaluation of Lithuania military air navigation charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovodas, Donatas; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2014-06-01

    Research of semiotic aspects Lithuanian military air navigation charts was based on the semantic, graphic and information load analysis. The aim of semantic analysis was to determine how the conventional cartographical symbols, used in air navigation charts, correspond with carto-linguistic and carto-semiotic requirements. The analysis of all the markings was performed complex and collected by questionnaire were interviewed various respondents: pilots, cartographers and other chart users. The researches seek two aims: evaluate information and graphical load of military air navigation charts. Information load evaluated to calculate all objects and phenomenon, which was in 25 cm² of map. Charts analysis showed that in low flight charts (LFC) average information load are 4 - 5 times richer than in the operational maps. Map signs optimization on LFC has to be managed very carefully, choosing signs that can reduce the load of information and helps for the information transfer process. Graphical load of maps evaluated of aeronautical maps is not great (5 - 12%) and does not require reduction the information load and generalization of charts. Air navigation charts analysis pointed that not all air navigation sings correspond carto-semiotic requirements and must be improved. The authors suggested some new sings for military air navigation chart, which are simpler, equivalent to human psychophysical perception criteria, creates faster communication and less load on the chart. Badania semiotycznych aspektów litewskich wojskowych map żeglugi powietrznej bazowały na semantycznej, graficznej i informacyjnej analizie treści tych map. Celem analizy semantycznej było określenie na ile tradycyjne symbole kartograficzne stosowane na mapach nawigacji lotniczej są zgodne z wymogami języka kartograficznego oraz zasadami stosowania znaków kartograficznych. Powyższe analizy przeprowadzono w sposób kompleksowy, informacje zebrano za pomocą ankiet, przeprowadzając wywiady w r

  14. The influence of the rulings of the Constitutional Court on the development of health law in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Birmontiene, Toma

    2007-12-01

    This article highlights some recent developments in the constitutional doctrine of the right to health care in Lithuania, and more in particular the impact of the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Lithuania on the development of health law. The right to health care, enshrined in the Constitution, is both an obligation of the state and an individual right. The Constitutional Court has developed a doctrine of the right to health care, as well a doctrine of certain other constitutional social rights, which is based on the understanding of the close interrelation between the different constitutional rights, the principle of indivisibility and equal importance of these rights, and the presumption of justiciability of social rights. The analysis is based on the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. Two cases on the disputes of the legal regulation concerning the pharmaceutical activities are presented in more detail. PMID:18431977

  15. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  16. Liquid drugs and high dead space syringes may keep HIV and HCV prevalence high - a comparison of Hungary and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A

    2010-01-01

    Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania often injected opiates purchased in liquid form ('shirka'), used and shared 2-piece syringes (vs. 1-piece syringes) disproportionately more often, were less likely to acquire their syringes from legal sources and had significantly more experience with injected and less experience with non-injected drugs. It may not be liquid drugs per se that contribute to a higher prevalence of HCV and/or HIV, but it is probably factors associated with the injecting of liquid drugs, such as the wide-spread use and sharing of potentially contaminated 2-piece syringes acquired often from non-legal sources, and syringe-mediated drug sharing with 2-piece syringes. Scaling up substitution therapy, especially heroin replacement, combined with reducing the supply of liquid drugs may decrease the prevalence of high-risk injecting behaviours related to the injecting of liquid drugs and drug injecting-related infections among IDUs in Lithuania.

  17. C. 1.5 Ga metamorphism of the Lazdijai 13 volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania: its origin and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siliauskas, Laurynas; Skridlaite, Grazina

    2015-04-01

    dated at 1629±48 Ma and 1499±21 Ma. The 1685-1629 Ma ages were obtained from relic domains in the c 1.5 Ga monazites. These domains might be the relics of magmatic monazites, somewhat older than 1.69 Ga. The largest monazite group of c. 1530-1500 Ma seems to record a major metamorphic event. The c. 1450 Ma age might indicate a cooling or lead loss as in case of the oldest monazites. According to the previously obtained data, the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Lz13 might have been formed in a back arc tectonic setting c. 1.83-1.80 Ga ago. The new data shows that the rocks did not experience any stronger metamorphic reworking until c. 1.5 Ga. The nearby AMCG charnockites and host rocks were metamorphosed at 1.53-1.50 Ga (Skridlaite et al., 2008). The metamorphism might have been caused by the intrusion of the 1.54-1.50 Ga AMCG Mazury suite in N Poland and S Lithuania. The Mesoproterozoic AMCG magmatism and metamorphism in Lithuania as well as in Poland may be regarded as inboard manifestations of the accretionary Danopolonian orogeny (Bogdanova, 2008) at the present southern margin of ProtoBaltica. This is a contribution to the Open Access Centre activities Bogdanova, S.V. et al., 2008, Precambrian Research, 160, 23-45. Bogdanova, S., et al., 2014, Precambrian Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.11.023 Skridlaite, et al., 2008. Gondwana Research, 14, 663-674.

  18. Geology for youth in Lithuania: International Year of Planet Earth-related and other activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Skrinskas, Skirmantas; Nemaniene, Jurgita

    2010-05-01

    A great number of Lithuanian secondary and high schools devoted a range of activities to Earth sciences on September 22 (autumn equinox), 2008 proclaimed by the Lithuanian National Committee for IYPE and Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania as "Earth's day". Beforehand, the 11 IYPE brochures were translated, supplemented with relevant Lithuanian data and placed on the website www.zemesmetai.lt. The activities comprised lessons, competitions, performances, field trips, seminars, excursions to museums and nature sites, meetings with geologists and naturalists etc. In many schools the 10 scientific themes were expanded, transformed and included into different school programmes such as geography, chemistry, physics, biology, Lithuanian language etc. The other schools preferred to organise discussions, performances and concerts where children expressed their concern about future of the Earth and suggested ways to save it. Several schools invited geologists, ecologists or other representatives of Earth sciences or local authorities to provide with information on environmental and geological issues in Lithuania and their own surroundings. Several museums and nature sites were visited. The "Earth's day" was advertised and broadcasted on TV and radio, reflected in the press. The reports from schools were placed on the Lithuanian IYPE website. The Board acknowledged the best participants with special letter of thanks. It turned out that despite the provided information on different subjects of geology only few of them were chosen. School teachers encountered some problems relating the Earth's interior with its surface, recognising modern geological processes etc. They found some brochures to be too complicated for non-specialists. Biodiversity was much easier to explain and present as geodiversity. Nevertheless, everybody admitted the great importance of geosciences in society and insufficient knowledge, and greatly acknowledged the initiative of the IYPE. The

  19. Spatial distribution of soil water repellency in a grassland located in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) it is recognized to be very heterogeneous in time in space and depends on soil type, climate, land use, vegetation and season (Doerr et al., 2002). It prevents or reduces water infiltration, with important impacts on soil hydrology, influencing the mobilization and transport of substances into the soil profile. The reduced infiltration increases surface runoff and soil erosion. SWR reduce also the seed emergency and plant growth due the reduced amount of water in the root zone. Positive aspects of SWR are the increase of soil aggregate stability, organic carbon sequestration and reduction of water evaporation (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Diehl, 2013). SWR depends on the soil aggregate size. In fire affected areas it was founded that SWR was more persistent in small size aggregates (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Jordan et al., 2011). However, little information is available about SWR spatial distribution according to soil aggregate size. The aim of this work is study the spatial distribution of SWR in fine earth (<2 mm) and different aggregate sizes, 2-1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm. The studied area is located near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. A plot with 400 m2 (20 x 20 m with 5 m space between sampling points) and 25 soil samples were collected in the top soil (0-5 cm) and taken to the laboratory. Previously to SWR assessment, the samples were air dried. The persistence of SWR was analysed according to the Water Drop Penetration Method, which involves placing three drops of distilled water onto the soil surface and registering the time in seconds (s) required for the drop complete penetration (Wessel, 1988). Data did not respected Gaussian distribution, thus in order to meet normality requirements it was log-normal transformed. Spatial interpolations were carried out using Ordinary Kriging. The results shown that SWR was on average in fine earth 2.88 s (Coeficient of variation % (CV%)=44.62), 2

  20. Changes in dental caries and oral hygiene among 7-8 year-old schoolchildren in different regions of Lithuania 1983-2009.

    PubMed

    Matulaitiene, Zivilė Kristina; Zemaitiene, Migle; Zemgulyte, Sandra; Milciuviene, Simona

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the changes of the dental caries prevalence and severity of 7 to 8 year old schoolchildren in six Lithuanian regions over the past 26 years (1983-2009) and to propose recommendations based on the results of the study. The study is based on the analysis of data, containing 576 cases of children examined in 1983 and comparison with data containing 531 cases added in 2009. The studies were conducted in the same six regions of Lithuania among the children from 7 to 8 years of age. For the study of children the WHO oral assessment methodology was used (WHO Basic methods 1997). Severity of dental caries was described by df-t and DMF-T index. The average of individual df-t and DMF-T indices was calculated for all subjects and sorted by gender. Oral hygiene status was evaluated by applying the simplified Green-Vermilion index-OHI-S (1964) The prevalence of primary dental caries among the children 7 to 8 years of age was 92.4% in 1983 and 88.7% (p=0.43) in 2009. The prevalence of permanent dental caries decreased from 49.6% in 1983 to 29.7% (p<0.001) in 2009. Mean df-t score decreased from 4.9±3.4 in 1983 to 4.1±2.7 in 2009 and DMF-T index decreased from 1.1±1.7 in 1983 to 0.5±1.0 in 2009 (p<0.001). The OHI-S index was not significantly different during 1983-2009. In the period of last 26 years a tendency towards the decrease in the prevalence and severity of dental caries was observed. That could be related to the frequent using of the toothpastes with fluoride, as well as implementation of the caries prevention program with sealants among the children of that age. The poor oral hygiene and comparatively high caries prevalence in schoolchildren show that it is still necessary to improve preventive measures in Lithuania.

  1. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  2. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  3. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  4. Quartz cementation mechanisms between adjacent sandstone and shale in Middle Cambrian, West Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    Quartz is an important cementing material in siliciclastic sandstones that can reduce porosity and permeability severely. For efficiently predicting and extrapolating petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, the controls on the occurrence and the degree of quartz cementation need to be better understood. Because it is generally difficult to identify specific sources for quartz cement, many models attempting to explain quartz cementation conclude that external sources of silica are needed to explain the observed quantity of quartz cement, such as the mass transfer between sandstone and shale. Cambrian sandstones in Lithuania have abundant quartz cement which has significant effect on reservoir properties. The detrital quartz grains have been dissolved extensively along the shale-quartz contacts zones, making it a natural laboratory to study the influence of mass transfer between sandstone and shale to quartz cementation on petrophysical properties and reservoir quality. Our Cambrian shale samples in west Lithuania are mainly silty shale or siltstone (sample locations vary from 330 to 2090 m of burial depth). They are composed of quartz, clay and traces of feldspars, sericite, calcite, and pyrite. The clay minerals are mainly illite, with variable content of kaolinite and traces of chlorite. In the sandstone lamina, authigenic illite occurs as pore-filling cement which was composed of fibrous illite; pore-filling kaolinite is generally well crystallized and occurs as hexagonal plates arranged in booklets; quartz overgrowth are obvious in these sandstone laminas, especially in the contact zones between sandstone and shale. Dolomite and pyrite cementation are also present in some sandstone laminas but with few quartz overgrowth. Depositional facies and architecture played an important role in the precipitation of silica. Three different possible sources are distinguished for the quartz overgrowths in the intercalated sandstones: 1) Pressure

  5. Probabilistic models for assessment of extreme temperatures and relative humidity in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzbutas, Robertas; Šeputytė, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Extreme temperatures are fairly common natural phenomenon in Lithuania. They have mainly negative effects both on the environment and humans. Thus there are important to perform probabilistic and statistical analyzes of possibly extreme temperature values and their time-dependant changes. This is especially important in areas where technical objects (sensitive to the extreme temperatures) are foreseen to be constructed. In order to estimate the frequencies and consequences of possible extreme temperatures, the probabilistic analysis of the event occurrence and its uncertainty has been performed: statistical data have been collected and analyzed. The probabilistic analysis of extreme temperatures in Lithuanian territory is based on historical data taken from Lithuanian Hydrometeorology Service, Dūkštas Meteorological Station, Lithuanian Energy Institute and Ignalina NNP Environmental Protection Department of Environmental Monitoring Service. The main objective of performed work was the probabilistic assessment of occurrence and impact of extreme temperature and relative humidity occurring in whole Lithuania and specifically in Dūkštas region where Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is closed for decommissioning. In addition, the other purpose of this work was to analyze the changes of extreme temperatures. The probabilistic analysis of extreme temperatures increase in Lithuanian territory was based on more than 50 years historical data. The probabilistic assessment was focused on the application and comparison of Gumbel, Weibull and Generalized Value (GEV) distributions, enabling to select a distribution, which has the best fit for data of extreme temperatures. In order to assess the likelihood of extreme temperatures different probabilistic models were applied to evaluate the probability of exeedance of different extreme temperatures. According to the statistics and the relationship between return period and probabilities of temperatures the return period for 30

  6. Short-term spatio-temporal spring grassland fire effects on soil colour, organic matter and water repellency in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Martin, D.; Oliva, M.; Novara, A.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the short-term effects (first 9 months after the fire) of a low-severity spring boreal grassland fire on soil colour, soils organic matter (SOM) and soil water repellency (SWR) in Lithuania. Three days after the fire we designed a plot of 400 m2 in a control (unburned) and unburned area with the same geomorphological characteristics. Soil water repellency analysis were assessed through the 2 mm mesh (composite sample) and in the subsamples of all of the 250 samples divided into different soil aggregate fractions of 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25 and < 0.25 mm, using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method. The results showed that fire darkened the soil significantly during the entire study period due to the incorporation of ash/charcoal into the soil profile. Soil organic matter was significantly higher in the first two months after the fire in the burned plot, in comparison to the unburned plot. Soil water repellency (SWR) of the composite sample was higher in the burned plot during the first two months after the fire. However, considering the different aggregate fractions studied, the SWR was significantly higher until 5 months after the fire in the coarser fractions (2-1 mm, 1-0.5 mm) and 7 months after in the finer (0.5-0.25 mm and < 0.25 mm), suggesting that the leachability of organic compounds is different with respect to soil aggregate size fractions. This finding has implications for the spatio-temporal variability of fire effects on SWR. SOM was significantly negative correlated with SWR (composite sample) only in the two months after the fire. These results demonstrated that in the first two months the hydrophobic compounds produced by fire were one of the factors responsible for the increase in SWR. Subsequently repellent compounds were leached, at different rates, according to particle size. The impacts of this low severity grassland fire were limited in time, and are not considered a~threat to this ecosystem.

  7. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater.

  8. Water-quality control, monitoring and wastewater treatment in Lithuania 1950 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Cetkauskaite, A; Zarkov, D; Stoskus, L

    2001-08-01

    The Lithuanian water-management system developed on the basis of Soviet regulations in 1950-1990. Surface-water quality monitoring started in the 1950s, and the system was improved in the 1960s. Today, 48 rivers are being monitored using up to 70 parameters. Statutory monitoring of discharges started in 1962, wastewater standards were issued in 1957 and 1966, and then revised in 1996. Wastewater-treatment plants were built first in rural areas, in factories since the 1950s, and later in towns. Since 1991, large capacity municipal plants have been constructed with foreign assistance. Water quality has improved in some rivers since 1970, but Lithuania's main river, Nemunas, remains moderately polluted. The lower Nemunas is especially affected by discharges of municipal and industrial wastewater from Sovietsk and Neman (Russia), which account for half of the total loading. Hydrobiological data of 1994-1998 indicated the eutrophication of the Curonian Lagoon, and bacteriological pollution and blue-green algae blooms in the Baltic Sea north of Klaipeda.

  9. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater. PMID:26586231

  10. Self-reported oral health behavior and attitudes of dental and technology students in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pacauskiene, Ingrida M; Smailiene, Dalia; Siudikienė, Jolanta; Savanevskyte, Julija; Nedzelskiene, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess self-reported oral health habits, attitudes, lifestyle between the sample groups of preclinical and clinical dental and technology students in Lithuania using the Hiroshima University Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI), and to evaluate the impact of education on their behavior and self-reported oral health. A sample of 183 dental and 75 technology students at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Medical Academy, Faculty of Odontology, and Kaunas University of Technology completed the Lithuanian version the HU-DBI questionnaire with 11 additional items. The data were analyzed using the "SPSS 19.0 for Windows" software package. The mean HU-DBI score of clinical final-year dentistry students was significantly higher (p=0.001) than the score of the preclinical group (6.81 (1.2) and 5.96 (1.5), respectively). The mean scores of both groups of dental students were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the technology group (5.37 (1.8)). Oral health behaviors and knowledge were superior in dental students. Dental education had a significant positive impact on the oral health and behavior improvement. The attitudes of the Lithuanian dental students should be further improved by initiating a comprehensive program that would emphasize the importance of oral hygiene before the clinical program starts.

  11. Echinococcosis in pigs and intestinal infection with Echinococcus spp. in dogs in southwestern Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Bruzinskaite, R; Sarkūnas, M; Torgerson, P R; Mathis, A; Deplazes, P

    2009-03-23

    Cystic echinococcosis is a major emerging zoonosis in many Eastern European and Asian countries. Post slaughter examinations of 684 pig livers in Lithuania revealed significantly higher numbers of Echinococcus granulosus infections in animals from family farms (13.2%; 95% CI 10.7-16.2) as compared with those from industrial farms (4.1%; 95% CI 0.8-11.5). The prevalence was also significantly higher in pigs older than 1 year than in younger ones. In addition, in 0.5% of the pigs from the family farms, infertile and calcified E. multilocularis lesions were identified by PCR. Faecal samples from rural dogs (n=240) originating from 177 family farms in 12 villages were investigated for taeniid eggs with two methods. Significantly more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the flotation/sieving method (n=34) as compared to the modified McMaster method (n=12). Multiplex PCR performed with DNA from taeniid eggs isolated from faeces of 34 dogs revealed 26 infections with Taenia spp., 9 with E. granulosus and 2 with E. multilocularis (4 cases with concurrent Taenia spp. and E. granulosus or E. multilocularis infections). Genotyping of E. granulosus cyst tissues from 7 pigs, 1 head of cattle and from E. granulosus eggs from 8 dog faeces revealed the genotype G6/7 ('pig/camel strain') in all cases. The high infection pressure with Echinococcus spp. in family farms necessitates initiating control programs. PMID:19111990

  12. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  13. Modelling soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) in the immediate period after a grassland fire in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    The soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) is an index that measures the amount of sodium and potassium adsorbed onto clay and organic matter surfaces, in relation to calcium and magnesium. Assess the potential of soil dispersion or flocculation, a process which has implication in soil hydraulic properties and erosion (Sarah, 2004). Depending on severity and the type of ash produced, fire can changes in the immediate period the soil nutrient status (Bodi et al. 2014). Ash releases onto soil surface a large amount of cations, due the high pH. Previous works showed that SPAR from ash slurries is higher than solutions produced from litter (Pereira et al., 2014a). Normally the spatial distribution of topsoil nutrients in the immediate period after the fire is very heterogeneous, due to the different impacts of fire. Thus it is important to identify the most accurate interpolation method in order to identify with better precision the impacts of fire on soil properties. The objective of this work is to test several interpolation methods. The study area is located in near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire it was designed a plot in a burned area with near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Twenty five samples were collected from the topsoil. The SPAR index was calculated according to the formula: (Na++K+)/(Ca2++Mg2+)1/2 (Sarah, 2004). Data followed the normal distribution, thus no transformation was required previous to data modelling. Several well know interpolation models were tested, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2 and Ordinary Kriging. The best interpolator was the one which had the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (Pereira et al., 2014b). The

  14. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  15. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  16. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  17. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  18. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  19. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  20. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  1. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  4. Stakeholder perception about urban sprawl impacts in land degradation in Lithuania. The importance of profession and education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiune, Ieva; Mierauskas, Pranas; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders have an important impact on land use planning. Their visions and culture, shape and influence the decision makers and the legislation (Schwilch et al., 2009; Fleskens and Stringer, 2014; Pereira et al., 2016; Subiros et al., 2016). Nowadays, urban sprawl is one the causes of land degradation, causing important, environmental, social and economic problems. This expansion to rural areas is caused mainly by lifestyle changes, cultural views, increase of mobility, house price in city centers, poor air quality, noise, small apartments, unsafe environments, lack of green areas, competition among municipalities, development of transport network and social problems. Urban sprawl is currently an important problem in Lithuania, especially in Vilnius. Vilnius residents are concerned about the impacts of urban sprawl in environmental, social and economic aspects. Nevertheless, this depends very much on the age of and the occupation of the residents (Pereira et al., 2014). However, very little information is available about the vision of stakeholders regarding this position. The objective of this work is to study the stakeholder's perception about urban sprawl impacts on land degradation in Lithuania. A total of 86 stakeholders from different institutions were interviewed and asked to rate from 1 to 5 according to the importance of the question (1=very low; 2=low; 3=medium; 4=high and 5=very high). The questions carried out were. Does urban sprawl have impacts on a) consumption of land and soil, b) loss of soil permeability, c) loss of soil biodiversity, d) loss of best agricultural land, e) increase in the use of water and fertilizers in less productive areas, f) increase in soil erosion in remote areas, and g) loss of natural habitats. These variables were analyzed according to the gender, age, place of residence (urban/countryside), Profession, field of studies, study level and if the participant was a member of a NGO. A general regression was carried out in

  5. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  6. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  7. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  8. Response of deciduous trees spring phenology to recent and projected climate change in Central Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Šveikauskaitė, Irma; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of long-term time series of spring phenology for different deciduous trees species has shown that leaf unfolding for all the investigated species is the most sensitive to temperatures in March and April and illustrates that forcing temperature is the main driver of the advancement of leaf unfolding. Available chilling amount has increased by 22.5 % over the last 90 years, indicating that in the investigated geographical region there is no threat of chilling shortage. The projection of climatic parameters for Central Lithuania on the basis of three global circulation models has shown that under the optimistic climate change scenario (RCP 2.6) the mean temperature tends to increase by 1.28 °C and under the pessimistic scenario (RCP 8.5) by 5.03 °C until the end of the current century. Recently, different statistical models are used not only to analyze but also to project the changes in spring phenology. Our study has shown that when the data of long-term phenological observations are available, multiple regression models are suitable for the projection of the advancement of leaf unfolding under the changing climate. According to the RCP 8.5 scenario, the projected advancement in leaf unfolding for early-season species birch consists of almost 15 days as an average of all three used GSMs. Markedly less response to the projected far future (2071-2100), climate change is foreseen for other investigated climax species: -9 days for lime, 10 days for oak, and 11 days for maple.

  9. The gender base of institutional support in Lithuania, Ukraine and Russia.

    PubMed

    Hesli, V L; Miller, A H

    1993-01-01

    This literature review pertains to women's status in Soviet society. This study examined the degree to which attitudes toward established institutions, support for the reform process, and generalized political orientations significantly reflect gender differences. Regression models were tested among Russians, Ukrainians, and Orthodox believers in Russia. Gender differences were apparent in the evaluations of the Communist Party. Ukrainian women were more supportive of the Communist Party. Age was the only significant factor in Russia; increased age was associated with more positive attitudes toward the Communists. More Ukrainian and Russian women than Orthodox women believed that political reform is moving too rapidly. Less educated and higher income women were more likely to believe that reform is proceeding too rapidly. Russian men were more likely to have participated in a political rally than Russian women in the model which includes socioeconomic controls. Russians with higher education were more frequent participants in political demonstrations than Russians with less education. Ukrainian women were more likely than men to be pacifists. Over 20% of the variance in pacifism scores was explained by sex and sociodemographic factors. The author concluded that gender differences are apparent in the strength of pacifism, the frequency of participation in demonstrations, attitudes toward reform, and evaluations of the Communist Party. Russian women compared to US women did not necessarily support liberal, democratic reforms. Lithuanian women and urban women were less supportive of the status quo and established economic and political institutions compared to Russian, Ukrainian, or rural women. Women and men responded similarly at the same educational levels. Women had a more humanitarian view of the environment and peace. A four-stage stratified sample of 2336 individuals (796 in Russia, 826 in the Ukraine, and 714 in Lithuania) was used. The survey instrument was

  10. Radionuclides from the Fukushima accident in the air over Lithuania: measurement and modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Lujanienė, G; Byčenkienė, S; Povinec, P P; Gera, M

    2012-12-01

    Analyses of (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs in airborne aerosols were carried out in daily samples in Vilnius, Lithuania after the Fukushima accident during the period of March-April, 2011. The activity concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs ranged from 12 μBq/m(3) and 1.4 μBq/m(3) to 3700 μBq/m(3) and 1040 μBq/m(3), respectively. The activity concentration of (239,240)Pu in one aerosol sample collected from 23 March to 15 April, 2011 was found to be 44.5 nBq/m(3). The two maxima found in radionuclide concentrations were related to complicated long-range air mass transport from Japan across the Pacific, the North America and the Atlantic Ocean to Central Europe as indicated by modelling. HYSPLIT backward trajectories and meteorological data were applied for interpretation of activity variations of measured radionuclides observed at the site of investigation. (7)Be and (212)Pb activity concentrations and their ratios were used as tracers of vertical transport of air masses. Fukushima data were compared with the data obtained during the Chernobyl accident and in the post Chernobyl period. The activity concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs were found to be by 4 orders of magnitude lower as compared to the Chernobyl accident. The activity ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was around 1 with small variations only. The activity ratio of (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu in the aerosol sample was 1.2, indicating a presence of the spent fuel of different origin than that of the Chernobyl accident.

  11. Response of deciduous trees spring phenology to recent and projected climate change in Central Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Šveikauskaitė, Irma; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of long-term time series of spring phenology for different deciduous trees species has shown that leaf unfolding for all the investigated species is the most sensitive to temperatures in March and April and illustrates that forcing temperature is the main driver of the advancement of leaf unfolding. Available chilling amount has increased by 22.5 % over the last 90 years, indicating that in the investigated geographical region there is no threat of chilling shortage. The projection of climatic parameters for Central Lithuania on the basis of three global circulation models has shown that under the optimistic climate change scenario (RCP 2.6) the mean temperature tends to increase by 1.28 °C and under the pessimistic scenario (RCP 8.5) by 5.03 °C until the end of the current century. Recently, different statistical models are used not only to analyze but also to project the changes in spring phenology. Our study has shown that when the data of long-term phenological observations are available, multiple regression models are suitable for the projection of the advancement of leaf unfolding under the changing climate. According to the RCP 8.5 scenario, the projected advancement in leaf unfolding for early-season species birch consists of almost 15 days as an average of all three used GSMs. Markedly less response to the projected far future (2071-2100), climate change is foreseen for other investigated climax species: -9 days for lime, 10 days for oak, and 11 days for maple.

  12. Prevalence of Dental Erosion among the Young Regular Swimmers in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Zebrauskas, Andrius; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine prevalence of dental erosion among competitive swimmers in Kaunas, the second largest city in Lithuania. Material and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, with a questionnaire and clinical examination protocols. The participants were 12 - 25 year-old swimmers regularly practicing in the swimming pools of Kaunas. Of the total of 132 participants there were 76 (12 - 17 year-old) and 56 (18 - 25 year-old) individuals; in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Participants were examined for dental erosion, using a portable dental unit equipped with fibre-optic light, compressed air and suction, and standard dental instruments for oral inspection. Lussi index was applied for recording dental erosion. The completed questionnaires focused on the common erosion risk factors were returned by all participants. Results Dental erosion was found in 25% of the 12 - 17 year-olds, and in 50% of 18 - 25 years-olds. Mean value of the surfaces with erosion was 6.31 (SD 4.37). All eroded surfaces were evaluated as grade 1. Swimming training duration and the participants’ age correlated positively (Kendall correlation, r = 0.65, P < 0.001), meaning that older swimmers had practiced for longer period. No significant correlation between occurrence of dental erosion and the analyzed risk factors (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, dry mouth, regular intake of acidic medicines, carbonated drinks) was found in both study groups. Conclusions Prevalence of dental erosion of very low degree was high among the regular swimmers in Kaunas, and was significantly related to swimmers’ age. PMID:25089178

  13. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  14. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  15. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  16. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  17. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  18. First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of little leaf, witches’-broom, and abnormally small and deformed potatoes, suggestive of possible phytoplasmal infection, were observed in diseased potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Hannibal arba Kestrel) in the Vilnius region of Lithuania. DNA extracted from symptomatic leaves and shoots we...

  19. Curriculum Change and Social Inclusion: Perspectives from the Baltic and Scandinavian Countries. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Vilnius, Lithuania, December 5-8, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawil, Sobhi, Ed.

    The main objectives of a Vilnius, Lithuania, seminar were to share experiences in curriculum reform to promote life skills for social inclusion. This was to be achieved through an exchange on principles, approaches and methodologies that inform processes of curriculum reform in life skills education. Most of the participants were senior education…

  20. Short-term temporal and spatial variability of soil hydrophobicity in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils. Among other factors, SWR depends on soil moisture, mineralogy, texture, pH, organic matter, aggregate stability, fungal and microbiological activity and plant cover. It has implications on plant growth, superficial and subsurface hydrology and soil erosion. It is well known that SWR is temporarily, increasing when soils are dry and decreasing when moist. In agriculture, soil micro-topography is very heterogeneous with implications on surface water distribution and wettability. Normally, SWR studies are focused on large interval time (e.g, monthly or seasonally). The objective of this work is the study of SWR in a temporal scale and its variability in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania. An experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed in a flat area. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field, placing three droplets of water on the soil surface and counting the time that takes to infiltrate. A total of 105 sampling points were measured per sampling period. Soil water repellency was measured after a period of 14 days without rainfall and in the seven consequent weeks (one measurement per week between 28th May and 07th of July 2012). The results showed that in this small plot, SWR was observed in the first (May 28), third and fourth measurements (08th of June and 16th). It was observed an increasing of the percentage of hydrophobic points (Water Drop Penetration Test ≥5 seconds) between the first and the fourth measurement, decreasing thereafter. Significant differences of SWR were observed among all periods (F=78.32, p<0.0001). The coefficient of variation (CV%) changed strikingly, 361.10 % (8th of May), 151.78 % (01st of June), 83.77% (08th of June), 125.87% (16th of June), 0.45 (22nd of June), 121%(31st of June) and 67.13% (7th of July). The correlation between the mean SWR and the CV% is 0.75, p<0.05. The changes were attributed to different soil moisture conditions. The differences

  1. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine particles, particle-bound PAHs and volatile organic compounds in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kliucininkas, Linas; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Krugly, Edvinas; Prasauskas, Tadas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Molnar, Peter; Strandberg, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This complex study presents indoor and outdoor levels of air-borne fine particles, particle-bound PAHs and VOCs at two urban locations in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, and considers possible sources of pollution. Two sampling campaigns were performed in January-February and March-April 2009. The mean outdoor PM(2.5) concentration at Location 1 in winter was 34.5 ± 15.2 µg m(-3) while in spring it was 24.7 ± 12.2 µg m(-3); at Location 2 the corresponding values were 36.7 ± 21.7 and 22.4 ± 19.4 µg m(-3), respectively. In general there was little difference between the PM concentrations at Locations 1 and 2. PM(2.5) concentrations were lower during the spring sampling campaign. These PM concentrations were similar to those in many other European cities; however, the levels of most PAHs analysed were notably higher. The mean sum PAH concentrations at Locations 1 and 2 in the winter campaign were 75.1 ± 32.7 and 32.7 ± 11.8 ng m(-3), respectively. These differences are greater than expected from the difference in traffic intensity at the two sites, suggesting that there is another significant source of PAH emissions at Location 1 in addition to the traffic. The low observed indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios indicate that PAH emissions at the locations studied arise primarily from outdoor sources. The buildings at both locations have old windows with wooden frames that are fairly permissive in terms of air circulation. VOC concentrations were mostly low and comparable to those reported from Sweden. The mean outdoor concentrations of VOC's were: 0.7 ± 0.2, 3.0 ± 0.8, 0.5 ± 0.2, 3.5 ± 0.3, and 0.2 ± 0.1 µg m(-3), for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, sum of m-, p-, o-xylenes, and naphthalene, respectively. Higher concentrations of VOCs were observed during the winter campaign, possibly due to slower dispersion, slower chemical transformations and/or the lengthy "cold start" period required by vehicles in the wintertime. A trajectory analysis showed that air masses

  2. The preliminary data on the Aeronian (Silurian) machaerids from Lithuania (Baltic Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzevičius, S.; Ekleris, A.

    2012-04-01

    Machaerids are stem-Lophotrochozoans, closely related to the Annelids, and known from the Early Ordovician to Middle Permian. Machaerids is a group of worm-like benthic marine, bilaterally symmetrical, armoured invertebrate. Their body is covered by an external scleritome. The scleritome is imbricated of longitudinally arranged series of plates or sclerites. Completely articulated specimens of machaeridians are very rare, yet the systematic position of machaerids is controversial. Machaeridians had been assigned to different groups, such as barnacles, mollusks, echinoderms and annelids. The latter is prevailing, however their exact place within the annelids still remains unresolved. New findings of disarticulated Silurian machaerids have been recorded in western Lithuania, Geniai-1 core. This well has been drilled with exploration purposes regarding the Cambrian oil reservoir; therefore the biggest part of the Silurian core has not been collected. The exceptions are some parts of the Llandovery and Ludlow, which have partially recovered well core, but the identification of the precise stratigraphical position is complicated. Disarticulated sclerites of machaeridians have been found at the 1756.4 m depth, in the argillite, together with some graptolites and brachiopods. Several rhabdosome fragments of Normalograptus scalaris (Hisinger) were found together with the machaenid sclerites as well. N. scalaris has wide biostratigraphical distribution from the Rhudanian to the lower part of Telychian, which comprises the convolutus - triangulates graptolite biozones, corresponding to the 1756.8 - 1756 m depth. Convolutus - triangulates biozones represent Aeronian, and the machaeridian sclerites come from this interval, together with the Jonsea grayi (Davidson) brachiopod shells, which are very common and correspond to the BA 5-6 benthic assemblage, as well as do the graptolites found together. In previous studies, two orders of machaerids have been recognized: the

  3. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. PMID:16005772

  4. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction. PMID:25856377

  5. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants.

  6. Holocene malacofauna in calcareous deposits of Dūkšta site near Maišiagala in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Gaigalas, Algirdas; Rudnickaitė, Eugenija; Melešytė, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains results of new investigations in Lithuania of the first occurrences of terrestrial molluscs in calcareous tufa (travertine), carbonate content and radiocarbon dating. Terrestrial fossil molluscs (35 taxa) prevail in the mollusc fauna, while freshwater species are much more rare (6 taxa). The Dūkšta terrestrial mollusc fauna embraces a complex of thermophiles including such forest species as Acicula polita (Hartmann), Acanthinula aculeata (Müller), Aegopinella cf. pura (Alder), Bulgaria cana (Held) and Discus cf. rotundatus (Müller), as well as mainly South European Carychium tridentatum (Risso) and mainly West European Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy). The radiocarbon age of the sediments was found to correspond to the end of the Atlantic climatic period and the beginning of the Subboreal.

  7. Impact of Beaver Dams on Abundance and Distribution of Anadromous Salmonids in Two Lowland Streams in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction. PMID:25856377

  8. Spatial models to predict ash pH and Electrical Conductivity distribution after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    calculated with the Global Moran's I Index. In order to identify the best interpolator, we tested several well known techniques as inverse distance to a power (IDP), with the power of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, local polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 (LP1), 2 (LP2) and 3 (LP3), spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquadratic (MTQ), inverse multiquadratic (IMTQ) thin plate spline (TPS) and ordinary kriging. The best interpolator was the one with the lowest Root mean square error (RMSE). The results shown that on average ash pH was 8.01 (±0.20) and EC (1408± 513.51µm cm3). The coefficient of correlation between both variables was 0.34, p<0.05. Black ash had a significantly higher pH (F=6.29, p<0.05) and EC (F=5.25, p<0.05) than dark grey ash. According to Moran's I index, pH data was significantly (p<0.05) dispersed, while EC had a random pattern. The best spatial predictor for pH was IDW1 (RMSE=0.210), and for EC IMTQ (RMSE=0.141). In both cases the least accurate technique was TPS. pH data did not showed a specific spatial pattern and some high values are very close to high values which shows a great local spatial variability, mainly observed in the northern part of the plot. In relation to EC, the high values were identified in the central part of the plot. In conclusion it was observed that ash pH and EC were different according to fire severity (ash color) and data distribution has a different spatial pattern, despite the significant correlation. pH and EC had different spatial impacts on soil properties in the immediate period after the fire. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306

  9. Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section Showing End Framing, Plan Showing Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  10. Efficacy, tolerability, and preference of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets in depressed patients: a 17-week naturalistic study in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Danileviciūte, Vita; Sveikata, Audrius; Adomaitiene, Virginija; Gumbrevicius, Gintautas; Fokas, Vidmantas; Sveikatiene, Renata

    2009-01-01

    Mirtazapine is an established antidepressant with well-documented efficacy demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. However, the gap between the results obtained in controlled clinical trials and everyday clinical practice exists. Therefore, the importance of naturalistic studies in psychiatry is becoming recognized. The aim of present naturalistic study was to acquire data on efficacy, safety, and preference of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets during a 17-week treatment of depression. This prospective, open-label, multicenter study in patients with mild to severe depression was conducted at 47 mental health centers of Lithuania by 78 psychiatrists. Patients were initially given 15 mg or 30 mg of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets; the maximum allowed dose was 45 mg per day. The primary efficacy measure was the total score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17), the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scales. Tolerability was primarily measured by assessing the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at weeks 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17. A total of 779 patients (595 women [76.4%] with a mean [SD] age of 50.2 [13.65] and 184 men [23.6%] with a mean [SD] age of 52.4 [14.6] years) were enrolled into the study; 687 (88.2%) patients completed the study. The mean (SD) daily dose of mirtazapine orally disintegrating tablets was 29.0 (3.8) mg. The mean total (SD) HAMD-17 score improved significantly from 25.7 (4.6) to 7.3 (4.3) (P<0.005). At each visit, the mean HAMD-17 score was significantly lower than that at the preceding visit. At week 17, remission (HAMD-17 score < or =7) was observed in 436 (56%) patients. The mean (SD) CGI-S score improved significantly from 4.9 (1.0) at baseline to 1.5 (0.6) at endpoint (P<0.001). According to the CGI-I assessments, 621 patients (89.4%) improved and improved very much. The vast majority of patients (80

  11. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Snitkuvienė, Aldona; Rutkauskas, Tadas; Sutherland, M Linda

    2016-01-01

    Among the collections belonging to the National Museum of Lithuania at Vilnius, resides an ancient Egyptian coffin containing a mummified human body. The coffin and its occupant are believed to have belonged to the King of Poland and to have been located in his palace at Warsaw. At the turn of the last century, Egyptologists dated the coffin to the end of the 21st dynasty (1070 BC-945 BC), and described the item as coming from Thebes, belonging to Hori, priest of Amun-Ra. However, no investigation was ever carried out on the human body associated with the coffin. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, the preserved human remains underwent computed tomographic investigation in order to reconstruct the biological profile of the subject and to determine the embalming method employed. This led to the identification of a young adult male. Additionally, the mummy shroud was stylistically assessed in order to determine the mummy's chronology in Egyptian history. Interestingly, the body could be ascribed to the Roman period of Egypt (30 BC-395 AD) due to analogies with the burial shrouds of the Soter group. This indicates a reuse of the coffin at some point in history. PMID:26954562

  12. Screening of antioxidant activity and volatile compounds composition of Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub ecotypes grown in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Maruška, Audrius; Akuņeca, Ieva; Stankevičius, Mantas; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Kornyšova, Olga; Briedis, Vitalis; Ugenskienė, Rasa

    2016-06-01

    Since biological activity of medicinal plants is dependent on cultivation area, climatic conditions, developmental stage, genetic modifications and other factors, it is important to study flora present in different growing sites and geographical zones. This study was focused on screening of antioxidant activity of C. angustifolium harvested in six different locations in Lithuania. The total contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. A correlation between radical scavenging activity and total phenolic compounds content was observed (correlation coefficient 0.98). HPLC with online post-column DPPH radical scavenging reaction detection was used for the separation of extracts. Oenothein B, rutin and one unidentified compound were predominant. Volatile compounds were analysed using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analysis of volatiles, all samples were classified into two chemotypes: (I) with predominant α- and β-caryophyllenes and (II) with predominant anethole. PMID:26222982

  13. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Snitkuvienė, Aldona; Rutkauskas, Tadas; Sutherland, M Linda

    2016-01-01

    Among the collections belonging to the National Museum of Lithuania at Vilnius, resides an ancient Egyptian coffin containing a mummified human body. The coffin and its occupant are believed to have belonged to the King of Poland and to have been located in his palace at Warsaw. At the turn of the last century, Egyptologists dated the coffin to the end of the 21st dynasty (1070 BC-945 BC), and described the item as coming from Thebes, belonging to Hori, priest of Amun-Ra. However, no investigation was ever carried out on the human body associated with the coffin. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, the preserved human remains underwent computed tomographic investigation in order to reconstruct the biological profile of the subject and to determine the embalming method employed. This led to the identification of a young adult male. Additionally, the mummy shroud was stylistically assessed in order to determine the mummy's chronology in Egyptian history. Interestingly, the body could be ascribed to the Roman period of Egypt (30 BC-395 AD) due to analogies with the burial shrouds of the Soter group. This indicates a reuse of the coffin at some point in history.

  14. Analysis of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs in food and feed samples from Lithuania and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Godliauskienė, R; Petraitis, J; Jarmalaitė, I; Naujalis, E

    2012-11-01

    The methods, validated for determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls were applied for investigation of food and feed matrixes. Validation criteria on repeatability and reproducibility conditions comply with the requirements of European Commission. Validated methods were successfully applied for determination of PCDD/F and DL-PCB in fish, meat and feed using HRGC-HRMS. Statistical data was evaluated. One focal point of this work was to determine a fit for dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs of fatty fish for human consumption from the Baltic Sea ICES 26. Daily intake was found to be in the range of 2-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight and it is in the range of recommended TDI of 1-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight. The range of Baltic cod liver was 2-4 pg TEQ kgbw(-1)d(-1) WHO-TEQ((1998)) PCDD/F, PCB and its consumption was forbidden in Lithuania in 2011. Baltic fish represents 97.9% of human daily intake. Other matrixes like meat, eggs and feed did not exceed the maximum limit set by EU during the period of 2005-2011.

  15. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  16. Root-associated fungi of Rosa rugosa grown on the frontal dunes of the Baltic Sea Coast in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess fungal communities associated with fine living roots of Rosa rugosa Thunb grown on the frontal dunes of Curonian Spit at the Baltic Sea coast in Lithuania. The roots of R. rugosa were sampled at five sites (Nida, Preila, Pervalka, Juodkrante and Smiltyne) situated at a distance ca. 5-15 km from each other. Direct amplification, cloning and sequencing of fungal ITS rRNA from the fine roots resulted in 134 high-quality sequences, representing 31 fungal taxa among which saprotrophs and endophytes Mycena sp. (14.2 %), Tumularia sp. (14.2 %), Penicillium spinulosum (11.9 %) and Cadophora malorum (9.0 %) were most common. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi including Entrophospora baltica (0.7 %) and Rhizophagus irregularis (0.7 %) and potentially root pathogenic fungi--Ceratobasidium sp. (4.5 %), Fusarium oxysporum (3.0 %), Fusarium culmorum (0.7 %) and Ilyonectria crassa (0.7 %)--were also detected at low proportions. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the fine roots of R. rugosa are inhabited by various groups of fungi. Although saprotrophs and endophytes were dominant, the detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi indicated that these may be important for mineral nutrition of R. rugosa established on dry and poor fertility coastal dunes. PMID:24402365

  17. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Lithuania and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Gudleviciene, Zivile; Didziapetriene, Janina; Mackeviciene, Irina; Cicenas, Saulius; Smolyakova, Raisa; Zhukavetc, Aliaksandr; Zivile, Gudleviciene; Janina, Didziapetriene; Irina, Mackeviciene; Saulius, Cicenas; Raisa, Smolyakova; Aliaksandr, Zhukavetc

    2014-03-01

    Overall, head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 550,000 cases annually worldwide. It is well known that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancer development. As the incidence and the mortality of cervical cancer are closely related to the HPV prevalence, we hypothesized that there is the same association between HPV prevalence and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore we performed the study aiming to compare the level of HPV infection and HPV type distribution between two groups of Lithuanian and Belarusian patients with head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma. One hundred ninety head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma patients were included in the study, 75 from Lithuania and 115 from Belarus. PCR was used for HPV detection and typing. The distribution of HPV infection among head and neck sqamous cell carcinoma patients was similar in the Lithuanian (20.0%) and Belarusian (18.3%) patient groups, however differences were found in the distribution of HPV types.

  18. Radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere in Vilnius, Lithuania, in March 2011, detected by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Druteikienė, R; Lujanienė, G; Maceika, E; Plukis, A; Remeikis, V

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the ground-level air monitoring results obtained in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, on 14 March-14 April 2011 after the recent earthquake and subsequent Tsunami having a crucial impact on Japanese nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on 11 March 2011. To collect representative diurnal aerosol samples a powerful sampling system ensuring the air filtration rate of 5500 m(3) h(-1) was used. The following artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides have been determined: (129m)Te, (132)Te (in equilibrium with its daughter (132)I), (131)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs. Activity concentration of the globally distributed fission product (137)Cs has increased from a background value of 1.6 μBq m(-3) to the value of 0.9 mBq m(-3) at the beginning of April. The activity ratio (134)Cs/(137)Cs was found to be close to 1, with a slightly higher activity of (134)Cs. The maximum aerosol-associated (131)I activity concentration of 3.45 mBq m(-3) was by four orders of magnitude lower than that measured at the same location in April-May 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The estimated gaseous fraction of iodine-131 constituted about 70% of the total (131)I activity.

  19. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  20. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  2. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  3. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  4. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  5. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  6. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  7. Onion is a host for two phytoplasma lineages, subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-L, in Lithuania: a HinfI site revealed a SNP marking divergent branches of evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa.L) being grown for seed production in the Kaunas region of Lithuania exhibited symptoms including mild yellowing of leaves and stems, stunting of plants, phyllody, and proliferation of flowers. RFLP and sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein, and secY gen...

  8. Influences of hydrogeomorphology and chemical water quality on fish assemblages in the Nevėžis River, Lithuania: implications for river basin management plans in the Baltics.

    PubMed

    Čivas, Laurynas; Kesminas, Vytautas; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-02-01

    Further resolving physicochemical-fish associations would be of considerable benefit to advancing both scientific research and monitoring programs in the Baltic states. We collected 3 years of coordinated hydrogeomorphic, water-chemistry, and fish assemblage data at 11 study reaches along the Nevėžis River of central Lithuania and assessed their relative influence on fish assemblages. Of the 23 fish species surveyed in the Nevėžis River, omnivorous and tolerant species were most common. Both water chemistry and physical, hydrogeomorphic characteristics emerged as predictors of fish assemblage descriptors. The strength of evidence for biological oyxgen demand as a strong environmental driver was compelling for both the Lithuanian Fish Index (LFI) and percentage of simple lithophils. Channel substrate emerged in multiple models as a strong predictor variable (LFI, % intolerant species, % simple lithophils, % omnivores). Measures of channel size (drainage area, mean depth) contributed to models for multiple fish metrics including percentage of lithophils, percentage of omnivores, and percentage of intolerant species. This research represents novel work in the region, and our results are an important step in supporting the development of a comprehensive physicochemical research and monitoring program in Lithuania. PMID:26797815

  9. Influences of hydrogeomorphology and chemical water quality on fish assemblages in the Nevėžis River, Lithuania: implications for river basin management plans in the Baltics.

    PubMed

    Čivas, Laurynas; Kesminas, Vytautas; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-02-01

    Further resolving physicochemical-fish associations would be of considerable benefit to advancing both scientific research and monitoring programs in the Baltic states. We collected 3 years of coordinated hydrogeomorphic, water-chemistry, and fish assemblage data at 11 study reaches along the Nevėžis River of central Lithuania and assessed their relative influence on fish assemblages. Of the 23 fish species surveyed in the Nevėžis River, omnivorous and tolerant species were most common. Both water chemistry and physical, hydrogeomorphic characteristics emerged as predictors of fish assemblage descriptors. The strength of evidence for biological oyxgen demand as a strong environmental driver was compelling for both the Lithuanian Fish Index (LFI) and percentage of simple lithophils. Channel substrate emerged in multiple models as a strong predictor variable (LFI, % intolerant species, % simple lithophils, % omnivores). Measures of channel size (drainage area, mean depth) contributed to models for multiple fish metrics including percentage of lithophils, percentage of omnivores, and percentage of intolerant species. This research represents novel work in the region, and our results are an important step in supporting the development of a comprehensive physicochemical research and monitoring program in Lithuania.

  10. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  11. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state

  12. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  13. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  14. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  15. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  16. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  17. Regionalisation of parameters of a large-scale water quality model in Lithuania using PAIC-SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrineh, Nina; van Griensven, Ann; Sennikovs, Juris; Bekere, Liga; Plunge, Svajunas

    2015-04-01

    To comply with the EU Water Framework Directive, all water bodies need to achieve good ecological status. To reach these goals, the Environmental Protection Agency (AAA) has to elaborate river basin districts management plans and programmes of measures for all catchments in Lithuania. For this purpose, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was set up for all Lithuanian catchments using the most recent version of SWAT2012 rev627 implemented and imbedded in a Python workflow by the Center of Processes Analysis and Research (PAIC). The model was calibrated and evaluated using all monitoring data of river discharge, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations and load. A regionalisation strategy has been set up by identifying 13 hydrological regions according to the runoff formation and hydrological conditions. In each region, a representative catchment was selected and calibrated using a combination of manual and automated calibration techniques. After final parameterization and fulfilling of calibrating and validating evaluation criteria, the same parameters sets have been extrapolated to other catchments within the same hydrological region. Multi variable cal/val strategy was implemented for the following variables: river flow and in-stream NO3, Total Nitrogen, PO4 and Total Phosphorous concentrations. The criteria used for calibration, validation and extrapolation are: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) for flow and R-squared for water quality variables and PBIAS (percentage bias) for all variables. For the hydrological calibration, NSE values greater than 0.5 should be achieved, while for validation and extrapolation the threshold is respectively 0.4 and 0.3. PBIAS errors have to be less than 20% for calibration and for validation and extrapolation less than 25% and 30%, respectively. In water quality calibration, R-squared should be achieved to 0.5 for calibration and for validation and extrapolation to 0.4 and 0.3 respectively for nitrogen variables. Besides

  18. Associations between neighbourhood greenness and asthma in preschool children in Kaunas, Lithuania: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Bernotiene, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between surrounding greenness levels and asthma among children, and to explore a possible change of this association by the distance of the residence to a city park. Design A nested case–control study. Setting Children aged 4−6 years residing at their current address since birth in Kaunas, Lithuania, whose mothers were recruited in 2007–2009 to the KANC newborns cohort study. Participants The participants were 1489 children whose parents in 2012–2013 filled in the questionnaires and agreed to participate in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures We estimated clinically diagnosed asthma risk factors. The surrounding greenness was measured as the average of the satellite-based Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within the buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m from each child's home address, and the distance to a city park was defined as the distance to the nearest city park. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the relationship between the greenness exposures and asthma adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An increase in the NDVI (>median) in buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m was associated with a slightly increased risk of asthma, while an IQR increase in NDVI-100 m statistically significantly increased the risk of asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85). The stratified analysis by surrounding greenness revealed indications of stronger associations for children with higher surrounding greenness (NDVI-100>median) and those living farther away from parks (>1000 m), compared to NDVI-100≤median and the distance to a city park >1000 m (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.87). Conclusions A higher level of the surrounding greenness was associated with a slightly increased relative risk of asthma in children. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the influence of city parks and neighbourhood greenness levels on asthma. PMID:27067890

  19. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  20. Trends in monitoring residues of pharmacologically active group B substances in products of animal origin in Lithuania from 1999 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Šerniene, L; Stimbirys, A; Daunoras, G

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring data of group B pharmacologically active substances in the Republic of Lithuania during the period 1999-2008 are presented. Peer review is based on data taken from residue-monitoring plans of the years 1999-2008 and the National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute reports on analyses performed in various foods. The data were analysed with the SPSS statistical package. Analysis of group B pharmacologically active substances residues monitoring results from the years 1999-2008 revealed that 25,030 samples were tested to detect 421 (1.68%) non-compliant samples in three groups of substances: antibacterials, anthelmintics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Most residues (88.3%) were found in milk, and were far less in beef, pork, sheep and goat meat. PMID:24779903

  1. Psychosocial environment for the integrated education opportunities of the disabled in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Samsoniene, Laimute; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Surkiene, Gene; Jankauskiene, Konstancija; Lukšiene, Aloyza

    2006-01-01

    Background The policy of the diminution of the social isolation of the disabled is the main objective of the strategy of the EU new policy concerning the disabled. Lithuanian society faces this objective as well. For this reason, this study aiming at providing the theoretical basis for and predicting the possible psycho-social environment in an integrated education system, as well as at the evaluation of the reasons for the formation of a positive approach to the disabled, is especially relevant, since it creates the prerequisites for the optimisation of the process of the integration of disabled schoolchildren into the general system of education. Method The sample of the study consisted of 2471 children from the same schools: not integrated (1958), integrated (126) and special schools (382). Empirical methods: questionnaire poll, comparative analysis. The statistical analysis was carried out using SAS. Results Our study showed that the majority of schoolchildren without disabilities and disabled schoolchildren have positive intentions for interpersonal interactions (>82%) and positive emotions (>69%) independently of the discrepant character of interpersonal contacts, different conditions of education and family life, and despite of low level of knowledge. Conclusion The results of the study confirmed positive intentions for interpersonal interaction between disabled schoolchildren and schoolchildren without disabilities, as well as a positive character of emotions, and disprove the unsound myth of the opponents of the social integration of the disabled stating that disabled children in comprehensive schools would undoubtedly experience offence from their peers without disabilities. PMID:17173706

  2. Possible insect vectors of phytoplasmas affiliated with subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasma strains affiliated with groups 16SrI, 16SrIII, 16SrV, and 16SrXII have been found in Lithuania, but still little is known about insects that could transmit them. In this study, four phytoplasma strains belonging to phytoplasma subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P were id...

  3. Short-term changes in soil Munsell colour value, organic matter content and soil water repellency after a spring grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Oliva, M.; Novara, A.

    2014-04-01

    Fire is a natural phenomenon with important implications on soil properties. The degree of this impact depends upon fire severity, the ecosystem affected, topography of the burned area and post-fire meteorological conditions. The study of fire effects on soil properties is fundamental to understand the impacts of this disturbance on ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study the short-term effects immediately after the fire (IAF), 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after a low-severity spring boreal grassland fire on soil colour value (assessed with the Munsell colour chart), soil organic matter content (SOM) and soil water repellency (SWR) in Lithuania. Four days after the fire a 400 m2 plot was delineated in an unburned and burned area with the same topographical characteristics. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 cm depth in a 20 m × 20 m grid, with 5 m space between sampling points. In each plot 25 samples were collected (50 each sampling date) for a total of 250 samples for the whole study. SWR was assessed in fine earth (< 2 mm) and sieve fractions of 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25 and < 0.25 mm from the 250 soil samples using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method. The results showed that significant differences were only identified in the burned area. Fire darkened the soil significantly during the entire study period due to the incorporation of ash/charcoal into the topsoil (significant differences were found among plots for all sampling dates). SOM was only significantly different among samples from the unburned area. The comparison between plots revealed that SOM was significantly higher in the first 2 months after the fire in the burned plot, compared to the unburned plot. SWR of the fine earth was significantly different in the burned and unburned plot among all sampling dates. SWR was significantly more severe only IAF and 2 months after the fire. In the unburned area SWR was significantly higher IAF, 2, 5 and 7 months later after than 9 months later. The

  4. Distribution of trichothecene and zearalenone producing Fusarium species in grain of different cereal species and cultivars grown under organic farming conditions in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suproniene, Skaidre; Justesen, Annemarie; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Dabkevicius, Zenonas; Semaskiene, Roma; Leistrumaite, Alge

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium infection level, DNA quantity of the Fusarium poae, F. sporotrichioides, F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. equiseti as well as deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN ) and T-2 toxin (T-2) content were investigated in grain from cultivars of different cereal species grown on organic farming sites during 2005-2006. The Fusarium infection level was examined by agar plating of single grains, Fusarium spp. DNA content was determined by real-time PCR and the mycotoxins were analyzed by ELISA. Almost all cereal grain samples grown under organic conditions were infected by Fusarium spp. The grains of winter cereals were less infected with Fusarium compared with those of spring cereals. The presence of F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. sporotrichioides, F. poae, F. langsethiae in cereal grain depended on the environmental conditions during the experimental years. Higher Fusarium species diversity was found in 2005 when the conditions were more favourable for Fusarium infection in cereal grain, whereas F. poae and F. langsethiae were prevalent in cereal grain in 2006. F. langsethiae, identified in Lithuania for the first time, was more frequent in spring cereals than in winter cereals. Almost all grain samples were found to be contaminated with DON, ZEN, T-2 at low concentrations; however, it is known that the action of toxins at low concentrations is slow, the adverse effects are evidenced only after some time and in different forms, which poses a serious risk to human and animal health.

  5. An analysis of the existing resources in relation to education and treatment of diabetes in four European countries: Estonia, Finland, Ireland, and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Burton, Aileen; Mikkonen, Ìrma; Buckley, Catherine; Creedon, Sile; Hynynen, Marja-Anneli; Kiljako, Marit; Kuzminskiene, Lilija; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; Mikutaviciene, Inga; Puputti, Seija; Rasteniene, Vilma; Riikonen, Riita; Simm, Piret; Soovali, Eve-Merike; Tiainen, Arja-Irene; Väistö, Ritva

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes has reached pandemic proportions worldwide. To address and assist health care professionals in maintaining and updating their knowledge base on diabetes care, a multilateral project within the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme and the Erasmus Curriculum Development - sub programme was initiated in 2008. Four European countries are involved in the project - Estonia, Finland, Ireland and Lithuania. Across all four countries the prevalence of diabetes is rising rapidly. The project's (DIPRA - Counselling for Practice - a pilot of improving counselling quality of diabetes) main product will be an on-line study module on patient education and counselling for health care professionals. The management of diabetes demands a broad range of skills which include, communication, leadership, counselling, teaching and research to name but a few. While it is acknowledged that nurses can incorporate these skills into practice and so benefit the care of the patient there is no uniformity across the four countries studied as to what constitutes a specialist diabetes nurse. The study module and all the materials (databank, on-line lectures, and interactive exercises) will be developed in English and translated into partners' national languages (Estonian, Finnish, Lithuanian) to maximize the accessibility of all professionals in partner countries. PMID:21255975

  6. Re-Os ages for Archean molybdenite and pyrite, Kuittila-Kivisuo, Finland and Proterozoic molybdenite, Kabeliai, Lithuania: Testing the chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, H.J.; Sundblad, K.; Markey, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Motuza, G.

    1998-01-01

    Seven 187Re-187Os ages were determined for molybdenite and pyrite samples from two well-dated Precambrian intrusions in Fennoscandia to examine the sustainability of the Re-Os chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting. Using a new 187Re decay constant (1.666 x 10-11y-1) with a much improved uncertainty (??0.31%), we determined replicate Re-Os ages for molybdenite and pyrite from the Kuittila and Kivisuo prospects in easternmost Finland and for molybdenite from the Kabeliai prospect in southernmost Lithuania. These two localities contain some of the oldest and youngest plutonic activity in Fennoscandia and are associated with newly discovered economic Au mineralization (Ilomantsi, Finland) and a Cu-Mo prospect (Kabeliai, Lithuania). Two Re-Os ages for veinhosted Kabeliai molybdenite average 1486 ?? 5 Ma, in excellent agreement with a 1505 ?? 11 Ma U-Pb zircon age for the hosting Kabeliai granite pluton. The slightly younger age suggests the introduction of Cu-Mo mineralization by a later phase of the Kabeliai magmatic system. Mean Re-Os ages of 2778 ?? 8 Ma and 2781 ?? 8 Ma for Kuittila and Kivisuo molybdenites, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with a 2753 ?? 5 Ma weighted mean U-Pb zircon age for hosting Kuittila tonalite. These Re-Os ages agree well with less precise ages of 2789 ?? 290 Ma for a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron and 2771 ?? 75 Ma for the average of six Sm-Nd T(DM) model ages for Kuittila tonalite. Three Re-Os analyses of a single pyrite mineral separate, from the same sample of Kuittila pluton that yielded a molybdenite separate, provide individual model ages of 2710 ?? 27, 2777 ?? 28, and 2830 ?? 28 Ma (Re = 17.4, 12.1, and 8.4 ppb, respectively), with a mean value of 2770 ?? 120 Ma in agreement with the Kuittila molybdenite age. The Re and 187Os abundances in these three pyrite splits are highly correlated (r = 0.9994), and provide a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 2607 ?? 47 Ma with an intercept of 21 ppt 187Os (MSWD = 1.1). It appears

  7. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the 2000s: findings from the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vikhireva, Olga; Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Peasey, Anne; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively large socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality have been observed in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Yet comparative data are sparse and virtually all studies include only education. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality during the 2000s in urban population samples from four CEE/FSU countries, by three different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) (education, difficulty buying food and household amenities), reflecting different aspects of SEP. Methods Data from the prospective population-based HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were used. The baseline survey (2002–2005) included 16 812 men and 19 180 women aged 45–69 years in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Data were analysed by direct standardisation and Cox regression, quantifying absolute and relative SEP differences. Results Mortality inequalities by the three SEP indicators were observed in all samples. The magnitude of inequalities varied according to gender, country and SEP measure. As expected, given the high mortality rates in Russian men, largest absolute inequalities were found among Russian men (educational slope index of inequality was 19.4 per 1000 person-years). Largest relative inequalities were observed in Czech men and Lithuanian subjects. Disadvantage by all three SEP measures remained strongly associated with increased mortality after adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Conclusions The results emphasise the importance of all SEP measures for understanding mortality inequalities in CEE/FSU. PMID:24227051

  9. "No-Shows": A Vexing Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    What can we learn about the applicants who do not show up on campus to register? This study suggests both a method for learning more about "no-shows" and the reasons why they change their mind. (Author)

  10. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  11. By Unanimous Decision? A Second Look at Consensus in the Film Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Erwin; Popik, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    This article reports analyses of the verdicts of various film organizations that annually present awards to motion pictures and investigates whether they award/nominate the same movies in a given year. This research disputes previous findings that reported a high level of agreement between those juries, by the means of reliability analysis and the…

  12. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  13. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  14. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  15. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  16. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  17. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  18. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  19. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. PMID:27585901

  20. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  1. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  2. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Garmienė, Asta; Žemaitienė, Nida; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2006-01-01

    Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2%) boys and 158 (42.8%) girls) and 565 parents: 323 (57.2%) mothers and 242 (48.2%) fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5%) of parents (248 (77.0%) mothers and 207 (85.9%) fathers (p < 0.05)) reported frequenting alcohol furnished parties at least once a month. About half of the surveyed fathers (50.6%) together with one fifth of the mothers (19.9%) (p < 0.001) were smokers. More frequently than girls, boys reported having tried smoking (6.6% and 23.0% respectively; p < 0.001) as well as alcohol (31.16% and 40.1% respectively; p < 0.05). Child alcohol use was associated both with paternal alcohol use, and with the time, spent in joint family activities. For instance, boys were more prone to try alcohol, if their fathers frequented alcohol furnished parties, whereas girls were more prone to try alcohol, if family members spent less time together. Conclusion

  3. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  4. Showing R-Rated Videos in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1990, there have been at least six published court decisions concerning teachers' use of controversial videos in public schools. A relevant district policy led the Colorado Supreme Court to uphold a teacher's termination for showing 12th graders an R-rated 1900 Bertolucci film on fascism. Implications are discussed. (MLH)

  5. State Data Show Gains in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Schools taking part in the federal Reading First program are showing significant progress in boosting students' reading fluency and comprehension, according to state-reported data compiled and released by the U.S. Department of Education last week. In releasing for the first time detailed, multiyear data on how Reading First schools are performing…

  6. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  7. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  8. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

  9. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  10. Idaho State University Physics Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shropshire, Steve

    2009-05-01

    The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

  11. Research shows targeted HIV prevention succeeds.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    Systematic reviews of HIV prevention intervention literature for the target populations of African-Americans, Latinos, youths, and men who have sex with men in the United States shows that targeted interventions work in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Interventions that succeeded were culturally sensitive, of longer duration, and included skills training, according to a project supported by the Surgeon General's Leadership Campaign on AIDS and teh California HealthCare Foundation in Oakland. PMID:12206092

  12. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  13. Software for portable laser light show system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  14. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  15. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  16. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-08-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed.

  17. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content.

    PubMed

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen's viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  18. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  19. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  20. New AIDS estimates show demographic changes.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HIV epidemic's rate of increase has slowed to about three percent per year, with the incidence of AIDS cases estimated to have decreased in the West. The latest epidemic figures, reported through 1994 in the CDC's HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, puts the total of reported AIDS cases in the United States at 441,528. The implementation of the new AIDS definition in 1993 has distorted surveillance trends--six out of ten AIDS cases are now reported using the new CD4 criterion instead of the pre-1993 case definitions. An unpublished analysis of the epidemic shows a shift toward fewer gay men, more injection drug users, and more women becoming infected. However, the CDC contends that more heterosexuals are being infected and more racial and ethnic minorities are being infected. PMID:11362433

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells’ self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 χ 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 χ 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

  2. Spatial distribution of soil moisture and hydrophobicity in the immediate period after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Pundyte, N.; Vaitkute, D.; Cepanko, V.; Pranskevicius, M.; Ubeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire can affect significantly soil moisture (SM) and water repellency (WR) in the immediate period after the fire due the effect of the temperatures into soil profile and ash. This impact can be very heterogeneous, even in small distances, due to different conditions of combustion (e.g. fuel and soil moisture, fuel amount and type, distribution and connection, and geomorphological variables as aspect and slope) that influences fire temperature and severity. The aim of this work it is study the spatial distribution of SM and WR in a small plot (400 m2 with a sampling distance of 5 m) immediately after the a low severity grassland fire.. This was made in a burned but also in a control (unburned) plot as reference to can compare. In each plot we analyzed a total of 25 samples. SM was measured gravimetrically and WR with the water drop penetration time test (WDPT). Several interpolation methods were tested in order to identify the best predictor of SM and WR, as the Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The best method is the one that showed the lower RMSE. The results showed that on average the SM in the control plot was 13.59 % (±2.83) and WR 2.9 (±1.3) seconds (s). The majority of the soils (88%) were hydrophilic (WDPT <5s). SM in the control plot showed a weak negative relationship with WR (r=-0.33, p<0.10). The coefficient of variation (CV%) of SM was 20.77% and SW of 44.62%. In the burned plot

  3. VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-04-01

    A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature

  4. Bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of the media in an adolescent in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Mieliauskaite, Diana; Venalis, Algirdas; Graziene, Vida; Kirdaite, Gailute

    2007-07-01

    The elimination of censorship for the media in post-communist countries in transition has contributed to increases in the prevalence of several medical problems. Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the messages conveyed through the media, which influence their perceptions and behaviour. We describe a case of bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of self-prescribed diet in an adolescent. A 15-year-old girl reported to our institution under suspicion of Sjögren's syndrome for medical advice. Two months ago she developed persistent bilateral parotid enlargement and a dry mouth. Her medical history revealed a weight loss due to "self-prescribed" reduce diet. Social questioning clarified high use of the media and influence on the body concept and self image. On extra oral examination, a diffuse parotid enlargement was seen bilaterally. The examination of the mouth showed a low moisture level of the intraoral mucosa. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was 2 ml in 15 min. Laboratory findings evidenced anemia (107 g/l). The serum albumin concentration indicated a reduced level (28 g/l). Search for antinuclear antibodies, anti-SSA antibodies, anti-SSB, -Sm, -RNP and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies was negative. Evaluation for antibodies against hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection and HIV rendered negative results. A histopathologic examination of labial salivary gland biopsy revealed a picture of sialoadenosis. From the above investigations, a diagnosis of sialoadenosis due to malnutrition was made. PMID:17198741

  5. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  6. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  7. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That "Before" Is "Left".

    PubMed

    Bonato, Mario; Saj, Arnaud; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. PMID:27313902

  8. NTZIP antisense plants show reduced chlorophyll levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Yang, Yu-Tao; Liu, Han-Hua; Yang, Guo-Dong; Zhang, Nai-Hua; Zheng, Cheng Chao

    2004-04-01

    We have isolated and characterized a new photosynthetic tissue-specific gene NTZIP (Nicotiana tabacum leucine zipper) from tobacco (N. tabacum). Its deduced amino acid sequence has two highly conserved regions, leucine zipper and [EX(n)DEXRH](2) motifs, which are related to the gene's biochemical functions. NTZIP was expressed in leaves and stems, but was not detected in roots or flowers, suggesting that its physiological functions might be associated with photosynthesis. Northern blot analysis showed that NTZIP mRNA accumulation was induced by light signals, increased greatly under low temperatures and was repressed by strong light illumination. Furthermore, a number of homologs of NTZIP were isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus), rape (Brassica napus), clover (Trifolium repens), willow (Salix babylonica), rosebush (Rusa dovurica), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea), proving the ubiquitous existence of the NTZIP-like genes in higher plants. Transgenic tobaccos constitutively expressing antisense RNA to NTZIP displayed chlorosis and a lack of ability to turn green even under normal growth conditions. The chlorophyll deficiency was further confirmed by chlorophyll content determination and gas exchange analysis. Based on these observations, we propose that NTZIP may be involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and might define a novel family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with its homologs in other plant species.

  9. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2016-09-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  10. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Narbutaite, Julija

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2), Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51), practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4) (P = 0.58). Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001). After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35) (P < 0.001). Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27) in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32) (P < 0.001). By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004). Conclusions Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training. PMID:26539284

  11. Open Access Centre at the Nature Research Centre: a facility for enhancement of scientific research, education and public outreach in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina

    2014-05-01

    Open Access Centre (OAC) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2013 as a subdivision of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) operating on the principle of open access for both internal and external users. The OAC consists of 15 units, i.e. 15 NRC laboratories or their branches. Forty four sets of research equipment were purchased. The OAC cooperates with Lithuanian science and studies institutions, business sector and other governmental and public institutions. Investigations can be carried in the Geosciences, Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research, and Ecotoxicology fields. Environmental radioactivity, radioecology, nuclear geophysics, microscopic and chemical composition of natural compounds (minerals, rocks etc.), paleomagnetic, magnetic and environmental investigations, as well as ground and water contamination by oil products and other organic environment polluting compounds, identification of fossils, rocks and minerals can be studied in the Georesearch field. Ecosystems and identification of plants, animals and microorganisms are main subjects of the Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research field. The Ecotoxicologal Research deals with toxic and genotoxic effects of toxic substances and other sources of pollution on macro- and microorganisms and cell cultures. Open access is guaranteed by: (1) providing scientific research and experimental development services; (2) implementing joint business and science projects; (3) using facilities for the training of specialists of the highest qualifications; (4) providing properly qualified and technically trained users with opportunities to carry out their scientific research and/or experiments in the OAC laboratories by themselves. Services provided in the Open Access Centre can be received by both internal and external users: persons undertaking innovative economic activities, students of other educational institutions, interns, external teams of researchers engaged in scientific research activities, teachers

  12. Short term spatio-temporal variability of soil water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Martin, David

    2014-05-01

    Fire has important impacts on soil nutrient spatio-temporal distribution (Outeiro et al., 2008). This impact depends on fire severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and the meteorological conditions post-fire. Fire produces a complex mosaic of impacts in soil that can be extremely variable at small plot scale in the space and time. In order to assess and map such a heterogeneous distribution, the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to identify the best estimator and to have a better understanding of soil nutrients spatial distribution. The objective of this work is to identify the short-term spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire. The studied area is located near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire, it was designed in a burned area a plot with 400 m2 (20 x 20 m with 5 m space between sampling points). Twenty five samples from top soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately after the fire (IAF), 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after the fire (a total of 125 in all sampling dates). The original data of water-extractable calcium and magnesium did not respected the Gaussian distribution, thus a neperian logarithm (ln) was applied in order to normalize data. Significant differences of water-extractable calcium and magnesium among sampling dates were carried out with the Anova One-way test using the ln data. In order to assess the spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium, we tested several interpolation methods as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) - Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ) Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2. Interpolation tests were carried out with Ln data. The best interpolation method was assessed using the

  13. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state

  14. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the <2 mm mesh in order to remove the coarse material. Subsequently were placed in petri dishes and exposed to a controlled laboratory environment (temperature of 20C and 50% of air relative humidity) for one week to avoid potential impacts of the atmospheric conditions on SWR (Doerr, 1998). The persistence of SWR was measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). The classification of WDPT was according to Bisdom et al. (1993) <5 (wettable), 5-60 (slightly water repellent), 60-600 (strongly water repellent), 600-3600 (severely water repellent) and >3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, p<0.001). The WDPT soil median values collected under Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and soils from planted grass were significantly higher than Platanus

  15. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  16. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  17. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  18. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  19. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  20. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  1. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  2. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  3. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  4. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  5. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  7. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  8. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  9. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  10. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  11. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  12. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  13. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  14. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  15. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  16. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  17. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  18. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  19. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  20. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  2. View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of building no. 1015 (ice house/storage shed) showing at the left. - McGraw Ranch, Eagle's Nest Cabin, McGraw Ranch Road, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  3. 10. Close of the east elevation to show change in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Close of the east elevation to show change in building fabric from ceramic tile facing to brick masonry and to show the stone window sills - Arlington Realty Building, 2300 North Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  4. 20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' (TN-159A-19), MEMBER 'B' IS BEAM 'B' IN TN-159A-19 AND SHOWS METHOD OF JOINING THESE MEMBERS. MEMBER 'C' SHOWS MORTISE IN BEAM 'B'. - Caleb Crosby Threshing Barn, Noeton (moved to Norris Dam State Park, Lake City), Morristown, Hamblen County, TN

  5. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  6. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  7. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  8. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  9. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  10. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  11. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  12. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  13. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  14. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  15. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  16. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  17. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  18. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  19. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  20. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  1. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  2. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  3. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  4. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  5. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  7. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  8. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  9. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  10. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  11. 46 CFR 502.73 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.73 Section 502.73 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.73 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order must be served upon all persons named therein, must include...

  12. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  13. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to show cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2... in 41 CFR 60-1.26(b): Provided, That where a conciliation agreement has been violated, no show cause... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Show cause notice....

  14. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  15. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  16. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  17. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  18. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  19. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to show cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2... in 41 CFR 60-1.26(b): Provided, That where a conciliation agreement has been violated, no show cause... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause notice....

  20. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  1. 46 CFR 502.73 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.73 Section 502.73 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.73 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order must be served upon all persons named therein, must include...

  2. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  3. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  4. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  5. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  6. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  7. "The Cosby Show": The View from the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inniss, Leslie B.; Feagin, Joe R.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the black middle-class response to "The Cosby Show." The study asked about the portrayal of blacks in the media, but did not specifically ask about "The Cosby Show." Results from 100 respondents revealed two significant aspects: that the show renders black problems as irrelevant and that it fosters hope and optimism that the black…

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND EAST FACADES (View B) This view shows clapboards on gable end and therefore, predates View A which shows shingles in upper gable From the collection of Mrs. L. T. Hazall, descendent of Rev. Woodward - Reverend John Woodward House, 409 Forbes Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three crib side walls, being flown by the derrick. The upper part of the fourth member, marked with an identifying tag, shows evidence of burning. Notice how well the lower members fit together. This view shows that individual timber members were worked, in part, after assembly. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  10. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.193 Request to show cause. An SEA... cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a show cause hearing...

  11. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.193 Request to show cause. An SEA... cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a show cause hearing...

  12. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  13. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  14. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  15. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  16. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  17. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  18. Attic floor; view west showing roof structural system North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Attic floor; view west showing roof structural system - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  1. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 5. SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE WEST WALL AND NORTH FRONT SHOWING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SUPERINTENDENT'S COTTAGE WEST WALL AND NORTH FRONT SHOWING CONCRETE BLOCK UTILITY ROOM ADDITION. - Tucson Plant Materials Center, Superintendent's Cottage, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES AND CLERESTORY ARRANGEMENT - Sulphur Springs Methodist Campground, Sulphur Springs Road (Sulphur Springs), Sulphur Springs, Washington County, TN

  6. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  8. North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. General view, showing eastern view from atop hemi circle. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, showing eastern view from atop hemi circle. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  13. SOUTHEAST FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING PHILADELPHIA THANKSGIVING PARADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTHEAST FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING PHILADELPHIA THANKSGIVING PARADE - Free Library of Philadelphia, Thomas Holme Branch, 7810 Frankford Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT New York, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BRIDGE COUNTERWEIGHT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Niantic Bridge, Spanning Niantic River between East Lyme & Waterford, Old Lyme, New London County, CT

  15. 3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  17. 54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  19. 15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. 27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION OF NOTRE DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH ELEVATION OF NOTRE DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST Ernest Gould, photographer, 1987 - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  1. RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS #434 AND #435, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  2. 1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING GLORIA DEI CHURCH (note steeple) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion and engine house in background - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL FILLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL- FILLED TRANSFORMER POTS - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  13. Attic still life southsoutheast looking northnorthwest. Shows an early toilet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Attic still life south-southeast looking north-northwest. Shows an early toilet, what is possibly the original front door, and a lead lined reservoir. Also shows the attic framing. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  14. Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

  15. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

  17. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  18. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  19. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  20. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  1. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  2. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  3. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  4. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  5. 47 CFR 74.131 - Licensing requirements, necessary showing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements, necessary showing. 74... Experimental Broadcast Stations § 74.131 Licensing requirements, necessary showing. (a) An applicant for a new... research and experimentation in the technical phases of broadcasting which indicates reasonable promise...

  6. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  7. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  8. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  9. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  10. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  11. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  12. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60... cause notices. When the Director has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this part, he or she may issue a notice requiring the contractor to show cause, within 30...

  13. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  14. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  15. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  16. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  17. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  18. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  19. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  20. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  1. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  2. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  3. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  4. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  5. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  6. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  7. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  8. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  9. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  10. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  11. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  12. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  13. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  14. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  15. 14 CFR 314.14 - Show-cause order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show-cause order. 314.14 Section 314.14... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.14 Show-cause order. When the Department makes a preliminary determination of whether the major cause of the bankruptcy...

  16. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  17. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  18. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60... REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Director has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the act...

  19. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  20. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  1. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  2. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  3. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  4. 28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED POSITION WITH THE EXTREME UPPER PORTION OF THE BASCULE RACK GEAR SHOWING IN THE LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An... citizenship is claimed by virtue of naturalization of the father, evidence of his naturalization, and that...

  6. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An... citizenship is claimed by virtue of naturalization of the father, evidence of his naturalization, and that...

  7. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An... citizenship is claimed by virtue of naturalization of the father, evidence of his naturalization, and that...

  8. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An... citizenship is claimed by virtue of naturalization of the father, evidence of his naturalization, and that...

  9. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An... citizenship is claimed by virtue of naturalization of the father, evidence of his naturalization, and that...

  10. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  11. Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

  12. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  13. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  14. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  15. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  16. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  18. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  19. 13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  20. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  2. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  3. Ultraviolet imaging spectroscopy shows an active saturnian system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Larry W; Colwell, Joshua E; Larsen, Kristopher; McClintock, William E; Stewart, A Ian F; Hallett, Janet Tew; Shemansky, Donald E; Ajello, Joseph M; Hansen, Candice J; Hendrix, Amanda R; West, Robert A; Keller, H Uwe; Korth, Axel; Pryor, Wayne R; Reulke, Ralf; Yung, Yuk L

    2005-02-25

    Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the purest ice in the outermost A ring. This radial variation is consistent with initially pure water ice bombarded by meteors, but smaller radial structures may indicate collisional transport and recent renewal events in the past 10(7) to 10(8) years.

  4. 5. March 1960 LIVING ROOM CHIMNEY BREAST SHOWING MARBLE MANTEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. March 1960 LIVING- ROOM CHIMNEY BREAST SHOWING MARBLE MANTEL AND PLASTER RUN CORNICE - Rutgers University, Doolittle-Demarest House, George Street & Seminary Place, New Brunswick, Middlesex County, NJ

  5. 143. INTERIOR OF THE MILL HOUSE SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, 1853 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    143. INTERIOR OF THE MILL HOUSE SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, 1853 Collection of the Free Library of Philadelphia - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 117. SECTION THROUGH MILL HOUSE AND FOREBAY SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. SECTION THROUGH MILL HOUSE AND FOREBAY SHOWING BREAST WHEEL, SECTION THROUGH PUMP CHAMBER, CA. 1820 Frederic Graff, Collection of the Franklin Institute - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 10. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING FIREPLACE AND PORTION OF CHIMNEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING FIREPLACE AND PORTION OF CHIMNEY BREAST IN AREA FORMERLY A PARLOR IN THE NORTHEAST PORTION OF THE FIRST FLOOR. - Joseph D. Reinboth House, 412-414 Cooper Street, Camden, Camden County, NJ

  8. Ends of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ends of the mine observation tower and transformer buildings, showing the separation between them. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1977. SAME SHOWING MORE ROOF DAMAGE AND NOT QUITE AS WIDE AN ANGLE VIEW. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  10. PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANAR VIEW OF REAR (NORTHWEST) SIDE OF GARAGE, SHOWING FLAMMABLES LOCKER AND ADDITION ON RIGHT, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Moore Haven Lock, Garage, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  11. Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors and interior windows - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. 5. View from road surface looking southeast, showing approach and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View from road surface looking southeast, showing approach and across the bridge. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  13. 12. Detail showing concrete abutment on southwest side looking east, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail showing concrete abutment on southwest side looking east, taken from below road surface. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  14. 22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS AND DUCT WORK (OTHER OFFICE INTERIORS ARE GREATLY ALTERED FROM THE ORIGINAL) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 4. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING WEST END OF CRANEWAY (CENTER), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING WEST END OF CRANEWAY (CENTER), WEST SIDE OF ASSEMBLY BUILDING (LEFT), AND WHARF (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 7. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION (LEFT) AND NORTH SIDE (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 5. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING FRONT ELEVATION (LEFT) AND NORTH SIDE (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF WAITING AREA SHOWING STAIRS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF WAITING AREA SHOWING STAIRS TO FIRST FLOOR (LEFT) AND HALL TO MANAGERS OFFICES (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. CAFETERIA AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAFETERIA AT SHIPYARD NO. 3, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING SOUTHEAST END AND FRONT SIDE (SHADED BY TREES) - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Cafeteria, 1301 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. 7. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ELEVATION OF THE OFFICE PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO EAST SHOWING ELEVATION OF THE OFFICE PORTION OF THE STRUCTURE AT NORTHWEST CORNER. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. 3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING EAST END OF OIL HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING EAST END OF OIL HOUSE (LEFT) AND EAST SIDE OF CRATING SHED AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING (RIGHT BACKGROUND). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. 4. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO NORTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH SIDE (LEFT) AND FRONT ELEVATION (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  3. 2. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST SHOWING OIL HOUSE (LEFT), BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST SHOWING OIL HOUSE (LEFT), BOILER ROOM AND STACK (CENTER), ROOF OF CRANEWAY (BACKGROUND), AND CRATING SHED (RIGHT). - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  4. 3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO WEST SHOWING NORTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING. NOTE STIFFENING TRUSS OVER DOORWAY TO SUPPORT THE WALL. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  5. VIEW EAST SHOWING THE WEST SIDE OF THE FORWARD (BOW) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST SHOWING THE WEST SIDE OF THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING THE STRUCTURE REPRESENTING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH SHOWING THE STRUCTURE REPRESENTING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION OF A LIBERTY SHIP - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. 6. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, VIEW TO EAST SHOWING DETAIL OF ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL WAREHOUSE, VIEW TO EAST SHOWING DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DOOR (CENTER), FLANKING PEDESTRIAN ENTRIES, AND LOADING DOCK. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, General Warehouse, 1320 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO WEST SHOWING SOUTHEAST END. NOTE THAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW TO WEST SHOWING SOUTHEAST END. NOTE THAT EXTERIOR CRANEWAY TRESTLES HAVE BEEN REDUCED IN LENGTH. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Auxiliary Plate Shop, 912 Harbour Way, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  9. 2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX AT JUNCTION OF PIPE WITH CONCRETE CHANNEL TO FISH SCREEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 10. NORTHWEST END OF WHITSETT PLANT SHOWING PIPELINES PROBABLY FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NORTHWEST END OF WHITSETT PLANT SHOWING PIPELINES PROBABLY FOR FIRE WATER STORAGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE FORMS, April 24, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 13. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING HIGH PRESSURE AIR FLASK ROOM AND PUMP ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  13. 5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SWAN FALLS DAM AND POWER HOUSE, LOOKING UPSTREAM TO SOUTH FROM THE A MOUND OF DEBRIS ABOUT THIRTY TO FORTY FEET ABOVE THE RIVER - Swan Falls Dam, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  14. 13. INTERIOR, SHOWING DECORATION AT THE ALTAR FOR THE REPOSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR, SHOWING DECORATION AT THE ALTAR FOR THE REPOSE OF THE SOUL OF DON ALFONSO XII, KING OF SPAIN (photograph, Jan. 20, 1886) - Our Lady of Peace Cathedral, 1183 Fort Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing radwaste tank, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing rad-waste tank, facing south-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  16. 6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing cattle shelter, facing southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing milliongallon reservoir, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing million-gallon reservoir, facing east-southeast. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Contextual view of EPA Farm showing holding pens, facing west-southwest. - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. 65. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM FLUME SUBSTRUCTURE, SHOWING COLUMBIA IMPROVEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM FLUME SUBSTRUCTURE, SHOWING COLUMBIA IMPROVEMENT COMPANY'S NEISSON CREEK SAWMILL. Print No. 177, November 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  20. 41. VIEW FROM END OF FLUME, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERFLOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW FROM END OF FLUME, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVERFLOW CHUTE ON RIGHT (PARALLEL TO FLUME), RESERVOIR EMBANKMENT IN BACKGROUND, AND HOOKS ON END OF RAILING FOR SPILLBOARDS - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  1. 18. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN FROM UPSTREAM TRESTLE, SHOWING BULKHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN FROM UPSTREAM TRESTLE, SHOWING BULKHEAD ON RIGHT AND SAND BANK ON LEFT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  2. 17. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING FLUME TRACK SPUR CROSSING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF SETTLING BASIN, SHOWING FLUME TRACK SPUR CROSSING OVER SETTLING BASIN, SPARE BENT MATERIAL IN RIGHT-HAND FOREGROUND, BYPASS FLUME, AND SHACK #6 IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  3. 81. VIEW OF CONNECTION BETWEEN INTAKE AND FLUME, SHOWING UNCOMPLETED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. VIEW OF CONNECTION BETWEEN INTAKE AND FLUME, SHOWING UNCOMPLETED RADIAL GATE IN PLACE, Print No. 240, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  4. 5. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing evidence of trough framing, looking N - North River Canal System, Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

  5. 6. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, detail of north abutment showing evidence of trough framing, looking NE - North River Canal System, Pedlar Gap Run Aqueduct, West side of Buena Vista, Buena Vista, Roanoke City, VA

  6. 13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TOOL ROOM SHOWING W. ROBERTSON MACHINE & FOUNDRY CO. NO. 5 POWER HACKSAW (FOREGROUND) AND WELLS METAL BAND SAW (BACKGROUND). VIEW SOUTHEAST - Oldman Boiler Works, Office/Machine Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. 69. TURBINE BUILDING (LOCATION N), THIRD LEVEL LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. TURBINE BUILDING (LOCATION N), THIRD LEVEL LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING BASE OF CONDENSOR AND RIVER WATER OUTLET PIPE - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  8. 48. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUXILIARY CHAMBER (EAST END), VIEW LOOKING EAST SHOWING ELECTRICAL PENETRATION AND AIR LOCK (LOCATION GGG) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  9. 35. FUEL HANDLING BUILDING, INTERIOR LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING TRANSFER CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. FUEL HANDLING BUILDING, INTERIOR LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING TRANSFER CANAL AREA, DEEP STORAGE AREA, FUEL STORAGE PIT (LOCATION BB) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  10. Contextual view showing building 253 in foreground; camera facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing building 253 in foreground; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 47 looking across Walnut Avenue, showing south elevation; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters at eaves; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF BUILDING 459 LOOKING ALONG WALNUT AVENUE, SHOWING WEST ELEVATION. CAMERA FACING SOUTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bachelor Enlisted Quarters & Offices, Walnut Avenue, east side between D Street & C Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  15. 11. Photocopy of old photo shows people in front of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of old photo shows people in front of Miners' Exchange, late 19th or early 20th century. Original photograph at Boise Basin Museum, Idaho City, Idaho. - Miners' Exchange Block, Main & Wall Streets, Idaho City, Boise County, ID

  16. 10. Photocopy of old photo shows men sitting in front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of old photo shows men sitting in front of the saloon, late 19th or early 20th century. Original photograph at Idaho Historical Society, Boise, Idaho. - Miners' Exchange Block, Main & Wall Streets, Idaho City, Boise County, ID

  17. 4. CLOSEUP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSE-UP OF REAR STEPPED PARAPET GABLE SHOWING TOP CURVILINEAR GABLE AND ROUGH STUCCO FINISH. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Operations Building No. 1, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. Interior detail of south wall with shed roofs showing steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of south wall with shed roofs showing steel structure, paint room on lower right, view facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat Shop, Seventh Street near Avenue E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. View southwest, wharf A and timber breakwater, showing sawn off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest, wharf A and timber breakwater, showing sawn off section and steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  20. Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing drainage culvert in foreground boarding east side of knoll with eucalyptus windbreak. Camera facing 278" southwest. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Goerlitz Property, showing eucalyptus trees along west side of driveway; parking lot and utility pole in foreground. Camera facing 38" northeast - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Hospital, Animal House, Near intersection of Hospital Way & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF ANIMAL HOUSE SHOWING NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF ANIMAL HOUSE SHOWING NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST FACADES AND CONNECTION TO SOUTHEAST FACADE OF STATION GARAGE. VIEW TO WEST. - VA Medical Center, Aspinwall Division, Animal House, 5103 Delafield Avenue, Aspinwall, Allegheny County, PA

  4. LEANTO INTERIOR, LOOKING EAST. Image shows: ladder attached to south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEAN-TO INTERIOR, LOOKING EAST. Image shows: ladder attached to south façade, gate separating hay storage from animal pens, and east wall construction. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  6. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE AND LINCOLN HIGHWAY, SHOWING NORTH APPROACH TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  7. 9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF FRONT PORCH SHOWING FRONT ENTRY (LEFT) AND BLANK WALL (CENTER) CORRESPONDING TO LOCATION OF INTERIOR VAULTS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  8. VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING WEST WALL OF BUILDING 22, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Swimming Pool, Reeves Avenue, enclosed by Building No. 22 & Arcade, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pool area showing steel trusses from mezzanine on west - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. 1. General view to east showing front (northwest) facade and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view to east showing front (northwest) facade and southwest elevation of shower room; swimming pool; pump house, and filtration/chlorination building (at left) - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Shower Room & Swimming Pool, Green Street, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  11. 1. PLENUM INTERIOR, SHOWING HEATING COILS AND BYPASS Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PLENUM INTERIOR, SHOWING HEATING COILS AND BY-PASS - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 10. INTERIOR VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST, SECOND BAY Showing intermediate doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW TOWARD NORTHEAST, SECOND BAY Showing intermediate doors cut for warehouse conversion, heating system, dormer removal repair. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  13. Interior view of loading dock basement facing east, showing wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of loading dock basement facing east, showing wood posts and capitals, wood floor beams and flooring storage shelves - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel Park, showing bomb shelters at right foreground, from building 746 parking lot across Walnut Avenue; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down California Avenue, showing south and east elevations; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Contextual view of building 253 looking down Walnut Avenue, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of building 253 looking down Walnut Avenue, showing south elevation at right; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of H1 on right; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA