Science.gov

Sample records for lithuanian coastal zone

  1. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  2. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  3. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  4. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  5. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  6. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  7. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  8. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, J.

    1988-01-01

    Activities over the past year have included cooperative work with a summer faculty fellow using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to study the effects of gradients in trophic resources on coral reefs in the Caribbean. Other research included characterization of ocean radiances specific to an acid-waste plume. Other activities include involvement in the quality control of imagery produced in the processing of the global CZCS data set, the collection of various other data global sets, and the subsequent data comparison and analysis.

  10. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  11. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  12. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  13. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  14. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  15. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  17. SAR observations of coastal zone conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, G. A.; Kasischke, E. S.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology to the observation of coastal zones phenomena are detailed. The conditions observed include gravity wave detection, surf zone location, surface currents, and long-period 'surf beats'. Algorithms have been developed and successfully tested that determine significant wave and current parameters from the sea surface backscatter of microwave energy. Doppler information from the SAR optical correlator allows a rough estimation of near shore surface flow velocities that has been found in agreement with both theory and in situ observations as well. Seasat SAR data of the Scotland and North Carolina coasts are considered, as well as the results of bathymetric updating of coastal area charts.

  18. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The DEIS...

  19. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U... Federal Approval of the Illinois Coastal Management Program (ICMP). SUMMARY: NOAA's OCRM announces the...

  20. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  1. Assessing oil spill sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments: A case study for Lithuanian-Russian coasts, South-eastern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-01-15

    This study presents a series of oil spill indexes for the characterization of physical and biological sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments. The case study extends over 237 km of Lithuanian-Russian coastal areas subjected to multiple oil spill threats. Results show that 180 km of shoreline have environmental sensitivity index (ESI) of score 3. Natural clean-up processes depending on (a) shoreline sinuosity, (b) orientation and (c) wave exposure are favourable on 72 km of shoreline. Vulnerability analysis from pre-existing Kravtsovskoye D6 platform oil spill scenarios indicates that 15.1 km of the Curonian Spit have high impact probability. The highest seafloor sensitivity within the 20 m isobath is at the Vistula Spit and Curonian Spit, whereas biological sensitivity is moderate over the entire study area. The paper concludes with the importance of harmonized datasets and methodologies for transboundary oil spill impact assessment.

  2. Funding in integrated coastal zone management partnerships.

    PubMed

    McGlashan, Derek J

    2003-04-01

    In countries where integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is not enshrined in statute, a voluntary approach has often been taken. This review examines issues relating to funding in ICZM partnerships, particularly the local coastal fora (LCF) network in the UK. It highlights the lack of sustainable long-term funding mechanisms for organisations with the core aim of sustainable management of coastal resources. The relative difficulty of raising funds for core costs as opposed to projects is addressed, as is the lack of business/industry involvement. The 'hamster wheel syndrome' of fundraising is noted, where staff spend too much time trying to raise money, as opposed to developing ICZM. The resultant impact on the staff and the operation of the LCF is considered. Examples beyond the UK are considered, as are the problems associated with 'pump-prime' funding and implementation. Is the lack of formality in ICZM the crux of the funding problem?

  3. Mapping of the coastal zone of Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, L.

    1997-06-01

    Uppsala University, Sweden in co-operation with Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), Jamaica have been mapping the coastal zone of Jamaica from remote sources and field inventories for planning and management purposes. All beaches were field-checked and other types of shores classified from Landsat and aerial photos and data evaluated using Excel. The sub-water environment has been classified from Landsat TM, with reference data from echo sounder, GPS and manual observations stored into a computer directly in the field. A comprehensive database was created containing important information for the planners, like coastline types, maps of land and sea-bottom cover. An ARC/INFO structure has been created allowing NRCA to continually improve and update the knowledge of the coastal zone.

  4. Soil erosion, policy and management in China coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Qiao; Ning, Jicai; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    The coastal zone is very important in the world. China coastal zone was granted the first priority of developing economy in the late 1980s. Since then, high population density and rapid economic development hace caused intensive changes of LUCC in this zone. Those changes have lead to land degradation. Besides, China governments launched series of projects and policy to improve such problems. Those will inevitably cause to diverse spatial dynamics of land degradtion. However, the state of land degradation in certain time is still unknown. Soil erosion is an important indicator of land degradation.Therefore, we use RS images,RUSLE model to anlyze the spatial pattern of soil erosion for 2000. By spatial analysis, we found that soil erosion in China coastal zone is not serious. Widespread soil erosion is only occurred on coastal zones in Shandong, Hainan and werstern Guangdong Province. Although rainfall eosivity factor(R) is higher in southern coastal zone, erosion tends to occur on the slopes with lower LS values in northern coastal zone than southern coastal zone. Goevernments have enforced some policy to reduce the extent of soil erosion by conversion of farmland to woodland and barren mountains to woodland. But the difference between southern and northern coastal zone is still not realized. To improve soil eorosion in those areas, we should let governments put more funds to increase vegetation cover in north. Such study will provide helpful suggestions for governments to prevent soil erosion in coastal zone.

  5. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  6. Integrated Coastal Zone Management: The "AGIL" Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lointier, Marc; Carnus, Francois; Denis, Jacques; Antona, Martine; Oliveros, C.; Roquez, Jean-Michel; Durieux, Laurent; Heurtaux, Vincent; Haubourg, Regis

    2005-03-01

    Considering the increasing expansion of economic and human activities on coastal zones, the concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) emerges as a crutial need for the society. In order to implement such ICZM programs, the AGIL project is being developed through a Consortium, which integrates different skills: purely scientific ones, as well as products and trade services companies using Earth Observation (EO).Spatialized information resulting of EO processing is necessary to investigate and to update the knowledge on the littoral and his watershed. Two test sites (Réunion Island & Languedoc) have been selected for the ICZM approach in progress. The consortium AGIL attempts to gather its skills to propose expertise and a package of EO products, applied to ICZM.The AGIL "system" for representation and diffusion of a relevant information, comes up to three principal needs:-presentation of the scientific results, synthesized and validated by the users according to a specific investigation.-sharing information between members of the Consortium-exchange of information between the end-users.The adopted data-processing solution uses the concept of "distributed" system and respects the European directive for the spatialized data exchange.s

  7. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  8. Thermohaline processes in a tropical coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Cecilia; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael; Jeronimo, Gilberto; Capurro-Filograsso, Luis

    2013-10-01

    The detailed thermohaline structure of the northern Yucatan coastal zone was obtained for the first time in order to gain an insight into the interactions between various processes in this complex tropical environment of extreme evaporation and high precipitation rates. From the continent, it has water exchange with numerous coastal lagoons (ranging from brackish to hypersaline) and receives intense submarine groundwater discharges (SGD). In the summer of 2006 a high-resolution (500 m cross-shore and 5 km along-shore) oceanographic campaign was performed starting at Holbox Island down to the mouth of Celestun Lagoon. CTD profiles were measured at 1020 stations along 69 coastal cross-shore transects. Additionally, CTD data from 2 wider surveys, covering the continental shelf (Campeche Bank) and the southern Gulf of Mexico respectively were used to complement the results. From the thermohaline properties, two main water masses were identified: (a) the Caribbean Subtropical Underwater (CSUW), upwelled from the Caribbean, which was observed at the bottom very close to the coast in more than 260 km (from the upwelling region near Cape Catoche to approximately 89.5 W during the summer of 2006) and (b) the second dominant group was a mass of warm hypersaline water which originates in Yucatan due to the high temperature and evaporation rates. We call this water mass the Yucatan Sea Water (YSW) after finding evidence of its presence in various field campaigns both in the Yucatan Sea and further to the west in the southern Gulf of Mexico. All the water masses present in the Yucatan coastal zone showed pronounced variations with important dilution and salinisation effects. The permeable karstic geology of the region prevents the continental water from discharging into the ocean through surface rivers and instead the rainfall permeates directly to the aquifer and travels through caves and fractures towards the sea. Three main regions showed evidence of continental discharges

  9. Lafourche Parish Coastal Zone Curriculum Resource Unit. Bulletin 1834.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Bobby; And Others

    The Louisiana coastal zone is a unique geographic feature. Soil carried by the Mississippi River has been deposited in Louisiana for the last 6,000 years to form the coastal area. All natural features in coastal Louisiana relate to materials and processes associated with the emptying of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The…

  10. Australian and Chinese Scientists Discuss Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2010-03-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management Workshop; Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, 11-14 November 2009; A 3-day workshop was held in Australia to discuss problems and issues facing coastal zones, including degradation of coastal ecosystems and the impacts of climate change such as sea level rise and changed weather patterns, and to formulate a collaborative research strategy to improve the coastal zone management (CZM) system to tackle these problems. The workshop, which brought together experts from University of New South Wales (UNSW) and Ocean University of China (OUC), highlighted the similarities in topics important to Australia and China. This workshop focused on science, policy, and the legal framework required to manage sustainable development of these coastal zones. Many parallels exist between the difficult issues facing CZM in both countries. Significant research into changes in coastal areas and their causes has been undertaken, but this research effort has not been fully reflected in coastal zone planning and management activities. Workshop participants reviewed current progress in understanding scientific, engineering, and socioeconomic processes in the coastal zones, brainstormed challenges in developing a multidisciplinary research framework capable of integrating science into coastal zone management, and identified a cross-institutional approach to addressing these issues.

  11. U.S. environmental law statutes in coastal zone protection.

    PubMed

    Rand, G M; Carriger, J F

    2001-01-01

    U.S. federal legislation relevant to the coastal zone and adjacent ocean was reviewed and included the Coastal Zone Management Act, Clean Water Act, Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act, and Oil Pollution Act. Problems affecting these waters involve complex activities/issues related to multimedia sources of pollution and coastal land use planning. Effective pollution control requires state-local-federal interaction with a better understanding of scientific as well as social and economic issues.

  12. Coastal zone and Continental Shelf conflict resolution: improving ocean use and resource dispute management

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhart, J.D.; Harding, E.T.

    1985-11-01

    Contents include: An overview of coastal zone and continental shelf conflicts; Experience in coastal zone management conflict; Future coastal zone conflicts; Outer continental shelf conflicts; Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine; and Future considerations.

  13. Persistence of Coastal Vegetation in Supratidal Zones of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongxiao; Chu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Coastal vegetation comprises a number of coastal specialists and terrestrial generalists. It remains unclear how they persist on disturbed and undisturbed coastal conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coastal specialists may be superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, but their superiority can be influenced by human disturbances. Eight separate sandy coasts of the Shandong Peninsula were sampled, representing for disturbed and undisturbed sandy coasts. Plants growing on their supratidal zones were surveyed. On this basis, we compared the relative dominances, niche widths, and commonness of all species, and also analyzed species diversities of the coasts. Coastal specialists were found to be more common and widespread on supratidal zones of the sandy coasts than terrestrial generalists haphazardly invading from hinterlands. Coastal specialists exhibited lower Sørensen dissimilarities than terrestrial generalists among the coasts. Tourist trampling seemed more detrimental than pond fishery to coastal vegetation. Relative to terrestrial generalists, coastal specialists responded to human disturbances more deterministically, with steady decreases in species diversities. These evidences verify that coastal specialists are intrinsically superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, especially of undisturbed coasts, because their dispersal among coasts adapts well to local storm surge regime. They also validate that human disturbances can depress the superiority of coastal specialists, partly by inducing invasion of terrestrial generalists. PMID:24224026

  14. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  15. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  16. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM... Management (OCRM) announces availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) on the Illinois Coastal Management Program (ICMP). NOAA has received the State of Illinois' application for approval of...

  17. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  18. Scenarios of nonlinear wave transformation in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, Ya. V.; Kuznetsov, S. Yu.; Andreeva, N. K.; Shtremel, M. N.

    2013-07-01

    On the basis of field experiments and numerical modeling, we show that coastal zones are classifiable according to manifestations of wind wave nonlinearity, which herein is recognized as periodic energy exchange between the first and second nonlinear wave harmonics depending on the average bottom slope and the Iribarren and Ursell numbers. The results offer a basis for developing vulnerability criteria for the coastal zone taking into account its nonlinear dynamics.

  19. Coastal-zone biogeochemical dynamics under global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M.; Lerman, A.

    2000-03-01

    The coastal zone, consisting of the continental shelves to a depth of 200 meters, including bays, lagoons, estuaries, and near-shore banks, is an environment that is strongly affected by its biogeochemical and physical interactions with reservoirs in the adjacent domains of land, atmosphere, open ocean, and marine sediments. Because the coastal zone is smaller in volume and area coverage relative to the open ocean, it traditionally has been studied as an integral part of the global oceans. In this paper, the authors show by numerical modeling that it is important to consider the coastal zone as an entity separate from the open ocean in any assessment of future Earth-system response under human perturbation. Model analyses for the early part of the 21st century suggest that the coastal zone plays a significant modifying role in the biogeochemical dynamics of the carbon cycle and the nutrient cycles coupled to it. This role is manifested in changes in primary production, storage, and/or export of organic matter, its remineralization, and calcium carbonate precipitation--all of which determine the state of the coastal zone with respect to exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Under a scenario of future reduced or complete cessation of the thermohaline circulation (THC) of the global oceans, coastal waters become an important sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}, as opposed to the conditions in the past and present, when coastal waters are believed to be a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Profound changes in coastal-zone primary productivity underscore the important role of phosphorus as a limiting nutrient. In addition, calculations indicate that the saturation state of coastal waters with respect to carbonate minerals will decline by {approximately}15% by the year 2030. Any future slowdown in the THC of the oceans will increase slightly the rate of decline in saturation state.

  20. The Study of Coastal Buffer Zone in Taiwan for Conception of Coastal Environment Recovery and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Ting; Lan, Yuan-Jyh; Hsu, Tai-Wen

    2010-05-01

    The coastal environment is sensitive in terms of ecology, geology and natural hazards. The coastal zone is also an area of multiple uses which competing with each other for specific purpose or benefit. In order to achieve the goal of sustainable development and minimize the potential conflicts among various uses in the coastal areas, the concept on "coastal buffer zone" has been proposed and discussed as a major theme at numerous international forums. During the process of recent economic development in Taiwan, population increases and activities expanded from the narrow coastal region to the ocean's edge. Watson (2000) reported one such scenario at Jimmy's beach in Port Stephen, New South Wales, Australia, in which part of the foreshore had been subjected to chronic erosion caused by land development too close to the edge of an inland sea without pretesting stability of the coast. Based on the coastal hydrodynamics, this paper presents a technical method for establishing the coastal buffer zone. Howmeiliao Coast is an illustrative example for present study. An experimental run-up formula and the SBEACH model are performed to determine the onshore and offshore demarcations, respectively. Using present technical method together with conditions of 50-year recurrence period of typhoon waves and average maximum tides, variation of coastal profiles are calculated. Dynamic simulations for various coastal profiles and analysis of physical quantities related to beach changes, together with calculations from run-up model, the coastal buffer zone on ocean and land interfacial area are then determined. Finally, we focus the subject of management of coastal disaster and mitigation by technical, planning and management policy. It is necessary to achieve the balance between economic development and environmental conservation in order to carry out the target of sustainable development of coastal buffer zone.

  1. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships.

  2. Integrated Coastal Zone Planning Based on Environment Carrying Capacity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miharja, M.; Arsallia, S.

    2017-07-01

    Coastal zone is a crucial area in terms of planning development. It holds high economic value, which affect to increasing number of inhabitants living in the area. As a result, this condition influences environmental degradation. Thus, in every attempt towards coastal zone development, it is crucial to always refer to environment carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is the limit of a certain coastal zone capability to support all human created activities, in which all ecological performances are maintained at sustainable level. The failure to establish strong and clear method and regulation on carrying capacity analysis will lead to a very risky coastal zone development, which in turn would threat the area’s sustainability. This paper discusses method for analysing carrying capacity of coastal zone as important input for the area development plan. Two key parameters, i.e. land and clean water carrying capacities are discussed to form carrying capacity analytical method. Furthermore, an empirical data of Ambon Bay, Moluccas Province, is used to illustrate the operationalization of the method.

  3. Coastal Zone and River Delta Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are proposed for the development of a California coastal land use classification system which depicts and reflects essential parameters of environmental conditions and quality. Included in the earth resources survey is the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta and its complex hydrologic system which links saline waters of the San Francisco Bay with the Central Valley watershed.

  4. Recurrence of postseismic coastal uplift, Kuril subduction zone, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, H.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Sherrod, B.; Shimokawa, K.; Shishikura, M.

    2006-01-01

    Coastal stratigraphy of eastern Hokkaido indicates that decimeters of coastal uplitt occurred repeatedly m the late Holocene. Employing radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology, we identify along a 100 km length of the Kuril subduction zone six uplift events since ???2,800 years B.P. Uplift events occur at the same frequency as unusually high tsunamis. Each coastal uplift event, which occurs on average every 500 years, is the product of decade-long post seismic deep slip on the down dip extension of the seismogenic plate boundary following an offshore multi-segment earthquake that generates unusually high tsunamis. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  6. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  7. Atlas of natural hazards in the Hawaiian coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Grossman, Eric E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii. This information is the key to the wise use and management of coastal resources. The information contained in this document,we hope,will improve the ability of Hawaiian citizens and visitors to safely enjoy the coast and provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. This work is largely based on previous investigations by scientific and engineering researchers and county, state, and federal offices and agencies. The unique aspect of this report is that, to the extent possible, it assimilates prior efforts in documenting Hawaiian coastal hazards and combines existing knowledge into a single comprehensive coastal hazard data set. This is by no means the final word on coastal hazards in Hawaii. Every hazardous phenomenon described here, and others such as slope failure and rocky shoreline collapse, need to be more carefully quantified, forecast, and mitigated. Our ultimate goal, of course, is to make the Hawaiian coast a safer place by educating the people of the state, and their leaders, about the hazardous nature of the environment. In so doing, we will also be taking steps toward improved preservation of coastal environments, because the best way to avoid coastal hazards is to avoid inappropriate development in the coastal zone. We have chosen maps as the medium for both recording and communicating the hazard history and its intensity along the Hawaiian coast.Two types of maps are used: 1) smallscale maps showing a general history of hazards on each island and summarizing coastal hazards in a readily understandable format for general use, and 2) a large-scale series of technical maps (1:50,000) depicting coastal sections approximately 5 to 7 miles in length with color bands along the coast ranking the relative intensity of each hazard at the adjacent shoreline.

  8. Mapping air quality zones for coastal urban centers.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brian; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Thé, Jesse; Munshed, Mohammad; Faisal, Shah; Abdullah, Meshal; Al Aseed, Athari

    2017-05-01

    This study presents a new method that incorporates modern air dispersion models allowing local terrain and land-sea breeze effects to be considered along with political and natural boundaries for more accurate mapping of air quality zones (AQZs) for coastal urban centers. This method uses local coastal wind patterns and key urban air pollution sources in each zone to more accurately calculate air pollutant concentration statistics. The new approach distributes virtual air pollution sources within each small grid cell of an area of interest and analyzes a puff dispersion model for a full year's worth of 1-hr prognostic weather data. The difference of wind patterns in coastal and inland areas creates significantly different skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics for the annually averaged pollutant concentrations at ground level receptor points for each grid cell. Plotting the S-K data highlights grouping of sources predominantly impacted by coastal winds versus inland winds. The application of the new method is demonstrated through a case study for the nation of Kuwait by developing new AQZs to support local air management programs. The zone boundaries established by the S-K method were validated by comparing MM5 and WRF prognostic meteorological weather data used in the air dispersion modeling, a support vector machine classifier was trained to compare results with the graphical classification method, and final zones were compared with data collected from Earth observation satellites to confirm locations of high-exposure-risk areas. The resulting AQZs are more accurate and support efficient management strategies for air quality compliance targets effected by local coastal microclimates. A novel method to determine air quality zones in coastal urban areas is introduced using skewness (S) and kurtosis (K) statistics calculated from grid concentrations results of air dispersion models. The method identifies land-sea breeze effects that can be used to manage local air

  9. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  10. THE NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT: PARTNERSHIP FOR SUCCESS COASTAL ZONE SYMPOSIUM, CLEVELAND, OH JULY 15-19, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partnering for Success (Abstract). Presented at Coastal Zone 01: Hands Across the Water - Linking Land, Lake, and Sea, 15-19 July 2001, Cleveland, OH. 1 p. (ERL,GB R843).

    The National Coastal Assessment (Coastal 2000) is a coastal monitoring survey that responds to the ne...

  11. Environmental Changes Assessment of Coastal Zones by Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Liviu Florin; Golovanov, Carmen Ionescu; Zoran, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fuzzy theory applied for the analysis of coastal areas changes, for which each pixel on the map is assigned a membership grade in all classes, represent reasonable alternatives to traditional fixed classifications. Mixture modeling and subpixel spectral analysis is used for the percent cover of individual cover types within a pixel assessment. These methods require a definition of spectral endmembers, which is difficult (and perhaps impossible) for complex and highly variable land cover units. Fuzzy classifications and mixture/subpixel models provide information on variations in spectral signature between pixels and not on differences in the on-the-ground content of mapped land cover. The coastal zone units are recognized on a ground truth map of an area using Landsat Thematic Mapper ™ and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) as well as SAR ERS-1 imagery for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone, Romania, over 1989-2008 period.

  12. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  13. Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

  14. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  15. 77 FR 62494 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... 15 CFR part 923. NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM) conducts periodic...; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act Programs--State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract This request is for a new information collection. The Coastal Zone...

  16. Coastal typology: An integrative "neutral" technique for coastal zone characterization and analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Smith, S.V.; Swaney, D.P.; Crossland, C.J.; Maxwell, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Typology, the 'study or systematic classification of types that have characteristics or traits in common', has become a commonly used term and technique in coastal zone studies over the past two decades. At least part of this is due to adoption by the first Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) project of a typological approach as a way to understand and organize the daunting diversity of natural and human systems comprising the world coastal zone, and to the concurrent development of tools and databases to support systematic applications. This paper reviews some of the history of the term 'typology' and the concepts and techniques that it subsumes, and discusses its adoption and adaptation in coastal studies. It also addresses the continued and increasing relevance of typology to the continuation of the LOICZ project and its objectives, and outlines the opportunities and challenges involved in realizing the potentials of the approach - both within LOICZ and for the scientific and coastal zone communities in general. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenzhi; Wong, Ming H

    2007-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines social-economic and environmental issues recently emerged in China's coastal zone. Evaluation of management scheme and progress in perspectives of coordinated legislation, institutional arrangement, public participation, capacity building, and scientific research (mainly coastal planning and functional zoning) in China's coastal zone are made. The Chinese government has made a significant effort in developing legislation for the coastal zone. Jurisdictional and zoning boundaries, and allocating use rights for coastal and marine resources have been established. State Oceanic Administration is the leading agency responsible for China's ocean policymaking and overall management of ocean and coastal affairs. A demonstrated project for integrated coastal management in Xiamen has been implemented, and is characterized as "decentralization" approach in decision-making process. In view of the above, comprehensive coastal management in China is a big challenge, facing with many difficulties. Finally, recommendations are raised for tackling these issues for China's coastal zone management.

  18. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  19. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  20. Retention of crab larvae in a coastal null zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Dittel, Ana I.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2007-05-01

    Alongshelf transport in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight is forced by buoyancy-driven currents originating in three large estuaries along the bight. These currents are strongest in the coastal ocean near the southern terminus of each estuary, while the analogous region on the northern side is characterized by weak subtidal flow. We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to test the hypothesis that these regions of weak subtidal flow are coastal null zones that serve as retention areas for larvae. The field study consisted of a four-day, shipboard investigation of the distribution of blue crab larvae ( Callinectes sapidus) near the mouth of Delaware Bay (˜39°N, 75°W) in late summer, 2004. Hydrographic surveys of the study site were conducted with a hull-mounted, surface-measuring system. Results showed a sharp boundary between the null zone and the buoyancy-driven current to the south. Blue crab larvae were collected in surface plankton tows along a 30-km transect that encompassed these two areas. Stations with higher densities of larvae were clustered in the null zone during both ebb and flood tides. A numerical model was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed distribution. Model results agreed with the field survey and showed that simulated larvae are aggregated in the null zone. The simulations also demonstrated that larvae spawned within the null zone have a much greater probability of settling in juvenile nursery habitat within the bay. The close agreement between field and model results provides consistent support for the hypothesis that coastal null zones associated with the buoyancy-driven circulation of large estuaries may allow retention of larvae in the vicinity of the natal spawning population.

  1. Mapping of chlorophyll a distributions in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that chlorophyll a is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, nutrient loads, and pollution effects in coastal zones. High chlorophyll a concentrations occur in areas which have high nutrient inflows from sources such as sewage treatment plants and industrial wastes. Low chlorophyll a concentrations may be due to the addition of toxic substances from industrial wastes or other sources. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to assess distributions of water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll a. A description is presented of the chlorophyll a analysis and a quantitative mapping of the James River, Virginia. An approach considered by Johnson (1977) was used in the analysis. An application of the multiple regression analysis technique to a data set collected over the New York Bight, an environmentally different area of the coastal zone, is also discussed.

  2. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  3. Past and Future Ecosystem Change in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gell, P.

    2017-02-01

    The coastal zone is in a constant state of flux. Long term records of change attest to high amplitude sea level changes. Relative stability though the Late Holocene has allowed for the evolution of barrier dune systems, estuaries and coastal lakes with associated plant and faunal associations. This evolution has been interspersed with changes in the balance between climate driven changes in outflow from catchments. These interactions have been considerably disturbed through the impacts of industrialised people who have diverted and consumed water and invested in infrastructure that has impacted on river flows and the tidal prism in estuaries. This has impacted their provisioning services to humans. It has also impacted their regulating services in that development along the coastline has impacted on the resilience of the littoral zone to absorb natural climate extremes. Looking from the past we can see the pathway to the future and more easily recognise the steps needed to avoid further coastal degradation. This will increasingly need to accommodate the impacts of future climate trends, increased climate extremes and rising seas. Coastal societies would do well to identify their long term pathway to adaptation to the challenges that lie ahead and plan to invest accordingly.

  4. Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

    1980-11-01

    An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  6. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  7. SAR Altimetry in Coastal Zone: Performances, Limits, Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, S.; Benveniste, J.

    2011-12-01

    Up to now, any effort to retrieve the coastal zone phenomena from the space has been hindered by the intrinsic incapacity of conventional radar altimeters to sample all but largest scales involved in the coastal processes due to its insufficient along- track resolution. However, nowadays, a new technology in Space-borne Altimetry has become reality: the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Altimeter. The acquisition of altimetric data in SAR mode ensures a higher resolving measurement power that shall enable scientists for the first time to aspire to measure even short-scale weak coastal phenomena, thanks to the 20- fold smaller along track radar resolution and 10 dB higher Signal to Noise ratio. The secondary, but significant in coastal zone, effect of the radar footprint shrinking is the expected reduced impact of land contamination on the radar waveforms in the proximity of the shore. As a consequence of this effect, the advent of SAR focusing promises to bring the satellite altimetry remote sensing closer to the shore up to around 500 meters. Anyway, this lower bound of 500 meter on coastal proximity is not always reachable, as the footprint shrinking occurs only in along track direction while the across track resolution shall remain basically unaltered. Hence, the orientation of the satellite ground-track with respect the coastline plays a role crucial for an effective filtering out of the off-nadir land-originated signals. In the present work, utilizing the current CryoSat-2 Altimeter Dataset (SAR L1b) acquired over coastal sea water, and by retracking the SAR L1b waveforms, a performances study of SAR altimetry in coastal zone will be addressed and the benefits and limits of this new technology highlighted. As particular study area, the Tyrrhenian Sea has been selected: statistics and metrics for sea surface height and significant wave height, as calculated from a cycle of passes, will be assessed, shown and interpreted. Finally, employing the Cryo

  8. Multisensor monitoring of sea surface state of the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Mityagina, Marina; Bocharova, Tatina

    Results of many-year monitoring of the state of coastal zone based on a multisensor approach are presented. The monitoring is aimed at solving the following tasks: operational mapping of parameters characterizing the state and pollution (coastal, ship and biogenic) of water; analysis of meteorological state and its effect on the drift and spread of pollutants; study of coastal circulation patterns and their impact on the drift and spread of pollutants; deriving typical pollution distribution patterns in the coastal zone.Processing and analysis is performed using data in visual, infrared and microwave ranges from ERS-2 SAR, Envisat ASAR/MERIS, Terra and Aqua MODIS and NOAA AVHRR instruments. These are complimented with ground data from meteorological stations on the shore and results of satellite data processing of previous periods. The main regions of interest are the Russian sectors of the Black and Azov Seas, southeastern part of the Baltic Sea, and northern and central regions of the Caspian Sea. Adjacent coasts are extremely populated and have well-developed industry, agriculture and rapidly growing tourist sectors. The necessity of constant monitoring of the sea state there is obvious.The monitoring activities allow us to accumulate extensive material for the study of hydrodynamic processes in the regions, in particular water circulation. Detailing the occurrence, evolution and drift of smalland meso-scale vortex structures is crucial for the knowledge of the mechanisms determining mixing and circulation processes in the coastal zone. These mechanisms play an important role in ecological, hydrodynamic and meteorological status of a coastal zone. Special attention is paid to the sea surface state in the Kerch Strait, where a tanker catastrophe took place on November 11, 2007 causing a spillage of over 1.5 thousand tons of heavy oil. The Kerch Strait is characterized by a complex current system with current directions changing to their opposites depending on

  9. Investigations of coastal zones using a modular amphibious vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Filatov, Valery; Beresnev, Pavel; Belyakov, Vladimir; Kurkin, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    The project aims to develop a means of verification of data on sea excitement derived from Autonomous mobile robotic system (AMRS) for coastal monitoring and forecasting marine natural disasters [Kurkin A., Pelinovsky E., Tyugin D., Giniyatullin A., Kurkina O., Belyakov V., Makarov V., Zeziulin D., Kuznetsov K. Autonomous Robotic System for Coastal Monitoring // Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment MEDCOAST. 2015. V. 2. P. 933-944]. The chassis of the developed remote-controlled modular amphibious vehicle (MAV) will be equipped with a video camera and a hydrostatic wave-plotting device with strings sensors mounted on the stationary body's supports. To track the position of the MAV there will be installed the navigation system in order to correct the measurement data. The peculiarity of the tricycle MAV is the ability to change its geometric parameters that will increase its stability to actions of destructive waves and mobility. In May-June 2016 authors took part in conducting field tests of the AMRS on the Gulf of Mordvinov (Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin Island). Participation in this expedition contributed to obtaining experimental data on the topography and the physical and mechanical properties of the surf zone of the most promising field of using the MAV as a road for its moving. Within the project there was developed a mathematical model of the MAV motion in coastal conditions taking into account the new analytical dependences describing the physical and mechanical characteristics of the ground surfaces and the landscape, as well as hydrodynamic effects of surf zones. The reasonable selection of rational parameters of the MAV and developing the methodology of creating effective vehicles for investigations of specific coastal areas of the Okhotsk Sea will be made by using the mathematical model.

  10. Ecomarkets for conservation and sustainable development in the coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Rod; Lynham, John; Micheli, Fiorenza; Feinberg, Pasha G; Bourillón, Luis; Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Markham, Alexander C

    2013-05-01

    Because conventional markets value only certain goods or services in the ocean (e.g. fish), other services provided by coastal and marine ecosystems that are not priced, paid for, or stewarded tend to become degraded. In fact, the very capacity of an ecosystem to produce a valued good or service is often reduced because conventional markets value only certain goods and services, rather than the productive capacity. Coastal socio-ecosystems are particularly susceptible to these market failures due to the lack of clear property rights, strong dependence on resource extraction, and other factors. Conservation strategies aimed at protecting unvalued coastal ecosystem services through regulation or spatial management (e.g. Marine Protected Areas) can be effective but often result in lost revenue and adverse social impacts, which, in turn, create conflict and opposition. Here, we describe 'ecomarkets' - markets and financial tools - that could, under the right conditions, generate value for broad portfolios of coastal ecosystem services while maintaining ecosystem structure and function by addressing the unique problems of the coastal zone, including the lack of clear management and exclusion rights. Just as coastal tenure and catch-share systems generate meaningful conservation and economic outcomes, it is possible to imagine other market mechanisms that do the same with respect to a variety of other coastal ecosystem goods and services. Rather than solely relying on extracting goods, these approaches could allow communities to diversify ecosystem uses and focus on long-term stewardship and conservation, while meeting development, food security, and human welfare goals. The creation of ecomarkets will be difficult in many cases, because rights and responsibilities must be devolved, new social contracts will be required, accountability systems must be created and enforced, and long-term patterns of behaviour must change. We argue that efforts to overcome these obstacles

  11. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal zone management

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century by a mechanism known as the greenhouse effect. Such a warming could cause sea level to rise two to five feet by expanding ocean water, melting mountain glaciers, and perhaps eventually causing polar glaciers to melt and slide into the oceans. A rise in sea level of even three feet could cause substantial erosion of beaches and coastal wetlands, increased flooding, and intrusion of salt water into rivers, bays, and aquifer. Fortunately, many of the adverse consequences can be avoided by taking timely measures in anticipation of sea level rise. Nevertheless, many coastal zone managers are reluctant to take these measures until the prospect of sea level rise becomes more certain. This article examines the implications of future sea level rise and identifies anticipatory measures that may be appropriate today in spite of current uncertainties. 46 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. Sea ice drift and deformation in the coastal boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikkonen, Annu; Haapala, Jari; Lensu, Mikko; Karvonen, Juha

    2016-10-01

    Small-scale sea ice deformation was studied in the coastal boundary zone (CBZ). Sequences of coastal radar images from the northern Baltic Sea (13 February to 13 May 2011) were used and trajectories of identifiable objects calculated. Average drift velocities in CBZ are small (<0.01 m/s), and events of high drift speeds are short and local. Deformations follow power law scaling but with an exponent of greater magnitude than in the Arctic. We discovered a connection between air temperature and sea ice deformation on a short time scale. During warm days, the mean deformation rate was significantly higher in all length scales than during cold days. This cannot be explained by changes in ice thickness or concentration, which suggests that the ice pack strength responds to air temperature faster than previously assumed. However, we cannot quantify how much this response is enhanced by lower ice thickness compared to the Arctic.

  13. Seals as collectors of oceanographic data in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Villar-Guerra, Diego; Cronin, Michelle; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Bartlett, Darius

    2012-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in water temperatures in the coastal zone is generally limited, as conventional monitoring platforms often prove problematic in these areas, e.g. shallow depths limit access by research vessels, and issues of accuracy and resolution can affect the use of remotely sensed sea-surface temperature data. As a result most currently available data on sea temperature are from offshore waters while coastal areas have remained relatively unexplored. Water temperature is an important parameter to study in these coastal waters, considering its impact and influence on the timing and frequency of harmful algal blooms and their associated impacts on aquaculture. It is a significant factor in the timing of the spring bloom and primary productivity, with consequent influences on the entire marine food web. Advances in bio-logging technologies in recent years have provided opportunities for sensor deployment on a variety of marine animals, including marine mammals, sea birds, fish and turtles, to gather data from inaccessible areas. In this study, we explored the use of telemetry-derived data from instrumented seals in Kenmare Bay in southwest Irish waters to ascertain if seals can be used as sampling platforms in oceanographic studies in the coastal zone and to examine fine scale changes in water temperatures. High spatial and temporal measurements allowed the characterisation of the water dynamics in the estuarine area by the identification of processes such as thermal stratification, up/downwellings and the onset of the thermocline, and provide unique insights into the marine environment in and around the bay, where no previous oceanographic studies have been conducted. Strong correlation between the seal-derived temperature data and in situ temperature recorders and modelled data validates the use of seals as oceanographic platforms on different spatial scales.

  14. Localized sulfate-reducing zones in a coastal plain aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Coates, J.D.; Schoonen, M.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water of coastal plain or alluvial aquifers contribute to the biofouling of public supply wells for which treatment and remediation is costly. Many of these aquifers, however, contain zones in which microbial sulfate reduction and the associated precipitation of iron-sulfide minerals decreases iron mobility. The principal water-bearing aquifer (Magothy Aquifer of Cretaceous age) in Suffolk County, New York, contains localized sulfate-reducing zones in and near lignite deposits, which generally are associated with clay lenses. Microbial analyses of core samples amended with [14C]-acetate indicate that microbial sulfate reduction is the predominant terminal-electron-accepting process (TEAP) in poorly permeable, lignite-rich sediments at shallow depths and near the ground water divide. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by abundant lignite and iron-sulfide minerals, low concentrations of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, and by proximity to clay lenses that contain pore water with relatively high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved organic carbon. The low permeability of these zones and, hence, the long residence time of ground water within them, permit the preservation and (or) allow the formation of iron-sulfide minerals, including pyrite and marcasite. Both sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) are present beneath and beyond the shallow sulfate-reducing zones. A unique Fe(III)-reducing organism, MD-612, was found in core sediments from a depth of 187 m near the southern shore of Long Island. The distribution of poorly permeable, lignite-rich, sulfate-reducing zones with decreased iron concentration is varied within the principal aquifer and accounts for the observed distribution of dissolved sulfate, iron, and iron sulfides in the aquifer. Locating such zones for the placement of production wells would be difficult, however, because these zones are of limited aerial extent.

  15. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  16. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  17. Near-Surface Dynamics of a Separated Jet in the Coastal Transition Zone off Oregon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-08

    Near-surface dynamics of a separated jet in the Coastal Transition Zone off Oregon A. O. Koch, A. L. Kurapov, J. S. Allen College of Oceanic and...2009 Abstract Three-dimensional circulation in the coastal transition zone (CTZ) off Oregon is studied using a 3-km resolution model based on the...00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Near-surface dynamics of a separated jet in the Coastal Transition Zone off Oregon 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  19. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  20. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Trainer, V L.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Bill, Brian D.; Stehr, Carla M.; Wekell, John C.; Moeller, Peter; Busman, Mark; Woodruff, Dana L. )

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  1. Status and interconnections of selected environmental issues in the global coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on assessing the state of population distribution, land cover distribution, biodiversity hotspots, and protected areas in global coastal zones. The coastal zone is defined as land within 100 km of the coastline. This study attempts to answer such questions as: how crowded are the coastal zones, what is the pattern of land cover distribution in these areas, how much of these areas are designated as protected areas, what is the state of the biodiversity hotspots, and what are the interconnections between people and coastal environment. This study uses globally consistent and comprehensive geospatial datasets based on remote sensing and other sources. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) layering methods and consistent datasets has made it possible to identify and quantify selected coastal zones environmental issues and their interconnections. It is expected that such information provide a scientific basis for global coastal zones management and assist in policy formulations at the national and international levels.

  2. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... coastal region, for which purpose the proposal must be accompanied by a consistency determination from...

  3. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... coastal region, for which purpose the proposal must be accompanied by a consistency determination from...

  4. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... of the coastal region, for which purpose the proposal must be accompanied by a consistency...

  5. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... coastal region, for which purpose the proposal must be accompanied by a consistency determination from...

  6. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... of the coastal region, for which purpose the proposal must be accompanied by a consistency...

  7. Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 32 CFR 644.318 - Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs. 644.318 Section 644.318 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.318 Compliance with State Coastal Zone...

  9. 30 CFR 550.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 550.226 Section 550.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  10. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  11. 30 CFR 550.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 550.226 Section 550.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  12. 30 CFR 550.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 550.226 Section 550.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.226 What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  13. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of satisfactory techniques for detecting change in coastal zone environments is required before operational monitoring procedures can be established. In an effort to meet this need a study was directed toward developing and evaluating different types of change detection techniques, based upon computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data, to monitor these environments. The Matagorda Bay estuarine system along the Texas coast was selected as the study area. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. Each of the four techniques was used to analyze a LANDSAT MSS temporal data set to detect areas of change of the Matagorda Bay region.

  14. Applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Research activity has continued to be focused on the applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery in oceanography. A number of regional studies were completed including investigations of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations in the South Atlantic Bight, Northwest Spain, Weddell Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and in tropical Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the regional studies, much work was dedicated to developing ancillary global scale meteorological and hydrographic data sets to complement the global CZCS processing products. To accomplish this, SEAPAK's image analysis capability was complemented with an interface to GEMPAK (Severe Storm Branch's meteorological analysis software package) for the analysis and graphical display of gridded data fields. Plans are being made to develop a similar interface to SEAPAK for hydrographic data using EPIC (a hydrographic data analysis package developed by NOAA/PMEL).

  15. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camilo D Seabra; Maranho, Luciane A; Cortez, Fernando S; Pusceddu, Fabio H; Santos, Aldo R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Cesar, Augusto; Guimarães, Luciana L

    2016-04-01

    The present study determined environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and the main human metabolite of cocaine in seawater sampled from a subtropical coastal zone (Santos, Brazil). The Santos Bay is located in a metropolitan region and receives over 7367m(3) of wastewater per day. Five sample points under strong influence of the submarine sewage outfall were chosen. Through quantitative analysis by LC-MS/MS, 33 compounds were investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, acetaminophen, caffeine, losartan, valsartan, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), an illicit drug (cocaine), and its main human metabolite (benzoylecgonine) were detected at least once in seawater sampled from Santos Bay at concentrations that ranged from ng·L(-1) to μg·L(-1). In light of the possibility of bioaccumulation and harmful effects, the high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and cocaine found in this marine subtropical ecosystem are of environmental concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NOAA-NASA Coastal Zone Color Scanner reanalysis effort.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Watson W; Conkright, Margarita E; O'Reilly, John E; Patt, Frederick S; Wang, Menghua H; Yoder, James A; Casey, Nancy W

    2002-03-20

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span more than two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NOAA-NASA) CZCS reanalysis (NCR) effort. NCR consisted of (1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved with modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms and (2) blending where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  17. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  18. The dead zones: oxygen-starved coastal waters.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, S

    2000-01-01

    After the great Mississippi River flood of 1993, the hypoxic (or low-oxygen) "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico more than doubled its size, reaching an all-time high of over 7,700 square miles in July of 1999. Scientists attribute the Gulf of Mexico dead zone largely to nutrient runoff from agriculture in the Mississippi River basin. During the warm months, these nutrients fuel eutrophication, or high organic production, causing large algal blooms. When the algae decay, the result is hypoxia. Reports of such hypoxic events around the world have been increasing since the mid 1960s. Eutrophication and hypoxia have resulted in mortality of bottom-dwelling life in dozens of marine ecosystems and have stressed fisheries worldwide. Some algal blooms can alter the function of coastal ecosystems or, potentially, threaten human health. Anthropogenic nutrient loading from sources such as agriculture, fossil fuel emissions, and climate events is believed to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certain algal blooms. PMID:10706539

  19. The dead zones: oxygen-starved coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    2000-03-01

    After the great Mississippi River flood of 1993, the hypoxic (or low-oxygen) "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico more than doubled its size, reaching an all-time high of over 7,700 square miles in July of 1999. Scientists attribute the Gulf of Mexico dead zone largely to nutrient runoff from agriculture in the Mississippi River basin. During the warm months, these nutrients fuel eutrophication, or high organic production, causing large algal blooms. When the algae decay, the result is hypoxia. Reports of such hypoxic events around the world have been increasing since the mid 1960s. Eutrophication and hypoxia have resulted in mortality of bottom-dwelling life in dozens of marine ecosystems and have stressed fisheries worldwide. Some algal blooms can alter the function of coastal ecosystems or, potentially, threaten human health. Anthropogenic nutrient loading from sources such as agriculture, fossil fuel emissions, and climate events is believed to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certain algal blooms.

  20. Variability in Coastal Neotectonics Along the Kamchatka Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, J.; Pinegina, T.; Ponomareva, V.

    2004-12-01

    The eastern coast of Kamchatka can be divided into several morphotectonic zones, which appear to correspond primarily to variations in the subducting crust, rather than to characteristics of the subduction zone such as rate of subduction or subduction angle. Pleistocene marine terraces and Holocene coastal stratigraphy along Kamchatka show variability in uplift (and subsidence) rate both at the degree-latitude scale, and at a scale of kilometers to 10s of km. The southern coast (51-53oN, to Petropavlovsk) is primarily rocky headlands with narrow embayments, some filled with volcaniclastics. North of Petropavlovsk, the coast is subdivided into a series of broad embayments separated by four peninsulas--Zhupanovskiy, Kronotskiy, Kamchatskiy, Ozernoi, from south to north. These peninsulas are landward, respectively, of the Kruzenstern fracture zone, the Meiji seamounts, the Aleutian-Komandorskiy island chain, and the Beta Rise. Our field studies of Quaternary coastal evolution and seismotectonic regime over the last decade have included: 1) tephra chronology for dating and correlation 2) study of paleotsunami deposits to estimate recurrence rates of tsunamigenic earthquakes; and 3) analysis of the modern and paleo-topography of marine terraces and beach ridges in order to determine the direction and intensity of tectonic deformation over different spatial and temporal scales. The shorter the time interval we are able to specify (decades to hundreds of years), the higher the rate of vertical movements we tend to obtain. Estimates of net deformation for longer periods (10s to 100s of thousands of years) are commonly an order of magnitude slower, because seismic cycles are averaged out. The net Quaternary deformation of eastern Kamchatka is uplift, with peninsulas exhibiting the highest rates, up to 2 mm/yr for the last 0.5 my on Kamchatskiy Peninsula. The large embayments between peninsulas typically exhibit evidence for subsidence or stasis on a Holocene time scale. On

  1. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  2. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  3. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  4. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  5. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  6. ENERGY IN THE PACIFIC COASTAL ZONE DOES D.O.E. HAVE A ROLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, Ronald L.; Haven, Kendall F.; Cherniss, Jennifer

    1980-09-01

    This paper addresses the energy-related acti ties in the Pacific Coastal Zone within the context of the absence of a coastal-specific energy policy. First, the present and projected coastal energy activities are described in order to establish a perspective of the importance of the coastal zone to energy development. transport, and use. Next, the state and federal decision-making processes relevant to coastal energy activities are summarized for the purpose of defining the institutional framework that has been constructed to respond to coastal energy issues. Finally, the functional areas not currently being adequately addressed are identified; and an associate role, which ensures both comprehensive evaluation and sound development of regional coastal energy resources, is defined for the DOE Office of Environment.

  7. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  8. Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program (Section 6217) addresses nonpoint pollution problems in coastal waters.In its program, a state or territory describes how it will implement nonpoint source pollution controls, known as management measures.

  9. Where the Sea Meets Land: The Coastal Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The first Coastal Society Conference discussed the present status of the coasts, coastal legislation, United States offshore oil policies, assessment of coastal environmental impacts and food and energy as resources or threats. The Society finds that management and legislation are needed for our coasts. (BT)

  10. Where the Sea Meets Land: The Coastal Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The first Coastal Society Conference discussed the present status of the coasts, coastal legislation, United States offshore oil policies, assessment of coastal environmental impacts and food and energy as resources or threats. The Society finds that management and legislation are needed for our coasts. (BT)

  11. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  12. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 2: Coastal zone oceanography program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The approaches used to develop the coastal zone oceanic research program are outlined, and activities in the areas of satellite application, estuaries, continental shelf and environmental modeling are briefly described.

  13. Environmental assessment of resource development in the Alaska coastal zone based on LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Miller, J. M.; Stringer, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was interpreted to derive color coded maps of the physical parameters of the Alaskan coastal zone. Synoptic overviews depict sea surface circulation, sediment transport, and ice cover dimensions.

  14. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Middle East measurements of concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles for coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, Sergey; Kopeika, Norman S.; Blaunstein, Natan S.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, an extension of the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) was proposed based on analysis of an extensive series of measurements at the Irish Atlantic Coast and at the French Mediterranean Coast. We confirm the relevance of that work for the distant eastern Meditteranean and extend several coefficients of that coastal model, proposed by Piazzola et al. for the Meditteranean Coast (a form of the Navy Aerosol Model), to midland Middle East coastal environments. This analysis is based on data collected at three different Middle East coastal areas: the Negev Desert (Eilat) Red Sea Coast, the Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) Coast, and the Mediterranean (Haifa) Coast. Aerosol size distributions are compared with those obtained through measurements carried out over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean Coasts, and Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas Coasts. An analysis of these different results allows better understanding of the similarities and differences between different coastal lake, sea, and open ocean zones. It is shown that in the coastal regions in Israel, compared to open ocean and other sea zones, larger differences in aerosol particle concentration are observed. The aerosol particle concentrations and their dependences on wind speed for these coastal zones are analyzed and discussed. We propose to classify the aerosol distribution models to either: 1. a coastal model with marine aerosol domination; 2. a coastal model with continental aerosol domination (referred to as midland coast in this work); or 3. a coastal model with balanced marine and continental conditions.

  16. New Perspectives for the Observation of Coastal Zones with the Coastal Thematic Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Sebastien; Tuhoy, Eimear; Mangin, Antoine; Datcu, Mihai; Vignudelli, Stefano; Illuzzi, Diomede; Craciunescu, Vasile; Aspetsberger, Michael; Leone, Rosemarie; Campbell, Gordon

    2016-08-01

    The Coastal Thematic Exploitation Platform (CTEP) is an on-going ESA project to develop a platform dedicated to the observation of the coastal environment to support management and monitoring; this paper explains how the innovations of the CTEP will provide new means to handle the technical challenges of observation of coastal areas and contribute to improved understanding and decision-making with respect to coastal resources and environments.

  17. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  18. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital analysis of ERTS-1 imagery was used in an attempt to map and inventory the significant ecological communities of Delaware's coastal zone. Eight vegetation and land use discrimination classes were selected: (1) Phragmites communis (giant reed grass); (2) Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cord grass); (3) Spartina patens (salt marsh hay); (4) shallow water and exposed mud; (5) deep water (greater than 2 m); (6) forest; (7) agriculture; and (8) exposed sand and concrete. Canonical analysis showed the following classification accuracies: Spartina alterniflora, exposed sand, concrete, and forested land - 94% to 100%; shallow water - mud and deep water - 88% and 93% respectively; Phragmites communis 83%; Spartina patens - 52%. Classification accuracy for agriculture was very poor (51%). Limitations of time and available class-memory space resulted in limiting the analysis of agriculture to very gross identification of a class which actually consists of many varied signature classes. Abundant ground truth was available in the form of vegetation maps compiled from color and color infrared photographs. It is believed that with further refinement of training set selection, sufficiently accurate results can be obtained for all categories.

  19. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? 250.226 Section 250.226 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP? The following CZMA information...

  20. Arctic coastal zone mapping: Evolution of sedimentary coasts in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens many of the coastal areas all over the world. In the Arctic, the warming happens at a rate which is three times faster than the global average increasing the pressure on the coast. Arctic coasts differ from coasts in lower latitude in terms of the natural conditions prevailing, i.e. sea-ice, permafrost, and thermal erosion. These factors are likely to change with an increasing temperature, and thereby the erodibility of the shores and the erosivity of the coastal processes are changing. The majority of studies on arctic coasts focus on tundra coasts. Here, there is a general increase of coastal erosion rates over the last decades. However, the arctic coastal areas of Greenland differ; they are often close to hard rock protrusions and are characterized by large differences in geomorphology, erodibility of sediments, and erosivity by coastal processes. Sedimentary coasts in Greenland are only sporadically investigated, and it is thus difficult to predict the impact of climate changes in these areas. With this work we focus on sedimentary coasts in Greenland and present shoreline analysis of two sedimentary coastal sites. We show how the position of the shoreline has changed since the 1930'ies and we address the responsible factors controlling this evolution. The hotspots of coastal change are all located near delta mouths and the detected changes are coupled to dominating process occurring here.

  1. Application of remote sensors in coastal zone observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, J. M.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A review of processes taking place along coastlines and their biological consideration led to the determination of the elements which are required in the study of coastal structures and which are needed for better utilization of the resources from the oceans. The processes considered include waves, currents, and their influence on the erosion of coastal structures. Biological considerations include coastal fisheries, estuaries, and tidal marshes. Various remote sensors were analyzed for the information which they can provide and sites were proposed where a general ocean-observation plan could be tested.

  2. Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': A retrospective examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-01-01

    During its lifetime the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of 'raw' radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the 'system calibration' for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provided evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggested the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus, after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS - estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentrations should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.r., from moored buoyes or drifters, had been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of 'sea truth

  3. Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': A retrospective examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-01-01

    During its lifetime the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of 'raw' radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the 'system calibration' for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provided evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggested the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus, after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS - estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentrations should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.r., from moored buoyes or drifters, had been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of 'sea truth

  4. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  5. The Role of Aeolian Transport Processes in the Intertidal Zone on Sediment Exchange Between Marine and Aeolian Coastal Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.; Cohn, N.; Vos, S.; Hoonhout, B.; Ruggiero, P.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal dunes are generally dynamic due to a combination of marine and aeolian sediment transport processes. The growth of coastal dunes is generally governed by wind driven sediment transport. Quantifying and predicting aeolian sediment transport processes is a scientific and practical challenge. This is caused by the uncertainties in the relative importance of the transport capacity of the wind and the availability of sediment (or sediment supply). Especially sediment supply has recently been hypothesized to be of governing importance but no quantitative knowledge is available yet. The intertidal zone adds further complexity since sediment supply is likely influenced by alternating marine and aeolian processes on the tide timescale. However, while sediment availability is likely to vary along the coastal zone, no measurements of sediment supply and availability has been successful in the past. In this study we use detailed measurements of wind driven erosion and sedimentation in the intertidal and supra-tidal coastal zone to quantify sediment supply for aeolian sediment transport and associated dune growth. During the 6 weeks SEDEX2 field campaign, a RIEGL 200VZ laser scanner is used to collect high resolution topographic data with 15-minute intervals during several tidal cycles. The data reveals the small but significant erosion in the intertidal zone due to wind driven processes within a tidal cycle for the first time. At the same time the small but significant sedimentation at the dry beach and dunes is measured on the tidal timescale. These data are essential in understanding sediment exchange between marine and aeolian zones and the growth of coastal dunes.

  6. Gridded population projections for the coastal zone under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-10-01

    Existing quantifications of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) used for climate impact assessment do not account for subnational population dynamics such as coastward-migration that can be critical for coastal impact assessment. This paper extends the SSPs by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers we develop coastal narratives for each SSP. These narratives account for differences in coastal and inland population developments in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population, we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates, which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions, to project coastal population for each SSP. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data and adjusted for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. Our results show that, compared to the year 2000 (638 million), the population living in the Low Elevated Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases by 58% to 71% until 2050 and exceeds one billion in all SSPs. By the end of the 21st century, global coastal population declines to 830-907 million in all SSPs except for SSP3, where coastal population growth continues and reaches 1.184 billion. Overall, the population living in the LECZ is higher by 85 to 239 million compared to the original IIASA projections. Asia expects the highest absolute growth (238-303 million), Africa the highest relative growth (153% to 218%). Our results highlight regions where high coastal population growth is expected and will therefore face an increased exposure to coastal flooding.

  7. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  8. Simple estimate of entrainment rate of pollutants from a coastal discharge into the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simon H C; Monismith, Stephen G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-15

    Microbial pollutants from coastal discharges can increase illness risks for swimmers and cause beach advisories. There is presently no predictive model for estimating the entrainment of pollution from coastal discharges into the surf zone. We present a novel, quantitative framework for estimating surf zone entrainment of pollution at a wave-dominant open beach. Using physical arguments, we identify a dimensionless parameter equal to the quotient of the surf zone width l(sz) and the cross-flow length scale of the discharge la = M(j) (1/2)/U(sz), where M(j) is the discharge's momentum flux and U(sz) is a representative alongshore velocity in the surf zone. We conducted numerical modeling of a nonbuoyant discharge at an alongshore uniform beach with constant slope using a wave-resolving hydrodynamic model. Using results from 144 numerical experiments we develop an empirical relationship between the surf zone entrainment rate α and l(sz)/(la). The empirical relationship can reasonably explain seven measurements of surf zone entrainment at three diverse coastal discharges. This predictive relationship can be a useful tool in coastal water quality management and can be used to develop predictive beach water quality models.

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Castaño, D J

    1987-06-01

    An analysis of the errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm is presented in detail. This was prompted by the observations of others that significant errors would be encountered if the present algorithm were applied to a hypothetical instrument possessing higher radiometric sensitivity than the present CZCS. This study provides CZCS users sufficient information with which to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and enables them to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on their applications in a variety of situations. The greatest source of error is the assumption that the molecular and aerosol contributions to the total radiance observed at the sensor can be computed separately. This leads to the requirement that a value epsilon'(lambda,lambda(0)) for the atmospheric correction parameter, which bears little resemblance to its theoretically meaningful counterpart, must usually be employed in the algorithm to obtain an accurate atmospheric correction. The behavior of '(lambda,lambda(0)) with the aerosol optical thickness and aerosol phase function is thoroughly investigated through realistic modeling of radiative transfer in a stratified atmosphere over a Fresnel reflecting ocean. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates allowing elucidation of the errors along typical CZCS scan lines; this is important since, in the normal application of the algorithm, it is assumed that the same value of can be used for an entire CZCS scene or at least for a reasonably large subscene. Two types of variation of ' are found in models for which it would be constant in the single scattering approximation: (1) variation with scan angle in scenes in which a relatively large portion of the aerosol scattering phase function would be examined

  10. An Introduction to Coastal Zone Mapping With Airborne Lidar: The Shoals System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    AN INTRODUCTION TO COASTAL ZONE MAPPING WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR : THE SHOALS SYSTEM Jennifer L. Irish US Army Engineer Research and Development...Center Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise 109 St. Joseph Street, Mobile, AL 36602-3630...USA http://shoals.sam.usace.army.mil ABSTRACT Recent advancements in lidar sensors now allow for near-synoptic, regional-scale mapping of the

  11. Impact of ERTS-1 images on management of New Jersey's coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, E. B.; Yunghans, R. S.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The thrust of New Jersey's ERTS investigation is development of procedures for operational use of ERTS-1 data by the Department of Environmental Protection in the management of the State's coastal zone. Four major areas of concern were investigated: detection of land use changes in the coastal zone; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; siting of ocean outfalls; and allocation of funds for shore protection. ERTS imagery was not useful for shore protection purposes; it was of limited practical value in the evaluation of offshore waste disposal and ocean outfall siting. However, ERTS imagery shows great promise for operational detection of land use changes in the coastal zone. Some constraints for practical change detection have been identified.

  12. Impacts of sea-level rise on the Moroccan coastal zone: Quantifying coastal erosion and flooding in the Tangier Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Khouakhi, Abdou; Niang-Diop, Isabelle

    2009-06-01

    As part of a broad assessment of climate change impacts in Morocco, an assessment of vulnerability and adaptation of coastal zones to sea-level rise was conducted. Tangier Bay which is the most important socio-economic pole in Northern Morocco represents one of the cases studies. Using a GIS-based inundation analysis and an erosion modelling approach, the potential physical vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise was investigated, and the most vulnerable socio-economic sectors were assessed. Results indicate that 10% and 24% of the area will be at risk of flooding respectively for minimum (4 m) and maximum (11 m) inundation levels. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the coastal defences and the port, the urban area, tourist coastal infrastructures, the railway, and the industrial area. Shoreline erosion would affect nearly 20% and 45% of the total beach areas respectively in 2050 and 2100. Potential response strategies and adaptation options identified include: sand dune fixation, beach nourishment and building of seawalls to protect the urban and industrial areas of high value. It was also recommended that an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for the region, including upgrading awareness, building regulation and urban growth planning should be the most appropriate tool to ensure a long-term sustainable development, while addressing the vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise.

  13. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  14. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Bakri, Dhia

    1996-10-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of coastal geomorphology can provide a sound basis for sustainable planning and management. Based on coastal landforms, sediments and processes, the coastline of Kuwait was divided into nine geomorphic zones. These zones were grouped into two main geomorphic provinces. The northern province is marked by extensive muddy intertidal flats and dominated by a depositional and low-energy environment. The southern geomorphic province is characterised by relatively steep beach profiles, rocky/sandy tidal flats and a moderate to high-energy environment. The study has demonstrated that pollution, benthic ecology and other environmental conditions of the coast are a function of coastline geomorphology, sedimentology and related processes. The geomorphological information was used to determine the coastal vulnerability and to assess the environmental impacts of development projects and other human activities. Several strategies were outlined to integrate the geomorphic approach into the management of the coastal resources.

  15. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  16. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  17. The demarcation of arbitrary boundaries for coastal zone management: the Israeli case.

    PubMed

    Sas, Eliraz; Fischhendler, Itay; Portman, Michelle E

    2010-11-01

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) addresses the interconnections, complexities, and conflicts between many users of the coastal area with different goals. It requires setting managerial boundaries that capture many elements of human and natural systems. Experience teaches us that without a directed effort managerial rules and laws are not likely to coincide with the physical sensitivity of units that reflect different environmental characteristics of the coastal zone. Hence the aim of this study is to explore why coastal managerial boundaries are set arbitrarily and whether and how it is possible to address the problems this poses. We examine what influences the decisions of a new coastal management authority in Israel to determine how this body overcomes the limits of arbitrary boundary demarcation. The study found that real life management succeeded to both address areas outside the arbitrary boundaries and also to respect some of the different socio-economic needs and physical constraints of the coastal sub-units. Israel's Coastal Environment Protection Law allows and, in fact, encourages the regulator to use discretion and to employ various criteria to balance development and conservation. This implies that policy makers are cognizant of a need to balance ecologically-sensitive boundaries that consider the homogeneity of the coast with politically feasible boundaries that are set arbitrarily. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring Sea Level in the Coastal Zone with Satellite Altimetry and Tide Gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Calafat, Francisco M.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Melet, Angelique; Prandi, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine the issue of sustained measurements of sea level in the coastal zone, first by summarizing the long-term observations from tide gauges, then showing how those are now complemented by improved satellite altimetry products in the coastal ocean. We present some of the progresses in coastal altimetry, both from dedicated reprocessing of the radar waveforms and from the development of improved corrections for the atmospheric effects. This trend towards better altimetric data at the coast comes also from technological innovations such as Ka-band altimetry and SAR altimetry, and we discuss the advantages deriving from the AltiKa Ka-band altimeter and the SIRAL altimeter on CryoSat-2 that can be operated in SAR mode. A case study along the UK coast demonstrates the good agreement between coastal altimetry and tide gauge observations, with root mean square differences as low as 4 cm at many stations, allowing the characterization of the annual cycle of sea level along the UK coasts. Finally, we examine the evolution of the sea level trend from the open to the coastal ocean along the western coast of Africa, comparing standard and coastally improved products. Different products give different sea level trend profiles, so the recommendation is that additional efforts are needed to study sea level trends in the coastal zone from past and present satellite altimeters. Further improvements are expected from more refined processing and screening of data, but in particular from the constant improvements in the geophysical corrections.

  19. Pressures, trends, and impacts in coastal zones: Interactions between socioeconomic and natural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. K.; Subak, S.; Adger, W. N.

    1996-03-01

    This paper assesses the status of coastal zones in the context of expected climate change and its related impacts, as well as current and future socioeconomic pressures and impacts. It is argued that external stresses and shocks relating to sea-level rise and other changes will tend to exacerbate existing environmental pressures and damage in coastal zones. Coastal zones are under increasing stress because of an interrelated set of planning failures including information, economic market, and policy intervention failures. Moves towards integrated coastal zone management are urgently required to guide the coevolution of natural and human systems. Overtly technocentric claims that assessments of vulnerability undertaken to date are overestimates of likely future damages from global warming are premature. While it is the case that forecasts of sea-level rise have been scaled down, much uncertainty remains over, for example, combined storm, sea surge, and other events. In any case, within the socioeconomic analyses of the problem, resource valuations have been at best only partial and have failed to incorporate sensitivity analysis in terms of the discount rates utilized. This would indicate an underestimation of potential damage costs. Overall, a precautionary approach is justified based on the need to act ahead of adequate information acquisition, economically efficient resource pricing and proactive coastal planning.

  20. Geologic framework, evolution, and sediment resources for restoration of the Louisiana Coastal Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Jenkins, Chris; Flocks, Jim; Kindinger, Jack

    2005-01-01

    The Louisiana Coastal Zone along the north-central Gulf of Mexico represents one of America's most important coastal ecosystems in terms of natural resources, human infrastructure, and cultural heritage. This zone also has the highest rates of coastal erosion and wetland loss in the nation because of a complex combination of natural processes and anthropogenic activities during the past century. In response to the dramatic land loss, regional-scale restoration plans are being developed through a partnership of federal and state agencies. One objective is to maintain the barrier island and tidal inlet systems, thereby reducing the impact of storm surge and interior wetland loss. Proposed shore line restoration work relies primarily upon the use of large volumes of sand-rich sediment for shoreline stabilization and the implementation of the shoreline projects. Although sand-rich sediment is required for the Louisiana restoration projects, it is of limited availability within the generally clay to silt-rich, shallow strata of the Louisiana Coastal Zone. Locating volumetrically significant quantities of sand-rich sediment presents a challenge and requires detailed field investigations using direct sampling and geophysical sensing methods. Consequently, there is a fundamental need to thoroughly understand and map the distribution and textural character {e.g., sandiness) of sediment resources within the Coastal Zone for the most cost-effective design and completion of restoration projects.

  1. A procedure for mapping vulnerability of sea-coastal zones to oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavykin, A. A.; Matishov, G. G.; Karnatov, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    An algorithm for mapping the vulnerability of sea-coastal zones is described. Normalization of the distribution densities of the biotic groups to the annual average abundance for presenting these data in identical measurement units is offered. Sensitivity of biota to oil should be normalized to the maximum permissible concentrations for the species inhabiting the water column and to the maximum permissible thickness of the film that has contacted with the water surface. All parameters should be estimated by the metric scale. The proposed algorithm makes it possible to calculate the vulnerability of a sea-coastal zone to oil pollution caused by oil spills.

  2. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  3. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  4. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information...

  5. 30 CFR 550.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.260 Section 550.260 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN...

  6. 30 CFR 550.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.260 Section 550.260 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN...

  7. 30 CFR 550.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.260 What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.260 Section 550.260 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN...

  8. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  9. Remote Sensing Data for Coastal Zone Vulnerability Assessment- the Bay of Algiers Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabehi, Walid; Guerfi, Mokhtar; Mahi, Habib

    2016-08-01

    Like many of South Mediterranean coastlines, the Algerian coastal zone and Algiers' bay specifically, is one of the most vulnerable zone. Because of the natural pressures occurring in the region such as earthquake, tsunami risk, erosion / accretion, marine intrusion, etc. Combined with other anthropogenic factors as urban sprawl, pollution, loss of biodiversity and economic value etc... A high degradation of this coastline is noticeable despite all the protection measures brought to these zones, which have sometimes increased its vulnerability.The aim of this work is to generate the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) map related to erosion and flooding. This index, created by Gornitz & White (1990), was particularly focused on "physical parameters of the coast" [3], Then it was improved by McLaughlin & Cooper (2010), who added a socio-economical approach by calculating parameters like demography, land use...etc. The index is obtained by integrating in a GIS, different vulnerability factors of the coastal area.. Many relevant parameters were derived from remote sensing, combined with other data; they are analyzed with a Multicriteria method after being grouped in three sub- indexes; coastal physical characteristics, coastal forcing and socioeconomic factors, in order to produce the CVI.

  10. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  11. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  12. Application of space remote sensing technology to living marine resources in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a compilation of new Landsat satellite remote sensing techniques for treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems. The techniques have been developed over the past three to five years using optimized digital analysis procedures and evaluated in limited coastal areas of the United States. However, most of the techniques are directly applicable to other areas of the world, particularly in those areas where Landsat satellite data are available. Each technique presented herein has been documented and published separately as a NASA report within the last three years. The data required to substantiate the conclusion that 'significant new space remote sensing techniques are now available for the treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems' are contained within these reports and are referenced herein.

  13. Simulation of calcite dissolution and porosity changes in saltwater mixing zones in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Konikow, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions have indicated that the mixing of seawater and calcite-saturated fresh groundwater can produce a water that is undersaturated with respect to calcite. Mixing of such waters in coastal carbonate aquifers could lead to significant amounts of limestone dissolution. The potential for such dissolution in coastal saltwater mixing zones is analyzed by coupling the results from a reaction simulation model (PHREEQE) with a variable density groundwater flow and solute transport model. Idealized cross sections of coastal carbonate aquifers are simulated to estimate the potential for calcite dissolution under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Results show that limestone dissolution in mixing zones is strongly dependent on groundwater flux and nearly independent of the dissolution kinetics of calcite. -from Authors

  14. Application of space remote sensing technology to living marine resources in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a compilation of new Landsat satellite remote sensing techniques for treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems. The techniques have been developed over the past three to five years using optimized digital analysis procedures and evaluated in limited coastal areas of the United States. However, most of the techniques are directly applicable to other areas of the world, particularly in those areas where Landsat satellite data are available. Each technique presented herein has been documented and published separately as a NASA report within the last three years. The data required to substantiate the conclusion that 'significant new space remote sensing techniques are now available for the treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems' are contained within these reports and are referenced herein.

  15. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  16. Remote sensing techniques for support of coastal zone resource management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Description of remote sensing studies carried out for the purpose of developing and/or demonstrating techniques which can be employed for land use inventory, marsh vegetation classification, and water characteristics surveys. Attention is given to results obtained with (1) photo interpretation techniques and procedures for the development of land use information from high-altitude aircraft and satellite imagery, (2) computer based pattern recognition techniques utilizing multispectral scanner data for marsh vegetation classification, and (3) infrared and microwave techniques for the monitoring and surveying of coastal water temperature and salinity characteristics.

  17. Study on the construction of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yong-zhu; Zhang, Mei-ying; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Zheng-dong

    2008-10-01

    Coastal zones in Guangdong province are increasingly facing an ecological, economic and social pressure due to the increasing economic utilization and human activities in these regions worldwide, which is threatening the sustainable development of human being. How to take effective measurements and adopt integrated management to ensure sustainable development in these areas is ever becoming a focus that attracts close attentions to the governmental and academic sectors recently. It is important to resolve the problem to establish an advanced decision support system for the coastal zone sustainable development to help scientific decision-making and carry out integrated coastal zone management. This paper mainly introduces the general framework of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system (GDCZSDDSS), including its requirements, general objectives, function and structure, and key technologies etc. After expounding the basic concept and requirements of GDCZSDDSS, the paper discusses generally the three-tier architecture and six kinds of functional modules, and lays a particular emphasis on the crucial role of such key technologies as GIS, RS and GPS (3S), spatial metadata and data warehouse etc., and discusses the methods of the GCZSDDSS integration, which aims at offering a whole solution for realization of the GCZSDDSS ultimately.

  18. Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner - Comparisons with surface measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.; Hovis, W. A.; Mueller, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are developed for removing aerosol effects in visual data from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The corrected imagery reveals eddy-like ocean circulation patterns. Pigment concentrations from CZCS are compared with surface determinations. CZCS imagery estimates pigment concentration to within 0.5 log C, where C is the sum of the concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigments a

  19. Radiometric calibration of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7: a proposed adjustment.

    PubMed

    Viollier, M

    1982-03-15

    Ground measurements of water reflectances for two very clear days, allied with computations of atmospheric effects, are compared with satellite data of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner. This exercise points out significant errors in the calibration of the scanner. A new set of calibration constants, which standardizes radiances relative to the extraterrestrial solar irradiance, is proposed.

  20. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  1. Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner - Comparisons with surface measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.; Hovis, W. A.; Mueller, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are developed for removing aerosol effects in visual data from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The corrected imagery reveals eddy-like ocean circulation patterns. Pigment concentrations from CZCS are compared with surface determinations. CZCS imagery estimates pigment concentration to within 0.5 log C, where C is the sum of the concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigments a

  2. H. R. 4030: This Act may be cited as the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, February 21, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    H.R. 4030 is a bill to improve management of the coastal zone and enhance environmental protection of coastal zone resources, by reauthorizing and amending the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, and for other purposes.

  3. Man in Louisiana's coastal zone - From reclamation to subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W. )

    1990-09-01

    For more than 300 years the US marsh lands were thought to be of no economic value. They were considered useless wastelands. Today, they are recognized as valuable and highly productive environments. As a renewable resource that operates with minimum capital expenditures, the wetlands are epitomized in Louisiana. Even so, south Louisiana's first settlers were unaware of the wetlands value. These coastal lowlands were considered a nuisance. They bred yellow fever-carrying mosquitos and contributed directly and indirectly to flooding. Consequently, to overcome the hardships of being sea-level citizens, for more than 250 years the inhabitants have systematically reclaimed the marshes and swamps. As a result of the intense utilization of levees and pumps, normally wet property began to dry out, losing some of its natural buoyancy, increasing regional subsidence. Man-induced negative land surfaces are producing an urbanized population that must face the realities of subsidence caused by unregulated reclamation. New Orleans has, in fact, become North America's premier sinking city. The population has been forced to learn how to live with the problem. Nevertheless, these people are at risk, particularly if the current predicted sea-level rise of 1.2 mm/yr is correct. In the main, Louisiana's coastal issues will become those of the nation and represent the precursor of things to come. Louisiana's reaction and solutions to these issues will establish a precedent for the remainder of the country to follow.

  4. Tracking Carbon along the Urban Watershed Continuum to Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing urbanization are constantly evolving in their structure and function, and their carbon cycle subsequently evolves across both space and time. We investigate how urbanization influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed using a variety of approaches such as stable isotopes, in situ water quality sensors, and remote sensing. Along the urban watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and reactivity of carbon, and (2) ecosystem metabolism and transformation of carbon sources from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as revealed by stable isotopes and in situ sensors. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered particulate carbon transport in coastal waters and the evolution of river sediment plumes as suggested by remote sensing data. Furthermore, there are increased long-term bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in streams and rivers, and we present new analytical approaches for studying river alkalinization due to human inputs and accelerated chemical weathering. In summary, urbanization alters carbon over space and time with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  5. Coastal zone management with stochastic multi-criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Félix, A; Baquerizo, A; Santiago, J M; Losada, M A

    2012-12-15

    The methodology for coastal management proposed in this study takes into account the physical processes of the coastal system and the stochastic nature of forcing agents. Simulation techniques are used to assess the uncertainty in the performance of a set of predefined management strategies based on different criteria representing the main concerns of interest groups. This statistical information as well as the distribution function that characterizes the uncertainty regarding the preferences of the decision makers is fed into a stochastic multi-criteria acceptability analysis that provides the probability of alternatives obtaining certain ranks and also calculates the preferences of a typical decision maker who supports an alternative. This methodology was applied as a management solution for Playa Granada in the Guadalfeo River Delta (Granada, Spain), where the construction of a dam in the river basin is causing severe erosion. The analysis of shoreline evolution took into account the coupled action of atmosphere, ocean, and land agents and their intrinsic stochastic character. This study considered five different management strategies. The criteria selected for the analysis were the economic benefits for three interest groups: (i) indirect beneficiaries of tourist activities; (ii) beach homeowners; and (iii) the administration. The strategies were ranked according to their effectiveness, and the relative importance given to each criterion was obtained.

  6. EPA studies distribution of terrestrial sediment in coastal zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental to the inter-Agency effort to protect coral reefs in southwestern Puerto Rico is the assumption that soil eroded from land in the Guánica/Rio Loco watershed is carried out of Guánica Bay and into coral reef zones and may even be pushed by currents to the west, where i...

  7. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators. PMID:26154173

  8. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    PubMed

    Brewin, Robert J W; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  9. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  10. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  11. 3-Dimentional Mapping Coastal Zone using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhonghua; Liu, Fengling; Zhang, Yun

    2014-03-01

    The metropolitan coastal zone mapping is critical for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal sustainable development and planning. The results of geometric processing of a Shanghai coastal zone from 0.7-m-resolution QuickBird Geo stereo images are presented firstly. The geo-positioning accuracy of ground point determination with vendor-provided rigorous physical model (RPM) parameters is evaluated and systematic errors are found when compared with ground control points surveyed by GPS real-time kinematic (GPS-RTK) with 5cm accuracy. A bias-compensation process in image space that applies a RPM bundle adjustment to the RPM-calculated 3D ground points to correct the systematic errors is used to improve the geo-positioning accuracy. And then, a area-based matching (ABM) method is used to generated the densely corresponding points of left and right QuickBird images. With the densely matching points, the 3-dimentinal coordinates of ground points can be calculated by using the refined geometric relationship between image and ground points. At last step, digital surface model (DSM) can be achieved automatically using interpolation method. Accuracies of the DSM as assessed from independent checkpoints (ICPs) are approximately 1.2 m in height.

  12. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: The coastal zone in an Era of globalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Human pressure has changed the physical and ecological characteristics of coastal zones for centuries. 'Boom and bust' development of coastal zones is a historically recurrent problem. For nearly 40 years, there have been concerted efforts to improve management of the diverse human pressures that have led to deterioration of coastal environments. Since 1992, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been a dominant policy paradigm for bringing together relevant sectors of society to overcome conflicts of resource use and to pursue sustainable development. There is growing evidence that, with some exceptions, these efforts have not reversed environmental degradation. A major reason for this is that the economic and social changes leading to this decline operate increasingly at temporal and spatial scales greater than the scope of management regimes established through ICZM. Alternative approaches such as Adaptive Management are needed to deal with this mismatch of scales. Cross-scale tools including information technology and social networking may also provide vehicles for innovation. As part of a broader range of tools, ICZM helps respond to locally driven problems and adapt to global change. Effective future management must work across scales and benefit from the 'long view' of how coupled social and ecological systems operate.

  13. Coastal zone wind energy. Part I. Synoptic and mesoscale controls and distributions of coastal wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Garstang, M.; Nnaji, S.; Pielke, R.A.; Gusdorf, J.; Lindsey, C.; Snow, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    This report describes a method of determining coastal wind energy resources. Climatological data and a mesoscale numerical model are used to delineate the available wind energy along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. It is found that the spatial distribution of this energy is dependent on the locations of the observing sites in relation to the major synoptic weather features as well as the particular orientation of the coastline with respect to the large-scale wind.

  14. Seismic gaps and source zones of recent large earthquakes in coastal Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Spence, W.

    1979-01-01

    The earthquakes of central coastal Peru occur principally in two distinct zones of shallow earthquake activity that are inland of and parallel to the axis of the Peru Trench. The interface-thrust (IT) zone includes the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 17 October 1966 and 3 October 1974. The coastal-plate interior (CPI) zone includes the great earthquake of 31 May 1970, and is located about 50 km inland of and 30 km deeper than the interface thrust zone. The occurrence of a large earthquake in one zone may not relieve elastic strain in the adjoining zone, thus complicating the application of the seismic gap concept to central coastal Peru. However, recognition of two seismic zones may facilitate detection of seismicity precursory to a large earthquake in a given zone; removal of probable CPI-zone earthquakes from plots of seismicity prior to the 1974 main shock dramatically emphasizes the high seismic activity near the rupture zone of that earthquake in the five years preceding the main shock. Other conclusions on the seismicity of coastal Peru that affect the application of the seismic gap concept to this region are: (1) Aftershocks of the great earthquakes of 1966, 1970, and 1974 occurred in spatially separated clusters. Some clusters may represent distinct small source regions triggered by the main shock rather than delimiting the total extent of main-shock rupture. The uncertainty in the interpretation of aftershock clusters results in corresponding uncertainties in estimates of stress drop and estimates of the dimensions of the seismic gap that has been filled by a major earthquake. (2) Aftershocks of the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 1966 and 1974 generally did not extend seaward as far as the Peru Trench. (3) None of the three great earthquakes produced significant teleseismic activity in the following month in the source regions of the other two earthquakes. The earthquake hypocenters that form the basis of this study were relocated using station

  15. Sand fences in the coastal zone: intended and unintended effects.

    PubMed

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana; Nordstrom, Karl

    2009-09-01

    Sand-trapping fences modify the character of the coastal landscape and change its spatial structure, image, and meaning. This paper examines the relationship between these changes and fence usage at the municipal level, where most decisions about fence deployment are made. Use of fences in 29 municipalities on the developed coast of New Jersey is examined over a 6-year period. Interviews with municipal officers indicate that wooden slat sand-trapping fences are used primarily to build dunes to provide protection against wave uprush and flooding, but they are also used to control pedestrian traffic and demarcate territory. These uses result in changes in landforms and habitats. An aerial video inventory of fences taken in 2002 indicates that 82% of the shoreline had fences and 72% had dunes. Single and double straight fence rows are the most commonly used. Fences are often built to accomplish a specific primary purpose, but they can cause many different and often unanticipated changes to the landscape. The effects of a sand fence change through time as the initial structure traps sand, creates a dune that is colonized by vegetation, and becomes integrated into the environment by increasing topographic variability and aesthetic and habitat value. Sand fences can be made more compatible with natural processes by not placing them in locations where sources of wind blown sand are restricted or in unnatural shore perpendicular orientations. Symbolic fences are less expensive, are easy to replace when damaged, are less visually intrusive, and can be used for controlling pedestrian access.

  16. Coastal zone wind energy. Part II: Validation of the coastal zone wind power potential. A summary of the field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Garstang, M.; Pielke, R.A.; Snow, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    Procedures have been developed to determine the wind power potential of the coastal region from Maine to Texas. The procedures are based upon a climatological analysis and a mesoscale numerical model. The results of this procedure are encouraging but need to be tested. In January to February 1980 a field measurement program was carried out over the Delmarva Peninsula centered on Wallops Island and extending into the Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay to provide an observational basis on which to test our wind assessment methods. The field experiment is described. Listings of the measurements made by aircraft, tethered balloon, rawinsonde kites, tower mounted anemometry and surface thermometry are given together with sample results. The analysis of these data and the comparison between them and the model predicted fields are presented.

  17. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  18. Maximum sinking velocities of suspended particulate matter in a coastal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Joeran; Hofmeister, Richard; van der Lee, Eefke M.; Gräwe, Ulf; Riethmüller, Rolf; Wirtz, Kai W.

    2016-09-01

    Marine coastal ecosystem functioning is crucially linked to the transport and fate of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Transport of SPM is controlled by, amongst other factors, sinking velocity ws. Since the ws of cohesive SPM aggregates varies significantly with size and composition of the mineral and organic origin, ws exhibits large spatial variability along gradients of turbulence, SPM concentration (SPMC) and SPM composition. In this study, we retrieved ws for the German Bight, North Sea, by combining measured vertical turbidity profiles with simulation results for turbulent eddy diffusivity. We analyzed ws with respect to modeled prevailing dissipation rates ɛ and found that mean ws were significantly enhanced around log10(ɛ (m2 s-3)) ≈ -5.5. This ɛ region is typically found at water depths of approximately 15 to 20 m along cross-shore transects. Across this zone, SPMC declines towards the offshore waters and a change in particle composition occurs. This characterizes a transition zone with potentially enhanced vertical fluxes. Our findings contribute to the conceptual understanding of nutrient cycling in the coastal region which is as follows. Previous studies identified an estuarine circulation. Its residual landward-oriented bottom currents are loaded with SPM, particularly within the transition zone. This retains and traps fine sediments and particulate-bound nutrients in coastal waters where organic components of SPM become remineralized. Residual surface currents transport dissolved nutrients offshore, where they are again consumed by phytoplankton. Algae excrete extracellular polymeric substances which are known to mediate mineral aggregation and thus sedimentation. This probably takes place particularly in the transition zone and completes the coastal nutrient cycle. The efficiency of the transition zone for retention is thus suggested as an important mechanism that underlies the often observed nutrient gradients towards the coast.

  19. Operational Oceanography In A Coastal Zone: The Gulf of Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viezzoli, D.; Deponte, D.; Ursella, L.

    The gulf of Trieste, the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea, is characterized by an horizontal dimension of 25 km and a maximum bottom depth of 25 m. Here very highly variable forcings are observed: strong NNE wind events, large seasonal varia- tions of heat flux which cause complete vertical mixing in winter and a marked strat- ification in summer; also fluvial and ground water runoff renders the gulf a ROFI. Furthermore, the highest tidal range in the Mediterannean Sea is observed here, and recurrent severe SE and SW sea storms induce seiches and waves able to erode the sandy beaches of the northern coast. Among the aspects of physical oceanography in the gulf to be addressed: the complex circulation due to the wind regime and the presence of 3 layers in the warm season, the formation of dense water in the cold one, and the small scale dynamics (plumes dynamics, horizontal and vertical shear). To ob- serve and study so many processes in their wide spectrum of time scales, a traditional experimental approach is not sufficient: systematic, long-term routine measurements of the basic meteo-oceanographic variables, are needed. In 1998, the OGS developed a meteo-oceanographic buoy, named MAMBO, equipped with a profiling multipara- metric probe flanked by a sea-bottom ADCP-300kHz, and deployed it at a site 1 km distant from the coast. The buoy data are sampled every 3 hours. From March 2001 wave motion data are being collected by a Datawell Directional Waverider (DWR) just outside the gulf. From June 2001, an ADCP-600kHz remotely controlled by means of an original device is flanking the MAMBO buoy. The configuration of the ADCP can be remotely changed to resolve the effects of the stratification on the vertical structure of the tidal and the wind induced currents or, occasionally, to record shoaling wave data that can be compared with the DWR ones. The systematic monitoring provides a better understating of the transport and of the vertical mixing in the coastal

  20. 210Pb sediment dating in coastal transition zones: tropical saltmarshes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Carnero-Bravo, V.; Perez-Bernal, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is one of the climate change effects expected to have the largest impact on coastal environments. SLR rates are not uniform around the planet and, therefore, local and regional data and trends are needed for proper adaptation plans. As long term monitoring stations of SLR are very scarce in most of the world, SLR trends obtained from 210Pb-dated sediment cores from tropical saltmarshes have become a practical alternative to obtain SLR trends within the past century, under the assumption that these ecosystems accrete at a similar rate to SLR. However, tropical saltmarshes are challenging environments for 210Pb dating: they are regularly dry, intermittently covered by seawater only during the highest tides, and sedimentary records often reflect the transition between terrestrial and marine environments (e.g. changes in grain size distribution, organic matter content and elemental composition) with all these factors contributing for atypical 210Pb depth profiles. In addition, 137Cs, the chronostratigraphic marker most commonly used to corroborate 210Pb dating, fails to be preserved in the sedimentary record in tropical areas, owing to its solubility in marine waters, if at all detectable. The present study describes the challenges and proposed solutions for 210Pb dating saltmarsh sediment cores from two saltmarsh areas (southern Gulf of California and Yucatan Peninsula) including the use of plutonium isotopes for corroboration purposes. Acknowledgements: projects CONACYT CB2010/153492 and PDCPN201301/214349; UNAM PAPIIT-IN203313 and the PRODEP network "Aquatic contamination: levels and effects" (year 3).

  1. The COASTALT Project: Towards an Operational Use of Satellite Altimetry in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignudelli, S.; Cipollini, P.; Gommenginger, C.; Snaith, H. M.; Coelho, E.; Fernandes, J.; Gomez-Henri, J.; Martin-Puig, C.; Woodworth, P. L.; Dinardo, S.; Benveniste, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The coastal zone is the unique part of the Earth where land, sea, air and people meet. By its nature it is a complex system where all the processes that influence its functioning, whether physical, biological, chemical, social, climatological or geological, are interconnected. It requires an integrated approach benefiting from a synergy of modeling tools and multiple datasets created from space, air, land and ocean-based earth observing systems. An important property monitored from space using radar altimetry is the sea level, an index of variability of the ocean circulation. Since 1991, satellite altimetry has had exceptional success over the open ocean. However, the processing strategy used in the open ocean has not been of much success in getting sea level in the coastal zone. The advantage of current radar altimetry for coastal studies is that it can fill gaps in the vast areas around tide gauges which are running continu¬ously, but in only a few places. The coastal domain represents a challenging target for processing of satellite data in general; for satellite altimetry, the data retrieval is required to address some problems including: (1) re-tracking (important for the last 10 km next to the coast), (2) a more accurate wet troposphere path delay correction, (3) better modeling of tidal and atmospheric effects. A global record of length 17 years of raw data from a series of altimetry missions is presently available and represents a unique resource for retrospective analysis in the coastal zone. A great impetus has been given to the field by the recent launch of two major projects devoted to the development of coastal altimetry products for specific missions: PISTACH, by CNES focused on Jason-2 and COASTALT, by ESA for Envisat. In parallel, NASA is sustaining coastal altimetry research through specific R&D projects in response to the last OSTST call. This new “coastal altimetry” community, inherently interdisciplinary, has already had two well

  2. Increased freshwater discharge shifts the trophic balance in the coastal zone of the northern Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wikner, Johan; Andersson, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Increased precipitation is one projected outcome of climate change that may enhance the discharge of freshwater to the coastal zone. The resulting lower salinity, and associated discharge of both nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, may influence food web functioning. The scope of this study was to determine the net outcome of increased freshwater discharge on the balance between auto- and heterotrophic processes in the coastal zone. By using long-term ecological time series data covering 13 years, we show that increased river discharge suppresses phytoplankton biomass production and shifts the carbon flow towards microbial heterotrophy. A 76% increase in freshwater discharge resulted in a 2.2 times higher ratio of bacterio- to phytoplankton production (Pb:Pp). The level of Pb:Pp is a function of riverine total organic carbon supply to the coastal zone. This is mainly due to the negative effect of freshwater and total organic carbon discharge on phytoplankton growth, despite a concomitant increase in discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus. With a time lag of 2 years the bacterial production recovered after an initial decline, further synergistically elevating the microbial heterotrophy. Current climate change projections suggesting increased precipitation may therefore lead to increased microbial heterotrophy, thereby decreasing the transfer efficiency of biomass to higher trophic levels. This prognosis would suggest reduced fish production and lower sedimentation rates of phytoplankton, a factor of detriment to benthic fauna. Our findings show that discharge of freshwater and total organic carbon significantly contributes to the balance of coastal processes at large spatial and temporal scales, and that model's would be greatly augmented by the inclusion of these environmental drivers as regulators of coastal productivity.

  3. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  4. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  5. Comparison of CH4 Emission from Rice Paddy Soils between Coastal Zone and Inland Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous measurements of methane (CH4) emission fluxes have been carried out in rice paddy soil between coastal zone and inland regions. However, the differences of CH4 emission from rice paddy soils in these two locations were unavailable. A database of CH4 emission in paddy rice was compiled from previous published references and field observations with major parameters including water regimes, fertilizer application, CH4 fluxes, and environmental variables. Results showed that CH4 emission from inland paddy fields was significantly higher than that in the coastal zone (p < 0.05). Fertilizer application and water management played an important role in CH4 emission. The application of organic fertilizer and continuous flooding significantly promoted CH4 emission from paddy fields. CH4 fluxes showed significantly positive correlations with organic matter, total nitrogen, available potassium and annual temperature (R2 = 0.39, 0.53, 0.27 and 0.23, p < 0.05), and negative correlations with pH and available phosphorus (R2 = 0.29 and 0.37, p < 0.05). Significant differences occurred in available potassium between inland and coastal rice paddy (p < 0.05), which might account for the difference of CH4 emission between inland and coastal rice paddy. The contrasting of CH4 fluxes between inland and coastal wetlands could improve our understanding of the roles of rice paddies in the regional CH4 regulation. Our results also have implications for informing rice paddy management and climate change policy making the efforts being made by agricultural organizations and enterprises to restore coastal rice paddies for mitigating CH4 emissions.

  6. Assessing deforestation in the coastal zone of the Campeche State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, J.F.; Vega, A.P.; Aponte, G.P.; Lomeli, D.Z.

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine rates of deforestation in the State of Campeche, Mexico, forest maps of 1978/80 and 1992 were compared within a geographic information system (GIS). Results indicate that more than 25 per cent of the tropical forest and mangroves were deforested and other 29 per cent were fragmented during this period. The rate of deforestation in the whole state is about 4.4 per cent per year, but the analysis showed that rates of deforestation are much higher in the coastal zone. For this reason an attempt was made to study deforestation patterns in the coastal zone. Data such as distance from roads and from settlements images were incorporated in the GIS data base and a model which represents influence of population on its environment was developed in order to establish the influence of socioeconomic factors on forest clearing. Results indicate that deforestation presents a higher correlation with levels of poverty and social abandonment than with demographic aspects.

  7. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  8. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas.

  9. Aragonite saturation state dynamics in a coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine E.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; Hales, Burke

    2013-06-01

    upwelling zones may be at enhanced risk from ocean acidification as upwelling brings low aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) waters to the surface that are further suppressed by anthropogenic CO2. ΩAr was calculated with pH, pCO2, and salinity-derived alkalinity time series data from autonomous pH and pCO2 instruments moored on the Oregon shelf and shelf break during different seasons from 2007 to 2011. Surface ΩAr values ranged between 0.66 ± 0.04 and 3.9 ± 0.04 compared to an estimated pre-industrial range of 1.0 ± 0.1 to 4.7 ± 0.1. Upwelling of high-CO2 water and subsequent removal of CO2 by phytoplankton imparts a dynamic range to ΩAr from ~1.0 to ~4.0 between spring and autumn. Freshwater input also suppresses saturation states during the spring. Winter ΩAr is less variable than during other seasons and is controlled primarily by mixing of the water column.

  10. Integrated coastal zone management plan for Udupi Coast using RS, GIS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Vinay, S. A.; Dinakar, S. M.; Jagadeesha, Pai. B.; Mahaganesha, K.; Natesan, Usha

    2007-10-01

    Coastal areas are under great pressure due to increase in human population and industrialization/commercialization and hence these areas are vulnerable to environmental degradation, resource reduction and user conflicts. In the present study an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Udupi Coast in Karnataka, along West Coast of India. The various data products used in the present study includes IRS-1C LISS-III + PAN and IRS-P6 LISS III remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Charts and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets, in addition to ground truth data. Thematic maps such as land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map, critical erosion area map were prepared. A Coastal Vulnerability Index has also been calculated for the study area to know the resistance of study area to sea level rise and is demarcated into four categories; Very high, High, Moderate and Low vulnerability, and a vulnerability map has been prepared. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; about 50% study area is prone to erosion, river mouths along study area show shifting tendency towards south, and the beaches along the Udupi Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V.B.6.0 using results of various data analysis.

  11. Coastal zone problems and environmental strategies to be implemented at Edremit Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irtem, Emel; Kabdasli, Sedat; Azbar, Nuri

    2005-07-01

    This case study examines the coastal zone problems focusing on the existing conflicts between tourism and commercial activities on the coasts of Edremit Bay, Turkey, and attempts to suggest solutions to these problems. Edremit Bay is a characteristic example of such a conflict in collective use of natural resources. The study area, with its 100-km-long sandy beach, naturally attracts different coastal user groups with different beneficial expectations: in terms of rest and recreation for one group and commercial gain offered in a variety of ways for another group. Significant coastal zone problems exist in the study area. Deterioration of shoreline due to tourism activities and illegal constructions, damage to the coastal ecosystem due to domestic/industrial wastewater discharges and some agricultural activities, and disordered urbanization are only a few of the many problems. The data presented here were partly derived from field study and partly collected from local state or private organizations. In this study, it is emphasized that there is a need for viable economic and environmental strategies to be designated in Edremit Bay, Turkey, in order to provide sustainable resource use. For this purpose, an integrated project together with a relevant planning chart including subprojects is also suggested. The success of a local environmental protection management project depends on active participation of all stakeholders including governmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations.

  12. Primary production contributes to non-labile organic matter generation in the estuarine and coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Oceanic generation of refractory organic matter is an important pathway for safe and long time scale safe carbon sequestration. Since refractory/non-labile organic matter generation is highly related with microorganism, estuaries and coastal zones with high primary production should be important regions for such generation process. We investigated the particulate organic matter in the estuarine and adjacent coastal zone of the Changjiang (Yangtze River). Peptidoglycan estimated on the basis of D-form of amino acids enantiomers showed a large variation in the estuary but generally lower than the lower reaches (XLJ). Peptidoglycan quickly decreased from the river to the sea, when DI increased from negative to < 0.5. The decrease can be due to dilution by fresh organic matter and seawater. But when DI > 0.5, the peptidoglycan concentration began to positively relate with organic matter freshness and normalized peptidoglycan was comparable to or even higher than that in terrestrial organic matter. This indicates that estuarine and coastal zones make a significant contribution to non-labile organic matter production. Further analysis suggests that heterotrophic bacteria and Synechococcus are notable contributors. For large river's estuary and adjacent coastal zone, terrestrial inputs promote high in situ production. The generated fresh organic matter in the estuary further promotes heterotrophic bacteria. Since the generation of non-labile organic matter process is both contributed by autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms, primary production is indirectly generating refractory/non-labile organic matter. And the refractory/non labile organic matter production occurs routinely during every productive season. On another aspect, considering the shallow water depth (usually < 100 m) and high sedimentation rate (e.g., 0-5 cm/year for the Changjiang Estuary), the organic matter can be buried in sediment much more easily than it is in the open ocean.

  13. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 2 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed for the remote sensing of ocean color parameters from an earth orbiting space platform. A Technical Manual was designed for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 2 data products. It contains information which describes how the Level 1 data was process to obtain the Level 2 (derived) product. It contains information needed to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  14. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 1 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed specifically for the remote sensing of Ocean Color parameters from an Earth orbiting space platform. A technical manual which is intended for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 1 data products is presented. It contains information needed by investigators and data processing personnel to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  15. A Study of the Structure of the Near-Coastal Zone Water Column Using Numerical Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    A Study of the Structure of the Near-Coastal Zone Water Column Using Numerical Simulations Jeffrey R. Koseff Joel H . Ferziger Stephen G. Monismith...1998 Zhou, H ., Monismith, S.G., Ferziger ,J.H., and Koseff, J.R., Numerical Simulation of Langmuir Circulation and its comparison with the Craik...parallel machine in the Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford. A description of the numerical method , speedup and performance timing

  16. A Study of the Structure of the Near-coastal Zone Water Column Using Numerical Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    A STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE NEAR-COASTAL ZONE WATER COLUMN USING NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS Jeffrey R. Koseff Joel H . Ferziger Stephen G. Monismith...has been implemented on the 400 node Intel Paragon XP/S supercomputer at SDSC. A description of the numerical method , speedup and Report Documentation...Garg, R.P., Ferziger , J.H., and Monismith, S.G. 1995. Implementation of a spectral-finite difference method for simulation of stratified turbulent flows

  17. Phytoplankton pigments from the nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: comparisons with surface measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Clark, D K; Mueller, J L; Hovis, W A

    1980-10-03

    The removal of atmospheric effects from Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images reveals eddy-like ocean turbidity patterns not apparent in the original calibrated images. Comparisons of the phytoplankton pigment concentrations derived from the corrected CZCS radiances with surface measurements agree to within less than 0.5 log C, where C is the sum of the concentrations of chlorophyll a plus phaeopigments a (in milligrams per cubic meter).

  18. Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery.

    PubMed

    Hovis, W A; Clark, D K; Anderson, F; Austin, R W; Wilson, W H; Baker, E T; Ball, D; Gordon, H R; Mueller, J L; El-Sayed, S Z; Sturm, B; Wrigley, R C; Yentsch, C S

    1980-10-03

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) on Nimbus-7, launched in October 1978, is the only sensor in orbit that is specifically designed to study living marine resources. The initial imagery confirms that CZCS data can be processed to a level that reveals subtle variations in the concentration of phytoplankton pigments. This development has potential applications for the study of large-scale patchiness in phytoplankton distributions, the evolution of spring blooms, water mass boundaries, and mesoscale circulation patterns.

  19. Groundwater-ocean interaction and its effects on coastal ecological processes - are there groundwater-dependant ecosystems in the coastal zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, T. C.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrological land-ocean connectivity is an important driver of coastal ecosystems. Rivers are obvious and visible pathways for terrestrial runoff. The critical role of surface water discharge from rivers to coastal ecosystems has been well documented. Hidden from view, 'downstream' effects of coastal (supra-tidal, intertidal and submarine) groundwater discharge are far less well understood. Whilst hydrological and geochemical processes associated with coastal groundwater discharge have received an increasing amount of scientific attention over the past decade or so, the effects of groundwater flow on productivity, composition, diversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems along the world's shorelines have received little attention to date. Coastal groundwater discharge includes both terrestrial (fresh) groundwater fluxes and the recirculation of seawater through sediments, analogous to hyporheic flow in rivers. I will present an overview over relevant coastal hydrological processes, and will illustrate their ecological effects on examples from diverse tropical coastal ecosystems, e.g. (1) perennial fresh groundwater discharge from coastal sand dune systems permitting growth of freshwater-dependent vegetation in the intertidal zone of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), (2) recirculation of seawater through mangrove forest floors directly affecting tree health and providing a pathway for carbon export from these ecosystems, (3) the local hydrology of groundwater-fed coastal inlets on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula affecting the movement behaviour of and habitat use by the queen conch Strombus gigas, an economically important species in the Caribbean region. These examples for hydrological-ecological coupling in the coastal zone invite the question if we should not consider these coastal ecosystems to be groundwater-dependent, in analogy to groundwater-dependency in freshwater aquatic systems.

  20. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  1. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  2. Parasitic fauna of Gobiidae in Mazandaran coastal zones, north of Iran 2011.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Roushan, Reza Habibnejad; Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Gobiidae is considered as one of the diverse families of fishes in Caspian Sea. Due to abundant species and no harvest, this family plays an important role in ecology and feed chain of fishes in Caspian Sea. Present study was performed to determine parasitic fauna of Gobiidae in southern parts of Caspian Sea (coasts of Nowshahr, Sorkhrood, Jouybar, Sari and Amirabad). Primarily, length and weight of each fish was measured. Then, fish's various organs were examined by routine parasitology methods. From 150 fishes which were caught from six studied coastal zones, 51 (34 %) were infected. Majority of caught fishes was belonged to sand goby (Neogobius fluviatilis pallasi) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was the least. Highest rate of infection was seen in N. fluviatilis pallasi while, this percentage in round goby (N. melanostomus) was low (8.57 %) and in Caspian bighead goby (Neogobius kessleri gorlap) no parasitic infection was observed. Most of infected fishes were from Jouybar coastal zone while Nowshahr coastal zone had the lowest infection rate. In present study parasites such as Dactylogyrus, Rhobdochona fortuneti and Bothrocephalus gowkogensis were diagnosed in Caspian gobies. Regarding importance of gobies in chain feed of other fishes and their indirect economic importance, need of diagnosing of gobies parasitic fauna seems to be essential.

  3. Influence of the Surf Zone on the Marine Aerosol Concentration in a Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Gilles; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Piazzola, Jacques; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta T.

    2017-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol concentrations in the coastal zone are assessed with the numerical aerosol-transport model MACMod that applies separate aerosol source functions for open ocean and the surf zone near the sea-land transition. Numerical simulations of the aerosol concentration as a function of offshore distance from the surf zone compare favourably with experimental data obtained during a surf-zone aerosol experiment in Duck, North Carolina in autumn 2007. Based on numerical simulations, the effect of variations in aerosol production (source strength) and transport conditions (wind speed, air-sea temperature difference), we show that the surf-zone aerosols are replaced by aerosols generated over the open ocean as the airmass advects out to sea. The contribution from the surf-generated aerosol is significant during high wind speeds and high wave events, and is significant up to 30 km away from the production zone. At low wind speeds, the oceanic component dominates, except within 1-5 km of the surf zone. Similar results are obtained for onshore flow, where no further sea-salt aerosol production occurs as the airmass advects out over land. The oceanic aerosols that are well-mixed throughout the boundary layer are then more efficiently transported inland than are the surf-generated aerosols, which are confined to the first few tens of metres above the surface, and are therefore also more susceptible to the type of surface (trees or grass) that determines the deposition velocity.

  4. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  5. Recurrence Times for Eartthquakes at the Coastal Region of Oaxaca - Guerrero, MEXICO (Zone 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    Oaxaca is the most seismic active region in Mexico with 68 larger events, (mb > 6.5; Ms> 7.0) from 1542 to 1989, which implies roughly a large earthquake every 6.5 years; including an earthquake with M=8.5 which generate the most important historical tsunami in Mexico. It is also the most studied from a seismic point of view. Three types of earthquakes take place in the region: low angle thrust fault (associated to the subduction process) with a depth between 15 to 25 km; normal fault with a depth between 65 and 120 km with epicenters north of Oaxaca City (17°N); normal fault with a depth between 25 to 40 km with epicenters between the coast and Oaxaca City. A seismogenic zoning based in seismic, tectonic and historical seismicity studies zones was proposed in 1989; eight zones were defined, two zone along the coast, one for the isthmus and rest inland. 23 Years later, 4 larger earthquake have occurred in the region that seems agreed with the recurrence models proposed. Here the Zone 8 (Oaxaca - Guerrero coastal) is revised, 12 earthquakes have taken place in this Zone since 1655. However, special mention for the earthquakes in this Zone is the San Sixto Earthquake (March, 28, 1787, M=8.4) which is the biggest historical earthquake in Mexico, and generates the most important local tsunami in Mexico with 18 m high waves at a distance of 6 km inland (Núñez-Cornú et al, 2009). After this earthquake there was a seismic quiescence of 141 years, for the next earthquake in the Zone (1928), after that this Zone became the most seismic active Zone in Mexico (Núñez-Cornú. 1996) with 7 earthquakes in 85 years.

  6. Quantifying the ability of green infrastructure to reduce coastal zone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillis, W. R.; Hsueh, D.; Gibson, R.; Culligan, P. J.; Shetty, N. H.; Mailloux, B. J.

    2016-02-01

    With significant increase in the application of green infrastructure (GI) technology to mitigate urban coastal zone pollution caused by wet-weather-flow, the ability to quantify the stormwater retention of different green infrastructure designs is needed. In New York City (NYC), an aggressive 20-year plan proposes to use green roofs and other street level bioretentions, such as bioswales and green streets, to reduce the volume of polluted stormwater and combined sewerage that overflows into the City's water ways. As a part of an NSF Coastal SEES project, we are actively quantifying the role of GI in reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading in a network of NYC green roofs and street level bioretentions. Green roofs and green streets manage only their incident precipitation, whereas bioswales also manage stormwater upstream of their footprint, depending on flow conditions and the inlet design. Conversely, green roofs are predominately planted with sedum species, whereas street level bioretentions have a much broader plant pallet. As a result, the performance of different GI systems requires different approaches. In this talk we will demonstrate the severity of coastal zone pollution in New York City (NYC), describe the current green infrastructure (GI) designs that the City is using to abate this problem, and present the experimental protocols and methods we have developed to assess and model urban GI performance. In addition to quantifying the stormwater retention performance of GI, these methods include quantification of the pollution added or removed from the GI systems. The talk will end with a discussion of our findings to date in the context of pollutant loading in the Bronx and Hudson Rivers, both of which impact the health of the local coastal zone.

  7. Models of oxic respiration, denitrification and sulfate reduction in zones of coastal upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, D. E.

    2006-12-01

    Coastal upwelling zones support some of the highest rates of primary production in the oceans. The settling and subsequent decomposition of this organic matter promotes oxygen depletion. In the Eastern tropical North and South Pacific and the Arabian Sea, large tracts of anoxic water develop, where intensive N 2 production through denitrification and anammox accounts for about 1/3 of the total loss of fixed nitrogen in the marine realm. It is curious that despite extensive denitrification in these waters, complete nitrate removal and the onset of sulfate reduction is extremely rare. A simple box model is constructed here to reproduce the dynamics of carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycling in coastal upwelling zones. The model is constructed with five boxes, where water is exchanged between the boxes by vertical and horizontal mixing and advection. These primary physical drivers control the dynamics of the system. The model demonstrates that in the absence of nitrogen fixation, the anoxic waters in a coastal upwelling system will not become nitrate free. This is because nitrate is the limiting nutrient controlling primary production, and if nitrate concentration becomes too low, primary production rate drops and this reduces rates of nitrate removal through N 2 production. With nitrogen fixation, however, complete nitrate depletion can occur and sulfate reduction will ensue. This situation is extremely rare in coastal upwelling zones, probably because nitrogen-fixing bacteria do not prosper in the high nutrient, turbid waters as typically in these areas. Finally, it is predicted here that the chemistry of the upwelling system will develop in a similar matter regardless whether N 2 production is dominated by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or canonical heterotrophic denitrification.

  8. Estimating the dynamics of groundwater input into the coastal zone via continuous radon-222 measurements.

    PubMed

    Burnett, William C; Dulaiova, Henrieta

    2003-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone has received increased attention in the last few years as it is now recognized that this process represents an important pathway for material transport. Assessing these material fluxes is difficult, as there is no simple means to gauge the water flux. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of a continuous radon monitor to measure radon concentrations in coastal zone waters over time periods from hours to days. Changes in the radon inventories over time can be converted to fluxes after one makes allowances for tidal effects, losses to the atmosphere, and mixing with offshore waters. If one assumes that advective flow of radon-enriched groundwater (pore waters) represent the main input of 222Rn in the coastal zone, the calculated radon fluxes may be converted to water fluxes by dividing by the estimated or measured 222Rn pore water activity. We have also used short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) to assess mixing between near-shore and offshore waters in the manner pioneered by. During an experiment in the coastal Gulf of Mexico, we showed that the mixing loss derived from the 223Ra gradient agreed very favorably to the estimated range based on the calculated radon fluxes. This allowed an independent constraint on the mixing loss of radon-an important parameter in the mass balance approach. Groundwater discharge was also estimated independently by the radium isotopic approach and was within a factor of two of that determined by the continuous radon measurements and an automated seepage meter deployed at the same site.

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  10. Overview of Recent Coastal Tectonic Deformation in the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, M. Teresa; Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2011-08-01

    Holocene and Pleistocene tectonic deformation of the coast in the Mexico subudction margin is recorded by geomorphic and stratigraphic markers. We document the spatial and temporal variability of active deformation on the coastal Mexican subduction margin. Pleistocene uplift rates are estimated using wave-cut platforms at ca. 0.7-0.9 m/ka on the Jalisco block coast, Rivera-North America tectonic plate boundary. We examine reported measurements from marine notches and shoreline angle elevations in conjunction with their radiocarbon ages that indicate surface uplift rates increasing during the Holocene up to ca. 3 ± 0.5 m/ka. In contrast, steady rates of uplift (ca. 0.5-1.0 m/ka) in the Pleistocene and Holocene characterize the Michoacan coastal sector, south of El Gordo graben and north of the Orozco Fracture Zone (OFZ), incorporated within the Cocos-North America plate boundary. Significantly higher rates of surface uplift (ca. 7 m/ka) across the OFZ subduction may reflect the roughness of subducting plate. Absence of preserved marine terraces on the coastal sector across El Gordo graben likely reflects slow uplift or coastal subsidence. Stratigraphic markers and their radiocarbon ages show late Holocene (ca. last 6 ka bp) coastal subsidence on the Guerrero gap sector in agreement with a landscape barren of marine terraces and with archeological evidence of coastal subsidence. Temporal and spatial variability in recent deformation rates on the Mexican Pacific coast may be due to differences in tectonic regimes and to localized processes related to subduction, such as crustal faults, subduction erosion and underplating of subducted materials under the southern Mexico continental margin.

  11. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  12. Biased monitoring of fresh water-salt water mixing zone in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Eyal; Lazar, Ariel; Wollman, Stuart; Kington, Shushanna; Yechieli, Yoseph; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2009-01-01

    In coastal aquifers, significant vertical hydraulic gradients are formed where fresh water and underlying salt water discharge together upward to the seafloor. Monitoring boreholes may act as "short circuits" along these vertical gradients, connecting between the higher and the lower hydraulic head zones. When a sea tide is introduced, the fluctuations of both the water table and the depth of the mixing zone are also biased due to this effect. This problem is intensified in places of long-screen monitoring boreholes, which are common in many places in the world. For example, all approximately 500 boreholes of the fresh water-salt water mixing zone in the coastal aquifer of Israel are installed with 10 to 50 m long screens. We present field measurements of these fluctuations, along with a three-dimensional numerical model. We find that the in-well fluctuation magnitude of the mixing zone is an order of magnitude larger than that in the porous media of the actual aquifer. The primary parameters that affect the magnitude of this bias are the anisotropy of the aquifer conductivity and the borehole hydraulic parameters. With no sea tide, borehole interference is higher for the anisotropic case because the vertical hydraulic gradients are high. When tides are introduced, the amplitude of the mixing zone fluctuation is higher for the isotropic case because the overall effective hydraulic conductivity is greater than the conductivity in the anisotropic case. In the aquifer, the fresh water-salt water mixing zone fluctuations are dampened, and tens of meters inland from the shoreline, the fluctuations are on the order of few centimeters.

  13. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  14. Unified classical formula for non-cohesive total-load sediment transport in marine coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorram, Saeed; Ergil, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes the concept of a significant transport rate, in coastal environments that contains different spatial and temporal scales and multiple interacting forces (e.g., waves, tides, wave-current, and wind density currents) as well as, the complex physical processes of total-load sediment which is not easy to calculate for practical needs due to restricted range of applicability. The present study develops a unified classical formula for non-cohesive total-load sediment transport in marine coastal zones by using dimensional analysis and self-similarity concepts where a set of independent variables considered. A dataset of total-load collected at both field observation stations and from the laboratory flume conditions and the six well-known relevant formulas were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the proposed formula. Since the results show that, the new formula is in good agreement with both field and flume data sets measures, the authors are suggesting the use of it for the sediment-carrying capacity predictions of total-load sediment transport in marine coastal zones.

  15. Methodology of Lithuanian climate atlas mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiukas, Donatas; Galvonaitė, Audronė; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2015-06-01

    Climate atlases summarize large sets of quantitative and qualitative data and are results of complex analytical cartographic work. These special geographical publications summarize long term meteorological observations, provide maps and figures which characterise different climate elements. Visual information is supplemented with explanatory texts. A lot of information on short and long term changes of climate elements were provided in published Lithuanian atlases (Atlas of Lithuanian SDR, 1981; Climate Atlas of Lithuania, 2013), as well as in prepared but unpublished Lithuanian Atlas (1989) and in upcoming new national atlas publications (National Atlas of Lithuania. 1st part, 2014). Climate atlases has to be constantly updated to be relevant and to describe current climate conditions. Comprehensive indicators of Lithuanian climate are provided in different cartographic publications. Different time periods, various data sets and diverse cartographic data analysis tools and visualisation methods were used in these different publications.

  16. Variations of phytoplankton community structure related to water quality trends in a tropical karstic coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A

    2006-01-01

    Phytoplankton community structure in coastal areas is a result of various environmental factors such as nutrients, light, grazing, temperature, and salinity. The Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic tropical region that is strongly influenced by submerged groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone. Phytoplankton community structure and its relationship with regional and local water quality variables were studied in four ports of the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. Water quality was strongly related to SGD, and variations in phytoplankton community structure were related to local nutrient loading and hydrographic conditions, turbulence, and human impacts. Our study provides an ecological baseline for the Yucatan Peninsula and serves as a basis for establishing monitoring programs to predict changes at sites with high hydrological variation and in developing an early alert system for harmful toxic algal blooms.

  17. Human impacts on the coastal zone of Hurghada, northern Red Sea, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frihy, O. E.; Fanos, A. M.; Khafagy, A. A.; Abu Aesha, K. A.

    1996-12-01

    Hurghada is located along the western margin of the northern Red Sea. The fringing coral reef and the pleasant dry weather make Hurghada an attractive tourist site. Over 40 recreational projects have been constructed, and there is a need for more such projects in spite of the fact that they threaten the coastal zone of Hurghada. Subsequent environmental hazards have been created that impacted the coastline and the marine ecosystem. The living corals and the marine ecology in the reef system have suffered dramatic degradation. The depositional—hydrodynamic pattern has been affected as a result of blocking littoral currents by protruded constructions. Subsequently, some coastal segments have been subjected to local downdrift erosion.

  18. Foraminiferal responses to polluted sediments in the Montevideo coastal zone, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Burone, Leticia; Venturini, Natalia; Sprechmann, Peter; Valente, Paulo; Muniz, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    A study of foraminiferal assemblages was carried out in 24 sediment samples collected from the Montevideo coastal zone (south-eastern coastal region of South America) to assess the response of the benthic foraminifera to the polluted sediments. The area is affected by different pollutants such as sewage, hydrocarbons and heavy metals derived from different sources. Biological data were analyzed with multivariate techniques of cluster analysis and a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for abiotic factors. The results allowed the recognition of different species assemblages corresponding to different sub-environments, which reflected the prevalent ecological conditions. The Montevideo Bay, particularly, its inner part showed an extremely poor foraminiferal fauna-including a totally azoic station-and high percentages of abnormal tests, when compared with the adjacent Punta Carretas and Punta Yeguas zones. Mean faunal density showed a strong relationship with organic matter, oxygen and heavy metal concentrations, as well as redox potential and pH values of each sub-environment. Although the adjacent zones presented a moderate pollution degree, it was noticed that a positive effect on the foraminiferal density specially on Ammonia tepida, caused by the sewage pipe located in Punta Carretas, a pure organic contamination. Differences among foraminiferal assemblages seemed to be related to the combined action of the several kinds of pollutants and the natural abiotic variables, like the rapid salinity changes that occurred in this area.

  19. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Fenton, Mairi; Meredith, Michael P.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Venables, Hugh J.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Ω) for two biologically-important calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite was observed in Ryder Bay, in the coastal sea-ice zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Glacial meltwater and melting sea ice stratified the water column and facilitated the development of large phytoplankton blooms and subsequent strong uptake of atmospheric CO2 of up to 55 mmol m-2 day-1 during austral summer. Concurrent high pH (8.48) and calcium carbonate mineral supersaturation (Ωaragonite 3.1) occurred in the meltwater-influenced surface ocean. Biologically-induced increases in calcium carbonate mineral saturation states counteracted any effects of carbonate ion dilution. Accumulation of CO2 through remineralisation of additional organic matter from productive coastal waters lowered the pH (7.84) and caused deep-water corrosivity (Ωaragonite 0.9) in regions impacted by Circumpolar Deep Water. Episodic mixing events enabled CO2-rich subsurface water to become entrained into the surface and eroded seasonal stratification to lower surface water pH (8.21) and saturation states (Ωaragonite 1.8) relative to all surface waters across Ryder Bay. Uptake of atmospheric CO2 of 28 mmol m-2 day-1 in regions of vertical mixing may enhance the susceptibility of the surface layer to future ocean acidification in dynamic coastal environments. Spatially-resolved studies are essential to elucidate the natural variability in carbonate chemistry in order to better understand and predict carbon cycling and the response of marine organisms to future ocean acidification in the Antarctic coastal zone.

  20. The state of art of the website of the IAH Coastal Aquifer Dynamics and Coastal Zone Management (CAD-CZM) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    They are now almost two years that in the framework of IAH Coastal Aquifer Dynamics and Coastal Zone Management (CAD-CZM) Network, it has been set up a website www.iah-cad-czm.net, where we have been collecting and uploading, information about studies aimed to know properties and state of exploitation about coastal aquifers and coastal zone management. The website would be a tool aimed to collect and share information and data referred this topic, available not only for researchers, for whom it might be a starting point for their studies, but also for stake holders, which needs few information about a coastal aquifer or a coastal zone. Until now they have been contacted several tens of researchers, which have contributed to the website implementation, by filling a questionnaire, we sent them, which was referred to coastal aquifers they have studied. Any questionnaire summarizes information referred to coastal aquifer location, its exstension, and some basic pieces of information, related to hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical properties of it, but also the most important scientific references, that can be consulted to have more and deeper information, about it. In the poster we are going to present, we are interested in showing the state of art of this collecting and uploading data, as until now the filled questionnaires, present in the website, are more than sixty and at the date of the EGU 2017, it may be they could be much more. On the other hand to present it at EGU is a way for trying to receive suggestions and contributions for make it better.

  1. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  3. A Study of the Structure of the Near-Coastal Zone Water Column Using Numerical Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    A Study of the Structure of the Near-Coastal Zone Water Column Using Numerical Simulations Jeffrey R. Koseff Joel H . Ferziger Stephen G...of Fluids A, 4(3):633-635. Shah, Kishan B., and Joel H . Ferziger 1995 A new non-eddy viscosity subgrid-scale model and its application to...unresolved scales of turbulence. Physics of Fluids, 9(7):2148-2164. Garg, R.P., Ferziger , J.H., and Monismith, S.G. 1994 Numerical Simulation of

  4. The use of Landsat for monitoring water parameters in the coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Landsats 1 and 2 have been successful in detecting and quantifying suspended sediment and several other important parameters in the coastal zone, including chlorophyll, particles, alpha (light transmission), tidal conditions, acid and sewage dumps, and in some instances oil spills. When chlorophyll a is present in detectable quantities, however, it is shown to interfere with the measurement of sediment. The Landsat banding problem impairs the instrument resolution and places a requirement on the sampling program to collect surface data from a sufficiently large area. A sampling method which satisfies this condition is demonstrated.

  5. Comparison of atmospheric correction algorithms for the Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Jain, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Before Nimbus-7 Costal Zone Color Scanner (CZC) data can be used to distinguish between coastal water types, methods must be developed for the removal of spatial variations in aerosol path radiance. These can dominate radiance measurements made by the satellite. An assessment is presently made of the ability of four different algorithms to quantitatively remove haze effects; each was adapted for the extraction of the required scene-dependent parameters during an initial pass through the data set The CZCS correction algorithms considered are (1) the Gordon (1981, 1983) algorithm; (2) the Smith and Wilson (1981) iterative algorityhm; (3) the pseudooptical depth method; and (4) the residual component algorithm.

  6. Color banding on Georges Bank as viewed by coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yentsch, C. S.; Phinney, D. A.; Campbell, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of Georges Bank by coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) show bandlike patterns that appear to be related to the large sand dunes and ridges which dominate the bottom topography there. Ship measurements of temperature and chlorophyll on Georges Bank in July 1979 also reflect the influence of the underwater dune fields. The cause of the banding in the CZCS data is unknown but is speculated to be the creation of alternating zones of divergence and convergence by tidal currents as the water flows over the underwater dune-trough configuration. The banding observed by CZCS appears to be seasonal, following the sequence of primary production in the Gulf of Maine, and is believed to be important to biological processes as a site of new production and/or as an effective transport mechanism. Any future models that attempt to interrelate tidal mixing and primary production must consider bottom topography and secondary flows.

  7. Demarcation of coastal transition zone in Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) for agriculture crops and bioaquatic hatcheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Belen Vicente, Ana; Jordan, Manuel Miguel; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) is the largest estuary in the South American Pacific coast. It has special characteristics which make it to have a great diversity of agricultural crops and bioaquatic hatcheries.The study was focused on demarcating of Coastal Transition Zone in Gulf of Guayaquil for agriculture crops and bioaquatic hatcheries, based on salinity indexes and characterization of physicochemical properties of soils in order to establish similarities and differences between groups using multivariate analysis. In this paper, cluster analysis of 12 parameters (conductivity, pH, anions, cations, metals and organic matter) was carried on. 15 transects towards the coastline were performed, each consisting of 6 stations equidistant sampling 1 km covering a distance of 5 km from the margin of mangrove inland a total of 90 stations. The sampling points were established as a representative area because of its hydrological characteristics and tidal influence. Soils were sampled between 0 and 20 cm of depth (Topsoil). The salinity analysis was performed by the method of the saturation extract, the pH was measured with a potentiometer, chemical analysis was carried by colorimetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was determined by the method of Walkley and Black. The cluster analysis allowed to establish suitable and restrictive zones for shrimp farming and agricultural crops. It has been established that the coastal transition zone of the Gulf of Guayaquil is located at 4.2 km from the mangroves with a soil salinity of 4 mS / cm. There is a suitable zone for shrimp farming with a salinity of 13.5 mS / cm from the edge of the mangrove to 2.8 km, then the concentration of salinity prevents its use for bioaquatic hatcheries to 4.2 km. The area for agriculture crops is limited from a restricted area using a salinity value from 2mS/cm to 4 mS / cm. The characterization of the coastal transition zone using multivariate analysis established

  8. A Permanent Multilevel Monitoring and Sampling System in the Coastal Groundwater Mixing Zones.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Kwok, King Lun; Liu, Yi; Jiao, Jimmy

    2017-07-01

    To study the spatial and temporal variability of water dynamics and chemical reactions within the coastal groundwater mixing zones (CGMZs), high-resolution periodical and spatial groundwater sampling within CGMZs is needed. However, current samplers and sampling systems may require heavy driving machines to install. There is also possible contamination from the metal materials for current samplers and sampling systems. Here, a permanent multilevel sampling system is designed to sample coastal groundwater within CGMZs. This cost-effective system consists of metal-free materials and can be installed easily. The system is tested in Po Sam Pai and Tingkok, Tolo Harbor and Hong Kong. Major ions, nutrients, stable isotopes and radium and radon isotopes were analyzed and the data provided scientific information to study the fresh-saltwater interface fluctuations, and temporal variations and spatial heterogeneity of geochemical processes occurred within CGMZs. The reliable spatial and temporal data from the sampling system demonstrate that the system functions well and can provide scientific data for coastal aquifer studies. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Assessing the impact of cyclones in the coastal zone of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Judith; Bricheno, Lucy; Chowdury, Shahad; Rahman, Munsur; Ghosh, Tuhin; Kay, Susan; Caesar, John

    2014-05-01

    We review the state of knowledge regarding tropical cyclones and their impacts on coastal ecosystems, as well as the livelihood and health of the coastal communities, under the present and future climate, with application to the coastal zone of Bangladesh. This region is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones as it is very low-lying and densely populated. Cyclones cause damage due to the high wind speed and also the ensuing storm surge, which causes inundation and salinity intrusion into agricultural land and contaminates fresh water. The world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, protects the coast of the Brahmaputra-Ganges-Meghna (BGM) delta from these cyclonic storms but mangroves are themselves vulnerable to cyclone damage, as in 2007 when ~36% of the mangrove area was severely damaged leading to further losses of livelihood. We apply an idealised cyclone model and use the winds and pressures from this model to drive a storm surge model in the Bay of Bengal, in order to examine the impact of the intensity, track speed and landfall of the cyclones in terms of surge and inundation. The model is tested by reproducing the track and intensity of Cyclone Sidr of 2007. We also examine the projected future climate from the South Asia Regional Climate Model to understand how tropical cyclones may change under global warming and assess how this may impact the BGM Delta over the 21st century.

  10. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  11. Monitoring and Management of Coastal Zones Which are Under Flooding Risk with Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direk, S.; Seker, D. Z.; Musaoglu, N.; Gazioglu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal zone areas play an important role in value to the welfare of nations and provides natural, social, cultural and economic benefits and increased quality of life. A great majority of the earth population live in coastal zone areas and they are under flooding risk due to tsunamies, storm surge, typhoon, sea level rise, precipitation and dam destruction. Global warming from the grenhouse effect raises sea level by expanding seawater, melting water and causing ice sheets to melt. Based on a selection of nine long, high quality tide gauge records, Holgate analyzed that the Mean Sea Level (MSL) rise over the period of 1904-2003 was found to be 1.74 ± 0.16 mm/year. Consider the whole century showed that the high decadal rates of change in global MSL was observed during the last 20 years of the records. Based on 4 tide gauge records in Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean, Yildiz analyzed that MSL rise during 1984-2002 was found to be 9.6 ± 0.9 mm/year, 5.1 ± 1 mm/year and 8.7 ± 0.8 mm/year respectively. By analyzing the whole recorded data, it is found that the annual MSL rise in eastern mediterranean was 4-7 mm/year which was higher than the global prediction. A rise in sea level would accelerate coastal erosion, aggravate flooding, threaten coastal area structures and inundate wetlands. The salinity of rivers and bays would increase. A 1 meter in sea level rise would enable a 15-20 year storm to flood many areas. Higher water levels would reduce coastal drainage which would cause an increase flooding by rain storms. Finally, a rise in sea level would raise water tables and would flood basements. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a state of art technology and operationally being used more frequently by commercial and scientific society. GIS system provides a stable platform for the integration of data from different sources, allows a large quantity of data to be stored and processed, provides a seamless geographical database and provides a

  12. Assessment on the Vulnerability of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Guangxi Coastal Zone under Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on coastal zone. The mangrove ecosystems occur at the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical coasts and are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, assess the impacts of sea level rise on mangrove ecosystem and formulate the feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal ecosystems. In this research, taking the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi province, China as a case study, the potential impacts of sea level rise on the mangrove ecosystems were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway- Receptor- Consequence) model. An index system for vulnerability assessment on coastal mangrove ecosystems under sea level rise was worked out, in which rate of sea level rise, subsidence/uplift rate, habitat elevation, daily inundation duration, intertidal slope and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment based on the sea-level rise rates of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.27 cm/a, the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi was within the EVI score of 0 in the projections of 2030s, 2050s and 2100s, respectively. As the sedimentation and land uplift could offset the rate of sea level rise and the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of mangrove ecosystems was negligible. While at the A1F1 scenario with a sea level rise rate of 0

  13. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR.

  14. Microplastics in sea coastal zone: Lessons learned from the Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Chubarenko, Irina; Stepanova, Natalia

    2017-05-01

    Baltic amber, adored for its beauty already in Homer's Odyssey (ca. 800 B.C.E), has its material density close to that of wide-spread plastics like polyamide, polystyrene, or acrylic. Migrations of amber stones in the sea and their massive washing ashore have been monitored by Baltic citizens for ages. Based on the collected information, we present the hypothesis on the behaviour of microplastic particles in sea coastal zone. Fresh-to-strong winds generate surface waves, currents and roll-structures, whose joint effect washes ashore from the underwater slope both amber stones and plastics - and carries them back to the sea in a few days. Analysis of underlying hydrophysical processes suggests that sea coastal zone under stormy winds plays a role of a mill for plastics, and negatively buoyant pieces seem to repeatedly migrate between beaches and underwater slopes until they are broken into small enough fragments that can be transported by currents to deeper areas and deposited out of reach of stormy waves. Direct observations on microplastics migrations are urged to prove the hypothesis.

  15. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  16. Mapping the Fresh-Salt Water Interaction in the Coastal Zone Using High Resolution Airborne Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.; Pedersen, J. B. B.; Christiansen, A. V.; Foged, N.; Schaars, F.; Rolf, H.

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade airborne electromagnetics (AEM) and the accompanying data processing and inversion algorithms have undergone huge developments in terms of technology, costs, and reliability. This has expanded the scope of AEM from mainly mineral exploration to geotechnical applications and groundwater resource mapping. In this abstract we present a case with generally applicable results where AEM is used to map saltwater intrusion as well as outflow of fresh water to the sea. The survey took place on the Dutch coast in 2011 and is composed of a detailed inland coastal mapping as well as lines extending kilometres into the North Sea. It adds further complications that the area has a dense infrastructure and rapid varying dune topography causing the need for cautious data processing. We use the high resolution AEM system SkyTEM and data processing and inversion in the Aarhus Workbench. On the inland side, the results show a high resolution image of the fresh water interface and the interaction with clay layers acting as barriers. On the sea side they show a picture of freshwater plumes being pushed several hundred meters under the sea. The last mentioned information was actually the main purpose of the survey as this information could hardly be obtained by other methods and it is decisive for the total water balance of the system. The case shows an example of an AEM survey resulting in a high resolution image of the entire coastal zone. The technology is applicable in all coastal zones in the world and if applied it would lead to much improved management of the water resources in these landscapes.

  17. Definition and interpretation of Holocene shorelines in the south Atlantic coastal zone, southeast Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    There is a wide variety of contemporary shorelines in southeastern Florida. Distinctive types range from rocky platforms, tidal flats, mangroves and marshes, to sand and gravel beaches. Because the natural sequence of shorelines in the urban coastal corridor from Miami to Palm Beach is partly obscured by dredge and fill operations initiated in the early 1920's, some coastal segments are subject to re-interpretation. Analysis of early aerial photographs, old coastal charts and bore log data indicates a much more complicated sequence of Recent coastlines than is generally appreciated. Before development, much of the coastal zone contained complicated networks of fresh-water marshes and lakes with lagoons, bays, and sounds lying behind extensively developed spits. The larger spits prograded southward (downdrift) forming long coastwise sounds that eventually led into fresh-water marshes such as Lake Mabel (now Port Everglades). When new inlets were cut to link the ICW with the sea, the spits were beheaded to form what are now called barrier islands. After subsequent inlet stabilization with inadequate sand bypassing, some spits became welded to the shore and others eroded away. Extension of boundaries marking the back sides of barriers landward into the marshes, to the position of the ICW, is not only an erroneous definition of barrier island width but dangerous for emergency (storm surge) planning because the barriers were never this wide. Beach ridge plains, ridge and swale topography, dune-covered limestone ridges, and some fossil reefs such as Key Biscayne have in addition been mistakenly identified as barrier islands.

  18. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    PubMed

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  19. Effects of different vegetation zones on CH4 and N2O emissions in coastal wetlands: a model case study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands.

  20. Effects of Different Vegetation Zones on CH4 and N2O Emissions in Coastal Wetlands: A Model Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands. PMID:24892044

  1. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  2. Hydrologically Controlled Arsenic Release in Deltaic Wetlands and Coastal Riparian Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckey, J.; LeMonte, J. J.; Yu, X.; Schaefer, M.; Kocar, B. D.; Benner, S. G.; Rinklebe, J.; Tappero, R.; Michael, H. A.; Fendorf, S. E.; Sparks, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Wetland and riparian zone hydrology exerts critical controls on the biogeochemical cycling of metal contaminants including arsenic. The role of wetlands in driving geogenic arsenic release to groundwater has been debated in the deltas of South and Southeast Asia where the largest impacted human population resides. In addition, groundwater in coastal areas worldwide, such as those in South and Southeast Asia and the Mid-Atlantic of the U.S., is at risk to largely unexplored biogeochemical and hydrologic impacts of projected sea level rise. First, we present data from fresh-sediment incubations, in situ model sediment incubations and a controlled field experiment with manipulated wetland hydrology and organic carbon inputs in the minimally disturbed upper Mekong Delta. Here we show that arsenic release is limited to near-surface sediments of permanently saturated wetlands where both organic carbon and arsenic-bearing solids are sufficiently reactive for microbial oxidation of organic carbon and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. In contrast, within the deeper aquifer or seasonally saturated sediments, reductive dissolution of iron oxides is observed only when either more reactive exogenous forms of iron oxides or organic carbon are added, revealing a potential thermodynamic restriction to microbial metabolism. Second, in order to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise on arsenic release to groundwater, we determined the changes in arsenic speciation and partitioning in sediment collected from an anthropogenically contaminated coastal riparian zone under controlled Eh regimes in both seawater and freshwater systems. Here we show greater arsenic release under anoxic/suboxic conditions in the freshwater system than in the seawater system, potentially due to high salinity induced microbial inhibition. Collectively, our work shows that shifting hydrologic conditions in deltaic wetlands and tidally influenced zones impacts the extent of arsenic release to

  3. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  4. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  5. Modelling nutrient retention in the coastal zone of an eutrophic sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Markus Meier, H. E.; Sahlberg, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    The Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM) was used at a test site, the Stockholm archipelago, located in the northern part of the central Baltic Sea, to study the retention capacity of the coastal filter on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads from land and atmosphere. The efficiency of the coastal filter to permanently retain nutrients determines how much of the local nutrient loads actually reach the open sea. The SCM system is a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus-type model coupled to a horizontally integrated, physical model in particular suitable for estuaries. In this study the Stockholm Archipelago, consisting of 86 sub-basins, was divided into three sub-areas: the inner, the intermediate and the outer archipelago. An evaluation of model results showed that the modelled freshwater supply agrees well with observations. The nutrient, salinity and temperature dynamics simulated by the SCM are also found to be in good or acceptable agreement with observations. The analysis showed that the Stockholm Archipelago works as a filter for nutrients that enter the coastal zone from land, but the filter efficiency is not effective enough to retain all the supplied nutrients. However, at least 65 and 72 % of the P and N, respectively, are retained during the studied period (1990-2012). A major part of the retention is permanent, which for P means burial. For N, almost 92 % of the permanent retention is represented by benthic denitrification, less than 8 % by burial, while pelagic denitrification is below 1 %. Highest total amounts of P and N are retained in the outer archipelago, where the surface area is largest. The area-specific retention of P and N, however, is highest in the smaller inner archipelago and decreases towards the open sea. A reduction scenario of the land loads of N and P showed that the filter efficiencies of N and P increase and the export of N from the archipelago decreases. About 15 years after the reduction, the export of P changes into an

  6. Preservation of Paleoseismic and Paleogeodetic Records of mid to late Holocene Subduction Zone Earthquakes in Different Coastal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, H. M.; Horton, B.; Rubin, C. M.; Grand Pre, C.; Hawkes, A. D.; Dura, T.; Daryono, M.; Ladinsky, T.

    2009-12-01

    Dynamic variations in sea level and solid Earth properties along active subduction zones predetermine the duration and when paleoseismic and paleogeodetic records will be preserved in coastal regions. The most direct, reliable way to chronicle the history of past subduction zone earthquakes is through coastal stratigraphic sequences that preserve abrupt and gradual relative sea level changes caused by great subduction earthquake cycles. Specifically, paleoseismic timing and paleo geodetic determination of vertical displacement can be obtained through the application of litho-, bio- and chronostratigraphic analyses of selected coastal stratigraphic sequences. Such stratigraphic sequences are only preserved under a specific set of conditions wherein sea level rise, crustal loading, local crustal thickness and imposed strain accumulation and release from megathrust and upper plate faults and folds collectively conspire to provide a long-term, gradual relative sea level rise over millenia that span at least two or three subduction earthquake cycles. Given the conditions necessary to preserve stratigraphic sequences recording multiple great subduction earthquake cycles, it is not surprising that robust paleoseismic records from coastal marsh stratigraphies are rare. To illustrate the conditions under which coastal marshes preserve paleoseismic records of great subduction zone earthquakes, we present two sites with different combinations of sea level rise, crustal loading, crustal thickness and local tectonics. Although both sites preserve a paleoseismic record of subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the records and the specific time range of the records are notably different. The coastal, equatorial, island tropical setting in the Indian Ocean preserves tidal-marsh stratigraphic records of great subduction zone earthquakes in the time window 7-5 ka. In contrast, mid-latitude, North American, northeast Pacific coastal settings preserve tidal-marsh stratigraphic

  7. GIS, Geoscience, Multi-criteria Analysis and Integrated Management of the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimi, Y.; Barich, A.

    2011-12-01

    In this 3rd millennium, geology can be considered as a science of decision that intervenes in all the society domains. It has passed its academic dimension to spread toward some domains that until now were out of reach. Combining different Geoscience sub-disciplines emanates from a strong will to demonstrate the contribution of this science and its impact on the daily life, especially by making it applicable to various innovative projects. Geophysics, geochemistry and structural geology are complementary disciplines that can be applied in perfect symbiosis in many domains like construction, mining prospection, impact assessment, environment, etc. This can be proved by using collected data from these studies and integrate them into Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in order to make a multi-criteria analysis, which gives generally very impressive results. From this point, it is easy to set mining, eco-geotouristic and risk assessment models in order to establish land use projects but also in the case of integrated management of the coastal zone (IMCZ). Touristic projects in Morocco focus on its coast which represents at least 3500 km ; the management of this zone for building marinas or touristic infrastructures requires a deep and detailed study of marine currents on the coast, for example, by creating surveillance models and a coastal hazards map. An innovative project that will include geophysical, geochemical and structural geology studies associated to a multi-criteria analysis. The data will be integrated into a GIS to establish a coastal map that will highlight low-risk erosion zones and thus will facilitate implementation of ports and other construction projects. YES Morocco is a chapter of the International YES Network that aims to promote Geoscience in the service of society and professional development of Young and Early Career Geoscientists. Our commitment for such project will be of qualitative aspect into an associative framework that will involve

  8. Streamflow-induced variations in nitrate flux in tributaries to the Atlantic coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Smith, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Streamflow-related variability in nutrient flux represents an important source of uncertainty in managing nutrient inputs to coastal ecosystems. Quantification of flux variability is of particular interest to coastal resource managers in adopting effective nutrient-reduction goals and monitoring progress towards these goals. We used historical records of streamflow and water-quality measurements for 104 river monitoring stations in an analysis of variability in annual and seasonal flux of nitrate to the Atlantic coastal zone. We present two measures of temporal flux variability: the coefficient of variation (CV) and the exceedence probability (EP) of 1.5 times the median flux. The magnitude of flux variations spans a very wide range and depends importantly upon the season of year and the climatic and land-use characteristics of the tributary watersheds. Year-to-year variations (CV) in annual mean flux range over two orders of magnitude, from 3-200% of the long-term mean flux, although variations more typically range from 20-40% of the long term mean. The annual probability of exceeding the long term median flux by more than 50% (EP) is less than 0.10 in most rivers, but is between 0.10 and 0.35 in 40% of the rivers. Year- to-year variability in seasonal mean flux commonly exceeds that in annual flux by a factor of 1.5 to 4. In western Gulf of Mexico coastal rivers, the year-to- year variability in the seasonal mean flux is larger than in other regions, and is of a similar magnitude in all seasons. By contrast, in Atlantic coastal rivers, the winter and spring seasons, which account for about 70% of the annual flux, display the smallest relative variability in seasonal mean flux. We quantify the elasticity of nutrient flux to hypothetical changes in streamflow (i.e., the percent increase in flux per percentage increase in mean discharge) to allow the approximation of flux variability from streamflow records and the estimation of the effects of future climatically

  9. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  10. Ecosystem resilience and threshold response in the Galápagos coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Alistair W R; Froyd, Cynthia A; Leng, Melanie J; Milne, Glenn A; Willis, Katherine J

    2011-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a conservative estimate on rates of sea-level rise of 3.8 mm yr(-1) at the end of the 21(st) century, which may have a detrimental effect on ecologically important mangrove ecosystems. Understanding factors influencing the long-term resilience of these communities is critical but poorly understood. We investigate ecological resilience in a coastal mangrove community from the Galápagos Islands over the last 2700 years using three research questions: What are the 'fast and slow' processes operating in the coastal zone? Is there evidence for a threshold response? How can the past inform us about the resilience of the modern system? Palaeoecological methods (AMS radiocarbon dating, stable carbon isotopes (δ(13)C)) were used to reconstruct sedimentation rates and ecological change over the past 2,700 years at Diablas lagoon, Isabela, Galápagos. Bulk geochemical analysis was also used to determine local environmental changes, and salinity was reconstructed using a diatom transfer function. Changes in relative sea level (RSL) were estimated using a glacio-isostatic adjustment model. Non-linear behaviour was observed in the Diablas mangrove ecosystem as it responded to increased salinities following exposure to tidal inundations. A negative feedback was observed which enabled the mangrove canopy to accrete vertically, but disturbances may have opened up the canopy and contributed to an erosion of resilience over time. A combination of drier climatic conditions and a slight fall in RSL then resulted in a threshold response, from a mangrove community to a microbial mat. Palaeoecological records can provide important information on the nature of non-linear behaviour by identifying thresholds within ecological systems, and in outlining responses to 'fast' and 'slow' environmental change between alternative stable states. This study highlights the need to incorporate a long-term ecological perspective when

  11. Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: an eight country study.

    PubMed

    Portman, M E; Esteves, L S; Le, X Q; Khan, A Z

    2012-11-15

    Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is a widely accepted approach for sustainable management of the coastal environment. ICZM emphasizes integration across sectors, levels of government, uses, stakeholders, and spatial and temporal scales. While improving integration is central to progress in ICZM, the role of and the achievement of integration remain understudied. To further study these two points, our research analyzes the performance of specific mechanisms used to support ICZM in eight countries (Belgium, India, Israel, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, UK, and Vietnam). The assessment is based on a qualitative comparative analysis conducted through the use of two surveys. It focuses on five ICZM mechanisms (environmental impact assessment; planning hierarchy; setback lines; marine spatial planning, and regulatory commission) and their role in improving integration. Our findings indicate that certain mechanisms enhance specific types of integration more effectively than others. Environmental impact assessment enhances science-policy integration and can be useful to integrate knowledge across sectors. Planning hierarchy and regulatory commissions are effective mechanisms to integrate policies across government levels, with the latter also promoting public-government integration. Setback lines can be applied to enhance integration across landscape units. Marine spatial planning is a multi-faceted mechanism with the potential to promote all types of integration. Policy-makers should adopt the mechanisms that are suited to the type of integration needed. Results of this study also contribute to evidence-based coastal management by identifying the most common impediments related to the mechanisms of integration in the eight studied countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Great Lakes algorithms for the Nimbus-G coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the Nimbus G satellite Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) were conducted. Absorption and scattering measurement data were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Available optical models were used in turn to calculate subsurface reflectances for expected concentrations of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended minerals. Multiple nonlinear regression techniques were used to derive CZCS water quality prediction equations from Great Lakes simulation data. An existing atmospheric model was combined with a water model to provide the necessary simulation data for evaluation of the preliminary CZCS algorithms. A CZCS scanner model was developed which accounts for image distorting scanner and satellite motions. This model was used in turn to generate mapping polynomials that define the transformation from the original image to one configured in a polyconic projection. Four computer programs (FORTRAN IV) for image transformation are presented.

  13. Phase 2 development of Great Lakes algorithms for Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the NIMBUS-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Atmospheric and water optical models were used to relate surface and subsurface measurements to satellite measured radiances. Absorption and scattering measurements were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Algorithms were developed for geometric correction, correction for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiance, and prediction of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended mineral concentrations. The atmospheric algorithm developed compared favorably with existing algorithms and was the only algorithm found to adequately predict the radiance variations in the 670 nm band. The atmospheric correction algorithm developed was designed to extract needed algorithm parameters from the CZCS radiance values. The Gordon/NOAA ocean algorithms could not be demonstrated to work for Great Lakes waters. Predicted values of chlorophyll-a concentration compared favorably with expected and measured data for several areas of the Great Lakes.

  14. Potential applications of a high altitude powered platform in the ocean/coastal zone community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Rigterink, P.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community conducted for the NASA Wallops Flight Center to identify potential applications of a high altitude powered platform (HAPP) are presented. Such a platform would stationkeep at 70,000 feet for up to a year over a given location and make frequent high resolution observations, or serve as a regional communications link. The survey results indicate user interest among scientific researchers, operational agencies and private industry. It is felt that such a platform would combine the desirable characteristics of both geostationary satellites (wide area, frequent observation) and aircraft (high resolution). As a result a concept for an operational HAPP system in the form of a 'mesoscale geostationary satellite' system evolved. Such a system could employ many of the same technologies used in current NASA and NOAA geostationary satellite programs. A set of generalized instrument requirements for HAPP borne sensors is also presented.

  15. Low-altitude infrared propagation in a coastal zone: refraction and scattering.

    PubMed

    Doss-Hammel, Stephen M; Zeisse, Carl R; Barrios, Amalia E; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Moerman, Marcel; de Jong, Arie N; Frederickson, Paul A; Davidson, Kenneth L

    2002-06-20

    Midwave and long-wave infrared propagation were measured in the marine atmosphere close to the surface of the ocean. Data were collected near San Diego Bay for two weeks in November 1996 over a 15-km horizontal path. The data are interpreted in terms of effects expected from molecules, aerosol particles, and refraction. Aerosol particles are a dominant influence in this coastal zone. They induce a diurnal variation in transmission as their character changes with regular changes in wind direction. A refractive propagation factor calculation is introduced, and it is systematically applied to the model and to the data analysis. It is shown that this refractive propagation factor is a necessary component of a complete near-sea-surface infrared transmission model.

  16. [Water pollution load in coastal zone of Xiamen: estimation and forecast].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Liang; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jin-Keng; La, Meng-Ke

    2007-09-01

    By the methods of grey prediction and curve regression, the estimation and forecast models of water pollution load in coastal zone of Xiamen City, Southeast China were established, and validated with the statistic data of the pollution load in past decade. The estimation revealed that the industrial wastewater discharge per ten thousand RMB production value decreased yearly, while the total discharge of main pollutants increased gradually. In the total discharge of point source wastewater, about 76% of nitrogen and phosphorus came from domestic wastewater. In non-point source pollution loads, nitrogen and phosphorus of agricultural source occupied a larger proportion, while those of urban source were the least. In 2005, the nitrogen pollution load from different sources was in the order of domestic wastewater (DW) > agricultural non-point source (ANPS) > industrial wastewater (IW) > tourism wastewater (TW) > urban non-point source (UNPS), while phosphorus pollution load was ANPS > DW > IW > TW > UNPS.

  17. Role of bacteria in organic matter fluxes in the Southern California Coastal Zone: (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The fate of organic matter in the sea, whether produced in situ or introduced from land, is greatly influenced by the metabolic trophic activities of the resident biota. Until recently it was thought that much of the primary production is consumed by the herbivores, making them the main determinants of fate of organic matter. It now appears that the microbial component of marine foodweb also plays a significant role in the decomposition, distribution, and vertical flux of organic material in seawater. The goal of the proposed research is to quantify this role of the microbial foodweb as part of a DOE-sponsored interdisciplinary study. We are testing the hypothesis that organic matter utilization by heterotrophic bacterioplankton represents a major sink for organic matter in the Southern California Coastal Zone.

  18. On a spectrum of nonlinear internal waves in the oceanic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonov, A.; Novotryasov, V.

    2007-11-01

    This paper studies the internal wave band of temperature fluctuation spectra in the coastal zone of Pacific ocean. It is observed that on the central Mexican Pacific Shelf in the high-frequency band of temperature spectra the spectral exponent tends to ~ω-1 at the time of spring tide and ω-2 at the time of neap tide. On the western shelf of the Japan/East Sea, in the Ω<<ω<< N* range, where N* is the representative buoyancy frequency and Ω is the inertial frequency, the rate tends to ~ω-3. These features of spectra are simulated by the model spectrum of nonlinear internal waves in the shallow water. Interaction of high-frequency internal waves with an internal wave of semidiurnal frequency is considered. It is shown that as a result of the interaction the spectrum of high-frequency internal waves take the universal form and the spectral exponent tends to ~ω-1.

  19. Zones of coastal hypoxia revealed by satellite scanning have implications for strategic fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leming, T. D.; Stuntz, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of hypoxic bottom water areas that occur along the inner continental shelf of Texas and Louisiana. Because hypoxia appears to be related to surface chlorophyll and temperature, which can both be measured with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite, an attempt has been made to determine whether conditions favorable for the formation of hypoxia could be detected and monitored from space. A linear discriminant function has identified areas of bottom water hypoxia detected by research vessels up to 10 days after satellite overpass, and predicted hypoxic areas without resort to research vessel data. Such space mapping may be of consequence for marine resource management and exploitation.

  20. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  1. Natural slicks and oil spills in the coastal zones as viewed by satellite radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mityagina, M.; Lavrova, O.; Bocharova, T.

    The paper summarizes oil pollution monitoring experience in coastal zones of Black Sea Novorossiisk -- Gelengjick Caspian Sea Neftyanye Kamni and Baltic Sea Courish lagoon -- Gdansk Bay SAR images from instruments on board ERS-2 Envisat and Radarsat satellites are the core data element Satellite detection of oil spills with synthetic aperture radar SAR can provide reasonably reliable information but in complex coastal environments it is still a major challenge Analysis of radar images is basically hampered by the problem of distinguishing between slicks sea surface smoothing of natural origin and spilt oil patches especially in low wind conditions The work focuses on the possibilities to improve the discrimination capabilities between oil spills and look alikes This can be done by combining satellite data at optical infrared and microwave frequencies to monitor water quality give information on parameters controlling the formation transport and evolution of oil slicks and provide more general background information that will help to identify potential oil look-alikes Theoretical investigations of electromagnetic wave scattering at the sea surface covered with film with thickness reaching several millimeters are conducted Such films do not include surfactants forming monomolecular layer on the surface The dependencies of scattering intensity on film thickness are computed It is shown that small variations in film thickness may correspond to a very wide range of scattering intensity Qualitative differences in

  2. Integrated coastal zone management perspectives to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    David, G; Leopold, M; Dumas, P S; Ferraris, J; Herrenschmidt, J B; Fontenelle, G

    2010-01-01

    Based on a pluridisciplinary research programme on New Caledonia's lagoon (2004-2008), this paper addresses economic, ecological and political issues in order to implement integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in this French Pacific territory. The nickel mining industry constitutes the core of the re-balancing economic and social strategy between the Northern and Southern provinces. But major impacts on the coastal environment of metal-processing plants, harbours, and decades of mine exploitation have released a controversy. A short diachronic analysis suggests that such environmental concerns prompted the emergence of collective actions to among civil society, customary and institutional stakeholders. The inscription of New Caledonia lagoon and reef areas in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008 would be both an outcome and a catalyst of this on-going process. Looking beyond the reefs towards the mainland and watersheds for the construction of local socio-ecological systems, we assume that the current stakes could result in the initiation of ICZM in New Caledonia. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  4. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  5. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  6. Global Distribution of Aerosols Over the Open Ocean as Derived from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, P. M.; Tindale, N. W.

    1999-01-01

    Climatological maps of monthly mean aerosol radiance levels derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) were constructed for the world's ocean basins. This is the first study to use the 7.5.-year CZCS data set to examine the distribution and seasonality of aerosols over the open ocean on a global scale. Examination of our satellite images found the most prominent large-scale patch of elevated aerosol radiances in each month off the coast of northwest Africa. The well-known, large-scale plumes of elevated aerosol levels in the Arabian Sea, the northwest Pacific, and off the east coast of North America were also successfully captured. Radiance data were extracted from 13 major open-ocean zones, ranging from the subpolar to equatorial regions. Results from these extractions revealed the aerosol load in both subpolar and subtropical zones to be higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Aerosol radiances in the subtropics of both hemispheres were about 2 times higher in summer than in winter. In subpolar regions, aerosol radiances in late spring/early summer were almost 3 times that observed in winter. In general, the aerosol signal was higher during the warmer months and lower during the cooler months, irrespective of location. A comparison between our mean monthly aerosol radiance maps with mean monthly chlorophyll maps (also from CZCS) showed similar seasonality between aerosol and chlorophyll levels in the subpolar zones of both hemispheres, i.e., high levels in summer, low levels in winter. In the subtropics of both hemispheres, however, chlorophyll levels were higher in winter months which coincided with a depressed aerosol signal. Our results indicate that the near-IR channel on ocean color sensors can be used to successfully capture well-known, large-scale aerosol plumes on a global scale and that future ocean color sensors may provide a platform for long-term synoptic studies of combined aerosol-phytoplankton productivity

  7. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Contents of the...

  8. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: If your...

  9. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: If your...

  10. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118...

  11. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease...

  12. 30 CFR 585.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 585.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on whether it is submitted before or after your lease is...

  13. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.260 Section 250.260 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND...

  14. Roles of coastal laboratories in the implementation of the nation`s emerging priorities for research in the coastal zone: Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, T.C.; Brooks, A.S.; Clegg, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid growth in the human population and related increases in consumption, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation are serious concerns for the quality of life and national security. Global change, biological diversity, and sustainable ecosystems were identified as priority areas of research based on their importance for the advance of the fundamental knowledge needed to manage for a sustainable biosphere. Demographic trends, global climate change, and patterns of contaminant release and transport suggest that the effects of human activity on the environment and on natural resources will be especially pronounced in the coastal zone. This report presents the results of a workshop organized by the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) to evaluate the changing roles of coastal laboratories and to recommend mechanisms by which the community of coastal scientists can more effectively work together and with government agencies in defining priorities and implementing research programs that are responsive to national needs. The workshop is part of an ongoing effort to facilitate more integrated approaches to environmental research and the use of scientific information for the purposes of education and environmental management in the coastal zone.

  15. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    PubMed

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures.

  16. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  17. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  18. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  19. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  20. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Application to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Martin, Francisco; Cipollini, Paolo; Benveniste, Jérôme; Restano, Marco; Ambrósio, Américo

    2016-04-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, EnviSat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  1. Ethnolect Debate: Evidence from Jewish Lithuanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept of Jewish Lithuanian as a range of post-Yiddish varieties spoken by some Jews in Lithuania and seeks to synthesise findings in contemporary ethnolect studies and in the field of Jewish language research. The legitimacy of the term "ethnolect" is questioned by some researchers; however, it is argued that…

  2. Ethnolect Debate: Evidence from Jewish Lithuanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept of Jewish Lithuanian as a range of post-Yiddish varieties spoken by some Jews in Lithuania and seeks to synthesise findings in contemporary ethnolect studies and in the field of Jewish language research. The legitimacy of the term "ethnolect" is questioned by some researchers; however, it is argued that…

  3. ESA Sen3Exp Campaign: San Rossore Coastal Zone Monitoring by CHRIS/PROBA-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Magnani, Federico; Nardino, Vanni; Pippi, Ivan; Pieri, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Since 2001 CHRIS sensor on board of Proba-1 is acquiring images all over the World. San Rossore Natural Park was chosen as one of CHRIS test site in the framework of the Cat.1 LBR ESA-EOPI Project ID.2832 on "Assimilation of biophysical and biochemical variables in biochemical and hydrological models at landscape scale". During summer 2009 San Rossore test site was chosen as one of the four sites for the ESA Sen3Exp campaign. CHRIS multi-angle images have been acquired during the campaign giving a valuable contribution to the understanding of vegetation changes in coastal zone areas characterized by heavy anthropogenic activities. In this paper we summarize CHRIS/Proba-1 data processing methodology and Cal/Val activity during Sen3Exp campaign in San Rossore. The obtained results and their use for environmental investigations in order to better understand the complexity of the San Rossore ecosystem, representative of many Mediterranean costal zones, are presented and discussed.

  4. Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone water quality.

    PubMed

    Grant, S B; Sanders, B F; Boehm, A B; Redman, J A; Kim, J H; Mrse, R D; Chu, A K; Gouldin, M; McGee, C D; Gardiner, N A; Jones, B H; Svejkovsky, J; Leipzig, G V; Brown, A

    2001-06-15

    Elevated levels of enterococci bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution, are routinely detected in the surf zone at Huntington State and City Beaches in southern California. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to identify sources of enterococci bacteria landward of the coastline. We find that enterococci bacteria are present at high concentrations in urban runoff, bird feces, marsh sediments, and on marine vegetation. Surprisingly, urban runoff appears to have relatively little impact on surf zone water quality because of the long time required for this water to travel from its source to the ocean. On the other hand, enterococci bacteria generated in a tidal saltwater marsh located near the beach significantly impact surf zone water quality. This study identifies a potential tradeoff between restoring coastal wetlands and protecting beach water quality and calls into question the use of ocean bathing water standards based on enterococci at locations near coastal wetlands.

  5. Drought or humidity oscillations? The case of coastal zone of Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Amin; Houhou, Rola

    2015-10-01

    There is discrepancy in classifying Lebanon according to the different climatic zones; however, it is often described as a semi-arid region. Lately, Lebanon has been witnessing climatic oscillations in the meteorological parameters. The impact of these oscillations on water sector has been reflected also on energy-food nexus. Yet, there are a number of studies obtained to identify the climate of Lebanon, and they show contradictory results; especially these studies elaborated different datasets and applied diverse methods which often modeled only on large-scale regions. Therefore, the analysis of climatic data depended on complete and long-term climatic records that can be applied to assess the existing climatic status of Lebanon, as well as to assure whether Lebanon is under drought, humidity or it is oscillating between both. This study utilized considerable datasets, from different sources including the remotely sensed systems (e.g. TRMM). These datasets were interpolated and analyzed statistically according to De Martonne Aridity Index. Aiming to affirm the climatic attribute of Lebanon; however, ten climatic stations were investigated. They are with representative geographic setting and diverse time series in the coastal zone of Lebanon were investigated. Even though, Lebanon is known as a semi-arid region, yet results in this study show that the studied zone does not evidence any drought, since around 70% of the investigated years are characterized by semi-humid to humid climate. This climatic figure is well pronounced since rainfall rate exceeds 900 mm, average temperature rate is about 19 °C, and snow remains for a couple of months annually.

  6. Shoreline and Oceano Fault Zones' Intersection Geometry, San Luis Obispo Bay, Offshore South Central Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P. J.; Nishenko, S. P.; Greene, H. G.; Bergkamp, B.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Central Coastal California Seismic Imaging Project, high-resolution 3D low energy marine seismic-reflection data were acquired within San Luis Obispo Bay in 2011 and 2012. Mapping of the sediment-buried bedrock surface using 2D and 3D data clearly reveals that the trace of the Shoreline fault zone bifurcates at Souza Rock. The eastern strand is a reverse fault that trends toward the east-southeast, connecting with the Oceano fault zone onshore. The Shoreline fault is a vertical dextral fault with a very linear geometry that continues south to near the Santa Maria river mouth, and may intersect the Casmalia fault onshore. Both of these fault strands are crossed by Pleistocene low-stand paleochannels eroded into bedrock, and are buried by marine and non-marine sediment. The 3D data show that both the Oceano and Shoreline faults are narrow, well defined fault zones. The reverse slip rate for the Oceano fault (~0.1 mm/y.) falls within published slip rate estimates for the Oceano fault onshore (0.01-0.20 mm/y). The dextral slip rate for the Shoreline fault southeast of Souza Rock is estimated to be 0.06 mm/y. Souza Rock is located on the hanging wall of the Oceano Fault, north of the point of intersection between the Shoreline and Oceano faults. Water depths shoal from 60 m on the surrounding seafloor to 5 m on top of Souza Rock. This structure is interpreted as a structural popup in a restraining bend where the N65°W-trending Oceano fault intersects the N25°W-trending Shoreline fault. The structural geometry near the point of intersection has several minor secondary fault strands, but is remarkably simple.

  7. Development 3D model of adaptation of the Azerbaijan coastal zone at the various levels of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammadov, Ramiz

    2013-04-01

    The most characteristic feature of the Caspian Sea which difference it on relation other seas is its periodical fluctuating in its level. In many coastal regions of the world the problem of influence of change of a sea level on activities of the human is a problem of the long-term future, but in region of Caspian Sea, especially in its Azerbaijan sector, it is already actual. Also experience accumulated here, can be use at the decision of problems of optimization of wildlife management in conditions of significant change of a sea level as model of potential consequences of warming of a climate. Changeableness of the level of the Caspian sea over many years can be observed better on the basis of natural observations, a systematic basis of which has been put by the academician E. Lents in 1830 year in Baku coastal line. According these data in 1882 the average level has reached its level -25.2 m. the highest point over the observations, i.e. by 1.8 m. higher than today's level. The average level over 1830-1930 was about -25.83 m. In 1960 some stabilization in the level, about 28,4 meters, in 1970 was a sharp drop, in 1977 - sharp drop reached -29.00 rn. The drop over the whole period of observations totaled 3.8 m within diapason -25.2 -29.0 m. In 1978 the level of the sea began to increase and in 1995 its average yearly mark reach -26,62 rn. Intensiveness of the rise of the level ever that period totaled in average about 14 cm per year. As a result of this rise of a sea level about 800 km2 of a coastal zone it has been flooded, the ecological situation has worsened, and there were ecological refugees. The damage to a coastal zone of Azerbaijan was 2 billion USA dollars. Caspian sea also has within-year (seasonal) variability equal 32 sm and sleeve and pileup change of level. Its estimate in Azerbaijan coastal zone is 0.8-1.0 m. In the coastal zone also necessary take into height of the wave which in these coasts can be 3.0 m height. All these means that in the

  8. The analysis of dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, F.; Westra, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding in coastal catchments can be caused by runoff generated by an extreme rainfall event, elevated sea levels due to an extreme storm surge event, or the combination of both processes occurring simultaneously or in close succession. Dependence in extreme rainfall and storm surge arises because common meteorological forcings often drive both variables; for example, cyclonic systems may produce extreme rainfall, strong onshore winds and an inverse barometric effect simultaneously, which the former factor influencing catchment discharge and the latter two factors influencing storm surge. Nevertheless there is also the possibility that only one of the variables is extreme at any given time, so that the dependence between rainfall and storm surge is not perfect. Quantification of the strength of dependence between these processes is critical in evaluating the magnitude of flood risk in the coastal zone. This may become more important in the future as the majority of the coastal areas are threatened by the sea level rise due to the climate change. This research uses the most comprehensive record of rainfall and storm surge along the coastline of Australia collected to-date to investigate the strength of dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model was employed to this end to carry out the dependence analysis. The strength of the estimated dependence is then evaluated as a function of several factors including: the distance between the tidal gauge and the rain gauge; the lag between the extreme precipitation event and extreme surge event; and the duration of the maximum storm burst. The results show that the dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline is statistically significant, although some locations clearly exhibit stronger dependence than others. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of large-scale meteorological effects as

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    PubMed

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  11. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  12. Toward daily climate scenarios for Canadian Arctic coastal zones with more realistic temperature-precipitation interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Grenier, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The interdependence between climatic variables should be taken into account when developing climate scenarios. For example, temperature-precipitation interdependence in the Arctic is strong and impacts on other physical characteristics, such as the extent and duration of snow cover. However, this interdependence is often misrepresented in climate simulations. Here we use two two-dimensional (2-D) methods for statistically adjusting climate model simulations to develop plausible local daily temperature (Tmean) and precipitation (Pr) scenarios. The first 2-D method is based on empirical quantile mapping (2Dqm) and the second on parametric copula models (2Dcopula). Both methods are improved here by forcing the preservation of the modeled long-term warming trend and by using moving windows to obtain an adjustment specific to each day of the year. These methods were applied to a representative ensemble of 13 global climate model simulations at 26 Canadian Arctic coastal sites and tested using an innovative cross-validation approach. Intervariable dependence was evaluated using correlation coefficients and empirical copula density plots. Results show that these 2-D methods, especially 2Dqm, adjust individual distributions of climatic time series as adequately as one common one-dimensional method (1Dqm) does. Furthermore, although 2Dqm outperforms the other methods in reproducing the observed temperature-precipitation interdependence over the calibration period, both 2Dqm and 2Dcopula perform similarly over the validation periods. For cases where temperature-precipitation interdependence is important (e.g., characterizing extreme events and the extent and duration of snow cover), both 2-D methods are good options for producing plausible local climate scenarios in Canadian Arctic coastal zones.

  13. Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross–McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for

  14. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased

  15. Ecosystem Resilience and Threshold Response in the Galápagos Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Alistair W. R.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Milne, Glenn A.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a conservative estimate on rates of sea-level rise of 3.8 mm yr−1 at the end of the 21st century, which may have a detrimental effect on ecologically important mangrove ecosystems. Understanding factors influencing the long-term resilience of these communities is critical but poorly understood. We investigate ecological resilience in a coastal mangrove community from the Galápagos Islands over the last 2700 years using three research questions: What are the ‘fast and slow’ processes operating in the coastal zone? Is there evidence for a threshold response? How can the past inform us about the resilience of the modern system? Methodology/Principal Findings Palaeoecological methods (AMS radiocarbon dating, stable carbon isotopes (δ13C)) were used to reconstruct sedimentation rates and ecological change over the past 2,700 years at Diablas lagoon, Isabela, Galápagos. Bulk geochemical analysis was also used to determine local environmental changes, and salinity was reconstructed using a diatom transfer function. Changes in relative sea level (RSL) were estimated using a glacio-isostatic adjustment model. Non-linear behaviour was observed in the Diablas mangrove ecosystem as it responded to increased salinities following exposure to tidal inundations. A negative feedback was observed which enabled the mangrove canopy to accrete vertically, but disturbances may have opened up the canopy and contributed to an erosion of resilience over time. A combination of drier climatic conditions and a slight fall in RSL then resulted in a threshold response, from a mangrove community to a microbial mat. Conclusions/Significance Palaeoecological records can provide important information on the nature of non-linear behaviour by identifying thresholds within ecological systems, and in outlining responses to ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ environmental change between alternative stable states. This study

  16. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  17. Rapid East Asian Monsoon change during the Last Interglacial in the Bohai Sea Coastal Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Li, B.; Chen, M.; Zhang, D.; Xiang, R.; Niu, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bohai Sea coastal zone of China faces the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Eurasian continent to the west, hence, this region is influenced by both the ocean and continental landmasses. The Bohai Sea coastal zone has significant monsoon climate characteristics and a strong sensitivity to climate change. The Miaodao stratigraphical section (MDS) contains historical information about climate features in the region, especially the high-frequency variations during the last interglacial, sea level changes, and the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. By analyzing the ages of different sedimentary facies in combination with proxy paleoclimatic indices (i.e., grain <63 μm fraction, average grain size (Mz), clay + silt/sand content (SC/D), magnetic susceptibility, and the ratios of Na2O/Al2O3 and (Al2O3+TOFe)/SiO2, in the fifth segments of the MDS from the last-interglacial (MDS5), we conclude that subsections 5a, 5c, and 5e were controlled by summer monsoons, whereas subsections 5b and 5d were formed when winter monsoons prevailed. These results were similar to oxygen isotope analyses from previous studies including the Spectral Mapping Project (SPECMAP) and the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). Five and a half comparable oscillations in proxy indices that were dated to ca. 116.1, 118.3, 121.2, 122.7, 125.9, and 128.7 ka occurred within the MDS 5e subsection when winter monsoon winds strengthened. This millennial-scale climate variability during the Eemian period may have reached up to ten and a half oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of approximately a 1,470 year cycle during the late glacial period. This rapid period of climate change has been recorded in northern and central Europe, central Asia, as well as in East Asia. The climate forming mechanism was probably initiated by changes in solar activity, and driven by the East Asian monsoon and sea level oscillations. Comparison of Miaodao section records with other paleoclimatic records during the

  18. Phylogeography of the Coastal Mosquito Aedes togoi across Climatic Zones: Testing an Anthropogenic Dispersal Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sota, Teiji; Belton, Peter; Tseng, Michelle; Yong, Hoi Sen; Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The coastal mosquito Aedes togoi occurs more or less continuously from subarctic to subtropic zones along the coasts of the Japanese islands and the East Asian mainland. It occurs also in tropical Southeast Asia and the North American Pacific coast, and the populations there are thought to have been introduced from Japan by ship. To test this hypothesis, the genetic divergence among geographic populations of A. togoi was studied using one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences. We detected 71 mitochondrial haplotypes forming four lineages, with high nucleotide diversity around temperate Japan and declining towards peripheral ranges. The major lineage (L1) comprised 57 haplotypes from temperate and subarctic zones in Japan and Southeast Asia including southern China and Taiwan. Two other lineages were found from subtropical islands (L3) and a subarctic area (L4) of Japan. The Canadian population showed one unique haplotype (L2) diverged from the other lineages. In the combined nuclear gene tree, individuals with mitochondrial L4 haplotypes diverged from those with the other mitochondrial haplotypes L1—L3; although individuals with L1—L3 haplotypes showed shallow divergences in the nuclear gene sequences, individuals from Southeast Asia and Canada each formed a monophyletic group. Overall, the genetic composition of the Southeast Asian populations was closely related to that of temperate Japanese populations, suggesting recent gene flow between these regions. The Canadian population might have originated from anthropogenic introduction from somewhere in Asia, but the possibility that it could have spread across the Beringian land bridge cannot be ruled out. PMID:26107619

  19. Dynamics and fates of trace metals chronically input in a Mediterranean coastal zone impacted by a large urban area.

    PubMed

    Oursel, B; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Mounier, S; Omanović, D; Lucas, Y

    2013-04-15

    Quantification and characterization of chronic inputs of trace metals and organic carbon in a coastal Mediterranean area (the city of Marseille) during the dry season was carried out. The 625 km(2) watershed includes two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) just before their outlet into the sea. Dissolved and particulate Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Ni and organic carbon concentrations in the rivers were comparable to those in other Mediterranean coastal areas, whereas at the outlet, 2- to 18-fold higher concentrations reflected the impact of the TWW. A non-conservative behavior observed for most of the studied metals in the mixing zone was validated by a remobilization experiment performed in the laboratory. The results showed that sorption/desorption processes could occur with slow kinetics with respect to the mixing time in the plume, indicating non-equilibrium in the dissolved/particulate metal distribution. Thus, a sample filtration immediately after sampling is strictly required.

  20. Assessment of wind and wave climate in the Shenzhen coastal zone of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinping; Wang, Kaimin; Zhang, Zenghai; Zeng, Yindong; O'Driscoll, Kieran

    2017-04-01

    Wind and wave climate in the Shenzhen coastal zone adjacent to Hong Kong in the south China Sea have been studied by means of observational data from six buoys. These are the first available measurements of wind and wave parameters from buoys for the period 2014-2016 covering the area of the study, including Dapeng Bay and Daya Bay, and the area between them, as well as Shenzhen Bay. Water depths at buoy locations are very shallow, ranging from 3 to 22 m. Results show that annual mean wind speed in the region varied between 3.1 and 4.1 m/s, leading to mean wind power values of between 37 and 94 Wm-2. Significant wave heights and wave powers at the buoy locations were very small over the period 2014-2016, with annual mean values ranging between 0.1 and 0.6 m, and 0.03 and 1.25 Wm-1, respectively. Monthly and seasonal variability of wave heights and wave powers differ between buoys, as do wind and wave directions, which do not match with typical monsoon characteristics in the South China Sea.

  1. Determination of Saharan dust radiance and chlorophyll from CZCS imagery. [Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, K.L.; Gregg, W.W.; Costello, D.K. ); Haddad, K. ); Prospero, J.M. )

    1991-03-20

    An atmospheric correction algorithm is derived for oceanic areas of low chlorophyll a plus phaeophytin a concentrations ({l angle}C{r angle} {le} 0.25 mg/m{sup 3}). The algorithm simultaneously corrects for the radiance effects of two different aerosol types observed in coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery. The algorithm, called the two-component method, is applied to data from a time series of CZCS orbits during which both Saharan dust and a bluish haze were present. The method is evaluated by comparing the ocean chlorophyll concentrations after atmospheric correction to those measured in situ and to those determined by single-component methods from CZCS imagery. Reasonable agreement is found between the chlorophyll values estimated by the two-component method and in situ values, and the derived chlorophyll values for a Sargasso Sea region varied by less than 6% during a major influx of Saharan dust to the region. Aerosol and chloropyll fields appeared confounded in imagery derived using single-component methods when multiple aerosol types were present, but no confounding was observed for imagery generated by the two-component method. The time series of aerosol radiance values due to Saharan dust was consistent with the changes in dust concentration and particle size measurements from an adjacent aerosol collection site on the Florida coast.

  2. Remote sensing of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water. [coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A technique was devised which uses remotely sensed spectral radiances from the sea to assess the optical diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (lambda) of near-surface ocean water. With spectral image data from a sensor such as the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) carried on NIMBUS-7, it is possible to rapidly compute the K (lambda) fields for large ocean areas and obtain K "images" which show synoptic, spatial distribution of this attenuation coefficient. The technique utilizes a relationship that has been determined between the value of K and the ratio of the upwelling radiances leaving the sea surface at two wavelengths. The relationship was developed to provide an algorithm for inferring K from the radiance images obtained by the CZCS, thus the wavelengths were selected from those used by this sensor, viz., 443, 520, 550 and 670 nm. The majority of the radiance arriving at the spacecraft is the result of scattering in the atmospheric and is unrelated to the radiance signal generated by the water. A necessary step in the processing of the data received by the sensor is, therefore, the effective removal of these atmospheric path radiance signals before the K algorithm is applied. Examples of the efficacy of these removal techniques are given together with examples of the spatial distributions of K in several ocean areas.

  3. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  4. Mapping and Assessing Variability in the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone, the Pack Ice and Coastal Polynyas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore mapping their spatial extent, seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biological active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of different ice types to the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent data record for assessing different ice types. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depends strongly on what sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Polynya area is also larger in the NASA Team algorithm, and the timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These differences lead to different relationships between sea ice characteristics and biological processes, as illustrated here with the breeding success of an Antarctic seabird.

  5. Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

  6. Reproductive biology of the female Jonah crab from the Maryland-Virginia Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, H.; Stevens, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis, have long been considered a bycatch of the lobster industry. Jonah crab harvest is not regulated, there are no fishing size limits, nor restrictions to protect females. The study sampled Jonah crabs from one area in the Maryland-Virginia coastal zone from a local fishing vessel in June and July of 2015. This study is based on examination of the gross anatomy of 49 crabs and on histological preparations from 29 crabs. Ovary development stages were created and ordered based on area of oocytes, color and size of ovary, and the presence of sperm plugs. Four stages were observed but five are identifiable. Size at 50% sexual maturity (SM50), for females, as indicated by vulvar condition and oocyte area, was estimated to be 49.46 mm carapace length (CL). No prior information or study has been published concerning female Jonah crabs. This fishery-independent data is vital to ensure long-term sustainability, and develop appropriate management for this species.

  7. Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochman, Herschel T.; Mueller-Karger, F. E.; Walsh, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The Caribbean Sea is an area that traditionally has been considered oligotrophic, even though the Orinoco River contributes large quantities of fresh water, nutrients, and other dissolved material to this region during the wet boreal (fall) season. Little is known about the impact of this seasonal river plume, which extends from Venezuela to Puetro Rico shortly after maximum discharge. Here, we present results from a study of the bio-optical characteristics of the Orinoco River plume during the rainy season. The objective was to determine whether the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and the follow-on sea-viewing wide-field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite instrument can be used to assess the concentrations of substances in large river plumes. Recent in situ shipboard measurements were compared to values from representative historical CZCS images using established bio-optical models. Our goal was to deconvolve the signatures of colored dissolved organic carbon and phytoplankton pigments within satellite images of the Orinoco River plume. We conclude that the models may be used for case 2 waters and that as much as 50 percent of the remotely sensored chlorophyll biomass within the plume is an artifact due to the presence of dissolved organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon originates from a number of sources, including decay of dead organisms, humic materials from the soil, and gelbstoff.

  8. Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochman, Herschel T.; Müller-Karger, F. E.; Walsh, John J.

    1994-04-01

    The Caribbean Sea is an area that traditionally has been considered oligotrophic, even though the Orinoco River contributes large quantities of fresh water, nutrients, and other dissolved materials to this region during the wet boreal (fall) season. Little is known about the impact of this seasonal river plume, which extends from Venezuela to Puerto Rico shortly after maximum discharge. Here we present results from a study of the bio-optical characteristics of the Orinoco River plume during the rainy season. The objective was to determine whether the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and the follow-on sea-viewing wide-field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite instrument can be used to assess the concentrations of substances in large river plumes. Recent in situ shipboard measurements were compared to values from representative historical CZCS images using established bio-optical models. Our goal was to deconvolve the signatures of colored dissolved organic carbon and phytoplankton pigments within satellite images of the Orinoco River plume. We conclude that the models may be used for case II waters and that as much as 50% of the remotely sensed chlorophyll biomass within the plume is an artifact due to the presence of dissolved organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon originates from a number of sources, including decay of dead organisms, humic materials from the soil, and gelbstoff.

  9. Wave-induced bedload transport - a study of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Gic-Grusza, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    The wave-induced bedload transport and spatial distribution of its magnitude in the southern Baltic coastal zone of Poland are estimated. The vicinity of Lubiatowo was selected as a representative part of the Polish coast. It was assumed that transport is a function of shear stress; alternative approaches, based on force balances and discharge relationships, were not considered in the present study. Four models were studied and compared over a wide range of bottom shear stress and wind-wave conditions. The set of models comprises classic theories that assume a simplified influence of turbulence on sediment transport (e.g., advocated by authors such as Du Boys, Meyer-Peter and Müller, Ribberink, Engelund and Hansen). It is shown that these models allow to estimate transport comparable to measured values under similar environmental conditions. A united general model for bedload transport is proposed, and a set of maps of wave bedload transport for various wind conditions in the study area is presented.

  10. Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochman, Herschel T.; Mueller-Karger, F. E.; Walsh, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The Caribbean Sea is an area that traditionally has been considered oligotrophic, even though the Orinoco River contributes large quantities of fresh water, nutrients, and other dissolved material to this region during the wet boreal (fall) season. Little is known about the impact of this seasonal river plume, which extends from Venezuela to Puetro Rico shortly after maximum discharge. Here, we present results from a study of the bio-optical characteristics of the Orinoco River plume during the rainy season. The objective was to determine whether the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and the follow-on sea-viewing wide-field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite instrument can be used to assess the concentrations of substances in large river plumes. Recent in situ shipboard measurements were compared to values from representative historical CZCS images using established bio-optical models. Our goal was to deconvolve the signatures of colored dissolved organic carbon and phytoplankton pigments within satellite images of the Orinoco River plume. We conclude that the models may be used for case 2 waters and that as much as 50 percent of the remotely sensored chlorophyll biomass within the plume is an artifact due to the presence of dissolved organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon originates from a number of sources, including decay of dead organisms, humic materials from the soil, and gelbstoff.

  11. Initial efforts to evaluate the corrosion problems in the infrastructure of Mexican southeast coastal zones

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, P.; Maldonado, L.

    1995-10-01

    The infrastructure of the Mexican southeastern coastal zone is affected by corrosion problems which are due, mainly, to the construction bad practices and to the aggressive environmental agents (temp., Relative Humidity, chlorides). The first actions for knowing and controlling them have been taken on the coast of Progreso, Yucatan. Cylinders of solid concrete and others with an embedded rebar were constructed and exposed to the marine environment studying different variables like w/c ratio, time of curing, coated and uncoated rebars, chlorides and CO{sub 2} penetration and place of exposure with respect to the seashore. The cylinders were tested through corrosion potential and polarization resistance measurements in order to detect, in a first stage, the onset and propagation stages of the corrosion processes and to correlate the apparent corrosion current density (Icorr.) with the chloride concentration in the rebar surface. These results are discussed and compared with those of the literature and correspond to a seven month exposure period of the cylinders with uncoated rebars in front of the Gulf of Mexico. During this period of time, the cylinders with w/c ratio higher than 0.5 showed an Icorr higher than 0.2 uA/cm{sup 2} with no dependence of the curing time. A carbonation profile which varies according to the w/c ratio and that has still not a strong influence on the Icorr was observed.

  12. Ferrimonas sediminum sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment of an amphioxus breeding zone.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Li, Zhao; Li, Bingyu; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod with a polar flagellum, designated strain JYr13(T), was isolated from coastal sediment of an amphioxus breeding zone located in Qingdao, China. The isolate utilized Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, Fe(III) citrate, SeO3(2-) and SeO4(2-) as electron acceptors. Strain JYr13(T) grew optimally at 25-28 °C, pH 7.0-8.0 and in presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain JYr13(T) contained menaquinone-7 and ubiquinones Q-7 and Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinones, and C18 : 1ω9c, iso-C15 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain JYr13(T) was 59 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the closest phylogenetic neighbour of strain JYr13(T) was Ferrimonas kyonanensis DSM 18153(T) (96.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain JYr13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Ferrimonas, for which the name Ferrimonas sediminum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JYr13(T) ( = DSM 23317(T) = LMG 25564(T)).

  13. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  14. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  15. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  16. Research of the coastal zone by the airborne laser scanning data (Verbyanaya bay-bar, sea of Azov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, Anatoliy V.; Antonenko, Mihail; Boyko, Evgeniy

    2015-06-01

    In the area Verbyanaya bay-bar (Sea of Azov) in an attempt to create large-scale cartographic base and subsequent thematic mapping of the geographical environment components airborne laser scanning and aerial photography were conducted. Airborne laser scanning data formed the basis of a comprehensive study of the coastal zone components. Methodical research apparatus includes receiving and processing technology of laser reflection points, constructing highprecision digital elevation model and raster surfaces. Mosaic of aerial photography is converted into a format mosaic - a geometrically correct image of the terrain. Set of high-precision digital surface models and thematic raster images obtained for specific dates, allows to analyze the dynamic adjustment of components of the coastal zone (shoreline, beach, shore dam with surge prism).

  17. A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

  18. Use of coastal zone color scanner imagery to identify nearshore ocean areas affected by land-based pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaPointe, T.F.; Basta, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to use remotely sensed satellite imagery to determine the spatial boundaries of nearshore areas or zones likely to be affected by pollutants from land-based sources, so that data collected on the presence or absence of living marine resources could be combined with information on land-based pollutant discharges in a preliminary relative assessment of potential risk. Ocean zones of impact related to East Coast estuaries and embayments were approximated using reflectance patterns from data transmitted from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) instrument mounted on the NASA Nimbus-7 satellite. Data were transformed from numerical measures of radiance to photographic images suitable for identifying and mapping ocean impact zones through a simple enhancement technique.

  19. [Medical Service of the Lithuanian Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Ivanov, V V; Krassii, A B; Mironov, V G; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin A A

    2016-01-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of Lithuanian Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Lithuania, its Armed Forces, and their, medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described, with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  20. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  1. Bio-optical profile data report coastal transition zone program, R/V Point Sur, June 15-28, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Twenty vertical profiles of the bio-optical properties of the ocean were made during a research cruise on the R/V Point Sur, June 15 to 28, 1987, as part of the Coastal Transition Zone Program off Point Arena, California. Extracted chlorophyll values were also measured at some stations to provide calibration data for the in situ fluorometer. This summary provides investigators with an overview of the data collected. The entire data set is available in digital form.

  2. Shapefile for Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, 2009 (CZMP_counties_2009.shp)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Wingfield, Dana K.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Wong, Florence L.; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2013-01-01

    A shapefile of 492 Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, current for the ground condition in 2009, has been extracted from the U.S. Census Bureau MAF/TIGER database. Geospatial information systems with the capability to search user-defined, polygonal geographic areas will be able to utilize this shapefile or secondary products derived from it, such as well-known text representations of the individual polygons within the shapefile.

  3. Bio-optical profile data report coastal transition zone program, R/V Thomas Washington, June 24 - July 21, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-three vertical profiles of the bio-optical properties of the ocean were made during a research cruise on the R/V Thomas Washington, June 24 to July 21, 1988, as part of the Coastal Transition Zone Program off Point Arena, California. A summary is given, to provide investigators with an overview of the data collected. The entire data set is available in digital form for interested researchers.

  4. Ecological data in Integrated Coastal Zone Management: case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pasqualini, Vanina; Ferrat, Lila; Pergent, Gérard

    2006-12-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) contributes towards maximizing the benefits provided by the coastal zone and minimizing conflicts and the harmful effects of activities upon each other. The coastal zone includes highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystems, but ecological data (including structure and processes) seem to be neglected. The purpose of this article is to present a case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows (seagrass beds) along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea) in order to exemplify the usefulness of ecological data to Integrated Costal Management programs. We will try to determine how the use of organisms could be enhanced. These investigations show the undoubted success of the Corsican Posidonia oceanica protection program, with a detailed description of the ICZM that precisely presents each component (e.g., mapping, assessment of water quality, implementation of a system to aid decision-making concerning the installation of new aquaculture units). This experience on the Corsican coasts could be used as an example in order to transfer to other locations in the Mediterranean Sea and/or to other target species.

  5. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  6. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  7. The Role of Hydrocarbon Production on Subsidence and Fault Slip in the Louisiana Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W.; Mallman, E. P.; Zoback, M. D.

    2005-05-01

    . Subsidence predicted through analytical and numerical methods in this study do not take into account contributions of natural subsidence and other human activities, however, the magnitude of induced subsidence and fault slip suggest that hydrocarbon production can have an impact on land subsidence on a local scale. We suggest that production-induced land subsidence is one of the many mechanisms that should not be ignored when evaluating subsidence and land loss in the Louisiana Coastal Zone.

  8. Delineating Zones of Seawater Intrusion in a Coastal Southern California Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, R.; Cronquist, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    A comprehensive investigation is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the San Diego, California area to evaluate the suitability of the San Diego Formation and overlying alluvial deposits for use as a drinking water supply. As many as 6 monitoring wells were installed at 10 sites to depths of as much as 2,000 feet for this investigation. Lithologic information was compiled from descriptions of drill cuttings collected at each borehole site and from observations recorded during drilling. Electromagnetic (EM) resistivity logs were obtained prior to the installation of the monitoring wells, and during subsequent site visits. EM resistivity logs are sensitive to changes in lithology and water quality; because the lithology remains constant repeated EM logs can be used to show changes in water-quality due to natural recharge processes, seawater intrusion, or other processes. Monitoring wells were sampled for major-ions, selected minor-ions and trace elements, the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, and age-dating constituents, including tritium and carbon-14, to identify sources of high-chloride groundwater to the monitoring wells in the San Diego area. This paper presents lithologic, geophysical, and water-quality data collected from three of the multiple-well monitoring sites located along the San Diego Bay and from two multiple-well monitoring sites located on a plateau away from the coastal area. These monitoring sites were chosen based on their location near the coast and on their close proximity to each other. Lithologic data indicate the hydrogeology of the San Diego area is characterized by alternating layers of marine and non-marine sediment lacking continuity over long distances. Chloride concentrations in sampled wells ranged from 136 mg/L to 40,000 mg/L, the high chloride concentrations suggest the presence of seawater intrusion in several near-coastal monitoring wells. Bromide-to-chloride ratios indicate that chloride concentrations greater

  9. Distribution, Community Composition, and Potential Metabolic Activity of Bacterioplankton in an Urbanized Mediterranean Sea Coastal Zone.

    PubMed

    Richa, Kumari; Balestra, Cecilia; Piredda, Roberta; Benes, Vladimir; Borra, Marco; Passarelli, Augusto; Margiotta, Francesca; Saggiomo, Maria; Biffali, Elio; Sanges, Remo; Scanlan, David J; Casotti, Raffaella

    2017-09-01

    Bacterioplankton are fundamental components of marine ecosystems and influence the entire biosphere by contributing to the global biogeochemical cycles of key elements. Yet, there is a significant gap in knowledge about their diversity and specific activities, as well as environmental factors that shape their community composition and function. Here, the distribution and diversity of surface bacterioplankton along the coastline of the Gulf of Naples (GON; Italy) were investigated using flow cytometry coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Heterotrophic bacteria numerically dominated the bacterioplankton and comprised mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes Distinct communities occupied river-influenced, coastal, and offshore sites, as indicated by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, distance metric (UniFrac), linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), and multivariate analyses. The heterogeneity in diversity and community composition was mainly due to salinity and changes in environmental conditions across sites, as defined by nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations. Bacterioplankton communities were composed of a few dominant taxa and a large proportion (92%) of rare taxa (here defined as operational taxonomic units [OTUs] accounting for <0.1% of the total sequence abundance), the majority of which were unique to each site. The relationship between 16S rRNA and the 16S rRNA gene, i.e., between potential metabolic activity and abundance, was positive for the whole community. However, analysis of individual OTUs revealed high rRNA-to-rRNA gene ratios for most (71.6% ± 16.7%) of the rare taxa, suggesting that these low-abundance organisms were potentially active and hence might be playing an important role in ecosystem diversity and functioning in the GON.IMPORTANCE The study of bacterioplankton in coastal zones is of critical importance, considering that these areas are highly productive and anthropogenically

  10. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  11. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, X. H.; Wang, Y. D.; Hou, X. Y.

    2014-03-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005.

  12. Testing two potential fates for coastal marshes: Greenhouse gas emissions from native, Phragmites australis-invaded, and permanently inundated zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Martin, R.; Tang, J.; Morkeski, K.; China, I.; Brannon, E.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Global changes such as biological invasions and sea level rise can significantly affect GHG emissions from coastal wetlands by changing plant community composition and/or environmental conditions. To first characterize GHG fluxes across major plant-defined marsh zones, CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes were compared between S. patens- dominated high marsh and S. alterniflora low marsh during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in 3 New England marshes. To test how these fluxes may change in response to biological invasions and sea level rise, GHG fluxes were then compared between native, P.australis- invaded, and permanently inundated marsh zones at these sites in 2013 and 2014. GHG emissions were analyzed simultaneously from marsh ecosystems using infrared-based spectrometers connected to static flux chambers. Daytime CO2 uptake rates (ranging on average between -2 and -21 μmol CO2 m-2s-1) were generally greater in S. alterniflora low marsh zones than in S. patens high marsh among all 3 sites. Methane fluxes were generally low in both native marsh zones (< 50 μmol CH4 m-2 h-1) and N2O emissions were rare. However, CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from P. australis zones were typically more than an order of magnitude greater than those of either native marsh zone. In contrast, permanently inundated marsh soils had similar GHG emissions to native marsh zones. . Though large, the P. australis CH4 emissions are estimated to offset less than 5% of observed CO2 uptake rates based on a global warming potential of 25 (100 years). These results suggest that two alternative fates for coastal marshes in the future- conversion to P. australis marshes or to standing water with sea level rise- will substantially affect CO2 and CH4 emissions. Net impacts on climatic forcing of these ecosystems will depend on how long term C sequestration is affected as these emissions shift.

  13. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  14. Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Brown, J W; Evans, R H

    1988-03-01

    For improved analysis of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery, the radiance reflected from a planeparallel atmosphere and flat sea surface in the absence of aerosols (Rayleigh radiance) has been computed with an exact multiple scattering code, i.e., including polarization. The results indicate that the single scattering approximation normally used to compute this radiance can cause errors of up to 5% for small and moderate solar zenith angles. At large solar zenith angles, such as encountered in the analysis of high-latitude imagery, the errors can become much larger, e.g.,>10% in the blue band. The single scattering error also varies along individual scan lines. Comparison with multiple scattering computations using scalar transfer theory, i.e., ignoring polarization, show that scalar theory can yield errors of approximately the same magnitude as single scattering when compared with exact computations at small to moderate values of the solar zenith angle. The exact computations can be easily incorporated into CZCS processing algorithms, and, for application to future instruments with higher radiometric sensitivity, a scheme is developed with which the effect of variations in the surface pressure could be easily and accurately included in the exact computation of the Rayleigh radiance. Direct application of these computations to CZCS imagery indicates that accurate atmospheric corrections can be made with solar zenith angles at least as large as 65 degrees and probably up to at least 70 degrees with a more sensitive instrument. This suggests that the new Rayleigh radiance algorithm should produce more consistent pigment retrievals, particularly at high latitudes.

  15. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Comiso, J.C.; McClain, C.R. ); Sullivan, C.W. ); Ryan, J.P. ); Leonard, C.L. )

    1993-02-15

    The spatial and seasonal distributions of phytoplankton pigment concentration over the entire southern ocean have been studied for the first time using the coastal zone color scanner historical data set (from October 1978 through June 1986). Enhanced pigment concentrations are observed between 35[degrees]S and 55[degrees]S throughout the year, with such enhanced regions being more confined to the south in the austral summer and extending further north in the winter. North and south of the polar front, phytoplankton blooms (>1 mg/m[sup 3]) are not uniformly distributed around the circumpolar region. Instead, blooms appear to be located in regions of ice retreat (or high melt areas) such as the Scotia Sea and the Ross Sea, in relatively shallow areas (e.g., the Patagonian and the New Zealand shelves), in some regions of Ekman upwelling like the Tasman Sea, and near areas of high eddy kinetic such as the Agulhas retroflection. Among all features examined by regression analysis, bathymetry appears to be the one most consistently correlated with pigments (correlation coefficient being about [minus]0.3 for the entire region). The cause of negative correlation with bathymetry is unknown but is consistent with the observed abundance of iron in shallow areas in the Antarctic region. It is also consistent with resuspension of phytoplankton cells by wind-induced mixing, especially in shallow waters. Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate) are found to correlate significantly with pigments when the entire southern ocean is considered, but south of 55[degrees]S the correlation is poor, probably because the Antarctic waters are not nutrient limited. Large interannual variability (>30%) in average pigment concentration over the entire region during different seasons indicates possible influence of time dependent parameters. 66 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Oceanic primary production 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, David; André, Jean-Michel; Morel, André

    A fast method has been proposed [Antoine and Morel, this issue] to compute the oceanic primary production from the upper ocean chlorophyll-like pigment concentration, as it can be routinely detected by a spaceborne ocean color sensor. This method is applied here to the monthly global maps of the photosynthetic pigments that were derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data archive [Feldman et al., 1989]. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) field is computed from the astronomical constant and by using an atmospheric model, thereafter combined with averaged cloud information, derived from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The aim is to assess the seasonal evolution, as well as the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic carbon fixation within the world ocean and for a ``climatological year,'' to the extent that both the chlorophyll information and the cloud coverage statistics actually are averages obtained over several years. The computed global annual production actually ranges between 36.5 and 45.6 Gt C yr-1 according to the assumption which is made (0.8 or 1) about the ratio of active-to-total pigments (recall that chlorophyll and pheopigments are not radiometrically resolved by CZCS). The relative contributions to the global productivity of the various oceans and zonal belts are examined. By considering the hypotheses needed in such computations, the nature of the data used as inputs, and the results of the sensitivity studies, the global numbers have to be cautiously considered. Improving the reliability of the primary production estimates implies (1) new global data sets allowing a higher temporal resolution and a better coverage, (2) progress in the knowledge of physiological responses of phytoplankton and therefore refinements of the time and space dependent parameterizations of these responses.

  17. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  18. Tiny Is Mighty: Seagrass Beds Have a Large Role in the Export of Organic Material in the Tropical Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Lucy G.; Ziegler, Alan D.; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M. J.; Wolters, Jan W.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  19. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Lucy G; Ziegler, Alan D; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M J; Wolters, Jan W; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  20. Lithuanian Students' Choice of University: A Consumer Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkute, Darija

    2017-01-01

    Increasing competition within the Lithuanian educational market has paved the way for an analysis of the complex choice processes enrollees undergo in selecting a higher education institution. This research examines the concept of consumer value and its interpretation in the Lithuanian higher education setting. Based on data collected from 445…

  1. Disturbance and coastal forests: a strategic approach to forest management in hurricane impact zones

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2007-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami focused world attention on societal responses to environmental hazards and the potential of natural systems to moderate disturbance effects. Coastal areas are critical to the welfare of up to 50% of the world's population. Coastal systems in the southern United States are adapted to specific disturbance regimes of tropical cyclones (...

  2. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone

    PubMed Central

    Weinke, Anthony D.; Kendall, Scott T.; Kroll, Daniel J.; Strickler, Eric A.; Weinert, Maggie E.; Holcomb, Thomas M.; Defore, Angela A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Snider, Michael J.; Gereaux, Leon C.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2014-01-01

    During the summers of 2002–2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L−1 day−1, respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and −33 ± 15 µg C L−1day−1, respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles. PMID:25954055

  3. Submarine groundwater discharge and nutrient addition to the coastal zone and coral reefs of leeward Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Street, J.H.; Knee, K.L.; Grossman, E.E.; Paytan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple tracers of groundwater input (salinity, Si, 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) were used together to determine the magnitude, character (meteoric versus seawater), and nutrient contribution associated with submarine groundwater discharge across the leeward shores of the Hawai'ian Islands Maui, Moloka'i, and Hawai'i. Tracer abundances were elevated in the unconfined coastal aquifer and the nearshore zone, decreasing to low levels offshore, indicative of groundwater discharge (near-fresh, brackish, or saline) at all locations. At several sites, we detected evidence of fresh and saline SGD occurring simultaneously. Conservative estimates of SGD fluxes ranged widely, from 0.02-0.65??m3??m- 2 d- 1at the various sites. Groundwater nutrient fluxes of 0.04-40??mmol N m- 2 d- 1 and 0.01-1.6??mmol P m- 2 d- 1 represent a major source of new nutrients to coastal ecosystems along these coasts. Nutrient additions were typically greatest at locations with a substantial meteoric component in groundwater, but the recirculation of seawater through the aquifer may provide a means of transferring terrestrially-derived nutrients to the coastal zone at several sites. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Weinke, Anthony D; Kendall, Scott T; Kroll, Daniel J; Strickler, Eric A; Weinert, Maggie E; Holcomb, Thomas M; Defore, Angela A; Dila, Deborah K; Snider, Michael J; Gereaux, Leon C; Biddanda, Bopaiah A

    2014-11-01

    During the summers of 2002-2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L(-1) day(-1), respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and -33 ± 15 µg C L(-1)day(-1), respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles.

  5. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded

  6. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  7. Use of satellite imagery as environmental impact assessment tool: a case study from the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Moufaddal, Wahid M

    2005-08-01

    Knowledge and detecting impacts of human activities on the coastal ecosystem is an essential management requirement and also very important for future and proper planning of coastal areas. Moreover, documentation of these impacts can help in increasing public awareness about side effects of unsustainable practices. Analysis of multidate remote sensing data can be used as an effective tool in environmental impact assessment (EIA). Being synoptic and frequent in coverage, multidate data from Landsat and other satellites provide a reference record and bird's eye viewing to the environmental situation of the coastal ecosystem and the associated habitats. Furthermore, integration of satellite data with field observations and background information can help in decision if a certain activity has caused deterioration to a specific habitat or not. The present paper is an attempt to utilize remote sensing data for assessment impacts of some human activities on the major sensitive habitats of the NW Egyptian Red Sea coastal zone, definitely between Ras Gemsha and Safaga. Through multidate change analysis of Landsat data (TM & ETM+ sensors), it was possible to depict some of the human infringements in the area and to provide, in some cases, exclusive evidences for the damaging effect of some developmental activities.

  8. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  9. Thermal regime of shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.; Macrae, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Many shallow lakes and ponds of the Arctic/sub-Arctic contain thick, organic-rich sediments, which have the potential to release significant amounts of CO2 or CH4 to the atmosphere if sediment decomposition rates increase in response to warmer temperatures caused by global warming. This may be exacerbated by a deepening of the seasonal sediment thaw depth in small water bodies that are underlain by permafrost. An important step in linking climatic conditions to rates of organic matter decomposition and gas production from shallow water bodies is an improved understanding of the thermal properties of lake sediments and how sediment temperatures fluctuate in response to changing air temperatures. This knowledge is also important if the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic landscape units in cold regions changes under a warmer climate. One approach that has been used in terrestrial permafrost environments is the examination of how mean annual permafrost surface temperature deviates from mean annual 2-m screen height air temperature (MAAT). The offset between MAAT and the mean annual sediment surface temperature (MASST) has been found to be much larger in deep aquatic systems (greater than 10 m) than in terrestrial permafrost systems due to the presence of the water column that can efficiently transfer heat through mixing. However, the efficiency of heat transfer in shallow water bodies is expected to larger in summer (thawed) than in winter (frozen) conditions, when thermal energy must move by conduction alone. The present study examined the efficiency of sediment heat transfer in shallow water bodies (less than 3 m) during summer and winter periods. Air, sediment and water temperatures of three shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada were monitored (December 2009-August 2011). Arrays of thermistors and heat pulse probes were placed at 10 cm increments between 20 cm above the water/sediment interface and

  10. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  11. Lithuanians in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    This ethnic heritage unit is about Lithuanians in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Lithuania, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Lithuania, principal dates in Lithuanian history, Lithuanian historical figures, bibliography about Lithuanians, and a list of Lithuanian organizations in the United States. The…

  12. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (<4 m) occurring on the megathrust about every 80 years. One exception is the AD 1730 great earthquake (M 9.0–9.5) and high tsunami (>10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has

  13. A Model for the Transport of Sea-Spray Aerosols in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Demoisson, A.

    2015-05-01

    We study the dynamics of sea-spray particles in the coastal region of La Reunion Island on the basis of numerical simulations using the transport aerosol model MACMod (Marine Aerosol Concentration Model) and a survey of the aerosol size distributions measured at four locations at two different heights in the north-west part of the island. This allows evaluation of the performance of our model in case of pure marine air masses with implementation of accurate boundary conditions. First of all, an estimate of the aerosol concentration at 10-m height at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain is obtained using a revisited version of the MEDEX (Mediterranean Extinction) model. Estimates of the vertical profile of aerosol concentrations are then provided using aerosol data obtained at two different heights at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain. A parametrization of the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations for maritime environment is proposed. The results are then compared to the vertical profiles of 0.532 m aerosol particle extinction coefficient obtained from lidar data provided by the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and also to the data provided by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). This allows validation of the complete vertical profiles in the mixed layer and shows the validity of satellite data for determination of the vertical profiles. Two kinds of simulation were made: one without a particle advection flux at the upwind boundary of the numerical domain, whereas the second simulation was made with a particle advection flux. In the first case, the influence of the distance to the shoreline on the local sea-spray dynamics is investigated. In the second set of simulation, the particles issued from the local production in the surf zone near the shoreline are mixed with aerosols advected from the remote ocean. A good agreement between the model calculations using our boundary conditions and the data was found. The

  14. Concepts on tracking the impact of tropical cyclones through the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Hannon, M. T.; Kettner, A. J.; Bachman, S.

    2009-12-01

    constellation can track storm fronts and tropical cyclones and sense sediment discharged, resuspension of shoreline sediment, and be used to observe the dimensions and dynamics of delta flooding and delta-plain aggradation (Syvitski et al. 2009). An integrated workflow involving these models and data system will be presented outlining their use in characterizing sediment flux within the coastal zone.

  15. Gulf of California biogeographic regions based on coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SantamaríA-Del-Angel, Eduardo; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Müller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-04-01

    Topographically, the Gulf of California is divided into a series of basins and trenches that deepen to the south. Maximum depth at the mouth is greater than 3000 m. Most of the northern gulf is less than 200 m deep. The gulf has hydrographic features conducive to high primary productivity. Upwelling events have been described on the basis of temperature distributions at the eastern coast during winter and spring and at the western coast during summer. Tidal amplitude may be as high as 9 m in the upper gulf. On the basis of discrete phytoplankton sampling, the gulf was previously divided into four geographic regions. This division took into consideration only the space distribution, taxonomic composition, and abundance of microphytoplankton. With the availability of the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery, we were able to include the time variability of pigments to make a more detailed biogeographic division of the gulf. With weekly composites of the imagery, we generated time series of pigment concentrations for 33 locations throughout the gulf and for the whole life span of the CZCS. The time series show a clear seasonal variation, with maxima in winter and spring and minima in summer. The effect of upwelling at the eastern coast is clearly evident, with high pigment concentrations. The effect of the summer upwelling off the Baja California coast is not evident in these time series. Time series from locations on the western side of the gulf also show maxima in winter and spring that are due to the eddy circulation that brings upwelled water from the eastern side. Principal-component analysis was applied to define 14 regions. Ballenas Channel, between Angel de la Guarda and Baja California, and the upper gulf always appeared as very distinct regions. Some of these 14 regions relate to the geographic distributions of important faunal groups, including the benthos, or their life cycles. For example, the upper gulf is a place for reproduction and the nursery of

  16. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  17. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  19. Style and rate of quaternary deformation of the Hosgri Fault Zone, offshore south-central coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Kathryn L.; Lettis, William R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Hall, N. Timothy; Keller, Mararget A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone is the southernmost component of a complex system of right-slip faults in south-central coastal California that includes the San Gregorio, Sur, and San Simeon Faults. We have characterized the contemporary style of faulting along the zone on the basis of an integrated analysis of a broad spectrum of data, including shallow high-resolution and deep penetration seismic reflection data; geologic and geomorphic data along the Hosgri and San Simeon Fault Zones and the intervening San Simeon/Hosgri pull-apart basin; the distribution and nature of near-coast seismicity; regional tectonic kinematics; and comparison of the Hosgri Fault Zone with worldwide strike-slip, oblique-slip, and reverse-slip fault zones. These data show that the modern Hosgri Fault Zone is a convergent right-slip (transpressional) fault having a late Quaternary slip rate of 1 to 3 mm/yr. Evidence supporting predominantly strike-slip deformation includes (1) a long, narrow, linear zone of faulting and associated deformation; (2) the presence of asymmetric flower structures; (3) kinematically consistent localized extensional and compressional deformation at releasing and restraining bends or steps, respectively, in the fault zone; (4) changes in the sense and magnitude of vertical separation both along trend of the fault zone and vertically within the fault zone; (5) strike-slip focal mechanisms along the fault trace; (6) a distribution of seismicity that delineates a high-angle fault extending through the seismogenic crust; (7) high ratios of lateral to vertical slip along the fault zone; and (8) the separation by the fault of two tectonic domains (offshore Santa Maria Basin, onshore Los Osos domain) that are undergoing contrasting styles of deformation and orientations of crustal shortening. The convergent component of slip is evidenced by the deformation of the early-late Pliocene unconformity. In characterizing the style of faulting along the Hosgri Fault Zone, we assessed

  20. Waterfowl and wetlands management in the coastal zone of the Atlantic Flyway: Meeting and summary comments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A conference on waterfowl and wetlands along the Atlantic coast of North America was held in Wilmington, Delaware in September 1986. Discussions centered around coastal impoundments and Open Marsh Water Management as methods of mosquito control and waterfowl enhancement. Single purpose management of coastal marshes, whether for mosquito control or waterfowl, may not be the most beneficial approach. Where management options are available, the management for habitat heterogeneity may be indicated.

  1. Residence time, mineralization processes and groundwater origin within a carbonate coastal aquifer with a thick unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Vergnaud-Ayraud, V.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.; Jaunat, J.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2016-09-01

    This study aims at establishing groundwater residence times, identifying mineralization processes and determining groundwater origins within a carbonate coastal aquifer with thick unsaturated zone and lying on a granitic depression. A multi-tracer approach (major ions, SiO2, Br-, Ba+, Sr2+, 18O, 2H, 13C, 3H, Ne, Ar) combined with a groundwater residence time determination using CFCs and SF6 allows defining the global setting of the study site. A typical mineralization conditioned by the sea sprays and the carbonate matrix helped to validate the groundwater weighted residence times from using a binary mixing model. Terrigenic SF6 excesses have been detected and quantified, which permits to identify a groundwater flow from the surrounding fractured granites towards the lower aquifer principally. The use of CFCs and SF6 as a first hydrogeological investigation tool is possible and very relevant despite the thick unsaturated zone and the hydraulic connexion with a granitic environment.

  2. Contamination of tsunami sediments in a coastal zone inundated by the 26 December 2004 tsunami in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczuciński, Witold; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Sobczyński, Tadeusz; Zioła, Anetta; Kowalski, Artur; Lorenc, Stanisław; Siepak, Jerzy

    2005-12-01

    Tsunami sediments deposited in a coastal zone of Thailand by the 26 December 2004 tsunami wave were sampled within 50 days after the event. All surface and ground waters in tsunami- inundated zone revealed significant salinity at that time. The tsunami sediments, composed mainly of fine to medium sand, contain significantly elevated contents of salts (Na+, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2, Cl and SO{4/-2}) in water-soluble fraction, and of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb in the bioavailable fraction and As in the exchangeable fraction in relation to the reference sample. The origin of contaminants is marine, as well as litho- and anthropogenic. The salts and Pb, Zn and Cu reveal high correlation to each other and to the mean grain size (pore size and porosity). Serious environmental hazard exists in that region because, due to gentle morphology, there is a risk of migration of the contaminants into ground waters and food chain.

  3. The Influence of Weather Anomalies on Mercury Cycling in the Marine Coastal Zone of the Southern Baltic-Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decreased emission loads of mercury, historical deposits of this metal in various compartments of the environment may become an additional diffuse source in the future. Global climate change manifests itself in the temperate zone in several ways: warmer winters, shorter icing periods, increased precipitation and heightened frequency of extreme events such as strong gales and floods, all of which cause disturbances in the rate and direction of mercury biogeochemical cycling. The present study was conducted at two sites, Oslonino and Gdynia Orlowo (both in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk), from which samples were collected once a month between January 2012 and December 2012. In the Southern Baltic region, climate changes can certainly enhance coast to basin fluxes of mercury and the transfer of bioavailable forms of this metal to the food web. They may also, in the future, contribute to uncontrollable increases of mercury in the seawater.

  4. Price effect of land-use regulation: an event study of the California Coastal Zone Conservation Act

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The passage of the California Coastal Zone Conservation Act (Proposition 20), created regional Coastal Commissions that had veto power over building permits on the coast. The anticipation of restriction in coastal housing construction and the actual regulation by one regional commission, the South Coast Regional Commission, in Los Angeles County, is hypothesized to have impacted the prices of existing single-family houses. An event study methodology is used to construct and test hypotheses of the Commission's price impact. A positive impact on house prices is hypothesized form a combination of the supply restriction and amenity provision activities of the Commission. A negative impact on house price is hypothesized for those houses having the greatest potential for development, whose development was anticipated to have been restricted by the Commission. Results confirm the combined supply/amenity hypothesis and indicate a 6 1/2% price increase associated with the Commission, beginning with the passage of Proposition 20. The development-potential hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis of a positive impact on high development potential properties accepted. However, it is noted that a sharp decline in the price of high development potential properties occurred during the public debate over proposition 20, which is interpreted as confirmation, within a short-time frame, of the development potential hypothesis.

  5. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    PubMed

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts.

  6. Mapping biological resources in the coastal zone: an evaluation of methods in a pioneering study from Norway.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Jan Atle; Knutsen, Halvor; Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Bodvin, Torjan; Dahl, Einar

    2010-03-01

    For many years, the planning and management of terrestrial areas has been supported by a detailed knowledge of the distribution of habitats and their associated species. However, the detailed mapping of biological resources in extent coastal areas, such as the Norwegian coastal zone, is unrealistic due to its enormous coastline. Here, we present a useful and feasible approach and a set of simple, cost-effective methods which are suitable for providing a broad-scale overview of marine habitats and fish resources. This approach was developed in conjunction with a pioneer study conducted along the southern coast of the Skagerrak, where we combined knowledge gathered from local fishermen with scientific knowledge of important species and nature types to establish a coastal sea mapping program. GIS modeling tools were used in both the mapping program and to integrate local and scientific knowledge into digital maps made available to local area management. This multi-faceted approach, which combines local knowledge and scientific methods, provides valuable information with respect to marine biodiversity, and has been used extensively by local environmental management.

  7. A methodological approach to be used in integrated coastal zone management processes: the case of the Catalan Coast (Catalonia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardá, Rafael; Avila, Conxita; Mora, Joan

    2005-02-01

    Since early 1999, we have been working on an environmental information system as a preliminary phase to develop the National Strategy of the Catalan Coast. Using the tourism industry as the main pressuring driver and the municipality as the territorial unit, we have compiled a vast amount of information that has been converted into an information platform for the general public, politicians, and public administrators. Working in close co-operation with the planning authorities of the Generalitat of Catalonia, we developed decision support tools as a methodological approach for coastal management. The decision support system is composed by: (a) the development of an environmental indicator-based report; (b) the use of a geographical information system (GIS); and (c) the incorporation of different types of graphical packages. These tools have been applied to the 70 municipalities of the Catalan Coast and a specific development of the system was carried out in the region of La Selva, municipalities of Blanes, Lloret de Mar, and Tossa de Mar (southern Costa Brava, Girona). The system has been designed to help coastal managers in Catalonia, and it is thought to be used in the process of developing the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) of the Catalan Coast following the EC Recommendation (COM/00/545).

  8. Land cover changes on the coastal zone of Candarli Bay, Turkey using remotely sensed data.

    PubMed

    Kesgin, Birsen; Nurlu, Engin

    2009-10-01

    Land cover of the Earth is changing dramatically because of human activities. Information about changes is useful for management of natural resources. Rapid land cover changes have taken place in many coastal areas of Turkey over the last two decades due to urbanization and land degradation. In this paper, land cover change dynamics were investigated by the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographical information systems. The main objective of the study was to determine land-cover transition rates among land cover types in coastal areas of Turkey. A time series of Landsat TM and ASTER images were used to gather land cover change data of the coastal line of Candarli Bay, Izmir, Turkey. The images were classified using supervised classification and a post-classification comparison approach was used in change detection. The results show significant increase in urban areas but decrease in semi natural and agricultural areas.

  9. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  11. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data: The Cartagena coastal zone as a case.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D; Campillo, J Antonio; León, Víctor M; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were selected as target species. Concentrations of contaminants in sediment and biota, and contaminant-related biomarkers were analysed. To assess environmental quality in the Cartagena coastal zone with respect to chemical pollution, data were assessed using available assessment criteria, and then integrated for different environmental matrices. A qualitative scoring method was used to rank the overall assessments into selected categories and to evaluate the confidence level of the final integrated assessment. The ICES/OSPAR integrated assessment framework, originally designed for the North Atlantic, was found to be applicable for Mediterranean species and environmental matrices. Further development of assessment criteria of chemical and biological parameters in sediments and target species from the Mediterranean will, however, be required before this framework can be fully applied for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in these regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42− and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3−–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3−–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3−–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD. PMID:24977238

  13. Temporal Satellite Images in The Process of Automatic Efficient Detection of Changes of the Baltic Sea Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowska, Krystyna; Glowienka, Ewa; Hejmanowska, Beata

    2016-10-01

    The goal of the research was to perform tests aimed at assessing possibilities of utilising multi-temporal Landsat satellite images for automatic efficient detection of changes (e.g. accumulation and erosion) of the sea coastal zone. The research database was composed of Landsat satellite images, and standardized NDVI vegetation indexes from the years 1998 and 2015, as well as multi-temporal vector maps and aerial orthophotomaps. The result map of Change detection allowed to locate areas, in which diametrical changes in land coverage took place. Satellite images reflecting the condition of the examined area for twenty years enabled outlining changes of Baltic coastal zone, and then determining the rate and extent of transformations of examined part of coast (erosion and accumulation), and also made it possible to trace the migration of dunes. The analysis showed the range of shifting dune displacement in the years 1998-2015 amounts to ca. 180 m. On the examined section of seashore (32 km), the process of erosion and accumulation was detected respectively on the length of 21 km and 10 km along the coast. The changes of accumulation and erosion of the sea coast are easily identifiable and clearly visible. Properly conducted workflow of processing the satellite images have allowed the rapid and efficient detection of changes coastline, dunes and vegetation.

  14. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  15. Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

    2013-04-01

    usually single-beam systems that need suitable interpolation routines. We present a workflow for on-survey visualization of hydroacoustic data using color interpolation and present a method to combine the hydroacoustic and ground-truth data sets. Eventually, we suggest a way to interpret the data in a most objective manner. The results from the coastal zone of the North Sea reveal that for scientific purposes it is mostly sufficient to maintain transect-line distances of two or three times the SSS swath width. It is suggested to build gray-scale SSS mosaics during the survey. As a general rule a classification into 20% gray-scale classes should be carried out and 5 samples per class should be taken as a minimum requirement. We recommend to apply two SSS frequencies synchronously to enable the discrimination between backscatter due to grain size and backscatter due to small bedforms. This information is also most important for the interpretation of roughness and hardness data provided by the AGDS. The synopsis of both, SSS and AGDS in combination with multibeam and ground-truth data reveals the most reliable results.

  16. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  17. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  18. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Weismiller, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using machine-aided processing of Landsat data to inventory environmental units was studied by analyzing geometrically corrected and spatially registered Landsat data collected over the Matagorda Bay area of the Texas coastal estuarine system. A clustering algorithm (nonsupervised processor) was used to divide the data into groups of sample points of similar spectral characteristics, and correlation of spectral classes with reference data on a point-to-point basis showed the coastal features exhibit unique spectral variations. Use of a maximum likelihood algorithm permitted discrimination of 13 terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  19. Modeling nutrient retention in the coastal zone of an eutrophic sea - a model study in the Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Meier, Markus; Sahlberg, Jörgen

    2016-04-01

    This study shows that the Stockholm archipelago works as a filter for nutrients that enters the coastal zone from land. The filter capacity is high, but not effective enough to take care of all the nutrients that the system receives. At least 65 % and 72 % of the phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), respectively, is retained. The multi-basin one dimensional Swedish Coastal zone Model (SCM) that was used is based on the Swedish Coastal and Ocean Biogeochemical model (SCOBI) coupled to the equation solver PROgram for Boundary layers in the Environment (PROBE). An evaluation of model results showed that the nutrient, salinity and temperature dynamics in the SCM model are of good quality. To analyse the results the Stockholm archipelago was divided into three sub-areas: the inner, the intermediate and the outer archipelago. The analysis showed that the highest total amounts of P and N are retained in the outer archipelago where the surface area is largest. The area weighted retention of P and N, however, is highest in the smaller inner archipelago and decreases towards the open sea. A major part of the retention is permanent. For P sediment burial is the only permanent retention mechanism, but for N almost 92 % of the permanent retention is caused by benthic denitrification, less than 8 % by burial, while pelagic denitrification is below 1%. A reduction of the land load of nutrients (P reduced with 13 % and N with 20%) resulted in increased retention capacity of N and P and lowered the transport of N out from the archipelago. About 15 years after the reduction P is imported into the archipelago instead of being exported.

  20. High Holocene coastal uplift gives insight into the seismic behavior at the Arica Bend (Peru-Chile subduction zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madella, Andrea; Delunel, Romain; Szidat, Sönke; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: northern Chile, coastal uplift, plate coupling, seismic cycle The Peru-Chile subduction zone offshore of the Arica Bend (18.3° S) is characterized by a seaward-concave geometry, which represents a very uncommon tectonic setting. Several published estimates of plate coupling suggest that the locking degree in the curved segment may be significantly lower than to the north and south of it, however, the lack of historical slip events hinders a full understanding of the seismic behavior in this particular portion of plate interface. We have mapped a terrace located at 35 m a.s.l. ca. 3 km onshore from the mouth of the Lluta river, which debouches immediately to the north of Arica. The sedimentology of the terrace has been described and three wood fragments embedded therein have been collected for radiocarbon dating. In addition, we compared the long stream profile of the Lluta river with its modeled steady-state profile, aiming to detect any possible tectonic perturbation along the trunk stream. Results show that the dated terrace consists of a thin storm deposit embedded within fluvial delta conglomerates, which have been most likely deposited near sea-level at ~10 ka. We thus infer that the coast of the Arica Bend, although characterized by long-term quiescence, has undergone remarkable uplift (~5 mm/y) throughout the Holocene. The vertical displacement has been inferred at roughly 175 km from the trench, which corresponds to the landward termination of the locked zone. Considering this structural position and the long-term absence of coseismic events in this trench segment, we propose that the inferred uplift signal might be related to interseismic flexural buckling, which does not result in permanent crustal deformation. Contrariwise, in the adjacent coastal regions north and south of the Arica Bend, repeated seismic cycles have resulted in long-term permanent crustal deformation, as observable in the uplifted Coastal Cordillera.

  1. Sensitivity of Tsunami Waves and Coastal Inundation/Runup to Seabed Displacement Models: Application to the Cascadia Subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali Farahani, R.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major components of tsunami hazard modeling include earthquake source characterization, seabed displacement, wave propagation, and coastal inundation/run-up. Accurate modeling of these components is essential to identify the disaster risk exposures effectively, which would be crucial for insurance industry as well as policy makers to have tsunami resistant design of structures and evacuation planning (FEMA, 2008). In this study, the sensitivity and variability of tsunami coastal inundation due to Cascadia megathrust subduction earthquake are studied by considering the different approaches for seabed displacement model. The first approach is the analytical expressions that were proposed by Okada (1985, 1992) for the surface displacements and strains of rectangular sources. The second approach was introduced by Meade (2006) who introduced analytical solutions for calculating displacements, strains, and stresses on triangular sources. In this study, the seabed displacement using triangular representation of geometrically complex fault surfaces is compared with the Okada rectangular representations for the Cascadia subduction zone. In the triangular dislocation algorithm, the displacement is calculated using superposition of two angular dislocations for each of the three triangle legs. The triangular elements could give a better and gap-free representation of the fault surfaces. In addition, the rectangular representation gives large unphysical vertical displacement along the shallow-depth fault edge that generates unrealistic short-wavelength waves. To study the impact of these two different algorithms on the final tsunami inundation, the initial tsunami wave as well as wave propagation and the coastal inundation are simulated. To model the propagation of tsunami waves and coastal inundation, 2D shallow water equations are modeled using the seabed displacement as the initial condition for the numerical model. Tsunami numerical simulation has been performed on high

  2. Numerical studies of geomagnetically induced electric field on seafloor and near coastal zones incorporated with heterogeneous conductivity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tada-nori

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes of geomagnetic field can make large induced electric field and resultant electric current on the earth, which is called as geomagnetically induced current (GIC). It can yield damages to pipelines, cables, and other architectures. For understanding the phenomena and future risks of GIC, it is necessary to evaluate how the sub-surface electrical conductivity structure is important for the GIC because the heterogeneous conductivity structure in the crust and mantle affects the induced electrical current locally. The hazard prediction based on the homogeneous earth may result in the underestimation. Here, I introduce possible cases of geomagnetically induced electric field (GIE) on seafloor and near coastal areas, based on numerical forward simulations on one-, two-, and three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) earth's structure including the sea layer. On the 1-D case, I show the possible amplitude of GIE on the seafloor, far from the coastal area. The second case study comes from 2-D forward simulation, in which the straightly elongated coastal line is assumed, and various sub-surface and sub-seafloor conductivity structures are imposed. The numerical results suggest that the amplitude of GIE on land becomes more than two times larger than that of the homogeneous earth without the sea layer. The width of land zone with larger GIE is about 20 km from the coast. In forward modeling with a simplified 3-D bathymetry, land electric field near the bay area increases with about ten times larger than that of the inland one. The seafloor GIE near the peninsula area also indicates about four times larger value than that of the other area at the same water depth. These phenomena can be explained by the boundary charge along the coastal area. I conclude that 3-D earth's conductivity structure including the realistic bathymetry and sub-surface and sub-seafloor structures should be essential and focused for the hazard assessment of GIC.

  3. OCEAN-BOTTOM BROADBAND SEISMIC STATIONS AS TOOLS TO IDENTIFY AND MONITOR SEISMIC HAZARD IN COASTAL ZONES (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean-bottom broadband seismic stations (OBSs) are installed at the interface of the solid earth and the ocean. As such, they are sensitive to the processes that originate in the solid earth (e.g., earthquakes), ocean (e.g., tsunamis), and even atmosphere (e.g., cyclones). Observations of ground motions at the OBSs can therefore be used to study and monitor processes that contribute to hazards in the coastal zones. These processes include earthquakes, underwater landslides, underwater volcanoes, and tsunamis. Numerous offshore faults are located too far from the shore for their background seismicity to be studied by land seismic stations alone, yet they are capable of generating large earthquakes that can threaten coastal communities. OBSs can record offshore seismicity that would be missed by relying only on the land stations. OBS data can also significantly improve locations and source mechanism determination for stronger offshore events that are observed on the land stations as they can significantly improve azimuthal coverage. As such, OBSs are essential for identifying seismic hazard from offshore faults. In addition, nearshore OBSs can improve studies of earthquakes on the land faults, in particular when the faults are located close to the ocean, resulting in limited azimuthal coverage provided by land stations alone. OBSs can also provide information about the offshore subsurface velocity structure, which can significantly affect the amount of shaking in the coastal regions. Velocity structure can be determined by compliance analysis that takes advantage of the seafloor deformation due to infragravity waves (long-period ocean surface waves). Reliable offshore velocity models are needed for modeling seismic wave propagation and for subsequent modeling of the amount of shaking expected in the coastal regions due to strong local and regional offshore earthquakes. We will present examples from the permanent ocean-bottom broadband seismic station MOBB located at

  4. Controls on groundwater dynamics and root zone aeration of a coastal fluvial delta island, Wax Lake, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M.; Hardison, A. K.; Moffett, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands are thought to function as buffers, filtering nutrient-rich terrestrial runoff as it travels to the Gulf of Mexico. While surface water filtration by these wetlands is a large and active area of research, flow through subsurface portions of the wetlands and possible nutrient cycling in the root zone has been largely overlooked. Specifically for Louisiana's coastal deltas, the physics and chemistry of island groundwater systems is unknown.To characterize these subsurface hydraulic dynamics at Pintail Island in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, we collected sediment core samples and penetrometer measurements, monitored surface water and groundwater levels and chemistry, and analyzed meteorological, tidal, and river discharge data. As a first step, we focused on identifying wetland sediment properties and the relative influence of the major hydrologic controls, tides, delta outlet discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration, on water table dynamics. Pintail Island is a two-layer system with fine sediments and organic matter overlying sandy deltaic deposits. The sediment layer interface occurs approximately 60 cm below ground surface, around the mean surface water level. The vegetation root zone is concentrated in the surficial layer, although willow roots can extend into the deeper, higher-permeability sandy layer. Groundwater data from the upper portion of this sandy layer (~1m deep) is most strongly influenced by tides but also responds to long-term changes in discharge. While the tides are damped as they propagate into the island sediments, they also flood interior island lagoons, setting up groundwater gradients to potentially drive fluid and nutrient fluxes through the islands. Although the tidally oscillating water table causes significant temporal variation in root zone fluid potentials, evapotranspiration dynamics do not appear to strongly influence groundwater dynamics at depth, consistent with the shallow concentration of roots

  5. Impact of 100-year human interventions on the deltaic coastal zone of the Inner Thermaikos Gulf (Greece): a DPSIR framework analysis.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, Aristomenis P; Kapsimalis, Vasilios; Kontogianni, Areti; Skourtos, Michael; Turner, Kerry R; Salomons, Wim

    2006-08-01

    The Axios River delta and the Inner Thermaikos Gulf coastal zone have experienced a long period of human interventions during the past 100 years. A post-evaluation of long run coastal zone changes under the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) conceptual framework is presented. The DPSIR approach is then used to project out into possible futures in order to connect with policy and management options proposed for the improvement of the current conditions and the achievement of sustainable development, in the coastal zone. Socio-economic driving forces with their origins in the end of the 19th century have generated numerous pressures in the coastal environment that changed the state of the environment. In the first part of the last century, there was no coupling between change of state and policy. Due to increasing environmental awareness, a coupling became more apparent over the last thirty years. Human interventions include river route realignment, extensive drainage of the plains, irrigation network, roads and dam constructions. The consequences were positive for the economic development of the area, human health, and navigation for the port of Thessaloniki. In contrast, the manipulation and over-use of natural resources has led to a reduction of wetlands, biodiversity loss, stress on freshwater supplies, and subsidence of coastal areas, aquifer salinization, and rapid coastal erosion. Three plausible future scenarios are utilised in order to investigate the implications of this environmental change process and possible socio-economic consequences.

  6. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  7. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  8. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  9. Reliability and validity of the Lithuanian Tinnitus Handicap Inventory.

    PubMed

    Ulozienė, Ingrida; Balnytė, Renata; Alzbutienė, Giedrė; Arechvo, Irina; Vaitkus, Antanas; Šileikaitė, Milda; Šaferis, Viktoras; Ulozas, Virgilijus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Lithuanian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), a self-report measure of perceived tinnitus handicap. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was performed in the University Hospital. A total of 248 subjects reporting chronic tinnitus as their primary complaint or secondary to hearing loss were encluded in the study and filled in the Lithuanian version of THI. For assessment of construct validity a subgroup of 55 participants completed the Lithuanian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as a measure of self-perceived levels of anxiety and depression. Test-retest and internal consistency reliability as well as construct validity were calculated. The Lithuanian version of the THI and its subscales showed a robust internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.93) comparable to the original version. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the Lithuanian translation of the THI and the measures of self-perceived levels of anxiety and depression using HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three subscales of the THI Lithuanian version corresponded to three different factors, which strongly correlated between themselves. The results suggest that the Lithuanian version of THI maintains its original validity and may serve as reliable and valid measure of general tinnitus related distress that can be used in a clinical setting to quantify the impact of tinnitus on daily living. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  11. Microbial nitrogen sinks in the water column of a large coastal hypoxic area, the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogener, M. K.; Roberts, B. J.; Rabalais, N. N.; Stewart, F. J.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Excess nitrogen in coastal environments leads to eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, habitat loss, oxygen depletion and reductions in biodiversity. As such, biological nitrogen (N) removal through the microbially-mediated process of denitrification is a critical ecosystem function that can mitigate the negative consequences of excess nitrogen loading. However, denitrification can produce nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas, as a byproduct under some environmental conditions. To understand how excess nitrogen loading impacts denitrification, we measured rates of this process in the water column of the Gulf of Mexico "Dead Zone" three times over the summer of 2015. The Dead Zone is generated by excessive nitrogen loading from the Mississippi River co-occurring with strong water column stratification, which leads to a large summer-time hypoxic/anoxic area at the mouth of the river and along the coast of Louisiana. Rates of denitrification ranged from 31 to 153 nmol L-1 d-1. Dead Zone waters are also enriched in methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 nmol L-1 d-1. Maximal denitrification rates were observed at stations with the lowest oxygen concentrations and highest methane oxidation rates, suggesting a potential coupling between nitrate reduction and methane oxidation which both scrubs reactive N and methane from the system, thus performing a duel ecosystem service.

  12. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  13. Data Requirements for Oceanic Processes in the Open Ocean, Coastal Zone, and Cryosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Mccandless, S. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The type of information system that is needed to meet the requirements of ocean, coastal, and polar region users was examined. The requisite qualities of the system are: (1) availability, (2) accessibility, (3) responsiveness, (4) utility, (5) continuity, and (6) NASA participation. The system would not displace existing capabilities, but would have to integrate and expand the capabilities of existing systems and resolve the deficiencies that currently exist in producer-to-user information delivery options.

  14. Ocean Carbon Flux, Transport, and Burial Within the Western and Eastern US Coastal Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Moisan, John R.; Haidvogel, Dale B.; Miller, Arthur J.; Cornuelle, Bruce; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    This project has been to develop and apply a regional. eddy-resolving circulation and biogeochemistry model of both the western and eastern U.S. coastal regions, capable of simulating the processes that control the carbon cycle. Validation has been by statistical comparison with analyses from various satellite measurements, including those from EOS sensors, as well as from in situ measurements. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate how the coastal ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles respond to changes in climate, large-scale eutrophication from indus- trial pollution, and other anthropogenic induced changes. The research has been conducted in collaboration with research groups at UCLA. NASA/GSFC (Wallops), Rutgers, and SIO. Overall. the project was focused on several key modeling issues, each of which tie back into completing the primary task of developing a coastal carbon model for both the eastern and western US. coasts. Individual groups within the entire program are still collaborating to address these specific tasks. These include: implementation of the coupled circulation/biogeochemical model within the U.S. West Coast. including high-resolution, embedded subdomains for the Southern California Bight and Monterey Bay region; development of a biogeochemical model with resolved carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles; development of data assimilation techniques for use of satellite data sets; reconfiguration of the model domain to U.S. East Coast; development of coastal forcing fields: development of methods to compare the model against remotely sensed data; and, the test of model sensitivity to environmental conditions. Below, we present a summary of the progress made toward achieving these soak. Because this has been a multi-institutional, collaborative effort, we note the groups involved with particular activities.

  15. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodell, H. G.

    1970-01-01

    The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a coastal megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.

  16. Climate Change, Offshore Wind Power, and the Coastal Zone Management Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    units, in large -scale farms , offshore . Despite being approximately 40% more expensive, offshore wind power projects have at least one benefit over many...have begun to plan and develop coastal and offshore wind energy farms ,9 the largest and best-known being Cape Wind Associates’ proposal for a 130...efficient turbines, some with a peak capacity of 5 MWe, and individual turbines were interconnected to form large -scale wind farms . Although there was much

  17. Flow and Suspended Sediment Events in the Near-Coastal Zone off Corpus Christi, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    an electrozone and an in-situ light scattering instrument. Two-dimensional fractal dimensions (D2) and derived volume distributions were...Project, funded by the Texas General Land Office (TGLO), which provides funding to doctoral students to develop real-time sensing and modeling of the...Ojo and M. Sterling (in press), Sensing the coastal environment. Building the European Capacity in Operational Oceanography - Proceedings of the

  18. 77 FR 28854 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Program Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...) Performance Management System; revise assessment document and multi-year strategy; submit documentation as... Performance Management System, 27 hours. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours: 12,104. Estimated Total Annual... Zone Management Program Administration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  19. Comparison of model predicted to observed winds in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Garstang, M.; Pielke, R.A.; Snow, J.W.

    1982-06-01

    Predictions of near-surface (10 to 100 m) wind velocities made by a mesoscale numerical model on a 10 km grid over and near the coastline are checked against observations. Two comparisons are made. The first is between observed and model-estimated mean annual wind power density at locations where surface observations exist in three coastal areas: the Chesapeake Bay, the Apalachee Bay and the South Texas coastal area. The second comparison is made between model predictions over the Delmarva Peninsula and adjacent ocean and observations made over a 120 x 30 km rectangle extending across the peninsula and out to sea. It is concluded that the unbiased error analysis skill ratings of 81% and 76% are attained for two days of prediction-observation comparisons. In the meantime, the skill of the model in duplicating individual coastal wind fields is taken as 78%. In addition, a qualitative comparison is made between the predicted fields of wind and the observed wind field. The predicted wind field unquestionably reproduces the observed field.

  20. Editorial - Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones, Edward B. Barbier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Michael; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, we are extremely grateful to Edward Barbier for performing the major task of increasing our awareness of the hazards and risks faced by all communities on low lying coasts but especially the poor, rural communities (Barbier, 2015). Against a background of climate-induced change, we now have a good and increasing evidence of the way the natural estuarine, coastal and marine system will respond (Elliott et al, 2015). However, more importantly Barbier (2015) highlights the way in which poor, rural coastal communities will be affected and will need to respond or will need help from the developed world to respond. It is axiomatic that while those communities are having less impact than more developed countries on the causes of climate change they are more affected and so have to respond to its consequences, what have been called exogenic unmanaged pressures. Hence they need to rely on mechanisms, techniques, technologies and approaches to help them cope with such change (see also Wolanski and Elliott 2015).

  1. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina

  2. Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

  3. Development and application of operational techniques for the inventory and monitoring of resources and uses for the Texas coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, P. (Principal Investigator); Malin, P.; Finley, R.; Mcculloch, S.; Murphy, D.; Hupp, B.; Schell, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four LANDSAT scenes were analyzed for the Harbor Island area test sites to produce land cover and land use maps using both image interpretation and computer-assisted techniques. When evaluated against aerial photography, the mean accuracy for three scenes was 84% for the image interpretation product and 62% for the computer-assisted classification maps. Analysis of the fourth scene was not completed using the image interpretation technique, because of poor quality, false color composite, but was available from the computer technique. Preliminary results indicate that these LANDSAT products can be applied to a variety of planning and management activities in the Texas coastal zone.

  4. Estimation of time averages from irregularly spaced observations - With application to coastal zone color scanner estimates of chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Schlax, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed located is quantified through a formalism. The method is applied to satellite observations of chlorophyll from the coastal zone color scanner. The two specific linear estimates under consideration are the composite average formed from the simple average of all observations within the averaging period and the optimal estimate formed by minimizing the mean squared error of the temporal average based on all the observations in the time series. The resulting suboptimal estimates are shown to be more accurate than composite averages. Suboptimal estimates are also found to be nearly as accurate as optimal estimates using the correct signal and measurement error variances and correlation functions for realistic ranges of these parameters, which makes it a viable practical alternative to the composite average method generally employed at present.

  5. UV filters, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA from untreated wastewater in sediment from eastern Mediterranean river transition and coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Amine, Helmieh; Gomez, Elena; Halwani, Jalal; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    UVF may occur in the aquatic environment through two principal sources: direct inputs from recreational activities and indirect wastewater- and river-borne inputs. The aim of this study was to obtain a first overview of levels of three UVF (EHMC, OC and OD-PABA) in coastal areas subjected to river inputs, untreated wastewater discharges and dumpsite leachates. We selected three eastern Mediterranean rivers that have been impacted for decades by untreated wastewater release and collected sediment in the coastal zone during the hot and humid seasons. Western Mediterranean sites receiving treated wastewaters were analyzed for comparison. The results gave an overview of sediment contamination under these two contrasted situations representative of Mediterranean coastal areas without bathing activities. The analysis of the three UVF revealed the ubiquity and high point source contamination by EHMC and OC in transition and coastal zones, with levels as high as 128 ng g(-1)d.w. OD-PABA was also frequently detected, but at lower concentrations (coastal bathing zones.

  6. Modeling nutrient and plankton processes in the California coastal transition zone. 1. A time- and depth-dependent model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisan, J. R.; Hofmann, E. E.

    1996-10-01

    A time- and depth-dependent, physical-bio-optical model was developed for the California coastal transition zone (CTZ) with the overall objective of understanding and quantifying the processes that contribute to the vertical and temporal development of nutrient and plankton distributions in the CTZ. The model food web components included silicate, nitrate, ammonium, two phytoplankton size fractions, copepods, doliolids, euphausiids, and a detritus pool. The wavelength-dependent subsurface irradiance field was attenuated by seawater and phytoplankton pigments. The one-dimensional (1-D) model adequately simulated the development and maintenance of a subsurface chlorophyll maximum in different regions within the CTZ. An analysis of the individual terms in the model governing equations revealed that phytoplankton in situ growth was primarily responsible for the creation and maintenance of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum at both coastal and oceanic regions in the CTZ. The depth to which the maximum in situ growth occurred was controlled by the combined effect of light and nutrient limitation. Also, the simulated bio-optical fields demonstrated the effect of nonlinear couplings between food web components and the subsurface irradiance field on vertical biological distributions. In particular, the e-folding scale of the subsurface photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) was influenced by the level of zooplankton grazing.

  7. Aerospace wetland monitoring by hyperspectral imaging sensors: a case study in the coastal zone of San Rossore Natural Park.

    PubMed

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2009-05-01

    The San Rossore Natural Park, located on the Tuscany (Italy) coast, has been utilized over the last 10 years for many remote sensing campaigns devoted to coastal zone monitoring. A wet area is located in the south-west part of the Natural Park and it is characterized by a system of ponds and dunes formed by sediment deposition occurring at the Arno River estuary. The considerable amount of collected data has permitted us to investigate the evolution of wetland spreading and land coverage as well as to retrieve relevant biogeochemical parameters, e.g. green biomass, from remote sensing images and products. This analysis has proved that the monitoring of coastal wetlands, characterized by shallow waters, moor and dunes, demands dedicated aerospace sensors with high spatial and spectral resolution. The outcomes of the processing of images gathered during several remote sensing campaigns by airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors are presented and discussed. A particular effort has been devoted to sensor response calibration and data validation due to the complex heterogeneity of the observed natural surfaces.

  8. Mesoscale advection of Upogebia pusilla larvae through an upwelling filament in the Canaries Coastal Transition Zone (CTZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landeira, José María; Lozano-Soldevilla, Fernando; Barton, Eric Desmond

    2012-12-01

    Larval transport has a strong influence on marine populations and ecosystem function. Traditional hypotheses establish that larvae of coastal species are swept offshore during strong upwelling periods producing low recruitment rates; however, recent studies have demonstrated that this hypothesis is not supported by larval distribution data. The present study examines the influence of upwelling filaments on larval advection and wastage. During August 1993, the transport of Upogebia pusilla was analysed in relation to an offshore filament off Northwest Africa. This mesoscale structure was generated by a trapped, quasi-permanent cyclonic eddy located between the Canary Islands and the African shelf and extended 150 km westward into the oligotrophic open ocean waters. The horizontal distribution depicted by U. pusilla larvae was strongly influenced by the oceanographic features of the Canaries Coastal Transition Zone (CTZ). Specifically, the larvae were closely associated with upwelling front and filament position, showing that these neritic larvae can be advected 10-100s of kilometres offshore through the filament. However, the low larval densities observed in the samples suggest that many larvae might remain close to the coast, thus avoiding seaward transport. This implies that filaments probably do not significantly affect the recruitment success of intertidal invertebrates such us U. pusilla in upwelling systems.

  9. Fractionation of mercury in sediments from coastal zone inundated by tsunami and in freshwater sediments from the rivers.

    PubMed

    Boszke, Leonard; Astel, Aleksander

    2007-06-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the mobility and bioavailability of mercury in tsunami sediments from the coastal zone of Thailand left after the 26 December 2004 tsunami event and freshwater sediments from the Vistula and the Warta rivers in Poland. The mobility and bioavailability of mercury in these sediments were determined by sequential extraction method. The environmental similarity/differences were estimated by statistical tests and cluster imaging technique. The coastal post-tsunami sediments were characterized by higher contributions of organomercury species (median 14%) and mercury sulphide (75%) than the freshwater sediments (5.4-9.3% and 60-68%, respectively), however, the contributions of water-soluble fraction (0.6%) and mercury bound to humic matter (7.6%) in the former was lower. In the river sediments the contributions of water-soluble mercury and mercury bound to humic matter were: 2.0-5.7% and 16-24%, respectively. The contributions of acid-soluble mercury were generally very low, but relatively higher in the post-tsunami sediments (0.7%) than in the freshwater sediments (0.3-0.4%).

  10. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  11. Integrated Observations From Fixed and AUV Platforms in the Littoral Zone at the SFOMC Coastal Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanak, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    A 12-hour survey of the coastal waters off the east coast of Florida at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center (SFOMC) coastal ocean observatory, during summer 1999, is described to illustrate the observatory's capabilities for ocean observation. The facility is located close to the Gulf Stream, the continental shelf break being only 3 miles from shore and is therefore influenced by the Gulf Stream meanders and the instability of the horizontal shear layer at its edge. As a result, both cross-shelf and along-shelf components of currents in the littoral zone can undergo dramatic +/- 0.5 m/s oscillations. Observations of surface currents from an OSCR, and of subsurface structure from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platform, a bottom-mounted ADCP and CT-chain arrays during the survey will be described and compared. The AUV on-board sensors included upward and downward looking 1200kHz ADCP, a CTD package and a small-scale turbulence package, consisting of two shear probes and a fast-response thermistor. Prevailing atmospheric conditions were recorded at an on-site buoy. The combined observations depict flows over a range of scales. Acknowledgements: The observations from the OSCR are due to Nick Shay and Tom Cook (University of Miami), and from the bottom-mounted ADCP, CT chain arrays and the surface buoy are due to Alex Soloviev (Nova Southeastern University) and Mark Luther and Bob Weisberg (University of South Florida).

  12. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  13. Physical Habitat and Energy Inputs Determine Freshwater Invertebrate Communities in Reference and Cranberry Farm Impacted Northeastern Coastal Zone Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, D. M. P.; McCanty, S. T.; Dimino, T. F.; Christian, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    The River Continuum Concept (RCC) predicts stream biological communities based on dominant physical structures and energy inputs into streams and predicts how these features and corresponding communities change along the stream continuum. Verifying RCC expectations is important for creating valid points of comparison during stream ecosystem evaluation. These reference expectations are critical for restoration projects, such as the restoration of decommissioned cranberry bogs. Our research compares the physical habitat and freshwater invertebrate functional feeding groups (FWIFFG) of reference, active cranberry farming, and cranberry farm passive restoration sites in Northeastern Coastal Zone streams of Massachusetts to the specific RCC FWIFFG predictions. We characterized stream physical habitat using a semi-quantitative habitat characterization protocol and sampled freshwater invertebrates using the U.S. EPA standard 20-jab multi-habitat protocol. We expected that stream habitat would be most homogeneous at active farming stations, intermediate at restoration stations, and most heterogeneous at reference stations. Furthermore, we expected reference stream FWIFFG would be accurately predicted by the RCC and distributions at restoration and active sites would vary significantly. Habitat data was analyzed using a principle component analysis and results confirmed our predictions showing more homogeneous habitat for the active and reference stations, while showing a more heterogeneous habitat at the reference stations. The FWIFFG chi-squared analysis showed significant deviation from our specific RCC FWIFFG predictions. Because published FWIFFG distributions did not match our empirical values for a least disturbed Northeastern Coastal Zone headwater stream, using our data as a community structure template for current and future restoration projects is not recommend without further considerations.

  14. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  15. Urban Heat Island Variation across a Dramatic Coastal to Desert Climate Zone: An Application to Los Angeles, CA Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, A.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate across the globe. The resulting urban heat island (UHI), which is a well-known phenomenon in urban areas due to the increasing number and density of buildings, leads to higher temperature in urban areas than surrounding sub-urban or rural areas. Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the sustainability of cities and reducing heat vulnerability. Although a variety of studies have quantified UHI, there are a lack of studies to 1) understand UHI variation at the micro-scale (e.g., neighborhood effect) for large urban areas and 2) identify variation in the sensitivity of the UHI to environmental drivers across a megacity with a pronounced climate zone (i.e. coastal to desert climates) using advanced analytical tools. In this study, we identified the interacting relationship among various environmental and socio-economic factors to better identify UHI over the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among land surface temperature (LST), land cover (NDVI), distance to ocean, elevation, and socio-economic status (neighborhood income). LST-NDVI slopes were negative across the climate zones and became progressively stronger with increasing distance from the coast. Results also showed that slopes between NDVI and neighborhood income were positive throughout the climate zone with a maximum in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of these income-NDVI and NDVI-LST relationships we also found that slopes between LST and neighborhood income were negative throughout the climate zones and peaked at about 30km from the coast. These findings suggest assessments of urban heat vulnerability need to consider not only variation in the indicators but also variation in how the indicators influence vulnerability.

  16. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  17. Critical storm thresholds for morphological changes in the western Black Sea coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Ekaterina V.; Valchev, Nikolay N.; Andreeva, Nataliya K.; Eftimova, Petya T.

    2012-03-01

    Storms are one of the phenomena determining the short-term evolution of coasts by influencing the erosion and accretion patterns of the beaches. Some severe storms could cause loss of beach sediments, partial or complete destruction of coastal structures and even threaten human life and occupation. Bearing this in mind, it is essential to comprehend, which storms could evoke transient, although in some instances, significant morphological changes, and which could be considered as hazardous and result in catastrophic damage. This issue implies establishment of a set of critical thresholds for storm impact on coastal morphology. The paper presents a regional scale analysis of the near-shore morphological response of five beaches to storms of varying intensity. The analysis is accomplished by coupling of offshore wave and cross-shore profile data obtained for the Bulgarian Black sea coast. The historical storm pattern is reconstructed through hindcast using a coupled wave model system, while resulting morphological changes, such as shoreline alteration and cross-shore profile evolution, are estimated by analysis of long-term series of coastal measurements performed in 1970-1977 and 2008-2010. The storm impact thresholds are set in terms of integral wave energy taking into account both storm pattern and duration. It was found that the morphological response to storm impact is site specific and single-value thresholds are difficult to be established even at regional scale. Nevertheless, a range of critical storm thresholds is proposed. Thus, storms with integral wave energy varying within threshold values 0.4-0.7 × 106 J m-2 are regarded as capable of significant morphological changes, while less energetic events are supposed to influence predominately the seasonal beach dynamics. Furthermore, storms with integral wave energy higher than 0.7 × 106 J m-2 represent potentially destructive events that can change irreversibly the beach pattern or damage impact.

  18. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  19. Balanus eburneus: a sensitive indicator of copper and zinc pollution in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.; Trefry, J.H.

    1981-12-01

    Barnacles were collected in the Eau Gallie Harbor waters, Florida, and were examined for copper and zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results suggest that a 1 ppb increase in dissolved copper brings about a 36 ppm increase in tissue copper levels and that B. eburneus a sensitive indicator of copper and zinc pollution. However, this pollution is non-detectable 1 km away in the barnacles of Indian River Lagoon. This suggests minimal input or rapid dilution of the metals in the Indian River waters and raises concern for pollutant enrichment in restricted coastal embayments. (JMT)

  20. Late Cenozoic stages and molluscan zones of the U.S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwelder, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Pliocene to Holocene deposits of the U.S.Atlantic Coastal Plain from Maryland to Georgia are divided into four stages and four substages using molluscan biostratigraphic data. These divisions are the Wiltonian and Burwellian Stages (early Pliocene), Gouldian and Windyan Substages of the Colerainian Stage (late Pliocene to early Pleistocene), and Myrtlean and Yongesian Substages of the Longian Stage (late Pleistocene to Holocene). These stages may be recognized from Florida to as far north as Massachusetts and will facilitate correlation with other regions.-Author

  1. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  2. 30 CFR 250.272 - If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Review and Decision Process for the Dpp Or Docd § 250.272 If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency... needs to only address information related to the State's objections. (b) Appeal. Appeal the State's...

  3. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  4. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  5. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  6. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  7. Dynamics of the marine planktonic diatom family Chaetocerotaceae in a Mediterranean coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, Sunčica; Godrijan, Jelena; Šilović, Tina

    2016-10-01

    The planktonic diatoms belonging to two genera Chaetoceros and Bacteriastrum, included within the family Chaetocerotaceae, are ecologically important as they represent an important component of the phytoplankton in the coastal regions and are often among bloom-forming taxa. We analysed the chaetocerotacean species composition and abundances in the coastal area of northeastern Adriatic in a biweekly study conducted from September 2008 to October 2009 with the aim of investigating seasonal dynamics and species succession on a fine temporal scale and determining the most important ecological factors influencing their distribution. The study identified seven Chaetoceros and three Bacteriastrum species as major phytoplankton components showing the clear annual succession and two types of blooms (one species/multi species) governed by differing ecological conditions. Autumn bloom was composed of 20 chaetocerotacean species with Chaetoceros contortus and Chaetoceros vixvisibilis alternating in dominance. The summer period was characterized by spreading of freshwater from the Po River up to the eastern coast increasing availability of phosphate which triggered the monospecific Chaetoceros vixvisibilis bloom. We explained the chaetocerotacean dominant species succession pattern by the environmental parameters, with the temperature, salinity and phosphate availability as most important factors driving the species seasonality.

  8. An assessment of oil pollution in the coastal zone of patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 microg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 microg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 microg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 microg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  9. An Assessment of Oil Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 μg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 μg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 μg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 μg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  10. Trace metal proxies in the Oregon coastal zone- identifying Holocene hypoxic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhardt, A. M.; Paytan, A.

    2009-12-01

    Coastal shelf hypoxic events, such as that recently observed off the Oregon coast, are toxic environments for the benthic community. Since 2000, hypoxic (<0.5ml l-1 oxygen) to anoxic conditions have been observed, though historical records from 1950 to 1999 show no record of these conditions. While other hypoxic events (i.e. the Gulf of Mexico) have been attributed to anthropogenic nutrient pollution, it has been postulated that this shelf hypoxia is driven by basin-scale fluctuations in atmosphere-ocean processes. These fluctuations have altered the oxygen content and intensity of upwelling in the region, corresponding to increases in productivity. This study seeks to construct past records of oxygen level to determine if human influence, changes in ocean circulation, or long term climatic cycles are at play. Sediment cores have been collected at multiple locations within the region currently impacted by hypoxia, as well as farther offshore. To identify past anoxic events, trace metal concentrations, specifically redox-sensitive metals such as uranium, vanadium, and molybdenum, have been analyzed. These preliminary results will provide a baseline for identifying the cyclicity and extent of hypoxia in this coastal region throughout the Holocene. The ability to predict the recurrence and evolution of these events will be critical for the formulation of appropriate mitigation measures.

  11. Nutrient management for coastal zones: a case study of the nitrogen load to the Stockholm Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Scharin, H

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates cost-effective solutions of decreasing the nutrient load to a coastal area, using a drainage basin approach. The study is applied to the Stockholm Archipelago, a coastal area of the Baltic Sea suffering from eutrophication caused by the load of nutrients entering the area. Nitrogen is the nutrient of concern in this study since it is the limiting nutrient of the Archipelago. The main sources of nitrogen are wastewater plants, agriculture, and atmospheric depositions. The final impact of a deposition depends on the buffering capabilities it is subject to on its trajectory from the source to the recipient. This is the reason for using a recipient oriented approach, in which the focus is to reduce the final impact of a deposition. The model integrates data over hydrology, land cover, land use, and economy in order to find the optimal allocation of measures. Results indicate that in order to achieve cost effectiveness, the major part of nitrogen load reduction to the Archipelago should be done at the wastewater plants and by constructing wetlands. The minimum annual cost of reaching a 50% reduction of the load to the Archipelago was estimated to around 191 million Swedish crowns (around $19 million).

  12. Metal discharges by Sinaloa Rivers to the coastal zone of NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Mejía-Cruz, R; Osuna López, I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Voltolina, D

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the discharges of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn of the eight main rivers of Sinaloa State to the Mexican coastal environment. Zn was the most abundant dissolved metal and Fe was the most abundant particulate (8.02-16.90 and 51.8-1,140.3 μg/L, respectively). Only particulate Mn had significantly (p = 0.028) higher values in summer-fall (rainy season), whereas the significantly (p = 0.036) higher values of dissolved Zn were observed in winter and spring. The highest annual total discharges to Sinaloa coastal waters were those of the rivers San Lorenzo and Piaxtla (>2 × 10(3) m.t.) and the lowest those of rivers Baluarte and El Fuerte (349 and 119 m.t., respectively). Pb concentrations may become of concern, because they are higher than the value recommended for the welfare of aquatic communities of natural waters.

  13. Microbial Community Structure Across a Wastewater-Impacted Riparian Buffer Zone in the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Ducey, T.F.; Johnson, P.R.; Shriner, A.D.; Matheny, T.A.; Hunt, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to retain nutrients, prevent soil erosion, protect aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, and filter pollutants. Despite their importance, the microbial community structures of riparian buffer zones remains poorly defined. Our objectives for this study were twofold: first, to characterize the microbial populations found in riparian buffer zone soils; and second, to determine if microbial community structure could be linked to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). To achieve these objectives, we investigated the microbial populations of a riparian buffer zone located downslope of a pasture irrigated with swine lagoon effluent, utilizing DNA sequencing of the 16S rDNA, DEA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the denitrification genes nirK, nirS, and nosZ. Clone libraries of the 16S rDNA gene were generated from each of twelve sites across the riparian buffer with a total of 986 partial sequences grouped into 654 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Proteobacteria were the dominant group (49.8% of all OTUs), with the Acidobacteria also well represented (19.57% of all OTUs). Analysis of qPCR results identified spatial relationships between soil series, site location, and gene abundance, which could be used to infer both incomplete and total DEA rates. PMID:23894260

  14. 77 FR 59899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and NOAA Excellence Awards AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing... Nedelka, (301) 713-3155 ext. 127 or Patmarie.Nedelka@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I....

  15. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.

  16. Monitoring runoff and nutrient transport in the coastal zone of a Danish lowland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovesen, N. B.; Windolf, J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-04-01

    Denmark has a very long coastline compared to its total area, and therefore large parts of the lower river reaches are influenced by tidal and coastal backwater effects. In general the gradients of these lowland rivers are very low, and furthermore thousands of small watercourses are flowing directly to the sea along the coastline. This situation makes it impossible to gauge the runoff to many fjords and marine inland waters utilizing traditional monitoring techniques, and consequently, even though Denmark is covered with several hundreds of gauging stations, only 50 percent of the country is gauged. Models are today used to estimate the total runoff and loads of nutrients to coastal waters. One of the major problems in the calibration of the models is however, the lacking of data from the lower part of rivers influenced by tidal and coastal backwater. In order to investigate the possibilities of improving the Danish gauging network and to test the models used for runoff estimation in the ungauged areas, a new monitoring station was established in the summer of 2011 in the River Skjern very close to the outlet in Ringkobing Fjord at the west coast of Jutland. The hydraulic conditions are here affected by tidal and backwater effects and the nutrient transport may be influenced by stratified flow conditions. The catchment area to the new station is 2455 km2, and the width of the channel is 70-80meters. The velocity distribution is measured in the profile by both horizontal and vertical multi cell Doppler sensors. Conductivity (salinity), turbidity and water temperature are measured by sensors in 2 levels, near bottom and in the upper part of the depth profile. Time integrated water samples are collected also in 2 levels with a 2 hour interval and analyzed for total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorous, and phosphate. The wind speed and direction is registered at the station. The preliminary results show a strong correlation between the water velocities and

  17. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Applications to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, D.; Garcia, P. N.; Cancet, M.; Andersen, O.; Stenseng, L.; Martin, F.; Cipollini, P.; Calafat, F. M.; Passaro, M.; Restano, M.; Ambrozio, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2016-08-01

    The ESA CryoSat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the CryoSat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents significant potential benefits for ocean applications including improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution.The "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: to build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of CryoSat-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the CryoSat-2 mission is maximised. Cotton et al, (2015) is the final report on this work.However, whilst the results from CP4O were highly promising and confirmed the potential of SAR altimetry to support new scientific and operational oceanographic applications, it was also apparent that further work was needed in some key areas to fully realise the original project objectives. Thus additional work in four areas has been supported by ESA under a Contract Change Notice:• Developments in SARin data processing for Coastal Altimetry (isardSAT).• Implementation of a Regional Tidal Atlas for the Arctic Ocean (Noveltis and DTU Space).• Improvements to the SAMOSA re-tracker: Implementation and Evaluation- Optimised Thermal Noise Estimation. (Starlab and SatOC).• Extended evaluation of CryoSat-2 SAR data for Coastal Applications (NOC).This work was managed by SatOC. The results of this work are summarized here. Detailed information regarding the CP4O project can be found at: http://www.satoc.eu/projects/CP4O/

  18. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity < 10) tidal zone of upper estuaries has been suggested to be more complex and locally influenced by geomorphological and hydrological features, the environmental dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the environmental drivers controlling its source, transport, and fate have scarcely been evaluated. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity < 10) of the oligo/meso-haline zone for three distinct wetland-influenced rivers; namely the Bekanbeushi River, a cool-temperate river with estuarine lake in Hokkaido, Japan, the Harney River, a subtropical river with tidally-submerged mangrove fringe in Florida, USA, and the Judan River, a small, acidic, tropical rainforest river in Borneo, Malaysia. For the first two rivers, a clear decoupling between DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River

  19. The Influence of Hurricane Parameters on Hurricane Surge and Waves in Complex Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udoh, I. E.; Taylor, A.; Irish, J. L.; Kaihatu, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies on the impact of potential flooding in complex coastal regions, such as coastal bays, require efficient models for the estimation of surge and waves under various hurricane meteorological scenarios. Recently, surrogate models for high resolution numerical models have been successfully applied in extreme value flood studies (e.g. Resio et al. 2009; Niedoroda et al. 2008). Adequate identification of the primary parameters that drive the surge and wave trends, and physical understanding of the expected trends are important in developing non-dimensional equations which replicate the processes of surge and wave generation. Identified parameters can thus be used in developing scaling laws for the estimation of hurricane surge and wave response. In this study, we discuss surge and wave trends in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as a function of meteorological and spatial parameters, and we isolate their influences on surge response. Changes in surge with hurricane forward speed in the bay is found to be primarily dependent on time available for surge development and re-distribution within the bay. The hurricane angle of approach affects surge generation based on the orientation of onshore-directed winds and the proximity of the storm track to the entrance of the bay and locations of interest. A positive linear trend is observed between sea level rise and storm surge in the bay - this is due to overtopping of the barrier island, and the fact that the irregular bay boundaries support surge accumulation. As a basis for investigating wave responses, hurricane parameters of central pressure and size were identified as main factors in characterizing the wave field. Results showed that with variation in the hurricane's central pressure and size, changes in wave heights are more pronounced in the nearshore and onshore environment at the open coast, than they are within the bay. Likewise, a similar spatial trend is observed in the variation of these hurricane parameters to

  20. Dispersion in the Yucatan coastal zone: Implications for red tide events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Cecilia; Mariño-Tapia, Ismael J.; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.

    2010-02-01

    The mechanisms governing dispersion processes in the northern Yucatan coast are investigated using a barotropic numerical model of coastal circulation, which includes wind-generated and large scale currents (i.e. Yucatan Current). This work provides the foundations for studying the dispersion of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the area. Modelling experiments include effects of climatic wind (from long term monthly mean NCEP reanalysis), short term wind events (from in situ point measurements), and Yucatan Current (YC) characteristics. Its magnitude was approximated from published reports, and its trajectory from geostrophic current fields derived from altimeter data. These provided a range of real and climatic conditions to study the routes in which phytoplankton blooms may travel. The 2-D model results show that a synthetic and conservative bloom seeded in the Cabo Catoche (CC) region (where it usually grows), moves along the coast to the west up to San Felipe (SF), where it can either move offshore, or carry on travelling westwards. The transport to the west up to SF is greatly influenced by the trajectory, intensity and proximity of the YC jet to the peninsula, which enhances the westward circulation in the Yucatan Shelf. Numerical experiments show that patch dispersion is consistently to the west even under the influence of northerly winds. When the YC flows westward towards the Campeche Bank, momentum transfer caused by the YC jet dominates the dispersion processes over wind stress. On the other hand, when it flows closer to Cuba, the local processes (i.e. wind and bathymetry) become dominant. Coastal orientation and the Coriolis force may be responsible for driving the patch offshore at SF if external forcing decreases.

  1. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  2. Integrating river basin management and the coastal zone: the (blue) Danube and the (black) sea.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, C; Makropoulos, C K

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the wide variety of physical, chemical biological and ecological processes in a sensitive coastal environment such as the Black Sea, current environmental management objectives are no longer sufficient: a new management approach has to address the intimate functional linkage between the river basin and the costal environment. Current water quality legislation requires compliance to emission levels based on the chemical analysis of water samples taken at discharge points, such as treatment plants discharging into rivers. While such measures provide a relative indication of the water quality at the point of discharge, they fail to describe accurately and sufficiently the quality of the water received from the watershed or basin. As water flows through the catchment, rainfall run-off from urban and agricultural areas carries sediments, pesticides, and other chemicals into river systems, which lead to coastal waters. The impact of the Kosovo crisis on the Danube ecosystems provides a poignant example of the effects of such diffused pollution mechanisms and reveals a number of interesting pollution mechanisms. This paper discusses both the effects of diffused pollution on the Black Sea, drawing from state-of-the-art reports on the Danube, and proposes a framework for a decision support system based on distributed hydrological and pollution transport simulation models and GIS. The use of ecological health indicators and fuzzy inference supporting decisions on regional planning within this framework is also advocated. It is also argued that even the recently produced GEF document on Black Sea protection scenarios should benefit significantly if the concept of pollution reduction from both urban, industrial and rural areas should undergo a systematic conceptual update in the view of the recent recommendations of the UNEP IETC (2000) document.

  3. Evaluating ecological quality in the north-eastern Black Sea coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James G; Komakhidze, Akaki; Osadchaya, Tatyana; Alyomov, Sergey; Romanov, Alexander; Tediashvili, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures have resulted in measurable impacts on the coastal ecosystems of the northern (Sevastopol Bay, Ukraine) and eastern (Batumi aquatoria, Georgia) Black Sea. Indices suggest that major impacts are relatively localized and are comparable to similar situations in the northern Atlantic. In contrast, biodiversity was appreciably lower than from comparable north Atlantic waters. The number of macrobenthic species was typically round 50, less than half the number that might be expected from similar exercises in US or European waters. Site-specific indices likewise indicated a somewhat lower diversity within communities, yielding metrics which would indicate a measure of stress in N. Atlantic situations. Microbial status was generally good, although regions close to urbanisation did not comply with standards laid down in the current EC Bathing Water Directive (76/EC/160). Likewise viruses were more commonly, although not exclusively, associated with urban locations, as were phages. Microbial investigation of the sediments confirmed the presence of heterotrophic and oil-oxidising bacteria. Abundance of the latter was closely correlated to the degree of oil contamination of the sediments, and to temperature, although for both, the results showed that the increase in bacterial abundance did level off beyond a certain point. Numbers of oil-oxidising bacteria in the water column displayed a classical response to temperature, with abundance doubling over a 10-degree C rise in temperature. Overall the results suggest that while indices in current use are useful in evaluating coastal quality in the Black Sea, some adjustments would be necessary especially in the establishment of baseline or reference values.

  4. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  5. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  6. Coastal Zone Ecosystem Services: from science to values and decision making; a case study.

    PubMed

    Luisetti, T; Turner, R K; Jickells, T; Andrews, J; Elliott, M; Schaafsma, M; Beaumont, N; Malcolm, S; Burdon, D; Adams, C; Watts, W

    2014-09-15

    This research is concerned with the following environmental research questions: socio-ecological system complexity, especially when valuing ecosystem services; ecosystems stock and services flow sustainability and valuation; the incorporation of scale issues when valuing ecosystem services; and the integration of knowledge from diverse disciplines for governance and decision making. In this case study, we focused on ecosystem services that can be jointly supplied but independently valued in economic terms: healthy climate (via carbon sequestration and storage), food (via fisheries production in nursery grounds), and nature recreation (nature watching and enjoyment). We also explored the issue of ecosystem stock and services flow, and we provide recommendations on how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services via accounting and economic values respectively. We considered broadly comparable estuarine systems located on the English North Sea coast: the Blackwater estuary and the Humber estuary. In the past, these two estuaries have undergone major land-claim. Managed realignment is a policy through which previously claimed intertidal habitats are recreated allowing the enhancement of the ecosystem services provided by saltmarshes. In this context, we investigated ecosystem service values, through biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates. Using an optimistic (extended conservation of coastal ecosystems) and a pessimistic (loss of coastal ecosystems because of, for example, European policy reversal) scenario, we find that context dependency, and hence value transfer possibilities, vary among ecosystem services and benefits. As a result, careful consideration in the use and application of value transfer, both in biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates, is advocated to supply reliable information for policy making. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of the Permeability Architecture of the Baton Rouge Fault Zone, Louisiana Gulf Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanor, J. S.; Chamberlain, E. L.; Tsai, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Baton Rouge fault is a west-east trending, south-dipping listric fault in Louisiana, which offsets a thick sequence of unconsolidated siliciclastic sediments, the upper kilometer of which includes the Baton Rouge aquifer system. The Baton Rouge aquifer system consists of a series of complexly interbedded fluvial-deltaic sands and mudstones ranging in age from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene and dipping to the south. The high proportion of mudstones in the stratigraphic section, approximately 55 percent, reflects deposition in a rapidly aggrading setting. The fault was reactivated in the early Pleistocene, and the aquifer sands are offset by the same slip, 120 m. The fault is of significant hydrogeologic and environmental importance because it marks a sharp boundary between fresh water sands to the north and brackish water sands to the south. Large withdrawal of fresh water has resulted in the migration of brackish waters to the north from the fault and the progressive salinization of the groundwater supply. Migration of salt water up the fault and/or across the fault have been proposed as causes. Understanding the permeability architecture of the fault zone is of critical importance in developing strategies for controlling salinization. We have made an evaluation of the possible present permeability of the fault zone using an algorithm developed by Bense and Person [2006] which is based on the amount of slip on a fault and the clay-content of the sedimentary units flanking a fault. The algorithm provides an estimation of the present width and permeability of the fault zone and how the permeability architecture has evolved with time as offset on the fault has progressively increased. The basic geologic input is lithostratigraphy derived from SP-resistivity logs from wells immediately north and south of the fault over a 425 m high by 34 km wide area of the fault plane. The results of our calculations are as follows: the average fault zone width increases as a

  8. In situ nitrification rates and activity of present nitrifiers in the bottom water layer of two Baltic coastal zones affected by different riverine nutrient loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, I.; Münster Happel, E.; Riemann, L.; Voss, M.

    2016-02-01

    Baltic coastal zones are among the most eutrophied in the world receiving high loads of nitrogen from riverine inputs. However, not only the loads but also the internal dynamics in coastal zones might have positive feedback on eutrophication through efficient remineralisation of organic material in the bottom water. Therefore, we studied nitrification, which is a vital remineralisation process, near the seafloor along with the community of nitrifying microorganisms. We hypothesize that a high nutrient and organic matter load leads to elevated ammonium concentrations in coastal waters and thus stimulates nitrification rates and alters the nitrifying community. Here we present results from 3 cruises combining nitrification rate measurements by 15N-incubations with sequence-based analyses of present and active nitrifiers in the bottom water of two sites in the Baltic Sea receiving different nutrient loads. The first results from the Bonus projects COCOA and BLUEPRINT indicate an increase of nitrification rates with depth as well as distance from the river mouth. In situ rates in the bottom water of the nutrient rich Vistula plume range from 53 to 197 nmol L-1 d-1 and from 10 to 646 nmol L-1 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. In the nutrient poor Öre estuary rates increased significantly by 11 nmol L-1 d-1 from the river mouth to the outermost station. The relationship between nitrification rates, nitrifiers and trophic state of the coastal zone shall be discussed.

  9. Quantifying Organic Matter in Surface Waters of the United States and Delivery to the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.

    2012-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters. It is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context, and considering upstream-downstream linkages along flow paths. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation from headwaters to the coasts; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments; and 4) considered seasonal factors affecting the temporal variation in OC responses. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. The modeling approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of OC loads that were observed at a network of monitoring stations across the nation, and further explored factors controlling seasonal dynamics of OC based on these long term monitoring data. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the OC to each location

  10. Quantitative evaluation of water quality in the coastal zone by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing as a tool in a waste management program is discussed. By monitoring both the pollution sources and the environmental quality, the interaction between the components of the exturaine system was observed. The need for in situ sampling is reduced with the development of improved calibrated, multichannel sensors. Remote sensing is used for: (1) pollution source determination, (2) mapping the influence zone of the waste source on water quality parameters, and (3) estimating the magnitude of the water quality parameters. Diffusion coefficients and circulation patterns can also be determined by remote sensing, along with subtle changes in vegetative patterns and density.

  11. Lithuanian women physicists: Current situation and involvement in gender projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkūnienė, Živilė; Kupliauskienė, Alicija

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the situation of women in physics since the last Lithuanian country report are discussed on the basis of available statistics. The overall percentage of women physicists in research is 28%. Results show that there is a noticeable increase in female scientists in most phases of the academic career progression except in the highest positions. The results also show a permanent change in the awareness of gender-related issues in research. We also discuss the initiatives taken by Lithuanian women scientists to change the situation during three last years and their outcomes.

  12. Fine Sediment Erosion and Transport to the Near Coastal Zone from Watersheds of St. Thomas, USVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, G.; Xuan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The US Virgin Islands' landscape is characterized by steep slopes and short distances from ridge peaks to fringing reefs. Fine-grained sediments eroded from predominantly thin soils may be transported rapidly by streams (locally called guts) to the sea and cause stress to corals. We have studied erosion and transport processes on St Thomas by three methods: (1) continuous monitoring of suspended matter in one of the island's few perennial streams, Dorothea Gut, (2) measurement of 137Cs inventories in soil cores taken across the landscape, and (3) evaluation of sediment captured in most of the island's coastal ponds, through which a significant portion of runoff must pass. We find that, for areas that have not been recently disturbed, watersheds retain fine sediments surprisingly well. On the other hand, small patches of land, like building lots that have been recently disturbed and poorly managed, can produce disproportionate amounts of fine sediment. These results differ somewhat from nearby St John, USVI, where unpaved roads are the major source of eroded sediments.

  13. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  14. Seasonality of coastal zone scanner phytoplankton pigment in the offshore oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banse, K.; English, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Global Ocean Data Set of plant pigment concentrations in the upper euphotic zone is evaluated for diserning geographical and temporal patterns of seasonality in the open sea. Monthly medians of pigment concentrations for all available years are generated for fields of approximately 77,000 sq km. For the climatological year, highest and lowest medians, month of occurence of the highest median, ratio of highest to lowest medians, and absolute range between the highest and lowest medians are mapped ocean-wide between 62.5 deg N and 62.5 deg S. Seasonal cycles are depicted for 48 sites. In much of the offshore ocean, seasonality of pigment is inferred to be driven almost equally by the interaction of the abiotic environment with phytoplankton physiology and the loss of cells from grazing. Special emphasis among natural domains or provinces is given to the Subantarctic water ring, with no seasonality in its low chlorophyll concentrations in spite of strong environmental forcing, and the narrow Transition Zones, a few degrees of latitude on the equatorial sides of the Subtropical Convergences of the southern hemisphere and their homologs in the northern hemisphere, which have late winter blooms caused by nutrient injection into the upper layers.

  15. Seasonality of coastal zone scanner phytoplankton pigment in the offshore oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banse, K.; English, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Global Ocean Data Set of plant pigment concentrations in the upper euphotic zone is evaluated for diserning geographical and temporal patterns of seasonality in the open sea. Monthly medians of pigment concentrations for all available years are generated for fields of approximately 77,000 sq km. For the climatological year, highest and lowest medians, month of occurence of the highest median, ratio of highest to lowest medians, and absolute range between the highest and lowest medians are mapped ocean-wide between 62.5 deg N and 62.5 deg S. Seasonal cycles are depicted for 48 sites. In much of the offshore ocean, seasonality of pigment is inferred to be driven almost equally by the interaction of the abiotic environment with phytoplankton physiology and the loss of cells from grazing. Special emphasis among natural domains or provinces is given to the Subantarctic water ring, with no seasonality in its low chlorophyll concentrations in spite of strong environmental forcing, and the narrow Transition Zones, a few degrees of latitude on the equatorial sides of the Subtropical Convergences of the southern hemisphere and their homologs in the northern hemisphere, which have late winter blooms caused by nutrient injection into the upper layers.

  16. Upper plate deformation and seismic barrier in front of Nazca subduction zone: The Chololo Fault System and active tectonics along the Coastal Cordillera, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audin, Laurence; Lacan, Pierre; Tavera, Hernando; Bondoux, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The South America plate boundary is one of the most active subduction zone. The recent Mw = 8.4 Arequipa 2001 earthquake ruptured the subduction plane toward the south over 400 km and stopped abruptly on the Ilo Peninsula. In this exact region, the subduction seismic crisis induced the reactivation of continental fault systems in the coastal area. We studied the main reactivated fault system that trends perpendicular to the trench by detailed mapping of fault related-geomorphic features. Also, at a longer time scale, a recurrent Quaternary transtensive tectonic activity of the CFS is expressed by offset river gullies and alluvial fans. The presence of such extensional fault systems trending orthogonal to the trench along the Coastal Cordillera in southern Peru is interpreted to reflect a strong coupling between the two plates. In this particular case, stress transfer to the upper plate, at least along the coastal fringe, appears to have induced crustal seismic events that were initiated mainly during and after the 2001 earthquake. The seafloor roughness of the subducting plate is usually thought to be a cause of segmentation along subduction zones. However, after comparing and discussing the role of inherited structures within the upper plate to the subduction zone segmentation in southern Peru, we suggest that the continental structure itself may exert some feedback control on the segmentation of the subduction zone and thus participate to define the rupture pattern of major subduction earthquakes along the southern Peru continental margin.

  17. The role of the invasive bivalve Ensis directus as food source for fish and birds in the Dutch coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulp, Ingrid; Craeymeersch, Johan; Leopold, Mardik; van Damme, Cindy; Fey, Frouke; Verdaat, Hans

    2010-12-01

    The razor clam Ensis directus was introduced to Europe presumably as larvae in ballast water around 1978. Starting in the German Bight it spread northward and southward along the continental coastline. Currently it is the most common shellfish species in the Dutch coastal zone, where it mainly occurs in the Voordelta and off the Wadden Sea islands. The mean density of E. directus in the Dutch coastal zone increased from around 2-5 individuals m -2 in the late '90's to around 12-19 individuals m -2 from 2002 onwards. Diet studies show that E. directus makes up a significant proportion in the current diet of plaice, sole, dab, flounder and dragonet and in the diet of eider and common scoter. In recent years E. directus contributed 20-100% of the total wet weight in fish stomachs. The proportion E. directus in the diet increases with fish length. Based on stomach contents of oiled and beached birds and of faeces samples the recent frequency of occurrence is 85-90% in eider and 26% in common scoter. Also waders, gulls and corvids prey on E. directus but the contribution to the diet is still unquantified. Because of its great burying depth the species is not easily accessible. Fish either profit from massive die-offs that regularly occur, or they extract (probably only the smaller) individuals from the sediment. Sea ducks can extract E. directus from the sediment, while shorebirds and gulls feed on dying E. directus washing up on the shore. E. directus is possibly an important food item for fish and seabirds when they occur in high densities and in the right size classes. Since the availability depends greatly on massive die-offs, shell size, burying depth and water depth, it is probably not a very reliable food source. Judging from the role E. directus currently plays for the higher trophic levels, its introduction must have caused a major change in the food relations in its distribution area.

  18. [The biogeochemical cycle of methane in the coastal zone and littoral of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea].

    PubMed

    Savvichev, A S; Rusanov, I I; Iusupov, S K; Pimenov, N V; Lein, A Iu; Ivanov, M V

    2004-01-01

    Microbiological and biogeochemical investigations of the processes of methane production (MP) and methane oxidation (MO) in the coastal waters and littoral of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea were carried out. The studies were conducted in the coastal zones and in the water areas of the Kandalaksha Preserve, Moscow University White Sea Biological Station, and Zoological Institute (RAS) Biological Station in August, 1999, 2000, and 2001 and in March, 2001. The rate of CO2 assimilation in the shallow and littoral sediments was 35-27800 microg C/(dm3 day) in summer and 32.8-88.9 microg C/(dm3 day) in winter. The maximal rates of MP were observed in the littoral sediments in the zone of macrophyte decomposition, in local depressions, and in the estuary of a freshwater creak (up to 113 microl/(dm3 day)). The maximal level of MO was observed in the shallow estuarine sediments (up to 2450 microl/(dm3 day)). During the winter season, at the temperature of -0.5 to 0.5 degrees C, the MP rate in the littoral sediments was 0.02-0.3 microl/(dm3 day), while MO rate was 0.06-0.7 microl/(dm3 day). The isotopic data obtained indicate that the C(org) of the mats and of the upper sediment layers is enriched with the heavy 13C isotope by 1-4 per thousand as compared to the C(org) of the suspension, comprised on 33.5-34.3% of phytoplankton. A striking difference was found between the levels of methane emission by the typical littoral microlanscapes. In fine sediments, the average emission was 675 microl CH4/(m2 day), in the stormy discharge stretch sediments it was 1670 microl CH4/(m2 day), and under the stones and in silted pits, 1370 microl CH4/(m2 day). The calculation performed with consideration of the microlandscape areas with a high production allowed the CH4 production of 1 km2 of the littoral to be estimated as 192-300 1 CH4/(km2 day).

  19. Pigment distribution and primary production in the western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from coastal zone color scanner observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, André; André, Jean-Michel

    1991-07-01

    A set of 114 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images of the western Mediterranean (mainly in the year 1981) have been processed and analyzed to describe the algal biomass evolution and estimate its potential carbon fixation. For that, the pigment concentration in the top layer, Csat, is used through empirical relationships to infer the depth-integrated pigment content of the productive column, tot. A spectral light-photosynthesis model driven by tot is operated with additional information, namely, about sea temperature and photosynthetically available radiation (computed from astronomical and atmospherical parameters then combined with a cloud climatology). This model also includes a standard set of physiological parameters which account for the light capture by algae and for the use of this radiant energy in photosynthesis. This model allows a climatology of ψ* the cross section for photosynthesis per unit of areal chlorophyll, to be produced and then convoluted with the biomass maps after they have been averaged and composited. On average and for the whole western Mediterranean, the pigment concentration in the upper layer is about 0.25 mg Chl m-3, leading to an areal mean concentration of 21 mg Chl m-2. The maximum (bloom) occurs in early May in all zones. Seasonal variations in algal biomass are much more marked in the northern part than in the southern part (apart from Alboran Sea); the south Tyrrhenian basin and the central part of the Algerian basin are steadily oligotrophic. The mean annual carbon fixation rate for the whole basin is about 94 g C m-2 yr-1, or 106 and 87, for the northern and southern basins when separately considered. The seasonality is expressed by a six-fold change in the production rate (between February and May) within the northern zone, whereas only a two-fold change occurs in the southern zone between the same months. These estimates, which compare well with previous episodic field data, considerably extend our knowledge of

  20. Monitoring runoff and nutrient transport in the coastal zone of a Danish lowland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering Ovesen, Niels; Windolf, Jørgen; Kronvang, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Denmark has a very long coastline compared to its total area, and therefore large parts of the lower river reaches are influenced by tidal and coastal backwater effects. This situation makes it impossible to gauge the water discharge and nutrient loadings to many fjords and marine inland waters when utilizing traditional methods. Consequently, only 50 percent of the country is covered with gauging stations even though more than 400 gauging stations are established. We are today using models to estimate the total water runoff and nutrient loadings to coastal waters from ungauged areas (See Windolf et al., 2011). One major problem relates, however, to the calibration of the modeling system as we are lacking data from the lower ungauged part of Danish river systems. In order to investigate the possibilities of improving the Danish gauging network and to test the models used for simulation of runoff and nutrient load estimation in else ungauged areas, a new monitoring station was established in the summer of 2011 in the River Skjern very close to the outlet in Ringkjøbing Fjord at the west coast of Jutland, Denmark. The new monitoring station covers a 393 km2 ungauged area. The hydraulic conditions at this new gauging station are affected by tidal and backwater effects and the nutrient transport may be influenced by stratified flow conditions. The catchment area to the new gauging is 2550 km2. The velocity distribution is measured in the profile by both horizontal and vertical multi cell Doppler sensors. Conductivity, turbidity and water temperature is measured by sensors in 2 levels, near the channel bed and in the upper part of the depth profile. Time integrated water samples are also collected in 2 depth levels as composite samples with every a 2 hour interval, together with simple grab samples. All water samples are analyzed for total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorous, and phosphate. The wind speed and direction is registered at the station. The

  1. Measurements of the Balance of Subsidence and Sedimentation in the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Davis, J. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Bulbul, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of rising sea levels, the balance of land subsidence, sea level rise and sedimentation is critical for low-lying deltaic regions. Deltas commonly experience subsidence due to compaction of their thick sediment accumulations and other processes. Many are susceptible to growth faulting and seaward collapse of the sediment pile on detachment layers (salt and/or shales) leading to even greater subsidence. We present evidence for moderate subsidence rates and continuing active sedimentation at the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. Subsidence rates are based on continuous GPS, including three new coastal stations established in 2012, hourly tide gauge data for 1977-2012 at 16 sites, two historical sites with ages of 300 years (salt-making kilns) and 400 years (Hindu temple), and sedimentation accumulation rates of near-sea-level deposits from hand-drilled tube wells. Results so far suggest that most sites are subsiding at 3-4 mm/y, although some higher rates are recorded. Updated estimates for subsidence will be presented. Two sets of vertical optical strainmeters record sediment compaction and inform its variation with depth. Sedimentation estimates based on sedimentation plots, marker horizons, and surface elevation tables (SETs) suggest that accumulation rates in natural areas near the coast currently compensate for relative subsidence, whereas human-modified areas farther inland receive insufficient sediment and are at risk. We hypothesize that the moderate subsidence rate of the delta is due to buttressing of the margin by the continental rise. The slope-rise break is shallow at 1 km water depth due to the high sediment supply feeding the Bengal Fan. Thus the thick wedge of continental rise sediments rise higher than the top of the weak overpressured sediments in the delta that could act as a décollement surface. This prevents the seaward collapse of the delta and associated higher rates of subsidence.

  2. Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in a Crowded Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J.

    2016-12-01

    Offshore aquaculture is an emerging industry predicted to contribute significantly to global seafood production and food security. However, aquaculture farms can generate conflicts by displacing existing ocean user groups and impacting ecosystems. Further, there are multiple farm types with different seafood species, productivity levels and impacts. Thus, it is important to strategically and simultaneously plan farm type and location in relation to the seascape in order to most effectively maximize aquaculture value while also minimizing conflicts and environmental impacts. We address this problem and demonstrate the value of multi-objective planning with a case study that integrates bioeconomic modeling with ecosystem service tradeoff analysis to inform the marine spatial planning (MSP) of mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture farms in the already-crowded Southern California Bight (SCB) ecosystem. We considered four user groups predicted to conflict with or be impacted by the three types of aquaculture: wild-capture fisheries, ocean viewshed from coastal properties, marine benthic habitat protection, and risk of disease outbreak between farms. Results indicate that significant conflicts and impacts, expected under conventional planning, can be reduced by strategic planning. For example, 28% of potential mussel farm sites overlap with wild-capture halibut fishery grounds, yet MSP can enable mussel aquaculture to generate up to a third of its total potential industry value without impacting halibut fishery yield. Results also highlight hotspot areas in the SCB most appropriate for each type of aquaculture under MSP, as well as particular mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture spatial plans that align with legislative regulations on allowable impacts from future aquaculture farms in California. This study comprehensively informs aquaculture farm design in the SCB, and demonstrates the value of multi-objective simultaneous planning as a key component in MSP.

  3. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  4. Acoustic measurement of sediment dynamics in the coastal zones using wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakaran, A., II; Paramasivam, A.; Seshachalam, S.; A, C.

    2014-12-01

    Analyzing of the impact of constructive or low energy waves and deconstructive or high energy waves in the ocean are very much significant since they deform the geometry of seashore. The deformation may lead to productive result and also to the end of deteriorate damage. Constructive waves results deposition of sediment which widens the beach where as deconstructive waves results erosion which narrows the beach. Validation of historic sediment transportation and prediction of the direction of movement of seashore is essential to prevent unrecoverable damages by incorporating precautionary measurements to identify the factors that influence sediment transportation if feasible. The objective of this study is to propose a more reliable and energy efficient Information and communication system to model the Coastal Sediment Dynamics. Various factors influencing the sediment drift at a particular region is identified. Consequence of source depth and frequency dependencies of spread pattern in the presence of sediments is modeled. Property of source depth and frequency on sensitivity to values of model parameters are determined. Fundamental physical reasons for these sediment interaction effects are given. Shallow to deep water and internal and external wave model of ocean is obtained intended to get acoustic data assimilation (ADA). Signal processing algorithms are used over the observed data to form a full field acoustic propagation model and construct sound speed profile (SSP). The inversions of data due to uncertainties at various depths are compared. The impact of sediment drift over acoustic data is identified. An energy efficient multipath routing scheme Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is deployed for the well-organized communication of data. The WSN is designed considering increased life time, decreased power consumption, free of threats and attacks. The practical data obtained from the efficient system to model the ocean sediment dynamics are evaluated with remote

  5. Managing dredged material in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Boniecka, Helena

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the legal and practical recommendations for the management of dredged material in the riparian countries of the Baltic Sea. The recommendations are contained in three conventions: LC, 2000. London Convention (1972), Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea area (Helsinki Convention) (1992), the OSPAR Convention (1972). Different approaches to evaluating the contamination level of dredge spoils, used by the Baltic Sea riparian countries, have been characterized. The differences in those approaches manifest themselves by various concentration limits for contaminants, which form a basis for the classification of dredged material as either contaminated or non-contaminated, and thus determine how the spoils will be processed further. Based on the collected information about the concentration limits for contaminants of surface sediments in the coastal ports, it was pointed out that it is necessary to conduct routine monitoring of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, tributyltin, and petroleum hydrocarbons in dredged sediments in all the Baltic Sea states. On the other hand, the monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, organochlorine, and organophosphoric pesticides is only needed in locations that are suspected of historical or being the local contamination sources. Due to significant economic limitations of chemical determinations, it is important to consider a simple screening test of sediment that would say whether sediment may be "contaminated" and qualifies for more detailed and costly chemical research. It may be typical basic physical-chemical analysis of sediments or ecotoxicological classification of sediments.Despite environmentally friendly tendencies, the practical application of dredged material within the Baltic Sea area is very limited. Dredged material is most frequently stored at the specifically designated sites. From among the practical uses of

  6. [Medusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from a coastal upwelling zone, Culebra Bay, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sáenz, Karina; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Segura-Puertas, Lourdes

    2012-12-01

    The hydromedusae have an important role in marine trophic webs due to their predatory feeding habits. This is the first study of this group of gelatinous marine zooplankton in a coastal upwelling area of Central America. The composition and abundance variability of hydromedusae were studied during six months in 1999 at four stations in Culebra Bay, Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (10 degrees 37' N-85 degrees 40' W). A total of 53 species were identified, of which 26 are new records for Costa Rica, 21 are new records for Central America, and eight are new records for the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The more abundant species (more than 30% of the total abundance) were Liriope tetraphylla, Solmundella bitentaculata and Aglaura hemistoma. Six species occurred throughout the sampling period, 10 were present only during the dry season (December-April), and 17 were so during the rainy season (May-November). Significant differences of medusan abundances were found between seasons (dry vs. rainy). Maximum abundance (2.1 +/- 4.3ind./m3) was recorded when upwelled deeper water influenced the Bay, as indicated by local higher oxygen concentrations and lower water temperatures. The relatively high species richness of medusae found in Culebra Bay is probably related to factors like the pristine condition of the Bay, the arrival of oceanic species transported by the Equatorial Counter Current (ECC), the eastward shoaling of the Costa Rica Dome, and local currents. Illustrations of the 15 more important species are included to facilitate their identification and foster future work in the region.

  7. Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in a Crowded Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J.

    2016-02-01

    Offshore aquaculture is an emerging industry predicted to contribute significantly to global seafood production and food security. However, aquaculture farms can generate conflicts by displacing existing ocean user groups and impacting ecosystems. Further, there are multiple farm types with different seafood species, productivity levels and impacts. Thus, it is important to strategically and simultaneously plan farm type and location in relation to the seascape in order to most effectively maximize aquaculture value while also minimizing conflicts and environmental impacts. We address this problem and demonstrate the value of multi-objective planning with a case study that integrates bioeconomic modeling with ecosystem service tradeoff analysis to inform the marine spatial planning (MSP) of mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture farms in the already-crowded Southern California Bight (SCB) ecosystem. We considered four user groups predicted to conflict with or be impacted by the three types of aquaculture: wild-capture fisheries, ocean viewshed from coastal properties, marine benthic habitat protection, and risk of disease outbreak between farms. Results indicate that significant conflicts and impacts, expected under conventional planning, can be reduced by strategic planning. For example, 28% of potential mussel farm sites overlap with wild-capture halibut fishery grounds, yet MSP can enable mussel aquaculture to generate up to a third of its total potential industry value without impacting halibut fishery yield. Results also highlight hotspot areas in the SCB most appropriate for each type of aquaculture under MSP, as well as particular mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture spatial plans that align with legislative regulations on allowable impacts from future aquaculture farms in California. This study comprehensively informs aquaculture farm design in the SCB, and demonstrates the value of multi-objective simultaneous planning as a key component in MSP.

  8. Features of hydrocarbon distribution in the coastal zone of the northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Onegina, V. D.; Konovalov, B. V.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and bottom sediments are reported as compared to the distribution of total organic carbon, suspended particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll for the Greater Sochi area and the Gelendzhik and Blue bays. It is established that an influx of oil products leads to the increase of hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and bottom sediments, thus providing the present-day hydrocarbon background. Active transformation of organic matter in the water succession and on the water-bottom interface results in the prevalence of natural components in alkanes in spite of the high hydrocarbon concentrations (119-262 μg/g). The river-seawater mixing zone serves as a geochemical barrier preventing the influx of most pollutants delivered by rivers into open sea.

  9. Recent Monitoring of Suspended Sediment Patterns along Louisiana's Coastal Zone using ER-2 based MAS Data and Terra Based MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, M. M.; Menzel, W. P.; Huh, O. K.; Walker, N. D.; Rouse, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    The University nf Wisconsin and Louisiana State University have teamed to study the forcing of winter season cold frontal wind systems on sediment distribution patterns and geomorphology in the Louisiana coastal zone. Wind systems associated with cold fronts have been shown to model coastal circulation and resuspend sediments along the micro tidal Louisiana coast (Roberts et at. 1987, Moeller et al. 1993). Remote sensing data is being used to map and track sediment distribution patterns for various wind conditions. Suspended sediment is a building material for coastal progradation and wetlands renewal, but also restricts access to marine nursery environments and impacts oyster bed health. Transferring a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) algorithm to EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Barnes et al. 1998) observations may enable estimates of SSC globally.

  10. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight - Comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates. [Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Brown, J. W.; Clark, D. K.; Brown, O. B.; Evans, R. H.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll-a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and also to Sargasso Sea waters. In all, four images are examined, and the resulting pigment concentrations are compared to continuous measurements made along ship tracks. The results suggest that over the 0.08-1.5 mg/cu m range, the error in the retrieved pigment concentration is of the order of 30-40% for a variety of atmospheric turbidities. In three direct comparisons between ship-measured and satellite-retrieved values of the water-leaving radiance, the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieved the water-leaving radiance with an average error of about 10%. This atmospheric correction algorithm does not require any surface measurements for its application.

  11. Benthic foraminifera from the coastal zone of Baia (Naples, Italy): assemblage distribution and modification as tools for environmental characterisation.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Luisa; Romano, Elena; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Venti, Francesco; Bianchi, Jessica; Colasanti, Andrea; Ausili, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    The coastal zone of Baia (Naples) is currently included in a protected marine area, but in past it was affected by strong anthropogenic pressure for commercial harbour activity. In order to investigate the impact of past activities, a multidisciplinary characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the environmental quality of marine sediments. Thirty-six grab samples were collected for grain-size, heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs analyses. Rose Bengal stained replicates were taken for the analysis of benthic foraminifera. Chemical analyses highlighted sediment pollution mainly due to Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, PAHs and PCBs in the northern and southern part of the study area, where some sunken vessels had been present for many decades. Modifications of foraminiferal diversity and density, and increased percentage of abnormal specimens, were considered as indicators of environmental degradation. Correlation between faunal parameters and pollutant concentrations was found by means of statistical analysis. The highest degree of environmental stress shown by foraminifera in the northern sector could be referable to the high concentrations of PCBs (up to 144 ng g(-1) d.w.).

  12. Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.

  13. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh - Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Luong Chinh; Van Trang, Ho Thi; Liem, Vu Huu; Tuong, Tran Ngoc; Duyen, Pham Thi

    2015-06-01

    The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%): ±4.37 (mg/l) 3.86 (mg/l), 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l), 48.30 (mg/l), 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l), 23.38 (mg/l), 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water - Air - Land.

  14. Estuarine and coastal zone marine pollution by the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates endocrine disrupters: is there a potential ecotoxicological problem?

    PubMed

    Zoller, Uri

    2006-02-01

    The nonionic biodegradation-resistant ("hard") alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants and their degradation products are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We report here the findings concerning the APEOs concentrations and homologic distribution profiles in Israel's estuarine and coastal zone seawater to serve as a case study. The concentrations in sewage-containing rivers, estuaries and 50-60-m offshore sea (Mediterranean) water were found to be 12.5-75.1, 4.2-25.0 and 0.9-2.6 microg/L, respectively. The corresponding homologic distribution profiles were found to be within the range of 1-10% each, somewhat skewing, as expected, towards the more toxic shorter-chain ethoxylates. Egg production by zebrafish, exposed to 75, 25 and 10 microg/L of a typical industrial APEOs was reduced up to 89.6%, 84.7% and 76.9%, respectively, between the 8th and 28th days of exposure. Apparently, there is a potential APEOs-related ecotoxicological health risk problem.

  15. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in two contrastive fringing zones of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Mitsuru; Senga, Yukiko; Seike, Yasushi; Nohara, Seiichi; Kunii, Hidenobu

    2007-06-01

    We measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) simultaneously in two typical fringing zones, sandy shore and salt marsh, of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan, in mid-summer 2003. Our aim was to quantify net the greenhouse gases (GHGs) fluxes and examine key factors, which control variation of the GHGs fluxes in the two sites. Net CO(2) and CH(4) fluxes were markedly different between the two sites; magnitudes and variations of the both fluxes in sandy shore were lower than those of salt marsh. Meanwhile, magnitude and variation of net N(2)O flux in the two sites were similar. In sandy shore, temporal and spatial variation of the three GHGs fluxes were highly controlled by water level fluctuation derived from astronomic tide. In salt marsh, spatial variation of the three GHGs fluxes were correlated with aboveground biomass, and temporal variation of CO(2) and CH(4) fluxes were correlated with soil temperature. The sum of global warming potential, which was roughly estimated using the observed GHGs fluxes, was ca. 174-fold higher in salt marsh than in sandy shore.

  16. PREFACE: 1st METECH workshop - From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying Palaeoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga-Pires, C.; St-Onge, G.

    2008-10-01

    Reconstructing past climate and past ocean circulation demands the highest possible precision and accuracy which urges the scientific community to look at different sediment records such as the ones from coastal zones to deep-sea with a more complete set of technical and methodological tools. However, the information given by each tool varies in precision, accuracy and in significance according to their environmental settings. It is therefore essential to compare tools. With that in mind, and as part of the International year of Planet Earth, a workshop entitled `From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying palaeoenvironments' took place in Faro (Portugal), from 25-29 February 2008 in order to: present several methods and techniques that can be used for studying sediments from deep-sea to coastal zones, namely for reconstructing palaeoenvironments in order to document past climatic changes and short to long-term environmental processes; allow cross experience between different fields and specialties, either from deep-sea to coastal zones or from micropaleontology to geochemistry; give the opportunity to students from different universities and countries to attend the workshop; publish a special volume on the presented methods and techniques during the workshop. The workshop was organized in four non-parallel sessions dealing with the use of micropaleontology, isotopes, biogeochemistry and sedimentology, as tools for palaeoenvironmental studies. The present IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science proceedings reflect this organization and papers are published in each theme. The papers are either short reviews or case studies and are highlighted below. The remains of microorganisms found in sediments are the main proxies used in micropaleontological studies. However, the link between fossilized remains and their living origin is not easy to reconstruct only based on the geologic/sedimentary record. Accordingly, Barbosa presents a

  17. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight - Comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates. [Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Brown, J. W.; Clark, D. K.; Brown, O. B.; Evans, R. H.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll-a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and also to Sargasso Sea waters. In all, four images are examined, and the resulting pigment concentrations are compared to continuous measurements made along ship tracks. The results suggest that over the 0.08-1.5 mg/cu m range, the error in the retrieved pigment concentration is of the order of 30-40% for a variety of atmospheric turbidities. In three direct comparisons between ship-measured and satellite-retrieved values of the water-leaving radiance, the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieved the water-leaving radiance with an average error of about 10%. This atmospheric correction algorithm does not require any surface measurements for its application.

  18. Hyporheic Zones in Coastal Streams: Filters for Removal of Agricultural Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, A. L.; Hornberger, G. M.; Herman, J. S.; Chauhan, M. J.; Galavotti, H. S.

    2002-12-01

    The Eastern Shore of Virginia comprises about 35-40% active cropland which receives extensive nitrogen fertilization to support corn, wheat, soybeans, tomatoes and cotton. The unconfined Columbia aquifer contains NO3- at concentrations of 8 to 25 mg N L-1. The low relief streams that drain the peninsula into the seaside lagoons, and are fed from groundwater under both base flow and flood conditions, contain a wide range of NO3- concentrations, 0.5 to 10 mg N L-1, but all of the streams have a much lower NO3- concentration than the aquifers charging them. In Cobb Mill Creek, the change in NO3- concentration is from 10-12 mg L-1 in the groundwater to 1-2 mg L-1 in the stream under base flow conditions. Piezometers inserted into this stream indicate the NO3- is removed from the water within a zone of 1 m below the stream sediment surface. Removal of these amounts of NO3- from the water over such a short distance suggests the mechanism for removal is bacterial denitrification. The overall impact of the removal was determined by modeling the NO3- loading into the seaside lagoons under base flow conditions from all the streams draining into the lagoons. Discharge and NO3- measurements were made for a number of seaside streams. A watershed area - stream discharge relationship was established with those data that allowed estimation of the discharge from the remaining streams. NO3- concentrations in the remaining streams was estimated by the relationship between the % cropland in the watershed and the NO3- concentration in the stream. Annual NO3- loading into the seaside lagoons under base flow conditions is estimated to be about 2 x 105 kg NO3-- N per year. Estimated loading in the absence of agriculture (assuming all cropland was still unfertilized forest) was about 1 x 103 kg NO3-- N per year. Nevertheless, denitrification in the hyporheic zone apparently accounts for removal of about 8 x 105 kg NO3-- N per year, drastically reducing the enrichment of the lagoons by

  19. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  20. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2010-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO) is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the…