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Sample records for lithuanian locality relationships

  1. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  2. Lithuanians in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    This ethnic heritage unit is about Lithuanians in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Lithuania, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Lithuania, principal dates in Lithuanian history, Lithuanian historical figures, bibliography about Lithuanians, and a list of Lithuanian organizations in the United States. The…

  3. The Relationship between TOC and pH with Exchangeable Heavy Metal Levels in Lithuanian Podzols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaledian, Yones; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Pundyte, Neringa; Paliulis, Dainius

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals can have a negative impact on public and environmental health. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between total organic carbon (TOC) and pH with exchangeable heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in order to predict exchangeable heavy metal content in soils sampled near Panevėžys and Kaunas, Lithuania. Principal component regression (PCR) and nonlinear regression methods were tested to find the statistical relationship between TOC and pH with heavy metals. The results of PCR [R2 = 0.68, RMSE = 0.07] and non-linear regression [R2 = 0.74, RMSE= 0.065] (pH with TOC and exchangeable parameters) were statistically significant. However, this was not observed in the relationships of pH and TOC separately with exchangeable heavy metals. The results indicated that pH had a higher correlation with exchangeable heavy metals (non-linear regression [R2 = 0.72, RMSE= 0.066]) than TOC with heavy metals [R2 = 0.30, RMSE= 0.004]. It can be concluded that even though there was a strong relationship between TOC and pH with exchangeable metals, the metal mobility (exchangeable metals) can be explained by pH better than TOC in this study. Finally, manipulating soil pH could likely be productive to assess and control heavy metals when financial and time limitations exist (Khaledian et al. 2016). Reference(s) Khaledian Y, Pereira P, Brevik E.C, Pundyte N, Paliulis D. 2016. The Influence of Organic Carbon and pH on Heavy Metals, Potassium, and Magnesium Levels in Lithuanian Podzols. Land Degradation and Development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2638

  4. The BICAMS Battery for Assessment of Lithuanian-Speaking Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Relationship with Age, Education, Disease Disability, and Duration.

    PubMed

    Giedraitienė, Nataša; Kizlaitienė, Rasa; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2015-12-10

    BACKGROUND Assessment of cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is very useful, but it requires time-consuming expert evaluation with specialized materials. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was created as a brief and specific instrument for the evaluation of CI. The aims of this study were to assess the cognitive status of MS patients by using the Lithuanian version of BICAMS, to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Lithuanian version of BICAMS, and to measure the impact of CI on disability and duration of MS. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 50 MS patients and 20 cognitively normal control subjects, matched for age, gender, and level of education. Cognitive functions were assessed by the BICAMS tests, which include the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised, and the California Verbal Learning Test, 2nd edition. RESULTS MS patients performed significantly worse than controls on the 3 neuropsychological tests of BICAMS (p<0.001). Younger and intellectually employed persons performed significantly better on these tests than older persons, manual workers, or unemployed persons (p<0.05). MS patients with higher disability scores tended to perform worse on the tests (p<0.05), but we found no relationship between BICAMS test scores and the duration of the disease or relapse rate (p>0.05). Test-retest reliability was excellent for all 3 subtests (r>0.8, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that BICAMS is a valid and acceptable cognitive assessment tool that can be recommended for routine use in Lithuania for assessing patients with MS.

  5. Methodology of Lithuanian climate atlas mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiukas, Donatas; Galvonaitė, Audronė; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2015-06-01

    Climate atlases summarize large sets of quantitative and qualitative data and are results of complex analytical cartographic work. These special geographical publications summarize long term meteorological observations, provide maps and figures which characterise different climate elements. Visual information is supplemented with explanatory texts. A lot of information on short and long term changes of climate elements were provided in published Lithuanian atlases (Atlas of Lithuanian SDR, 1981; Climate Atlas of Lithuania, 2013), as well as in prepared but unpublished Lithuanian Atlas (1989) and in upcoming new national atlas publications (National Atlas of Lithuania. 1st part, 2014). Climate atlases has to be constantly updated to be relevant and to describe current climate conditions. Comprehensive indicators of Lithuanian climate are provided in different cartographic publications. Different time periods, various data sets and diverse cartographic data analysis tools and visualisation methods were used in these different publications.

  6. The relationship between birth weight, adiposity rebound and overweight at the age of 17 years (results of the Lithuanian longitudinal growth study, 1990 - 2008).

    PubMed

    Suchomlinov, Andrej; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between overweight and obesity at the age of 17 years with a birth weight and time of an adiposity rebound. The results were based on data (N = 1535) collected from the personal health records of children born in 1990 in Vilnius city and region. The further growth of newborns with normal (3000 - 3999 g), suboptimal (2500 - 2999 g) and large (≥ 4000 g) birth weight was analyzed. Statistically significant results (p < 0.05) were obtained in girls: at the age of 17, the BMI of suboptimal, normal and large birth weight females was 19.87 ± 2.23 kg/m², 20.98 ± 2.78 kg/m² and 22.20 ± 3.52 kg/m² respectively. We also found that children with large birth weight had the highest risk to become overweight or obese later in their life. Both boys and girls overweight at the age of 17 had an earlier adiposity rebound (at the age of 5 years) in comparison with non-overweight children (their adiposity rebound had happened at the age of 6 - 7 years). However, the majority of children with an early adiposity rebound did not become overweight on the subsequent age period at once - it might happen later, already at the adolescence. Thus it is very important to carefully screen the growth of preschool children and start preventive measures against the overweight and obesity as early as possible.

  7. Translating the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) into Lithuanian.

    PubMed

    Viliū nienė, Rima; Evans, Chris; Hilbig, Jan; Pakalniškienė, Vilmantė; Danilevičiūtė, Vita; Laurinaitis, Eugenijus; Navickas, Alvydas

    2013-10-01

    There are no standardized tools in Lithuanian feasible for ongoing routine use to measure the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment. The CORE-OM is a widely used 34-item self-report measure for such purpose. To explore the reliability, validity and sensitivity of the Lithuanian translation of CORE-OM questionnaire. A validation study of the CORE-OM was conducted in the psychiatric clinic attached to Vilnius University. A Lithuanian translation of the English original CORE-OM was prepared by a team of translators. Then 39 psychotherapy outpatients and 187 students were asked to complete the Lithuanian version of the CORE-OM; 66 were tested twice to determine test-retest stability. Analysis included both internal and test-retest reliability, acceptability, influence of gender, principal component analysis and criteria for reliable and clinically significant change. Internal and test-retest reliability were good (0.61-0.94), though somewhat lower for the risk domain (α: 0.57-0.79, Spearman's rho 0.25-0.60). Differences between scores of the clinical and non-clinical samples were large and significant (P < 0.001). Some of the Lithuanian criteria for clinically significant change were a bit lower than those of the original UK criteria (e.g. well-being) and others higher (symptoms, functioning, overall score), illustrating the need for local exploration. In spite of small differences in psychometric properties from the original, the Lithuanian version of the CORE-OM was reliable and sensitive in both clinical and non-clinical settings. It has the potential to become a practical, sensitive and reliable tool for psychotherapists in Lithuania.

  8. Difficulties in emotion regulation and risky driving among Lithuanian drivers.

    PubMed

    Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina

    2017-10-03

    Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.

  9. Ethnolect Debate: Evidence from Jewish Lithuanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept of Jewish Lithuanian as a range of post-Yiddish varieties spoken by some Jews in Lithuania and seeks to synthesise findings in contemporary ethnolect studies and in the field of Jewish language research. The legitimacy of the term "ethnolect" is questioned by some researchers; however, it is argued that…

  10. Ethnolect Debate: Evidence from Jewish Lithuanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept of Jewish Lithuanian as a range of post-Yiddish varieties spoken by some Jews in Lithuania and seeks to synthesise findings in contemporary ethnolect studies and in the field of Jewish language research. The legitimacy of the term "ethnolect" is questioned by some researchers; however, it is argued that…

  11. [Medical Service of the Lithuanian Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Ivanov, V V; Krassii, A B; Mironov, V G; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin A A

    2016-01-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of Lithuanian Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Lithuania, its Armed Forces, and their, medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described, with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  12. Lithuanian Students' Choice of University: A Consumer Value Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkute, Darija

    2017-01-01

    Increasing competition within the Lithuanian educational market has paved the way for an analysis of the complex choice processes enrollees undergo in selecting a higher education institution. This research examines the concept of consumer value and its interpretation in the Lithuanian higher education setting. Based on data collected from 445…

  13. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija. PMID:22619615

  14. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    PubMed

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  15. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Reliability and validity of the Lithuanian Tinnitus Handicap Inventory.

    PubMed

    Ulozienė, Ingrida; Balnytė, Renata; Alzbutienė, Giedrė; Arechvo, Irina; Vaitkus, Antanas; Šileikaitė, Milda; Šaferis, Viktoras; Ulozas, Virgilijus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Lithuanian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), a self-report measure of perceived tinnitus handicap. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was performed in the University Hospital. A total of 248 subjects reporting chronic tinnitus as their primary complaint or secondary to hearing loss were encluded in the study and filled in the Lithuanian version of THI. For assessment of construct validity a subgroup of 55 participants completed the Lithuanian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as a measure of self-perceived levels of anxiety and depression. Test-retest and internal consistency reliability as well as construct validity were calculated. The Lithuanian version of the THI and its subscales showed a robust internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.93) comparable to the original version. Statistically significant correlations were observed between the Lithuanian translation of the THI and the measures of self-perceived levels of anxiety and depression using HADS. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the three subscales of the THI Lithuanian version corresponded to three different factors, which strongly correlated between themselves. The results suggest that the Lithuanian version of THI maintains its original validity and may serve as reliable and valid measure of general tinnitus related distress that can be used in a clinical setting to quantify the impact of tinnitus on daily living. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems.

    PubMed

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Darulis, Zilvinas; Zekas, Romualdas

    2005-11-09

    Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships) and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities). To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. The restructuring of health care system in Lithuania should be based on a balance between

  18. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems

    PubMed Central

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Darulis, Žilvinas; Žekas, Romualdas

    2005-01-01

    Background Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships) and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities). To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. Discussion In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. Summary The restructuring of health care system in Lithuania should be

  19. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  20. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  1. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  2. Relationship between conductance fluctuation and weak localization in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, D.; Fukuda, A.; Fujimoto, A.; Ohno, Y.; Kanai, Y.; Matsumoto, K.

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between the universal conductance fluctuation and the weak localization effect in monolayer graphene is investigated. By comparing experimental results with the predictions of the weak localization theory for graphene, we find that the ratio of the elastic intervalley scattering time to the inelastic dephasing time varies in accordance with the conductance fluctuation; this is a clear evidence connecting the universal conductance fluctuation with the weak localization effect. We also find a series of scattering lengths that are related to the phase shifts caused by magnetic flux by Fourier analysis.

  3. Lithuanian women physicists: Current situation and involvement in gender projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkūnienė, Živilė; Kupliauskienė, Alicija

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the situation of women in physics since the last Lithuanian country report are discussed on the basis of available statistics. The overall percentage of women physicists in research is 28%. Results show that there is a noticeable increase in female scientists in most phases of the academic career progression except in the highest positions. The results also show a permanent change in the awareness of gender-related issues in research. We also discuss the initiatives taken by Lithuanian women scientists to change the situation during three last years and their outcomes.

  4. The prevalence of malocclusion among 7-15-year-old Lithuanian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatiene, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological data on the prevalence of malocclusion is an important determinant in planning appropriate levels of orthodontic services. The occurrence of occlusal anomalies varies between different countries, ethnic and age groups. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of malocclusion among Lithuanian schoolchildren in the 7-9-, 10-12-, and 13-15-year age groups assessing occlusal morphology. The study included 1681 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years. The crowding, spacing, overbite, overjet, the relationship of the first upper and lower molars according Angle's classification, and posterior crossbite were assessed. The study demonstrated that only 257 children had normal occlusion, and 44 had undergone orthodontic treatment among them. The greatest overjet in the studied contingent was 11 mm, and the negative overjet - 3 mm. The overbite ranged between 0 and 6 mm with a mean of 2.29+/-1.23 mm. Posterior crossbite was recorded in 148 children (8.8%). This study showed that the prevalence of malocclusion among 7-15-year-old Lithuanian schoolchildren is 84.6%. The most common malocclusion was dental crowding. The upper dental arch crowding was registered for 44.1% and lower for 40.3% of all schoolchildren. The class I molar relationship was detected in 68.4% of the subjects, class II - in 27.7%, and class III - in 2.8%.

  5. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2010-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO) is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the…

  6. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  7. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians

    PubMed Central

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Greičiuvienė, Jūratė; Šukienė, Laura; Juškevičiūtė, Neringa; Benner, Christian; Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Ripatti, Samuli; Donner, Kati; Kainov, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS) in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT), which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases) and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05). Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008). Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians. PMID:26214689

  8. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  9. Locally Epistatic Genomic Relationship Matrices for Genomic Association and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Deniz; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    In plant and animal breeding studies a distinction is made between the genetic value (additive plus epistatic genetic effects) and the breeding value (additive genetic effects) of an individual since it is expected that some of the epistatic genetic effects will be lost due to recombination. In this article, we argue that the breeder can take advantage of the epistatic marker effects in regions of low recombination. The models introduced here aim to estimate local epistatic line heritability by using genetic map information and combining local additive and epistatic effects. To this end, we have used semiparametric mixed models with multiple local genomic relationship matrices with hierarchical designs. Elastic-net postprocessing was used to introduce sparsity. Our models produce good predictive performance along with useful explanatory information. PMID:25614606

  10. Local IRBs vs. federal agencies: shifting dynamics, systems, and relationships.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    How IRBs relate to federal agencies, and the implications of these relationships, have received little, if any, systematic study. I interviewed 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators, and members, contacting the leadership of 60 U.S. IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by NIH funding), interviewing IRB leaders from 34 (response rate=55%). IRBs describe complex direct and indirect relationships with federal agencies that affect IRBs through audits, guidance documents, and other communications, and can generate problems and challenges. Researchers often blame IRBs for frustrations, but IRBs often serve as the "local face" of federal regulations and agencies and are "stuck in the middle." These data have critical implications for policy, practice, and research.

  11. Instantaneous relationship between solar inertial and local vertical local horizontal attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickery, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The instantaneous relationship between the Solar Inertial (SI) and Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) coordinate systems is derived. A method is presented for computation of the LVLH to SI rotational transformation matrix as a function of an input LVLH attitude and the corresponding look angles to the sun. Logic is provided for conversion between LVLH and SI attitudes expressed in terms of a pitch, yaw, roll Euler sequence. Documentation is included for a program which implements the logic on the Hewlett-Packard 97 programmable calculator.

  12. Lithuanian Freedom Fighters’ Tactics Resisting the Soviet Occupation 1944-1953

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    Nazi efforts to recruit Lithuanian SS battalions, organizing an underground nationalistic press, etc., the overall goal of clandestine...assign SS -related tasks to the newly formed unit, General Povilas Plechavičius refused to comply. Therefore, soon after creation of the Lithuanian...Territorial Defense Force the Germans realized that the unit was pro-Lithuanian and posed a threat to the Nazi regime. As a result, the Germans arrested

  13. Deterrence and Reassurance in Lithuanian-Russian Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    negative light by Russian defense planners. Moreover, as the Russian Ambassador to NATO, General Konstantin Totskiy, emphasized, there is concern...Baltic Region, 63-65. 50 Konstantin Totsky Interview, NATO Review, Winter 2003, available at http//www.nato.int/docu/review/2003issue3... Rogozin , by raising the “problem of Russian citizens’ transit through Lithuanian territory,” sought to block the Duma hearings on the border treaty.151 On

  14. Use of dental radiography among Lithuanian general dentists.

    PubMed

    Peciuliene, Vytaute; Rimkuviene, Jurate; Maneliene, Rasma; Drukteinis, Saulius

    2009-01-01

    To gather information about the radiographic facilities and techniques used by Lithuanian general dentists. Questionnaires were sent to all 2879 Lithuanian dental practitioners registered on the Lithuanian Dental Chamber licence registry data list. The questionnaire was made with multiple-choice answers. Respondents were invited to choose the only one category of answer that best fitted their clinical attitude. Questions included in the present survey concerned general and specific information regarding peculiarities of radiographic imaging. Only answers of respondents who are licensed as general dentists were included in this study. From the 2850 questionnaires mailed 1532 were returned. The response rate was 53.8%. Of the total responses 1431 questionnaires were received from licensed general dentists. Of total 956 dentists practiced in urban and 576 dentists in rural areas. 61.6% of respondents had access to an intra-oral radiographic unit in their practice and 91.5% of them used dental radiography always or often as the diagnostic tool. To support the film packet in the patient's mouth alternatively film holder or patient's finger was used by 48% of respondents, while film holder was used only by 19.3% of dentists. Recently graduated dental practitioners more common used diagnostic radiography in endodontic pathology than dentists with a longer time from graduation. Film holder was not a popular device among general dental practitioners to perform periapical radioraphs. It is important to improve the existing dental curriculum to ensure the necessary competency when using dental radiography and film holders routinely in clinical practice.

  15. Validation of the Lithuanian Version of the Speech Handicap Index.

    PubMed

    Pribuisiene, Ruta; Liutkevicius, Vykintas; Pribuisis, Kipras; Uloza, Virgilijus

    2017-05-29

    The objective is to study the cultural adaptation and validation of the Speech Handicap Index (SHI) questionnaire to the Lithuanian language. Cultural adaptation and validation of the translated Lithuanian version of the SHI (SHI-LT) was performed as described by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. The SHI-LT was completed by 46 patients after total laryngectomy and by 60 healthy subjects of the control group. Validity and reliability of the SHI-LT were evaluated. The SHI-LT showed a statistically significant high internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.96-0.98). Good validity of SHI-LT was reflected by statistically significant (P < 0.001) difference between the mean scores of the patients and control groups (74.7 ± 26.9 and 5.5 ± 6.5, respectively). No age or gender dependence of SHI-LT was found (P > 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic test indicated that SHI-LT scores exceeding 17.0 points (cutoff value) distinguish patients from healthy controls, with a sensitivity of 97.8% and specificity of 95.0%. SHI-LT is considered to be a valid and reliable speech assessment tool for Lithuanian-speaking patients after laryngectomy. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Leesburg, Virginia, Service Club Introduces Lithuanian Communities to American Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raflo, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Describes how Kiwanis club members in Leesburg, Virginia, organized a successful trip to two Lithuanian communities without government support. U.S. visitors spoke to Lithuanians about the role of small businesses and civic clubs in the United States. Possible outcomes of the trip include continuing connections between businesses and between…

  17. The local metallicity-surface brightness relationship in galactic disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Stuart D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a first attempt to employ multiaperture masks to obtain spectrophotometry of H II regions in nearby galaxies. A total of 97 H II regions in six southern spiral galaxies were observed using a combination of multiaperture masks and conventional long-slit spectrophotometry. The oxygen abundances derived from the multiaperture mask observations using the empirical abundance diagnostic R(sub 23) are shown to be consistent with those from long-slit spectra and generally show better reproducibility and object definition. Although the number of objects that can be observed simultaneously with this particular system is still quite limited compared with either imaging spectrophotometry or fiber-fed spectrographs, the spectral resolution offered and high throughput in the blue help make multiaperture spectrophotometry a competitive technique for increasing the sampling of H II regions in both radial distance and luminosity. There is still no clear trend of abundance gradient with either the galaxy's luminosity or its Hubble type, although the extrapolated central abundance does appear to correlate with galaxy luminosity/mass. In order to avoid difficulty in choosing an appropriate normalizing radius, we instead plot the oxygen abundance against the underlying I-band surface brightness at the radial distance of the H II region and confirm the existence of a local metallicity-surface brightness reltaionship within the disks of spiral galaxies. Although the simple closed-boc model of galaxy evolution predicts almost the right form of this relationship, a more realistic multizone model employing expnentially decreasing gas infall provides a more satisfactory fit to the observational data, provided the expected enriched gas return from dying low-mass stars shedding their envelopes at late epochs is properly taken into account. This same model, with a star formation law based upon self-regulating star formation in a three-dimensional disk (Dopita & Ryder

  18. Lithuanian female physicists: Reality and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienë, Dalia; Giriūnienë, Ramutë; Ruželë, Živilë; Rutkūnienë, Živilë

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the issue of women in physics in Lithuanian in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics are discussed on the basis of statistics as well as an exploratory study recently conducted among women physicists. The situation has changed slowly since 2008. However, the study shows that women physicists more clearly understand the inequities and the need for changes, including an active European Union mainstreaming policy targeted to ensure gender equality in the sciences, which gives hope for accelerating changes. Continued plans for improving women physicists' situation in Lithuania are discussed.

  19. Lithuanian female physicists: Reality and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Giriunienė, Ramutė; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkunienė, Živilė

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the issue of women in physics in Lithuanian in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics are discussed on the basis of statistics as well as an exploratory study recently conducted among women physicists. The situation has changed slowly since 2008. However, the study shows that women physicists more clearly understand the inequities and the need for changes, including an active European Union mainstreaming policy targeted to ensure gender equality in the sciences, which gives hope for accelerating changes. Continued plans for improving women physicists' situation in Lithuania are discussed.

  20. Clinical cosmobiology: The Lithuanian study 1990 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu; Petrauskiene, Jadviga; Kalediene, Ramune; Abramson, Evgeny; Sulkes, Jacqueline

    1995-12-01

    The numbers of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), all accidents except vehicular, vehicular accidents and suicide (overall total, totals for men and women) per month for 36 months (1990 1992) in Lithuania were analysed in relation to: (1) month of the year (1 12); (2) geomagnetic activity; and (3) solar activity. A total of 122227 deaths (64490 men and 57737 women) was studied, and the results compared with those obtained in an earlier study in Israel, differing geographically and climatically from Lithuania. It was shown that the time of year, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity were related to the monthly death distribution, especially regarding death from IHD and suicide. Age and gender differences were apparent in the relationship between death distribution and physical environmental factors. At age >70 years, many of these relationships change. The monthly distribution of deaths from IHD and suicide are adversely correlated with solar activity and with each other. Differences are presumed in serotoninergic effects as caused by environmental influences.

  1. Utility of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in a Sample of Lithuanian Male Offenders.

    PubMed

    Laurinaitytė, Ilona; Laurinavičius, Alfredas; Ustinavičiūtė, Laura; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin

    2017-06-29

    The aim of the current study was to examine the construct validity of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI]-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) in a correctional setting. More specifically, we examined the associations between MMPI-2-RF scales with external variables relevant for sentence planning as well as the relationship with risk of reconviction assessed with the Offender Assessment System (OASys; Home Office, 2002). A random sample of 228 male offenders from Lithuanian custodial institutions was selected for the study. The results revealed that MMPI-2-RF scale scores differentiated offender groups classified on the basis of external variables, such as history of suicide attempts, violent offending, use of drugs, violence under the influence of alcohol, and early criminal onset, in a manner consistent with conceptual expectations. Moreover, Behavior/Externalizing Dysfunction (BXD), Antisocial Behavior (RC4), Juvenile Conduct Problems (JCP), Substance Abuse (SUB), and Disconstraint-Revised (DISC-r) scale scores evinced correlations with OASys scores that were moderate in magnitude. Results from regression analyses showed that MMPI-2-RF scale scores accounted for approximately 21% of variance of OASys risk of reconviction scores. Overall, the findings provide support for the utility of the MMPI-2-RF in Lithuanian correctional institutions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. 'They don't just come for Machu Picchu': locals' views of tourist-local sexual relationships in Cuzco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2008-08-01

    Sexual and romantic relationships between local people and tourists have long taken place. Such encounters are not a modern phenomenon, but the potential of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, warrants greater research into the issue. This paper analyses local people's views of local-tourist relationships in Cuzco/Peru. Data were obtained through in-depth interviews, participant and non-participant observation and informal discussions. Attraction based on physical difference was reportedly the main trigger for such relationships. Emerging themes discussed include issues of self-esteem, strategies of approach, tourists' motives, emotional involvement and expectations from such encounters. Levels of unprotected sexual behaviour and lack of STI awareness are of sufficient concern to recommend urgent action. Suggestions for sexual health education are made with particular emphasis on targeting local people involved in the tourism and hospitality industries.

  3. Rethinking the State-Local Relationship: K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Governor Jerry Brown's January 2011 budget proposal suggests shifting responsibility and funding for many state programs from the state to the local level. Under this "realignment" of government authority, local governments--usually counties--would be given responsibility for providing the services in realigned programs, and the state…

  4. Soil sustainability study in Lithuanian alien forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldiene, Dovile; Skridlaite, Grazina; Žalūdiene, Gaile; Askelsson, Cecilia; Armolaitis, Kestutis

    2016-04-01

    Tree species are shifting their natural ranges in response to climate changes (Saltré et al., 2013). Northern red oak has originated from North America, but was planted in Europe already in twentieth century. At present, it is considered as invasive species in Poland and at invasive stage in the Lithuanian forests (Riepsas and Straigyte, 2008). European larch naturally grows in Central Europe, but its range has been extended by planting it as far as the Nordic countries. According to a pollen study in peat soils, European larch naturally grew in Lithuania in the sixteenth century and was reintroduced 200 years ago (Jankauskas, 1954). Therefore, the global warming could accelerate the expansion of European larch and Northern red oak into Lithuanian forests. An urgent need appeared to evaluate an impact of those warmth-tolerant species on soil mineral chemistry and quality. New results on the determination of mineral weathering rates in alien forest stands using a PROFILE soil chemistry model were obtained during a doctoral study at the Institute of Forestry. Soil minerals were studied by a Scanning Electron Microscopy at the Institute of Geology and Geography. The results provided a lot of new information on soil weathering rates in Lithuania. The 47 and 157-year-old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), 45 and 55-year-old Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantations and adjacent perennial grasslands were chosen for this study. The soils were classified as Luvisols and were developed from glaciofluvial deposits. The PROFILE model requires data of climate conditions (mean annual temperature and precipitation), chemical parameters of atmospheric deposition, forest plantation dendrometric and chemical (wood, foliage litter fall) characteristics, soil physical characteristics and mineral composition. A cation weathering rate (sum of Ca+Mg+ K) is 30% higher in a soil under the Northern red oak than in adjacent perennial grassland. Meanwhile, cation weathering rates

  5. [Legionellosis in meat-packing combines of the Lithuanian SSR].

    PubMed

    Bunikis, I A; Moteiunas, L I; Tartakovskiĭ, I S; Gotvianskaia, T P; Barkhatova, O I

    1989-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study of Legionella pneumophila morbidity in Lithuanian meat-processing factory workers, as well as the specific position of legionellosis in the fever diseases structure among the workers of the industry. The technique showed that Legionella pneumophila 1st serogroup seropositive reaction was traced among the healthy workers in 0.2% (antibody titer 1:64). Rather high percentage (7.1%) of persons with specific antibodies was found among those who had suffered the fever disease 6 month before the examination. Among 191 fever patients examined, in 35 (18.3%) cases antibodies against L. pneumophila were detected in diagnostic titers. In 26 workers legionellosis was diagnosed as a result of serologic testing, and Pontiac fever cases were predominant. 1 case was subsequently followed by pneumonia. A chronic nature of epidemic manifestations of legionellosis was established. The pathogenic antigen was detected in 4 of 32 water samples taken from the factory water pipes.

  6. Professional burnout and its correlates in Lithuanian neurosurgeons.

    PubMed

    Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Bunevicius, Adomas

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and severity of professional burnout in a sample of Lithuanian neurosurgeons and to analyze its personal, interpersonal, and organizational correlates. Thirty-one out of 79 (response rate 39 %) Lithuanian neurosurgeons participated in the study. Professional burnout was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Participants also answered questions about professional stressors, sources of professional dissatisfaction, life-style factors, sickness absenteeism/presenteeism, and professional practice. The majority of neurosurgeons were between 41 and 60 years of age (48 %), were married (97 %), had children (84 %). Most neurosurgeons had 20 or more years of professional experience (54.9 %), worked from 41 to 60 h per week (58 %), and performed up to 150 surgeries per year (77.4 %). Eight (26 %) neurosurgeons reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, five (16 %) reported high level of cynicism, and eight (26 %) reported low professional efficacy. Correlation analyses revealed that higher number of surgeries per year, more hours devoted to clinical work, opportunities for professional development, intellectual challenges at work, appreciation by the patients and prestige of the profession were related to lower level of burnout. Greater general workload, unpredictability of the work schedule, lack of necessary technical equipment, dissatisfaction with colleagues, and uncertainty about the future were related to a higher level of burnout. Burnout was reported by one-quarter of neurosurgeons who chose to participate in the study. Personal, interpersonal, and organizational factors arising while fulfilling professional duties were important correlates of neurosurgeons' burnout. Due to the moderate response rate, our results should be interpreted with caution. Larger studies evaluating burnout among European neurosurgeons are needed.

  7. Nurses' perceived work-related empowerment in Lithuanian context.

    PubMed

    Trus, Marija; Suominen, Tarja; Doran, Diane; Razbadauskas, Arturas

    2011-09-01

    STUDY'S RATIONALE: Empowerment is widely used within the nursing literature in different countries, but perceived empowerment of Lithuanian nurses has not been studied before. There is a lack of research which has analysed nurses' views and feelings of empowerment. The aim of this study was to describe the perception of Lithuanian nurses' work-related empowerment. The study describes how empowered the nurses felt in their work and how background factors were related to empowerment. The permission to use the questionnaire was given by copyright holders. The questionnaire was approved by the Ethics Committee. RESEARCH METHODS AND INSTRUMENT: The data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprised of two parts: the background questions and the Work Empowerment Questionnaire divided into three areas: verbal, behavioural, and outcome empowerment. The data were analysed statistically using SPSS, and Microsoft Excel programs. The descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests and Spearman correlations were conducted. The sample consisted of 212 participants. The nurses experienced strong general empowerment (mean 7.9; max 10.0). They were more confident in their abilities to perform actions related to behavioural (mean 8.3) and verbal (mean 8.0) empowerment, and less confident in outcome (mean 7.3) empowerment. All aspects of empowerment were closely related to each other (p ≤ 0.001). Several significant relations were found between the aspects of empowerment and the background variables. The Work Empowerment Questionnaire used in the study was originally developed in Canada. Differences in language, culture, health care organizations, and nursing practice may affect the validity of translated questionnaire in Baltic context. To prepare nurses for roles in which they may successfully exercise the power to create change, they need experience the process of empowerment during their education, and experience later supportive management. © 2011 The Authors

  8. Choosing to Teach Relationships: Economic Geography and the Local Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    Both the teaching of the free enterprise system and the teaching of geography are an integral part of the guidelines for elementary school social studies in most states. The two have been combined into a resource unit for studying localities so that students may understand that U.S. citizens, the environment, and the economy are interdependent.…

  9. Relationship of the Follow Through Evaluation to Local Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Judy

    The discrepancies between the comprehensive design for Follow Through evaluation and the program management's needs of the seven models in Philadelphia are discussed. The national evaluation has focused on pupil performance and achievement data. The local evaluation, conducted since 1968, has focused on: (1) the assessment of the correspondence…

  10. The relationship between species detection probability and local extinction probability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpizar-Jara, R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Rosenberry, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    In community-level ecological studies, generally not all species present in sampled areas are detected. Many authors have proposed the use of estimation methods that allow detection probabilities that are <1 and that are heterogeneous among species. These methods can also be used to estimate community-dynamic parameters such as species local extinction probability and turnover rates (Nichols et al. Ecol Appl 8:1213-1225; Conserv Biol 12:1390-1398). Here, we present an ad hoc approach to estimating community-level vital rates in the presence of joint heterogeneity of detection probabilities and vital rates. The method consists of partitioning the number of species into two groups using the detection frequencies and then estimating vital rates (e.g., local extinction probabilities) for each group. Estimators from each group are combined in a weighted estimator of vital rates that accounts for the effect of heterogeneity. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we computed such estimates and tested the hypothesis that detection probabilities and local extinction probabilities were negatively related. Our analyses support the hypothesis that species detection probability covaries negatively with local probability of extinction and turnover rates. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of vital parameter estimators as well as other estimators relevant to questions about heterogeneity, such as coefficient of variation of detection probabilities and proportion of species in each group. Both the weighted estimator suggested in this paper and the original unweighted estimator for local extinction probability performed fairly well and provided no basis for preferring one to the other.

  11. The relationship between species detection probability and local extinction probability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpizar-Jara, R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Rosenberry, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    In community-level ecological studies, generally not all species present in sampled areas are detected. Many authors have proposed the use of estimation methods that allow detection probabilities that are < 1 and that are heterogeneous among species. These methods can also be used to estimate community-dynamic parameters such as species local extinction probability and turnover rates (Nichols et al. Ecol Appl 8:1213-1225; Conserv Biol 12:1390-1398). Here, we present an ad hoc approach to estimating community-level vital rates in the presence of joint heterogeneity of detection probabilities and vital rates. The method consists of partitioning the number of species into two groups using the detection frequencies and then estimating vital rates (e.g., local extinction probabilities) for each group. Estimators from each group are combined in a weighted estimator of vital rates that accounts for the effect of heterogeneity. Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we computed such estimates and tested the hypothesis that detection probabilities and local extinction probabilities were negatively related. Our analyses support the hypothesis that species detection probability covaries negatively with local probability of extinction and turnover rates. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of vital parameter estimators as well as other estimators relevant to questions about heterogeneity, such as coefficient of variation of detection probabilities and proportion of species in each group. Both the weighted estimator suggested in this paper and the original unweighted estimator for local extinction probability performed fairly well and provided no basis for preferring one to the other.

  12. Experimental study of the relationship between local particle-size distributions and local ordering in random close packing.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Rei

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally study the structural properties of a sediment of size distributed colloids. By determining each particle size using a size estimation algorithm, we are able to investigate the relationship between local environment and local ordering. Our results show that ordered environments of particles tend to generate where the local particle-size distribution is within 5%. In addition, we show that particles whose size is close to the average size have 12 coordinate neighbors, which matches the coordination number of the fcc and hcp crystals. On the other hand, bcc structures are observed around larger particles. Our results represent experiments to show a size dependence of the specific ordering in colloidal systems.

  13. Landscape connectivity strengthens local-regional richness relationships in successional plant communities.

    PubMed

    Damschen, Ellen I; Brudvig, Lars A

    2012-04-01

    Local species diversity is maintained over ecological time by a balance between dispersal and species interactions. Local-regional species richness relationships are often used to investigate the relative importance of these two processes and the scales at which they operate. For communities undergoing succession, theory predicts a temporal progression in local-regional species richness relationships: from no relationship to positive linear to saturating. However, observational tests have been mixed, and experiments have been rare. Using a replicated large-scale experiment, we evaluate the impact of two dispersal-governing processes at the regional scale, connectivity and shape of the region (i.e., patches), on the progression of local-regional species richness relationships for plant communities undergoing succession. Regional connectivity accelerates the transition from no relationship to a positive linear relationship, while the shape of the region has no consistent effect nine years post-disturbance. Our results experimentally demonstrate the importance of dispersal in structuring local-regional species richness relationships over time and suggest that conservation corridors among regions can increase local diversity through regional enrichment of plant communities undergoing reassembly.

  14. Relationship Between Nutrient Enrichment and Benthic Function: Local Effects and Spatial Patterns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication-induced changes to benthic structure and function are problems of enormous ecological and economic significance. Understanding the relationships between nutrient enrichment and effects, modifying factors such as localized transport time, and symptoms of eutrophica...

  15. Relationship Between Nutrient Enrichment and Benthic Function: Local Effects and Spatial Patterns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication-induced changes to benthic structure and function are problems of enormous ecological and economic significance. Understanding the relationships between nutrient enrichment and effects, modifying factors such as localized transport time, and symptoms of eutrophica...

  16. Relationship between plaque development and local hemodynamics in coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Lopez, John J.; Olszewski, Mark E.; Vigmostad, Sarah C.; Braddy, Kathleen C.; Brennan, Theresa M. H.; Bokhari, Syed W.; Bennett, J. Gray; Holper, Elizabeth M.; Rossen, James D.; Chandran, Krishnan B.; Sonka, Milan

    2005-04-01

    The mechanisms of plaque development in coronary arteries are not yet completely understood. Vessel geometry influences the local hemodynamics within a vessel, and the resulting wall shear stress in turn influences plaque development. Previously, we showed in-vivo that plaque tends to accumulate more on the inner curvature of a vessel than on its outer curvature. While vessel curvature is preserved during plaque progression, the local wall shear stresses change with lumen narrowing. The aim of this study was to test how the hypothesis that locations of low wall shear stress coincide with circumferentially larger plaque accumulation depends on vascular remodeling with or without lumen narrowing. We have analyzed 39 in-vivo intravascular-ultrasound pullbacks, for which geometrically accurate 3-D models were obtained by fusion with x-ray angiography. Distorting subsegments (branches, calcifications, stents) were discarded, and the relative number of vessel locations was determined within a 10-40% area-stenosis range. This range corresponds to compensatory enlargement (outward or positive vessel remodeling), but not yet lumen narrowing, and these vessel segments were a focus of our study. For each segment, we determined the relative number of vessel locations for which circumferentially low wall shear stress coincided with larger plaque thickness and vice versa. The inverse association between wall shear stress and plaque thickness was significantly more pronounced (p<0.005) in vessel cross sections exhibiting compensatory enlargement without luminal narrowing than when the full spectrum of vessel stenosis severity was considered. Thus, the hypothesis is supported more in subsegments with less developed disease.

  17. Cytokine profiles in localized scleroderma and relationship to clinical features.

    PubMed

    Kurzinski, Katherine; Torok, Kathryn S

    2011-08-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disfiguring autoimmune disease of the skin and underlying tissue that mainly affects the pediatric population. Inflammation of the tissue leads to fibrosis and atrophy, causing physical and psychological disability that can continue throughout childhood into adulthood. Available therapies for LS have had variable effects and are associated with morbidity themselves. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of LS, especially during the active inflammatory phase, would lead to more directed and efficacious therapies. As in systemic sclerosis (SSc), the other form of scleroderma, T-helper (Th) cells and their associated cytokines have been suggested to contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of LS supported by the presence of cytokines from these lineages in the sera and tissue of LS patients. It is postulated that the imbalance between Th1/Th2/Th17 cell subsets drives inflammation in the early stages of disease (Th1 and Th17 predominant) and fibrosis in the later stages of scleroderma (Th2 predominant). We review the available experimental data regarding cytokines in LS and compare them to available clinical disease severity and activity features. This provides the platform to launch further investigations into the role of select cytokines in the pathogenesis of LS and to provide directed therapeutic options in the future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cytokine profiles in localized scleroderma and relationship to clinical features☆

    PubMed Central

    Kurzinski, Katherine; Torok, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disfiguring autoimmune disease of the skin and underlying tissue that mainly affects the pediatric population. Inflammation of the tissue leads to fibrosis and atrophy, causing physical and psychological disability that can continue throughout childhood into adulthood. Available therapies for LS have had variable effects and are associated with morbidity themselves. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of LS, especially during the active inflammatory phase, would lead to more directed and efficacious therapies. As in systemic sclerosis (SSc), the other form of scleroderma, T-helper (Th) cells and their associated cytokines have been suggested to contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of LS supported by the presence of cytokines from these lineages in the sera and tissue of LS patients. It is postulated that the imbalance between Th1/Th2/Th17 cell subsets drives inflammation in the early stages of disease (Th1 and Th17 predominant) and fibrosis in the later stages of scleroderma (Th2 predominant). We review the available experimental data regarding cytokines in LS and compare them to available clinical disease severity and activity features. This provides the platform to launch further investigations into the role of select cytokines in the pathogenesis of LS and to provide directed therapeutic options in the future. PMID:21536453

  19. Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Lithuanian: Exploring the Effect of Diminutive Usage in an Elicited Production Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Ineta; Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines Lithuanian children's acquisition of gender agreement using an elicited production task. Lithuanian is a richly inflected Baltic language, with two genders and seven cases. Younger (N = 24, mean 3 ; 1, 2 ; 5-3 ; 8) and older (N = 24, mean 6 ; 3, 5 ; 6-6 ; 9) children were shown pictures of animals and asked to describe them…

  20. Heritability estimates of dental arch parameters in Lithuanian twins.

    PubMed

    Švalkauskienė, Vilma; Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Šalomskienė, Loreta; Andriuškevičiūtė, Irena; Šalomskienė, Aurelija; Vasiliauskas, Arūnas; Šidlauskas, Antanas

    2015-01-01

    The genetic influence on dental arch morphology may be country-specific, thus it is reasonable to check the estimates of genetics across different populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the heredity of dental arch morphology in the sample of Lithuanian twins with accurate zygosity determination. The study sample consisted of digital dental models of 40 monozygotic (MZ) and 32 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. The estimates of heritability (h(2)) for dental arch breadth and length were calculated. All dental arch breadths and lengths were statistically significantly larger in men than in women. Arch length differences between genders were less expressed than largest breadth differences. In the upper jaw the largest genetic effect was found on the arch breadth between lateral incisors. The heritability of dental arch length demonstrated similar differences between upper and lower jaw with mandible dental arch length being more genetically determined. The largest genetic impact was found on the upper dental arch breadth between lateral incisors. Similar, but lower heritability is inherent for canines and first premolars of the upper jaw and first premolars of the lower jaw. It also can be noted, that arch breadths between posterior teeth show lower heritability estimates than between anterior teeth on both jaws. The dental arch in the upper jaw has more expressed genetic component than in the lower jaw.

  1. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dubakiene, Ruta; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Butiene, Indre; Sezaite, Indre; Petronyte, Malvina; Vaicekauskaite, Dalia; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558) established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers. PMID:22606067

  2. Informal relationship patterns among staff of local health and non-health organizations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Maneechay, Mano; Pongpirul, Krit

    2015-03-20

    Co-operation among staff of local government agencies is essential for good local health services system, especially in small communities. This study aims to explore possible informal relationship patterns among staff of local health and non-health organizations in the context of health decentralization in Thailand. Tambon Health Promoting Hospital (THPH) and Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO) represented local health and non-health organizations, respectively. Based on the finding from qualitative interview of stakeholders, a questionnaire was developed to explore individual and organizational characteristics and informal relationships between staff of both organizations. Respondents were asked to draw 'relationship lines' between each staff position of health and non-health organizations. 'Degree of relationship' was assessed from the number that respondent assigned to each of the lines (1, friend; 2, second-degree relative; 3, first-degree relative; 4, spouse). The questionnaire was distributed to 748 staff of local health and non-health organizations in 378 Tambons. A panel of seven experts was asked to look at all responded questionnaires to familiarize with the content then discussed about possible categorization of the patterns. Responses were received from 73.0% (276/378) Tambons and 59.0% (441/748) staff. The informal relationships were classified into four levels: strong, moderate, weak and no informal relationship, mainly because of potential impact on local health services system. Strong informal relationship existed when the Chief Executive of SAO had any relationship degree with any THPH staff. When the Deputy Chief Executive of SAO or Chairman of the SAO Council had such relationship, the Tambon was classified as moderate level. Tambon with some other relationship patterns was categorized as weak. Approximately 58.5, 12.0, 7.4 and 22.2% of the surveyed Tambon have strong, moderate, weak, and no informal relationship, respectively. The

  3. Technical note: Multiple wavelet coherence for untangling scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships in geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Si, Bing Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The scale-specific and localized bivariate relationships in geosciences can be revealed using bivariate wavelet coherence. The objective of this study was to develop a multiple wavelet coherence method for examining scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships. Stationary and non-stationary artificial data sets, generated with the response variable as the summation of five predictor variables (cosine waves) with different scales, were used to test the new method. Comparisons were also conducted using existing multivariate methods, including multiple spectral coherence and multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD). Results show that multiple spectral coherence is unable to identify localized multivariate relationships, and underestimates the scale-specific multivariate relationships for non-stationary processes. The MEMD method was able to separate all variables into components at the same set of scales, revealing scale-specific relationships when combined with multiple correlation coefficients, but has the same weakness as multiple spectral coherence. However, multiple wavelet coherences are able to identify scale-specific and localized multivariate relationships, as they are close to 1 at multiple scales and locations corresponding to those of predictor variables. Therefore, multiple wavelet coherence outperforms other common multivariate methods. Multiple wavelet coherence was applied to a real data set and revealed the optimal combination of factors for explaining temporal variation of free water evaporation at the Changwu site in China at multiple scale-location domains. Matlab codes for multiple wavelet coherence were developed and are provided in the Supplement.

  4. Mortality and cancer incidence among Lithuanian cement producing workers

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, G; Kurtinaitis, J; Andersen, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate mortality and cancer incidence of cement producing workers. Methods: A total of 2498 cement workers who have been employed at Portland cement producing departments for at least one year from 1956 to 2000 were followed up from 1 January 1978 to 31 December 2000. The cohort contributed 43 490 person-years to the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated as ratios between observed and expected numbers of cancers and deaths. The expected numbers were based on sex specific incidence and mortality rates for the total Lithuanian population. Results: Significantly increased SMRs were found for all malignant neoplasms (SMR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) and for lung cancer (SMR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) among male cement workers. SIR for all cancer sites was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4). Excess risk was found for cancer of the lung (SIR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1). The SIR for urinary bladder cancer was also increased (SIR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.5). The overall cancer incidence was not increased among females (SIR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). With increasing cumulated exposure to cement dust, there were indications of an increasing risk of lung and stomach cancers among males. Conclusions: This study supported the hypothesis that exposure to cement dust may increase the lung and bladder cancer risk. A dose related risk was found for stomach cancer, but no support was found for an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:15150393

  5. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mutanga, Chiedza Ngonidzashe; Muboko, Never; Gandiwa, Edson

    2017-01-01

    With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs), the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities' and PA staff's views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation.

  6. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mutanga, Chiedza Ngonidzashe; Muboko, Never; Gandiwa, Edson

    2017-01-01

    With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs), the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities’ viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, ‘What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?’ Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities’ and PA staff’s views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation. PMID:28542185

  7. Harmonisation of the Educational Concept "Learning Outcome" in the Lithuanian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an example of translation of the English term "learning outcome" into the Lithuanian system of educational terms is used to discuss semantic peculiarities of translating professional terms. Consistency of a concept signifier and content of a concept, as well as their tune with already existing systems of educational…

  8. Changes in Lithuanian Pre-School and Pre-Primary Education Quality over the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…

  9. Levels of Death Anxiety: A Comparison of American and Lithuanian Health and Social Service Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Lucinda Lee; Simon, Cassandra; Klemmack, David; Butkeviciene, Ruta

    2006-01-01

    Globalization, coupled with increased attention to issues surrounding death, highlights the need to explore cultural influences on the social, personal, and psychological consequences of death. This study compared the responses of 82 American and 119 Lithuanian health and social service personnel on seven subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of…

  10. What Lithuanian Pupils Learn about Disability: Analysis of Attitudes and Content of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskus, Jonas; Poceviciene, Rasa

    2006-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper was to reveal how stereotyped representations of disability are manifested in school curriculum through the textbook content and the attitudes of participants of education. Research questions of this study were: How is disability represented in Lithuanian textbooks? What is the real discourse--that of…

  11. Teachers' Decision-Making Processes when Designing EAP Reading Materials in a Lithuanian University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzborska, Irena

    2011-01-01

    A shift from teaching English for general to teaching English for specific purposes has called for changes in English teachers' practices in a Lithuanian university; in line with research in the area of EAP, teachers are thus expected to design their own reading materials that could cater to the special needs of their students. However, while…

  12. PRF Cross-Cultural Psychological Study of Lithuanian Students, Teachers, and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, Michael E.; Gintiliene, Grazina; Bulotaite, Laima; Rickman, Jacqueline; Belekiene, Marijona; Janowitz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The Personality Research Form (PRF) was used to study the psychological traits of Lithuanian college of education students, teachers, and special education teachers. A sample of American college students was also used for comparison. Chi-square results indicated no statistical differences among the groups. Interpretations of the lack of…

  13. Levels of Death Anxiety: A Comparison of American and Lithuanian Health and Social Service Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roff, Lucinda Lee; Simon, Cassandra; Klemmack, David; Butkeviciene, Ruta

    2006-01-01

    Globalization, coupled with increased attention to issues surrounding death, highlights the need to explore cultural influences on the social, personal, and psychological consequences of death. This study compared the responses of 82 American and 119 Lithuanian health and social service personnel on seven subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of…

  14. Prediction of compounds in different local structure-activity relationship environments using emerging chemical patterns.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Balfer, Jenny; Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-05-27

    Active compounds can participate in different local structure-activity relationship (SAR) environments and introduce different degrees of local SAR discontinuity, depending on their structural and potency relationships in data sets. Such SAR features have thus far mostly been analyzed using descriptive approaches, in particular, on the basis of activity landscape modeling. However, compounds in different local SAR environments have not yet been predicted. Herein, we adapt the emerging chemical patterns (ECP) method, a machine learning approach for compound classification, to systematically predict compounds with different local SAR characteristics. ECP analysis is shown to accurately assign many compounds to different local SAR environments across a variety of activity classes covering the entire range of observed local SARs. Control calculations using random forests and multiclass support vector machines were carried out and a variety of statistical performance measures were applied. In all instances, ECP calculations yielded comparable or better performance than controls. The approach presented herein can be applied to predict compounds that complement local SARs or prioritize compounds with different SAR characteristics.

  15. Current employment characteristics and career intentions of Lithuanian dentists.

    PubMed

    Janulyte, Vilija; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Puriene, Alina; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Benzian, Habib

    2014-12-20

    The present survey explored the current employment profile and future career intentions of Lithuanian general dentists and specialists. A census sampling method was employed with data collected by means of a structured questionnaire that inquired about demographics, different employment-related aspects (practice type and location, working hours, perceived lack of patients, etc.), and future career intentions (intent to emigrate, to change profession, or the timing of retirement). The final response rate was 67.6% corresponding to 2,008 respondents. The majority of all dentists work full or part-time in the private dental sector, more than one third of them owns a private practice or rents a dental chair. A minority of dentists works in the public dental sector. According to the survey, 26.6% of general dentists and 39.2% of dental specialists works overtime (> 40 hours per week; P < 0.001) and practice in multiple clinics (1.4 ± 0.6 and 2.0 ± 1.2, respectively; P < 0.001). One third of general dentists (31.3%) and dental specialists (31.4%) stated to have a low number of patients (P > 0.05). The majority (68.9% of general dentists and 65.9% of dental specialists) plans to work after the retirement age (P > 0.05). Emigration as an option for their professional career is being considered by 10.8% of general dentists and 8.3% of dental specialists (P > 0.05). Working either full or part-time in private practices (OR = 4.3) and younger age (≤ 35 years; OR = 2.2) are the two strongest predictors for a perceived insufficient number of patients. One third of dentists in Lithuania work long hours and lack patients. Many dentists practice in multiple locations and plan to retire after the official retirement age. Some dentists and dental specialists plan to emigrate. The perceived shortcomings within the dental care system and workforce planning of dentists need to be addressed.

  16. [Analysis of possibilities of pharmaceutical care elements implementation in Lithuanian community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Skyrius, Vaidas; Radziūnas, Raimondas; Barsteigiene, Zita; Baranauskas, Algirdas; Grincevicius, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Objective of this survey--possibilities of implementation of pharmaceutical care elements in daily work of Lithuanian community pharmacies. All pharmacists have to ensure the best quality of pharmaceutical services which they render to their patients. Pharmacists also must improve the quality of pharmaceutical services, according to recommendations of pharmaceutical care. For a start they should implement at least separate elements of pharmaceutical care if they are going to provide pharmaceutical care services in their community pharmacies in the future. That's why this survey was designed to clarify the possibilities of implementation of separate pharmaceutical care elements in to daily work of community pharmacies. Material of this survey--pharmaceutical services rendered in Lithuanian community pharmacies. This survey has an analytical character and was accomplished with questionnaire. Chiefs of community pharmacies were asked to complete of questionnaire. We gave 150 questionnaires and received answers from 128 pharmacists. After gathered data analysis we found out that only 2% of pharmacies are almost prepared and well equipped for provision of pharmaceutical care services; however, they still have to rearrange their facilities. Lithuanian community pharmacies are not ready to work according to recommendations of pharmaceutical care today. Some elements of pharmaceutical care (such as blood pressure measurement, provision of written information for patient, etc.) are already implemented by almost all Lithuanian community pharmacies. If pharmacists want to provide pharmaceutical care services they should create a database of patient medication records in pharmacy. Unfortunately Lithuanian pharmacists do not have such databases today. Only with such databases there is a possibility to render pharmaceutical services of the best quality.

  17. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-12-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents. A public opinion survey was performed in August 2005. A random sample, taking into account age, sex, education, employment, family status, place of residence of 1,054 Lithuanian residents aged 16-74 was interviewed in their households. The topics dealt with in the 23-item questionnaire concerned attitudes towards confidentiality in adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care as well as towards sexual and reproductive health promotion for them. More than half (58%) of the respondents believed that confidentiality is an important issue in case of sexual and reproductive health services that address adolescents. Although only 12% of Lithuanians were ready to agree with the legalization of the right to confidentiality in health care for those younger than 16, at least one-third of the respondents stated that physicians have to protect confidential counselling for 14-15-year-old adolescents on inter alia contraception, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Forty-two percent of the respondents gave top priority to the legal initiative focused on improvement of confidentiality protection. Other promising strategies selected by Lithuanian residents included the development of policies concerning confidentiality protection for minor patients, assuring the privacy of consultations and protecting the medical record keeping system. The Lithuanian residents surveyed had a positive attitude towards confidential sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents. They stated that guarantees of confidentiality should depend on the reason for the consultation and the age of the patient. The most promising initiatives for the improved protection of confidentiality include strengthening legislation and improving organizational procedures in health care settings.

  18. Missing Friendships: Understanding the Absent Relationships of Local and International Students at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Lara; Baldassar, Loretta

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research on higher education has increasingly examined the realities of internationalisation, with a particular focus on international students' experiences and internationalisation at home programs. These studies have explored the friendships of international students, including their relationships with both locals and…

  19. New Relationship with Schools: Evaluation of Trial Local Authorities and Schools. RR689

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Karen; Judkins, Michelle; Atkinson, Mary; Rudd, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This summary outlines the key findings from a national evaluation of the first-year trials of the New Relationship with Schools (NRwS) carried out by a team at the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER). The trials took place in the period September 2004 to July 2005 and involved 93 schools in eight local educational authorities…

  20. In the Public Eye: Swedish School Inspection and Local Newspapers: Exploring the Audit-Media Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Linda; Lindgren, Joakim; Segerholm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dual dependencies apparent at the intersection of the media society and the audit society by empirically exploring and discussing the relationship between Swedish local newspaper coverage and school inspection activities. The research questions pertain to the Inspectorate's media strategy, how inspection is represented…

  1. In the Public Eye: Swedish School Inspection and Local Newspapers: Exploring the Audit-Media Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Linda; Lindgren, Joakim; Segerholm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dual dependencies apparent at the intersection of the media society and the audit society by empirically exploring and discussing the relationship between Swedish local newspaper coverage and school inspection activities. The research questions pertain to the Inspectorate's media strategy, how inspection is represented…

  2. Relationships between female tourists and male locals in Cuzco/Peru: implications for travel health education.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard

    2009-11-01

    Health concerns regarding casual sexual encounters during travel have been recognized for some time. The perception that female travellers' motivations are more romantic rather than sexual when entering a relationship with local men may exclude them from receiving appropriate travel health advice. This may pose even greater health risks, not only to themselves but also to their local partners. This paper presents 11 Western female tourists' perceptions of their relationships with local men in Cuzco/Peru, based on in-depth interviews, observations, and informal discussions. Relationships with local men were often triggered by their physical appearance. Other themes identified were: methods and location of first contact, benefits for the local men, safe sex/condom use, and travel health advice received. The findings support calls for more emphasis on sexual health in travel health education. Three aspects should be included: 1) an awareness that unfamiliar environment can cause 'out of character' behaviour, 2) an emphasis on not only to use but to not stop using condoms, and 3) the need to acquire negotiation skills.

  3. Metacommunity models predict the local-regional species richness relationship in a natural system.

    PubMed

    Hugueny, Bernard; Cornell, Howard V; Harrison, Susan

    2007-07-01

    Many natural communities exhibit positive relationships between local and regional species richness (LSR-RSR relationships), which can be either linear or curvilinear. Previous models have shown that the form of this relationship depends on the relative rates of colonization and extinction and the sensitivity of these rates to competition. We use simple models to show that the LSR-RSR relationship also depends on the type of metacommunity structure (Levins-like or mainland-island), and our models generate a wider range of realistic forms than do most previous models. We parameterize and test our models with two independent data sets for Daphnia in rock pools on islands in Finland and Sweden. We find that the Levins-like model with competition correctly predicts the observed LSR-RSR relationship and provides the best fit to the average local species richness per island. Simulations show that our models are robust to relaxing our assumption of identical species properties. Our study is one of the first to make and successfully test quantitative predictions for how a widely studied community pattern, the LSR-RSR relationship, arises from metacommunity dynamics.

  4. On the relationship between regional and local species richness: a test of saturation theory.

    PubMed

    Starzomski, Brian M; Parker, Raenelle L; Srivastava, Diane S

    2008-07-01

    What are the local community consequences of changes in regional species richness and composition? To answer this question we followed the assembly of microarthropod communities in defaunated areas of moss, embedded in a larger moss "region." Regions were created by combining moss from spatially distinct sites, resulting in regional species pools that differed in both microarthropod richness and composition, but not area. Regional effects were less important than seasonality for local richness. Initial differences in regional richness had no direct effect on local species richness at any time along a successional gradient of 0.5-16 months. The structure of the regional pool affected both local richness and local composition, but these effects were seasonally dependent. Local species richness differed substantially between dates along the successional gradient and continued to increase 16 months after assembly began. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first critical test of saturation theory that experimentally manipulates regional richness. Further, our results failed to support the most important mechanisms proposed to explain the local richness-regional richness relationship. The results demonstrate that complicated interactions between assembly time, seasonality, and regional species pools contribute to structuring local species richness and composition in this community.

  5. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  6. Global/local processing style: Explaining the relationship between trait anxiety and binge eating.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kendra R; Plessow, Franziska; Coniglio, Kathryn A; Tabri, Nassim; Franko, Debra L; Zayas, Lazaro V; Germine, Laura; Thomas, Jennifer J; Eddy, Kamryn T

    2017-09-30

    Anxiety is a risk factor for disordered eating, but the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes disordered eating are poorly understood. One possibility is local versus global cognitive processing style, defined as a relative tendency to attend to details at the expense of the "big picture." Anxiety may narrow attention, in turn, enhancing local and/or compromising global processing. We examined relationships between global/local processing style, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors in a transdiagnostic outpatient clinical sample. We hypothesized that local (vs. global) processing bias would mediate the relationship between anxiety and disordered eating behaviors. Ninety-three participants completed the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-trait subscale, and the Navon task (a test of processing style in which large letters are composed of smaller letters both congruent and incongruent with the large letter). The sample was predominantly female (95%) with a mean age of 27.4 years (SD = 12.1 years). Binge eating, but not fasting, purging, or excessive exercise, was correlated with lower levels of global processing style. There was a significant indirect effect between anxiety and binge eating via reduced global level global/local processing. In individuals with disordered eating, being more generally anxious may encourage a detailed-oriented bias, preventing individuals from maintaining the bigger picture and making them more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., binge eating). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate beneficial dietary changes

  8. Communication: Relationship between solute localization and diffusion in a dynamically constrained polymer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, David M.; Jawahery, Sudi; Silverstein, Joshua S.; Forrey, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the link between dynamic localization, characterized by the Debye-Waller factor, , and solute self-diffusivity, D, in a polymer system using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and vapor sorption experiments. We find a linear relationship between lnD and 1/ over more than four decades of D, encompassing most of the glass formation regime. The observed linearity is consistent with the Langevin dynamics in a periodically varying potential field and may offer a means to rapidly assess diffusion based on the characterization of dynamic localization.

  9. Communication: Relationship between solute localization and diffusion in a dynamically constrained polymer system.

    PubMed

    Saylor, David M; Jawahery, Sudi; Silverstein, Joshua S; Forrey, Christopher

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the link between dynamic localization, characterized by the Debye-Waller factor, 〈u(2)〉, and solute self-diffusivity, D, in a polymer system using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and vapor sorption experiments. We find a linear relationship between lnD and 1/〈u(2)〉 over more than four decades of D, encompassing most of the glass formation regime. The observed linearity is consistent with the Langevin dynamics in a periodically varying potential field and may offer a means to rapidly assess diffusion based on the characterization of dynamic localization.

  10. Application of MARS for modeling local nonlinear relationships in data on ultraviolet copper ion lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, Snezhana Georgieva; Voynikova, Desislava Stoyanova; Iliev, Iliycho Petkov

    2012-11-01

    When analyzing experiment data, the main statistical procedure is finding relationships in the data and developing models to describe them. Modeling is a powerful means of estimation, simulation, and prediction of the experiment and an indispensable tool in practical engineering. This paper considers the use of the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) method to describe local relationships in the experiment data for several types of metal vapor lasers. The investigated data has been collected from patented UV ion lasers developed at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in the last ten years. A short description of MARS is provided. Specific MARS models have been developed describing the efficiency of an ultraviolet ion copper bromide vapor laser dependent on the change of 9 main input physical laser characteristics. The models are of linear and nonlinear type. It has been established that the best statistical indices and model fit are those of nonlinear models which contain second order local terms. The models account for about 95% of the data. The models are used to analyze the local behavior of the efficiency of various devices from the types of lasers under investigation. Graphs illustrating the established relationships are provided. The ability to predict future experiments is demonstrated.

  11. Moment Magnitude ( M W) and Local Magnitude ( M L) Relationship for Earthquakes in Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Bora, P. K.; Duarah, R.; Kalita, Aditya; Biswas, Rajib; Gogoi, N.; Kayal, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    An attempt has been made to examine an empirical relationship between moment magnitude ( M W) and local magnitude ( M L) for the earthquakes in the northeast Indian region. Some 364 earthquakes that were recorded during 1950-2009 are used in this study. Focal mechanism solutions of these earthquakes include 189 Harvard-CMT solutions ( M W ≥ 4.0) for the period 1976-2009, 61 published solutions and 114 solutions obtained for the local earthquakes (2.0 ≤ M L ≤ 5.0) recorded by a 27-station permanent broadband network during 2001-2009 in the region. The M W- M L relationships in seven selected zones of the region are determined by linear regression analysis. A significant variation in the M W- M L relationship and its zone specific dependence are reported here. It is found that M W is equivalent to M L with an average uncertainty of about 0.13 magnitude units. A single relationship is, however, not adequate to scale the entire northeast Indian region because of heterogeneous geologic and geotectonic environments where earthquakes occur due to collisions, subduction and complex intra-plate tectonics.

  12. Research Note Effect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalauskiene, G.; Ignatavicius, G.

    In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase in concentrations of heavy metals detected in Lithuanian rivers in August 2002. The fires could have changed the pH in the top layers of the soil, overcome geochemical barriers in the soil and enabled heavy metals to migrate from the soil to the groundwater and from river bottom sediments to the surface water.

  13. Development of the hidden Markov models based Lithuanian speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeliene, Z.; Lipeika, A.

    2010-09-01

    The paper presents a prototype of the speaker-independent Lithuanian isolated word recognition system. The system is based on the hidden Markov models, a powerful statistical method for modeling speech signals. The prototype system can be used for Lithuanian words recognition investigations and is a good starting point for the development of a more sophisticated recognition system. The system graphical user interface is easy to control. Visualization of the entire recognition process is useful for analyzing of the recognition results. Based on this recognizer, a system for Web browser control by voice was developed. The program, which implements control by voice commands, was integrated in the speech recognition system. The system performance was evaluated by using different sets of acoustic models and vocabularies.

  14. Validation of the Acoustic Voice Quality Index in the Lithuanian Language.

    PubMed

    Uloza, Virgilijus; Petrauskas, Tadas; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Ulozaitė, Nora; Barsties, Ben; Maryn, Youri

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Acoustic Voice Quality Index in Lithuanian language (AVQI-LT) and investigate the feasibility and robustness of its diagnostic accuracy, differentiating normal and dysphonic voice. A total of 184 native Lithuanian subjects with normal voices (n = 46) and with various voice disorders (n = 138) were asked to read aloud the Lithuanian text and to sustain the vowel /a/. A sentence with 13 syllables and a 3-second midvowel portion of the sustained vowel were edited. Both speech tasks were concatenated, and perceptually rated for dysphonia severity by five voice clinicians. They rated the Grade (G) from the Grade Roughness Breathiness Asthenia Strain (GRBAS) protocol and the overall severity from the Consensus Auditory-perceptual Evaluation of Voice protocol with a visual analog scale (VAS). The average scores (Gmean and VASmean) were taken as the perceptual dysphonia severity level for every voice sample. All concatenated voice samples were acoustically analyzed to receive an AVQI-LT score. Both auditory-perceptual judgment procedures showed sufficient strength of agreement between five raters. The results achieved significant and marked concurrent validity between both auditory-perceptual judgment procedures and AVQI-LT. The diagnostic accuracy of AVQI-LT showed for both auditory-perceptual judgment procedures comparable results with two different AVQI-LT thresholds. The AVQI-LT threshold of 2.97 for the Gmean rating obtained reasonable sensitivity = 0.838 and excellent specificity = 0.937. For the VAS rating, an AVQI-LT threshold of 3.48 was determined with sensitivity = 0.840 and specificity = 0.922. The AVQI-LT is considered a valid and reliable tool for assessing the dysphonia severity level in Lithuanian-speaking population. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterogeneity of nutritional habits of Lithuanian ethnolinguistic groups: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Audronė, Jakaitienė; Donatas, Austys; Neringa, Burokienė; Vytautas, Kasiulevičius; Rimantas, Stukas; Vaidutis, Kučinskas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lithuania is a Northern European country consisting of two main ethnolinguistic groups: Samogitians and Highlanders. The objective of the paper is to investigate differences in nutritional habits of 18–65-year-old Lithuanians living in different ethnolinguistic regions. Materials and methods. A representative, population-based, random sample of the 18–65-year-old ethnic Lithuanian population was interviewed from 17 December 2008 to 20 May 2013. Lithuanians living in their ethnolinguistic region for at least three generations were included (n = 1,133). We analysed responses to 12 questions about nutritional habits of respondents. For the univariate analysis, we applied the chi-squared test. For the clusterisation of the survey questions, we employed a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Results. Comparing Samogitians’ and Highlanders’ responses according to their gender, education, and place of residence, we observed more often significant differences (p < 0.05) for the urban population, respondents without higher education, and women. The nutrition of Highlanders was more consistent with national and WHO nutritional recommendations. Significant differences were obtained in the consumption of fish (p = 1.9 · 10–12), milk (p = 1.8 · 10–4) and grain products (p = 0.01). MCA revealed that all questions fall into three groups with a different composition for Samogitians and Highlanders. We failed to demonstrate the impact of different nutritional habits on the body mass index. Conclusions. According to the univariate and multivariate analysis, the nutritional habits of Lithuanian ethnolinguistic regions are heterogeneous. Dependency on an ethnolinguistic region might be considered an important factor for the preparation of appropriate health and nutrition education and disease prevention programmes. The issue of excess weight remains equally important for both ethnolinguistic groups. PMID:28356793

  16. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Avery, Mark; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondents were asked about their competencies in leadership, teamwork, communication, and conflict management. The evaluation was carried out by analyzing the answers provided in the survey, which used a 5-point rating scale. In addition, the Belbin Team-Role Self-Perception Inventory and the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument were used. RESULTS. The results showed that respondents were reserved or limited in their individual capacities through this evaluation of their leadership competencies. The mean score was 3.47 (SD, 0.71). Skills in competency areas of communication, teamwork, and conflict management were scored higher (3.73 [SD, 0.67], 3.73 [SD, 0.62], and 3.53 [SD, 0.63], respectively). Most of executives preferred to choose action-oriented roles (76.2%). The most common role was "implementer" (69.1%). "Avoiding" (52.7%) was the most common conflict solving strategy. The results showed that 89.1% of executives wanted to improve teamwork; 83.6%, leadership competencies; 81.8%, communication; and 80.0%, conflict management. CONCLUSIONS. The study results suggest that the executives of Lithuanian public health institutions evaluate their leadership competencies moderately. These results indicate the value of leadership training for public health executives.

  17. Joining NATO: Transforming the Lithuanian Armed Forces for the New Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-19

    countries. In 2005, the Military Education and Training System will comprise: Baltic Defense College (BALTDEFCOL located in Tartu , Estonia); the Lithuanian...providing support to international peace operations. BALTDEFCOL Located in Tartu , Estonia, the Baltic Defense College teaches Senior Staff officer...GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION 1939 – 40 Lithuania is situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. During her long existence, Lithuania has had a

  18. Psychological and physical well-being of Lithuanian youth: Relation to emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Antinienė, Dalia; Lekavičienė, Rosita

    2017-08-05

    The objective of this article is to unveil the ways in which the emotional intelligence (EI) of a young person is linked with subjective assessment of physical state, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being, as well as to determine whether these factors are reliable predictors of EI constituents. The study was conducted using an original EI test (EI-DARL-V1/V2), which consisted of a traditional 73-item questionnaire; tasks of emotional, social and interpersonal situations; and identification of emotions in facial expressions (pictures). Questionnaire items were multiplexed into 5 subscales using multi-step factor analysis. Special questionnaires were devised and presented to participants together with the EI questionnaire in order to assess subjective assessment of physical and mental health, depressiveness, anxiety, and psychological well-being. There were 1430 participants from various regions of Lithuania who participated in the study. The age of participants varied from 17 to 27 years. Established inverse linear correlation showed that those participants who experienced certain somatic symptoms or unpleasant psychological states had lower EI; a particularly strong correlation was observed between poor subjective assessment of health and understanding and control of one's own emotions. Depressed and anxious participants possessed poorer understanding and ability to regulate emotions of others as well as their own. Also, these participants performed worse when resolving emotional, social, and interpersonal situations. A direct relationship between EI and psychological well-being was established according to three EI indexes i.e. (a) understanding of own emotions; (b) understanding of emotions of other people; (c) control of emotions of others. As perception of psychological well-being increased, participants were able to understand emotions of others better and demonstrated even better ability to understand and control their own emotions. The study

  19. Application of Pont‘s Index to Lithuanian Individuals: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Smailiene, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A variety of diagnostic indices in orthodontics have been proposed to help in diagnosis and treatment planning. Pont’s Index was established to predict ideal maxillary dental arch width from the sum of mesiodistal widths of four upper incisors. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Pont’s Index to Lithuanian individuals. Material and Methods The sample comprised 52 subjects (age range from 18 to 35 years) with normal occlusion. Measurements were obtained directly from plaster casts using a digital calliper. Ideal arch widths were calculated for each subject according to Pont’s formulae, and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the measured and the calculated arch width values. Results Correlation between the measured width values and the corresponding values calculated according to Pont’s Index was moderate in all cases, with correlation coefficients values ranging from 0.59 (mandible) to 0.64 (maxilla) in first premolar’s area and 0.49 in both maxilla and mandible in first molar’s area (P < 0.05). Appropriate index values for Lithuanian individuals were assessed to be 85.57 in premolars and 66.24 in molars area. Conclusions According to the results of this study, there was no strong evidence to suggest that Pont’s Index could be reliably used to predict ideal arch width values in Lithuanian individuals. PMID:26904181

  20. The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers.

    PubMed

    Skarupskienė, Inga; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė; Tamošaitis, Donatas; Venterienė, Jūratė; Kuzminskis, Vytautas

    2010-01-01

    The composition and quality of the dialysis fluid play an important role in the modulation of dialysis-related complications. During hemodialysis, patient's blood has a contact with dialysate through a semipermeable membrane. Bacterial endotoxins can pass through the membrane pores into the patient's blood and cause a silent chronic microinflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Dialysis water (n=50) and dialysate (n=50) were collected from 91% (n=50) of all hemodialysis centers. The presence of bacterial endotoxins was evaluated using a sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate test, which detects intact lipopolysaccharides. The level of endotoxins was lower than 0.25 EU/mL in 43 (86%) dialysis water samples and in 46 (92%) dialysate samples, and complied with the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia and the European Best Practice Guidelines for pure dialysis fluid. The dialysate of 39 (78%) Lithuanian hemodialysis centers complied with the definition of an ultrapure dialysis fluid. The water and dialysate were of insufficient quality in 14% and in 8% of Lithuanian hemodialysis centers, respectively, and this could be improved by the establishment of routine investigation of endotoxins.

  1. [Prof. Alfonsas Kaikaris -- the founder of the Lithuanian Pharmacy Museum: his personality and scientific activities].

    PubMed

    Gudiene, Vilma

    2002-01-01

    Alfonsas Kaikaris (1922-1997) was a professor of pharmacy at the Kaunas Medical Institute (now University), historian, museologist, founder of the Lithuanian Pharmacy Museum and of the field of pharmacy history in Lithuania. A. Kaikaris was born in Zagare in 1922. He received his pharmacy diploma in 1947 and began work at the university. Following the reorganization of the university into two institutes, he went to work in the Medical Institute, where he served as the vice dean of the Pharmacy and Stomatology Department from 1957 until 1963. He began to collect pharmaceutical artifacts in 1957. In 1973, the Institute provided a small room in the attic for these objects and so a small pharmacy museum, the first in Lithuania, was born. Thanks to the hard work of A. Kaikaris and others, today this museum has grown into the Pharmacy and Medical History Center of Lithuania, whose work is widely known throughout Europe. A. Kaikaris was also a member of the board of the Lithuanian Scientific Society and head of the Society's Pharmaceutical History Section from 1964 until he retired in 1987. He is the author of 67 scholarly papers and numerous popular articles and conference presentations. In 1988, he received the Paul Stradins Award from the Paul Stradins Medical History Museum in Riga, Latvia, and until his death in 1997 worked as a consultant to the Lithuanian Museum of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy.

  2. Granger Causality Relationships between Local Field Potentials in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cadotte, Alex J.; DeMarse, Thomas B.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Parekh, Mansi; Talathi, Sachin S.; Hwang, Dong-Uk; Ditto, William L.; Ding, Mingzhou; Carney, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the in vivo spatial emergence of abnormal brain activity during spontaneous seizure onset is critical to future early seizure detection and closed-loop seizure prevention therapies. In this study, we use Granger causality (GC) to determine the strength and direction of relationships between local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from bilateral microelectrode arrays in an intermittent spontaneous seizure model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy before, during, and after Racine grade partial onset generalized seizures. Our results indicate distinct patterns of directional GC relationships within the hippocampus, specifically from the CA1 subfield to the dentate gryus, prior to and during seizure onset. Our results suggest sequential and hierarchical temporal relationships between the CA1 and dentate gyrus within and across hippocampal hemispheres during seizure. Additionally, our analysis suggests a reversal in the direction of GC relationships during seizure, from an abnormal pattern to more anatomically expected pattern. This reversal correlates well with the observed behavioral transition from tonic to clonic seizure in time-locked video. These findings highlight the utility of GC to reveal dynamic directional temporal relationships between multichannel LFP recordings from multiple brain regions during unprovoked spontaneous seizures. PMID:20304005

  3. 20 CFR 661.335 - What is a youth council, and what is its relationship to the Local Board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... relationship to the Local Board? 661.335 Section 661.335 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Local Governance Provisions § 661.335 What is a youth council,...

  4. Relationships Between Local Enforcement, Alcohol Availability, Drinking Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use in 50 California Cities

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Thomas, Sue; Cannon, Carol; Treffers, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Method: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. Results: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence for mediation. Conclusions: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use

  5. General Relationship of Global Topology, Local Dynamics, and Directionality in Large-Scale Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Joon-Young; Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A.

    2015-01-01

    The balance of global integration and functional specialization is a critical feature of efficient brain networks, but the relationship of global topology, local node dynamics and information flow across networks has yet to be identified. One critical step in elucidating this relationship is the identification of governing principles underlying the directionality of interactions between nodes. Here, we demonstrate such principles through analytical solutions based on the phase lead/lag relationships of general oscillator models in networks. We confirm analytical results with computational simulations using general model networks and anatomical brain networks, as well as high-density electroencephalography collected from humans in the conscious and anesthetized states. Analytical, computational, and empirical results demonstrate that network nodes with more connections (i.e., higher degrees) have larger amplitudes and are directional targets (phase lag) rather than sources (phase lead). The relationship of node degree and directionality therefore appears to be a fundamental property of networks, with direct applicability to brain function. These results provide a foundation for a principled understanding of information transfer across networks and also demonstrate that changes in directionality patterns across states of human consciousness are driven by alterations of brain network topology. PMID:25874700

  6. General relationship of global topology, local dynamics, and directionality in large-scale brain networks.

    PubMed

    Moon, Joon-Young; Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-04-01

    The balance of global integration and functional specialization is a critical feature of efficient brain networks, but the relationship of global topology, local node dynamics and information flow across networks has yet to be identified. One critical step in elucidating this relationship is the identification of governing principles underlying the directionality of interactions between nodes. Here, we demonstrate such principles through analytical solutions based on the phase lead/lag relationships of general oscillator models in networks. We confirm analytical results with computational simulations using general model networks and anatomical brain networks, as well as high-density electroencephalography collected from humans in the conscious and anesthetized states. Analytical, computational, and empirical results demonstrate that network nodes with more connections (i.e., higher degrees) have larger amplitudes and are directional targets (phase lag) rather than sources (phase lead). The relationship of node degree and directionality therefore appears to be a fundamental property of networks, with direct applicability to brain function. These results provide a foundation for a principled understanding of information transfer across networks and also demonstrate that changes in directionality patterns across states of human consciousness are driven by alterations of brain network topology.

  7. Simplest relationship between local field potential and intracellular signals in layered neural tissue.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, Anton V; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Rodrigues, Serafim; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the extracellularly measured electric field potential resulting from synaptic activity in an ensemble of neurons and intracellular signals in these neurons is an important but still open question. Based on a model neuron with a cylindrical dendrite and lumped soma, we derive a formula that substantiates a proportionality between the local field potential and the total somatic transmembrane current that emerges from the difference between the somatic and dendritic membrane potentials. The formula is tested by intra- and extracellular recordings of evoked synaptic responses in hippocampal slices. Additionally, the contribution of different membrane currents to the field potential is demonstrated in a two-population mean-field model. Our formalism, which allows for a simple estimation of unknown dendritic currents directly from somatic measurements, provides an interpretation of the local field potential in terms of intracellularly measurable synaptic signals. It is also applicable to the study of cortical activity using two-compartment neuronal population models.

  8. Simplest relationship between local field potential and intracellular signals in layered neural tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhov, Anton V.; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Rodrigues, Serafim; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the extracellularly measured electric field potential resulting from synaptic activity in an ensemble of neurons and intracellular signals in these neurons is an important but still open question. Based on a model neuron with a cylindrical dendrite and lumped soma, we derive a formula that substantiates a proportionality between the local field potential and the total somatic transmembrane current that emerges from the difference between the somatic and dendritic membrane potentials. The formula is tested by intra- and extracellular recordings of evoked synaptic responses in hippocampal slices. Additionally, the contribution of different membrane currents to the field potential is demonstrated in a two-population mean-field model. Our formalism, which allows for a simple estimation of unknown dendritic currents directly from somatic measurements, provides an interpretation of the local field potential in terms of intracellularly measurable synaptic signals. It is also applicable to the study of cortical activity using two-compartment neuronal population models.

  9. Exploring the relationship between local and global dynamic trunk stabilities during repetitive lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mavor, Matthew P; Graham, Ryan B

    2015-11-05

    Lifting is a major risk factor for low back injury. Lifters experience small continual perturbations, because moving a load provides a disturbance to the lifter׳s equilibrium. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between local and global trunk/spine stabilities during external perturbations introduced at the foot-floor interface. 12 healthy males were recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed a freestyle lifting protocol on a perturbation treadmill, under three randomized load conditions: ~0, 4, and 8 kg. Participants performed a total of 40 lifts under each load condition; no perturbations occurred during the first 20 lifts. During the last 20 lift cycles (in blocks of 5) the participants were randomly perturbed. Local dynamic trunk stability was quantified using the local divergence exponent (λmax) of the first 20 lifts. In addition, the distance traveled from the unperturbed lifting pattern (B), the time to max distance (Tau), the relaxation distance (A), and the rate of return toward the normal lifting pattern (Beta) were analyzed following each external perturbation. An increase in lifted load lead to significantly increased local trunk stability (p=0.046). Higher load also lead to decreased distance (B) traveled away from the unperturbed trajectory (p=0.023). Results agree with previous research that increasing load lifted significantly improves local trunk/spine stability during lifting. Here we have shown that altered local stability also translates into a greater ability to resist external global perturbations, which may reduce injury risk and should be explored in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between pH and concentrations of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Hondrum, S. O.; Ezell, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    pH affects the efficacy of local anesthetics by determining the percentage of the lipid-soluble base form of the anesthetic available for diffusion and penetration of the nerve sheath. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between pH and the concentrations of antioxidant and vasoconstrictor in dental local anesthetic solutions over real-time and after accelerated aging. Several batches of lidocaine and mepivacaine with vasoconstrictors were tested. Results showed that, immediately upon receipt from the manufacturers, three batches were below the USP pH limit (pH 3.3), and two batches contained less than the minimum limit of vasoconstrictors (90%). Real-time tests on batches that were within normal limits revealed that solutions were stable past 4 yr. Accelerated aging tests revealed a strong correlation between a decrease in pH and loss of antioxidants and vasoconstrictors. In conclusion, a quality batch of local anesthetic should remain efficacious long past the manufacturer's stated shelf life; a batch that is less than optimal, or one that is exposed to environmental stresses, will degrade rapidly, and efficacy may be affected by decreases in pH and loss of vasoconstrictor. pH may be an inexpensive, readily available screening test for efficacy of local anesthetics. PMID:10323112

  11. Local health departments and specific maternal and child health expenditures: relationships between spending and need.

    PubMed

    Bekemeier, Betty; Dunbar, Matthew; Bryan, Matthew; Morris, Michael E

    2012-11-01

    As a part of the Public Health Activities and Service Tracking study and in collaboration with partners in 2 Public Health Practice-Based Research Network states, we examined relationships between local health department (LHD) maternal and child health (MCH) expenditures and local needs. We used a multivariate pooled time-series design to estimate ecologic associations between expenditures in 3 MCH-specific service areas and related measures of need from 2005 to 2010 while controlling for other factors. Retrospective expenditure data from LHDs and for 3 MCH services represented annual investments in (1) Special Supplemental Nutrition for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), (2) family planning, and (3) a composite of Maternal, Infant, Child, and Adolescent (MICA) service. Expenditure data from all LHDs in Florida and Washington were then combined with "need" and control variables. Our sample consisted of the 102 LHDs in Florida and Washington and the county (or multicounty) jurisdictions they serve. Expenditures for WIC and for our composite of MICA services were strongly associated with need among LHDs in the sample states. For WIC, this association was positive, and for MICA services, this association was negative. Family planning expenditures were weakly associated, in a positive direction. Findings demonstrate wide variations across programs and LHDs in relation to need and may underscore differences in how programs are funded. Programs with financial disbursements based on guidelines that factor in local needs may be better able to provide service as local needs grow than programs with less needs-based funding allocations.

  12. Potential Global-Local Inconsistency in Species-Area Relationships Fitting.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xubin; Zhang, Xiuling; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-01-01

    The Species-Area Relationship (SAR) has been widely employed to assess species diversity and predict species extinction. Thus far, although many functions were proposed to fit SAR based on field observations or simulation results, the shape of SAR curve has been debated extensively over decades. Here we uncover a potential global-local inconsistency in SARs fitting simulation blocked by the limitation of large area sampling before. The results indicated that power and logarithm SAR formulas were good for the fitting if the sampling area range is not large which is also the practical sampling interval in the field. However, for the logarithm SAR fitting, a sigmoid curve occurred in the log10 Area-Number of Species plane, and for the power SAR fitting, the curve is convex instead of a straight line as assumed when linear regression was applied. In conclusion, neither the power SAR nor the logarithm SAR fitted to simulated data is linear at large sampling range as commonly assumed in previous studies, no matter the distribution of species abundance is log-normal or negative-binomial, which unmasks the global-local inconsistency in SARs fitting. Thus, misestimates of total number of species or other derivation parameters can occur if the fitted relationship is extrapolated beyond the range of the small and intermediate sampling size.

  13. Potential Global-Local Inconsistency in Species-Area Relationships Fitting

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xubin; Zhang, Xiuling; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Shuifang

    2016-01-01

    The Species-Area Relationship (SAR) has been widely employed to assess species diversity and predict species extinction. Thus far, although many functions were proposed to fit SAR based on field observations or simulation results, the shape of SAR curve has been debated extensively over decades. Here we uncover a potential global-local inconsistency in SARs fitting simulation blocked by the limitation of large area sampling before. The results indicated that power and logarithm SAR formulas were good for the fitting if the sampling area range is not large which is also the practical sampling interval in the field. However, for the logarithm SAR fitting, a sigmoid curve occurred in the log10 Area−Number of Species plane, and for the power SAR fitting, the curve is convex instead of a straight line as assumed when linear regression was applied. In conclusion, neither the power SAR nor the logarithm SAR fitted to simulated data is linear at large sampling range as commonly assumed in previous studies, no matter the distribution of species abundance is log-normal or negative-binomial, which unmasks the global-local inconsistency in SARs fitting. Thus, misestimates of total number of species or other derivation parameters can occur if the fitted relationship is extrapolated beyond the range of the small and intermediate sampling size. PMID:27625662

  14. Biogeographic affinity helps explain productivity-richness relationships at regional and local scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, S.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The unresolved question of what causes the observed positive relationship between large-scale productivity and species richness has long interested ecologists and evolutionists. Here we examine a potential explanation that we call the biogeographic affinity hypothesis, which proposes that the productivity-richness relationship is a function of species' climatic tolerances that in turn are shaped by the earth's climatic history combined with evolutionary niche conservatism. Using botanical data from regions and sites across California, we find support for a key prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that the productivity-species richness relationship differs strongly and predictably among groups of higher taxa on the basis of their biogeographic affinities (i.e., between families or genera primarily associated with north-temperate, semiarid, or desert zones). We also show that a consideration of biogeographic affinity can yield new insights on how productivity-richness patterns at large geographic scales filter down to affect patterns of species richness and composition within local communities. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  15. Governance typology: a consensus classification of state-local health department relationships.

    PubMed

    Meit, Michael; Sellers, Katie; Kronstadt, Jessica; Lawhorn, Nikki; Brown, Alexa; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Pearsol, Jim; Jarris, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Public health practitioners and researchers often refer to state public health systems as being centralized, decentralized, shared, or mixed. These categories refer to governance of the local public health units within the state and whether they operate under the authority of the state government, local government, shared state and local governance, or a mix of governance structures within the state. This article describes the development of an objective method of classifying states as centralized, decentralized, shared, or mixed. We also discuss some initial analyses that have been conducted to identify how public health resources and activities vary across states with different classifications. Cross-sectional study. State health agencies. Survey respondents were organizational leaders from all 50 state health agencies. Total full-time equivalent employees, total health agency expenditures, expenditures on clinical services, and provision of clinical services. Centralized state health agencies employ more full-time equivalent employees, have higher total expenditures, and provide more clinical services than decentralized state health agencies. Although higher expenditures on clinical services were observed, these differences were not statistically significant. It is important to take governance classification into account when investigating variation in services, resources, or performance of governmental public health systems. As public health systems and services researchers seek to identify best practices in the organization of public health systems, consistent definition of different types of organization is critical. This system provides an objective and reliable system for classifying governance relationships that allows for comparisons that are meaningful to both practitioners and researchers.

  16. Examination of the relationship between public health statute modernization and local public health system performance.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jacqueline; Meier, Benjamin Mason; Keeling, Jonathan; Jia, Haomiao; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-01-01

    Wide variation in performance of public health (PH) systems, coupled with national interest in improving PH system quality, makes it a priority to identify factors associated with performance. One factor may be congruence between a state's PH enabling statutes and the obligations outlined in Public Health in America-the collaboratively developed framework that defines the mission and essential services (ESs) of PH. This research examined the relationship between (1) the degree to which language in a state's PH enabling statutes reflects PH's mission and ESs and (2) the performance of local public health systems in delivering ESs, measured by National Public Health Performance Standards scores in 207 local jurisdictions. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that a high degree of congruence between statutory language and public health's mission increased the odds of above-average system performance for 5 of 10 ESs. High levels of congruence between statutory language and the ESs themselves increased odds of above-average system performance for 6 of 10 ESs. Results yielded modest odds ratios (<2.0). Limitations of the data make it impossible to draw firm conclusions; however, these modest results suggest that statutory language may account for little of the variation in local public health system performance.

  17. The Relationship between Components of the Ohio Local School District Report Card and the Outcome of a School Tax Levy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Vicki Ann

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between components of the local school district report card, school district typology, and the outcome of public school tax levy requests were examined in this study. A correlation research design was used to measure the relationship between the independent variables (performance index, average yearly progress, value added,…

  18. The Relationship between Components of the Ohio Local School District Report Card and the Outcome of a School Tax Levy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Vicki Ann

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between components of the local school district report card, school district typology, and the outcome of public school tax levy requests were examined in this study. A correlation research design was used to measure the relationship between the independent variables (performance index, average yearly progress, value added,…

  19. The relationship of active galactic nuclei & quasars with their local galaxy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Natalie Erin

    We explore how the local environment is related to properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of various luminosities. Recent simulations and observations are converging on the view that the extreme luminosity of quasars, the brightest of AGNs, is fueled in major mergers of gas-rich galaxies. In such a picture, quasars, the highest luminosity AGNs, are expected to be located in regions with a higher density of galaxies on small scales where mergers are more likely to take place. However, in this picture, the activity observed in low-luminosity AGNs is due to secular processes that are less dependent on the local galaxy density. To test this hypothesis, we compare the local photometric galaxy density on kiloparsec scales around spectroscopic type I and type II quasars to the local density around lower-luminosity spectroscopic type I and type II AGNs. To minimize projection effects and evolution in the photometric galaxy sample we use to characterize AGN environments, we place our random control sample at the same redshift as our AGNs and impose a narrow redshift window around both the AGNs and control targets. Our results support these merger models for bright AGN origins. We find that the brightest sources have overdensities that increase on the smallest scales compared to dimmer sources. In addition, we investigate the nature of the quasar and AGN environments themselves and find that the increased overdensity of early-type galaxies in the environments of bright type I sources suggests that they are located in richer cluster environments than dim sources. We measure increased environment overdensity with increased quasar black hole mass, consistent with the well- known M DMH - M BH relationship, and find evidence for quenching in the environments of high accretion efficiency type I quasars.

  20. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Chalmers, Natalia I; Barb, Jennifer J; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J; Munson, Peter J; Fine, Daniel H; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  1. Subgingival Microbial Communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and Their Relationship with Local Immunopathology

    PubMed Central

    Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J.; Munson, Peter J.; Fine, Daniel H.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25741691

  2. Relationship between burgers vectors of dislocations and plastic strain localization patterns in compression-strained alkali halide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barannikova, S. A.; Nadezhkin, M. V.; Zuev, L. B.

    2011-08-01

    Plastic strain localization patterns in compression-strained alkali halide (NaCl, KCl, and LiF) crystals have been studied using a double-exposure speckle photography technique. The main parameters of strain localization autowaves at the linear stages of deformation hardening in alkali halide crystals have been determined. A quantitative relationship between the macroscopic parameters of plastic flow localization and microscopic parameters of strained alkali halide crystals has been established.

  3. Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Å.; Stenström, K.; Adliene, D.; Adlys, G.; Dias, C.; Rääf, C.; Skog, G.; Zakaria, M.; Mattsson, S.

    2007-06-01

    Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina have been investigated. During 2001-2004, approximately 70 samples were collected and analysed using accelerator mass spectrometry. The study included samples of leaves, grass, moss, soil and aquatic plants, covering a distance up to 32 km from the power plant. The highest 14C specific activities were found in soil samples from moss-covered sites close to the power plant, probably indicating the release of particulate material. The results are compared with those from studies around other types of reactors also investigated within the project.

  4. Managerial attitude to the implementation of quality management systems in Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals.

    PubMed

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Malciankina, Sonata; Lydeka, Zigmas; Kazlauskaite, Ruta

    2006-09-20

    The regulations of the Quality Management System (QMS) implementation in health care organizations were approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Health in 1998. Following the above regulations, general managers of health care organizations had to initiate the QMS implementation in hospitals. As no research on the QMS implementation has been carried out in Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals since, the objective of this study is to assess its current stage from a managerial perspective. A questionnaire survey of general managers of Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals was carried out in the period of January through March 2005. Majority of the items included in the questionnaire were measured on a seven-point Likert scale. During the survey, a total of 72 questionnaires was distributed, out of which 58 filled-in ones were returned (response rate 80.6 per cent; standard sampling error 0.029 at 95 per cent level of confidence). Quality Management Systems were found operating in 39.7 per cent of support treatment and nursing hospitals and currently under implementation in 46.6 per cent of hospitals (13.7% still do not have it). The mean of the respondents' perceived QMS significance is 5.8 (on a seven-point scale). The most critical issues related to the QMS implementation include procedure development (5.5), lack of financial resources (5.4) and information (5.1), and development of work guidelines (4.6), while improved responsibility and power sharing (5.2), better service quality (5.1) and higher patient satisfaction (5.1) were perceived by the respondents as the key QMS benefits. The level of satisfaction with the QMS among the management of the surveyed hospitals is mediocre (3.6). However it was found to be higher among respondents who were more competent in quality management, were familiar with ISO 9000 standards, and had higher numbers of employees trained in quality management. QMSs are perceived to be successfully running in one

  5. Managerial attitude to the implementation of quality management systems in Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Malciankina, Sonata; Lydeka, Zigmas; Kazlauskaite, Ruta

    2006-01-01

    Background The regulations of the Quality Management System (QMS) implementation in health care organizations were approved by the Lithuanian Ministry of Health in 1998. Following the above regulations, general managers of health care organizations had to initiate the QMS implementation in hospitals. As no research on the QMS implementation has been carried out in Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals since, the objective of this study is to assess its current stage from a managerial perspective. Methods A questionnaire survey of general managers of Lithuanian support treatment and nursing hospitals was carried out in the period of January through March 2005. Majority of the items included in the questionnaire were measured on a seven-point Likert scale. During the survey, a total of 72 questionnaires was distributed, out of which 58 filled-in ones were returned (response rate 80.6 per cent; standard sampling error 0.029 at 95 per cent level of confidence). Results Quality Management Systems were found operating in 39.7 per cent of support treatment and nursing hospitals and currently under implementation in 46.6 per cent of hospitals (13.7% still do not have it). The mean of the respondents' perceived QMS significance is 5.8 (on a seven-point scale). The most critical issues related to the QMS implementation include procedure development (5.5), lack of financial resources (5.4) and information (5.1), and development of work guidelines (4.6), while improved responsibility and power sharing (5.2), better service quality (5.1) and higher patient satisfaction (5.1) were perceived by the respondents as the key QMS benefits. The level of satisfaction with the QMS among the management of the surveyed hospitals is mediocre (3.6). However it was found to be higher among respondents who were more competent in quality management, were familiar with ISO 9000 standards, and had higher numbers of employees trained in quality management. Conclusion QMSs are

  6. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, M.; Singh, M.; Kapoor, S.; Jasial, S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull), were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01) correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. PMID:26623288

  7. Classification of protein motifs based on subcellular localization uncovers evolutionary relationships at both sequence and functional levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most proteins have evolved in specific cellular compartments that limit their functions and potential interactions. On the other hand, motifs define amino acid arrangements conserved between protein family members and represent powerful tools for assigning function to protein sequences. The ideal motif would identify all members of a protein family but in practice many motifs identify both family members and unrelated proteins, referred to as True Positive (TP) and False Positive (FP) sequences, respectively. Results To address the relationship between protein motifs, protein function and cellular localization, we systematically assigned subcellular localization data to motif sequences from the comprehensive PROSITE sequence motif database. Using this data we analyzed relationships between localization and function. We find that TPs and FPs have a strong tendency to localize in different compartments. When multiple localizations are considered, TPs are usually distributed between related cellular compartments. We also identified cases where FPs are concentrated in particular subcellular regions, indicating possible functional or evolutionary relationships with TP sequences of the same motif. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the systematic examination of subcellular localization has the potential to uncover evolutionary and functional relationships between motif-containing sequences. We believe that this type of analysis complements existing motif annotations and could aid in their interpretation. Our results shed light on the evolution of cellular organelles and potentially establish the basis for new subcellular localization and function prediction algorithms. PMID:23865897

  8. HGDP and HapMap Analysis by Ancestry Mapper Reveals Local and Global Population Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Tiago R.; Casey, Jillian P.; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set. PMID:23189146

  9. HGDP and HapMap analysis by Ancestry Mapper reveals local and global population relationships.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Tiago R; Casey, Jillian P; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set.

  10. The Accuracy of the Osteological Sexing of Cremated Human Remains: A Test Based on Grave Goods from East Lithuanian Barrows.

    PubMed

    Kurila, Laurynas

    2015-12-01

    The accuracy of the sex determination of cremated human remains is one of the vital parameters for archaeologists and skeletal anthropologists dealing with cremations. Few studies have so far aimed at testing it. In the present paper, the accuracy of the sexing techniques was assessed by paralleling biological sex (identified morphologically) to gender (presumed on the basis of the grave goods which accompanied the deceased). A collection of cremated bones from East Lithuanian barrows (c. fourth/fifth--eleventh/twelfth centuries AD) was employed. The fragmentary nature and poor state of the bones generally represents cremains from similar archaeological contexts. The database inevitably underwent several stages of filtration. Out of 364 cremations with a minimum of 445 individuals, only 157 were sexed single adult burials, of which only 81 had "gender-related" grave goods. The relationship of artefact type to gender was defined statistically, revising the results in line with the chronological and typological differences and the probable symbolism of the grave goods. Sex and gender coincided in 56 cases (69.14%), but a considerable distance between the results for both sexes was observed. Biological females displayed a fairly high match level, i.e. 35 out of the 41 (85.37%) individuals osteologically identified as females had been given "feminine" items. The burials of biological males, on the other hand, yielded a surprisingly low match rate, i.e. only 21 out of 40 (52.50%). This disparity suggests a possible misinterpretation of grave goods as gender markers, rather than (only?) erroneous sexing. It is thus argued that for females, the mean value for the accuracy of sexing is 85.5%. In most cases, such precision is entirely satisfactory for the analysis of a poorly-preserved osteological material. For males, however, the accuracy is likely to fall somewhere in the range between 52.5 and 85.5%, with the applied methodology so far failing to contribute to higher

  11. Prevalence of psychoactive substances use in a Lithuanian women's prison revisited after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Narkauskaitė, Laura; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Venalis, Algirdas; Utkuvienė, Janina

    2010-11-01

    This paper re-examines the prevalence of psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol, narcotic drugs) use among inmates in a Lithuanian women's prison. The main goal of this study was to determinate the changes in the use of the psychoactive substances in a women's prison in Lithuania. We accomplished the retesting of the first ever investigation of this kind, carried out in 2004, using the same questionnaire, in the only women's prison in Lithuania. In June 2009, 71 (27.8%) women of 255 inmates of the prison were given questionnaires with information about the aim of the study, stating that the study was voluntary and anonymous, and obtaining permission for release of information. The results were compared with the previous investigation. A statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Tobacco smokers comprised 85.3% of respondents.; the average age at which respondents started to smoke was 14±7.3 years; 57.7% of respondents had tried narcotic drugs at least once; 22.5% of respondents used drugs (in 2004 we had found no drug use in this women's prison); 18.3% of respondents indicated that they narcotic drugs were tried for the first time away, 4.2% - in a custodial establishment. Psychoactive substances are often used due to their psychological effect. inmates constitute a high-risk group of drug users and distributors of narcotic drugs. Intravenous narcotics stimulating dangerous behavior prevail in Lithuanian prisons. Women in prison are especially prone to smoking.

  12. Spiritual care as perceived by Lithuanian student nurses and nurse educators: A national survey.

    PubMed

    Riklikiene, Olga; Vozgirdiene, Inga; Karosas, Laima M; Lazenby, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Political restrictions during 50years of Soviet occupation discouraged expressions of spirituality among Lithuanians. The aim of this paper is to describe Lithuanian nursing educators' and students' perception of spiritual care in a post-Soviet context. This cross-sectional study was carried out among student nurses and nursing educators at three universities and six colleges in Lithuania. The questionnaire developed by Scott (1959) and supplemented by Martin Johnson (1983) was distributed to 316 nursing students in the 3rd and 4th years of studies and 92 nurse educators (N=408). Student nurses and their educators rated general and professional values of religiousness equally; although students tended to dislike atheistic behavior more than educators. Four main categories associated with perceptions of spirituality in nursing care emerged from the student nurses: attributes of spiritual care, advantages of spiritual care, religiousness in spiritual care, and nurse-patient collaboration and communication. Themes from nurse educators paralleled the same first three themes but not the last one. Student nurses and nurse educators acknowledged the importance of spiritual care for patients as well as for care providers - nurses. In many cases spiritual care was defined by nursing students and nurse educators as faith and religiousness. Being a religious person, both for students and educators, or having spiritual aspects in students' personal lives influenced the perception of religious reflection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Macular SD-OCT Outcome Measures: Comparison of Local Structure-Function Relationships and Dynamic Range

    PubMed Central

    Miraftabi, Arezoo; Amini, Navid; Morales, Esteban; Henry, Sharon; Yu, Fei; Afifi, Abdolmonem; Coleman, Anne L.; Caprioli, Joseph; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that the macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness demonstrates a stronger structure-function (SF) relationship and extends the useful range of macular measurements compared with combined macular inner layer or full thickness. Methods Ninety-eight glaucomatous eyes and eight normal eyes with macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans and 10-2 visual fields were enrolled. Inner plexiform layer (IPL), GCL, macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and full thickness (FT) measurements were calculated for 8 × 8 arrays of 3° superpixels. Main outcome measures were local structure-function relationships between macular superpixels and corresponding sensitivities on 10-2 fields after adjusting for ganglion cell displacement, dynamic range of measurements, and the change point (total deviation value where macular parameters reached measurement floor). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) mean deviation was −7.2 (−11.6 to −3.2) dB in glaucoma eyes. Strength of SF relationships was highest for GCIPL, GCL, GCC, and IPL (ρ = 0.635, 0.627, 0.621, and 0.577, respectively; P ≤ 0.046 for comparisons against GCIPL). Highest SF correlations coincided with the peak of GCL thickness, where the dynamic range was widest for FT (81.1 μm), followed by GCC (65.7 μm), GCIPL (54.9 μm), GCL (35.2 μm), mRNFL (27.5 μm), and IPL (20.9 μm). Change points were similar for all macular parameters (−7.8 to −8.9 dB). Conclusions GCIPL, GCL, and GCC demonstrated comparable SF relationships while FT, GCC, and GCIPL had the widest dynamic range. Measurement of GCL did not extend the range of useful structural measurements. Measuring GCL does not provide any advantage for detection of progression with current SD-OCT technology. PMID:27623336

  14. [Psychological and psychiatric problems in cancer patients: relationship to the localization of the disease].

    PubMed

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G; Christodoulaki, A G; Karkanias, A P

    2012-01-01

    , affect body image and cause feelings of embarrassment with severe consequences on the patient's sense of wellbeing, his or her daily activities, interpersonal relationships or sexuality. Depressive symptoms often occur in prodromal stages of pancreatic cancer. Depression is a common diagnosis in patients with prostate cancer. Prostatectomy negatively affects patient's self-esteem, because it might be experienced as a threat to his sexual life. Disfigurement is related to skin cancer because of both cancer and surgical procedures. Therefore, it is a challenge for modern psycho-oncology to identify those patients who are vulnerable in developing psychiatric symptoms, to early diagnose anxiety and depression and to use psychotherapeutic interventions targeting individual psychological and psychiatric problems in relation to the localization of disease in the human body.

  15. Relationship of Th17/Treg Cells and Radiation Pneumonia in Locally Advanced Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Gang; Wang, Jie; Li, Xin-Hua; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jun-Xia; Wu, Chao-Yang

    2017-08-01

    Radiation pneumonia is a main side-effect that has limited the clinical usage of radiotherapy in locally advanced esophageal carcinoma. T helper cells 17 (Th 17) and T regulatory cells (Tregs) play an important role in inflammatory diseases. The balance between Treg and Th17 cells is a key factor in the progression of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Whether Tregs and Th17 cells are predictive factors of radiation pneumonia has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the relationships of Treg/Th17 cells and radiation pneumonia in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who received radiotherapy. One hundred and forty-eight patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who received radical and palliative radiotherapy were enrolled. The levels of Th17 and Treg cells in the blood of patients were detected using flow cytometry at the time point of pre-radiotherapy, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th week from the start of radiation and 4 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Radiation pneumonia was evaluated according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's acute radiation pneumonia standards, with the endpoint being grade 2 or above radiation pneumonia. There were 24 cases of radiation pneumonia in 148 cases of locally advanced esophageal cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy. Th17 cells increased and, in contrast, Treg cells decreased in the radiation pneumonia group. The change in the ratio of Th17/Treg was more pronounced and the difference was statistically significant from the 5th week after irradiation compared to patients with no radiation pneumonia (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in dosimetric parameters, including V5, V20, V30 and mean lung dose (MLD) and clinical factors, such as gender, age, smoking history, history of surgery and chemotherapy. The ratio of Th17/Treg cells may be an effective predictive factor of radiation pneumonia. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr

  16. Confidentiality and parental involvement in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care: a cross-sectional study of Lithuanian general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-07-01

    We surveyed Lithuanian general practitioners' (GPs) views on the importance of confidentiality for adolescents and on their practices in informing parents about sexual and reproductive health consultations with this age group. In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit of confidentiality protection in patient-provider settings was also assessed. Although 67.5% of the responding GPs (response rate 73.5%) stated that they inform the parents or guardians of adolescent patients about the importance of confidentiality, 82.9% of them only did so if the opportunity arose. When consulting on general sexual issues, more than 70% stated that they would guarantee their minor patients confidentiality. However, when cases involved sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy, nearly the same percentage said they would inform the parents. 62.3% of GPs incorrectly believed that the law only protects the right to confidentiality for patients who are 18 or older. Our findings indicate that Lithuanian GPs frequently violate adolescents' right to confidential health services. The study highlights the need for a comprehensive strategy to strengthen the confidentiality of sexual and reproductive health services for this group in Lithuanian primary care.

  17. Application of ISO 9000 Series Quality Management Standards at a Higher Education Institution: A Case of Lithuanian Maritime College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sencila, Viktoras; Skipariene, Ingrida

    2007-01-01

    The European education standards assurance and pursuit of quality in education have been announced as strategic aims of the Lithuanian education system in the light of new challenges the society is facing and opportunities offered by democracy, development of market economy and globalization. One of the ways to achieve the aims mentioned above is…

  18. Assessing relationships between state and local public health organizations: evidence from the NACCHO 2008 profile of local health departments.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew M; Shelton, Shoshana R; Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Nelson, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Public health systems vary by degree of centralization, reflecting the distribution of authority, responsibility, and effort between state and local public health agencies. We analyzed data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials Profile of Local Health Departments survey, and propose an improved composite measure of centralization that can be computed for all local health departments within a state, as opposed to a single state respondent, as done in 1998. While most states' structures (79.5%) are decentralized, the new measure presents a continuum from highly decentralized to highly centralized. The measure was internally consistent (Cronbach α = .87) and correlated somewhat strongly with the centralization classification from the 1998 survey (Kendall's τ correlation = .62, P < .001), suggesting that a stable centralization construct can be reliably determined. This new centralization variable can facilitate more nuanced studies of public health systems, and inform policy design and implementation.

  19. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D.; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  20. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    PubMed

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  1. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  2. Reversed-phase liquid chromatographic retention and membrane activity relationships of local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Hironori; Mizogami, Maki; Takakura, Ko

    2005-05-06

    The chromatographic retention and membrane activity relationships of local anesthetics were studied to address the possible mechanisms for structure specificity and inflammation-associated decrease of their effects. Five representative drugs (3 mM for each) were reacted with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes in 25 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.9-7.9, containing 100 mM NaCl and 0.1 mM EDTA) for 10 min at 37 degrees C and the membrane fluidity changes were analyzed by measuring fluorescence polarization with 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Their capacity factors were determined on octadecyl-, octyl- and phenyl-bonded silica columns with a mobile phase consisting of 25 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.9-7.9, containing 100 mM NaCl and 0.1 mM EDTA)-methanol (30:70, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and at a column temperature of 37 degrees C and diode-array detection. Mepivacaine, prilocaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine and bupivacaine fluidized membranes in increasing order of intensity, which agreed with their clinical potency. The relative degree of membrane fluidization correlated with that of retention on an octadecyl stationary phase more significantly than the other phases. Both membrane-fluidizing effects and capacity factors decreased by lowering the reaction and mobile phase pH, being consistent with the hypothesis that anesthetic potency is reduced in inflammation because of tissue acidity. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography appears to be useful for estimating the structure-specific and pH-dependent membrane-fluidizing effects of local anesthetics.

  3. Relationship between the transition frequency of local fluid flow and the peak frequency of attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cheng-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Bing; Pan, Yi-Xin; Teng, Xin-Bao

    2016-03-01

    Local fluid flow (LFF) at the mesoscopic scale is the main dissipation mechanism of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous media within the seismic frequency band. LFF is easily influenced by the structure and boundary conditions of the porous media, which leads to different behaviors of the peak frequency of attenuation. The associated transition frequency can provide detailed information about the trend of LFF; therefore, research on the transition frequency of LFF and its relationship with the peak frequency of the corresponding attenuation (i.e., inverse of quality factor) facilitates the detailed understanding of the effect of inner structures and boundary conditions in porous media. In this study, we firstly obtain the transition frequency of fluid flux based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and the fast Fourier transform algorithm in a sample containing one repeating unit cell (RUC). We then analyze changes of these two frequencies in porous media with different porous properties. Finally, we extend our analysis to the influence of the undrained boundary condition on the transition frequency and peak frequency in porous media with multiple RUCs. This setup can facilitate the understanding of the effect from the undrained boundary condition. Results demonstrate that these two frequencies have the same trend at low water saturation, but amplitude variations differ between the frequencies as the amount of saturation increases. However, for cases of high water saturation, both the trend and the amplitude variation of these two frequencies fit well with each other.

  4. The relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Francis-Paul E M; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Gerard M J; van Steenhoven, Anton A

    2007-08-01

    Cooling the scalp during administration of chemotherapy can prevent hair loss. It reduces both skin blood flow and hair follicle temperature, thus affecting drug supply and drug effect in the hair follicle. The extent to which these mechanisms contribute to the hair preservative effect of scalp cooling remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous blood flow during scalp cooling. We measured skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during a cooling and re-warming experiment. Experiments on a single subject showed that the measurements were reproducible and that the response was identical for the two positions that were measured. Inter-subject variability was investigated on nine subjects. We found that for the first 10 degrees C of cooling, perfusion of the scalp skin decreases to below 40%. Perfusion can be further reduced to below 30% by a few degrees more cooling, but a plateau is reached after that. We found that a generally accepted relation in thermal physiology between temperature and perfusion (i.e. Q(10) relation) does not describe the data well, but we found an alternative relation that describes the average behavior significantly better.

  5. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and high blood pressure in Lithuanian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Simonyte, Sandrita; Kuciene, Renata; Medzioniene, Jurate; Dulskiene, Virginija; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2017-09-13

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the influence of environmental factors on HBP in the population of Lithuanian children, although the role of genetic factors in hypertension has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of AGTR1, AGT, and ACE genotypes in the Lithuanian child population and to determine whether these genotypes have an impact on HBP in childhood. This cross-sectional study enrolled 709 participants aged 12-15 years. The subjects were genotyped for AGT (M235 T, rs699), AGTR1 (A1166C, rs5186), and ACE (rs4340) gene polymorphisms using real-time and conventional polymerase chain reactions. Blood pressure and anthropometric parameters were measured. The prevalence of HBP was 38.6% and was more frequently detected in boys than in girls (47.9% vs. 29.5%; p < 0.001). No significant differences in the frequencies of the AGT or AGTR1 genotypes or alleles between boys and girls were observed, except for ACE genotypes. The mean SBP value was higher in HBP subjects with ACE ID genotype compared to those with ACE II homozygotes (p = 0.04). No significant differences in BP between different AGT and AGTR1 genotype groups were found. Boys who carried the ACE ID + DD genotypes had higher odds of having HBP than carriers of the ACE II genotype did (controlling for the body mass index (BMI): ORMH = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11-3.02, p = 0.024; and controlling for waist circumference (WC): ORMH = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07-2.92, p = 0.035). These associations were not significant among girls. The same trend was observed in the multivariate analysis - after adjustment for BMI and WC, only boys with ACE ID genotype and ACE ID + DD genotypes had statistically significantly increased odds of HBP (aOR = 2.05; 95% CI, 1.19-3.53 (p = 0.01) and aOR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.04 (p = 0.022), respectively). The evaluated polymorphisms of the AGT and AGTR1 genes did not contribute to the presence of HBP in the present study and may be

  6. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  7. Exploring the Relationships between Higher Education and Industry. A Case Study of a University and the Local Tourism Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Nicola; Ladkin, Adele

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 44 of 200 British tourism enterprises identified barriers and benefits to the relationship between a university and the local tourism industry. Results showed low interaction, most of which was in the area of recruitment, and little use of university services to business. (Contains 32 references.) (JOW)

  8. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the Relationship between Global and Local Assessment Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek…

  9. Comparative analysis of local and consensus quantitative structure-activity relationship approaches for the prediction of bioconcentration factor.

    PubMed

    Piir, G; Sild, S; Maran, U

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are broadly classified as global or local, depending on their molecular constitution. Global models use large and diverse training sets covering a wide range of chemical space. Local models focus on smaller structurally or chemically similar subsets that are conventionally selected by human experts or alternatively using clustering analysis. The current study focuses on the comparative analysis of different clustering algorithms (expectation-maximization, K-means and hierarchical) for seven different descriptor sets as structural characteristics and two rule-based approaches to select subsets for designing local QSAR models. A total of 111 local QSAR models are developed for predicting bioconcentration factor. Predictions from local models were compared with corresponding predictions from the global model. The comparison of coefficients of determination (r(2)) and standard deviations for local models with similar subsets from the global model show improved prediction quality in 97% of cases. The descriptor content of derived QSARs is discussed and analyzed. Local QSAR models were further consolidated within the framework of consensus approach. All different consensus approaches increased performance over the global and local models. The consensus approach reduced the number of strongly deviating predictions by evening out prediction errors, which were produced by some local QSARs.

  10. Relationship of edge localized mode burst times with divertor flux loop signal phase in JET

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Todd, T. N.; Webster, A. J.; Morris, J.; Watkins, N. W.; Calderon, F. A.

    2014-06-15

    A phase relationship is identified between sequential edge localized modes (ELMs) occurrence times in a set of H-mode tokamak plasmas to the voltage measured in full flux azimuthal loops in the divertor region. We focus on plasmas in the Joint European Torus where a steady H-mode is sustained over several seconds, during which ELMs are observed in the Be II emission at the divertor. The ELMs analysed arise from intrinsic ELMing, in that there is no deliberate intent to control the ELMing process by external means. We use ELM timings derived from the Be II signal to perform direct time domain analysis of the full flux loop VLD2 and VLD3 signals, which provide a high cadence global measurement proportional to the voltage induced by changes in poloidal magnetic flux. Specifically, we examine how the time interval between pairs of successive ELMs is linked to the time-evolving phase of the full flux loop signals. Each ELM produces a clear early pulse in the full flux loop signals, whose peak time is used to condition our analysis. The arrival time of the following ELM, relative to this pulse, is found to fall into one of two categories: (i) prompt ELMs, which are directly paced by the initial response seen in the flux loop signals; and (ii) all other ELMs, which occur after the initial response of the full flux loop signals has decayed in amplitude. The times at which ELMs in category (ii) occur, relative to the first ELM of the pair, are clustered at times when the instantaneous phase of the full flux loop signal is close to its value at the time of the first ELM.

  11. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelopμental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying

  12. Variation in the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA genes in Lithuanian football players.

    PubMed

    Gineviciene, Valentina; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Tubelis, Linas; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ACE (I/D), PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms on footballers performance among 199 Lithuanian professional footballers and 167 sedentary, healthy men (controls). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods on DNA from leucocytes. Results revealed that the angiotensin-1-coverting enzyme gene (ACE) genotype distribution was significantly different between total football players group (II 23.6%, ID 46.7% and DD 29.6%) and the controls (II 24.6%, ID 29.9% and DD 45.5%; P=0.002). Although investigating PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms no significant results were obtained in the total football players group, however, significant differences were determined between forwards and controls [PPARGC1A: GG 54.6%, GA 29.5%, AA 15.9% vs. GG 49.7%, GA 44.3% and AA 6.0% (P = 0.044); PPARA: GG 52.3%, GC 40.9%, CC 6.8% vs. GG 72.4%, GC 24.6% and CC 3.0% (P = 0.034)]. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio of the genotype [ACE ID + PPARA GG] being a footballer was 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.74), and of [ACE ID + PPARGC1A GG] 1.93 (95% CI 1.10-3.37) and of [ACE II + PPARA GC] 2.83 (95% CI 1.02-7.91) compared to controls. It was revealed that ACE ID genotype together with PPARA GG and PPARGC1A GG as well as ACE II genotype with PPARA GC is probably the 'preferable genotype' for footballers. Summing up, the present study suggests that the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA polymorphisms genotypes are associated, separately and in combination, with Lithuanian footballers' performance.

  13. The role of parental education and socioeconomic status in dental caries prevention among Lithuanian children.

    PubMed

    Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Bendoraitienė, Eglė Aida; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Andruškevičienė, Vilija; Zūbienė, Jūratė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disclose parental attitudes toward their children's dental care and preventive measures used as well as to evaluate their associations with parental education and socioeconomic status. A total of 1248 parents of 7-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from 5 largest Lithuanian cities were enrolled in the study. The questionnaire comprised 34 items, which were grouped into 4 clusters. The parents with a high educational level scored better than those who had a low educational level (2.13 [SD, 0.39] vs. 2.2 [0.43], P=0.002). The parents who reported sufficient-family income scored their child's and their own health significantly better than those reporting insufficient-family income (2.02 [SD, 0.37] vs. 2.27 [SD, 0.41], P<0.001). The parents cared about their child's health more than about their own (1.53 [SD, 0.51] vs. 2.15 [0.61], P<0.001). The parents with a high educational level and those receiving sufficient income cared about education on oral hygiene and regular preventive dental check-ups more than those with a low educational level and insufficient income (36.7% and 40.8% vs. 30.2% and 28.7%, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). The children whose parents had a high educational level brushed their teeth 2 times a day more frequently than those of the parents with a low educational level (48.5% and 42.4%, respectively, P<0.001). Greater attention to children's dental care as well as keeping their teeth healthy was paid by the parents with a high educational level and sufficient income. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation of flight crews of Lithuanian airlines.

    PubMed

    Morkŭnas, Gendrutis; Pilkyte, Laima; Ereminas, Darius

    2003-01-01

    In Lithuania the average annual effective dose due to cosmic radiation at the sea level is 0.38 mSv. The dose rate caused by cosmic radiation increases with altitude due to the decrease in attenuation of cosmic radiation by atmosphere. Dose rates at altitudes of commercial flights are tens times higher than those at the sea level. For this reason people who frequently fly receive higher doses which might even be subject to legal regulations. The European Council Directive (96/29/Euratom) on basic radiation safety standards requires that doses of aircrews members be assessed and the appropriate measures taken, depending on the assessment results. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential doses, which can be received by members of aircrews of Lithuanian Airlines. The assessment was done by performing measurements and calculations. Measurements were performed in flying aircrafts by thermoluminescent detectors, Geiger Muller counters and neutron rem counter. Such an approach lead to evaluation of doses due to directly ionizing particles and neutrons. Calculations were done with the help of the code CARI-6M. Such parameters as flight route, solar activity, duration and altitudes of flight were taken into account. Doses received during different flights and in different aircrafts were assessed. The results of measurements and calculations were compared and differences discussed. The results were also compared with the data obtained in other similar studies. It was found that the highest doses are received in flights to Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt by aircraft B737. A number of flights causing annual doses higher than 1 mSv was estimated. Despite the fact that only European flights are operated by Lithuanian Airlines the dose of 1 mSv may be exceeded under some circumstances. If it happens some radiation protection measures shall be taken. These measures are also discussed.

  15. Defining the Relationship between Seismicity and Deformation at Regional and Local Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Nneka Njeri Akosua

    In this thesis, I use source inversion methods to improve understanding of crustal deformation along the Nyainquentanglha (NQTL) Detachment in Southern Tibet and the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. Broadband station coverage in both regions is sparse, necessitating the development of innovative approaches to source inversion for the purpose of studying local earthquakes. In an effort to study the 2002-2003 earthquake swarm and the 2008 M w 6.3 Damxung earthquake and aftershocks that occurred in the NQTL region, we developed a single station earthquake location inversion method called the SP Envelope method, to be used with data from LHSA at Lhasa, a broadband seismometer located 75 km away. A location is calculated by first rotating the seismogram until the azimuth at which the envelope of the P-wave arrival on the T-component is smallest (its great circle path) is found. The distance at which to place the location along this azimuth is measured by calculating the S-P distance from arrivals on the seismogram. When used in conjunction with an existing waveform modeling based source inversion method called Cut and Paste (CAP), a catalog of 40 regional earthquakes was generated. From these 40 earthquakes, a catalog of 30 earthquakes with the most certain locations was generated to study the relationship of seismicity and NQTL region faults mapped in Google Earth™ and in Armijo et al., 1986 and Kapp et al., 2005. Using these faults and focal mechanisms, a fault model of the NQTL Region was generated using GOCAD, a 3D modeling suite. By studying the relationship of modeled faults to mapped fault traces at the surface, the most likely fault slip plane was chosen. These fault planes were then used to calculate slip vectors and a regional bulk stress tensor, with respect to which the low-angle NQTL Detachment was found to be badly misoriented. The formation of low-angle normal faults is inconsistent with the Anderson Theory of faulting, and the presence of the

  16. The relationship between regional and local species diversity in marine benthic communities: A global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Witman, Jon D.; Etter, Ron J.; Smith, Franz

    2004-01-01

    The number of species coexisting in ecological communities must be a consequence of processes operating on both local and regional scales. Although a great deal of experimental work has been devoted to local causes of diversity, little is known about the effects of regional processes on local diversity and how they contribute to global diversity patterns in marine systems. We tested the effects of latitude and the richness of the regional species pool on the species richness of local epifaunal invertebrate communities by sampling the diversity of local sites in 12 independent biogeographic regions from 62°S to 63°N latitude. Both regional and local species richness displayed significant unimodal patterns with latitude, peaking at low latitudes and decreasing toward high latitudes. The latitudinal diversity gradient was represented at the scale of local sites because local species richness was positively and linearly related to regional species richness. The richness of the regional species pool explained 73-76% of local species richness. On a global scale, the extent of regional influence on local species richness was nonrandom—the proportion of regional biota represented in local epifaunal communities increased significantly from low to high latitudes. The strong effect of the regional species pool implies that patterns of local diversity in temperate, tropical, and high-latitude marine benthic communities are influenced by processes operating on larger spatiotemporal scales than previously thought. PMID:15501917

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Ndèye Penda; Sow, Adama; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Ndiaye, Saliou; Sawadogo, Germain Jerôme; Sembène, Mbacké

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama). Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na) at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs) lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE) per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS) of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of productivity

  18. On the relationship between the local segmental dynamics and the tagged monomer dynamics in lamellar phases of diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Ganesan, Venkat

    2017-09-14

    In this brief article, we present results from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations which probed the relationship between the local segmental dynamics and the tagged monomer dynamics in lamellar phases of diblock copolymers. Our results demonstrate that monomer relaxation times do not provide directly a quantitatively accurate measure of the spatial variations in segmental dynamics. However, a convolution of the monomer density distributions with their corresponding relaxation times is shown to provide an approximate, but accurate, quantitative characterization of the average local segmental dynamics.

  19. On the relationship between the local segmental dynamics and the tagged monomer dynamics in lamellar phases of diblock copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuraman, Vaidyanathan; Ganesan, Venkat

    2017-09-01

    In this brief article, we present results from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations which probed the relationship between the local segmental dynamics and the tagged monomer dynamics in lamellar phases of diblock copolymers. Our results demonstrate that monomer relaxation times do not provide directly a quantitatively accurate measure of the spatial variations in segmental dynamics. However, a convolution of the monomer density distributions with their corresponding relaxation times is shown to provide an approximate, but accurate, quantitative characterization of the average local segmental dynamics.

  20. Exploring the relationship between vibrational mode locality and coupling using constrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Andrew; Smereka, Peter; Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    The use of alternate coordinate systems as a means to improve the efficiency and accuracy of anharmonic vibrational structure analysis has seen renewed interest in recent years. While normal modes (which diagonalize the mass-weighted Hessian matrix) are a typical choice, the delocalized nature of this basis makes it less optimal when anharmonicity is in play. When a set of modes is not designed to treat anharmonicity, anharmonic effects will contribute to inter-mode coupling in an uncontrolled fashion. These effects can be mitigated by introducing locality, but this comes at its own cost of potentially large second-order coupling terms. Herein, a method is described which partially localizes vibrations to connect the fully delocalized and fully localized limits. This allows a balance between the treatment of harmonic and anharmonic coupling, which minimizes the error that arises from neglected coupling terms. Partially localized modes are investigated for a range of model systems including a tetramer of hydrogen fluoride, water dimer, ethene, diphenylethane, and stilbene. Generally, partial localization reaches ˜75% of maximal locality while introducing less than ˜30% of the harmonic coupling of the fully localized system. Furthermore, partial localization produces mode pairs that are spatially separated and thus weakly coupled to one another. It is likely that this property can be exploited in the creation of model Hamiltonians that omit the coupling parameters of the distant (and therefore uncoupled) pairs.

  1. Perceptions of local neighbourhood environments and their relationship to childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Timperio, A; Salmon, J; Telford, A; Crawford, D

    2005-02-01

    To examine associations between parent and child perceptions of the local neighbourhood and overweight/obesity among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 y. Cross-sectional survey. In total, 291 families of 5-6-y-old and 919 families of 10-12-y-old children. Parent's perceptions of local neighbourhood and perceived child access to eight local destinations within walking distance of home; 10-12-y-old children's perception of local neighbourhood; socio-demographic characteristics (survey). Children's height and weight (measured). No perceptions of the local neighbourhood were associated with weight status among 5-6-y-old children. Among 10-12-y-old children, those whose parents agreed that there was heavy traffic in their local streets were more likely to be overweight or obese (OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.8), and those whose parents agreed that road safety was a concern were more likely to be obese (OR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-15.2), compared to those whose parents disagreed with these statements. This study suggests that parental perceptions of heavy traffic on local streets and concern about road safety may be indirect influences on overweight and obesity among 10-12-y-old children. Future work should also consider perceptions of the neighbourhood related to food choice.

  2. Evaluation of quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling strategies: local and global models.

    PubMed

    Helgee, Ernst Ahlberg; Carlsson, Lars; Boyer, Scott; Norinder, Ulf

    2010-04-26

    A thorough comparison between different QSAR modeling strategies is presented. The comparison is conducted for local versus global modeling strategies, risk assessment, and computational cost. The strategies are implemented using random forests, support vector machines, and partial least squares. Results are presented for simulated data, as well as for real data, generally indicating that a global modeling strategy is preferred over a local strategy. Furthermore, the results also show that there is an pronounced risk and a comparatively high computational cost when using the local modeling strategies.

  3. Stability Problems at Ancient Cnidus (Datca, SW Turkey) and Its Relationship with Local Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengül, M. Alper

    2013-04-01

    The main scope of this work was investigating the causes of bending and collapsing in the retaining wall of Stoa at ancient Cnidus (SW Turkey) and observing its relationship with local tectonism and seismicity. As a result of datas, some solutions in order to prevent for different or more deformations that may occur on the wall in the future is presented. The observed collapse in the wall seems to be engineering problem. To be taken filling material by human factor has brought the instability in the wall. Founding of the ancient Cnidus considered many damaging natural possibilities like earthquake, landslide and rockfall and city structures designed in this way. However, these designs were insufficient to the effects of the earthquakes and active tectonism which shown on the region. The study area was located at the end of Datca Peninsula (SW Turkey). The ancient city of Cnidus and therefore Datca peninsula and Rhodes are one of the most active district in terms of seismicity in the southern Aegean sea. There are a lot of different sized earthquakes recorded both the historical and instrumental periods affecting the region. Very recently the earthquake storm in the sea maintains a sign of activity of the region. Since the establishment of the ancient Cnidus, medium and large earthquakes occurred in the area and affected by highly and experienced serious destruction. Still traces of these earthquakes can be observed on the surface and structures. These earthquakes affected structures directly and also could have made changes in ground conditions. As it is already known, because during and immediately after an earthquake, such as landslide, creep, rock fall events can be occur. The ancient Cnidus settled in an area be experienced similar problems. A part of the ancient Cnidus is located on a relatively weakly fitted colluvium material which is a cover unit on whole sloping area. The majority of structures are builded on the debris and filling material especially at

  4. The relationship between local density and bond-orientational order during crystallization of the Gaussian core model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wei; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2016-02-21

    Whether nucleation is triggered by density or by bond-orientational order is one of the most hotly debated issues in recent investigations of the crystallization process. Here, we present a numerical study of the relationship between them for soft particles within the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. We compress the system and thus obtain the fluid-solid transition. By investigating locally dense-packed particles and particles with a relatively high bond-orientational order in the compressing process, we find a sharp increase of the spatial correlations for both densely packed particles and highly bond-orientational ordered particles at the phase transition point, which provide new characterization methods for the liquid-crystal transition. We also find that it is the bond-orientational order rather than density that triggers the nucleation process. The relationship between the local density and the bond-orientational order parameter is strongly affected by the characterization methods used. The local bond order parameter (q6) shows clear correlation with the local density (ρ) in the fluid stage, while the coarse-grained form (q[combining macron]6) does not correlate with ρ at all, owing to the comparable spatial scales of q6 and ρ. Nevertheless, q[combining macron]6 shows an obvious advantage in distinguishing between solid and liquid particles in our work. These results may elevate our understanding of the mechanism of the crystallization process.

  5. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Vasiliki, Boka; Konstantinos, Arapostathis; Nikolaos, Kotsanos; Vassilis, Karagiannis; Cor, van Loveren; Jaap, Veerkamp

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  6. Relationships of local lithium concentrations in drinking water to regional suicide rates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Vichi, Monica; Dinelli, Enrico; Pycha, Roger; Valera, Paolo; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Fiorillo, Andrea; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-01-01

    Higher natural concentrations of lithium in drinking water may be associated with lower local rates of suicide. Lithium concentrations in drinking water were assayed by mass spectrometry at 145 sites in Italy, and compared with reported local suicide rates for men and women between 1980 and 2011. Lithium concentrations in drinking water averaged 5.28 [CI: 4.08-6.48] μg/L (0.761 [0.588-0.934] μEq/L) and ranged from 0.110 to 60.8 μg/L (1.58 to 8.76 μEq/L). Lithium concentrations and local suicide rates were not significantly inversely related, except in 1980-1989, particularly among women. A proposed association between trace lithium concentrations in drinking water and risk of suicide was only partially supported, and mechanisms for potential clinical effects of trace levels of lithium are unknown.

  7. Relationship between the bursts in solar local sources of centimeter radio emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubchina, O. A.

    The author presents results of synchronous observations of local sources of solar radio emission at wavelengths 2.3 cm and 4.5 cm. The sources were observed with the RATAN-600 radio telescope by the relay method in February 1980 and July 1981. The author demonstrates that the synchronous brightenings of solar local sources actually exist even when the sources are 105km apart. They were recorded in virtually all cases of radio bursts of different kinds: 3 s, 5 s, 8 s, 28 PRF, 31 ABS, 45 s, 20 GRF, 21 GRF, 30 PBI. They are observed, as a rule, during the enhancement of soft X-ray emission. The lower limit of disturbing agent velocity ranges from 2×103 to 12×103km/s. The synchronous brightenings of local sources are more frequent than sympathetic bursts, and this invalidates the opinion that they are exotic phenomena.

  8. Testing the relationship between local cue-response patterns and the global structure of communication behaviour.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Paul J; Donald, Ian

    2007-06-01

    A central assumption of negotiation research is that organized sequences of cues and responses underlie the dimensions and constructs found to structure interaction. We empirically tested this assumption using a new 'proximity' coefficient, which measures the global interrelationships among behaviours based on their intrinsic local organization within an interaction sequence. An analysis of sequences from 21 hostage negotiations showed that local cue-response dependencies are organized in a way that corresponds with an established structural model of communication. Further analysis of case-specific coefficients showed that criminal, political and domestic incidents involve very different cue-response dynamics, with criminal incidents dividing into two distinct types of interaction. The importance of the proximity concept for unifying local and global accounts of negotiation behaviour, and the avenues of research made possible by the proximity coefficient, are discussed.

  9. Functional localization in the rabbit's cerebellar flocculus determined in relationship with eye movements.

    PubMed

    Dufossé, M; Ito, M; Miyashita, Y

    1977-08-01

    In alert albino rabbits, the cerebellar flocculus was mapped for the effect of its local stimulation upon eye movements. Stimulation through a glass pipette electrode placed in a relatively rostral area induced abduction of the ipsilateral eye. That in a relatively caudal area resulted in a downward movement of the ipsilateral eye, accompanied by an upward movement of the contralateral eye. Intorsion of the contralateral eye was also evoked from a relatively dorsal area. These results indicate that Purkinje cells connected with different components of the vestibulo-ocular reflex arc have a differential localization within the flocculus.

  10. "Critical Friends": Exploring Arm's Length Actor Relationships to Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Discussions charting the changing role of local government in education have often focused extensively on "concrete" policy changes over time, but have provided less detail on the contribution to changing power relations of less tangible shifts. Drawing on Foucauldian notions of discourse and governmentality, in this paper, detailed…

  11. The Economic Relationship between Institutions of Higher Education and Their Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the economic impact of colleges and universities on the communities in which they are located are examined. These include revenue sources, cash flow, local expenditures, banking, municipal services, taxes, alteration of neighborhoods, enrollment patterns, employment patterns and needs, housing, lifestyles, and gains in human capital.…

  12. The Local Construction of the Asymmetrical Power Relationship in Teamwork among Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Caroline H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine local, interactional processes associated with the construction of power asymmetries in collaborative teamwork among engineering students. To explore the construction of power asymmetries at the micro-interactional level, this article examines a corpus consisting of about 150,000 words in which seven teams…

  13. "Critical Friends": Exploring Arm's Length Actor Relationships to Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Discussions charting the changing role of local government in education have often focused extensively on "concrete" policy changes over time, but have provided less detail on the contribution to changing power relations of less tangible shifts. Drawing on Foucauldian notions of discourse and governmentality, in this paper, detailed…

  14. Functional Localization and Double Dissociations: The Relationship between Internal Structure and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medler, D.A.; Dawson, M.R.W.; Kingstone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Lesioning studies are often used in cognitive neuroscience to make inferences about the architecture of cognition. Recently, computational models have been used to address some of the underlying assumptions-such as modularity and locality-often implicitly used when interpreting lesion data. In this article, we explore the ''functional…

  15. Total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity of different lithuanian propolis solutions.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Inkėnienė, Asta Marija; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of ethanol-free propolis solutions offers a broader application. A few trials with Lithuanian propolis have been conducted. The aims of the study are to manufacture propolis water and water-free solutions and evaluate the quality and antimicrobial activity of these solutions. The studied solutions containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% propolis are prepared. As solvents, purified water, 70% v/v ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, propylene glycol, and their systems were used. Determination of total levels of phenolic compounds (FAE mg/g) is based on colour oxidation-reduction reaction using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent under alkaline conditions and performed at 765 nm wavelength using UV spectrophotometer. The highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in solutions containing 10% propolis extracts, and the lowest amounts in 2.5% propolis extracts. The water extracted the lowest amount of phenolic compounds from crude propolis, ethanol extracted the highest amount, and propylene glycol ranked the middle position. It is determined that technological parameters (stirring, temperature) contribute to content of phenolic compounds. During microbiological study, MICs were determined. The studies showed that water extracted propolis solutions and solvents mixture did not inhibit the growth of the studied microorganisms, and propolis solutions in propylene glycol were found to have antimicrobial activity.

  16. Laterality of handgrip strength: age- and physical training-related changes in Lithuanian schoolchildren and conscripts.

    PubMed

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Schiefenhövel, Wulf

    2013-06-01

    Laterality in handgrip strength was assessed by analyzing dynamometric data of the right and left hand in three samples of Lithuanian boys and girls aged 7-20 years. In addition, the influence of general physical training on the laterality of handgrip strength was explored in a sample of conscripts. A negative secular trend in handgrip strength of schoolchildren has been detected since 1965, and with increasing age, right-handedness has become more pronounced. Children that were ambidextrous (by grip strength) showed negative deviations in physical status more often than their right- or left-handed peers. During one year of physical training, the conscripts had a larger increase in grip strength of the left than in the right hand, and a marked shift in handgrip laterality toward left-handed and ambidextrous individuals was observed. The different impact of schooling and physical training on handgrip strength laterality might partly explain variations in the prevalence of handedness in different societies with divergent cultures and lifestyles (e.g., more or less sedentary). © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Total Phenolic Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Different Lithuanian Propolis Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Inkėnienė, Asta Marija; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Briedis, Vitalis

    2013-01-01

    The manufacture of ethanol-free propolis solutions offers a broader application. A few trials with Lithuanian propolis have been conducted. The aims of the study are to manufacture propolis water and water-free solutions and evaluate the quality and antimicrobial activity of these solutions. The studied solutions containing 2.5%, 5%, and 10% propolis are prepared. As solvents, purified water, 70% v/v ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, propylene glycol, and their systems were used. Determination of total levels of phenolic compounds (FAE mg/g) is based on colour oxidation-reduction reaction using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent under alkaline conditions and performed at 765 nm wavelength using UV spectrophotometer. The highest content of phenolic compounds was determined in solutions containing 10% propolis extracts, and the lowest amounts in 2.5% propolis extracts. The water extracted the lowest amount of phenolic compounds from crude propolis, ethanol extracted the highest amount, and propylene glycol ranked the middle position. It is determined that technological parameters (stirring, temperature) contribute to content of phenolic compounds. During microbiological study, MICs were determined. The studies showed that water extracted propolis solutions and solvents mixture did not inhibit the growth of the studied microorganisms, and propolis solutions in propylene glycol were found to have antimicrobial activity. PMID:23573156

  18. Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infection in goats on two Lithuanian farms.

    PubMed

    Stadalienė, Inga; Höglund, Johan; Petkevičius, Saulius

    2015-03-19

    This study investigated seasonal changes in naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections on two Lithuanian goat farms with different parasite control practices. On both farms, nematode faecal egg counts (FEC) and larval cultures were obtained from 15 adult and 10 young goats at bi-weekly intervals from April 2012 to April 2013. Goats on farm A were dewormed with ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg body weight) in October/November 2012, whereas the animals on farm B were left untreated. Thirteen young goats were slaughtered in August/November 2012 and April 2013 and worm burdens in the gastrointestinal tract were enumerated. In goats from both farms, Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Chabertia and Haemonchus were the dominant GIN genera. Herbage contamination with infective third-stage larvae (L3) peaked in July/August and resulted in high FEC in September/October. Parasitological examination at slaughter showed that Teladorsagia spp. and Haemonchus contortus survived the winter, both in the abomasal mucosa as adults and as early fourth-stage larvae (EL4). Deworming on farm A significantly reduced FEC, especially of H. contortus, at the start of the grazing period compared with the untreated farm B (P < 0.05). Goats were heavily infected with several GIN throughout the year. Strategic anthelmintic treatment during housing significantly reduced nematode egg output, in particular by H. contortus, at the start of the grazing season.

  19. The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: A systematic review of methods, study quality and results

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Franco, Manuel; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Nur, Alana; Anderson, Cheryl AM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between local food environments and obesity and assess the quality of studies reviewed. Methods Systematic keyword searches identified studies from US and Canada that assessed the relationship of obesity to local food environments. We applied a quality metric based on design, exposure and outcome measurement, and analysis. Results We identified 71 studies representing 65 cohorts. Overall, study quality was low; 60 studies were cross-sectional. Associations between food outlet availability and obesity were predominantly null. Among non-null associations, we saw a trend toward inverse associations between supermarket availability and obesity (22 negative, 4 positive, 67 null) and direct associations between fast food and obesity (29 positive, 6 negative, 71 null) in adults. We saw direct associations between fast food availability and obesity in lower income children (12 positive, 7 null). Indices including multiple food outlets were most consistently associated with obesity in adults (18 expected, 1 not expected, 17 null). Limiting to higher quality studies did not affect results. Conclusions Despite the large number of studies, we found limited evidence for associations between local food environments and obesity. The predominantly null associations should be interpreted cautiously due to the low quality of available studies. PMID:26096983

  20. The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: A systematic review of methods, study quality, and results.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Franco, Manuel; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Nur, Alana; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between local food environments and obesity and assess the quality of studies reviewed. Systematic keyword searches identified studies from US and Canada that assessed the relationship of obesity to local food environments. We applied a quality metric based on design, exposure and outcome measurement, and analysis. We identified 71 studies representing 65 cohorts. Overall, study quality was low; 60 studies were cross-sectional. Associations between food outlet availability and obesity were predominantly null. Among non-null associations, we saw a trend toward inverse associations between supermarket availability and obesity (22 negative, 4 positive, 67 null) and direct associations between fast food and obesity (29 positive, 6 negative, 71 null) in adults. We saw direct associations between fast food availability and obesity in lower income children (12 positive, 7 null). Indices including multiple food outlets were most consistently associated with obesity in adults (18 expected, 1 not expected, 17 null). Limiting to higher quality studies did not affect results. Despite the large number of studies, we found limited evidence for associations between local food environments and obesity. The predominantly null associations should be interpreted cautiously due to the low quality of available studies. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Alzheimer's disease can spare local metacognition despite global anosognosia: revisiting the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Gallo, David A; Cramer, Stefanie J; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A

    2012-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local metacognition with respect to the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory (i.e., metamemory). AD and control participants studied pictures of common objects and their verbal labels, and then took forced-choice picture recollection tests using the verbal labels as retrieval cues. We found that item-based confidence judgments discriminated between accurate and inaccurate recollection responses in both groups, implicating relatively spared metamemory in AD. By contrast, there was evidence for global metacognitive deficiencies, as AD participants underestimated the severity of their everyday problems compared to an informant's assessment. Within the AD group, individual differences in global metacognition were related to recollection accuracy, and global metacognition for everyday memory problems was related to task-based metacognitive accuracy. These findings suggest that AD can spare the confidence-accuracy relationship in recollection tasks, and that global and local metacognition measures tap overlapping neuropsychological processes.

  2. Do galaxy global relationships emerge from local ones? The SDSS IV MaNGA surface mass density-metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Law, David; Wake, David; Green, Jenny E.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey; Malanushenko, Elena; Pan, Kaike; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Lane, Richard R.

    2016-12-01

    We present the stellar surface mass density versus gas metallicity (Σ*-Z) relation for more than 500 000 spatially resolved star-forming resolution elements (spaxels) from a sample of 653 disc galaxies included in the SDSS IV MaNGA survey. We find a tight relation between these local properties, with higher metallicities as the surface density increases. This relation extends over three orders of magnitude in the surface mass density and a factor of 4 in metallicity. We show that this local relationship can simultaneously reproduce two well-known properties of disc galaxies: their global mass-metallicity relationship and their radial metallicity gradients. We also find that the Σ*-Z relation is largely independent of the galaxy's total stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR), except at low stellar mass and high sSFR. These results suggest that in the present-day universe local properties play a key role in determining the gas-phase metallicity in typical disc galaxies.

  3. Alzheimer’s Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local metacognition with respect to the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory (i.e., metamemory). AD and control participants studied pictures of common objects and their verbal labels, and then took forced-choice picture recollection tests using the verbal labels as retrieval cues. We found that item-based confidence judgments discriminated between accurate and inaccurate recollection responses in both groups, implicating relatively spared metamemory in AD. By contrast, there was evidence for global metacognitive deficiencies, as AD participants underestimated the severity of their everyday problems compared to an informant’s assessment. Within the AD group, individual differences in global metacognition were related to recollection accuracy, and global metacognition for everyday memory problems was related to task-based metacognitive accuracy. These findings suggest that AD can spare the confidence-accuracy relationship in recollection tasks, and that global and local metacognition measures tap overlapping neuropsychological processes. PMID:22722068

  4. Sound localization in a new-world frugivorous bat, Artibeus jamaicensis: acuity, use of binaural cues, and relationship to vision.

    PubMed

    Heffner, R S; Koay, G; Heffner, H E

    2001-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and its relationship to vision were determined for the echolocating Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis). A conditioned avoidance procedure was used in which the animals drank fruit juice from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but suppressed their behavior, breaking contact with the spout, whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 10 degrees-marginally superior to the 11.6 degrees threshold for Egyptian fruit bats and the 14 degrees threshold for big brown bats. Jamaican fruit bats were also able to localize both low- and high-frequency pure tones, indicating that they can use both binaural phase- and intensity-difference cues to locus. Indeed, their ability to use the binaural phase cue extends up to 6.3 kHz, the highest frequency so far for a mammal. The width of their field of best vision, defined anatomically as the width of the retinal area containing ganglion-cell densities at least 75% of maximum, is 34 degrees. This value is consistent with the previously established relationship between vision and hearing indicating that, even in echolocating bats, the primary function of passive sound localization is to direct the eyes to sound sources.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE CORE MORPHOLOGY-SEYFERT CLASS RELATIONSHIP WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ARCHIVAL IMAGES OF LOCAL SEYFERT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Hegel, P. R.; Kim, Hwihyun; Windhorst, R. A.; Tamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has provided a successful explanation for the observed diversity of AGNs in the local universe. However, recent analysis of multi-wavelength spectral and image data suggests that the unified model is only a partial theory of AGNs, and may need to be augmented to remain consistent with all observations. Recent studies using high spatial resolution ground- and space-based observations of local AGNs show that Seyfert class and the ''core'' (r {approx}< 1 kpc) host-galaxy morphology are correlated. Currently, this relationship has only been established qualitatively, by visual inspection of the core morphologies of low-redshift (z < 0.035) Seyfert host galaxies. We re-establish this empirical relationship in Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging by visual inspection of a catalog of 85 local (D < 63 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies. We also attempt to re-establish the core morphology-Seyfert class relationship using an automated, non-parametric technique that combines both existing classification parameter methods (the adapted CAS and G-M {sub 20}) and a new method which implements the Source Extractor software for feature detection in unsharp-mask images. This new method is designed explicitly to detect dust features in the images. We use our automated approach to classify the morphology of the AGN cores and determine that Sy2 galaxies visually appear, on average, to have more dust features than Sy1. With the exception of this ''dustiness'' however, we do not measure a strong correlation between the dust morphology and the Seyfert class of the host galaxy using quantitative techniques. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the unified model.

  6. [Clinical significance of the relationship between expression of survivin and effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Fuzhong, Tong; Nan, Lu; Jiajia, Guo; Miao, Liu; Deqi, Yang

    2008-08-01

    Explore the relationship between the expression intensity of survivin and the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin plus paclitaxel was administered to 76 patients in locally advanced breast cancer (including 25 cases of stage IIa, 26 of stage IIb, 16 of stage IIIa, and 9 of stage IIIb), the mean age is 52.8(33-79)years old. All patients were female. They were treated with epirubicin 60 mg/m(2), on day 1, by i. v. followed paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) by 3 hours continues infusion on day 2 and every 3 weeks repeatedly. Premedication of dexamethasone, ondansetron, diphenhydramine and cimetidine were administered to prevent gastroenteric and allergic reactions before chemotherapy. Four cycles were used. The expression of survivin in breast cancer tissue was detected with SDS-PAGE, western-immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and then that were immunological stained by anti survivin monoclonal antibody, and also the results were analyzed for the relationship between the expressed intensity of survivin and the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Nineteen out of 76 patients had a clinical complete response, 36 had clinical partial response, and 21 had no change. The response rate was 72.37%(55/76). We found survivin could be differently expressed in 76 patients with SDS-PAGE, western-immunoblotting and IHC and then immune stain by anti survivin monoclonal antibody. Forty six patients were low expressed of survivin and 9 patients were high expressed in all response patients. Eight patients were low expressed, only 1 patient was high expressed of survivin in 9 patients had pCR. But no finding the relationship between the expression of survivin and TNM stage, ER, PgR, HER-2. The patients have high response rate of low expression of survivin after neoadjuvant chemotherapy with TE regimen in locally advanced breast cancer patients. This

  7. Blood transfusions and local tumor recurrence in colorectal cancer. Evidence of a noncausal relationship.

    PubMed Central

    Busch, O R; Hop, W C; Marquet, R L; Jeekel, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors analyzed the effect of blood transfusions on the pattern of colorectal cancer recurrence. BACKGROUND. Retrospective studies suggest that blood transfusions are associated with a poor prognosis in patients who undergo operations for colorectal malignancies. In a previously published, randomized trial, it was investigated whether autologous blood transfusions could overcome this putative detrimental effect. However, this did not appear to be the case. METHODS. In the current study, the authors analyzed the patterns of recurrence in 420 patients who underwent curative operations for colorectal cancer. RESULTS. Patients who did not require transfusions (N = 143) had significantly better disease-free survival than those who did need transfusions (N = 277); percentages at 4 years were 73% and 59%, respectively (p = 0.001). No difference was found between both groups in comparing cumulative percentages of patients having metastases; percentages at 4 years were 25% in the group that did not undergo transfusion and 27% in the transfused group. The percentage of cases having local recurrence, however, was significantly increased (p = 0.0006) in the transfused group as compared with the group that did not undergo transfusion; percentages at 4 years were 20% and 3%, respectively. The groups of patients receiving only allogeneic, only autologous, or both types of transfusions all had a significantly higher incidence of local recurrence than the patients who did not receive transfusions, but no differences were found between these three groups. CONCLUSIONS. These findings suggest that the association between blood transfusions and prognosis in colorectal cancer is a result of the circumstances that necessitate transfusions, leading to the development of local recurrences, but not of distant metastases. PMID:7986147

  8. Integration of local and regional species-area relationships from space-time species accumulation.

    PubMed

    Fridley, Jason D; Peet, Robert K; van der Maarel, Eddy; Willems, Jo H

    2006-08-01

    A long-standing observation in community ecology is that the scaling of species richness, as exemplified by species-area curves, differs on local and regional scales. This decoupling of scales may be largely due to sampling processes (the increasing constraint imposed by sampling fewer individuals at fine scales), as distinct from ecological processes, such as environmental heterogeneity, that operate across scales. Removal of the sampling constraint from fine-scale richness estimates should yield species-area curves that behave like those of the regions in which they are embedded, but an effective method for this removal has not been available. We suggest an approach that incorporates the manner in which small areas accumulate species over time as a way to remove the signature of sampling processes from fine-scale species-area curves. We report for three species-rich grasslands from two continents how local plant species richness is distributed through time at multiple, nested spatial scales, and we ask whether sampling-corrected curves reflect the spatial scaling of richness of each larger floristic province. Our analysis suggests that fine-scale values of richness are highly constrained by sampling processes, but once these constraints are removed, the spatial scaling of species richness is consistent from the scale of individuals to that of an entire province.

  9. Relationship between EGFR gene mutation and local metastasis of resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yunqiang; Gao, Wei; Li, Na; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Hui; Li, Cuiyun; Zhang, Haiyan; Han, Ping; Zhang, Yingmei; Lv, Xin; Xu, Xinyi; Liu, Hongyan

    2017-03-03

    Resectable lung adenocarcinoma is dominated by peripheral distribution, and surgical resection is the main treatment protocol. However, high recurrence rate remains after surgery. Lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation has strong invasion ability, but the effects of this mutation on local invasion in early lung adenocarcinoma have been rarely studied. This study aimed to assess the effects of EGFR mutation on local invasion in resectable lung adenocarcinoma. A retrospective analysis of 103 patients clinically diagnosed with peripheral lung adenocarcinoma was included. They underwent preoperative bronchoscopy, which indicated grades 2 or 3 bronchial involvement (lumen of the lobe or segment). The associations of EGFR mutation with pleural invasion, endobronchial metastasis, and lymph node metastasis were analyzed according to pathologies of pleural invasion and lymph node metastasis, as well as EGFR gene mutation detected by postoperative pathological specimens. Statistical analyses were performed by unpaired Chi-square test using the SPSS16.0 software. In patients with EGFR mutation, pleural invasion, endobronchial metastasis, and lymph node metastasis rates were 62.5, 39.1, and 34.4%, respectively, indicating statistically significant differences (p = 0.003). Meanwhile, the pleural invasion rate in patients with wild-type EGFR was 43.6%, significantly reduced compared with patients with mutated EGFR (62.5%; p = 0.018). In addition, the endobronchial metastasis rate in patients with wild-type EGFR was 17.9%, significantly lower than in patients with EGFR mutation (39.1%; p = 0.005). However, lymph node metastasis rates were similar between EGFR mutated and wild-type patients (34.4 vs 25.6%, respectively, p > 0.05). Early resectable lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutation showed a higher rate of local invasion compared with those harboring wild-type EGFR. This finding provides a basis for improved therapy

  10. Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health: evaluation of competencies and needs among Polish and Lithuanian students.

    PubMed

    Sumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Bruneviciūte, Raimonda; Kregzdyte, Rima; Krikstaponyte, Zita; Ziomkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Foreign languages are becoming an essential prerequisite for a successful carrier among all professions including public health professionals in many countries. The expanding role of English as a mode of communication allows for university graduates to project and to seek their career in English-speaking countries. The present study was carried out in the framework of EU Leonardo da Vinci project "Specialist English as a foreign language for European public health." The study aimed to get a deeper insight how the English language is perceived as a foreign language, by Polish and Lithuanian public health students, what is level of their language competence, which level of English proficiency they expect to use in future. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 246 respondents completed the special questionnaires in autumn semester in 2005. A questionnaire form was developed by the international project team. For evaluation of English competences, the Language Passport (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages of Council of Europe) was applied. RESULTS. Current self-rated proficiency of the English language was at the same level for Lithuanian (3.47+/-1.14) and Polish (3.31+/-0.83) respondents (P>0.05). Majority of respondents (88.6% of Lithuanian and 87.8% of Polish) reported using the English language for their current studies. Respondents reported a significant increase in necessity for higher level of English proficiency in future: mean scores provided by respondents changed from B1 level to B2 level. Respondents gave priority to less formal and practice-based interactive English teaching methods (going abroad, contacts with native speakers) in comparison with theory-oriented methods of learning (self-studying, Internet courses). CONCLUSIONS. Similar levels of English language in all five areas of language skills were established in Polish and Lithuanian university students. Respondents gave more priorities to less formal and practice-based interactive

  11. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them. PMID:23764186

  12. Values, animal symbolism, and human-animal relationships associated to two threatened felids in Mapuche and Chilean local narratives.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Thora M; Schüttler, Elke; Benavides, Pelayo; Gálvez, Nicolas; Söhn, Lisa; Palomo, Nadja

    2013-06-13

    The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people's spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.

  13. Task and semantic relationship influence both the polarity and localization of hemodynamic modulation during lexico-semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Kuperberg, Gina R; Lakshmanan, Balaji M; Greve, Douglas N; West, W Caroline

    2008-05-01

    This study examined how task (implicit vs. explicit) and semantic relationship (direct vs. indirect) modulated hemodynamic activity during lexico-semantic processing. Participants viewed directly related, indirectly related, and unrelated prime-target word-pairs as they performed (a) an implicit lexical decision (LD) task in which they decided whether each target was a real word or a nonword, and (b) an explicit relatedness judgment (RJ) task in which they determined whether each word-pair was related or unrelated in meaning. Task influenced both the polarity and neuroanatomical localization of hemodynamic modulation. Semantic relationship influenced the neuroanatomical localization of hemodynamic modulation. The implicit LD task was primarily associated with inferior prefrontal and ventral inferior temporal/fusiform hemodynamic response suppression to directly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs, and with more widespread temporal-occipital response suppression to indirectly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs. In contrast, the explicit RJ task was primarily associated with left inferior parietal hemodynamic response enhancement to both directly and indirectly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs, as well as with additional left inferior prefrontal hemodynamic response enhancement to indirectly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs. These findings are discussed in relation to the specific neurocognitive processes thought to underlie implicit and explicit semantic processes. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. (Copyright) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Task and semantic relationship influence both the polarity and localization of hemodynamic modulation during lexico-semantic processing

    PubMed Central

    Kuperberg, Gina R.; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Greve, Douglas N.; West, W. Caroline

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how task (implicit versus explicit) and semantic relationship (direct versus indirect) modulated hemodynamic activity during lexico-semantic processing. Participants viewed directly related, indirectly related and unrelated prime-target word-pairs as they performed (a) an implicit Lexical Decision (LD) task in which they decided whether each target was a real word or a nonword, and (b) an explicit Relatedness Judgment (RJ) task in which they determined whether each word-pair was related or unrelated in meaning. Task influenced both the polarity and neuroanatomical localization of hemodynamic modulation. Semantic relationship influenced the neuroanatomical localization of hemodynamic modulation. The implicit LD task was primarily associated with inferior prefrontal and ventral inferior temporal/fusiform hemodynamic response suppression to directly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs, and with more widespread temporal-occipital response suppression to indirectly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs. In contrast, the explicit RJ task was primarily associated with left inferior parietal hemodynamic response enhancement to both directly and indirectly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs, as well as with left inferior prefrontal hemodynamic response enhancement to indirectly related (relative to unrelated) word-pairs. These findings are discussed in relation to the specific neurocognitive processes thought to underlie implicit and explicit semantic processes. PMID:17674356

  15. ["Street" medication in Burkina Faso: local names, social relationships, and alleged therapeutic effects].

    PubMed

    Pale, Augustin; Ladner, Joël

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative assessment, based on discussions and discourse collected in interviews with members of the general population, addresses the popular view of pharmaceutical drugs in Burkina Faso. The main results demonstrate a strong preference for drugs sold in the street and their largely "off-label" uses. These drugs not only treat defined diseases but also generate street discussions, popular images and social relationships that lead to their consumption, sometimes excessive. Furthermore, the links between the legal and illegal street markets, related in part to the legal status of different drugs, also leads to questions about good and bad, true and false. These distinctions, considered as labels, influence the population's behavior and attitude concerning street medication.

  16. Body and illness: considering Visayan Filipino children's perspectives within local and global relationships of inequality.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    Despite a plethora of studies counting, examining, assessing, and diagnosing Filipino children living in poverty, children's own perceptions and concerns about their health and security are rarely elicited. This article draws from fieldwork in an urban neighbourhood in the Visayan Philippines among children who, every day, face a complex and precarious landscape dominated by multigenerational poverty, social marginalization, recurring hunger, and the hazards of living and playing amidst mounting garbage and effluent. I discuss children's perspectives on body and illness in this challenging environment and examine their ideas within the larger context of adult-child, hierarchical relationships, and colonial and contemporary government discourses on children, health, and citizenship. I also examine children's sense of place, agency, and vulnerability, and I discuss the view held by many adults in this community: their children's ideas hold little value.

  17. Communication: Local structure-mobility relationships of confined fluids reverse upon supercooling.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Jonathan A; Jain, Avni; Carmer, James; Truskett, Thomas M

    2015-04-28

    We examine the structural and dynamic properties of confined binary hard-sphere mixtures designed to mimic realizable colloidal thin films. Using computer simulations, governed by either Newtonian or overdamped Langevin dynamics, together with other techniques including a Fokker-Planck equation-based method, we measure the position-dependent and average diffusivities of particles along structurally isotropic and inhomogeneous dimensions of the fluids. At moderate packing fractions, local single-particle diffusivities normal to the direction of confinement are higher in regions of high total packing fraction; however, these trends are reversed as the film is supercooled at denser average packings. Auxiliary short-time measurements of particle displacements mirror data obtained for experimental supercooled colloidal systems. We find that average dynamics can be approximately predicted based on the distribution of available space for particle insertion across orders of magnitude in diffusivity regardless of the governing microscopic dynamics.

  18. Relationship between local production of microRNA-328 and atrial substrate remodeling in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Bando, Sachiko; Tobiume, Takeshi; Uematsu, Etsuko; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-12-01

    The underlying mechanism of atrial substrate remodeling in atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether local and systemic levels of microRNA (miR) might be associated with the presence of AF and with left atrial (LA) substrate properties. Blood from the periphery, pulmonary vein (PV), and left atrial appendage (LAA) was sampled from 30 patients with AF undergoing PV isolation, and from 10 control subjects with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and without AF. We measured peripheral, PV, and LAA plasma levels of miR-1, -26, -133a, -328, and -590 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. LA global contact mapping during sinus rhythm was performed before PV isolation. Plasma levels of miR-328 were higher in patients with AF than in control subjects. Plasma miR-328 levels were significantly higher in the LAA than in the periphery and PV in patients with AF, but not in control subjects. Plasma miR-1 levels were also higher in the LAA than in the PV in AF patients. Interestingly, LAA plasma levels of miR-328 showed a positive correlation with the LA voltage zone index (area with voltage <0.5mV divided by total LA surface area) and a weak correlation with LA volume. Local production of miR-328 in the left atrium may be involved in the process of atrial remodeling in patients with AF. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Australian Seismometers in Schools Project: Building relationships between scientists, schools and local enthusiasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balfour, N.; Sambridge, M.; O'Neill, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Australian Seismometers in Schools (SIS) programme is a four-year project (2011-2014) funded by the Education component of AuScope Australian Geophysical Observing System (AGOS). Over the next four years SIS will build a network of 40 seismometers installed in high schools across the nation to provide real-time monitoring of the Australian continent and raise awareness of geoscience through observing our dynamic earth in motion. The Australian Seismometers in Schools project aims to: Raise community awareness of regional earthquakes; Raise awareness of seismology and, more generally geoscience, as a field of study; Promote science as a possible career choice; Provide a tool to teachers to assist in teaching physics and earth science to high school students. Due to the expanse of Australia and remoteness of many communities we require local experts and enthusiasts get involved in the program to provide support and share their knowledge with schools. Students are required to look after their very own seismometer and in doing so be a part of a national science experiment. The project involves e-infrastructure consisting of an online education portal allowing real time access by students to earthquake recordings in their own and other schools. The data schools collect will be useful to researchers and could complement networks run by government and state agencies due to the high quality of the instruments. Long-term storage of data for research purposes will be aligned with community standards at internationally accessible and supported data management centres, such as IRIS. A growing community of institutional and individual volunteers is forming to support the program within their local state or territory. Over the duration of the project this partner network will significantly enhance the project through provision of technical or management expertise as well as promotion within the education sector.

  20. Relationship between Material Properties and Local Formability of DP980 Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Soulami, Ayoub; Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Xu, Le; Barlat, Frederic

    2012-04-24

    A noticeable degree of inconsistent forming behaviors has been observed for the 1st generation advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in production, and they appear to be associated with the inherent microstructural-level inhomogeneities for various AHSS. This indicates that the basic material property requirements and screening methods currently used for the mild steels and high strength low alloys (HSLA) are no longer sufficient for qualifying today’s AHSS. In order to establish more relevant material acceptance criteria for AHSS, the fundamental understandings on key mechanical properties and microstructural features influencing the local formability of AHSS need to be developed. For this purpose, in this study, DP980 was selected as model steels and eight different types of DP980 sheet steels were acquired from various steel suppliers. Various experiments were then performed on the eight different DP980 steels such as chemical composition analysis, static tensile test, hole expansion test, channel forming test. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures of the DP980 steels were also obtained, and image processing tools were then adopted to those SEM pictures in order to quantify their various microstructural features. The results show that all DP980 steels show large discrepancy in their performance and that the tensile properties and hole expansion properties of these steels do not correlate with their local formability. According to the results up to date, it is not possible to correlate the microstructural features alone to the macroscopically measured deformation behaviors. In addition to image analysis, other experiments (i.e., nano-indentation test) are also planned to quantify the individual phase properties of the various DP steels.

  1. Relationships between spike-free local field potentials and spike timing in human temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Theodoros P.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Ojemann, George A.; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    Intracortical recordings comprise both fast events, action potentials (APs), and slower events, known as local field potentials (LFPs). Although it is believed that LFPs mostly reflect local synaptic activity, it is unclear which of their signal components are most closely related to synaptic potentials and would therefore be causally related to the occurrence of individual APs. This issue is complicated by the significant contribution from AP waveforms, especially at higher LFP frequencies. In recordings of single-cell activity and LFPs from the human temporal cortex, we computed quantitative, nonlinear, causal dynamic models for the prediction of AP timing from LFPs, at millisecond resolution, before and after removing AP contributions to the LFP. In many cases, the timing of a significant number of single APs could be predicted from spike-free LFPs at different frequencies. Not surprisingly, model performance was superior when spikes were not removed. Cells whose activity was predicted by the spike-free LFP models generally fell into one of two groups: in the first group, neuronal spike activity was associated with specific phases of low LFP frequencies, lower spike activity at high LFP frequencies, and a stronger linear component in the spike-LFP model; in the second group, neuronal spike activity was associated with larger amplitude of high LFP frequencies, less frequent phase locking, and a stronger nonlinear model component. Spike timing in the first group was better predicted by the sign and level of the LFP preceding the spike, whereas spike timing in the second group was better predicted by LFP power during a certain time window before the spike. PMID:22157112

  2. Quality of life of Lithuanian women with early stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bulotiene, Giedre; Veseliunas, Jonas; Ostapenko, Valerijus

    2007-06-26

    In the last decades, there have been no studies carried out in Lithuania on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the quality of life of Lithuanian women with the early stage of breast cancer nine months after surgery and its dependence on surgical strategy, adjuvant chemotherapy and the social and demographic status of the patients. Seventy-seven patients with early stage breast cancer filled in the FACT-An questionnaire twice: one week and nine months after the surgery. The main age of the patients was 53.1 +/- 10.6 years. We distinguished the mastectomy group and breast conserving treatment (BCT) group with/without chemotherapy. The groups were identical in their social and demographic status (age, education, occupation and marital status). Changes in the quality of life in these groups were compared nine months after surgery. Nine months after surgery, the overall quality of life was found worse in both mastectomy and BCT groups. Changes were induced by the worsening of the emotional and social well-being. The quality of life became worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy sample. No changes were detected in the mastectomy group without chemotherapy. In addition, the multivariate analysis showed that the marital status was quite a significant determinant of the functional well-being. Nine months after surgery, the study revealed a worsening of the overall quality of life in both groups of patients--those who had undergone mastectomy and BCT. The quality of life became considerably worse in the mastectomy plus chemotherapy group. Marital status was found to exert the most considerable influence on the women's quality of life in comparison with other social and demographic factors.

  3. Increased tree establishment in Lithuanian peat bogs--insights from field and remotely sensed approaches.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Šimanauskienė, Rasa; Taminskas, Julius; Baužienė, Ieva; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-02-01

    Over the past century an ongoing establishment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), sometimes at accelerating rates, is noted at three studied Lithuanian peat bogs, namely Kerėplis, Rėkyva and Aukštumala, all representing different degrees of tree coverage and geographic settings. Present establishment rates seem to depend on tree density on the bog surface and are most significant at sparsely covered sites where about three-fourth of the trees have established since the mid-1990s, whereas the initial establishment in general was during the early to mid-19th century. Three methods were used to detect, compare and describe tree establishment: (1) tree counts in small plots, (2) dendrochronological dating of bog pine trees, and (3) interpretation of aerial photographs and historical maps of the study areas. In combination, the different approaches provide complimentary information but also weigh up each other's drawbacks. Tree counts in plots provided a reasonable overview of age class distributions and enabled capturing of the most recently established trees with ages less than 50 years. The dendrochronological analysis yielded accurate tree ages and a good temporal resolution of long-term changes. Tree establishment and spread interpreted from aerial photographs and historical maps provided a good overview of tree spread and total affected area. It also helped to verify the results obtained with the other methods and an upscaling of findings to the entire peat bogs. The ongoing spread of trees in predominantly undisturbed peat bogs is related to warmer and/or drier climatic conditions, and to a minor degree to land-use changes. Our results therefore provide valuable insights into vegetation changes in peat bogs, also with respect to bog response to ongoing and future climatic changes.

  4. [The burnout syndrome among nurses working in Lithuanian cardiac surgery centers].

    PubMed

    Vimantaite, Renata; Seskevicius, Arvydas

    2006-01-01

    The burnout syndrome may be defined as a complex phenomenon which is characterized by three components: emotional burnout (physical and psychical exhaustion, incapability to carry on requirements), depersonalization (cynical attitude towards performed work, duties, cold or negative reaction to the patients), and lowered efficiency (reflected by the sense of incompetence, the lack of efficiency and achievements). This process is progressing slowly for a long time and is characterized individually by various psychical and physical symptoms of different intensity. The aim of this study was to examine the manifestation of burnout syndrome and to estimate the influence of the syndrome on the behavior and practice of the nurses in cardiac surgery units of Lithuania (to evaluate physiological and psychological symptoms of the burnout). The study was performed using a questionnaire. A total of 180 questionnaires completed by nurses in Lithuanian cardiac surgical centers (Vilnius, Kaunas, and Klaipeda) were analyzed. The study revealed that 72.8% of nurses had an excess of workload (exceeding full-time job). Most of the respondents (84.4%) pointed out the emotional stress, unevaluated work and underpayment. Three-fourths of the nurses (75%) indicated that they felt physical fatigue after their work. More than half of nurses (67.2%) felt general fatigue, 63.3% reported the leg pains after the work, and 32.2% feel splitting headaches. Psychological fatigue was stressed by 86.1% of specialists. The main causes of psychological stress are as follows: the communication with the doctors in 57% of the cases, communication with the patient's relatives in 52% of cases, communication with the nursing administration in 49% of cases, and communication with the patients in 40% of cases. The majority of the nurses working in the centers of cardiac surgery experience physical and psychological fatigue, emotional stress. All this determinates the dissatisfaction in the work, conflicts

  5. Localized surface plasmon resonance induced structure-property relationships of metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilayurganapathy, Subramanian

    The confluence of nanotechnology and plasmonics has led to new and interesting phenomena. The industrial need for fast, efficient and miniature devices which constantly push the boundaries on device performance tap into the happy marriage between these diverse fields. Designing devices for real life application that give superior performance when compared with existing ones are enabled by a better understanding of their structure-property relationships. Among all the design constraints, without doubt, the shape and size of the nanostructure along with the dielectric medium surrounding it has the maximum influence on the response and thereby the performance of the device. Hence a careful study of the above mentioned parameters is of utmost importance in designing efficient devices. In this dissertation, we synthesize and study the optical properties of nanostructures of different shapes and size. In particular, we estimated the plasmonic near field enhancement via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and 2-photon Photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM). We synthesized the nanostructures using four different techniques. One synthesis technique, the thermal growth method was employed to grow interesting Ag and Au nanostructures on Si. The absence of toxic chemicals during nanostructure synthesis via the thermal growth technique opens up myriad possibilities for applications in the fields of biomedical science, bioengineering, drug delivery among others along with the huge advantage of being environment friendly. The other three synthesis techniques (ion implantation, Electrodeposition and FIB lithography) were chosen with the specific goal of designing novel plasmonic metal, metal hybrid nanostructures as photocathode materials in next generation light sources. The synthesis techniques for these novel nanostructures were dictated by the requirement of high quantum efficiency, robustness under constant irradiation and coherent unidirectional electron emission

  6. Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in individuals with arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Poreba, Rafal; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-08-01

    Relationship between occupational exposure to lead and frequency of complications in persons with arterial hypertension has been poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluation of the relationship between occupational exposure to lead and manifestation of an increased local arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The studies included 105 men (mean age: 44.47 {+-} 9.12 years) with arterial hypertension, treated with hypotensive drugs: group I - men occupationally exposed to lead (n = 53), and group II - men not exposed to lead (n = 52). In echocardiographic examination, the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed significantly more frequently in group I than in group II. In eTracking examination mean values of stiffness parameter ({beta}), augmentation index (AI) and one-point pulse wave velocity (PWV-{beta}) were significantly higher and mean values of arterial compliance (AC) were significantly lower in group I than in group II. The logistic regression showed that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead a more advanced age, higher blood lead concentration and higher mean values of augmentation index represent independent risk factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. The multifactorial regression showed that amongst persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead higher blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration, a more advanced age and higher value of body mass index (BMI) represent independent risk factors of an increased local arterial stiffness. In summary, we should note that in the group of persons with arterial hypertension occupationally exposed to lead the study has demonstrated a significantly more frequent manifestation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and an increase in local arterial stiffness. - Highlights: > Amongst persons with AH exposed to Pb higher ZnPP represent independent risk factor of increased local arterial stiffness

  7. Relationship between local structure and relaxation in out-of-equilibrium glassy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenholz, Samuel S.; Cubuk, Ekin D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Liu, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical glass transition is typically taken to be the temperature at which a glassy liquid is no longer able to equilibrate on experimental timescales. Consequently, the physical properties of these systems just above or below the dynamical glass transition, such as viscosity, can change by many orders of magnitude over long periods of time following external perturbation. During this progress toward equilibrium, glassy systems exhibit a history dependence that has complicated their study. In previous work, we bridged the gap between structure and dynamics in glassy liquids above their dynamical glass transition temperatures by introducing a scalar field called “softness,” a quantity obtained using machine-learning methods. Softness is designed to capture the hidden patterns in relative particle positions that correlate strongly with dynamical rearrangements of particle positions. Here we show that the out-of-equilibrium behavior of a model glass-forming system can be understood in terms of softness. To do this we first demonstrate that the evolution of behavior following a temperature quench is a primarily structural phenomenon: The structure changes considerably, but the relationship between structure and dynamics remains invariant. We then show that the relaxation time can be robustly computed from structure as quantified by softness, with the same relation holding both in equilibrium and as the system ages. Together, these results show that the history dependence of the relaxation time in glasses requires knowledge only of the softness in addition to the usual state variables.

  8. Relationship between local structure and relaxation in out-of-equilibrium glassy systems

    PubMed Central

    Cubuk, Ekin D.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Liu, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamical glass transition is typically taken to be the temperature at which a glassy liquid is no longer able to equilibrate on experimental timescales. Consequently, the physical properties of these systems just above or below the dynamical glass transition, such as viscosity, can change by many orders of magnitude over long periods of time following external perturbation. During this progress toward equilibrium, glassy systems exhibit a history dependence that has complicated their study. In previous work, we bridged the gap between structure and dynamics in glassy liquids above their dynamical glass transition temperatures by introducing a scalar field called “softness,” a quantity obtained using machine-learning methods. Softness is designed to capture the hidden patterns in relative particle positions that correlate strongly with dynamical rearrangements of particle positions. Here we show that the out-of-equilibrium behavior of a model glass-forming system can be understood in terms of softness. To do this we first demonstrate that the evolution of behavior following a temperature quench is a primarily structural phenomenon: The structure changes considerably, but the relationship between structure and dynamics remains invariant. We then show that the relaxation time can be robustly computed from structure as quantified by softness, with the same relation holding both in equilibrium and as the system ages. Together, these results show that the history dependence of the relaxation time in glasses requires knowledge only of the softness in addition to the usual state variables. PMID:28028217

  9. Localization of the primordial vomeronasal organ and its relationship to the associated gland in lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Nakamuta, Shoko; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The lungfish, the closest fish to tetrapods, has two types of sensory epithelia in the olfactory organ: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. The former resembles the olfactory epithelium of ordinary teleosts and the latter resembles the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods with respect to the G-protein expressions and the morphological properties of olfactory receptor cells. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium covering the surface of olfactory lamella, the recess epithelium, together with the glandular epithelium, lines the recesses at the base of olfactory lamellae and is separated from the surrounding tissues by nonsensory epithelium. In the present study, we examined the distribution of these recesses and the relationship between the recess epithelium and the associated gland in the nasal sac of lungfish. We found that the posterior part of the nasal sac contained more recesses than the anterior one, and the medial one contained more recesses than the lateral one. In addition, virtually all recesses consisted of both the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium. Furthermore, the glandular epithelium was invariably situated proximal to the midline raphe of the nasal sac, and the recess epithelium distal to it. Possible roles of the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium are discussed. PMID:23368671

  10. Localization of the primordial vomeronasal organ and its relationship to the associated gland in lungfish.

    PubMed

    Nakamuta, Shoko; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    The lungfish, the closest fish to tetrapods, has two types of sensory epithelia in the olfactory organ: the lamellar olfactory epithelium and the recess epithelium. The former resembles the olfactory epithelium of ordinary teleosts and the latter resembles the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods with respect to the G-protein expressions and the morphological properties of olfactory receptor cells. In contrast to the lamellar olfactory epithelium covering the surface of olfactory lamella, the recess epithelium, together with the glandular epithelium, lines the recesses at the base of olfactory lamellae and is separated from the surrounding tissues by nonsensory epithelium. In the present study, we examined the distribution of these recesses and the relationship between the recess epithelium and the associated gland in the nasal sac of lungfish. We found that the posterior part of the nasal sac contained more recesses than the anterior one, and the medial one contained more recesses than the lateral one. In addition, virtually all recesses consisted of both the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium. Furthermore, the glandular epithelium was invariably situated proximal to the midline raphe of the nasal sac, and the recess epithelium distal to it. Possible roles of the recess epithelium and the glandular epithelium are discussed. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Anatomy © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  11. Relationship between edge localized mode severity and electron transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaye, S.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Smith, D. R.; Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Lee, W.

    2008-05-15

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment [J. Menard et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, S645 (2007)], 'giant' edge localized modes (ELMs) can occur resulting in a loss of plasma stored energy of up to 30%. These events are distinct from type I ELMs, whose energy loss is typically 4-10%, and they are accompanied by a cold pulse that causes a global decrease in the electron temperature profile. Estimates of the electron thermal transport during the cold pulses show a large enhancement over the underlying cross-field thermal diffusivity, {chi}{sub e}, of up to several tens of m{sup 2}/s. Following the ELM, short-wavelength fluctuations increase in the plasma edge and core, corresponding to an increase in the electron temperature gradient from the propagating cold pulse. Fast electron temperature measurements indicate that the normalized electron temperature scale length, R/L{sub Te}, reaches the threshold value for instability predicted by a fit to linear stability calculations. This is observed on time scales that match the growth of the high-k fluctuations in the plasma core, indicating that the enhanced {chi}{sub e} and energy loss from the 'giant' ELM appears to be related to critical gradient physics and the destabilization of electron temperature gradient modes.

  12. Relationship between edge localized mode severity and electron transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tritz, K.; Kaye, S.; Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Stutman, D.; Bell, R. E.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Domier, C. W.; Finkenthal, M.; LeBlanc, B; Lee, W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Smith, D. R.

    2008-01-01

    n the National Spherical Torus Experiment [J. Menard , Nucl. Fusion 47, S645 (2007)], "giant" edge localized modes (ELMs) can occur resulting in a loss of plasma stored energy of up to 30%. These events are distinct from type I ELMs, whose energy loss is typically 4-10%, and they are accompanied by a cold pulse that causes a global decrease in the electron temperature profile. Estimates of the electron thermal transport during the cold pulses show a large enhancement over the underlying cross-field thermal diffusivity, chi(e), of up to several tens of m(2)/s. Following the ELM, short-wavelength fluctuations increase in the plasma edge and core, corresponding to an increase in the electron temperature gradient from the propagating cold pulse. Fast electron temperature measurements indicate that the normalized electron temperature scale length, R/L-Te, reaches the threshold value for instability predicted by a fit to linear stability calculations. This is observed on time scales that match the growth of the high-k fluctuations in the plasma core, indicating that the enhanced chi(e) and energy loss from the "giant" ELM appears to be related to critical gradient physics and the destabilization of electron temperature gradient modes. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Relationship between edge localized mode severity and electron transport in the National Spherical Torus Experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritz, K.; Kaye, S.; Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Stutman, D.; Bell, R.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Domier, C. W.; Finkenthal, M.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Smith, D. R.

    2008-05-01

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment [J. Menard et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, S645 (2007)], "giant" edge localized modes (ELMs) can occur resulting in a loss of plasma stored energy of up to 30%. These events are distinct from type I ELMs, whose energy loss is typically 4-10%, and they are accompanied by a cold pulse that causes a global decrease in the electron temperature profile. Estimates of the electron thermal transport during the cold pulses show a large enhancement over the underlying cross-field thermal diffusivity, χe, of up to several tens of m2/s. Following the ELM, short-wavelength fluctuations increase in the plasma edge and core, corresponding to an increase in the electron temperature gradient from the propagating cold pulse. Fast electron temperature measurements indicate that the normalized electron temperature scale length, R /LTe, reaches the threshold value for instability predicted by a fit to linear stability calculations. This is observed on time scales that match the growth of the high-k fluctuations in the plasma core, indicating that the enhanced χe and energy loss from the "giant" ELM appears to be related to critical gradient physics and the destabilization of electron temperature gradient modes.

  14. From global to local: exploring the relationship between parameters and behaviors in models of electrical excitability.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Patrick; Bertram, Richard; Tabak, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Models of electrical activity in excitable cells involve nonlinear interactions between many ionic currents. Changing parameters in these models can produce a variety of activity patterns with sometimes unexpected effects. Further more, introducing new currents will have different effects depending on the initial parameter set. In this study we combined global sampling of parameter space and local analysis of representative parameter sets in a pituitary cell model to understand the effects of adding K (+) conductances, which mediate some effects of hormone action on these cells. Global sampling ensured that the effects of introducing K (+) conductances were captured across a wide variety of contexts of model parameters. For each type of K (+) conductance we determined the types of behavioral transition that it evoked. Some transitions were counterintuitive, and may have been missed without the use of global sampling. In general, the wide range of transitions that occurred when the same current was applied to the model cell at different locations in parameter space highlight the challenge of making accurate model predictions in light of cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Finally, we used bifurcation analysis and fast/slow analysis to investigate why specific transitions occur in representative individual models. This approach relies on the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to quickly map parameter space to model behavior and identify parameter sets for further analysis. Acceleration with modern low-cost GPUs is particularly well suited to exploring the moderate-sized (5-20) parameter spaces of excitable cell and signaling models.

  15. Genotype-phenotype relationship for localization and age distribution of telangiectases in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Letteboer, Tom G W; Mager, Hans-Jurgen; Snijder, Repke J; Lindhout, Dick; Ploos van Amstel, Hans-Kristian; Zanen, Pieter; Westermann, Kees J J

    2008-11-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) ranging from telangiectases to larger AVMs. Mutations in two genes cause HHT; ENG (HHT1) and ACVRL1 (HHT2). Although the hallmark for clinical diagnosis is the presence of telangiectases, there are few publications reporting the relative distribution and frequency of these features between HHT1 and HHT2. Here, the results of such analysis of telangiectases in 268 patients with HHT1 and 130 patients with HHT2 are described. Localization of the telangiectases is reported, and patients were clustered by age to estimate the site prevalence for different age categories. We show that telangiectases of the nasal mucosa are present at a higher prevalence and start to appear earlier in life than those of the oral mucosa or dermal sites in patients with either HHT1 or HHT2. Oral and nasal mucosal telangiectases are present earlier in life in patients with HHT1 compared to patients with HHT2, whereas dermal lesions are more frequent and appear earlier in life in patients with HHT2. In patients with either HHT1 or HHT2, the number of sites affected increases with age. In patients with HHT1, more women than men had skin telangiectases, particularly on the face. These results confirm that the frequency of AVMs differ between patients with HHT1 and HHT2, and that these differences can be detected on physical examination.

  16. The Relationship between Localized Subarachnoid Inflammation and Parenchymal Pathophysiology after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, James W.; Afshar, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid inflammation following spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to the formation of localized subarachnoid scarring and the development of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS). While PTS is a devastating complication of SCI, its relative rarity (occurring symptomatically in about 5% of clinical cases), and lack of fundamental physiological insights, have led us to examine an animal model of traumatic SCI with induced arachnoiditis. We hypothesized that arachnoiditis associated with SCI would potentiate early parenchymal pathophysiology. To test this theory, we examined early spatial pathophysiology in four groups: (1) sham (non-injured controls), (2) arachnoiditis (intrathecal injection of kaolin), (3) SCI (35-g clip contusion/compression injury), and (4) PTS (intrathecal kaolin+SCI). Overall, there was greater parenchymal inflammation and scarring in the PTS group relative to the SCI group. This was demonstrated by significant increases in cytokine (IL-1α and IL-1β) and chemokine (MCP-1, GRO/KC, and MIP-1α) production, MPO activity, blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability, and MMP-9 activity. However, parenchymal inflammatory mediator production (acute IL-1α and IL-1β, subacute chemokines), BSCB permeability, and fibrous scarring in the PTS group were larger than the sum of the SCI group and arachnoiditis group combined, suggesting that arachnoiditis does indeed potentiate parenchymal pathophysiology. Accordingly, these findings suggest that the development of arachnoiditis associated with SCI can lead to an exacerbation of the parenchymal injury, potentially impacting the outcome of this devastating condition. PMID:22655536

  17. The relationships between edge localized modes suppression, pedestal profiles and lithium wall coatings in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, D. P.; Maingi, R.; Snyder, P. B.; Manickam, J.; Osborne, T.H.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), increasing lithium wall coatings suppressed edge localized modes (ELMs), gradually but not quite monotonically. This work details profile and stability analysis as ELMs disappeared throughout the lithium scan. While the quantity of lithium deposited between discharges did not uniquely determine the presence of ELMs, profile analysis demonstrated that lithium was correlated with wider density and pressure pedestals with peak gradients farther from the separatrix. Moreover, the ELMy and ELM-free discharges were cleanly separated by their density and pedestal widths and peak gradient locations. Ultimately, ELMs were only suppressed when lithium caused the density pedestal to widen and shift inward. These changes in the density gradient were directly reflected in the pressure gradient and calculated bootstrap current. This supports the theory that ELMs in NSTX are caused by peeling and/or ballooning modes, as kink/peeling modes are stabilized when the edge current and pressure gradient shift away from the separatrix. Edge stability analysis using ELITE corroborated this picture, as reconstructed equilibria from ELM-free discharges were generally farther from their kink/peeling stability boundaries than ELMy discharges. We conclude that density profile control provided by lithium is the key first step to ELM suppression in NSTX.

  18. Relationship between severity of the local skin reactions and the rate of local skin reaction resolution in patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel

    PubMed Central

    Jim On, Shelbi C; Knudsen, Kim Mark; Skov, Torsten; Lebwohl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Ingenol mebutate gel is a topical field treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). The treatment elicits application-site reactions in most patients. This analysis evaluated the relationship between the severity of reactions and the speed of their resolution. Methods Patients in Phase III studies were treated for AKs on the face (n=218), scalp (n=56), and trunk and extremities (n=209). All of the patients were treated with either ingenol mebutate gel 0.015% once daily for three consecutive days (face/scalp) or ingenol mebutate gel 0.05% once daily for two consecutive days (trunk/extremities). Local skin reactions (LSRs) were assessed on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4 in six categories, yielding composite scores in the range of 0 to 24. Results The composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel was an important predictor of the speed of resolution of LSRs. The rate of resolution was greatest for AKs treated on the face, followed by the scalp, and then the trunk and extremities. All patients were expected to have minimal LSR scores for the face and scalp at 2 weeks, and for the trunk and extremities at 4 weeks. Conclusion The absolute reduction in LSR scores was proportional to the composite LSR score on the day after the last application of ingenol mebutate gel treatment. The rate of resolution for LSRs was dependent on the anatomic site treated as well as the day 4 composite score. PMID:27601928

  19. Genetic diversity of local Yunnan chicken breeds and their relationships with Red Junglefowl.

    PubMed

    Huo, J L; Wu, G S; Chen, T; Huo, H L; Yuan, F; Liu, L X; Ge, C R; Miao, Y W

    2014-04-29

    Yunnan is situated in the Southwest China and encompasses regions having high biodiversity, including habitats for several ancestral species of domestic animals such as chicken. Domestic chickens in Yunnan were kept by peoples of varied ethnic and economic backgrounds living in highly varied geographic environments. To identify the genetic background of Yunnan domestic chickens and their relationships with Red Junglefowl, we applied 28 widely used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype 340 birds from 7 chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl indigenous to Yunnan. Among a total of 342 alleles identified, 121 (35.4%) were breed specific, with Red Junglefowl harboring most microsatellite alleles (23). High levels of heterozygosity were observed within populations indicated by a mean unbiased HE value of 0.663, which was higher than the reported for most populations elsewhere. The FIS value of domestic populations ranged from -0.098-0.005, indicating a lack of inbreeding among these populations. A high proportion of significant departures (89) from the 224 HWE tests for each locus in each population reflected an excess of heterozygosity and population substructure. Individual assignment tests, high FST values (0.1757-0.3015), and Nei's DA genetic distances (0.4232-0.6950) indicated clear differentiation among these populations. These observations, along with the close genetic distance between indigenous domestic populations and Red Junglefowl, were consistent with the primitive and ancestral state of Yunnan indigenous chickens. Protecting the unique variants of these indigenous poultry varieties from contamination with commercial breeds might provide values for improving modern agricultural livestock and breeding programs. Thus, the current study may benefit breeding management and conservation efforts.

  20. Simple models for complex systems: exploiting the relationship between local and global densities.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Mercedes; Roy, Manojit; Laneri, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Simple temporal models that ignore the spatial nature of interactions and track only changes in mean quantities, such as global densities, are typically used under the unrealistic assumption that individuals are well mixed. These so-called mean-field models are often considered overly simplified, given the ample evidence for distributed interactions and spatial heterogeneity over broad ranges of scales. Here, we present one reason why such simple population models may work even when mass-action assumptions do not hold: spatial structure is present but it relates to global densities in a special way. With an individual-based predator-prey model that is spatial and stochastic, and whose mean-field counterpart is the classic Lotka-Volterra model, we show that the global densities and densities of pairs (or spatial covariances) establish a bi-power law at the stationary state and also in their transient approach to this state. This relationship implies that the dynamics of global densities can be written simply as a function of those densities alone without invoking pairs (or higher order moments). The exponents of the bi-power law for the predation rate exhibit a remarkable robustness to changes in model parameters. Evidence is presented for a connection of our findings to the existence of a critical phase transition in the dynamics of the spatial system. We discuss the application of similar modified mean-field equations to other ecological systems for which similar transitions have been described, both in models and empirical data.Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12080-011-0116-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  1. [Temporally Relationship between Renal Local Clock System and Circadian Rhythm of the Water Electrolyte Excretion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Yu; Mou, Li-Jun; Li, Xue-Mei; Li, Xue-Wang; Qin, Yan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the relationship of the circadian rhythm of the urine volume and urine electrolytes excretion rate and the daily expression pattern of the clock genes and clock-controlled genes with the water electrolyte transportation circadian pattern in rat kidneys. Male adult SD rats were exposed to in a light:dark (12:12) cycles. We collected two period urine from zeitgeber time (ZT)00:00-ZT12:00 (light time,rest period) and ZT12:00-24:00 (dark time,activity period) and then compared the urinary excretion rates of volume, sodium, potassium, and chloride at light time with those at dark time. Rats were sacrificed every 4 hours throughout a 24-hour day-night cycle. Circadian clock gene CLOCK, BMAL1,Per1,Per2,Cry1,Cry2 and kidney specific clock-controlled gene NHE3,αENaC、NCC,Ptges,V1aR,V2R expression were profiled by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data were analysed by a partial Fourier analysis and a stepwise regression technique. Urine volume and urine potassium excretion rate displayed high level at dark time and low at light time in SD rats (P<0.05),and urine sodium and chloride excretion rate also showed the trend(P>0.05).Clock gene CLOCK,BMAL1,Per1,Per2,Cry1,Cry2(P<0.05)and kidney specific clock-controlled gene NHE3, αENaC, NCC, Ptges, V1aR, V2R (P<0.05)mRNA expression showed circadian pattern,and the peak times of the genes were in the dark time. Urine volume and urine electrolyte excretion rate which displayed circadian pattern were temporally coupled with the rhythm of expression of clock and clock-controlled genes associated with water electrolyte transportation in rats kidney.

  2. Effect of excess body weight on quality of life and satisfaction with body image among middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city.

    PubMed

    Baceviciene, Migle; Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of overweight, obesity, and conditions related to body weight on quality of life and to assess the relationship between body weight and satisfaction with body image between middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A random sample of 1403 Kaunas men and women, aged 35-64 years and stratified by age and sex, was examined in 2001-2002. Response rate was 62.4%. Examination included physical measurements and information on risk factors related to lifestyle. Quality of life was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the effect of excess body weight and conditions linked to body weight on quality of life. RESULTS. Less than three-fourths (73%) of men and women had excess body weight (body mass index, > or =25.0 kg/m(2)). Obesity in a complex with other analyzed factors had a negative effect on men's quality of life in the independence domain as compared to ones with BMI of <25.0 kg/m(2) (OR=1.87; 95% CI=1.08-3.26). Obesity for women increased the odds of having worse quality of life in the psychological and independence domains. Mean scores of body image and appearance facet for men with normal body mass were 73.5, for overweigh ones 72.2, and for obese 66.8 (for women 69.9, 63.3, and 52.9, respectively; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Among women excess body weight was associated with impaired quality of life. Men with excess body weight reported better overall quality of life. Obese persons were less satisfied with their body image as compared to ones with normal body weight.

  3. Barriers to cancer pain management in Danish and Lithuanian patients treated in pain and palliative care units.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Samsanaviciene, Jurgita; Liubarskiene, Zita; Sjøgren, Per; Møldrup, Claus; Christrup, Lona; Sciupokas, Arunas; Hansen, Ole Bo

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of cancer-related pain is high despite available guidelines for the effective assessment and management of that pain. Barriers to the use of opioid analgesics partially cause undertreatment of cancer pain. The aim of this study was to compare pain management outcomes and patient-related barriers to cancer pain management in patient samples from Denmark and Lithuania. Thirty-three Danish and 30 Lithuanian patients responded to, respectively, Danish and Lithuanian versions of the Brief Pain Inventory pain scale, the Barriers Questionnaire II, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Specific Questionnaire On Pain Communication, and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Emotional distress and patient attitudes toward opioid analgesics in cancer patient samples from both countries explained pain management outcomes in the multivariate regression models. Pain relief and pain medication adherence were better in Denmark, and the country of origin significantly explained the difference in the regression models for these outcomes. In conclusion, interventions in emotional distress and patient attitudes toward opioid analgesics may result in better pain management outcomes generally, whereas poor adherence to pain medication and poor pain relief appear to be more country-specific problems.

  4. Comparison of four definitions of the metabolic syndrome and odds of ischemic heart disease in the Lithuanian urban population

    PubMed Central

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Reklaitiene, Regina; Radisauskas, Ricardas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome diagnosed using four different definitions in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with ischemic heart disease. Methods Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Results In Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city aged 45-72 years, the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the new Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definition (44.1% of men and 48.7% of women). After adjusting for age, education, smoking habits the metabolic syndrome (irrespective of definition) was associated with a significantly higher risk of ischemic heart disease. Conclusion All four metabolic syndrome definitions were associated with ischemic heart disease risk; however odds of this disease were higher in people with metabolic syndrome defined by American Heart Association National Heart Lung Blood Institute definition and National Cholesterol Education program Adult Treatment Panel III definition, than by the new JIS definition. PMID:21384223

  5. The Prevalence of Cyberbullying and the Views of 5-12 Grade Pupils and Teachers on Cyberbullying Prevention in Lithuanian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldsnes, Dziuginta

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the views of cyberbullying prevention among 5-12 grade pupils and teachers in Lithuanian schools. It defines the concept of cyberbullying in the context of school pupils, and analyses the theoretical grounds for prevention of this form of bullying. The article also presents the results of the survey (which was conducted in…

  6. Relationships among providing maternal, child, and adolescent health services; implementing various financial strategy responses; and performance of local health departments.

    PubMed

    Issel, L Michele; Olorunsaiye, Comfort; Snebold, Laura; Handler, Arden

    2015-04-01

    We explored the relationships between local health department (LHD) structure, capacity, and macro-context variables and performance of essential public health services (EPHS). In 2012, we assessed a stratified, random sample of 195 LHDs that provided data via an online survey regarding performance of EPHS, the services provided or contracted out, the financial strategies used in response to budgetary pressures, and the extent of collaborations. We performed weighted analyses that included analysis of variance, pairwise correlations by jurisdiction population size, and linear regressions. On average, LHDs provided approximately 13 (36%) of 35 possible services either directly or by contract. Rather than cut services or externally consolidating, LHDs took steps to generate more revenue and maximize capacity. Higher LHD performance of EPHS was significantly associated with delivering more services, initiating more financial strategies, and engaging in collaboration, after adjusting for the effects of the Affordable Care Act and jurisdiction size. During changing economic and health care environments, we found that strong structural capacity enhanced local health department EPHS performance for maternal, child, and adolescent health.

  7. Relationships Among Providing Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Services; Implementing Various Financial Strategy Responses; and Performance of Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Olorunsaiye, Comfort; Snebold, Laura; Handler, Arden

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the relationships between local health department (LHD) structure, capacity, and macro-context variables and performance of essential public health services (EPHS). Methods. In 2012, we assessed a stratified, random sample of 195 LHDs that provided data via an online survey regarding performance of EPHS, the services provided or contracted out, the financial strategies used in response to budgetary pressures, and the extent of collaborations. We performed weighted analyses that included analysis of variance, pairwise correlations by jurisdiction population size, and linear regressions. Results. On average, LHDs provided approximately 13 (36%) of 35 possible services either directly or by contract. Rather than cut services or externally consolidating, LHDs took steps to generate more revenue and maximize capacity. Higher LHD performance of EPHS was significantly associated with delivering more services, initiating more financial strategies, and engaging in collaboration, after adjusting for the effects of the Affordable Care Act and jurisdiction size. Conclusions. During changing economic and health care environments, we found that strong structural capacity enhanced local health department EPHS performance for maternal, child, and adolescent health. PMID:25689179

  8. The future prospects of Lithuanian family physicians: a 10-year forecasting study.

    PubMed

    Starkiene, Liudvika; Smigelskas, Kastytis; Padaiga, Zilvinas; Reamy, Jack

    2005-10-04

    When health care reform was started in 1991, the physician workforce in Lithuania was dominated by specialists, and the specialty of family physician (FP) did not exist at all. During fifteen years of Lithuania's independence this specialty evolved rapidly and over 1,900 FPs were trained or retrained. Since 2003, the Lithuanian health care sector has undergone restructuring to optimize the network of health care institutions as well as the delivery of services; specific attention has been paid to the development of services provided by FPs, with more health care services shifted from the hospital level to the primary health care level. In this paper we analyze if an adequate workforce of FPs will be available in the future to take over new emerging tasks. A computer spreadsheet simulation model was used to project the supply of FPs in 2006-2015. The supply was projected according to three scenarios, which took into account different rates of retirement, migration and drop out from training. In addition different population projections and enrollment numbers in residency programs were also considered. Three requirement scenarios were made using different approaches. In the first scenario we used the requirement estimated by a panel of experts using the Delphi technique. The second scenario was based on the number of visits to FPs in 2003 and took into account the goal to increase the number of visits. The third scenario was based on the determination that one FP should serve no more than 2,000 inhabitants. The three scenarios for the projection of supply were compared with the three requirement scenarios. The supply of family physicians will be higher in 2015 compared to 2005 according to all projection scenarios. The largest differences in the supply scenarios were caused by different migration rates, enrollment numbers to training programs and the retirement age. The second supply scenario, which took into account 1.1% annual migration rate, stable enrollment to

  9. Trends of smoking prevalence among Lithuanian school-aged children in 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Zemaitiene, Nida; Grabauskas, Vilius; Veryga, Aurelijus; Petkevicius, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite much effort spent on antismoking programs in schools in different countries, limited effects have been observed in many cases. Evidence from European countries shows that active tobacco control actions such as ban on tobacco advertising, increase of tobacco taxes could lead to successful results. Our study was aimed to analyze time trends on smoking in Lithuanian school-aged children during the period of 1994-2006 in the context of antismoking policies, which were implemented in Lithuania. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was a part of WHO Cross-National Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study carried out in Lithuania. The standardized methods of international HBSC study protocol were applied. Stratified random representative samples of 5428, 4513, 5645, and 5632 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included into school-based anonymous questionnaire surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively (spring semester). Questions on frequency of smoking, age of initiation and other questions were included. Response rates of each of these four questionnaire surveys were higher than 90%. RESULTS. Smoking behavior was more common among boys. The prevalence gap in smoking between boys and girls diminished during period of observation. Prevalence of smoking increased significantly among boys during the period of 1994-2002 (11.3%, 19.8%, and 23.6% in 1994, 1998, and 2002, respectively), but started to decline after (17.3% in 2006, P<0.05). Similar trends were observed among girls: 3.6%, 8.5%, 14.6%, and 12.5% of girls reported smoking in cross-sectional surveys of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively. Boys living in rural areas were more frequent smokers than those living in urban areas in 1994-1998 (9.5% vs 13.9%, P<0.05). However, the surveys of 2002-2006 showed opposite changes (25.6% vs 22.1%, P<0.05 and 17.8% vs 16.9%, P>0.05). Urban girls have reported smoking more frequently in comparison with rural girls. CONCLUSIONS. An

  10. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  11. The Impact of Event Scale – Revised: psychometric properties of the Lithuanian version in a sample of employees exposed to workplace bullying

    PubMed Central

    Vilija, Malinauskienė; Lina, Bernotaitė

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is often used as a self-report instrument for symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS). The objective of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Lithuanian IES-R in a sample of employees with exposure to workplace bullying in different occupations. Materials and methods. The original IES-R was translated into Lithuanian, and the comparability of content was verified through back-translation procedures. 294 employees with exposure to workplace bullying (52 teachers from the secondary schools of Kaunas, 56 family physicians, 101 nurses of internal medicine departments, 40 waiters, and 45 seafarers) were administered the Lithuanian IES-R and the General Health Questionnaire – 12 (GHQ-12) in order to verify some aspects of convergent validity. The exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the construct validity of the IES-R. Results. The reliability of the Lithuanian version of the IES-R was verified. Cronbach’s α of the total scale was 0.95. Exploratory factor analysis showed a clear factor structure with three independent dimensions: intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. Cronbach’s α for subscales of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal were 0.89, 0.85, and 0.88, respectively. The convergent validity was supported by positive correlations between the subscales (intrusion, avoidance, hyperarousal) and the GHQ-12. Conclusions. The results suggest that the self-reported Lithuanian IES-R is a valid instrument for assessing the dimensions of post-traumatic stress, has good psychometric properties, and may be applied in prolonged trauma-exposed populations. PMID:28356808

  12. Do Clouds Save the Great Barrier Reef? Satellite Imagery Elucidates the Cloud-SST Relationship at the Local Scale

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, Susannah M.; Kingsford, Michael J.; Steinberg, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an “ocean thermostat” and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006) and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008). Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005) and La Niña (2008) study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs. PMID:23894649

  13. Do clouds save the great barrier reef? satellite imagery elucidates the cloud-SST relationship at the local scale.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Susannah M; Kingsford, Michael J; Steinberg, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of global climate change and rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is now well documented in the scientific literature. With corals already living close to their thermal maxima, increases in SSTs are of great concern for the survival of coral reefs. Cloud feedback processes may have the potential to constrain SSTs, serving to enforce an "ocean thermostat" and promoting the survival of coral reefs. In this study, it was hypothesized that cloud cover can affect summer SSTs in the tropics. Detailed direct and lagged relationships between cloud cover and SST across the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) shelf were investigated using data from satellite imagery and in situ temperature and light loggers during two relatively hot summers (2005 and 2006) and two relatively cool summers (2007 and 2008). Across all study summers and shelf positions, SSTs exhibited distinct drops during periods of high cloud cover, and conversely, SST increases during periods of low cloud cover, with a three-day temporal lag between a change in cloud cover and a subsequent change in SST. Cloud cover alone was responsible for up to 32.1% of the variation in SSTs three days later. The relationship was strongest in both El Niño (2005) and La Niña (2008) study summers and at the inner-shelf position in those summers. SST effects on subsequent cloud cover were weaker and more variable among study summers, with rising SSTs explaining up to 21.6% of the increase in cloud cover three days later. This work quantifies the often observed cloud cooling effect on coral reefs. It highlights the importance of incorporating local-scale processes into bleaching forecasting models, and encourages the use of remote sensing imagery to value-add to coral bleaching field studies and to more accurately predict risks to coral reefs.

  14. Mercury levels assessment and its relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Méndez, Jorge A; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor E; Fargher, Lane F; Moo-Puc, Rosa E

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is released into the environment from geologic and anthropogenic sources. Once it enters an organism, it generates several toxicity mechanisms and oxidative stress has been proposed as the main one. Metal susceptibility is greater in children, which is a result of their physiology and behavior. In Yucatan, Mexico, burning of unregulated garbage dumps and household trash, ingestion of top marine predators, and pottery manufacturing are among the conditions that could promote Hg exposure. However, for Yucatan, there are no published studies that report Hg levels and associated oxidative stress status in children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Hg levels in blood and urine and oxidative stress biomarkers levels in a sample of 107 healthy children from three localities in Yucatan, Mexico, as well as investigate the relationship between these parameters. Hg was detected in 11 (10.28%) of blood samples and 38 (35.51%) of urine samples collected from the participating children. Fourteen subjects showed Hg above recommended levels. The oxidative stress biomarkers were slightly elevated in comparison with other studies and were statistically different between the sampling sites. No linear correlation between Hg levels and oxidative stress biomarkers was found. Nevertheless, exploratory univariate and multivariate analysis showed non-linear relations among the measured variables. Globally, the study provides, for the first time, information regarding Hg levels and their relationship with oxidative stress biomarkers in a juvenile population from Mexico's southeast (Yucatan) region. In agreement with worldwide concern about Hg, this study should stimulate studies on metal monitoring in humans (especially children) among scientists working in Mexico, the establishment of polices for its regulation, and the reduction of human health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of ambient ozone to Scots pine defoliation and reduced growth in the Central European forests: a Lithuanian case study.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to explore if changes in crown defoliation and stem growth of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone (O(3)) concentration in central Europe. To meet this objective the study was performed in 3 Lithuanian national parks, close to the ICP integrated monitoring stations from which data on meteorology and pollution were provided. Contribution of peak O(3) concentrations to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine stem growth was found to be more significant than its contribution to the integrated impact of acidifying compounds and meteorological parameters on pine defoliation. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient O(3) can have a negative impact on pine tree crown defoliation and stem growth reduction under field conditions in central and northeastern Europe where the AOT40 values for forests are commonly below their phytotoxic levels.

  16. Use of interferon-gamma release assay and tuberculin skin test in diagnosing tuberculosis in Lithuanian adults: A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tamašauskienė, Laura; Hansted, Edita; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Miliauskas, Skaidrius; Naudžiūnas, Albinas; Šitkauskienė, Brigita

    2017-01-01

    Lithuania belongs to the group of countries with a high-incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Some scientific studies show that the interferon-gamma release assay is more accurate and correlates more highly with TB exposure as compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST). This study aimed at comparing the efficacy between the T SPOT TB and TST for diagnosing TB among Lithuanian adults. Individuals with diagnosed TB, healthcare workers with known risk for TB and individuals without any known risk for TB underwent clinical examinations, interviews about their history of TB exposure and chest radiography. Then the TST and the T SPOT TB were performed on patients. A positive T SPOT TB was more common in the group with diagnosed TB compared to healthcare workers and the low risk for TB groups (97.5%, 36.4%, and 0%, respectively, P<0.01). Positive TST results did not differ between the groups with diagnosed TB and the healthcare workers (92.5% vs. 95.5%, P>0.05). Agreement between TST and T SPOT TB was poor (kappa 0.14, P>0.05). T SPOT TB had higher specificity and sensitivity compared to TST (area under the ROC 0.9±0.04, P<0.01, vs. 0.5±0.06, P>0.05). The T SPOT TB showed greater accuracy in diagnosing TB than TST did. Positive T SPOT TB result but not the TST was more common in patients with diagnosed TB. Copyright © 2017 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. AMPD1 rs17602729 is associated with physical performance of sprint and power in elite Lithuanian athletes.

    PubMed

    Ginevičienė, Valentina; Jakaitienė, Audronė; Pranculis, Aidas; Milašius, Kazys; Tubelis, Linas; Utkus, Algirdas

    2014-05-17

    The C34T genetic polymorphism (rs17602729) in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common polymorphism among Caucasians that can impair exercise capacity. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine the C34T AMPD1 allele/genotype frequency distributions in Lithuanian athletes (n = 204, stratified into three groups: endurance, sprint/power and mixed) and compare them with the allele/genotype frequency distributions in randomly selected healthy Lithuanian non-athletes (n = 260) and (2) to compare common anthropometric measurements and physical performance phenotypes between the three groups of athletes depending on their AMPD1 genotype. The results of our study indicate that the frequency of the AMPD1 TT genotype was 2.4% in the control group, while it was absent in the athlete group. There were significantly more sprint/power-orientated athletes with the CC genotype (86.3%) compared with the endurance-orientated athletes (72.9%), mixed athletes (67.1%), and controls (74.2%). We determined that the AMPD1 C34T polymorphism is not associated with aerobic muscle performance phenotype (VO2max). For CC genotype the short-term explosive muscle power value (based on Vertical Jump test) of athletes from the sprint/power group was significantly higher than that of the endurance group athletes (P < 0.05). The AMPD1 CC genotype is associated with anaerobic performance (Vertical Jump). The AMPD1 C allele may help athletes to attain elite status in sprint/power-oriented sports, and the T allele is a factor unfavourable for athletics in sprint/power-oriented sports categories. Hence, the AMPD1 C allele can be regarded as a marker associated with the physical performance of sprint and power. Replications studies are required to confirm this association.

  18. AMPD1 rs17602729 is associated with physical performance of sprint and power in elite Lithuanian athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The C34T genetic polymorphism (rs17602729) in the AMPD1 gene, encoding the skeletal muscle-specific isoform of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), is a common polymorphism among Caucasians that can impair exercise capacity. The aim of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine the C34T AMPD1 allele/genotype frequency distributions in Lithuanian athletes (n = 204, stratified into three groups: endurance, sprint/power and mixed) and compare them with the allele/genotype frequency distributions in randomly selected healthy Lithuanian non-athletes (n = 260) and (2) to compare common anthropometric measurements and physical performance phenotypes between the three groups of athletes depending on their AMPD1 genotype. Results The results of our study indicate that the frequency of the AMPD1 TT genotype was 2.4% in the control group, while it was absent in the athlete group. There were significantly more sprint/power-orientated athletes with the CC genotype (86.3%) compared with the endurance-orientated athletes (72.9%), mixed athletes (67.1%), and controls (74.2%). We determined that the AMPD1 C34T polymorphism is not associated with aerobic muscle performance phenotype (VO2max). For CC genotype the short-term explosive muscle power value (based on Vertical Jump test) of athletes from the sprint/power group was significantly higher than that of the endurance group athletes (P < 0.05). The AMPD1 CC genotype is associated with anaerobic performance (Vertical Jump). Conclusions The AMPD1 C allele may help athletes to attain elite status in sprint/power-oriented sports, and the T allele is a factor unfavourable for athletics in sprint/power-oriented sports categories. Hence, the AMPD1 C allele can be regarded as a marker associated with the physical performance of sprint and power. Replications studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:24885427

  19. Socio-demographic inequalities in overweight and obesity among Lithuanian adults: time trends from 1994 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Kriaucioniene, Vilma; Petkeviciene, Janina; Klumbiene, Jurate; Sakyte, Edita; Raskiliene, Asta

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to examine trends in socio-demographic differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Lithuanian adult population from 1994 to 2014. The data from 11 postal surveys were analysed. For every survey, a nationally representative random sample aged 20-64 was drawn from the National Population Register. The sample consisted of 3000 individuals in each of the 1994-2008 surveys and 4000 in the last three surveys. Altogether, 8738 men and 11,822 women participated in the surveys. Self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. From 1994 to 2014, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in all socio-demographic groups of men, reaching 58.6% and 19.5% respectively. Highly educated men and those living in cities had higher BMI values than lower educated and non-urban inhabitants without substantial changes in the differences in BMI over the study period. In women, the prevalence of overweight decreased from 51.7% to 46%, whereas the prevalence of obesity did not change being 19.2% in 2014. Overweight and obesity were more common among lower educated women and those living in non-urban areas than in the others. Educational inequalities in weight status of women increased due to the decrease of BMI only in women with university education. CONCLUSIONS TIME TRENDS IN BMI WERE MORE PRONOUNCED AMONG LITHUANIAN MEN THAN WOMEN, WHEREAS SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC INEQUALITIES WERE GREATER AMONG WOMEN THE STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF OBESITY SHOULD TARGET ALL MEN AND WOMEN WITH LOWER EDUCATION AND LIVING IN NON-URBAN AREAS OF LITHUANIA. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Local Context Finder (LCF) reveals multidimensional relationships among mRNA expression profiles of Arabidopsis responding to pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Glazebrook, Jane

    2003-09-16

    A major task in computational analysis of mRNA expression profiles is definition of relationships among profiles on the basis of similarities among them. This is generally achieved by pattern recognition in the distribution of data points representing each profile in a high-dimensional space. Some drawbacks of commonly used pattern recognition algorithms stem from their use of a globally linear space and/or limited degrees of freedom. A pattern recognition method called Local Context Finder (LCF) is described here. LCF uses nonlinear dimensionality reduction for pattern recognition. Then it builds a network of profiles based on the nonlinear dimensionality reduction results. LCF was used to analyze mRNA expression profiles of the plant host Arabidopsis interacting with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. In one case, LCF revealed two dimensions essential to explain the effects of the NahG transgene and the ndr1 mutation on resistant and susceptible responses. In another case, plant mutants deficient in responses to pathogen infection were classified on the basis of LCF analysis of their profiles. The classification by LCF was consistent with the results of biological characterization of the mutants. Thus, LCF is a powerful method for extracting information from expression profile data.

  1. Views of IRBs Concerning their Local Ecologies: Perceptions of Relationships, Systems, and Tensions between IRBs and their Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has generally examined institutional review boards (IRBs) in isolation, but critical questions arise of how these entities fit into the larger institutional contexts in which they operate and what the implications may be. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with leaders of IRBs from among the top 240 institutions receiving funding from the National Institutes of Health. Results Interviewees felt that institutions may affect IRBs through both broad, indirect features (e.g., size, type of research, and culture of the institution), and more direct, IRB-related factors (e.g., amount of leadership and resource support for the IRB). Interviewees thought that institutional support of IRBs ranged from financial to non-financial, direct and indirect, and that these institutional factors can mold amounts of IRB staff and education, audits, and education of principal investigators (PIs), and tensions IRBs had to address. Respondents felt that these factors can in turn potentially affect IRB reviews of protocols and interactions with principle investigators (PIs). Within the complex systems of an institution, IRBs felt that PIs' experiences and complaints about the IRB to institutional leaders may also shape how the institution related to the IRB. Conclusions These data are the first to show how IRBs perceive themselves as working within the contexts of dynamic local institutional relationships and systems that pose challenges and tensions that can potentially affect critical aspects of IRB functioning. The findings have implications for practice, future research, and policy. PMID:23745170

  2. The spatiotemporal relationship between local Ca(2+) signaling and P2X2R-activated membrane blebbing.

    PubMed

    Qudrat, Anam; Kim, Jae Ik; Truong, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian P2X receptors (P2XRs), a family of seven ionotropic purinergic receptors, function as ion channels modulating diverse cellular processes such as secretion, apoptosis and proliferation in response to extracellular ATP. Previously, it was shown that upon ATP stimulus, the P2X7 receptor (a member of P2XR family) triggers plasma membrane (PM) blebbing in HEK293 cells. In this study, we demonstrate that this phenomenon extends to another member of the P2XR family-P2X2 receptor (P2X2R). Similar to P2X7 receptor, P2X2R blebbing is dependent on Ca(2+)-calmodulin and ROCK-I. To elucidate the spatiotemporal relationship between Ca(2+) signaling and blebbing, protein biosensors and switches were used to image and generate Ca(2+) signals, respectively, while observing PM blebbing in cells. Blebbing cannot be initiated by Ca(2+) influx from the endoplasmic reticulum or by Ca(2+) transport across the PM by other Ca(2+) channels. To trigger blebbing, it is necessary for Ca(2+) to enter specifically through the P2X2R. Lastly, a local Ca(2+) signal near a fragment that encodes the intracellular P2X2R C-terminus tail is sufficient to trigger blebbing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose-Effect Relationship in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Radiation Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, Anders; Ploen, John; Vuong, Te; Appelt, Ane; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Soren R.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Locally advanced rectal cancer represents a major therapeutic challenge. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is considered standard, but little is known about the dose-effect relationship. The present study represents a dose-escalation phase III trial comparing 2 doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were resectable T3 and T4 tumors with a circumferential margin of {<=}5 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the tumor and pelvic lymph nodes (arm A) or the same treatment supplemented with an endorectal boost given as high-dose-rate brachytherapy (10 Gy in 2 fractions; arm B). Concomitant chemotherapy, uftoral 300 mg/m{sup 2} and L-leucovorin 22.5 mg/d, was added to both arms on treatment days. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic remission. The secondary endpoints included tumor response and rate of complete resection (R0). Results: The study included 248 patients. No significant difference was found in toxicity or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Based on intention to treat, no significant difference was found in the complete pathologic remission rate between the 2 arms (18% and 18%). The rate of R0 resection was different in T3 tumors (90% and 99%; P=.03). The same applied to the rate of major response (tumor regression grade, 1+2), 29% and 44%, respectively (P=.04). Conclusions: This first randomized trial comparing 2 radiation doses indicated that the higher dose increased the rate of major response by 50% in T3 tumors. The endorectal boost is feasible, with no significant increase in toxicity or surgical complications.

  4. The genes of interferons and interferon-related factors: localization and relationships with chromosome aberrations in cancer.

    PubMed

    Haus, O

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a review of data on the localization of interferons (IFNs) and IFN system genes and their relationship with human diseases, mainly cancer. Genes of interferon system proteins are located at the sites of breakpoints of the structural chromosome aberrations in cancer. Thus, any of them are rearranged or translocated in various tumor types. As the activity of these genes plays a role in cancer development, their rearrangements may be one of the crucial points in the pathogenesis of some cancer types. Besides, they also take part in organism immunity against viral infections. Transfection experiments with IFN system genes have proved the influence of these genes on cancer behavior and may serve as a basis for clinical gene therapy. IFN-alpha and IFN-beta genes are located at 9p21-22, the site of frequent homozygotic deletions in cancer. Their loss sensitizes cells to the growth inhibitory actions of exogenous IFNs. The IFN-gamma gene, a representative of class II genes, is located at 12q24.1. Transfection of class II IFNs genes to cancer cell lines causes cell proliferation arrest and augments the expression of HLA antigens, which may be clinically useful in stimulating the immune destruction of tumor cells. The interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) gene is located at 5q31, the site of common deletions in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and secondary leukemias. The loss of heterozygosity of this gene was found in MDS, which proves that IRF-1 may be a tumor suppressor. A transfection of its gene causes neoplastic transformation arrest. The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) gene is located at 2p21-22, a region which is frequently rearranged in leukemia. Transfection of a wild type PKR gene reverses neoplastic transformation caused by transfection of a mutated PKR gene, proving that PKR acts as a dominant negative cancer suppressor.

  5. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D´ = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D´ = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  6. Prevalence of C282Y, H63D, and S65C mutations in hereditary HFE-hemochromatosis gene in Lithuanian population.

    PubMed

    Kucinskas, Laimutis; Juzenas, Simonas; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Cedaviciute, Ruta; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kondrackiene, Jurate; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2012-04-01

    HFE-hemochromatosis is a common autosomal recessive disease caused by HFE gene mutations and characterized as iron overload and failure of different organs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C282Y (c.845 G>A), H63D (c.187 C>G), and S65C (c.193A>T) alleles of HFE gene in the Lithuanian population. One thousand and eleven healthy blood donors of Lithuanian nationality were examined in four different ethnic Lithuanian regions to determine HFE gene alleles and genotype frequencies. The samples of DNA were analyzed for the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism and validated by DNA sequencing. Among 1,011 blood donors tested, the frequency of C282Y, H63D, and S65C alleles were 2.6%, 15.9%, and 1.9%, respectively. One third of the tested subjects (n = 336) had at least one of the C282Y or H63D HFE gene mutations. The screening of Lithuanian blood donors has detected 13 (1.3%) subjects with a genotype C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D responsible for the development of HFE-hemochromatosis. The prevalence of C282Y mutation was significantly higher among the inhabitants of Zemaitija (Somogitia) at the Baltic Sea area (5.9%) in comparison to the regions of continental part of Lithuania (2.4% in Dzukija, 2.3% in Aukstaitija, and 2% in Suvalkija, p < 0.05). These data support the hypothesis that the p.C282Y mutation originated from Scandinavia and spread with the Vikings along the Baltic Sea coast. The first epidemiological investigation of HFE gene mutations in ethnic Lithuanians showed that the frequencies of H63D, C282Y, and S65C of HFE gene alleles are similar to the other North-Eastern Europeans, especially in the Baltic region (Estonia, Latvia), Poland, and part of Russia (Moscow region).

  7. Relationship between Broken Homes and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Edosa, Ogboro Samson

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between broken homes and academic achievement of students. Three research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study was correlational because the study sought to establish the extent of relationship between broken homes and academic achievement. The statistical method used in analyzing the…

  8. The high frequency of GJB2 gene mutation c.313_326del14 suggests its possible origin in ancestors of Lithuanian population.

    PubMed

    Mikstiene, Violeta; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Byckova, Jekaterina; Gradauskiene, Egle; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Burnyte, Birute; Tumiene, Birute; Matuleviciene, Ausra; Ambrozaityte, Laima; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Domarkiene, Ingrida; Rancelis, Tautvydas; Cimbalistiene, Loreta; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Utkus, Algirdas

    2016-02-19

    Congenital hearing loss (CHL) is diagnosed in 1 - 2 newborns in 1000, genetic factors contribute to two thirds of CHL cases in industrialised countries. Mutations of the GJB2 gene located in the DFNB1 locus (13q11-12) are a major cause of CHL worldwide. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the contribution of the DFNB1 locus containing the GJB2 and GJB6 genes in the development of early onset hearing loss in the affected group of participants, to determine the population-specific mutational profile and DFNB1-related HL burden in Lithuanian population. Clinical data were obtained from a collection of 158 affected participants (146 unrelated probands) with early onset non-syndromic HL. GJB2 and GJB6 gene sequencing and GJB6 gene deletion testing were performed. The data of GJB2 and GJB6 gene sequencing in 98 participants in group of self-reported healthy Lithuanian inhabitants were analysed. Statistic summary, homogeneity tests, and logistic regression analysis were used for the assessment of genotype-phenotype correlation. Our findings show 57.5% of affected participants with two pathogenic GJB2 gene mutations identified. The most prevalent GJB2 mutations were c.35delG, p. (Gly12Valfs*2) (rs80338939) and c.313_326del14, p. (Lys105Glyfs*5) (rs111033253) with allele frequencies 64.7% and 28.3% respectively. GJB6 gene mutations were not identified in the affected group of participants. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between GJB2(-) and GJB2(+) groups in disease severity (p = 0.001), and family history (p = 0.01). The probability of identification of GJB2 mutations in patients with various HL characteristics was estimated. The carrier rate of GJB2 gene mutations - 7.1% (~1 in 14) was identified in the group of healthy participants and a high frequency of GJB2-related hearing loss was estimated in our population. The results show a very high proportion of GJB2-positive individuals in the research group affected with sensorineural

  9. Significant Local-Scale Plant-Insect Species Richness Relationship Independent of Abiotic Effects in the Temperate Cape Floristic Region Biodiversity Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jurene E; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-01-01

    Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region. We first quantify diversity relationships at multiple spatial scales for one of the dominant plant families in the CFR, the Restionaceae, and its associated insect herbivore community. Plant and insect diversity are significantly positively correlated at the local scales (10-50 m; 0.1-3 km), but not at the regional scales (15-20 km; 50-70 km). The local scale relationship remains significantly positively correlated even when accounting for the influence of extrinsic variables and other vegetation attributes. This suggests that the diversity of local insect assemblages may be more strongly influenced by plant species richness than by abiotic variables. Further, vegetation age and plant structural complexity also influenced insect richness. The ratio of insect species per plant species in the CFR is comparable to other temperate regions around the world, suggesting that the insect diversity of the CFR is high relative to other areas of the globe with similar abiotic conditions, primarily as a result of the unusually high plant diversity in the region.

  10. Significant Local-Scale Plant-Insect Species Richness Relationship Independent of Abiotic Effects in the Temperate Cape Floristic Region Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Jurene E.; Ellis, Allan G.

    2017-01-01

    Globally plant species richness is a significant predictor of insect richness. Whether this is the result of insect diversity responding directly to plant diversity, or both groups responding in similar ways to extrinsic factors, has been much debated. Here we assess this relationship in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), a biodiversity hotspot. The CFR has higher plant diversity than expected from latitude (i.e., abiotic conditions), but very little is known about the diversity of insects residing in this region. We first quantify diversity relationships at multiple spatial scales for one of the dominant plant families in the CFR, the Restionaceae, and its associated insect herbivore community. Plant and insect diversity are significantly positively correlated at the local scales (10–50 m; 0.1–3 km), but not at the regional scales (15–20 km; 50–70 km). The local scale relationship remains significantly positively correlated even when accounting for the influence of extrinsic variables and other vegetation attributes. This suggests that the diversity of local insect assemblages may be more strongly influenced by plant species richness than by abiotic variables. Further, vegetation age and plant structural complexity also influenced insect richness. The ratio of insect species per plant species in the CFR is comparable to other temperate regions around the world, suggesting that the insect diversity of the CFR is high relative to other areas of the globe with similar abiotic conditions, primarily as a result of the unusually high plant diversity in the region. PMID:28076412

  11. Increasing attendance in a cervical cancer screening programme by personal invitation: experience of a Lithuanian primary health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Rūta, Kurtinaitienė; Jolita, Rimienė; Ingrida, Labanauskaitė; Nadežda, Lipunova; Giedrė, Smailytė

    2016-01-01

    Background. High participation rates are an essential component of an effective screening programme and many approaches were introduced as being successful for enhancing compliance to screening guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate to which extent a personal invitation by mail increases the rate of attendance in a cervical cancer screening programme in a primary health care centre. Materials and methods. The study was carried out as a pilot project to gain insight into feasibility of applying a well-known compliance increasing measure in Lithuanian population. The study included a sample of women registered at the primary health care centre in Panevėžys who had not participated in the cervical cancer screening programme for six and more years. Personal registered invitation letters to attend the primary health care centre for a Pap smear were sent out to 1789 women by mail. Results. In total, 2195 women were tested during 2011 at the primary health care centre. 487 (22.2%) of them attended the screening programme after receiving a personal invitation letter. Response rate for attending screening after receiving a personal invitation letter was 27.3%. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that personal invitation letters addressed to long-term non-attendees could markedly increase participation in cervical cancer screening in Lithuania. PMID:28356807

  12. [Patient medication record in pharmacy: development of specialized information system and possibilities of its application in Lithuanian community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Skyrius, Vaidas; Kapocius, Kestutis; Radziūnas, Raimondas

    2003-01-01

    To examine whether the managers of Lithuanian community pharmacies need a special information system for the creation of patients' medication record in the pharmacy. To design the system and to analyze the possibilities of its application. RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to determine the need for a specialized information system a questionnaire-based survey of pharmacies managers was used. During the development of information system the detailed requirements analysis was performed and basing on this analysis the architecture of the system and its user interface were designed. System was built using "Microsoft Access 2000" and "Visual Basic 6" development tools. Survey revealed that managers of community pharmacies require an information system for the creation of patients' medication record in the pharmacy. The design of the system was prepared and the initial version was built. Examinations of the developed system showed that it could be used to form the patient information database, which would improve the quality of service. The developed information system or its analogue should be used in community pharmacies because absence of the patients medical records database makes it impossible to implement the recommendations of good pharmacy practice.

  13. Sexual behavior and high-risk human papillomavirus in 15- to 22-year-old Lithuanian women.

    PubMed

    Bumbuliene, Zana; Alisauskas, Jonas

    2012-04-01

    We determined the risk of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in 169 15- to 22-year-old sexually active Lithuanian women attending two outpatient clinics in Vilnius. The Digene(®) Hybrid Capture II DNA test was used to test for HR-HPV infection on material collected by cervical swabs. The findings were compared with the pattern of sexual behavior as given in questionnaire replies. The overall risk of HR-HPV was 23.1%, but 60.0% in adolescents ≤15 years old. Mean age at first intercourse was 17.1 years; 73.5% of women had only had one sexual partner and 24.5% more than one. The risk of HR-HPV was higher in women with more than one sexual partner, and related to being a smoker and to early age at the first intercourse. Our results confirm that smoking, early coitarche, multiple sexual partners and unprotected vaginal intercourse are related to the risk of HR-HPV infection in young women.

  14. A Study of the Fundamental Relationships between Deformation-Induced Surface Roughness and Strain Localization in AA5754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoudt, M. R.; Hubbard, J. B.; Iadicola, M. A.; Banovic, S. W.

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional, matrix-based statistical analysis methods were developed and integrated with high-resolution topographical imaging, to assess how microstructural changes influence the evolution of plastic deformation and strain localization in a commercial AA5754-O aluminum sheet in three in-plane strain modes. Analysis of the raw surface data revealed that the general composition of the surface roughness was highly sensitive to strain mode and strain level. The microstructural conditions that promote strain localization were assessed by extending a profile-based surface roughness parameter ( Rt) to matrix form. Both analyses revealed that different strain modes produce characteristic dissimilarities in the deformation at the grain level. The localization data can be well characterized with a two-parameter Weibull distribution, suggesting that strain localization is a stochastic process that can be modeled reliably with Weibull statistics. This study clearly demonstrates that an accurate and straightforward probabilistic expression that captures the microstructural subtleties produced by plastic deformation can be developed from rigorous analyses of raw topographic data. Because variations in surface morphology profoundly influence the reliability of the numerical models used to predict strain localization, incorporating expressions of this type could greatly enhance the accuracy of these models.

  15. Relationship between interval from surgery to radiotherapy and local recurrence rate in patients with endometrioid-type endometrial cancer: a retrospective mono-institutional Italian study.

    PubMed

    Fabrini, Maria Grazia; Gadducci, Angiolo; Perrone, Franco; La Liscia, Concetta; Cosio, Stefania; Moda, Stefano; Guerrieri, Maria Elena; Grandinetti, Antonella; Greco, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the timing of radiotherapy and the risk of local failure in patients with endometrioid-type endometrial cancer who had undergone surgery and adjuvant external pelvic radiotherapy (with or without brachytherapy), but not chemotherapy. One hundred and seventy seven patients were analyzed in this study. The median follow-up of the survivors was 72 months. Radiotherapy was delivered after a median time of 14.6 weeks from surgery and the median overall treatment time was 6.4 weeks. The tumor relapsed in 32 (18.1%) patients after a median time of 21 months. The local recurrence (vaginal or central pelvic) occurred in 11 patients. The local recurrence rate was associated with tumor grade (p=0.02), myometrial invasion (p=0.046), FIGO stage (p=0.003), pathological node status (p=0.037) and time interval from surgery to radiotherapy using 9 weeks as the cut-off value (p=0.046), but not with the overall treatment time. All the local relapses occurred in patients who received adjuvant irradiation after an interval from surgery >9 weeks. The time interval from surgery to radiotherapy might affect the local recurrence rate in patients not receiving chemotherapy. Every possible effort should be made to start radiotherapy within 9 weeks, when radiotherapy only is deemed necessary as adjuvant treatment.

  16. A Study of the Relationship Between Selected Socioeconomic Variables and Local Tax Effort to Support Public Schools in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Thomas Wei-Chi; Chaudhari, Ramesh

    This study examined the relationship between operating tax rates and selected socioeconomic variables for Illinois school districts. Districts were separately ranked by operating tax rates and then divided into four equal quartiles--low tax effort, low medium tax effort, high medium tax effort, and high tax effort. Discriminant analysis was used…

  17. Establishing Authentic Lithuanian Culture and Values in Post-Soviet Educational Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen E.; Gray, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of culture in establishing a program of educational reform in Lithuania, a former Soviet Bloc state. Specifically, through a comparative analysis of survey information from an international cross-section of individuals involved with educational reform programs in Lithuania at the local, regional, and national…

  18. Investigation on relationship between epicentral distance and growth curve of initial P-wave propagating in local heterogeneous media for earthquake early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Tsuno, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    In the earthquake early warning (EEW) system, the epicenter location and magnitude of earthquakes are estimated using the amplitude growth rate of initial P-waves. It has been empirically pointed out that the growth rate becomes smaller as epicentral distance becomes far regardless of the magnitude of earthquakes. So, the epicentral distance can be estimated from the growth rate using this empirical relationship. However, the growth rates calculated from different earthquakes at the same epicentral distance mark considerably different values from each other. Sometimes the growth rates of earthquakes having the same epicentral distance vary by 104 times. Qualitatively, it has been considered that the gap in the growth rates is due to differences in the local heterogeneities that the P-waves propagate through. In this study, we demonstrate theoretically how local heterogeneities in the subsurface disturb the relationship between the growth rate and the epicentral distance. Firstly, we calculate seismic scattered waves in a heterogeneous medium. First-ordered PP, PS, SP, and SS scatterings are considered. The correlation distance of the heterogeneities and fractional fluctuation of elastic parameters control the heterogeneous conditions for the calculation. From the synthesized waves, the growth rate of the initial P-wave is obtained. As a result, we find that a parameter (in this study, correlation distance) controlling heterogeneities plays a key role in the magnitude of the fluctuation of the growth rate. Then, we calculate the regional correlation distances in Japan that can account for the fluctuation of the growth rate of real earthquakes from 1997 to 2011 observed by K-NET and KiK-net. As a result, the spatial distribution of the correlation distance shows locality. So, it is revealed that the growth rates fluctuate according to the locality. When this local fluctuation is taken into account, the accuracy of the estimation of epicentral distances from initial P

  19. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  20. Being Close: The Quality of Social Relationships in a Local Organic Cereal and Bread Network in Lower Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milestad, Rebecka; Bartel-Kratochvil, Ruth; Leitner, Heidrun; Axmann, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Experience of the drawbacks of a globalised and industrialised food system has generated interest in localised food systems. Local food networks are regarded as more sustainable food provision systems since they are assumed to have high levels of social embeddedness and relations of regard. This paper explores the social relations between food…

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Can Spare Local Metacognition Despite Global Anosognosia: Revisiting the Confidence-Accuracy Relationship in Episodic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.; Cramer, Stefanie J.; Wong, Jessica T.; Bennett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair metacognition in addition to more basic cognitive functions like memory. However, while global metacognitive inaccuracies are well documented (i.e., low deficit awareness, or anosognosia), the evidence is mixed regarding the effects of AD on local or task-based metacognitive judgments. Here we investigated local…

  2. Being Close: The Quality of Social Relationships in a Local Organic Cereal and Bread Network in Lower Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milestad, Rebecka; Bartel-Kratochvil, Ruth; Leitner, Heidrun; Axmann, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Experience of the drawbacks of a globalised and industrialised food system has generated interest in localised food systems. Local food networks are regarded as more sustainable food provision systems since they are assumed to have high levels of social embeddedness and relations of regard. This paper explores the social relations between food…

  3. 20 CFR 661.335 - What is a youth council, and what is its relationship to the Local Board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... representatives of human service agencies, who have special interest or expertise in youth policy; (2) Members who... organizations, that have experience relating to youth activities; and (6) Members who represent the Job Corps, if a Job Corps Center is located in the local area represented by the council. (c) Youth councils...

  4. 20 CFR 661.335 - What is a youth council, and what is its relationship to the Local Board?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... representatives of human service agencies, who have special interest or expertise in youth policy; (2) Members who... organizations, that have experience relating to youth activities; and (6) Members who represent the Job Corps, if a Job Corps Center is located in the local area represented by the council. (c) Youth councils...

  5. The Intuitive Style: Relationships with Local/Global and Verbal/Visual Styles, Gender, and Superstitious Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler-Smith, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The study explored various facets of the intuitive style and its relevance to learning and education from a dual-processing perspective, namely how it relates to other style constructs (analytical; visual and verbal; local and global), gender, and superstitious reasoning and how these are likely to impact upon learning in educational and…

  6. The Intuitive Style: Relationships with Local/Global and Verbal/Visual Styles, Gender, and Superstitious Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler-Smith, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The study explored various facets of the intuitive style and its relevance to learning and education from a dual-processing perspective, namely how it relates to other style constructs (analytical; visual and verbal; local and global), gender, and superstitious reasoning and how these are likely to impact upon learning in educational and…

  7. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  8. Localization studies of rare missense mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) facilitate interpretation of genotype-phenotype relationships.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Kristina V; Tzetis, Maria; Cheng, Jie; Guggino, William B; Cutting, Garry R

    2008-11-01

    We have been investigating the functional consequences of rare disease-associated amino acid substitutions in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Mutations of the arginine residue at codon 1070 have been associated with different disease consequences; R1070P and R1070Q with "severe" pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis (CF) and R1070W with "mild" pancreatic sufficient CF or congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. Intriguingly, CFTR bearing each of these mutations is functional when expressed in nonpolarized cells. To determine whether R1070 mutations cause disease by affecting CFTR localization, we created polarized Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines that express either wild-type or mutant CFTR from the same genomic integration site. Confocal microscopy and biotinylation studies revealed that R1070P was not inserted into the apical membrane, R1070W was inserted at levels reduced from wild-type while R1070Q was present in the apical membrane at levels comparable to wild-type. The abnormal localization of CFTR bearing R1070P and R1070W was consistent with deleterious consequences in patients; however, the profile of CFTR R1070Q was inconsistent with a "severe" phenotype. Reanalysis of 16 patients with the R1070Q mutation revealed that 11 carried an in cis nonsense mutation, S466X. All 11 patients carrying the complex allele R1070Q-S466X had severe disease, while 4 out of 5 patients with R1070Q had "mild" disease, thereby reconciling the apparent discrepancy between the localization studies of R1070Q and the phenotype of patients bearing this mutation. Our results emphasize that localization studies in relevant model systems can greatly assist the interpretation of the disease-causing potential of rare missense mutations.

  9. A novel method for discovering local spatial clusters of genomic regions with functional relationships from DNA contact maps

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xihao; Shi, Christina Huan; Yip, Kevin Y.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The three-dimensional structure of genomes makes it possible for genomic regions not adjacent in the primary sequence to be spatially proximal. These DNA contacts have been found to be related to various molecular activities. Previous methods for analyzing DNA contact maps obtained from Hi-C experiments have largely focused on studying individual interactions, forming spatial clusters composed of contiguous blocks of genomic locations, or classifying these clusters into general categories based on some global properties of the contact maps. Results: Here, we describe a novel computational method that can flexibly identify small clusters of spatially proximal genomic regions based on their local contact patterns. Using simulated data that highly resemble Hi-C data obtained from real genome structures, we demonstrate that our method identifies spatial clusters that are more compact than methods previously used for clustering genomic regions based on DNA contact maps. The clusters identified by our method enable us to confirm functionally related genomic regions previously reported to be spatially proximal in different species. We further show that each genomic region can be assigned a numeric affinity value that indicates its degree of participation in each local cluster, and these affinity values correlate quantitatively with DNase I hypersensitivity, gene expression, super enhancer activities and replication timing in a cell type specific manner. We also show that these cluster affinity values can precisely define boundaries of reported topologically associating domains, and further define local sub-domains within each domain. Availability and implementation: The source code of BNMF and tutorials on how to use the software to extract local clusters from contact maps are available at http://yiplab.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/bnmf/. Contact: kevinyip@cse.cuhk.edu.hk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307607

  10. Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain.

    PubMed

    Dickens, M J; de Bournonville, C; Balthazart, J; Cornil, C A

    2014-02-01

    Estradiol-17β (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone, changes in aromatase enzymatic activity (AA) are often utilized as a proxy to describe E2 concentrations. Utilizing two types of stimuli (sexual interactions and acute restraint stress) that have been demonstrated to reliably alter AA within minutes in opposite directions (sexual interactions=decrease, stress=increase), we tested in Japanese quail whether rapid changes in AA are paralleled by changes in E2 concentrations in discrete brain areas. In males, E2 in the pooled medial preoptic nucleus/medial portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (POM/BST) positively correlated with AA following sexual interactions. However, following acute stress, E2 decreased significantly (approximately 2-fold) in the male POM/BST despite a significant increase in AA. In females, AA positively correlated with E2 in both the POM/BST and mediobasal hypothalamus supporting a role for local, as opposed to ovarian, production regulating brain E2 concentrations. In addition, correlations of individual E2 in POM/BST and measurements of female sexual behavior suggested a role for local E2 synthesis in female receptivity. These data demonstrate that local E2 in the male brain changes in response to stimuli on a time course suggestive of potential non-genomic effects on brain and behavior. Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and extent of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental enamel defects in Lithuanian teenage populations with different fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Machiulskiene, Vita; Baelum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole; Nyvad, Bente

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of dental caries, dental fluorosis, and developmental defects of non-fluoride origin in Lithuanian children born and raised in regions with 1.1 ppm (1.1 mg/l F) and 0.3 ppm (0.3 mg/l F) water fluoride levels, respectively. All permanent surfaces/teeth of 300 teenagers were examined for dental caries, dental fluorosis, and non-fluoride developmental defects. The caries prevalence of the study population was 100%. The mean number of decayed surfaces (DS) differed only slightly and statistically insignificantly between the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups (19.6 and 18.1, respectively). However, a greater number of inactive lesions and fewer fillings were found in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' group than in the '0.3 ppm fluoride' group (mean difference 1.18 and -2.80, respectively). The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% and 21%, respectively; the prevalence of non-fluoride opacities was 8% and 19%, respectively; and the prevalence of hypoplasia was 12% and 16%, respectively, in the '1.1 ppm fluoride' and '0.3 ppm fluoride' groups. Higher caries levels were noted in children with no fluorosis compared to those with fluorosis recorded (mean DS difference, 3.43). The results lend support to the hypothesis that the presence of fluoride in the oral environment promotes lesion arrest rather than inhibiting the initiation of new lesions.

  12. [Relationship between dominance and richness of local species: an analysis of the underlying reasons with arboreal and avian communities of the West Caucasus as an example].

    PubMed

    Akatov, V V; Perevozov, A G

    2011-01-01

    Dominance level is traditionally expressed as a ratio between the number of individuals belonging to the most abundant species and the total number of individuals in a biological community. It is known that local species richness is usually higher in biological communities with high dominance level than in communities with low one. Taking into account a complex nature of the dominance phenomenon, the underlying reasons (or mechanisms) may be diverse: 1. Dominance level may be determined by bioecological traits of the most abundant species as well as stochastic impacts. The more abundant is dominant species, the fewer amount of resources goes to concomitant species and, therefore, the lower is community species richness. 2. The part of community resources used by the dominant species may be not a special case but can be a reflection of general pattern of resources distribution among species under specific environmental conditions. Correspondingly, in communities with higher dominance level there might be more "strict" distribution of resources among concomitant species, which, in turn, might influence community species richness. 3. The relationship between dominance level and community species richness may be caused by their dependence on the third variable, namely regional species pool. In the present paper we tackle the problem using arboreal and insectivorous bird communities of the West Caucasus as a case study. The data were collected in different altitudinal belts on both macroslopes of the western part of the Main Caucasian Ridge. The number of tree species and individual trees was counted within homogenous patches of arboreal phytocenoses 300 m2 in area. Species richness and numbers of insectivorous birds were estimated in course of route surveys with a route length being about 5 km. An analysis of empirical data was carried out using univariate and multiple correlation-regression techniques. The results indicate that the relationship between dominance and

  13. Structural aspects of Judd-Ofelt oscillator strength parameters: relationship between Nd dissolution and its local environment in borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hong; Li, Liyu; Strachan, Denis M.

    2005-08-15

    Judd-Ofelt (JO) derived oscillator strength parameters ({Omega}{sub 2}, {Omega}{sub 4}, {Omega}{sub 6}) of electronic transitions of the trivalent lanthanides (Ln) qualitatively describe local Ln environment. Recently, we have systematically studied the parameters, or JO parameters, as a function Nd concentration in a single Na-rich aluminoborosilicate glass. Based on Nd partitioning scheme as its dissolution mechanism for borosilicate glasses, we simulated extent of borate saturation as a function of Nd concentration by applying a stable local Nd-metaborate structure derived from our previous studies. The best results concluded that the first onset of the {Omega}{sub 2} discontinuity resulted from the saturation of the borate sites by Nd. Combining with our earlier study of the JO parameters for Al-rich borosilicate glass without Na, we can further conclude that the index of saturation of boron by Nd, IS{sub [B]} = [Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub B-site}/1/3{l_brace}[B{sub 2}O{sub 3}]ex + [Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}]ex{r_brace}, provides a general physical description of Nd partitioning in the borate site for complex Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glasses, whereas for the Na-rich glass reported in this study, [Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub ex} = 0.

  14. Building the Evidence for Decision-Making: The Relationship Between Local Public Health Capacity and Community Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Cilenti, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between local health department (LHD) spending, staffing, and services and community health outcomes in North Carolina. Methods. We analyzed LHD investments and community mortality in North Carolina from 2005 through 2010. We obtained LHD spending, staffing, and services data from the National Association of City and County Health Officials 2005 and 2008 profile surveys. Five mortality rates were constructed using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mortality files, North Carolina vital statistics data, and census data for LHD service jurisdictions: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza, and infant mortality. Results. Spending, staffing, and services varied widely by location and over time in the 85 North Carolina LHDs. A 1% increase in full-time-equivalent staffing (per 1000 population) was associated with decrease of 0.01 infant deaths per 1000 live births (P < .05). Provision of women and children’s services was associated with a reduction of 1 to 2 infant deaths per 1000 live births (P < .05). Conclusions. Our findings, in the context of other studies, provide support for investment in local public health services to improve community health. PMID:25689215

  15. Population-Based Screening for Selective Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Deficiency in Lithuanian Children Using a Rapid Antibody-Based Fingertip Test.

    PubMed

    Urbonas, Vaidotas; Sadauskaite, Jolita; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Kaminskas, Arvydas; Mäki, Markku; Kurppa, Kalle

    2016-12-06

    BACKGROUND Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common inherited immunodeficiency disorder worldwide. An early diagnosis is advocated because of the increased risk of infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic reactions. We investigated the usefulness of a rapid point-of-care test in detecting for IgA deficiency in a population with a previously unknown prevalence. MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 1000 children aged 11-13 years from randomly selected Lithuanian schools were enrolled. A point-of-care test with a fingertip sample was used to screen for the presence of IgA deficiency in children whose parents gave consent. Those with suspected IgA deficiency were referred to hospital for further clinical examination and confirmation of the diagnosis. In addition, their medical histories were compared with those of 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. RESULTS IgA deficiency was suspected in one girl and in three boys on the basis of the rapid test, and the diagnosis was confirmed for all four cases (prevalence 0.4%, 95% confidence interval 0.16-1.02%). There was no difference in disease history or complications between IgA-deficient children and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS The rapid antibody test is a practical and accurate method to diagnose selective IgA deficiency in children. The prevalence of IgA deficiency among Lithuanian schoolchildren is 1:250.

  16. Population-Based Screening for Selective Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Deficiency in Lithuanian Children Using a Rapid Antibody-Based Fingertip Test

    PubMed Central

    Urbonas, Vaidotas; Sadauskaite, Jolita; Cerkauskiene, Rimante; Kaminskas, Arvydas; Mäki, Markku; Kurppa, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    Background Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common inherited immunodeficiency disorder world-wide. An early diagnosis is advocated because of the increased risk of infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic reactions. We investigated the usefulness of a rapid point-of-care test in detecting for IgA deficiency in a population with a previously unknown prevalence. Material/Methods Altogether, 1000 children aged 11–13 years from randomly selected Lithuanian schools were enrolled. A point-of-care test with a fingertip sample was used to screen for the presence of IgA deficiency in children whose parents gave consent. Those with suspected IgA deficiency were referred to hospital for further clinical examination and confirmation of the diagnosis. In addition, their medical histories were compared with those of 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results IgA deficiency was suspected in one girl and in three boys on the basis of the rapid test, and the diagnosis was confirmed for all four cases (prevalence 0.4%, 95% confidence interval 0.16–1.02%). There was no difference in disease history or complications between IgA-deficient children and healthy controls. Conclusions The rapid antibody test is a practical and accurate method to diagnose selective IgA deficiency in children. The prevalence of IgA deficiency among Lithuanian schoolchildren is 1:250. PMID:27920422

  17. Observation of a multimode plasma response and its relationship to density pumpout and edge-localized mode suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Logan, N. C.; Strait, E. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J. -K.; Shafer, M. W.; Tobias, B. J.

    2015-03-12

    Density pumpout and edge-localized mode (ELM) suppression by applied n=2 magnetic fields in low collisionality DIII-D plasmas are shown to be correlated with the magnitude of the plasma response driven on the high field side (HFS) of the magnetic axis, but not the low-field side (LFS) midplane. These distinct responses are a direct measurement of a multi-modal magnetic plasma response, with each structure preferentially excited by a different n=2 applied spectrum and preferentially detected on the LFS or HFS. Ideal and resistive MHD calculations find that the LFS measurement is primarily sensitive to excitation of stable kink modes, while the HFS measurement is primarily sensitive to resonant currents (whether fully shielding or partially penetrated). Lastly, the resonant currents are themselves strongly modified by kink excitation, with the optimal applied field pitch for pumpout and ELM suppression significantly differing from equilibrium field-alignment.

  18. Characterization of the Distance Relationship Between Localized Serotonin Receptors and Glia Cells on Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Brain Tissue.

    PubMed

    Jacak, Jaroslaw; Schaller, Susanne; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan M

    2015-08-01

    We here present two new methods for the characterization of fluorescent localization microscopy images obtained from immunostained brain tissue sections. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy images of 5-HT1A serotonin receptors and glial fibrillary acidic proteins in healthy cryopreserved brain tissues are analyzed. In detail, we here present two image processing methods for characterizing differences in receptor distribution on glial cells and their distribution on neural cells: One variant relies on skeleton extraction and adaptive thresholding, the other on k-means based discrete layer segmentation. Experimental results show that both methods can be applied for distinguishing classes of images with respect to serotonin receptor distribution. Quantification of nanoscopic changes in relative protein expression on particular cell types can be used to analyze degeneration in tissues caused by diseases or medical treatment.

  19. Observation of a multimode plasma response and its relationship to density pumpout and edge-localized mode suppression

    DOE PAGES

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Haskey, S. R.; ...

    2015-03-12

    Density pumpout and edge-localized mode (ELM) suppression by applied n=2 magnetic fields in low collisionality DIII-D plasmas are shown to be correlated with the magnitude of the plasma response driven on the high field side (HFS) of the magnetic axis, but not the low-field side (LFS) midplane. These distinct responses are a direct measurement of a multi-modal magnetic plasma response, with each structure preferentially excited by a different n=2 applied spectrum and preferentially detected on the LFS or HFS. Ideal and resistive MHD calculations find that the LFS measurement is primarily sensitive to excitation of stable kink modes, while themore » HFS measurement is primarily sensitive to resonant currents (whether fully shielding or partially penetrated). Lastly, the resonant currents are themselves strongly modified by kink excitation, with the optimal applied field pitch for pumpout and ELM suppression significantly differing from equilibrium field-alignment.« less

  20. Relationship between level of lymph node metastasis and survival in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianjun; Lin, Heather; Gold, Kathryn A.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lee, J. Jack; William, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) staging system may not capture the full prognostic implications of regional lymph node involvement. We sought to investigate the impact of level of lymph node metastasis (LNM) on survival Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was queried for oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), larynx (LAR), and hypopharynx (HP) HNSCC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate whether level of LNM is an independent prognostic factor. Site-specific recursive-partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to classify patients into different risk groups. Results Totally, 14,499 patients including OC (N=2,463), OP (N=8,567), LAR (N=2,332) and HP (N=1,137) were analyzed. Both AJCC N classification and level of LNM showed significant effects on overall survival (OS) in patients with OC, OP or LAR, but not in HP. In patients with N2 disease, AJCC subclassification (N2a, N2b, N2c) was significantly associated with OS of patients with OP and LAR, but not OC or HP, while level of LNM (primary, secondary, and tertiary) was significantly associated with OS in patients with OC, OP and LAR, but not HP. Using RPA, we designed a simple, primary site-specific prognostic tool integrating AJCC T classification, N classification, and level of LNM that can be easily utilized by health care providers in clinic. Conclusions Level of LNM is an independent prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced HNSCC and could add to the prognostic value of AJCC T and N classification in patients with locally advanced HNSCC. PMID:26554754

  1. Analysis of the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis within a local clinical system: a cross-sectional observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Minabe, Masato; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2015-09-01

    It has been revealed that atherosclerosis and periodontal disease may have a common mechanism of "chronic inflammation". Several reports have indicated that periodontal infection is related to atherosclerosis, but none have yet reported such an investigation through the cooperation of local clinics. This study was performed in local Japanese clinics to examine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative medical and dental care. A pilot multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases under consultation in participating medical clinics, and 79 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were seen by participating dental clinics. Systemic examination and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, and the relationships between periodontal and atherosclerosis-related clinical markers were analyzed. There was a positive correlation between LDL-C level and plasma IgG antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis. According to the analysis under adjusted age, at a cut-off value of 5.04 for plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis, the IgG titer was significantly correlated with the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This study suggested that infection with periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis may be useful as the clinical risk marker for atherosclerosis related to periodontal disease. Moreover, the application of the blood examination as a medical check may lead to the development of collaborative medical and dental care within the local medical clinical system for the purpose of preventing the lifestyle-related disease.

  2. Local variation in helminth burdens of Egyptian spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) from ecologically similar sites: relationships with hormone concentrations and social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, C J; Sayed, E; Barnard, L E; Behnke, J M; Nabi, I Abdel; Sherif, N; Shutt, A; Zalat, S

    2003-09-01

    Populations of Egyptian spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) in a fragmented montane wadi system in the Sinai showed significant differences in the abundance of gut helminths. Differences in parasite load between populations were positively associated with measures of androgen activity but showed no significant relationship with glucocorticoid activity. Social discrimination tests with adult males from different wadis showed that those from sites with greater helminth abundance were less likely to investigate odours from other males and were less aggressive when subsequently interacting with the odour donors. Subjects showed markedly more investigation towards the odours of males from distant wadis compared with those from their own or immediately neighbouring wadi, but were less aggressive when confronted with odour donors from distant wadis. Despite this, there was a positive relationship between the amount of investigation towards distant male odour and subsequent aggression towards the male. While aggressiveness was positively associated with measures of androgen and glucocorticoid activity, no significant relationship emerged with individual helminth infection. Thus aggressiveness appeared to relate to overall local population levels of infection rather than individual challenge.

  3. Unforced surface air temperature anomalies and their opposite relationship with the TOA energy imbalance at local and global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. T.; Li, W.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.

    2015-12-01

    Unforced global mean surface air temperature (Tglobal) is stable in the long-term primarily because warm Tglobal anomalies are associated with enhanced outgoing longwave radiation to space and thus a negative global radiative energy imbalance (Nglobal, positive downward) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). However, it is shown here that at the local spatial scale, warm unforced Tlocal anomalies tend to be associated with anomalously positive Nlocal imbalances over most of the surface of the planet. It is revealed that this occurs mainly because warm Tlocal anomalies are accompanied by anomalously low surface albedo near sea ice margins and over high altitudes, anomalously low cloud albedo over much of the mid/low-latitudes and an anomalously large water-vapor greenhouse effect over the deep tropical ocean. During warm Tglobal years, the largest negative Nlocal anomalies primarily occur over regions of cool or near-neutral Tlocal anomalies. These results help explain how TOA energy imbalances can act to damp unforced Tglobal anomalies while simultaneously amplifying unforced Tlocal anomalies.

  4. Relationships among subgross anatomy, computed tomography, and histologic findings in dogs with disease localized to the pulmonary acini.

    PubMed

    Scrivani, Peter V; Thompson, Margret S; Dykes, Nathan L; Holmes, Nedra L; Southard, Teresa L; Gerdin, Jodie A; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J

    2012-01-01

    During computed tomography (CT), the appearance of disease involving the pulmonary acinus may be described using terms such as atelectasis, ground-glass opacity, or consolidation. These CT signs, however, have not been correlated with histologic findings in canine pulmonary disease. To facilitate interpretation of lung diseases by CT signs, our goals were to review the morphologic organization of the lung and evaluate the medical records of four dogs with different types of pulmonary acinar disease. Anatomic review focused on understanding the pulmonary acinus and the secondary pulmonary lobule; the secondary pulmonary lobule is a fundamental unit for interpretation in people. All dogs had similar CT findings of fully expanded lungs with increased attenuation and partial-to-complete obscuring of the pulmonary blood vessels. Histologic findings varied between dogs and included partial-to-complete filling of airspaces with cells or fluid, interstitial thickening, increased capillary blood volume, or a combination of these findings. Final diagnoses were hemorrhagic pneumonia, bronchiolar carcinoma, metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma, and pulmonary edema. In summary, the morphologic organization of the lungs is complex and has implications for diagnostic interpretation needing further evaluation in dogs. In this study, increased lung attenuation during CT due to disease localized to the pulmonary acini was due to the displacement of air from the lungs and not to the microscopic distribution of lesions within the pulmonary acinus. Imaging descriptors that classify diseases according to structures larger than the pulmonary acini, for example, regions of the secondary pulmonary lobule or larger, may be appropriate for dogs.

  5. The relationship between level of autistic traits and local bias in the context of the McGurk effect

    PubMed Central

    Ujiie, Yuta; Asai, Tomohisa; Wakabayashi, Akio

    2015-01-01

    The McGurk effect is a well-known illustration that demonstrates the influence of visual information on hearing in the context of speech perception. Some studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormal processing of audio-visual speech integration, while other studies showed contradictory results. Based on the dimensional model of ASD, we administered two analog studies to examine the link between level of autistic traits, as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and the McGurk effect among a sample of university students. In the first experiment, we found that autistic traits correlated negatively with fused (McGurk) responses. Then, we manipulated presentation types of visual stimuli to examine whether the local bias toward visual speech cues modulated individual differences in the McGurk effect. The presentation included four types of visual images, comprising no image, mouth only, mouth and eyes, and full face. The results revealed that global facial information facilitates the influence of visual speech cues on McGurk stimuli. Moreover, individual differences between groups with low and high levels of autistic traits appeared when the full-face visual speech cue with an incongruent voice condition was presented. These results suggest that individual differences in the McGurk effect might be due to a weak ability to process global facial information in individuals with high levels of autistic traits. PMID:26175705

  6. Family socioeconomic status and nutrition habits of 7-8 year old children: cross-sectional Lithuanian COSI study.

    PubMed

    Petrauskienė, Aušra; Žaltauskė, Vilma; Albavičiūtė, Edita

    2015-04-23

    Nutritional habits are a useful way to characterize whole diets and they are also known to be influenced by a wide range of social and economic factors. The above factors in each country may have different effect on children's eating habits. In Lithuania the data of children nutrition in association with socio-economic status of family is poor. There are few studies done, where links between nutrition habits of children and socio-economic status of family was evaluated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate association among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socio-economic status in Lithuania. Data were obtained participating in the international study, which was performed in all ten districts of Lithuania. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010, using the protocol and methodology prepared by the experts from the WHO and countries participating in the Initiative. The data were collected by means of COSI standardized questionnaire, which was filled out by parents of selected first-formers'. In this paper a part of questions regarding children nutrition habits and parents' socio-economic status is presented. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0 software for Windows. Correlation among variables was evaluated by χ (2). Links among nutrition habits of first-formers and family socioeconomic status were determined using binary logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). For all tests p < 0.05 was considered significant. It was established that the majority (76%) of Lithuanian first-formers eat breakfast every day or 4-6 times a week. Significant differences were found between breakfast consumption and gender - girls eat breakfast less frequently than boys. Odds ratio of children daily breakfast consumption were 1.3 times higher in families where fathers' were older than 30 years comparing with younger fathers. Meanwhile mothers' age had significant influence just on children daily soft drinks

  7. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P < 0.001), stature (R = 0.111, P < 0.001), and age (R = 0.073, P = 0.007). However, T-Hg concentrations did not vary according to fish consumption frequency. Subjective health survey showed no Hg-related signs or symptoms within studied sample. However, studies are necessary to detect neurological damage linked to the metal. Changing technologies to Hg-free mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers.

  8. Abnormal relationships between local and global brain measures in subjects at clinical high risk for psychosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Jun; Del Re, Elisabetta C; Bouix, Sylvain; Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Woodberry, Kristen; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Goldstein, Jill; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Petryshen, Tracey L; Seidman, Larry J; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W

    2017-08-16

    We examined whether abnormal volumes of several brain regions as well as their mutual associations that have been observed in patients with schizophrenia, are also present in individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for developing psychosis. 3T magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 19 CHR and 20 age- and handedness-matched controls. Volumes were measured for the body and temporal horns of the lateral ventricles, hippocampus and amygdala as well as total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes. Relationships between volumes as well as correlations between volumes and cognitive and clinical measures were explored. Ratios of lateral ventricular volume to total brain volume and temporal horn volume to total brain volume were calculated. Volumetric abnormalities were lateralized to the left hemisphere. Volumes of the left temporal horn, and marginally, of the body of the left lateral ventricle were larger, while left amygdala but not hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in CHR participants compared to controls. Total brain volume was also significantly smaller and the ratio of the temporal horn/total brain volume was significantly higher in CHR than in controls. White matter volume correlated positively with higher verbal fluency score while temporal horn volume correlated positively with a greater number of perseverative errors. Together with the finding of larger temporal horns and smaller amygdala volumes in the left hemisphere, these results indicate that the ratio of temporal horns volume to brain volume is abnormal in CHR compared to controls. These abnormalities present in CHR individuals may constitute the biological basis for at least some of the CHR syndrome.

  9. Relationship between CYP1A2 Localization and Lipid Microdomain Formation as a Function of Lipid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Brignac-Huber, Lauren M.; Reed, James R.; Eyer, Marilyn K.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) function requires the interaction of P450 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) in membranes, and is frequently studied using reconstituted systems composed solely of phosphatidylcholine. There is increasing evidence that other endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lipids can affect P450 structure, activity, and interactions with CPR. Some of these lipid effects have been attributed to the formation of organized liquid-ordered (lo) domains. The goal of this study was to determine if lo domains were formed in P450 reconstituted systems mimicking the ER membrane. CYP1A2, when incorporated in “ER-like” lipid vesicles, displayed detergent insolubility after treatment with Brij 98 and centrifugation in a sucrose gradient. Lipid probes were employed to identify domain formation in both ER-like vesicles and model membranes known to form lo domains. Changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using an established donor/acceptor FRET pair in both ER-like and model lo-forming systems demonstrated the coexistence of lo- and liquid-disordered domains as a function of cholesterol and sphingomyelin content. Similarly, 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (laurdan), a probe that reports on membrane organization, showed that cholesterol and sphingomyelin increased membrane order. Finally, brominated-phosphatidylcholine allowed for monitoring of the location of both CPR and CYP1A2 within the lo regions of ER-like systems. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ER-like vesicles generate microdomains, and both CYP1A2 and CPR predominantly localize into lo membrane regions. Probe fluorescent responses suggest that lipid microdomains form in these vesicles whether or not enzymes are included in the reconstituted systems. Thus, it does not appear that the proteins are critical for stabilizing lo domains. PMID:23963955

  10. Petrogenetic relationships between jadeitite and associated high-pressure and low-temperature metamorphic rocks in worldwide jadeitite localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, T.; Harlow, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Jadeitite-bearing serpentinite-matrix mélange is distributed in the Caledonian (Russia), Alps-Himalayan (Italy, Iran, Greece, and Myanmar), Caribbean (Guatemala, and Cuba), and circum-Pacific (Japan, and Western USA) orogenic belts, and always contains high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic rocks. There are also jadeitite xenoliths in kimberlitic pipes. Major occurrences consist principally of primary fluid precipitates (P-type) that infiltrated the mantle wedge, fewer occurrences document metasomatic replacement (R-type) of plagiogranite, metagabbro and eclogite, and both types may be possible in the same occurrence or system. Conditions of crystallization are difficult to constrain because of high-variance assemblages (few phases containing many components). Blueschist correlations are abundant, largely on textural grounds with respect to coexisting eclogites, however without adequate phase-assemblage constraints, jadeitite formation at eclogite conditions cannot be ruled out. Available geochronological data of both jadeitite and associated HP-LT rock show temporal discrepancies between jadeitite-formation and HT-LP metamorphism at some localities. The close association between older jadeitite and younger HP-LT rock in a single mélange complex implies different histories for the subduction channel and mélange. Jadeitite can stay at the wedge mantle for a considerable time and, as a result, experience multiple fluid-infiltration events. The subduction channel can occasionally incorporate overlying serpentinized mantle wedge material due to tectonic erosion. With time the disrupted wedge mantle containing jadeitite veins is mixed with younger blueschists, exhumed eclogites and various fragments of suprasubduction zone lithologies. Consequently, recrystallization and re-precipitation of jadeitite are reactivated along a slab-wedge mantle interface. All these possible scenarios and their combinations yield a complicated petrologic record in jadeitite

  11. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (P<0·001) and soleus fibre size was reduced by 8·5 ± 13% (P = 0·016). However, WoRPD remained unaffected as indicated by an unchanged loss of relative plantar flexor power between pre- and postexperiments (P = 0·88). Blood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability.

  12. Significant relationship between local angle at fused segments and C2-7 angle: Average duration of longer than 20 years after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, T.; Takami, T.; Yamagata, T.; Uda, T.; Naito, K.; Ohata, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The authors have focused their attention to the radiological durability of cervical sagittal alignment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using autologous bone grafting. Materials and Methods: Among the patients who underwent ACDF with trans-unco-discal (TUD) approach between 1976 and 1997, 22 patients (16 males and 6 females) made return visits for a clinical evaluation. Patients with trauma or previously treated by anterior cervical fusion or by posterior decompression were excluded from the present study. Clinical evaluation included adjacent segment degeneration (ASD), osseous fusion, local angle at the fused segments and C2-7 angle of cervical spine. Results: The duration after ACDF ranged from 13 to 34 years with an average of 21.3 ± 7.0 years. A single level fusion was done on 8 patients, 2 levels on 11 patients, 3 levels on 2 patients, and 4 levels on 1 patient. Imaging studies indicated that 12 of the 22 patients (54.5%) were graded as having symptomatic ASD. Osseous bony fusion at ACDF was recognized in all cases. None of the patients demonstrated kyphotic malalignment of the cervical spine. Average degrees of local angle at the fused segments and the C2-7 angle were 7.06 and 17.6, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the local at the fused segments and C2-7 angles. Conclusions: Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was durable long after ACDF when the local angle at the fused segments was well stabilized. PMID:23125490

  13. Relationship between the field local quadrature and the quantum discord of a photon-added correlated channel under the influence of scattering and phase fluctuation noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco A.; Mendieta-Jimenez, Francisco J.; Rojas, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    We study quantum correlations and discord in a bipartite continuous variable hybrid system formed by linear combinations of coherent states {|{α }\\rangle } and single photon-added coherent states of the form {|{ψ }\\rangle }_{ {dp(pa)}}= N/√{2} (\\hat{a}^\\dagger {|{α }\\rangle }_a{|{α }\\rangle }_b ± \\hat{b}^\\dagger {|{α }\\rangle }_a{|{α }\\rangle }_b). We stablish a relationship between the quantum discord with a local observable (the quadrature variance for one subsystem) under the influence of scattering and phase fluctuation noise. For the pure states the quantum correlations are characterized by means of measurement induced disturbance (MID) with simultaneous quadrature measurements. In a scenario where homodyne conditional measurements are available we show that the MID provides an easy way to select optimal phases to obtain information of the maximal correlations in the channels. The quantum correlations of these entangled states with channel losses are quantitatively characterized with the quantum discord (QD) with a displaced qubit projector. We observe that as scattering increases, QD decreases monotonically. At the same time for the state {|{ψ }\\rangle }_{ {dp}}, QD is more resistant to high phase fluctuations when the average photon number n_0 is bigger than zero, but if phase fluctuations are low, QD is more resistant if n_0=0. For the dp model with scattering, we obtain an analytical expression of the QD as a function of the observable quadrature variance in a local subsystem. This relation allows us to have a way to obtain the degree of QD in the channel by just measuring a local property observable such as the quadrature variance. For the other model this relation still exists but is explored numerically. This relation is an important result that allows to identify quantum processing capabilities in terms of just local observables.

  14. Cooperation between law enforcement officers and forensic specialists. Diagnosis and possible improvements - a Lithuanian experience.

    PubMed

    Malewski, Henryk; Kurapka, Vidmantas Egidijus; Matulienė, Snieguolnė; Navickienė, Žaneta

    The article investigates the characteristics and forms of cooperation between criminal investigation officers* and forensic laboratory specialists in pre-trial proceedings, as well as practical problems in such cooperation. Recently there have been a number of particularly heated debates about the relationship between determining a person possessing special knowledge and his/her status in pre-trial proceedings. Other discussed aspects include cooperation between entities involved in pre-trial proceedings in international contexts. A less intensive (albeit equally important) discussion relates to the form and characteristics of cooperation between criminal investigation officers on the one hand and specialists and experts on the other in investigating criminal acts. Bearing in mind the high practical importance and the existing differences in scholarly approaches to these issues, the current study concentrates on the forms and content of cooperation between law enforcement officers and specialists (experts) from forensic laboratories, as well as on problems resulting from such cooperation and directions for improvement. The first part of the article presents selected views on the definition of a person possessing special knowledge currently used in Lithuania** and in a number of other states. In the authors' opinion, unification (harmonization) of various notions (definitions), terms and statuses of an expert, a specialist and special knowledge should be one of the objectives in implementing the vision of the joint European forensic science area 2020. Achieving this objective requires a comprehensive analysis of standards in law and management in using special knowledge of each state***. The second part, supported by empirical study results, discusses practical problems of cooperation between a law enforcement officer and a specialist (expert), analyzes three basic forms of their cooperation and presents the content of those forms: activities at the crime scene

  15. B-cell lymphoma-2 localization in the female reproductive tract of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis and its relationship with sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Le, Yuan; Chen, Shaofan; Hu, Lisi; Zhang, Linli; Ullah, Shakeeb; Liu, Tengfei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and localization of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the oviduct of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, during the reproductive cycle to analyze the relationship between Bcl-2 and sperm storage. Bcl-2 expression was confirmed in the P. sinensis oviduct by western blot analysis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that female P. sinensis stored sperm from November to April of the following year. The oviduct showed positive immunostaining for Bcl-2 of epithelial ciliated cells, gland ducts, and gland cells. Bcl-2 expression in the oviduct was associated with sperm storage occurrence. This indicates that the survival factor Bcl-2 may play a role in P. sinensis sperm storage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses of anterior pituitary gland expose spatial relationships between endocrine cell secretory granule localization and capillary distribution

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitomi, Munetake; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Togo, Akinobu; Hirashima, Shingo; Uemura, Kei-ichiro; Okayama, Satoko; Morioka, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Full three-dimensional cellular architectures of the anterior pituitary tissue at ultrastructural resolution revealed that about 70% of endocrine cells were in apposition to the endothelial cells, while almost 30% of endocrine cells were entirely isolated from perivascular space in the tissue. Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules. PMID:27796315

  17. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses of anterior pituitary gland expose spatial relationships between endocrine cell secretory granule localization and capillary distribution.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Munetake; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Togo, Akinobu; Hirashima, Shingo; Uemura, Kei-Ichiro; Okayama, Satoko; Morioka, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-10-31

    Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Full three-dimensional cellular architectures of the anterior pituitary tissue at ultrastructural resolution revealed that about 70% of endocrine cells were in apposition to the endothelial cells, while almost 30% of endocrine cells were entirely isolated from perivascular space in the tissue. Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules.

  18. Local descriptors of protein structure: a systematic analysis of the sequence-structure relationship in proteins using short- and long-range interactions.

    PubMed

    Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2009-06-01

    Local protein structure representations that incorporate long-range contacts between residues are often considered in protein structure comparison but have found relatively little use in structure prediction where assembly from single backbone fragments dominates. Here, we introduce the concept of local descriptors of protein structure to characterize local neighborhoods of amino acids including short- and long-range interactions. We build a library of recurring local descriptors and show that this library is general enough to allow assembly of unseen protein structures. The library could on average re-assemble 83% of 119 unseen structures, and showed little or no performance decrease between homologous targets and targets with folds not represented among domains used to build it. We then systematically evaluate the descriptor library to establish the level of the sequence signal in sets of protein fragments of similar geometrical conformation. In particular, we test whether that signal is strong enough to facilitate correct assignment and alignment of these local geometries to new sequences. We use the signal to assign descriptors to a test set of 479 sequences with less than 40% sequence identity to any domain used to build the library, and show that on average more than 50% of the backbone fragments constituting descriptors can be correctly aligned. We also use the assigned descriptors to infer SCOP folds, and show that correct predictions can be made in many of the 151 cases where PSI-BLAST was unable to detect significant sequence similarity to proteins in the library. Although the combinatorial problem of simultaneously aligning several fragments to sequence is a major bottleneck compared with single fragment methods, the advantage of the current approach is that correct alignments imply correct long range distance constraints. The lack of these constraints is most likely the major reason why structure prediction methods fail to consistently produce adequate

  19. Air pollution, deprivation and health: understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK.

    PubMed

    Brunt, H; Barnes, J; Jones, S J; Longhurst, J W S; Scally, G; Hayes, E

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities. An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), deprivation status and health outcomes in Wales, UK. Air pollution concentrations were highest in 'most' deprived areas. When considered separately, deprivation-health associations were stronger than air pollution-health associations. Considered simultaneously, air pollution added to deprivation-health associations; interactions between air pollution and deprivation modified and strengthened associations with all-cause and respiratory disease mortality, especially in 'most' deprived areas where most-vulnerable people lived and where health needs were greatest. There is a need to reduce air pollution-related risks for all. However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from considering local air pollution problems and solutions in the context of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of relationships. Informed and co-ordinated air pollution mitigation and public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health integration and collaboration in local air quality management policy and practice is needed.

  20. The Relationship between Local Economic Conditions and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Utilization by Adults and Seniors in the United States, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Carls, Ginger Smith; Henke, Rachel Mosher; Karaca, Zeynal; Marder, William D; Wong, Herbert S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between aggregate unemployment and hospital discharges for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among adults and seniors, 1995–2011. Data Sources/Study Setting Community hospital discharge data from states collected for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) and economic data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995–2011. Study Design Quarterly time series study of unemployment and aggregate hospital discharges in local areas using fixed effects to control for differences between local areas. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Secondary data on inpatient stays and unemployment rates aggregated to micropolitan and metropolitan areas. Principal Findings For both adults and seniors, a 1 percentage point increase in the contemporaneous unemployment rate was associated with a statistically significant 0.80 percent (adults) to 0.96 percent (seniors) decline in AMI hospitalization during the first half of the study but was unrelated to the economic cycle in the second half of the study period. Conclusions The study found evidence that the aggregate relationship between health and the economy may be shifting for cardiovascular events, paralleling recent research that has shown a similar shift for some types of mortality (Ruhm 2013), self-reported health, and inpatient use among seniors (McInerney and Mellor 2012). PMID:25772510

  1. The Relationship between Local Economic Conditions and Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospital Utilization by Adults and Seniors in the United States, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Carls, Ginger Smith; Henke, Rachel Mosher; Karaca, Zeynal; Marder, William D; Wong, Herbert S

    2015-10-01

    To assess the association between aggregate unemployment and hospital discharges for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among adults and seniors, 1995-2011. Community hospital discharge data from states collected for the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID) and economic data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995-2011. Quarterly time series study of unemployment and aggregate hospital discharges in local areas using fixed effects to control for differences between local areas. Secondary data on inpatient stays and unemployment rates aggregated to micropolitan and metropolitan areas. For both adults and seniors, a 1 percentage point increase in the contemporaneous unemployment rate was associated with a statistically significant 0.80 percent (adults) to 0.96 percent (seniors) decline in AMI hospitalization during the first half of the study but was unrelated to the economic cycle in the second half of the study period. The study found evidence that the aggregate relationship between health and the economy may be shifting for cardiovascular events, paralleling recent research that has shown a similar shift for some types of mortality (Ruhm 2013), self-reported health, and inpatient use among seniors (McInerney and Mellor 2012). © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Application of nonparametric regression methods to study the relationship between NO2 concentrations and local wind direction and speed at background sites.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Aoife; Misstear, Bruce; Broderick, Brian

    2011-02-15

    Background concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) are not constant but vary temporally and spatially. The current paper presents a powerful tool for the quantification of the effects of wind direction and wind speed on background NO(2) concentrations, particularly in cases where monitoring data are limited. In contrast to previous studies which applied similar methods to sites directly affected by local pollution sources, the current study focuses on background sites with the aim of improving methods for predicting background concentrations adopted in air quality modelling studies. The relationship between measured NO(2) concentration in air at three such sites in Ireland and locally measured wind direction has been quantified using nonparametric regression methods. The major aim was to analyse a method for quantifying the effects of local wind direction on background levels of NO(2) in Ireland. The method was expanded to include wind speed as an added predictor variable. A Gaussian kernel function is used in the analysis and circular statistics employed for the wind direction variable. Wind direction and wind speed were both found to have a statistically significant effect on background levels of NO(2) at all three sites. Frequently environmental impact assessments are based on short term baseline monitoring producing a limited dataset. The presented non-parametric regression methods, in contrast to the frequently used methods such as binning of the data, allow concentrations for missing data pairs to be estimated and distinction between spurious and true peaks in concentrations to be made. The methods were found to provide a realistic estimation of long term concentration variation with wind direction and speed, even for cases where the data set is limited. Accurate identification of the actual variation at each location and causative factors could be made, thus supporting the improved definition of background concentrations for use in air quality modelling

  3. Detailed Characterization of Local Field Potential Oscillations and Their Relationship to Spike Timing in the Antennal Lobe of the Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Galán, Roberto F.; Peters, Oakland J.; Staudacher, Erich M.

    2011-01-01

    The transient oscillatory model of odor identity encoding seeks to explain how odorants with spatially overlapped patterns of input into primary olfactory networks can be discriminated. This model provides several testable predictions about the distributed nature of network oscillations and how they control spike timing. To test these predictions, 16 channel electrode arrays were placed within the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. Unitary spiking and multi site local field potential (LFP) recordings were made during spontaneous activity and in response to repeated presentations of an odor panel. We quantified oscillatory frequency, cross correlations between LFP recording sites, and spike–LFP phase relationships. We show that odor-driven AL oscillations in Manduca are frequency modulating (FM) from ∼100 to 30 Hz; this was odorant and stimulus duration dependent. FM oscillatory responses were localized to one or two recording sites suggesting a localized (perhaps glomerular) not distributed source. LFP cross correlations further demonstrated that only a small (r < 0.05) distributed and oscillatory component was present. Cross spectral density analysis demonstrated the frequency of these weakly distributed oscillations was state dependent (spontaneous activity = 25–55 Hz; odor-driven = 55–85 Hz). Surprisingly, vector strength analysis indicated that unitary phase locking of spikes to the LFP was strongest during spontaneous activity and dropped significantly during responses. Application of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, significantly lowered the frequency content of odor-driven distributed oscillatory activity. Bicuculline significantly reduced spike phase locking generally, but the ubiquitous pattern of increased phase locking during spontaneous activity persisted. Collectively, these results indicate that oscillations perform poorly as a stimulus-mediated spike synchronizing mechanism for Manduca and hence are

  4. Did the ambient ozone affect stem increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on territories under regional pollution load? Step III of Lithuanian studies.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Augustaitiene, Ingrida; Cinga, Gintautas; Mazeika, Juozapas; Deltuvas, Romualdas; Juknys, Romualdas; Vitas, Adomas

    2007-03-21

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks, where since 1994-95 Integrated Monitoring Stations have been operating. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient ozone (O3) can have a negative impact on pine tree stem growth under field conditions where O3 exposure is below phytotoxic levels.

  5. Assessing oil spill sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments: A case study for Lithuanian-Russian coasts, South-eastern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-01-15

    This study presents a series of oil spill indexes for the characterization of physical and biological sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments. The case study extends over 237 km of Lithuanian-Russian coastal areas subjected to multiple oil spill threats. Results show that 180 km of shoreline have environmental sensitivity index (ESI) of score 3. Natural clean-up processes depending on (a) shoreline sinuosity, (b) orientation and (c) wave exposure are favourable on 72 km of shoreline. Vulnerability analysis from pre-existing Kravtsovskoye D6 platform oil spill scenarios indicates that 15.1 km of the Curonian Spit have high impact probability. The highest seafloor sensitivity within the 20 m isobath is at the Vistula Spit and Curonian Spit, whereas biological sensitivity is moderate over the entire study area. The paper concludes with the importance of harmonized datasets and methodologies for transboundary oil spill impact assessment.

  6. Physical activity, but not dietary intake, attenuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on obesity and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population.

    PubMed

    Petkeviciene, J; Smalinskiene, A; Klumbiene, J; Petkevicius, V; Kriaucioniene, V; Lesauskaite, V

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 variant with obesity and metabolic syndrome and interactions between FTO alleles, dietary intake and physical activity in Lithuanian adult population. Cross-sectional study. A health survey was carried out in randomly selected municipalities of Lithuania. The random sample was obtained from the lists of 25-64 year-old inhabitants. The data from 1020 individuals were analyzed. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs9939609, in the FTO gene was assessed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. 24-hour recall was used for evaluation of dietary habits. Information on physical activity at work, traveling to and from work and at leisure time was gathered by a standard questionnaire. The carriers of the AA genotype had the highest mean values of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). They had 1.72 time higher odds of obesity (P = 0.009) and 1.67 time higher odds of increased WC (P = 0.013) than those with the TT genotype. Carriers of the T allele had lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to carriers of the AA genotype (33.8% and 42.5% respectively; P = 0.018). No interaction between the rs9939609 variant and energy or dietary intakes on weight status was found. Significant effect of the interactions 'genotype×age' and 'genotype×physical activity' on BMI was demonstrated. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was associated with anthropometric parameters and metabolic syndrome in the younger age group (25-44 years) and in individuals having low level of physical activity. Age and physical activity modulated the effect of the FTO polymorphism on weight status and metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fischer's Plants in folk beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Monika; Klepacki, Piotr; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2017-03-23

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are useful starting points for further diachronic analysis. The aim of this contribution is to present archival data from the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland, which were collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered for publication in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. It was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but was never actually fulfilled. In this article we used information from historical Lithuania (the Great Duchy of Lithuania), nowadays a border region between Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. We applied cultural importance indices such as Use Value, Relative Importance value and Sørensen similarity coefficient, in order to compare our data with a western Ukraine data set from the same research framework. In total, 153 plant taxa were registered as used in peasant culture in the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland in the 1930s. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Calendula officinalis, Cyanus segetum, Helichrysum arenarium, Betula sp., Prunella vulgaris, and Nuphar lutea or Lilium sp. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by food and home garden plants. The overall similarity to plants recorded in western Ukraine within the same project of Fischer's is quite low (46%), which may be explained by the partly different flora found in the regions, and a cultural discontinuity, revealed by the difference in species with the highest UV. Moreover, the field collaborators were different in the two regions and may have paid attention to different cultural spheres of use. The presented ethnobotanical data are a valuable contribution to the ethnobotany of Eastern Europe as a whole. In particular, the presented list of plants may be a rich source for future studies on the ethnobotany of the Polish diaspora in Lithuania, and

  8. Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2010-05-01

    In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230

  9. Building Relationships with Local Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwai, Sabrina

    2007-01-01

    One of ACTE's goals is to improve the image of career and technical education (CTE) through outreach to the media. As media relations manager, the author receives calls from reporters asking questions about the types of students who participate in CTE. Reporters often have a misconception that CTE students are troubled or "at the bottom of the…

  10. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Posner, Marshall R.; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Haddad, Robert I.; Holupka, Edward J.; Devlin, Phillip M.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of {>=} 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary ({<=} 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  11. Urinary Obstruction in Prostate Cancer Patients From the Dutch Trial (68 Gy vs. 78 Gy): Relationships With Local Dose, Acute Effects, and Baseline Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Witte, Marnix G.; Herk, Marcel van; Pos, Floris J.; Lebesque, Joos V.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between late urinary obstruction and the details of the dose distribution of irradiated prostate cancer patients, taking into account their baseline symptoms and acute complaints. Patients and Methods: We selected patients from the Dutch multicenter trial randomized between 68 Gy and 78 Gy, for whom toxicity data and dose data were available (n = 557). The absolute dose surface parameters of the delineated bladder were calculated. Next, we constructed three-dimensional dose maps of the area around the prostate, providing an approximate identification of the corresponding anatomic locations. The dose difference maps were constructed by subtracting the mean dose maps of the patients with and without late urinary obstruction. Selected local dose points were analyzed using Cox regression analysis. Results: Urinary obstruction was scored for 40 patients, including 19 of 296 patients who received 68-72 Gy and 21 of 261 patients who received 76-78 Gy. A total of 19 events occurred within 2 years after irradiation and 21 events after 2 years. The bladder surface receiving {>=}80 Gy predicted (p <.01) the occurrence of obstruction within 2 years. The dose difference map indicated highly significant differences in the bladder neck situated in the trigonal region (p < .001) that were especially predictive of obstruction after 2 years and of the diagnosis of bladder neck obstruction. Baseline complaints and transurethral resection of the prostate and acute complaints were mainly predictive for obstruction within 2 years. Conclusion: Relatively early events of urinary obstruction were associated with urinary problems existing before RT, acute toxicity, previous transurethral resection of the prostate, and hotspots in the bladder. Events after 2 years were associated with the local dose in the trigonal area.

  12. Evaluation of Relationships among Occupational Stress, Alcohol Dependence and Other Factors in Male Personnel in a Japanese Local Fire Fighting Organization

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Takenobu; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Okamoto, Hiroteru; Wada, Takako; Otani, Shinji; Mu, Haosheng; Yokoyama, Yae; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Recent large-scale disasters have made middle-ranked fire defense officers responsible for routine fire fighting activities, and a tendency of alcohol dependence associated with other stressful problems is noted in Japan. We assessed the alcohol dependence tendency with the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in firefighters. Occupational stress, depression and other factors were evaluated with the brief job stress questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale, K10 and a face sheet. Subjects were 294 male personnel in a local fire defense headquarters, and 246 of them (83.4%) answered effectively. Data were analyzed first with univariate analysis between the AUDIT score and other items, and then with multivariate analysis of the AUDIT score as a dependent variable and other items as independent variables. The AUDIT score (mean ± SD) in the 246 respondents classified by age ranges was 7.9 ± 5.4 points (the lowest, 0 points; the highest, 27 points). The multivariate analysis showed significant correlations of the AUDIT score with the workplace environment (P = 0.003) and the rank of work (P = 0.019). The present survey was cross-sectional, and we could not clarify the subjects’ past drinking states and applicability of the results to the whole Japan personnel. It is necessary to further investigate the relationship between alcoholism and depression in the present subjects. As a pilot study, we first clarified the state of alcohol dependence in personnel in a Japanese local fire fighting organization, and examined related factors. PMID:24031141

  13. Optimizing finite element predictions of local subchondral bone structural stiffness using neural network-derived density-modulus relationships for proximal tibial subchondral cortical and trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Nazemi, S Majid; Amini, Morteza; Kontulainen, Saija A; Milner, Jaques S; Holdsworth, David W; Masri, Bassam A; Wilson, David R; Johnston, James D

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography based subject-specific finite element modeling has potential to clarify the role of subchondral bone alterations in knee osteoarthritis initiation, progression, and pain. However, it is unclear what density-modulus equation(s) should be applied with subchondral cortical and subchondral trabecular bone when constructing finite element models of the tibia. Using a novel approach applying neural networks, optimization, and back-calculation against in situ experimental testing results, the objective of this study was to identify subchondral-specific equations that optimized finite element predictions of local structural stiffness at the proximal tibial subchondral surface. Thirteen proximal tibial compartments were imaged via quantitative computed tomography. Imaged bone mineral density was converted to elastic moduli using multiple density-modulus equations (93 total variations) then mapped to corresponding finite element models. For each variation, root mean squared error was calculated between finite element prediction and in situ measured stiffness at 47 indentation sites. Resulting errors were used to train an artificial neural network, which provided an unlimited number of model variations, with corresponding error, for predicting stiffness at the subchondral bone surface. Nelder-Mead optimization was used to identify optimum density-modulus equations for predicting stiffness. Finite element modeling predicted 81% of experimental stiffness variance (with 10.5% error) using optimized equations for subchondral cortical and trabecular bone differentiated with a 0.5g/cm(3) density. In comparison with published density-modulus relationships, optimized equations offered improved predictions of local subchondral structural stiffness. Further research is needed with anisotropy inclusion, a smaller voxel size and de-blurring algorithms to improve predictions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship among complex fractionated electrograms, wavebreak, phase singularity, and local dominant frequency in fibrillation wave-dynamics: a modeling comparison study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yonghyeon; Hwang, Minki; Park, Jae Hyung; Shin, Hangsik; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2014-03-01

    Although complex fractionated electrogram (CFE) is known to be a target for catheter ablation of fibrillation, its physiological meaning in fibrillation wave-dynamics remains to be clarified. We evaluated the spatiotemporal relationships among the parameters of fibrillation wave-dynamics by simulation modeling. We generated maps of CFE-cycle length (CFE-CL), local dominant frequency (LDF), wave break (WB), and phase singularity (PS) of fibrillation in 2-dimensional homogeneous bidomain cardiac modeling (1,000 × 1,000 cells ten Tusscher model). We compared spatiotemporal correlations by dichotomizing each maps into 10 × 10 lattice zones. In spatial distribution, WB and PS showed excellent correlation (R = 0.963, P < 0.001). CFE-CL had weak correlations with WB (R = 0.288, P < 0.001), PS (R = 0.313, P < 0.001), and LDF (R = -0.411, P < 0.001). However, LDF did not show correlation with PS or WB. PSs were mostly distributed at the periphery of low CFE-CL area. Virtual ablation (5% of critical mass) of CFE-CL < 100 ms terminated fibrillation at 14.3 sec, and high LDF ablation (5% of critical mass) changed fibrillation to organized tachycardia, respectively. In homogeneous 2D fibrillation modeling, CFE-CL was weakly correlated with WB, PS, and LDF, spatiotemporally. PSs are mostly positioned at the periphery of low CFE-CL areas, and virtual ablation targeting low CFE-CL regions terminated fibrillation successfully.

  15. Local Foods, Local Places

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Foods, Local Places technical assistance program protects human health and the environment, spurs revitalization, increases access to healthy foods, and creates economic opportunities by promoting local foods.

  16. [Differences in allele frequency at the BAIB locus, determining the level of expression of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, in healthy donors and coronary artery atherosclerosis patients from Buryat and Lithuanian populations].

    PubMed

    Spitsyn, V A; Afanas'eva, I S

    2001-12-01

    Phenotype and allele frequencies of the genetically dimorphic system determining urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) were studied in population samples of Buryats from the Aginskii Buryat Autonomous District and Lithuanians from Vilnius and in patients with coronary atherosclerosis (CA) from both populations. Frequency of allele BAIB*b, which determines high BAIB excretion, proved to be more than twice higher in Buryats compared with the population sample of Lithuanians (0.620 versus 0.289, respectively). The proportion of individuals with high BAIB excretion in CA patients of either ethnic sample was twice higher than in the corresponding control sample. Frequency of allele BAIB*b in CA patients and healthy individuals was 0.348 and 0.242, respectively, in the Lithuanian population and 0.775 and 0.557, respectively, in the Buryat population. Thus, assessment of urinary excretion of BAIB proved to be prognostically valuable. The method used to detect a variation in BAIB excretion is relatively inexpensive, simple, and suitable for mass screening of patients and healthy individuals (population control). After additional testing with representative samples, the method can be used as an accessory diagnostic test in patients with cardiovascular disorders.

  17. The aftermath of public housing relocations: relationships between changes in local socioeconomic conditions and depressive symptoms in a cohort of adult relocaters.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Kelley, Mary E; Karnes, Conny; Haley, Danielle F; Ross, Zev; Rothenberg, Richard; Bonney, Loida E

    2014-04-01

    USA is experiencing a paradigm shift in public housing policy: while policies used to place people who qualified for housing assistance into spatially concentrated housing complexes, they now seek to geographically disperse them, often to voucher-subsidized rental units in the private market. Programs that relocate residents from public housing complexes tend to move them to neighborhoods that are less impoverished and less violent. To date, studies have reached conflicting findings about the relationship between public housing relocations and depression among adult relocaters. The present longitudinal multilevel analysis tests the hypothesis that pre-/postrelocation improvements in local economic conditions, social disorder, and perceived community violence are associated with declines in depressive symptoms in a cohort of African-American adults; active substance misusers were oversampled. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 172 adults who were living in one of seven public housing complexes scheduled for relocation and demolition in Atlanta, GA; by design, 20% were dependent on substances and 50% misused substances but were not dependent. Baseline data captured prerelocation characteristics of participants; of the seven census tracts where they lived, three waves of postrelocation data were gathered approximately every 9 months thereafter. Surveys were administered at each wave to assess depressive symptoms measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), perceived community violence, and other individual-level covariates. Participants' home addresses were geocoded to census tracts at each wave, and administrative data sources were used to characterize tract-level economic disadvantage and social disorder. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel models. Between waves 1 and 2, participants experienced significant improvements in reported depressive symptoms and perceived community violence and in tract-level economic disadvantage

  18. Variation in stable isotope ratios of monthly rainfall in the Douala and Yaounde cities, Cameroon: local meteoric lines and relationship to regional precipitation cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirmvem, Mengnjo Jude; Ohba, Takeshi; Kamtchueng, Brice Tchakam; Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Ako, Ako Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in precipitation are useful tools in groundwater recharge and climatological investigations. This study investigated the isotopes in rainfall during the 2013 and 2014 hydrological years in the Douala and Yaounde urban cities. The objectives were to generate local meteoric water lines (LMWLs), define the spatial-temporal variations of the isotopes in rainwater and their relationship to the regional precipitation cycle, and determine the factors controlling the isotopic variation. The LWMLs in Douala and Yaounde were δD = 7.92δ18O + 12.99 and δD = 8.35δ18O + 15.29, respectively. The slopes indicate isotopic equilibrium conditions during rain formation and negligible evaporation effect during rainfall. Precipitation showed similar wide ranges in δ18O values from -5.26 to -0.75 ‰ in Douala and -5.8 to +1.81 ‰ in Yaounde suggesting a common moisture source from the Atlantic Ocean. Enriched weighted mean δ18O (wδ18O) values during the low pre- and post-monsoon showers coincided with low convective activity across the entire region. Enriched isotopic signatures also marked the West African monsoon transition phase during each hydrological year. Abrupt wδ18O depletion after the transition coincided with the monsoon onset in the region. Peak periods of monsoonal rainfall, associated with high convective activities, were characterised by the most depleted wδ18O values. Controls on isotopic variations are the amount effect and moisture recycling. The stable isotope data provide a tool for groundwater recharge studies while the isotopic correlation with regional rainfall cycle demonstrate their use as markers of moisture circulation and detecting climatic changes in precipitation.

  19. Variation in stable isotope ratios of monthly rainfall in the Douala and Yaounde cities, Cameroon: local meteoric lines and relationship to regional precipitation cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirmvem, Mengnjo Jude; Ohba, Takeshi; Kamtchueng, Brice Tchakam; Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Ako, Ako Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen (D) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in precipitation are useful tools in groundwater recharge and climatological investigations. This study investigated the isotopes in rainfall during the 2013 and 2014 hydrological years in the Douala and Yaounde urban cities. The objectives were to generate local meteoric water lines (LMWLs), define the spatial-temporal variations of the isotopes in rainwater and their relationship to the regional precipitation cycle, and determine the factors controlling the isotopic variation. The LWMLs in Douala and Yaounde were δD = 7.92δ18O + 12.99 and δD = 8.35δ18O + 15.29, respectively. The slopes indicate isotopic equilibrium conditions during rain formation and negligible evaporation effect during rainfall. Precipitation showed similar wide ranges in δ18O values from -5.26 to -0.75 ‰ in Douala and -5.8 to +1.81 ‰ in Yaounde suggesting a common moisture source from the Atlantic Ocean. Enriched weighted mean δ18O (wδ18O) values during the low pre- and post-monsoon showers coincided with low convective activity across the entire region. Enriched isotopic signatures also marked the West African monsoon transition phase during each hydrological year. Abrupt wδ18O depletion after the transition coincided with the monsoon onset in the region. Peak periods of monsoonal rainfall, associated with high convective activities, were characterised by the most depleted wδ18O values. Controls on isotopic variations are the amount effect and moisture recycling. The stable isotope data provide a tool for groundwater recharge studies while the isotopic correlation with regional rainfall cycle demonstrate their use as markers of moisture circulation and detecting climatic changes in precipitation.

  20. Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Gerrett, Nicola; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and describe a simple method to evaluate the rate of ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in human using the measurement of galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and local sweating rate (SR). This purpose was investigated by comparing the SR threshold for increasing GSC with following two criteria of sweat ion reabsorption in earlier studies such as (1) the SR threshold for increasing sweat ion was at approximately 0.2–0.5 mg/cm2/min and (2) exercise heat acclimation improved the sweat ion reabsorption ability and would increase the criteria 1. Seven healthy non-heat-acclimated male subjects received passive heat treatment both before and after 7 days of cycling in hot conditions (50% maximum oxygen uptake, 60 min/day, ambient temperature 32 °C, and 50% relative humidity). Subjects became partially heat-acclimated, as evidenced by the decreased end-exercise heart rate (p < 0.01), rate of perceived exhaustion (p < 0.01), and oesophageal temperature (p = 0.07), without alterations in whole body sweat loss, from the first to the last day of training. As hypothesized, we confirmed that the SR threshold for increasing GSC was near the predicted SR during passive heating before exercise heat acclimation, and increased significantly after training (0.19 ± 0.09–0.32 ± 0.10 mg/cm2/min, p < 0.05). The reproducibility of sweat ion reabsorption by the eccrine glands in the present study suggests that the relationship between GSC and SR can serve as a new index for assessing the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in humans.

  1. Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the risk of mortality among middle-aged Lithuanian urban population in 1983-2009.

    PubMed

    Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia

    2012-08-31

    Arterial hypertension (AH) is a main risk factor for the risk from cardiovascular (CVD) and stroke mortality. Only few data was published on prevalence, awareness and management of AH in Lithuania. Development of objective approaches to the treatment and control of AH reduces the risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate time trends, the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of AH and risk of mortality among Lithuanian urban population aged 45-64 years during the period of 1983-2009. Time trends of AH and risk of mortality were examined in three MONICA health surveys in 1983, 1986, 1992, and in one health survey according to MONICA protocol in 2002 included randomly recruited of 2,218 men and 2,491 women. AH was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP of ≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. The main outcome measures were all-cause mortality, mortality from CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. The mean duration of follow-up was 11.8 ± 9.2 years. All survey periods were age standardized to the year 2006 of Kaunas population. The estimates of hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval were based on the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. In men during 1983-2002 period hypertension prevalence was 52.1-58.7% and did not significantly change whereas in women decreased from 61.0 to 51.0%. There was a significant increase in hypertension awareness among hypertensive men and women (45.0 to 64.4% and 47.7 to 72.3%, respectively) and in treated hypertensives (55.4 to 68.3% in men and 65.6 to 86.2% in women). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed a strong dose-response association between blood-pressure level and all-cause, CVD, CHD and stroke-mortality risk in both men and women groups. In Lithuanian urban population the prevalence of hypertension remains high. Despite positive changes in hypertension awareness and treatment, hypertension control

  2. Retrospective analysis of age-adjusted body mass index among pre-pregnant women in the Lithuanian urban area during three decades

    PubMed Central

    Francaite-Daugeliene, Migle; Petrenko, Vladimiras; Baliutaviciene, Dalia; Velickiene, Dzilda

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal obesity at the beginning of pregnancy is increasing. However, there are some studies reporting the stabilisation of obesity epidemic or even the downward trend in the general population. Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Lithuanian pre-pregnant women during 3 decades. Methods This observational retrospective study included a sample of 2827, women aged 18–44 years who gave birth in 1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010: 861 (30.5%), 995 (35.2%) and 971 (34.3%), respectively. All women were divided into groups by body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height, and age reported during the first antenatal visit. Quantitative parametric variables were expressed as mean and SD; qualitative variables, as absolute numbers (n) and percentage (%). For parametric data, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women aged 18–24 years decreased from 20.9% in 1987–1989 to 9.5% in 1996–1997 but increased to 15.7% in 2007–2010; among women aged 25–34 years, decreased from 35.5% in 1987–1989 to 23% in 1996–1997 and to 22.4% in 2007–2010; and among women aged 35–44 years decreased from 64.9% in 1987–1989 to 34% in 1996–1997 but increased to 45.3% in 2007–2010. BMI increased with an increasing age (r=0.254, p<0.05). Analysis by separate periods (1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010) revealed a positive correlation between BMI and age at the first antenatal visit in all periods (r=0.325, p<0.01; r=0.266, p<0.01; and r=0.210, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-pregnant women tended to decrease in the Lithuanian urban area during 3 decades. A slight increase in overweight and obesity documented in 2007–2010 compared with 1996–1997 most likely was caused by older maternal age. PMID

  3. Incidence, risk, management, and outcomes of iatrogenic full-thickness large bowel injury associated with 56,882 colonoscopies in 14 Lithuanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Kazanavicius, Darius; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Poskus, Tomas; Valantinas, Jonas; Stanaitis, Juozas; Grigaliunas, Aurelijus; Gradauskas, Audrius; Venskutonis, Donatas; Samuolis, Remigijus; Sniuolis, Pranas; Gajauskas, Mindaugas; Kaselis, Nerijus; Leipus, Raimundas; Radziunas, Gintautas

    2013-05-01

    The primary goal of this hospital-based retrospective multicenter case series study was to determine the incidence of large bowel full-thickness injury associated with colonoscopy in Lithuania. We assessed characteristics of patients who were treated as a result of this complication; management and outcomes were the secondary goals of this study. The medical records of patients with iatrogenic large bowel perforations resulting from colonoscopy within the period January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Representatives of 14 Lithuanian public and private hospitals participated in the survey. A total of 56,882 colonoscopies were performed. Forty patients (23 female and 17 male patients) were reported to have iatrogenic full-thickness large bowel injury. Diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopies resulted in perforation for 28 of 49,795 patients and 12 of 7,087 patients, respectively. A mean age of 70 years and a female preponderance for this complication was revealed. Sigmoid colon and rectosigmoid junction was perforated in 28 patients. All patients underwent surgical management, either primary repair (70.0 %) or bowel resection (30.0 %). Postoperative complications were diagnosed in 15 patients. Immediate treatment resulted in fewer intestinal resections and shorter hospital stays (p < 0.05). Smoking [odds ratio (OR) 14.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.16-179.8] and a large size perforation site (15 ± 10 vs. 8 ± 5 mm; OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.03-1.38) were risk factors for developing a postoperative complication after curative surgery. Six patients died. All deaths were related to diagnostic colonoscopy. Total incidence of large bowel full-thickness injury in Lithuanian hospitals is 0.07 %. Incidence of this complication after diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopies is 0.056 and 0.169 %, respectively. The most common site of perforation is sigmoid colon and rectosigmoid junction, at 70 %. Risk rises when colonoscopy is performed in low

  4. Assessment of the effect of anthropometric data on the alterations of cardiovascular parameters in Lithuanian elite male basketball players during physical load.

    PubMed

    Žumbakytė-Šermukšnienė, Renata; Kajėnienė, Alma; Berškienė, Kristina; Daunoravičienė, Algė; Sederevičiūtė-Kandratavičienė, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the anthropometric data of basketball players on the alterations of cardiovascular parameters during the physical load applying the model of integrated evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The research sample consisted of 113 healthy Caucasian male basketball players, candidates of the Lithuanian National men's basketball teams. Basketball players were divided into 2 groups: 69 taller and heavier male basketball players (with a higher percentage of body fat) (TMB) and 44 shorter and less heavy male basketball players (with a lower percentage of body fat) (SMB). The amount of fat, expressed in percentage, was measured using the body composition analyzer TBF-300. "Kaunas-Load," a computerized ECG analysis system, was used to evaluate the functional condition of the cardiovascular system during the load. RESULTS. The TMB group had a lower heart rate during the warming-up phase and the steady state of the load as compared with the SMB group (P<0.05). The JT interval in the TMB group was greater during the warming-up and the steady state as compared with the SMB group (P<0.05). The JT/RR ratio index in the TMB group was found to be lower in the warming-up phase and in the steady state compared with the respective parameter in the SMB group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS. The cardiovascular system of taller and heavier male basketball players with a greater relative amount of body fat functioned more economically.

  5. Health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in the Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city.

    PubMed

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.

  6. Investigating the real-world emission characteristics of light-duty gasoline vehicles and their relationship to local socioeconomic conditions in three communities in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Suk; Vijayan, Abhilash; Mara, Steve L; Herner, Jorn D

    2016-10-01

    sampled during the study. This study evaluated the real-world emission behavior and super-emitter distribution of light-duty gasoline vehicles in California, and investigated the relationship of on-road vehicle emissions with local socioeconomic conditions. The study observed a significant reduction in vehicle emissions for all measured pollutants when compared to an earlier study in Wilmington, CA, and found a higher prevalence of high-emitting vehicles in low-socioeconomic-status communities. As overall fleet emissions decrease from stringent vehicle emission regulations, a small fraction of the fleet may contribute to a disproportionate share of the overall on-road vehicle emissions. Therefore, this work will have important implications for improving air quality and public health, especially in low-SES communities.

  7. Assessment of the relationship between bacteriological quality of dug-wells, hygiene behaviour and well characteristics in two cholera endemic localities in Douala, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to potable water is grossly inadequate in Douala-Cameroon. The situation is worse in slum areas, compelling inhabitants to obtain water from sources of doubtful quality. This has contributed to frequent outbreaks of water-borne diseases particularly cholera, which results in severe morbidity and mortality. Shallow wells are a major source of water in these areas. We analyzed the influence of some factors on the bacteriological quality of well water in Bepanda and New Bell, cholera endemic localities in Douala to generate data that would serve as basis for strengthening of water and health policies. Methods Questionnaires were administered to inhabitants of study sites to appraise their hygiene and sanitation practices, and level of awareness of waterborne diseases. The bacteriological quality of water was determined by investigating bacterial indicators of water quality. Relationship between well characteristics and bacteriological quality of water was determined using χ2 test. The Kendall tau_b nonparametric correlation was used to measure the strength of association between well characteristics and bacteriological parameters. Statistics were discussed at 95% confidence level. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was investigated by the Kirby-Bauer and broth dilution techniques. Multidrug resistant species were tested for extended β-lactamase production potential. Results Inhabitants demonstrated adequate knowledge of waterborne diseases but employed inappropriate method (table salt) for well disinfection. Well construction and location violated guidelines. Indicator bacterial counts greatly exceeded the WHO guidelines. Variation in bacteriologic parameters between sites was not significant (P > 0.05) since well characteristics and hygiene and sanitary practices were similar. Differences in bacteriologic quality with respect to state of well, and presence of molded casing and lid, and height of casing were not significant (P > 0

  8. The Relationship Between Local Recurrence and Radiotherapy Treatment Volume for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Treated With External Beam Radiotherapy and Function Preservation Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Griffin, Anthony M.; Parent, Amy L.; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Svensson, Jon; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To examine the geometric relationship between local recurrence (LR) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) volumes for soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) patients treated with function-preserving surgery and RT. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 768 (7.8%) STS patients treated with combined therapy within our institution from 1990 through 2006 developed an LR. Thirty-two received preoperative RT, 16 postoperative RT, and 12 preoperative RT plus a postoperative boost. Treatment records, RT simulation images, and diagnostic MRI/CT data sets of the original and LR disease were retrospectively compared. For LR location analysis, three RT target volumes were defined according to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 29 as follows: (1) the gross tumor or operative bed; (2) the treatment volume (TV) extending 5 cm longitudinally beyond the tumor or operative bed unless protected by intact barriers to spread and at least 1-2 cm axially (the TV was enclosed by the isodose curve representing the prescribed target absorbed dose [TAD] and accounted for target/patient setup uncertainty and beam characteristics), and (3) the irradiated volume (IRV) that received at least 50% of the TAD, including the TV. LRs were categorized as developing in field within the TV, marginal (on the edge of the IRV), and out of field (occurring outside of the IRV). Results: Forty-nine tumors relapsed in field (6.4% overall). Nine were out of field (1.1% overall), and 2 were marginal (0.3% overall). Conclusions: The majority of STS tumors recur in field, indicating that the incidence of LR may be affected more by differences in biologic and molecular characteristics rather than aberrations in RT dose or target volume coverage. In contrast, only two patients relapsed at the IRV boundary, suggesting that the risk of a marginal relapse is low when the TV is appropriately defined. These data support the accurate delivery of optimal RT volumes in the most precise way using advanced

  9. Assessment of the relationship between bacteriological quality of dug-wells, hygiene behaviour and well characteristics in two cholera endemic localities in Douala, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Omam, Lundi-Anne; Massalla, Thomas Njinuwo

    2013-07-29

    Access to potable water is grossly inadequate in Douala-Cameroon. The situation is worse in slum areas, compelling inhabitants to obtain water from sources of doubtful quality. This has contributed to frequent outbreaks of water-borne diseases particularly cholera, which results in severe morbidity and mortality. Shallow wells are a major source of water in these areas. We analyzed the influence of some factors on the bacteriological quality of well water in Bepanda and New Bell, cholera endemic localities in Douala to generate data that would serve as basis for strengthening of water and health policies. Questionnaires were administered to inhabitants of study sites to appraise their hygiene and sanitation practices, and level of awareness of waterborne diseases. The bacteriological quality of water was determined by investigating bacterial indicators of water quality. Relationship between well characteristics and bacteriological quality of water was determined using χ² test. The Kendall tau_b nonparametric correlation was used to measure the strength of association between well characteristics and bacteriological parameters. Statistics were discussed at 95% confidence level. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was investigated by the Kirby-Bauer and broth dilution techniques. Multidrug resistant species were tested for extended β-lactamase production potential. Inhabitants demonstrated adequate knowledge of waterborne diseases but employed inappropriate method (table salt) for well disinfection. Well construction and location violated guidelines. Indicator bacterial counts greatly exceeded the WHO guidelines. Variation in bacteriologic parameters between sites was not significant (P > 0.05) since well characteristics and hygiene and sanitary practices were similar. Differences in bacteriologic quality with respect to state of well, and presence of molded casing and lid, and height of casing were not significant (P > 0.05). Well distance from sanitary

  10. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES). Methods We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189) from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. Results In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but the proportion of boys who consumed vegetables daily decreased from 29.3% to 23.1% (p < 0.001). In 2006, for both sexes, there were observed increases in regular (at least five days a week) intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries, and soft drinks; however, in the next survey (2010) these figures decreased. In addition, between 2006 and 2010, a substantial decrease in regular consumption of chips and fast food was also detected. Fruit and vegetable consumption as well as intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries and soft

  11. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lagunaite, Reda; Busha, Ryan; Lubiene, Jolita

    2012-01-19

    Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES). We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189) from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p < 0.001) but the proportion of boys who consumed vegetables daily decreased from 29.3% to 23.1% (p < 0.001). In 2006, for both sexes, there were observed increases in regular (at least five days a week) intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries, and soft drinks; however, in the next survey (2010) these figures decreased. In addition, between 2006 and 2010, a substantial decrease in regular consumption of chips and fast food was also detected. Fruit and vegetable consumption as well as intake of sweets and chocolates, biscuits and pastries and soft drinks increased with family

  12. Link between healthy lifestyle and psychological well-being in Lithuanian adults aged 45–72: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Luksiene, Dalia; Virviciute, Dalia; Bobak, Martin; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study uses a cross-sectional study design to analyse the connection between psychological well-being (PWB) and components of a healthy lifestyle in the Lithuanian population aged 45–72. The purpose of our study is to establish the links between PWB and lifestyle factors such as physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns in people above the age of 44. Participants A stratified sample of 10 940 urban citizens aged 45–72 years were randomly selected from the National Population Register. The response rate was 65%. Methods PWB was evaluated by using a Control Autonomy Self-realization and Pleasure (CASP-12) questionnaire. The standard questionnaire included questions regarding the respondent's sociodemographic, socioeconomic and social status. The lifestyle questionnaire evaluated behavioural factors as smoking status, alcohol consumption, nutrition habits and physical activity. Objective measurements of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were taken. Results Adjusted for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, social and biological CVD risk factors, the probability of higher PWB increased for physically active men and women and male former smokers. Higher PWB was directly associated with consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits. Responders who consumed potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs less frequently than average were more likely to have higher PWB. A direct association was ascertained between PWB and consumption of chicken and fish, as well as an inverse association between PWB and consumption of sweets in women. Conclusions Healthy lifestyle education efforts should focus on increasing physical activity, controlling smoking and improving diversity in healthy food consumption including the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, particularly among older adults with lower PWB. PMID:28373254

  13. Problematic computer game use as expression of Internet addiction and its association with self-rated health in the Lithuanian adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Ustinavičienė, Ruta; Škėmienė, Lina; Lukšienė, Dalia; Radišauskas, Ričardas; Kalinienė, Gintarė; Vasilavičius, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Computers and the Internet have become an integral part of today's life. Problematic gaming is related to adolescent's health. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of Internet addiction among 13-18-year-old schoolchildren and its relation to sex, age, and time spent playing computer games, game type, and subjective health evaluation. A total of 1806 schoolchildren aged 13-18 years were interviewed. The evaluation of Internet addiction was conducted by the Diagnostic Questionnaire according to Young's methodology. The relation between the choice of computer games type, time spent while playing computer games and respondents' Internet addiction were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. One-tenth (10.6%) of the boys and 7.7% of the girls aged 13-18 years were Internet addicted. Internet addiction was associated with the type of computer game (action or combat vs. logic) among boys (OR=2.42; 95% CI, 1.03-5.67) and with the amount of time spent playing computer games per day during the last month (≥5 vs. <5h) among girls (OR=2.10; 95% CI, 1.19-3.70). The boys who were addicted to the Internet were more likely to rate their health poorer in comparison to their peers who were not addicted to the Internet (OR=2.48; 95% CI, 1.33-4.62). Internet addiction was significantly associated with poorer self-rated health among boys. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional relationship between CABIT, SAM and 14-3-3 binding domains of GAREM1 that play a role in its subcellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Tasuku; Matsunaga, Ryota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-08-21

    GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction.

  15. The Relationship between Local Wealth and Dual Enrollment Participation in Virginia's Community Colleges: Rural, Urban, and Suburban Patterns and Subsequent Postsecondary Enrollment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ellen Richardson

    2013-01-01

    In Virginia, the availability of dual enrollment classes for high school students has varied, depending on the interest of the local school division and the community college's president in whose service region the school division is located. HB 1184, which passed in the 2012 session of the Virginia General Assembly, stipulates that the…

  16. The Relationship between Local Wealth and Dual Enrollment Participation in Virginia's Community Colleges: Rural, Urban, and Suburban Patterns and Subsequent Postsecondary Enrollment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ellen Richardson

    2013-01-01

    In Virginia, the availability of dual enrollment classes for high school students has varied, depending on the interest of the local school division and the community college's president in whose service region the school division is located. HB 1184, which passed in the 2012 session of the Virginia General Assembly, stipulates that the…

  17. Antinuclear antibodies and anti-DNA antibodies in scleroderma. A possible relationship between joint manifestations and increased antibodies in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Serup, J; Staun-Olsen, P

    1986-08-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), including anti-DNA antibodies, and rheumatoid factors (RAT, Waaler-Rose) were determined prospectively during a 3-year period in 40 patients with localized scleroderma (LS) compared with 77 patients with generalized scleroderma (GS). ANA were increased in 26% of patients with LS, and in 47% with GS, anti-DNA antibodies in 23% of patients with LS, and in 34% with GS. Thus, the anti-DNA antibody level was lower compared with the known level in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatoid factors were present in 6-7% of patients with LS, and in 14-15% of patients with GS. Increased antinuclear antibodies were not associated with any specific type of localized scleroderma, nor with internal disorders, and no case of clinical overlap to discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus was observed. However, six patients with localized scleroderma and complaints of arthralgia all presented increased antibodies, and one patient showed overlap to rheumatoid arthritis. It is suggested that increased ANA and anti-DNA antibodies in localized scleroderma, associated with joint manifestations, represents a systemic component in this type of scleroderma, with activation of the immune system and similarities with generalized collagen diseases.

  18. Blaming the Government for Environmental Problems: A Multilevel and Cross-National Analysis of the Relationship between Trust in Government and Local and Global Environmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cin, Cigdem Kentmen

    2013-01-01

    Although the determinants of trust in governments have received significant attention in the literature on political trust, there has been no attention paid to whether environmental concerns affect governmental trust. Yet, if individuals are worried about local and global environmental degradation, they may think that the government has failed in…

  19. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρDS) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρDS. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  20. Analyzing relationships between surface perturbations and local chemical reactivity of metal sites: Alkali promotion of O2 dissociation on Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Xin, Hongliang; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-21

    Many commercial heterogeneous catalysts are complex structures that contain metal active sites promoted by multiple additives. Developing fundamental understanding about the impact of these perturbations on the local surface reactivity is crucial for catalyst development and optimization. In this contribution, we develop a general framework for identifying underlying mechanisms that control the changes in the surface reactivity of a metal site (more specifically the adsorbate-surface interactions) upon a perturbation in the local environment. This framework allows us to interpret fairly complex interactions on metal surfaces in terms of specific, physically transparent contributions that can be evaluated independently of each other. We use Cs-promoted dissociation of O2 as an example to illustrate our approach. We concluded that the Cs adsorbate affects the outcome of the chemical reaction through a strong alkali-induced electric field interacting with the static dipole moment of the O2/Ag(111) system.

  1. Analyzing relationships between surface perturbations and local chemical reactivity of metal sites: Alkali promotion of O2 dissociation on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongliang; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-01

    Many commercial heterogeneous catalysts are complex structures that contain metal active sites promoted by multiple additives. Developing fundamental understanding about the impact of these perturbations on the local surface reactivity is crucial for catalyst development and optimization. In this contribution, we develop a general framework for identifying underlying mechanisms that control the changes in the surface reactivity of a metal site (more specifically the adsorbate-surface interactions) upon a perturbation in the local environment. This framework allows us to interpret fairly complex interactions on metal surfaces in terms of specific, physically transparent contributions that can be evaluated independently of each other. We use Cs-promoted dissociation of O2 as an example to illustrate our approach. We concluded that the Cs adsorbate affects the outcome of the chemical reaction through a strong alkali-induced electric field interacting with the static dipole moment of the O2/Ag(111) system.

  2. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Ken-ichi Takahashi, Ohgi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρ{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρ{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  3. The creation of new traditions: Discussion of relationship between architectural rural practice and local features' inheriting from a heritage conservation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Sun, M.

    2015-08-01

    The traditional features of Chinese villages are facing a crisis of discontinuity. In the meantime, there exists a problem in architectural heritage conservation that while preservation and renovation is being done, local self-help construction still proceeds out of control. Nowadays, an increasing number of architects have noticed these phenomena and participate in the evolution of villages carrying various architectural practices in the countryside, which has certain influence at the place, whether during or after the construction. In many well-evaluated rural practice cases in the world, architects not only choose appropriate materials and crafts for natives, but also renew local traditions by offering skill training to craftsmen. However, in Chinese villages, similar practices do not seem to be that effective. Therefore, through field research and interviews, this article discusses the reasons that relatively successful architectural practices in Chinese villages fail to exert a positive influence to the inheriting and update of local traditions. These causes include the increase of information sources, the different aesthetic manner, the conception differences, the influence of constructors, and the instructor role that architects play.

  4. Interaural Coherence and Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, Eric

    2006-10-01

    In a study of the relationship between interaural coherence and localization ability, two experiments were performed. Both made use of a 1/3 octave band of low frequency sound and a 1/3 octave band of high frequency sound. Stimuli with coherences ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 were created in three recording environments using a KEMAR and digitally altered to eliminate interaural level differences (ILD). The environments had short, medium, and long reverberation times. The coherences were measured and were accurate to one significant figure. Experiment 1 had two goals: to determine the relationship between interaural coherence and the ability to localize using interaural time differences (ITD) and to determine if localization ability was dependent only on coherence. The relationship between coherence and localization was tested in a headphone lateralization experiment in which psychometric functions were generated. The functions revealed a linear relationship, with the ability to localize high coherence sounds breaking down quickly at small ITD. Within standard error, ITD localization appeared to be dependent only on coherence. In Experiment 2, a 3-down 1-up staircase method was employed to determine how opposing ILDs affected ITD localization. When the task could be completed, the threshold values were linearly related, however, the ability broke down at large ILDs. Both experiments provide a linear description of interaural coherence and localization, with thresholds being sharp deviations from these trends.

  5. Periodicities in mid- to late-Holocene peatland hydrology identified from Swedish and Lithuanian tree-ring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, Johannes; Adolphi, Florian; Linderholm, Hans W.; Corona, Christophe; Muscheler, Raimund; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-five tree-ring width (TRW) chronologies, developed from moisture sensitive peatland trees in Sweden and Lithuania, and representing eight periods during the mid-Holocene to present, were analysed regarding common periodicities (cycles). Periods of 13-15, 20-22, and 30-35 years were found in most chronologies, while 8-10, 18-19, and 60-65 year periodicities were observed as well, but less commonly. Similar periodicities, especially about 15 and 30 years in duration, were detected in both living and subfossil trees, indicating that the trees have responded to similar forcing mechanisms on those timescales through time. Some of the detected periods may be related to solar variability and lunar nodal tides, but most of the detected periodicities are more likely linked to hydrological changes in the peatlands associated to atmospheric patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), or variations in sea surface temperatures (i.e. the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO). However, no significant relationships between tree growth, NAO and AMO could be formally established, possibly due to hydrological lag and feedback effects which are typical for peatlands but render in-depth assessments rather difficult.

  6. The relationship between dietary quality and the local food environment differs according to level of educational attainment: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christina; Lewis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK) completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children’s centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04). Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001) and a tendency toward poorer

  7. The relationship between dietary quality and the local food environment differs according to level of educational attainment: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christina; Lewis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK) completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children's centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04). Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001) and a tendency toward poorer

  8. Time-dose relationships for local tumor control and complications following irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, K.E.; Parsons, J.T.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1987-04-01

    Between October 1964 and September 1981, 114 previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue were treated with curative intent by a radical course of irradiation at the University of Florida. With a minimum 2-year follow-up, local control was achieved in 78, 65, 76, and 17% of T1, T2, T3, and T4 lesions, respectively. Control results could be correlated with time-dose factors and treatment techniques. No patient required mandibulectomy for osteoradionecrosis following radiation therapy. Complications of bone and soft tissue could not be related to time-dose factors.

  9. Antioxidant state and mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian and Swedish men: concomitant cross sectional study of men aged 50.

    PubMed Central

    Kristenson, M.; Ziedén, B.; Kucinskienë, Z.; Elinder, L. S.; Bergdahl, B.; Elwing, B.; Abaravicius, A.; Razinkovienë, L.; Calkauskas, H.; Olsson, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible risk factors and mechanisms behind the four times higher and diverging mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian compared with Swedish middle aged men. DESIGN: Concomitant cross sectional comparison of randomly selected 50 year old men without serious acute or chronic disease. Methods and equipment were identical or highly standardised between the centres. SETTING: Linköping (Sweden) and Vilnius (Lithuania). SUBJECTS: 101 and 109 men aged 50 in Linköping and Vilnius respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric data, blood pressure, smoking, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation, and plasma concentrations of fat soluble antioxidant vitamins. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure was higher (141 v 133 mm Hg, P < 0.01), smoking habits were similar, and plasma total cholesterol (5.10 v 5.49 mmol/l, P < 0.01) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.30 v 3.68 mmol/l, P < 0.01) lower in men from Vilnius compared with those from Linköping. Triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between the two groups. The resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidation was lower in the men from Vilnius; lag phase was 67.6 v 79.5 minutes (P < 0.001). Also lower in the men from Vilnius were mean plasma concentrations of lipid soluble antioxidant vitamins (beta carotene 377 v 510 nmol/l, P < 0.01; lycopene 327 v 615 nmol/l, P < 0.001; and lipid adjusted gamma tocopherol 0.25 v 0.46 mumol/mmol, P < 0.001. alpha Tocopherol concentration did not differ). Regression analysis showed that the lag phase was still significantly shorter by 10 minutes in men from Vilnius when the influence of other known factors was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuania is not caused by traditional risk factors alone. Mechanisms related to antioxidant state may be important. PMID

  10. Ecotoxicological study of Lithuanian and Estonian wastewaters: selection of the biotests, and correspondence between toxicity and chemical-based indices.

    PubMed

    Manusadzianas, L; Balkelyte, L; Sadauskas, K; Blinova, I; Põllumaa, L; Kahru, A

    2003-03-17

    The toxicity of industrial and urban wastewater (WW) samples collected in Lithuania and Estonia was evaluated by using a suite of biological tests comprising the Algaltoxkit F with Selenastrum capricornutum, the Charatox with Nitellopsis obtusa, Daphtoxkit F with Daphnia magna, Thamnotoxkit F with Thamnocephalus platyurus, Protoxkit F with Tetrahymena thermophila and the Microtox with Vibrio fischeri. The Charatox and Thamnotoxkit F tests showed highest relative sensitivity, responding to 80-90% of samples, respectively, and both expressed good discrimination capacity between samples. Principal Component and pairwise correlation analysis allowed to select test-battery consisting of Charatox, Thamnotoxkit and Microtox. The WW toxicity was evaluated by means of cumulative indices such as average toxicity (AvTx) and two indices derived from the PEEP-index (Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual. 8 (1993) 115). In addition to these integrated evaluations of test-battery response, WW toxicity was evaluated according to the most sensitive test (MST) in the battery. The linear regression analysis between cumulative toxicity indices and chemical-based indices (derived from comparison of WW chemical concentrations and their respective maximum allowable concentration) revealed positive linear relationships (r(2)=0.7-0.8), while toxicity evaluation based on the MST was less positively related with chemical analysis data (r(2)=0.5-0.6). Although better coincidence between the toxicity and chemical-based assessments was achieved when information from all tests in the battery was assembled, the prediction of toxicity from chemical data was still limited. In search of suitable test-battery for the screening of certain type of WWs, a preliminary study comprising excessive suite of tests might be useful.

  11. From local force-flux relationships to internal dissipations and their impact on heat engine performance: the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator.

    PubMed

    Apertet, Y; Ouerdane, H; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, Ph

    2013-08-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of the sometimes understated role of the principle of energy conservation in linear irreversible thermodynamics. Our case study is that of a thermoelectric generator (TEG), which is a heat engine of choice in irreversible thermodynamics, owing to the coupling between the electrical and heat fluxes. We show why Onsager's reciprocal relations must be considered locally and how internal dissipative processes emerge from the extension of these relations to a global scale: The linear behavior of a heat engine at the local scale is associated with a dissipation process that must partake in the global energy balance. We discuss the consequences of internal dissipations on the so-called efficiency at maximum power, in the light of our comparative analyses of exoreversibility and endoreversibility on the one hand and of two classes of heat engines, autonomous and periodically driven, on the other hand. Finally, basing our analysis on energy conservation, we also discuss recent works which claim the possibility to overcome the traditional boundaries on efficiency imposed by finite-time thermodynamics in thermoelectric systems with broken time-reversal symmetry; this we do by introducing a "thermal" thermopower and an "electrical" thermopower which permits an analysis of the thermoelectric response of the TEG considering a possible dissymmetry between the electrical/thermal and the thermal/electrical couplings.

  12. Local Cu and Br Environments and Their Relationship to Superconductivity Restoration in Brominated YBa_2Cu_3O_6.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potrepka, D. M.; Budnick, J. I.; Fenner, D. B.; Balasubramanian, M.; Hines, W. A.

    1998-03-01

    ^63,65Cu NQR and Br K-edge XAFS are used to study the local structures of Cu and Br in YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ, YBa_2Cu_3O_6.1, and brominated YBa_2Cu_3O_6.1 samples. The results answer the long standing question of how Br restores superconductivity in deoxygenated YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ. Past studies led one to consider that the Br occupies regions near chain oxygen sites with a redistribution of chain oxygens.(H.B. Radousky et al., Phys. Rev. B 41 11140 (1990); M. Mokhtari et al., Solid State Commun. 93 487 (1995).) The Br XAFS data presented here provides compelling evidence for the formation of nanoscale BaBr2 precipitates resulting from local destruction of the YBa_2Cu_3O_6.1 phase. On the basis of the Cu NQR experiments, it is concluded that through this nanoscale decomposition reaction, oxygen is liberated which goes into the nearby chain sites thus restoring superconductivity. (Support from Conn. Critical Technologies, DOE, and initially AFOSR-SBIR)

  13. A Bootstrap Technique for Testing the Relationship Between Local-Scale Radar Observations of Cloud Occurrence and Large-Scale Atmospheric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, Roger T.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Thompson, Sandra E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Schultz, David M.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper an atmospheric classification scheme based on fields that are resolved by global climate models (and numerical weather prediction models) is investigated as a mechanism to map the large-scale (synoptic-scale) atmospheric state to distributions of local-scale cloud properties. Using a bootstrap resampling technique, the temporal stability and distinctness of vertical profiles of cloud occurrence (obtained from a vertically pointing millimeter wavelength cloud-radar) are analyzed as a function of the atmospheric state. A stable class-based map from the large-scale to local-scale cloud properties could be of great utility in the analysis of GCM-predicted cloud properties, by providing a physical context from which to understand any differences between the model output and observations, as well as to separate differences (in total distribution) that are caused by having different weather regimes (or synoptic scale activity) rather than problems in the representation of clouds for a particular regime. Furthermore, if sufficiently robust mappings can be established, it could form the basis of a statistical GCM cloud parameterization.

  14. A dose-response relationship research on botulinum toxin type A local intramuscular injections of lower extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Gao, Baoqin

    2008-05-01

    To observe the dose-response relationship of intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in the spastic cerebral palsy. One hundred fifty cases (age between 2 and 12 years) were randomly divided into three groups. The patients were injected with different dose of BTX-A. The movement function was evaluated with modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and physician's rating scale (PRS) at entry and 1 month after injection. The analyses were conducted with one-way analysis of variance and chi (2) test. The evaluation of MAS and PRS revealed a significant increase of movement function. No statistically significant differences of the side effects among three groups could be demonstrated. The study suggested that the movement function was more significantly improved with relatively higher dose of BTX-A, which was safe and effective.

  15. Local Cu and Br environments and their relationship to superconductivity restoration in brominated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}

    SciTech Connect

    Potrepka, D.M.; Fenner, D.B.; Balasubramanian, M.; Hines, W.A.; Budnick, J.I.

    1998-08-01

    {sup 63,65}Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and Br {ital k}-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) have been used to study the local structures in well-characterized samples of deoxygenated and brominated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y}(YBCO). NQR shows that after bromination of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.1} at 260thinsp{degree}C, oxygen has repopulated the chain sites. From XAFS, it is concluded that Br does not enter the YBCO lattice, but rather precipitates out as small nanoscale particles of BaBr{sub 2}. These results provide clear evidence of the role of Br in reoxygenating the YBCO structure and an explanation for the partial restoration of superconductivity in the YBCO system. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Ocean-atmosphere relationships from synoptic scale to local scale in South San Francisco Bay, with implications to flood risk at NASA Ames Research Center, Silicon Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, W. B.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, N. L.; Coats, R. N.; Loewenstein, M.; Roy, S. B.; MacWilliams, M.

    2012-12-01

    This work evaluates the implications to flooding risk at the low-lying NASA Ames Research Center in South San Francisco Bay under historical and projected climate and sea level rise. Atmospheric circulation patterns over the Pacific Ocean, influenced by ENSO and PDO, can result in extended periods of higher mean coastal sea level in California. Simultaneously they originate a larger number of storms that make landfall and have higher mean intensity. These storms generate barometrically-induced high water anomalies, and winds that are sometimes capable of producing large coastal waves. Storm surges that propagate from the coast into the estuary and South Bay, and locally-generated waves, may compromise the discharge capacity of stream channels. These conditions also typically generate high intensity rainfall, and the reduced channel capacity may result in fluvial flooding. Such atmospheric circulation patterns may persist for many months, during which California experiences more precipitation events of longer mean duration and higher intensity, leading to large precipitation totals that saturate soils and may exceed the storage capacity of stormwater retention ponds. Future scenarios of sea level rise, that may surpass a meter in this century according to the projections recently published by the National Research Council for states of CA, OR and WA, and projected atmospheric circulation changes associated with anthropogenic climate change, may amplify these risks. We evaluate the impacts of these changes on NASA's Ames Research Center through four areas of study: (i) wetland accretion and evolution as mean sea level rises, with implications to the Bay's response to the sea level rise and storm surges, (ii) hydrodynamic modeling to simulate the propagation of tidal height and storm surges in the Bay and the influence of local winds on wave height, (iii) evaluation of historical data and future climate projections to identify extreme precipitation events, and (iv

  17. Spatial and temporal stability of complex fractionated electrograms in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation over longer time periods: relationship to local electrogram cycle length.

    PubMed

    Verma, Atul; Wulffhart, Zaev; Beardsall, Marianne; Whaley, Bonnie; Hill, Carol; Khaykin, Yaariv

    2008-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation guided by complex fractionated electrograms (CFE) has been described, but the spatial and temporal stability of the electrograms (EGMs) has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the spatial and temporal stability of CFE in patients with persistent AF. Twenty-four patients were studied. For 12 patients, two high-density CFE maps were performed during AF at baseline (0 minute) and 20 minutes later using the EnSite NavX system. Six-second bipolar EGMs were collected throughout the left atrium (LA) using a circular mapping catheter. Automated software measured the time between discrete local EGM deflections yielding a mean local cycle length (CL). EGMs with mean CL <120 ms were considered CFE. The LA was divided into six regions. Spatial distribution of EGMs at 0 and 20 minutes was compared in each region across three different CL ranges (A = 50-120 ms, B = 121-200 ms, C = 200-500 ms). The 0- and 20-minute CFE maps were directly superimposed offline in MATLAB, and the mean CL value for each point that was sampled in both maps was compared in each CL range (A-C). For the other 12 patients, repetitive measurements (1-minute intervals for 5 minutes) of mean CL were obtained at a sample point for each CL range (A-C) in each patient and compared for consistency. A total of 324 +/- 65 points were collected per map. Globally in the LA, the distribution of CLs did not change from 0 to 20 minutes (A: 47.1% vs 45.0%; B: 35.3% vs 36.5%; C: 16.0% vs 16.9%; P = .6). The CL distribution in each of the six regions of the LA also did not change significantly from 0 to 20 minutes. There was no significant change in repetitive CL measures for range A (mean DeltaCL 12 +/- 4 ms, P = .4). However, there was significant variation over 5 minutes for ranges B and C (mean DeltaCL 39 +/- 19 ms and 48 +/- 22 ms, respectively, P <.05 for both). Superimposing maps showed 74.7% point-to-point match for range A, 39.3% for range B

  18. Detailed Relationship Between Local Structure Polarons and Magnetization for La1-xCaxMnO3 (0.21 lt x lt 0.45)

    SciTech Connect

    F Bridges; L Downward; J Neumeier; T Tyson

    2011-12-31

    We present detailed local structure measurements (using the extended x-ray absorption fine structure technique) for the colossal magnetoresistive material La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (0.21 < x < 0.45) as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The local distortions of the Mn-O bonds are parameterized using {sigma}, the width of the Mn-O pair-distribution function (PDF). After subtracting thermal phonon contributions, we show that the contributions to {sigma}{sup 2} from polaron and Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions, {sigma}{sub JT/polaron}{sup 2}, are a universal function of the magnetization, independent of how the magnetization is achieved via changes in temperature or magnetic field. However this universal behavior is only observed for B fields {ge} 2 T, likely as a result of domain canting in low B fields. The resulting curve is well described by two straight lines with significantly different slopes. These regimes represent two distinctly differ distortions of the oxygen octahedra about the Mn. For low magnetizations up to {approx}65% of the theoretical maximum magnetization, M{sub T}, the slope is low and the distortion removed as the sample becomes magnetized is small - we argue this arises from polarons which have a low distortion around two (or possibly three) Mn sites. At high magnetizations large distortions per Mn site are removed as these sites become magnetized. The data are also analyzed in terms of a two Mn-O peak distribution using experimental standards for Mn-O. The results agree well with recent neutron PDF results but not with some earlier results. We discuss the limitations of assuming a two peak distribution in view of the two distortions needed to describe the Mn-O distortions as a function of T and B for B {ge} 2 T. It is likely that there is a distribution of longer bonds. Finally we show that with increasing B field, the Mn-Mn peak also has a small B-field-induced change - a measure at the unit cell level of magnetostriction but find

  19. Flow-force relationships in lettuce thylakoids. 2. Effect of the uncoupler FCCP on local proton resistances at the ATPase level.

    PubMed

    Sigalat, C; de Kouchkovsky, Y; Haraux, F

    1993-09-28

    The relationship between the steady-state proton gradient (delta pH) and the rate of phosphorylation was investigated in thylakoids under various conditions. Under partial uncoupling by carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP), the rate of ATP synthesis was reduced by less than expected from the decrease of delta pH. This was observed in the case of the pyocyanine-mediated cyclic electron flow around photosystem 1, but not with the H2O-->photosystem 2-->cytochrome b6f-->photosystem 1-->methyl viologen system. In state 4, a unique relation was found between delta pH and the "phosphate potential", delta Gp, regardless of whether the energy level was controlled by light input or FCCP. The anomalous effect of FCCP on the rate of ATP synthesis disappeared when the ATPase was partially blocked by the reversible inhibitor venturicidin, but not in the presence of tentoxin, an irreversible inhibitor. These results are consistent with the existence of a small kinetic barrier for protons, limiting their access to the ATPase. This resistance would be collapsed by FCCP.

  20. Can parasites be indicators of free-living diversity? Relationships between species richness and the abundance of larval trematodes and of local benthos and fishes.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D; Huspeni, Todd C; Brooks, Andrew J; Kuris, Armand M

    2007-02-01

    Measuring biodiversity is difficult. This has led to efforts to seek taxa whose species richness correlates with the species richness of other taxa. Such indicator taxa could then reduce the time and cost of assessing the biodiversity of the more extensive community. The search for species richness correlations has yielded mixed results, however. This may be primarily because of the lack of functional relationships between the taxa studied. Trematode parasites are highly promising bioindicators. Diverse assemblages of larval trematode parasites are easily sampled in intermediate host snails. Through their life cycles these parasites are functionally coupled with the surrounding free-living diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. It has been shown that larval trematodes in snails correlate positively with bird diversity and abundance. Here, we explore whether trematodes also correlate with standard measures of fishes, and large and small benthos, for 32 sites in three wetlands. We found associations between trematodes and benthic communities that were not consistent across wetlands. The associations were, however, consistently positive for large benthic species richness and density. Some of the contrasting associations between trematode and benthos may be explained by negative associations between large and small benthos. We found no associations with fish communities (probably because of the inadequacy of standard "snapshot" sampling methods for highly mobile fishes). The results support further exploration of trematodes as bioindicators of diversity and abundance of animal communities.

  1. Can parasites be indicators of free-living diversity? Relationships between species richness and the abundance of larval trematodes and of local benthos and fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.; Huspeni, T.C.; Brooks, A.J.; Kuris, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Measuring biodiversity is difficult. This has led to efforts to seek taxa whose species richness correlates with the species richness of other taxa. Such indicator taxa could then reduce the time and cost of assessing the biodiversity of the more extensive community. The search for species richness correlations has yielded mixed results, however. This may be primarily because of the lack of functional relationships between the taxa studied. Trematode parasites are highly promising bioindicators. Diverse assemblages of larval trematode parasites are easily sampled in intermediate host snails. Through their life cycles these parasites are functionally coupled with the surrounding free-living diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. It has been shown that larval trematodes in snails correlate positively with bird diversity and abundance. Here, we explore whether trematodes also correlate with standard measures of fishes, and large and small benthos, for 32 sites in three wetlands. We found associations between trematodes and benthic communities that were not consistent across wetlands. The associations were, however, consistently positive for large benthic species richness and density. Some of the contrasting associations between trematode and benthos may be explained by negative associations between large and small benthos. We found no associations with fish communities (probably because of the inadequacy of standard "snapshot" sampling methods for highly mobile fishes). The results support further exploration of trematodes as bioindicators of diversity and abundance of animal communities. ?? 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Impact and relationship of anterior commissure and time-dose factor on the local control of T1N0 glottic cancer treated by 6 MV photons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate prognostic factors that may influence local control (LC) of T1N0 glottic cancer treated by primary radiotherapy (RT) with 6 MV photons. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 433 consecutive patients with T1N0 glottic cancer treated between 1983 and 2005 by RT in our institution. All patients were treated with 6 MV photons. One hundred and seventy seven (41%) patients received 52.5 Gy in 23 fractions with 2.5 Gy/fraction, and 256 (59%) patients received 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Results The median follow-up time was 10.5 years. The 10-year LC rates were 91% and 87% for T1a and T1b respectively. Multivariate analysis showed LC rate was adversely affected by poorly differentiated histology (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 7.5, p = 0.035); involvement of anterior commissure (HR: 2.34, p = 0.011); fraction size of 2.0 Gy (HR: 2.17, p = 0.035) and tumor biologically effective dose (BED) < 65 Gy15 (HR: 3.38, p = 0.017). Conclusions The negative impact of anterior commissure involvement could be overcome by delivering a higher tumor BED through using fraction size of > 2.0 Gy. We recommend that fraction size > 2.0 Gy should be utilized, for radiation schedules with five daily fractions each week. PMID:21600025

  3. Acid mucopolysaccharide metabolism in leprosy. 2. Subcellular localization of hyaluronic acid and beta-glucuronidase in leprous infiltrates suggestive of a host-Mycobacterium leprae metabolic relationship.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, E; Skinsnes, O K

    1974-01-01

    Electron- and light microscopic analyses were conducted on leprosy skin biopsies relative to the origin of hyaluronic acid, which has previously been observed to be distributed inversely in ratio to the degree of cell- mediated immunity. The present study investigated the subcellular localization of hyaluronic acid and its degrading enzyme in various types of leprosy. Hyaluronic acid in some lepromatous leprosy cases was shown to be accumulated in the limiting membranes of the phagosomes of lepra cells and Myco-bacteria leprae have beta-glucuronidase which plays a role in the degradation of hyaluronic acid. Contrariwise, in tuberculoid leprosy, beta-glucuronidase was detected in the lysosomes of epithelioid cells and giant cells. This result suggests that the origin of hyaluronic acid is in histiocytes and at the same time it might suggest that M. leprae is in competition with enzymes of epithelioid cells for hyaluronic acid, whereas reduced or absent beta-glucuronidase in lepra cells enable bacilli to utilize the AMPS as a nutrient.

  4. Novel serine-based gemini surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers of local anesthetics: A comprehensive study on structure-activity relationships, molecular dynamics and dermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Raquel S; Cova, Tânia F G G; Silva, Sérgio M C; Oliveira, Rita; do Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F; Pais, Alberto A C C; Veiga, Francisco J B

    2015-06-01

    This work aims at studying the efficacy of a series of novel biocompatible, serine-based surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers for two different local anesthetics, tetracaine and ropivacaine, combining an experimental and computational approach. The surfactants consist of gemini molecules structurally related, but with variations in headgroup charge (nonionic vs. cationic) and in the hydrocarbon chain lengths (main and spacer chains). In vitro permeation and molecular dynamics studies combined with cytotoxicity profiles were performed to investigate the permeation of both drugs, probe skin integrity, and rationalize the interactions at molecular level. Results show that these enhancers do not have significant deleterious effects on the skin structure and do not cause relevant changes on cell viability. Permeation across the skin is clearly improved using some of the selected serine-based gemini surfactants, namely the cationic ones with long alkyl chains and shorter spacer. This is noteworthy in the case of ropivacaine hydrochloride, which is not easily administered through the stratum corneum. Molecular dynamics results provide a mechanistic view of the surfactant action on lipid membranes that essentially corroborate the experimental observations. Overall, this study suggests the viability of these serine-based surfactants as suitable and promising delivery agents in pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Michael; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Allen, Carl M; Jaskoll, Tina

    2012-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is common. Although still controversial, there is growing evidence that active hCMV infection is associated with a variety of malignancies, including brain, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. Given that hCMV is frequently resident in salivary gland (SG) ductal epithelium, we hypothesized that hCMV would be important to the pathogenesis of SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). This was initially supported by our finding that purified CMV induces malignant transformation in SG cells in an in vitro mouse model, and utilizes a pathogenic pathway previously reported for human MEC. Here we present the histologic and molecular characterizations of 39 human SG MECs selected randomly from a repository of cases spanning 2004-2011. Serial sections were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, tissue blocks from previous incisional or excisional biopsies. Immunohistochemical assays were performed for active hCMV proteins (IE1 and pp65) and the activated COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. All four prospective causal criteria for viruses and cancer are fully satisfied: (1) protein markers for active hCMV are present in 97% of MECs; (2) markers of active hCMV are absent in non-neoplastic SG tissues; (3) hCMV-specific proteins (IE1, pp65) are in specific cell types and expression is positively correlated with severity; (4) hCMV correlates and colocalizes with an upregulation and activation of an established oncogenic signaling pathway (COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK). Thus, the evidential support reported here and previously in a mouse model is strongly confirmatory of a causal relationship between hCMV and SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of hCMV's role in human oncogenesis that fully responds to all of Koch's Postulates as revised for viruses and cancer. In the absence of any contrary evidence, hCMV can reasonably be designated an "oncovirus."

  6. Local tumor control following single dose irradiation of human melanoma xenografts: Relationship to cellular radiosensitivity and influence of an immune response by the athymic mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Rofstad, E.K.

    1989-06-15

    The potential usefulness of untreated congenitally athymic adult mice as hosts for human tumors in radiocurability studies was investigated using five human melanoma xenograft lines (E.E., E.F., G.E., M.F., V.N.). The tumor radiocurability was found to differ considerably among the lines; the radiation doses required to achieve local control of 50% of the tumors irradiated (TCD50 values) ranged from 29.6 +/- 2.1 (SE) to 67.9 +/- 3.5 Gy. Since the clinical relevance of experimentally determined TCD50 values depends on to what extent they are modified by a host immune response, a possible immune reactivity against the melanomas was investigated by comparing the radiocurability data with cell survival data measured in vitro after irradiation in vivo and by performing quantitative tumor transplantability studies. The radiocurability and the cell survival data were found to agree well for the E.F., G.E., and M.F. melanomas. Moreover, the number of tumor cells required to achieve tumors in 50% of the inoculation sites (TD50 values) in untreated and in whole-body irradiated mice were similar, suggesting that the TCD50 values measured for these lines were not significantly influenced by a host immune response. On the other hand, the E.E. and V.N. melanomas showed significantly lower TCD50 values in vivo than predicted theoretically from the in vitro cell survival data and a significantly lower number of tumor cells required to achieve tumors in 50% of the inoculation sites in whole-body irradiated than in untreated mice, suggesting that the radiocurability of these two lines was enhanced due to an immune response by the host. Athymic mice may thus express a significant immune reactivity against some human tumor xenograft lines but not against others.

  7. The Bacterial Composition within the Sarracenia purpurea Model System: Local Scale Differences and the Relationship with the Other Members of the Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah M.; Akob, Denise M.; Green, Stefan J.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, contain a microscopic aquatic food web that is considered a model system in ecological research. The species identity of the intermediate and top trophic level of this food web, as well the detritivore midge, are highly similar across the native geographic range of S. purpurea and, in some cases, appear to have co-evolved with the plant. However, until recently, the identity, geographic variation, and diversity of the bacteria in the bottom trophic level of this food web have remained largely unknown. This study investigated bacterial community composition inside the leaves of S. purpurea to address: 1) variation in bacterial communities at the beginning of succession at the local scale in different areas of the plant’s native geographic range (southern and mid-regional sites) and 2) the impacts of bacterial consumers and other members of the aquatic food web (i.e., insects) on bacterial community structure. Communities from six leaves (one leaf per plant) from New York and Florida study sites were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene cloning. Each pitcher within each site had a distinct community; however, there was more overlap in bacterial composition within each site than when communities were compared across sites. In contrast, the identity of protozoans and metazoans in this community were similar in species identity both within a site and between the two sites, but abundances differed. Our results indicate that, at least during the beginning of succession, there is no strong selection for bacterial taxa and that there is no core group of bacteria required by the plant to start the decomposition of trapped insects. Co-evolution between the plant and bacteria appears to not have occurred as it has for other members of this community. PMID:23227224

  8. Seasonal studies on commensal rats and their ectoparasites in a rural area of Egypt: the relationship of ectoparasites to the species, locality, and relative abundance of the host.

    PubMed

    Soliman, S; Main, A J; Marzouk, A S; Montasser, A A

    2001-06-01

    The present study was carried out in 3 villages, namely Kafr Ayoub Soliman, Kafr Ibrahim El-Aidi, and El-Sa'adat, Sharqiya Governorate, Egypt. A total of 519 rats was collected from the 3 study sites: 46.6% Rattus rattus, and 53.4% Rattus norvegicus. A total of 20,643 ectoparasites was recovered from R. rattus: 33.3% mites, 33.8% fleas, and 32.9% lice. From R. norvegicus a total of 40,997 ectoparasites was recovered: 28.9% mites, 31% fleas, and 40.1% lice. Three common mite species were recovered from both rat hosts, i.e., Ornithonyssus bacoti, Radfordia ensifera, and Laelaps nuttalli. Three common flea species were also recovered from both rat hosts, i.e., Echidnophaga gallinacea, Leptopsylla segnis, and Xenopsylla cheopis. Polyplax spinulosa was the only dominant louse species that infested both rat hosts. Rats did not show a definite breeding season, and the seasonal rat indices were generally low in different study sites. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of each of mites, fleas, and lice in both rat species. The total general indices of mites and fleas, on the other hand, was significantly higher in R. norvegicus. The general index of X. cheopis was high and ranged between 5.9 in R. rattus and 14.5 in R. norvegicus. Season-related changes were observed in the general index of each of L. segnis infesting both rat species and R. ensifera and O. bacoti infesting R. norvegicus. The prevalence and general indices of some ectoparasites showed differences related to the locality of their rat hosts. Seasonal changes in the general indices of some ectoparasites paralleled seasonal changes in the relative abundance of their rat hosts.

  9. Building Relationships with Reporters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwai, Sabrina

    2008-01-01

    Each story that is written about career and technical education (CTE) increases knowledge and support with local government, school officials and the community. The first step in improving publicity for one's program is to build a relationship with local reporters covering education. In this article, the author discusses how important it is to…

  10. Spatial Relationships Between Bacteria and Localized Corrosion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    of corrosion products on specimens with crevices. After 11 days, 50 ml of natural seawater was added to the abiotic electrolytes containing electrodes...De Mele, H. A. Videla, "Interacciones de Biopeliculas Bacterianas y Compuestos Inorganicos Sobre Aceros Protegidos Catodicamente," 5th Congreso Ibero

  11. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  12. Local Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Yvonne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 30 local government publications that describe local community efforts to improve policing; find alternative ways of dealing with violence; attract businesses; preserve neighborhoods and buildings; provide open space; and improve employment opportunities. Several publications' statistics were based on 1990 census data. (KRN)

  13. Local gravitomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid-Saless, Bahman

    1990-10-01

    In a simple two-body system, the gravitomagnetic components of the metric in the local quasi-inertial frame of one of the bodies is calculated. The local geometry in this frame which is freely falling along the geodesic but is directionally fixed with respect to distant stars is primarily defined by the gravitomagnetic components of the local metric. This metric serves to track down the various contributions from the local and distant source and thus provides further insight to the nature of gravitomagnetism. As a result it is shown that in the quasi-inertial frame geodetic precession is a gravitomagnetic phenomenon. Furthermore a connection between local gravitomagnetic effects and Einstein's principle of equivalence is established.

  14. Temporal trends in spatial access to pharmacies that sell over-the-counter syringes in New York City health districts: relationship to local racial/ethnic composition and need.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Bossak, Brian H; Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Samuel R; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2009-11-01

    Pharmacies that sell over-the-counter (OTC) syringes are a major source of sterile syringes for injection drug users in cities and states where such sales are legal. In these cities and states, however, black injectors are markedly less likely to acquire syringes from pharmacies than white injectors. The present analysis documents spatial and temporal trends in OTC pharmacy access in New York City health districts over time (2001-2006) and investigates whether these trends are related to district racial/ethnic composition and to local need for OTC pharmacies. For each year of the study period, we used kernel density estimation methods to characterize spatial access to OTC pharmacies within each health district. Higher values on this measure indicate better access to these pharmacies. "Need" was operationalized using two different measures: the number of newly diagnosed injection-related AIDS cases per 10,000 residents (averaged across 1999-2001), and the number of drug-related hospital discharges per 10,000 residents (averaged across 1999-2001). District sociodemographic characteristics were assessed using 2000 US decennial census data. We used hierarchical linear models (HLM) for descriptive and inferential analyses and investigated whether the relationship between need and temporal trajectories in the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program access varied by district racial/ethnic composition, controlling for district poverty rates. HLM analyses indicate that the mean spatial access to OTC pharmacies across New York City health districts was 12.71 in 2001 and increased linearly by 1.32 units annually thereafter. Temporal trajectories in spatial access to OTC pharmacies depended on both need and racial/ethnic composition. Within high-need districts, OTC pharmacy access was twice as high in 2001 and increased three times faster annually, in districts with higher proportions of non-Hispanic white residents than in districts with low proportions of these

  15. Dose-effect relationship and risk factors for vaginal stenosis after definitive radio(chemo)therapy with image-guided brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer in the EMBRACE study.

    PubMed

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Nout, Remi A; Lindegaard, Jacob C; Haie-Meder, Christine; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Segedin, Barbara; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M; Hoskin, Peter J; Rai, Bhavana; Dörr, Wolfgang; Kirisits, Christian; Bentzen, Søren M; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for vaginal stenosis and to establish a dose-effect relationship for image-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients from the ongoing EMBRACE study with prospectively assessed morbidity (CTCAEv3.0) at baseline and at least one follow-up were selected. Patient-, disease- and treatment characteristics were tested as risk factors for vaginal stenosis G ⩾ 2 in univariate and multivariable analyses (Cox proportional hazards model) and a dose-effect curve was deduced from the estimates. The ICRU rectum point was used to derive the recto-vaginal reference point dose. In 630 patients included (median follow-up 24months), 2-year actuarial estimate for vaginal stenosis G ⩾ 2 was 21%. Recto-vaginal reference point dose (HR=1.025, p=0.029), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose >45 Gy/25 fractions (HR=1.770, p=0.056) and tumor extension in the vagina (HR=2.259, p ⩽ 0.001) were risk factors for vaginal stenosis, adjusted for center reporting effects. Based on the model curve, the risk was 20% at 65 Gy, 27% at 75 Gy and 34% at 85 Gy (recto-vaginal reference point dose). Keeping the EBRT dose at 45 Gy/25 fractions and decreasing the dose contribution of brachytherapy to the vagina decrease the risk of stenosis. A planning aim of ⩽65 Gy EQD2 (EBRT+brachytherapy dose) to the recto-vaginal reference point is therefore proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Localized Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of scleroderma which affects internal organs, called systemic sclerosis or, often incorrectly stated, as systemic scleroderma. Localized ... condition and to explain how it differs from systemic sclerosis, which is quite different and affects internal organs ...

  17. Localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Laxer, Ronald M; Zulian, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    Localized scleroderma, also known as morphoea, has a variety of clinical manifestations that can include systemic involvement. Early recognition, diagnosis and treatment may improve the long-term outcome. A large multicentre study coordinated by the Pediatric Rheumatology European Society has yielded important information on the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of juvenile localized scleroderma, especially as it pertains to systemic manifestations. Previous results using methotrexate and corticosteroids have been confirmed. Studies on phototherapy have also demonstrated efficacy. A new immunomodulator, imiquimod, has shown promise in an initial case series. Studies over the past year highlight the wide range of extracutaneous manifestations and different forms of localized scleroderma and suggest that treatment may be beneficial.

  18. Local Acausality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüthrich, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    A fair amount of recent scholarship has been concerned with correcting a supposedly wrong, but wide-spread, assessment of the consequences of the empirical falsification of Bell-type inequalities. In particular, it has been claimed that Bell-type inequalities follow from "locality tout court" without additional assumptions such as "realism" or "hidden variables". However, this line of reasoning conflates restrictions on the spatio-temporal relation between causes and their effects ("locality") and the assumption of a cause for every event ("causality"). It thus fails to recognize a substantial restriction of the class of theories that is falsified through Bell-type inequalities.

  19. Local Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Association of Classroom Teachers.

    Twenty-four local projects which are intended to serve as sources of ideas for professional group action are described in this pamphlet. The projects are reported within the framework of four areas of improving teaching. Under "professional development" projects are portrayed concerning the use of student tutors and the improvement of…

  20. Localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (also called morphea) is a term encompassing a spectrum of sclerotic autoimmune diseases that primarily affect the skin, but also might involve underlying structures such as the fat, fascia, muscle, and bones. Its exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but several trigger factors in genetically predisposed individuals might initially lead to an immunologically triggered release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a profound dysregulation of the connective tissue metabolism and ultimately to induction of fibrosis. To date, there are no specific serological markers available for localized scleroderma. Within the last years, several validated clinical scores have been introduced as potential outcome measures for the disease. Given the rarity of localized scleroderma, only few evidence-based therapeutical treatment options exist. So far, the most robust data is available for ultraviolet A1 phototherapy in disease that is restricted to the skin, and methotrexate alone or in combination with systemic corticosteroids in more severe disease that additionally affects extracutaneous structures. This practical review summarizes relevant information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical subtypes and classifications, differential diagnoses, clinical scores and outcome measures, and current treatment strategies of localized scleroderma. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Local Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehling, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    As critics complain about higher education's shortcomings, trustees may need to communicate their institution's economic, cultural, and intellectual contributions to the local community. The most obvious and easily understood benefit is purchasing power, but it also contributes to small business growth, individual quality of life, the social,…

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  4. Localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Tuffanelli, D L

    1998-03-01

    Localized scleroderma can be divided into three main subtypes: morphea, linear scleroderma, and generalized morphea. Plaque morphea usually has a good prognosis. Variants of morphea, including guttate morphea and atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini, are seen. Linear scleroderma, whether involving an extremity or the face, is often associated with serological abnormalities. Cosmetic and functional prognosis may be poor. Therapy is usually ineffective. Generalized morphea may be difficult to differentiate from systemic scleroderma. However, progression to systemic scleroderma is uncommon.

  5. Local Authority Education in a Democratic Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairley, John

    1998-01-01

    Establishment of a Scottish Parliament in 1999 will pose questions about its relationship to local authorities and their role in education. Possible scenarios are discussed in which Parliament pursues centralization or decentralization in education policy. Recent reforms to local government structures may allow local councils to become partners of…

  6. Greeks in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    Part of the Ethnic Heritage in America curriculum materials, this unit is about Greeks in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Greece, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Greece, historical chronological outline, list of Greeks in U.S. history, bibliography about Greeks, Greek publications in the United…

  7. Jews in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    This ethnic heritage unit is about Jews in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Israel, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Israel, a bibliography about Jews, and a list of Jewish organizations in the United States. The second section discusses early Jewish settlement in North America, Jewish contributions to…

  8. Ukrainians in America: Contributions to America, Relationship to Homeland, Integration into American Life, Retention of Ethnicity in America. Ethnic Heritage in America: Curriculum Materials in Elementary School Social Studies on Greeks, Jews, Lithuanians, and Ukrainians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Consortium for Inter-Ethnic Curriculum Development, IL.

    This ethnic heritage unit is about Ukrainians in the United States. The first section presents basic facts, such as a map of Ukraine, map of Eastern Europe, facts about Ukraine, principal dates in Ukrainian history, ten outstanding figures in modern Ukrainian history, milestones of Ukrainian communities in the United States, bibliography about…

  9. Maintenance of Forest Biodiversity in a Post-Soviet Governance Model: Perceptions by Local Actors in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazdinis, Marius; Angelstam, Per; Lazdinis, Imantas

    2007-07-01

    Successful biodiversity conservation does not depend on ecologic knowledge alone. Good conservation policies and policy implementation tools are equally important. Moreover, the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of local actors, directly in charge of operations in the field, are a key to successful policy implementation. The connections between policy objectives and their implementation as well as the involvement of local actors’ efforts in implementing policy objectives largely depend on the governance model in use. This article assesses the knowledge of local actors in relation to the biodiversity conservation objectives and tools in Lithuanian forest management. As a main framework for this study, the needs assessment approach was applied. The study used both in-depth open-ended interviews and follow-up telephone interviews. Two state forest enterprises in Lithuania were selected as the study sites. The findings indicate that policy objectives in the field of forest biodiversity conservation and the related tools are well known but not well understood by those in charge of forest biodiversity policy implementation. To improve the situation, a transition toward adaptive learning and participatory governance as a means of facilitating conservation efforts is proposed.

  10. Clinical cosmobiology: distribution of deaths during 180 months and cosmophysical activity. The Lithuanian study, 1990-2004. The role of cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Stoupel, Elyiahu; Kalediene, Ramune; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Abramson, Evgeny; Israelevich, Peter; Sulkes, Jaqueline

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is a next step of our previous, initial, publications--to explore the links between monthly death number (total, and for the major death causes and each gender) with levels of monthly cosmophysical activity in a long-term, big cohort observation. Death number during 180 consecutive months from the National Registry of Lithuania for years 1990-2004 were studied. A total of 630,205 deaths were analyzed (333,035 males). For comparison, monthly indices of solar activity, geomagnetic activity, and cosmic ray activity and year and month (1-12) of the study were used. The cosmophysical data were obtained from space research centers in the USA, Russia, and Finland. Statistics. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (P) between compared parameters were calculated. A multivariate model of prediction was designed. It was a significant correlation between total monthly death number and indices of cosmic ray activity and, inverse, of solar activity; in men stronger than in women. Monthly geomagnetic activity was significantly correlated with traffic accidents, ischemic heart disease/stroke ratio, suicide victim number. Deaths from stroke, noncardiovascular causes, suicide, traffic accidents were related with cosmic ray activity and, inverse, with solar activity. Relationship of ischemic heart disease/stroke ratio to year of observation showed additional evidence for the growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality. Monthly death number is linked to cosmic ray activity, and inverse, to solar activity. Central place of stroke-related deaths in cardiovascular mortality is emerging. Geomagnetic activity, in monthly account, plays a relatively minor role. We presume that forces antagonistic to cosmic ray activity, like solar activity and geomagnetic activity, can prevent some negative biologic effects of cosmic ray.

  11. A novel hNIS/tdTomato fusion reporter for visualizing the relationship between the cellular localization of sodium iodide symporter and its iodine uptake function under heat shock treatment.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Chan Joo; Chung, Taemoon; Youn, Hyewon; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key

    2015-01-01

    The function of membrane-localized sodium iodide symporter (NIS) determines the efficacy of radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. Here, we describe a dual mode reporter fused with human NIS (hNIS) and a red fluorescent protein named tandem dimeric Tomato (tdTomato) for the in vitro and in vivo imaging of hNIS protein expression, localization, and iodide uptake function. Human cervical epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa)-hNIS/tdTomato cells were established by transducing a fusion gene expressing hNIS/tdTomato under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter. Fluorescence imaging, confocal microscopy, and an 125I uptake assay were performed to validate the integrity of the fusion protein. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide were used to block newly synthesized hNIS proteins. In vivo images were acquired using a gamma camera and a Maestro fluorescence imaging device. The fluorescence intensity of membrane-localized hNIS and 125I uptake both were increased after heat shock. Scintigraphy and fluorescence imaging indicated specific accumulation of the hNIS/tdTomato fusion protein in xenografted tumors, supporting the utility of this system for in vivo monitoring of hNIS expression and activity. We developed a novel hNIS/tdTomato dual mode reporter that enables visualization of the expression, localization, and iodine uptake function of hNIS in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Rehydrate locally.

    PubMed

    Djokoto, E

    1997-11-01

    In 1991, in the northern region of Ghana, during the cholera epidemic, 10 rural health centers replied to a questionnaire regarding cholera case referrals. The results were as follows: 6 centers referred serious cases to hospitals, 2 did not receive patients because of fear of infection, and 2 received all patients. Although no patients admitted to the rural health centers died, many of the referred patients did. Of 14 cases referred to a hospital, 3 died in transit, 4 died at the hospital, and 7 survived. Deaths might be prevented if patients were treated promptly and locally with oral rehydration solutions based on cereals and rice; these are easy to prepare, superior to, and more available than standard oral rehydration salts (ORS). One mother walked 5 miles to a rural health post with her sick baby on her back, only to find that the dehydrated child had died on the way. During the 1991 cholera epidemic in Ghana, the author treated several patients in their homes; all recovered. Prompt and frequent rehydration in the home is the best treatment for diarrhea and cholera.

  13. Localized excitations from localized unitary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Allic

    2017-06-01

    Localized unitary operators are basic probes of locality and causality in quantum systems: localized unitary operators create localized excitations in entangled states. Working with an explicit form, we explore properties of these operators in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. We show that, unlike unitary operators, local non-unitary operators generically create non-local excitations. We present a local picture for quantum systems in which localized experimentalists can only act through localized Hamiltonian deformations, and therefore localized unitary operators. We demonstrate that localized unitary operators model certain quantum quenches exactly. We show how the Reeh-Schlieder theorem follows intuitively from basic properties of entanglement, non-unitary operators, and the local picture. We show that a recent quasi-particle picture for excited-state entanglement entropy in conformal field theories is not universal for all local operators. We prove a causality relation for entanglement entropy and connect our results to the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  14. Quantum Locality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  15. Local Foods, Local Places Summary Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These summary reports describe Local Foods, Local Places projects in communities across the country, including farmers markets, cooperatives, community gardens, and other food-related enterprises that can boost local economies and drive revitalization.

  16. Relationship between ferroelectric properties and local structure of Pb1-xBaxZr0.40Ti0.60O3 ceramic materials studied by X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, Alexandre; Michalowicz, Alain; Moscovici, Jacques; Pizani, Paulo Sergio; Mastelaro, Valmor Roberto

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the structural characterization of Pb1-xBaxZr0.40Ti0.60O3 (PBZT) ferroelectric ceramic compositions prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and Raman spectroscopy were used in the probing of the local structure of PBZT samples that exhibit a normal or relaxor ferroelectric behavior. They showed a considerable local disorder around Zr and Pb atoms in the samples of tetragonal or cubic long-range order symmetry. The intensity of the E(TO3) mode in the Raman spectra of PBZT relaxor samples remains constant at temperatures lower than Tm, which has proven the stabilization of the correlation process between nanodomains.

  17. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  18. STRAIN LOCALIZATION IN IRRADIATED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Hashimoto, Naoyuki

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature irradiation can significantly harden metallic materials and often lead to strain localization and ductility loss in deformation. This paper provides a review on the radiation effects on the deformation of metallic materials, focusing on microscopic and macroscopic strain localization phenomena. The microscopic strain localization often observed in irradiated materials are dislocation channeling and deformation twinning, in which dislocation glides are evenly distributed and well confined in the narrow bands, usually a fraction of a micron wide. Dislocation channeling is a common strain localization mechanism observed virtually in all irradiated metallic materials with ductility, while deformation twinning is an alternative localization mechanism occurring only in low stacking fault energy materials. In some high stacking fault energy materials where cross slip is easy, curved and widening channels can be formed depending on dose and stress state. Irradiation also prompts macroscopic strain localization (or plastic instability). It is shown that the plastic instability stress and true fracture stress are nearly independent of irradiation dose if there is no radiation-induced phase change or embrittlement. A newly proposed plastic instability criterion is that the metals after irradiation show necking at yield when the yield stress exceeds the dose-independent plastic instability stress. There is no evident relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic strain localizations; which is explained by the long-range back-stress hardening. It is proposed that the microscopic strain localization is a generalized phenomenon occurring at high stress.

  19. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  20. The Local Education Fund. A Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Education Fund, Pittsburgh, PA.

    A Local Education Fund (LEF) is a third-party, nonprofit entity whose agenda, at least in part, consists of developing supportive community and private sector relationships with a public school system. It provides limited private sector support to launch initiatives and broker relationships leading toward school improvement. LEFs are funded by the…

  1. Non-locality Sudden Death in Tripartite Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, Gregg; Ann, Kevin

    2009-03-10

    Bell non-locality sudden death is the disappearance of non-local properties in finite times under local phase noise, which decoheres states only in the infinite-time limit. We consider the relationship between decoherence, disentanglement, and Bell non-locality sudden death in bipartite and tripartite systems in specific large classes of state preparation.

  2. History of Schooling: Politics and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, Carla, Ed.; Westberg, Johannes, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance,…

  3. Local Wealth and Teachers' Salaries in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kenneth M.; And Others

    Findings of a study that examined the relationship between Pennsylvania teachers' salaries and local wealth are presented in this paper. Statistical analyses of 491 Pennsylvania school districts involved regression, t tests, and chi square. Findings indicate that two factors had a statistically significant impact on local teacher salaries: (1) the…

  4. History of Schooling: Politics and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, Carla, Ed.; Westberg, Johannes, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance,…

  5. Complex Relationships in the Occator-Kirnis Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    This view obtained by NASA's Dawn spacecraft during its Survey orbit illustrates the diversity and complexity of Ceres' geology. It shows familiar features: Occator Crater with its bright deposits (called faculae) of carbonates and other salts, a series of linear features (at right) called Samhain Catenae, and another large crater on the right side of the image called Kirnis. A relatively fresh crater called Lociyo, superimposed on an older crater, can be seen toward the bottom left of the picture. Studying the morphologies and relationships between various types of geological features can help scientists reconstruct Ceres' history. Occator appears to be one of the youngest features in this picture, except for a couple of smaller craters. The 71-mile-wide (115-kilometer-wide) Kirnis Crater on the other hand is an old, eroded crater. It owes its peculiar polygonal shape in part to its overlap with one of the Samhain Catenae. This illustrates the role of fractures in driving the geometry of some of Ceres' craters. The origin of these particular catenae is not understood yet, and is not necessarily related to the Pongal Catena. Kirnis Crater is named after a Lithuanian spirit-guardian of cherry trees, whereas the Samhain Catenae refer to a Gaelic festival organized at the end of the harvest season. It was observed in Ireland and Scotland during seven days in October and November, nearly halfway between the autumn equinox and the winter solstice. This picture was obtained on June 25, 2015, from an altitude of 2,700 miles (4,400 kilometers). It is centered at 1.7 degrees north latitude, and 249 degrees east longitude. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21409

  6. Social Partnership in Accrediting Lithuanian VET Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutlys, Vidmantas; Kaminskiene, Lina

    2008-01-01

    This article examines social partnership in accrediting qualifications in Lithuania. It defines the factors influencing social partnership and surveys future development perspectives, referring to the creation and implementation of the national qualifications system in Lithuania. Social partnership in qualifications accreditation is regarded as a…

  7. Relationship between functional classification levels and anaerobic performance of wheelchair basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-03-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes from the Polish and Lithuanian national wheelchair basketball leagues took part in this study. The Wingate Anaerobic Test was used to assess four AnP indexes with an arm crank ergometer The level of AnP in wheelchair basketball athletes depends to some degree on classification level. No significant differences were found for the AnP indexes across levels 1.0-2.5 and 3.0-4.5. However the AnP level for those in classes 1.0-2.5 was significantly lower than those in classes 3. 0-4.5. The findings from this study provided some evidence that the IWBF functional classification system should be reexamined and that a consolidation of the current eight levels might be in order.

  8. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... advice. loveisrespect.org : 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline : 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) National Sexual ... Rape National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence If you’re concerned about abusive relationships, here’s ...

  9. Macroecology of local insect communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Oliver; McGavin, George C.

    2000-01-01

    The inter-relationships between animal body weight, range size, species richness and abundance are currently the basis of macroecology. Using 41 099 insects sampled from 31 Acacia tree canopies in north-east Tanzania, we first documented the basic macroecological patterns. The relationship between body weight and both species richness and abundance was polygonal with the highest insect species richness and abundance occurring at intermediate body weights. Across individual tree communities, the most statistically robust relationships were found between range size, abundance and species richness and they were all linear. In a second part, we focused on the positive abundance-range size relationship and we could test predictions of six of the eight proposed hypotheses to explain this widely documented pattern of community structure. The relationship is most likely explained by the metapopulation hypothesis stating that with more patches being occupied, local abundance in a given patch increases due to a higher rate of immigration from nearby patches. In addition, we found high slopes for the species-area relationship, typical of island systems and thus it seems reasonable to characterise Acacia trees in the savannah as habitat islands for insects.

  10. Stimulus-induced dissociation of neuronal firing rates and local field potential gamma power and its relationship to the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in macaque primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bartolo, M J; Gieselmann, M A; Vuksanovic, V; Hunter, D; Sun, L; Chen, X; Delicato, L S; Thiele, A

    2011-01-01

    The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal is regularly used to assign neuronal activity to cognitive function. Recent analyses have shown that the local field potential (LFP) gamma power is a better predictor of the fMRI BOLD signal than spiking activity. However, LFP gamma power and spiking activity are usually correlated, clouding the analysis of the neural basis of the BOLD signal. We show that changes in LFP gamma power and spiking activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the awake primate can be dissociated by using grating and plaid pattern stimuli, which differentially engage surround suppression and cross-orientation inhibition/facilitation within and between cortical columns. Grating presentation yielded substantial V1 LFP gamma frequency oscillations and significant multi-unit activity. Plaid pattern presentation significantly reduced the LFP gamma power while increasing population multi-unit activity. The fMRI BOLD activity followed the LFP gamma power changes, not the multi-unit activity. Inference of neuronal activity from the fMRI BOLD signal thus requires detailed a priori knowledge of how different stimuli or tasks activate the cortical network. PMID:22081989

  11. Procaspase-3 activation as an anti-cancer strategy: structure-activity relationship of procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1) and its cellular co-localization with caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Quinn P; Hsu, Danny C; Goode, David R; Novotny, Chris J; Totten, Ryan K; Hergenrother, Paul J

    2009-09-24

    A goal of personalized medicine as applied to oncology is to identify compounds that exploit a defined molecular defect in a cancerous cell. A compound called procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1) was reported that enhances the activity of procaspase-3 in vitro and induces apoptotic death in cancer cells in culture and in mouse xenograft models. Experimental evidence indicates that PAC-1 activates procaspase-3 in vitro through chelation of inhibitory zinc ions. Described herein is the synthesis and biological activity of a family of PAC-1 derivatives where key functional groups have been systematically altered. Analysis of these compounds reveals a strong correlation between the in vitro procaspase-3 activating effect and their ability to induce death in cancer cells in culture. Importantly, we also show that a fluorescently labeled version of PAC-1 co-localizes with sites of caspase-3 activity in cancer cells. The data presented herein further bolster the hypothesis that PAC-1 induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the direct activation of procaspase-3, has implications for the design and discovery of next-generation procaspase-3 activating compounds, and sheds light on the anti-apoptotic role of cellular zinc.

  12. Relationship between macroscopic physical properties and local distortions of low-doping La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}: An EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Bridges, F.; Downward, L.; Neumeier, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    A temperature-dependent extended x-ray-absorption fine structure investigation of La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} is presented for the concentration range that spans the ferromagnetic-insulator (FMI) to ferromagnetic-metal (FMM) transition region, x=0.16, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.22; the titrated hole concentrations are slightly higher, y=0.2, 0.22, 0.24, and 0.25, respectively. For this range of Ca concentrations the samples are insulating for x=0.16-0.2 and show a metal/insulator (M/I) transition for x=0.22. All samples are ferromagnetic although the saturation magnetization for the 16% Ca sample is only {approx}70% of the expected value at 0.4 T. This raises a question as to the nature of the ferromagnetic coupling mechanism in such insulating samples. We find that the FMI samples have similar correlations between changes in the local Mn-O distortions and the magnetization as observed previously for the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) samples (0.2{<=}x{<=}0.5)--except that the FMI samples never become fully magnetized. The data show that there are at least two distinct types of distortions. The initial distortions removed as the insulating sample becomes magnetized are small and provide direct evidence that roughly 50% of the Mn sites (associated with the hole charge carriers) have a small average distortion/site and are magnetized first. The large Mn-O distortions that remain at low T are attributed to a small fraction (<30%) of fully Jahn-Teller-distorted Mn sites that are either unmagnetized or antiferromagnetically ordered. Thus the insulating samples are very similar to the behavior of the CMR samples up to the point at which the M/I transition occurs for the CMR materials. The lack of metallic conductivity for x{<=}0.2, when 50% or more of the sample is magnetic, implies that there must be preferred magnetized Mn sites (that involve holes) and that such sites do not percolate at these concentrations.

  13. Relationship between productivity and resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a very brief discussion of the relationship between local short-term uses of the environment and enhancement of productivity. It also contains a brief mention of the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources.

  14. Local Fiscal Allocation for Public Health Departments.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J Mac; Leider, Jonathon P; Riley, William J

    2015-12-01

    We examined the percentage of local government taxes ("fiscal allocation") dedicated to local health departments on a national level, as well as correlates of local investment in public health. Using the most recent data available--the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials Profile survey and the 2007 U.S. Census Bureau Census of Local Governments-generalized linear regression models examined associations between fiscal allocation and local health department setting, governance, finance, and service provision. Models were stratified by the extent of long-term debt for the jurisdiction. Analyses were performed in 2014. Average fiscal allocation for public health was 3.31% of total local taxes. In multivariate regressions, per capita expenditures, having a local board of health and public health service provision were associated with higher fiscal allocation. Stratified models showed that local board of health and local health department taxing authority were associated with fiscal allocation in low and high long-term debt areas, respectively. The proportion of all local taxes allocated to local public health is related to local health department expenditures, service provision, and governance. These relationships depend upon the extent of long-term debt in the jurisdiction. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Local Shape from Texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenholtz, Ruth Ellen

    optical flow. In the second method, we estimate only the second moments of the texture in the image. In this method we implicitly model the distortion as a set of affine transforms, but we do not explicitly solve for the affine transforms. This latter method is intended for use on more irregular textures. We have derived the relationship between the parameters of these affine transformations and all five local shape and orientation parameters. We use non-linear minimization of a least squares error criterion to estimate the shape and orientation parameters from the texture distortion, using a simple linear algorithm to obtain an initial guess. Under the assumption that the measurement errors in the affine parameters are independent and normally distributed, we find error bounds on the shape and orientation parameter estimates. This dissertation presents experimental results of images of planar and curved surfaces under perspective projection. We test the method based on our first measure of texture distortion on fairly regular textures, and we find all five local shape and orientation parameters with no a priori assumptions about the shape of the surface. We test the method based on our second texture distortion measure on textures ranging from regular to irregular, defined by spatial point processes. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  16. Parents' Views on Preschool Care and Education in Local Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devjak, Tatjana; Bercnik, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    In this text, the authors are analyzing preschool care and education in local community. They are focusing on the problem of information transfer between the kindergarten, parents and local community, as well as the model of relationship participation. Cooperation between parents, kindergarten and local community is an important element in the…

  17. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  18. Using a NIATx Based Local Learning Collaborative for Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mathew; Scripa, Joseph S.; Zastowny, Thomas R.; Ford, James H., II

    2011-01-01

    Local governments play an important role in improving substance abuse and mental health services. The structure of the local learning collaborative requires careful attention to old relationships and challenges local governmental leaders to help move participants from a competitive to collaborative environment. This study describes one county's…

  19. When global environmentalism meets local livelihoods: policy and management lessons

    Treesearch

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2009-01-01

    Creation of national parks often imposes immediate livelihood costs on local people, and tensions between park managers and local people are common. Park managers have tried different approaches to managing relationships with local people, but nearly all include efforts to promote environmental values and behaviors. These efforts have had uneven results, and there is a...

  20. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  1. Local reduction in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaler, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    A conventional wisdom about the progress of physics holds that successive theories wholly encompass the domains of their predecessors through a process that is often called "reduction." While certain influential accounts of inter-theory reduction in physics take reduction to require a single "global" derivation of one theory's laws from those of another, I show that global reductions are not available in all cases where the conventional wisdom requires reduction to hold. However, I argue that a weaker "local" form of reduction, which defines reduction between theories in terms of a more fundamental notion of reduction between models of a single fixed system, is available in such cases and moreover suffices to uphold the conventional wisdom. To illustrate the sort of fixed-system, inter-model reduction that grounds inter-theoretic reduction on this picture, I specialize to a particular class of cases in which both models are dynamical systems. I show that reduction in these cases is underwritten by a mathematical relationship that follows a certain liberalized construal of Nagel/Schaffner reduction, and support this claim with several examples. Moreover, I show that this broadly Nagelian analysis of inter-model reduction encompasses several cases that are sometimes cited as instances of the "physicist's" limit-based notion of reduction.

  2. Refuting phylogenetic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bucknam, James; Boucher, Yan; Bapteste, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background Phylogenetic methods are philosophically grounded, and so can be philosophically biased in ways that limit explanatory power. This constitutes an important methodologic dimension not often taken into account. Here we address this dimension in the context of concatenation approaches to phylogeny. Results We discuss some of the limits of a methodology restricted to verificationism, the philosophy on which gene concatenation practices generally rely. As an alternative, we describe a software which identifies and focuses on impossible or refuted relationships, through a simple analysis of bootstrap bipartitions, followed by multivariate statistical analyses. We show how refuting phylogenetic relationships could in principle facilitate systematics. We also apply our method to the study of two complex phylogenies: the phylogeny of the archaea and the phylogeny of the core of genes shared by all life forms. While many groups are rejected, our results left open a possible proximity of N. equitans and the Methanopyrales, of the Archaea and the Cyanobacteria, and as well the possible grouping of the Methanobacteriales/Methanoccocales and Thermosplasmatales, of the Spirochaetes and the Actinobacteria and of the Proteobacteria and firmicutes. Conclusion It is sometimes easier (and preferable) to decide which species do not group together than which ones do. When possible topologies are limited, identifying local relationships that are rejected may be a useful alternative to classical concatenation approaches aiming to find a globally resolved tree on the basis of weak phylogenetic markers. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Mark Ragan, Eugene V Koonin and J Peter Gogarten. PMID:16956399

  3. Critical Elements of the Employment Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph

    The employment relationship in public schools is governed by constitutional mandates, federal and state statutes, administrative regulations, and contractual obligations. This chapter discusses fundamental aspects of the employment relationship that are influenced by legal principles derived from state law, local district policy and practice, and…

  4. Couple relationship education in Australia.

    PubMed

    Halford, W Kim; Simons, Michele

    2005-06-01

    In Australia, the strengthening of marriage through relationship education has received strong governmental policy support and some modest financial support. Couple relationship education services are offered by a variety of community-based, church-affiliated, and church-based providers. There is a strong emphasis on providing programs that are developed locally in response to perceived couple needs and government policies. Available evaluations show that most couples who attend education value the service, but relationship education providers need to do a better job reaching out to couples at high risk for future relationship problems, and more research is needed on the effects of education on long-term marital outcomes. There is significant scope for building on current initiatives to incorporate evidence-based approaches and to expand the program reach to more couples.

  5. General relationships between ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    General relationships between the ultrasonic attenuation and dispersion are presented. The validity of these nonlocal relationships hinges only on the properties of causality and linearity, and does not depend upon details of the mechanism responsible for the attenuation and dispersion. Approximate, nearly local relationships are presented and are demonstrated to predict accurately the ultrasonic dispersion in solutions of hemoglobin from the results of attenuation measurements.

  6. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes

    PubMed Central

    Knouft, Jason H.; Anthony, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa. PMID:27429769

  7. Climate and local abundance in freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Knouft, Jason H; Anthony, Melissa M

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors regulating variation in numbers of individuals among populations across a species' distribution is a fundamental goal in ecology. A common prediction, often referred to as the abundant-centre hypothesis, suggests that abundance is highest near the centre of a species' range. However, because of the primary focus on the geographical position of a population, this framework provides little insight into the environmental factors regulating local abundance. While range-wide variation in population abundance associated with environmental conditions has been investigated in terrestrial species, the relationship between climate and local abundance in freshwater taxa across species' distributions is not well understood. We used GIS-based temperature and precipitation data to determine the relationships between climatic conditions and range-wide variation in local abundance for 19 species of North American freshwater fishes. Climate predicted a portion of the variation in local abundance among populations for 18 species. In addition, the relationship between climatic conditions and local abundance varied among species, which is expected as lineages partition the environment across geographical space. The influence of local habitat quality on species persistence is well documented; however, our results also indicate the importance of climate in regulating population sizes across a species geographical range, even in aquatic taxa.

  8. Sex education for local tourism/hospitality employees: addressing a local health need.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2009-11-01

    Health concerns arising from sexual relationships between tourists and locals usually focus on the travelling public. The local sex partners' health, and their impact on their communities' health, seem far less acknowledged. This paper describes a local health education session which implemented recommendations based on a study in Cuzco/Peru on tourists' and locals' views, knowledge, attitudes and experiences relating to sexual relationships between them. On location, fifteen discotheque employees received a health education session at the establishment's owner's request. Concluding from the positive experience, it is argued that researchers should, where possible, respond to requests to deliver ad hoc health education sessions while on location to address an identified local health need.

  9. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, W. Schütz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  10. [Emergencies evolving from local anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Kaufman, E; Garfunkel, A; Findler, M; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Galili, D

    2002-01-01

    Local anesthesia is without doubt the most frequently used drug in dentistry and in medicine. In spite of records of safety set by using these drugs, there is evidence to adverse reactions ranging from 2.5%-11%. Most of the reactions originate from the autonomic system. A recent, well-planned study indicates that adverse reactions are highly correlated to the medical status of the patient: the higher the medical risk, the greater the chance to experience an adverse reaction. This study also found that adverse reactions highly correlated to the concentration of adrenalin. Another recent study found a direct relationship between adverse reactions and the level of anxiety experienced by the patient and to the dental procedure. Most of the reactions in this study occurred either immediately at injection time and within 2 hours following the injection. Since the beginning of last century, vasoconstrictors have been added to local anesthesia solutions in order to reduce toxicity and prologue activity of the LA. However, today it is commonly agreed that this addition to local anesthesia should not be administered to cardiac patients especially those suffering from refractory dysrhythmias, angina pectoris, post myocardial infarction (6 months) and uncontrolled hypertension. Other contraindications to vasoconstrictors are endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism, hyperfunction of the medullary adrenal (pheochromocytoma) and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Cross reactivity of local anesthetic solutions can occur with MAO inhibitors, non specific beta adrenergic blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazides and cocaine abusers. Noradrenaline added to local anesthetics as a vasoconstrictor has been described as a trigger to a great increase in blood pressure and therefore has been forbidden for use in many countries. This paper describes 4 cases of severe complications following the injections of local anesthesia of which three ended in fatality.

  11. Locally epistatic genomic relationship matrices for genomic association

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In plant and animal breeding studies a distinction is made between the genetic value (additive + epistatic genetic effects) and the breeding value (additive genetic effects) of an individual since it is expected that some of the epistatic genetic effects will be lost due to recombination. In this pa...

  12. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    PubMed

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures.

  13. Renal anemia control in Lithuania: influence of local conditions and local guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Petruliene, Kristina; Vaiciuniene, Ruta; Stankuviene, Asta; Bumblyte, Inga Arune

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin stimulating agents had a long haul in Lithuania--we had no epoetin till 1994 and there was no intravenous iron in 2001-2004. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of renal anemia control in hemodialysis patients from early independence of Lithuania till nowadays and to evaluate the link of anemia with hospitalization rates and survival and hemoglobin variability in association with mortality. In December of each year since 1996 all hemodialysis centers have been visited and data has been collected using special questionnaires. The history of renal anemia control in Lithuania was complicated; however, a significant improvement was achieved: 54.7% of hemodialysis patients reached the target hemoglobin; all patients have a possibility of treatment with epoetin and intravenous iron. The involuntary experiment with an intravenous iron occurred in Lithuania because of economic reasons and confirmed the significant role of intravenous iron in the management of renal anemia. Hemoglobin below 100 g/L was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in relative risk of death and 1.7-fold increase in relative risk of hospitalization in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients. Although hemoglobin variability was common in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients, we did not find the association between hemoglobin variability and all-cause mortality in our study.

  14. Local Legal Infrastructure and Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Dana J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the association between the legal infrastructure of local public health, as expressed in the exercise of local fiscal and legislative authority, and local population health outcomes. Methods. Our unit of analysis was public health jurisdictions with at least 100 000 residents. The dependent variable was jurisdiction premature mortality rates obtained from the Mobilize Action Toward Community Health (MATCH) database. Our primary independent variables represented local public health’s legal infrastructure: home rule status, board of health power, county government structure, and type of public health delivery system. Several control variables were included. We used a regression model to test the relationship between the varieties of local public health legal infrastructure identified and population health status. Results. The analyses suggested that public health legal infrastructure, particularly reformed county government, had a significant effect on population health status as a mediator of social determinants of health. Conclusions. Because states shape the legal infrastructure of local public health through power-sharing arrangements, our findings suggested recommendations for state legislation that positions local public health systems for optimal impact. Much more research is needed to elucidate the complex relationships among law, social capital, and population health status. PMID:22897523

  15. Local legal infrastructure and population health.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia F; Patton, Dana J

    2012-10-01

    We explored the association between the legal infrastructure of local public health, as expressed in the exercise of local fiscal and legislative authority, and local population health outcomes. METHODS. Our unit of analysis was public health jurisdictions with at least 100,000 residents. The dependent variable was jurisdiction premature mortality rates obtained from the Mobilize Action Toward Community Health (MATCH) database. Our primary independent variables represented local public health's legal infrastructure: home rule status, board of health power, county government structure, and type of public health delivery system. Several control variables were included. We used a regression model to test the relationship between the varieties of local public health legal infrastructure identified and population health status. The analyses suggested that public health legal infrastructure, particularly reformed county government, had a significant effect on population health status as a mediator of social determinants of health. Because states shape the legal infrastructure of local public health through power-sharing arrangements, our findings suggested recommendations for state legislation that positions local public health systems for optimal impact. Much more research is needed to elucidate the complex relationships among law, social capital, and population health status.

  16. Time to Go Local!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...

  17. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  18. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  19. Stochastic Local Distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roy, Anirban; Walgate, Jonathan

    2007-03-01

    We pose the question, ``when is globally available information is also locally available?'', formally as the problem of local state discrimination, and show that the deep qualitative link between local distinguishability and entanglement lies at the level of stochastic rather than deterministic local protocols. We restrict our attention to sets of mutually orthogonal pure quantum states. We define a set of states |ψi> as beingstochastically locally distinguishable if and only if there is a LOCC protocol whereby the parties can conclusively identify a member of the set with some nonzero probability. If a set is stochastically locally distinguishable, then the complete global information is potentially locally available. If not, the physical information encoded by the system can never be completely locally exposed. Our results are proved true for all orthogonal quantum states regardless of their dimensionality or multipartiality. First, we prove that entanglement is a necessary property of any system whose total global information can never be locally accessed. Second, entangled states that form part of an orthogonal basis can never be locally singled out. Completely entangled bases are, always stochastically locally indistinguishable. Third, we prove that any set of three orthogonal states, is stochastically locally distinguishable.

  20. Exponential Localization of Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    1998-06-01

    It is shown that photons can be localized in space with an exponential falloff of the energy density and photodetection rates. The limits of localization are determined by the fundamental Paley-Wiener theorem. A direct mathematical connection between the spatial localization of photons and the decay in time of quantum mechanical systems is established.

  1. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  2. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  3. Improved Garvey-Kelson Local Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collis, William J. M. F.

    2009-08-01

    We discuss methods of estimating atomic masses using Garvey—Kelson[1, 2] like local relations. We show that both the longitudinal and transverse Garvey—Kelson and all other relations can be derived from a simpler mass relationship between just 4 nuclides, C4.

  4. Tubercles and Localized Corrosion on Carbon Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    with symbiotic relationships and nutrient cycling. Miller and Tiller [14] indicated, "iron bacteria , which, together with the ferric hydroxide...conclude localized corrosion directly under the tubercles or a role for bacteria in their formation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS tubercle, carbon steel... bacteria in their formation. Introduction It is well established that tubercles formed on austenitic 300 series (304 or 316) stainless steel in

  5. Tubercles and Localized Corrosion on Carbon Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-16

    with symbiotic relationships and nutrient cycling. Miller and Tiller [14] indicated, "iron bacteria , which, together with the ferric hydroxide they...be used to conclude localized corrosion directly under the tubercles or a role for bacteria in their formation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS tubercle...corrosion, iron-oxidizing bacteria , magnetite 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE

  6. Local Authorities and Higher Education in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The unsatisfactory position of some British local education authorities concerning their responsibilities for college student distribution and placement and their relationship with the National Advisory Body that manages manpower training policy is discussed. (MSE)

  7. South African Adolescents' Constructions of Intimacy in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…

  8. South African Adolescents' Constructions of Intimacy in Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesch, Elmien; Furphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Localized understandings of adolescent romantic relationships are needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of adolescent romantic experiences and to challenge negative discourses of adolescent heterosexual relationships. This study explored the constructions of intimacy of 20 adolescent men and women in romantic relationships from one…

  9. Experiments with program locality.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirn, J. R.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt to validate experimentally several intrinsic models for the concept of program locality. The models considered are a two-parameter simple locality model, a simple least recently used stack model, and an independent reference model. The first two models appear to produce good approximations to real world behavior, while the independent reference model, because of its static concept of locality, does very poorly. The working set is shown to be a good estimator of the simple two-parameters model's locality, provided that the locality does not change too rapidly. The working set exactly measures the locality in the case of the least recently used stack model and is thus nearly optimal for programs whose behavior can be closely approximated by this model.

  10. [Local anaesthesia in ruminants].

    PubMed

    Nuss, Karl; Schwarz, Andrea; Ringer, Simone

    2017-06-20

    The use of local anaesthesia in ruminants allows many surgical procedures to be conducted free of pain, efficiently and inexpensively in the field. Local anaesthesia combined with sedation and immobilisation of the animal can replace general anaesthesia for many procedures (e. g. castration, claw amputation). The level of difficulty differs among various local anaesthetic techniques: local infiltration of tissue or anaesthesia of the cornual nerve are easily performed, whereas local anaesthesia of the eye, regional anaesthesia in limbs or anaesthesia for umbilical surgery are more difficult to carry out. This article presents an illustrated overview of the most common local anaesthetic procedures in cattle as well as in small ruminants and serves as a practical guide for veterinarians in the field. In principle, these techniques can likewise be applied in other ruminants or artiodactyls.

  11. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  12. Local anaesthetics: 10 essentials.

    PubMed

    Lirk, Philipp; Picardi, Susanne; Hollmann, Markus W

    2014-11-01

    This review seeks to address 10 essential questions regarding the clinical use of local anaesthetics. Each local anaesthetic has distinctive physicochemical properties but with the same mode of action; they block voltage-gated sodium channels in the axon. Sodium channel block is brought about by a conformational change and the creation of a positive charge in the channel pore. Different local anaesthetics can reach the local anaesthetic binding site in the axon from the cytoplasmic compartment (classic hydrophilic pathway), or directly via its lipid membrane (hydrophobic pathway), or can enter via large-pore channels (alternative hydrophilic pathway). Beyond the nervous system, local anaesthetics exert beneficial effects on pain and can affect the inflammatory response and the haemostatic system. There are problems with the efficacy of local anaesthetics in the presence of local inflammation, and with significant intravascular toxicity, which can be fatal. But when preventive measures are taken, the incidence of cardiac arrest is low. Intralipid has been proposed to treat systemic local anaesthetic overdose and has been enthusiastically adopted worldwide, even though the mechanism of action is incompletely understood. Intralipid is an aid to the management of local anaesthetic toxicity rather than an antidote and meticulous conduct of regional anaesthesia remains paramount. All local anaesthetics are toxic, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, on virtually all tissues, including nerves and muscles. The question of whether local anaesthetics protect against perioperative tumour progression cannot be answered at this moment, and results from clinical (retrospective) studies are equivocal. Future areas of interest will be the design of new subtype-specific sodium channel blockers, but as we look forward, older local anaesthetics such as 2-chloroprocaine are being reintroduced into the clinical setting. Multimodal perineural analgesia and liposomal bupivacaine may

  13. Local Estuary Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides information about Local Individual Estuary Programs including links to their NEP homepages, social media, Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans, and state of the bay reports.

  14. The privileged status of locality in consonant harmony.

    PubMed

    Finley, Sara

    2011-07-01

    While the vast majority of linguistic processes apply locally, consonant harmony appears to be an exception. In this phonological process, consonants share the same value of a phonological feature, such as secondary place of articulation. In sibilant harmony, [s] and [ʃ] ('sh') alternate such that if a word contains the sound [ʃ], all [s] sounds become [ʃ]. This can apply locally as a first-order or non-locally as a second-order pattern. In the first-order case, no consonants intervene between the two sibilants (e.g., [pisasu], [piʃaʃu]). In second-order case, a consonant may intervene (e.g., [sipasu], [ʃipaʃu]). The fact that there are languages that allow second-order non-local agreement of consonant features has led some to question whether locality constraints apply to consonant harmony. This paper presents the results from two artificial grammar learning experiments that demonstrate the privileged role of locality constraints, even in patterns that allow second-order non-local interactions. In Experiment 1, we show that learners do not extend first-order non-local relationships in consonant harmony to second-order nonlocal relationships. In Experiment 2, we show that learners will extend a consonant harmony pattern with second-order long distance relationships to a consonant harmony with first-order long distance relationships. Because second-order non-local application implies first-order non-local application, but first-order non-local application does not imply second-order non-local application, we establish that local constraints are privileged even in consonant harmony.

  15. The privileged status of locality in consonant harmony

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Sara

    2011-01-01

    While the vast majority of linguistic processes apply locally, consonant harmony appears to be an exception. In this phonological process, consonants share the same value of a phonological feature, such as secondary place of articulation. In sibilant harmony, [s] and [ʃ] (‘sh’) alternate such that if a word contains the sound [ʃ], all [s] sounds become [ʃ]. This can apply locally as a first-order or non-locally as a second-order pattern. In the first-order case, no consonants intervene between the two sibilants (e.g., [pisasu], [piʃaʃu]). In second-order case, a consonant may intervene (e.g., [sipasu], [ʃipaʃu]). The fact that there are languages that allow second-order non-local agreement of consonant features has led some to question whether locality constraints apply to consonant harmony. This paper presents the results from two artificial grammar learning experiments that demonstrate the privileged role of locality constraints, even in patterns that allow second-order non-local interactions. In Experiment 1, we show that learners do not extend first-order non-local relationships in consonant harmony to second-order nonlocal relationships. In Experiment 2, we show that learners will extend a consonant harmony pattern with second-order long distance relationships to a consonant harmony with first-order long distance relationships. Because second-order non-local application implies first-order non-local application, but first-order non-local application does not imply second-order non-local application, we establish that local constraints are privileged even in consonant harmony. PMID:21686094

  16. Local theory for Mott-Anderson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sudeshna; Terletska, Hanna; Moreno, Juana; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Jarrell, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The paramagnetic metallic phase of the Anderson-Hubbard model (AHM) is investigated using a nonperturbative local moment approach within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory with a typical medium. Our focus is on the breakdown of the metallic phase near the metal-insulators transition as seen in the single-particle spectra, scattering rates, and the associated distribution of Kondo scales. We demonstrate the emergence of a universal, underlying low-energy scale, TKpeak. This lies close to the peak of the distribution of Kondo scales obtained within the metallic phase of the paramagnetic AHM. Spectral dynamics for energies ω ≲TKpeak display Fermi liquid universality crossing over to an incoherent universal dynamics for ω ≫TKpeak in the scaling regime. Such universal dynamics indicate that within a local theory the low to moderately low-energy physics is governed by an effective, disorder renormalized Kondo screening.

  17. Localization of Interference Fringes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, J. M.; Comastri, Silvia A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a proof for determining the localized fringes position arrived at when one considers the interference of two extended sources when one is able to observe fringes only at certain points in space. Shows how the localized fringes may be found in a device used to observe Newton's rings. (Author/CS)

  18. Doing Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue contains articles about the importance of learning local history. The lead article includes historical information about three Iowa cities: Council Bluffs, Waterloo, and Jefferson. Other features in this issue are entitled: "Iowa Kids Talk,""Digging Into Local History,""Goldie's Top Ten News Stories";…

  19. Local anesthesia: a review.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F; Sykes, P; Kubota, Y; Matsuura, H; Lipp, M

    1992-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most widely administered drugs in dentistry. Significant advances have been made in past decades that have greatly increased both the safety and the efficacy of these important drugs. This paper reviews the history of local anesthesia, pharmacokinetics and clinical implications, techniques, complications, and future directions in the quest for more effective pain control in dentistry.

  20. Local Power: Tribe & Township.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Padi; Moloi, Dudley

    1995-01-01

    Examines the service infrastructure of a rural township in South Africa and the struggle to acquire services like water and electricity. Discusses the interaction of a system of transitional local councils and tribal authorities in the face of local government elections. (LZ)

  1. Local health traditions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, D

    1988-03-01

    A very systematic study made in Karjat, Maharasht (a tribal area in India) has found that in comparison with the official health care and primary health centers, the traditional health practices are far more comprehensive. However, although the local traditions are comprehensive in their 'scope', they nevertheless reveal several weaknesses when subjected to critical evaluation by the science of Ayurveda. For example, whereas some remedies are found to be sound, there are others that are incomplete, and some appear to be totally distorted. Similarly, the diagnostic abilities of local practitioners, while sound in some cases, are in several others found to be inadequate. As to the use of local herbs, whereas the local tradition has an amazing knowledge of local flora--the knowledge about properties of plants is in many cases incomplete. There are several reasons that may explain how and why these weaknesses have set in. 1st, the local traditions are 'oral' and in the natural course of things, oral traditions the world over have been found to decay over time. A 2nd, external, reason for the current decay of local traditions is the derision, neglect, and oppression they have suffered due to the intolerance of western scientific tradition. A 3rd reason for weaknesses in the local health stream is the breakdown of active links, during the last few centuries, with the mainstream science of Ayurveda.

  2. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  3. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation.

  4. Clustering by Local Gravitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, C L Philip; You, Jane; Gu, Tianlong; Wong, Hau-San; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-02

    The objective of cluster analysis is to partition a set of data points into several groups based on a suitable distance measure. We first propose a model called local gravitation among data points. In this model, each data point is viewed as an object with mass, and associated with a local resultant force (LRF) generated by its neighbors. The motivation of this paper is that there exist distinct differences between the LRFs (including magnitudes and directions) of the data points close to the cluster centers and at the boundary of the clusters. To capture these differences efficiently, two new local measures named centrality and coordination are further investigated. Based on empirical observations, two new clustering methods called local gravitation clustering and communication with local agents are designed, and several test cases are conducted to verify their effectiveness. The experiments on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicate that both clustering approaches achieve good performance on most of the data sets.

  5. Students' Learning Strategies: Statistical Types and Their Relationship with Computer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saparniene, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify and describe existing students' statistical types by their learning strategies and to show the connection with factual computer literacy. Methodology: The empirical-experimental part of the present study is based on a series of diagnostic studies of 1004 surveyed Lithuanian students. The article…

  6. Local aggregation characteristics of microscale blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Sherwood, Joseph M.; Dusting, Jonathan; Balabani, Stavroula

    2015-11-01

    Erythrocyte aggregation (EA) is an important aspect of microvascular flows affecting blood flow and viscosity. Microscale blood flows have been studied extensively in recent years using computational and microfluidic based approaches. However, the relationship between the local structural characteristics of blood and the velocity field has not been quantified. We report simultaneous measurements of the local velocity, aggregation and haematocrit distributions of human erythrocytes flowing in a microchannel. EA was induced using Dextran and flows were imaged using brightfield microscopy. Local aggregation characteristics were investigated using statistical and edge-detection image processing techniques while velocity profiles were obtained using PIV algorithms. Aggregation intensity was found to strongly correlate with local variations in velocity in both the central and wall regions of the channel. The edge detection method showed that near the side wall large aggregates are associated with high local velocities and low local shear rates. In the central region large aggregates occurred in regions of low velocity and high erythrocyte concentration. The results demonstrate the combined effect of haematocrit and velocity distributions on local aggregation characteristics.

  7. Local-scale dynamics and local drivers of bushmeat trade.

    PubMed

    Nyaki, Angela; Gray, Steven A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Skibins, Jeffrey C; Rentsch, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Bushmeat management policies are often developed outside the communities in which they are to be implemented. These policies are also routinely designed to be applied uniformly across communities with little regard for variation in social or ecological conditions. We used fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping, a form of participatory modeling, to compare the assumptions driving externally generated bushmeat management policies with perceptions of bushmeat trade dynamics collected from local community members who admitted to being recently engaged in bushmeat trading (e.g., hunters, sellers, consumers). Data were collected during 9 workshops in 4 Tanzanian villages bordering Serengeti National Park. Specifically, we evaluated 9 community-generated models for the presence of the central factors that comprise and drive the bushmeat trade and whether or not models included the same core concepts, relationships, and logical chains of reasoning on which bushmeat conservation policies are commonly based. Across local communities, there was agreement about the most central factors important to understanding the bushmeat trade (e.g., animal recruitment, low income, and scarcity of food crops). These matched policy assumptions. However, the factors perceived to drive social-ecological bushmeat trade dynamics were more diverse and varied considerably across communities (e.g., presence or absence of collaborative law enforcement, increasing human population, market demand, cultural preference). Sensitive conservation issues, such as the bushmeat trade, that require cooperation between communities and outside conservation organizations can benefit from participatory modeling approaches that make local-scale dynamics and conservation policy assumptions explicit. Further, communities' and conservation organizations' perceptions need to be aligned. This can improve success by allowing context appropriate policies to be developed, monitored, and appropriately adapted as new evidence is

  8. Local Solid Shape

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution. PMID:27648217

  9. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  10. Reconceptualizing Developmental Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Andrew D.; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literature on developmental relationships and proposes a typology of relationships. Developmental relationships are defined as either formal or informal relationships where an individual takes an active interest in and initiates actions to advance the development of another. The authors focus on five dimensions of…

  11. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  12. Localization of pediatric seizure semiology.

    PubMed

    Vendrame, Martina; Zarowski, Marcin; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Wyllie, Elaine; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between semiology of seizures in children and adolescents to the corresponding EEG localization. Charts of 225 consecutive pediatric epilepsy patients undergoing Video-EEG monitoring (VEM) over 2 years were reviewed. Seizure semiology recorded during VEM was classified according to ILAE seizure semiology terminology and EEG localization, and analyzed based on onset as defined by the EEG data (generalized, frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital or multilobar). A total of 1008 seizures were analyzed in 225 children (mean age 8.5 years, range 0-20), with 50% boys. Auras and seizures with automatisms arose predominantly from the temporal lobes (p<0.001). Tonic, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures had most commonly generalized onset (p<0.001). Hypomotor seizures were most frequently seen from the frontal lobes (p<0.001). Hypermotor seizures had most commonly temporal lobe or multiple lobe onset (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively). Atonic, myoclonic seizures and epileptic spasms had almost exclusively a generalized onset (p<0.001). Different seizure semiologies relate to specific brain regions, with overlap between focal and generalized semiological seizure types, as identified electrographically. Semiology of seizures can provide important information for epilepsy localization, and should not be overlooked, especially in patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation. Separation of clinical seizure description and EEG findings may be useful, in particular when only incomplete information is available. i.e. during the first office visit. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Local Governments Reimbursement Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the event of a release (or threatened release) of hazardous substances, EPA may provide a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments for expenses related to the release and associated emergency response measures.

  14. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  15. Theme: Local Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Professional Propagation" (Camp); "Managing Human Resources with Local Program Success (LPS)" (Daley); "Profit Sharing with LPS" (Moses); "Partners for Success" (Mecey- Smith); "Achieving LPS by Collaborating with Partners, Allies and Volunteers" (Oglesby); LPS...Just What Agricultural…

  16. Local Anesthetic Microcapsules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-15

    III Chemical Structure of Local Anesthetics 12 Table IV Processing Summary of Lidocaine Microencapsulation 15 Table V Lidocaine Microcapsule Size...Distribution 17 Table VI Processing Summary of Etidocaine Microencapsulation 18 Table VII Etidocaine Microcapsule Size Distribution 19 Table VIII Lidocaine...REPORT I PERIOD COVERED Annual Local Anesthetic Microcapsules 1 July 1980-30 March 1981 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 2106-1 7. AUTHOR() S

  17. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  18. Sexual assault in dating relationships.

    PubMed

    Rhynard, J; Krebs, M; Glover, J

    1997-03-01

    This article focuses on acquaintance rape, which under Canadian law constitutes a form of sexual assault. Frequency of acquaintance rape often is underestimated due to under-reporting, resulting in a local perception that acquaintance rape rarely occurs in a small Canadian community. A survey was conducted to determine whether acquaintance rape does occur in this community. One hundred sixty-four male and female students from grades 8-12 completed a questionnaire. Twenty-six percent of respondents reported being forced into some type of sexual activity. Based on the survey, this article explores the type of force used, the relationship between acquaintance rape and use of alcohol and drugs, and the relationship between acquaintance rape and the ability to indicate to a partner to stop a behavior. Results confirmed a need to develop programs to prevent rather than merely respond to issues of sexual assault on a date.

  19. Monaural Sound Localization Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1997-01-01

    Research reported during the past few decades has revealed the importance for human sound localization of the so-called 'monaural spectral cues.' These cues are the result of the direction-dependent filtering of incoming sound waves accomplished by the pinnae. One point of view about how these cues are extracted places great emphasis on the spectrum of the received sound at each ear individually. This leads to the suggestion that an effective way of studying the influence of these cues is to measure the ability of listeners to localize sounds when one of their ears is plugged. Numerous studies have appeared using this monaural localization paradigm. Three experiments are described here which are intended to clarify the results of the previous monaural localization studies and provide new data on how monaural spectral cues might be processed. Virtual sound sources are used in the experiments in order to manipulate and control the stimuli independently at the two ears. Two of the experiments deal with the consequences of the incomplete monauralization that may have contaminated previous work. The results suggest that even very low sound levels in the occluded ear provide access to interaural localization cues. The presence of these cues complicates the interpretation of the results of nominally monaural localization studies. The third experiment concerns the role of prior knowledge of the source spectrum, which is required if monaural cues are to be useful. The results of this last experiment demonstrate that extraction of monaural spectral cues can be severely disrupted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in the source spectrum. The general conclusion of the experiments is that, while monaural spectral cues are important, the monaural localization paradigm may not be the most appropriate way to study their role.

  20. Local relativistic exact decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-01

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation—called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)—provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N2 scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian—denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper—introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations

  1. Global network influences on local functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Adam C.; Morais, Michael J.; Willis, Cory M.; Smith, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    A central neuroscientific pursuit is understanding neuronal interactions that support computations underlying cognition and behavior. Although neurons interact across disparate scales – from cortical columns to whole-brain networks – research has been restricted to one scale at a time. We measured local interactions through multi-neuronal recordings while accessing global networks using scalp EEG in rhesus macaques. We measured spike count correlation, an index of functional connectivity with computational relevance, and EEG oscillations, which have been linked to various cognitive functions. We found a surprising non-monotonic relationship between EEG oscillation amplitude and spike count correlation, contrary to the intuitive expectation of a direct relationship. With a widely-used network model we replicated these findings by incorporating a private signal targeting inhibitory neurons, a common mechanism proposed for gain modulation. Finally, we report that spike count correlation explains nonlinearities in the relationship between EEG oscillations and response time in a spatial selective attention task. PMID:25799040

  2. Adult Children's Divorce and Intergenerational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of adult children's divorce on their relationships with parents, using local probability sample of 905 parents. In general, divorced daughters with child custody had more contact than married daughters and received more help from parents. Sons received more babysitting help when they were married than in other situations. Divorce…

  3. Adult Children's Divorce and Intergenerational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Glenna; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined effects of adult children's divorce on their relationships with parents, using local probability sample of 905 parents. In general, divorced daughters with child custody had more contact than married daughters and received more help from parents. Sons received more babysitting help when they were married than in other situations. Divorce…

  4. Site quality relationships for shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    David L. Graney

    1986-01-01

    Existing information about site quality relationships for shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) in the southeastern United States is reviewed in this paper. Estimates of site quality, whether from direct tree measurements or indirect estimates based on soil and site features, are only local observations for many points on the landscape. To be of value to the land...

  5. Locally differentiated cryptic pigmentation in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Hargeby, A; Stoltz, J; Johansson, J

    2005-05-01

    A repeated pattern of background colour matching in animals is an indication that pigmentation may be cryptic. Here, we examine the relationship between pigmentation of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus and background darkness in 29 lakes, wetlands and ponds in Southern Sweden. The results show that Asellus pigmentation was correlated with substrate darkness across all localities. In seven localities, in which two contrasting substrate types were noted, Asellus populations were differentiated with respect to pigmentation. These findings thus provide phenomenological support for cryptic pigmentation in Asellus. Pigmentation generally increased with body size, but the relationship between pigmentation and size differed among localities, possibly as a result of differences in correlational selection on pigmentation and size. Selection thus appears to have resulted in local differentiation over a small spatial scale, even within lakes and wetlands. This differentiation is a likely cause behind elevated phenotype variation noted in localities with two substrate types, suggesting that habitat heterogeneity promotes genetic diversity.

  6. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  7. Local and global measures of shape dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    The shape and motion of cells can yield significant insights into the internal operation of a cell. We present a simple, yet versatile, framework that provides multiple metrics of cell shape and cell shape dynamics. Analysis of migrating Dictyostelium discoideum cells shows that global and local metrics highlight distinct cellular processes. For example, a global measure of shape shows rhythmic oscillations suggestive of contractions, whereas a local measure of shape shows wave-like dynamics indicative of protrusions. From a local measure of dynamic shape, or boundary motion, we extract the times and locations of protrusions and retractions. We find that protrusions zigzag, while retractions remain roughly stationary along the boundary. We do not observe any temporal relationship between protrusions and retractions. Our analysis framework also provides metrics of the boundary as whole. For example, as the cell speed increases, we find that the cell shape becomes more elongated. We also observe that while extensions and retractions have similar areas, their shapes differ.

  8. Representing properties locally.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K O; Barsalou, L W

    2001-09-01

    Theories of knowledge such as feature lists, semantic networks, and localist neural nets typically use a single global symbol to represent a property that occurs in multiple concepts. Thus, a global symbol represents mane across HORSE, PONY, and LION. Alternatively, perceptual theories of knowledge, as well as distributed representational systems, assume that properties take different local forms in different concepts. Thus, different local forms of mane exist for HORSE, PONY, and LION, each capturing the specific form that mane takes in its respective concept. Three experiments used the property verification task to assess whether properties are represented globally or locally (e.g., Does a PONY have mane?). If a single global form represents a property, then verifying it in any concept should increase its accessibility and speed its verification later in any other concept. Verifying mane for PONY should benefit as much from having verified mane for LION earlier as from verifying mane for HORSE. If properties are represented locally, however, verifying a property should only benefit from verifying a similar form earlier. Verifying mane for PONY should only benefit from verifying mane for HORSE, not from verifying mane for LION. Findings from three experiments strongly supported local property representation and ruled out the interpretation that object similarity was responsible (e.g., the greater overall similarity between HORSE and PONY than between LION and PONY). The findings further suggest that property representation and verification are complicated phenomena, grounded in sensory-motor simulations.

  9. State and Local Government Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Alexander; Rinebold, Joel; Aresta, Paul

    2012-03-30

    The State and Local Government Partnership project has built relationships between the Department of Energy (DOE), regional states, and municipalities. CCAT implemented this project using a structure that included leadership by the DOE. Outreach was undertaken through collaborative meetings, workshops, and briefings; the development of technical models and local energy plans; support for state stakeholder groups; and implementation of strategies to facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The final guidance documents provided to stakeholders consisted of individual strategic state “Roadmaps” to serve as development plans. These “Roadmaps” confirm economic impacts, identify deployment targets, and compare policies and incentives for facility development in each of the regional states. The partnerships developed through this project have improved the exchange of knowledge between state and local government stakeholders and is expected to increase the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in early market applications, consistent with the DOE’s market transformation efforts. Technically accurate and objective information was, and continues to be, provided to improve public and stakeholder perceptions regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the “Roadmaps” and studies conducted for this project, there is the potential to generate approximately 10.75 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the Northeast regional states, through the development of 1,364 to 1,818 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell electric generation capacity. Currently, the region has approximately 1,180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the region. These companies are estimated to have over $1 billion in annual revenue and investment, contribute more than $51 million in annual state and local tax revenue

  10. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gayle; Abell, Loren

    2017-08-01

    Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  11. The Impact of the College on the Local Economy. Research Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selgas, James W.; And Others

    Significant aspects of the economic relationships between the Harrisburg (Pennsylvania) Area Community College and the local community were studied, and quantitative information regarding such relationships is presented. The impact on business was measured in terms of increased cash flows in the local economy. Both an inclusive and a conservative…

  12. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Local Foods, Local Places

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Answers to frequently asked questions about EPA's Local Foods, Local Places planning assistance program to help communities revitalize downtowns, create economic opportunities, and improve access to healthy food by promoting local foods.

  13. Local Foods, Local Places 2016-2017 Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-2017 application for Local Foods, Local Places, technical assistance that helps communities use local foods to create walkable and economically vibrant districts, boost economic opportunities, and improve access to healthy foods.

  14. [Local treatment during angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Brasselet, C; Addad, F; Lemarchand, P; Lafont, A

    1999-11-01

    Intracoronary thrombosis and post-angioplasty complications (acute occlusion) are now controlled. Restenosis is the principal obstacle to transluminal coronary revascularisation. The conviction of the multifactorial and focal nature of the process leading to this excessive scarring is acquired. Constrictive remodelling is now established as the main mechanism of restenosis. Failure to prevent restenosis by systemic therapy has led several groups to experiment local treatment for this problem. The object of this article is to review the different systems of local treatment at the site of angioplasty. Even if some results are encouraging, there is no solution as yet to the problem of restenosis. Although local therapy is possible, the agent(s) of choice remain(s) to be defined.

  15. Gravitational Anderson localization.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, Ira Z

    2013-01-04

    We present a higher dimensional model where gravity is bound to a brane due to Anderson localization. The extra dimensions are taken to be a disordered crystal of branes, with randomly distributed tensions of order the fundamental scale. Such geometries bind the graviton and thus allow for arbitrarily large extra dimensions even when the curvature is small. Thus this model is quite distinct from that of Randall and Sundrum where localization is a consequence of curvature effects in the bulk. The hierarchy problem can be solved by having the standard model brane live a distance away from the brane on which the graviton is localized. The statistical properties of the system are worked out and it is shown that the scenario leads to a continuum of four dimensional theories with differing strengths of gravitational interactions. We live on one particular brane whose gravitational constant is G(N).

  16. Local critical power is an index of local endurance.

    PubMed

    Le Chevalier, J M; Vandewalle, H; Thépaut-Mathieu, C; Stein, J F; Caplan, L

    2000-01-01

    The hypothesis that critical power (CP) is significantly lower than the maximal aerobic power of the knee extensors has been tested in nine endurance-trained subjects, seven gymnasts and seven weight lifters. CP was calculated as being equal to the slope of the linear relationship between exhaustion time and work performed at exhaustion on a knee-extension ergometer. CP was compared with the power output at the end of a progressive knee-extension exercise (P(peak)) and the power outputs corresponding to exhaustion times equal to 4 (P(4 min)), 6 (P(6 min)), 8 (P(8 min)) and 10 min (P(10 min)), calculated according to the linear relationship between work and exhaustion time. The hypothesis that CP corresponds to a steady state in metabolic and physiological parameters was tested in the gymnasts and the weight lifters by comparing CP with the fatigue thresholds of the integrated electromyogram (iEMG(FT)), lactate level (La(FT)), oxygen uptake (VO(2FT)) and heart rate (HR(FT)). The results of the present study demonstrate that the value of CP of a local exercise cannot be considered as the equivalent of the maximal aerobic power for general exercises. The values of P(4 min), P(6 min), P(8 min), P(10 min) and P(peak) were significantly higher than CP, and corresponded to 138, 126, 119, 115 and 151% CP, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that CP can be considered as an index of muscular endurance. Indeed, La(FT), iEMG (FT), VO(2FT) and HR(FT) were not significantly different from CP. All of these fatigue thresholds were significantly correlated with CP (r > 0.92). Moreover, the highest coefficient of correlation (r=0.71; P < 0.01) between the percentage of maximal aerobic power in cycling that corresponds to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol x l(-1) (OBLA%) and the different local aerobic indices was observed with CP.

  17. Local Bifurcation Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    characteris- tics of the new solutions are intimately related to those of xo(p) at criticality, i.e. at ga = 0. It is this intrinsic relationship that...from Escuela de Organizacion Industrial, Madrid, Spain. The M.S. and Ph.D. were received from the University of California at Berkely in Civil Engineer

  18. Practical Local Magnitude Calculation for Local Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, B.; Tunc, S.; Caka, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we developed a Matlab application (Ml_Calc) to calculate local magnitude (Ml) for small institudes which has just one or more seismic stations. Ml_Calc algorithm suitable for velocity or acceleration sensors' data obtained by Güralp Systems digitizers. The selected earthquake data can be transferred from SCREAM software to Ml_Calc online or offline. The Ml_Calc algorithm provides two types of solutions for distance, one of them is P-S time differences and the other one is epicentre of earthquake and station coordinates, if earthquake is known. During Ml calculation, instrument correction has been removed and converted to real displacement in milimeter. The obtained displacement data converted to Wood Anderson Seismometer output by using Z=[0;0]; P=[-6.28+4.71j; -6.28-4.71j]; A0=[2080]. Obtained maximum displacement amplitude (A) and distances (dist) used in formula (1) for distances less than 200km and formula (2) for more than 200km. Ml=log10(A)-(-1.118-0.0647*dist+0.00071*dist2-3.39E-6*dist3+5.71e-9*dist4) (1) Ml=log10(A)+(2.1173+0.0082*dist-0.0000059628*dist2) (2) Ml_Calc is a software that easy to implement, can be used for educational purpose and user friendly. Due to this characteristics, Ml_Calc software offered a practical solution to individual users to Ml calculation.

  19. [Psychiatry in local newspapers].

    PubMed

    Nowack, Nicolas; Tonn, Bianka; Unter Mitarbeit von Volker, Thomas; Oberste-Ufer, Ralf; Müller, Christin

    2011-04-01

    The media influences public opinion. Although it can provide objective information, it can also create prejudices. For the first time German local newspapers were examined with respect to HOW and HOW OFTEN they use psychiatric terminology. All newspapers of the East German Altmark were analyzed with respect to their usage of selected psychiatric terms for a period of one year. None of these newspapers could be described as tabloids or as predominantly sensation-seeking. For comparative purposes, our chosen methodology was similar to that of an earlier study of respected, German, internationally-read print media. In 14 % of the newspapers studied, at least one term of the predefined psychiatric vocabulary appeared. A negative context was common (45 %), but for the most part this was in crime-related articles supplied by press agencies. In contrast with reputable, German language newspapers with a nationwide or international audience, in purely local reports, a negative context was rare, and no alienating usage of preselected psychiatric terms was found. Local editorial teams seem to be closer to - and perhaps better informed about - regional psychiatric institutions. Hence, they can provide the public with more factual information. For this reason, anti-stigma mental health campaigns will likely be more effective when carried out using local media, as opposed to nationwide or even international media. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Robust and Secure Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    attacker-chosen location to the nodes as they are deployed.  establish wormhole links and tunnel legitimate messages to distant locations in the...network which are beyond the radio range of the source nodes. The wormhole attack can potentially introduce significant localization error of any node