Science.gov

Sample records for litter application methods

  1. Broiler litter application method and runoff timing effects on nutrient and Escherichia coli losses from tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Torbert, H A; Way, T R; Bolster, C H; Pote, D H; Warren, J G

    2009-01-01

    The inability to incorporate manure into permanent pasture leads to the concentration of nutrients near the soil surface with the potential to be transported off site by runoff water. In this study, we used rainfall simulations to examine the effect of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter application method and the runoff timing on nutrient and E. coli losses from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pasture on a Hartsells sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults)) in Crossville, AL. Treatments included two methods of litter application (surface broadcast and subsurface banding), commercial fertilizer, and control. Litter was applied at a rate of 8.97 Mg ha(-1). Treatments were assigned to 48 plots with four blocks (12 plots each) arranged in a randomized complete block design to include three replications in each block. Simulated rainfall was applied to treatments as follows: Day 1, block 1 (runoff 1); Day 8, block 2 (runoff 2); Day 15, block 3 (runoff 3); and Day 22, block 4 (runoff 4). Total phosphorus (TP), inorganic N, and Escherichia coli concentrations in runoff from broadcast litter application were all significantly greater than from subsurface litter banding. The TP losses from broadcast litter applications averaged 6.8 times greater than those from subsurface litter applications. About 81% of the runoff TP was in the form of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) for both litter-application methods. The average losses of NO(3)-N and total suspended solids (TSS) from subsurface banding plots were 160 g ha(-1) and 22 kg ha(-1) compared to 445 g ha(-1) and 69 kg ha(-1) for the broadcast method, respectively. Increasing the time between litter application and the first runoff event helped decrease nutrient and E. coli losses from surface broadcast litter, but those losses generally remained significantly greater than controls and subsurface banded, regardless of runoff timing. This study shows that subsurface

  2. Subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  3. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems.

  4. Poultry litter application on pastures and hayfields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is widely used on pastures and hayfields in Georgia. There are many benefits when it is used wisely. Producers should use nutrient management planning and recommended rates to ensure poultry litter is used in ways that maximize its benefits without harming the environment....

  5. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function.

  6. Hormone and pathogen content in soil after litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter applications at agronomic rates established for a crop’s P or N requirements may contain as much as 385 mg estradiol ha-1, 605 mg testosterone ha-1, 4.4(10)12 Escherichia coli cells ha-1, and 4.4(10)13 fecal enterococci cells ha-1. Field experiments from small plot- to small watershed...

  7. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulations in soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  8. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  9. Corn response and soil nutrient concentration from subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to corn (Zea mays L.) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of NH3. Recently a new application method was devel...

  10. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (greater than 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5...

  11. An implement for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  12. Fate of arsenic compounds in poultry litter upon land application.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B P; Seaman, J C; Bertsch, P M

    2006-12-01

    The use of the organic As compound, roxarsone, as an antibiotic additive to poultry feed continues to raise concern over potential negative environmental impacts. Total As concentration in poultry litter can reach >40 mg kg(-1) and both roxarsone and its mineralization product As(V) have been identified in poultry litters (PL). To investigate the fate of these As species upon land application of PL we conducted two studies. In the first, an Orangeburg soil (Ultisol from the Atlantic Coastal Plain) was spiked with either 20 mg kg(-1) As(V) or roxarsone and incubated at 10% moisture content for 4 months. Exchangeable As was determined periodically by extraction with 0.1M PO(4). Both As(V) and roxarsone displayed similar desorption; initially, approximately 70% of added As was ligand exchangeable and this decreased to 35% after 4 months incubation, presumably due to either slow sorption reactions or a change in solid phase speciation of As to less exchangeable forms. In the second study, various manipulations of two PL samples were applied to the Orangeburg soil at realistic field application rates. The treatments were wet to 10% moisture content and water soluble As, Cu and organic carbon (DOC) was measured over 30 days. Arsenic and Cu solubility were highest from the dried litter samples. Ashing of the PLs decreased soluble As and Cu, presumably because of the loss of organic matter from the ashed litter and subsequent decrease in DOC. Application of leachates from either PL resulted in higher concentrations of soluble As and Cu than when the soil was amended with equivalent concentrations of soluble As and Cu dissolved in DI H(2)O. We hypothesize that the increased levels of DOC from the PL treatments enhance As and Cu solubility through competitive sorption and complexation, respectively. In fact, As and Cu solubility was correlated to DOC levels in the amended soil extracts. Even though land application of PL introduced relatively low concentrations of As and Cu

  13. Managing broiler litter application rate and grazing to decrease watershed runoff losses.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Brink, G E; Oldham, J L

    2008-01-01

    Pasture management and broiler litter application rate are critical factors influencing the magnitude of nutrients being transported by runoff from fields. We investigated the impact of pasture management and broiler litter application rate on nutrient runoff from bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) pastures. The experiment was conducted on a Ruston fine sandy loam with a factorial arrangement on 21 large paddocks. Runoff water was collected from natural rainfall events from 2001 to 2003. Runoff water and soil samples were analyzed for nutrients and sediments. Runoff was generally greater (29%) from grazed than hayed pastures regardless of the litter application rate. There was greater inorganic N in the runoff from grazed paddocks when litter rate was based on N rather than P. The mean total P loss per runoff event for all treatments ranged from 7 to 45 g ha(-1) and the grazed treatment with litter applied on N basis had the greatest total P loss. Total dissolved P was the dominant P fraction in the runoff, ranging from 85% to 93% of the total P. The soluble reactive P was greater for treatments with litter applied on N basis regardless of pasture management. Runoff total sediments were greater for N-based litter application compared to those which received litter on P basis. Our results indicate that litter may be applied on N basis if the pasture is hayed and the soil P is low. In contrast, litter rates should be based on a P-basis if pasture is grazed.

  14. A method for subsurface-banding poultry litter in plots not accessible with conventional field equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to be effective in reducing nutrients in runoff and leachate, relative to surface broadcast application of litter. Some field plot arrangements, such as plots having adjacent pits in the soil, prevent the use of conventional field equipme...

  15. Establishment of numerical beach-litter hindcast/forecast models: an application to Goto Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Seino, Satoquo; Kojima, Azusa

    2011-02-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for hindcasting/forecasting the quantity of litter reaching a beach using an ocean circulation model, a two-way particle tracking model (PTM) to find litter sources, and an inverse method to compute litter outflows at each source. Twelve actual beach survey results, and satellite and forecasted wind data were also used. The quantity of beach litter was hindcasted/forecasted using a forward in-time PTM with the surface currents computed in the ocean circulation model driven by satellite-derived/forecasted wind data. Outflows obtained using the inverse method was given for each source in the model. The time series of the hindcasted/forecasted quantity of beach litter were found consistent with the quantity of beach litter determined from sequential webcam images of the actual beach. The accuracy of the model, however, is reduced drastically by intense winds such as typhoons which disturb drifting litter motion.

  16. Environmental impacts of in-house windrow composting of broiler litter prior to land application in subtropical/semi-arid conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application to crop and pasture land is a common and effective method of utilizing the resource value of poultry litter. In-house windrow composting of litter is an emerging management practice with the potential to mitigate water quality and nuisance odor concerns associated with land applica...

  17. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g. litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior as well as soil respiration. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 ≦ r ≦ 0.947). Standard deviations within sensor types were linearly correlated to daily sensor mean values; however, above a certain threshold they became irregular, which may be linked to exceedance of the working ranges. Thus, measurements with irregular standard deviations were considered unusable and calibrations of all individual sensors were compared for useable periods. A large drift in the sensor raw value-litter moisture-relationship became obvious from drought to drought period. This drift may be related to installation effects or settling and decomposition of the litter layer throughout the fire season. Because of the drift and the in situ calibration necessary, it cannot be recommended to use the methods presented here for monitoring purposes. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  18. 17β-estradiol in runoff as affected by various poultry litter application strategies.

    PubMed

    Delaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2013-02-01

    Steroidal hormones, which are excreted by all mammalian species, have received increasing attention in recent years due to potential environmental implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate 17β-estradiol concentrations in runoff water from plots receiving poultry litter applications using various management strategies. Treatments included the effects of 1) aluminum sulfate (alum) application rates to poultry litter; 2) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application; 3) poultry litter application rate; 4) fertilizer type; and 5) litter from birds fed modified diets. Rainfall simulators were used to cause continuous runoff from fertilized plots. Runoff samples were collected and analyzed for 17β-estradiol concentrations. Results showed that increasing alum additions to poultry litter decreased 17β-estradiol concentrations in runoff water. A significant exponential decline in 17β-estradiol runoff was also observed with increasing time until the first runoff event after litter application. Concentrations of 17β-estradiol in runoff water increased with increasing litter application rate and remained above background concentrations after three runoff events at higher application rates. Management practices such as diet modification and selection of fertilizer type were also shown to affect 17β-estradiol concentrations in runoff water. Although results from these experiments typically represented a worst case scenario since runoff events generally occurred immediately after litter application, the contaminant loss from pastures fertilized with poultry litter can be expected to be much lower than continual estradiol loadings observed from waste water treatment plants. Management practices such as alum amendment and application timing can significantly reduce the risk of 17β-estradiol losses in the environment.

  19. Nutritional and physical properties of organic Beauregard sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.)] as influenced by broiler litter application rate.

    PubMed

    Gichuhi, Peter N; Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2014-07-01

    Organic farming has been on an upward trend in recent years. However, the manures used like broiler litter have variable nutrient content, making it important to establish optimal application rate, for maximum crop yield and quality. Additionally, some states like Alabama restricts the amount of broiler litter to control excessive nutrients accumulation which can lead to surface and ground water contamination. The current study evaluated the effect of broiler litter at rates 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 t ha(-1) (treatments T0, T0.5, T1, T2, and T3), on the nutritional and physical properties of Beauregard sweet potato. Analyses were performed to determine moisture, ash, fiber, vitamin C, and β-carotene contents using oven, muffler furnace, dye, and spectrophotometric methods; texture; and color using compressive strength and L, a, b system, respectively. Ash content of the samples ranged from 0.9% to 1.4% with a very strong positive linear correlation (r = 0.9) to the broiler litter rate. However, vitamin C had a quadratic relationship with the broiler litter rate with a peaking at T0.5 (15.5 mg/100 g). The yellow color (b-value) also had a strong linear relationship with the broiler litter rate (r = 0.86). However, the other measures showed moderate, weak, or negligible correlations to the broiler litter level. T0.5 had the highest β-carotene (262.0 μg/g), dry matter contents and had the most firm (0.040 kN) sweet potatoes with the deepest orange color (L = 60.7). Based on the study's findings, 0.5 t ha(-1) appeared to be appropriate level of broiler litter, which is consistent with Alabama's law and is also advantageous in terms of low cost of farming practices and water pollution reduction.

  20. 17B-Estradiol in Runoff as Affected by Various Poultry Litter Application Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runoff of estrogen from land fertilized with poultry litter has recently received increased attention. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various poultry litter application strategies on 17B-estradiol concentrations in runoff water. Treatments included the effects of 1) al...

  1. Effects of subsurface poultry litter application technology on water quality, odor, and corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impending rules in Maryland will require that poultry litter be incorporated into the soil upon application. For the past five years, we have tested various direct incorporation technologies for poultry litter on Maryland’s coastal plain. Most recently, the USDA-ARS “Subsurfer” has been the focus of...

  2. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  3. Influence of Poultry Litter Applications on Nematode Communities in Cotton Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.; Barker, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the application of poultry litter at 0.0, 6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 tons/ha on population changes during the growing season on nematode communities were evaluated in two cotton production fields in North Carolina. Numbers of bactivorous nematodes increased at midseason in response to the rate at which litter was applied but decreased with increasing litter application rates at cotton harvest. Numbers of fungivores at cotton harvest were related positively to the rate of litter applied, and this affected a positive increase in the fungivore-to-bacterivore ratio at this sampling date. The rate at which poultry litter was applied resulted in an increase in the bacterivore to plant-parasite ratio, and this corresponded with increased cotton lint yield. Trophic diversity was increased by litter application rate at cotton harvest at one location but not at another. The plant-parasite maturity index was greater consistently at one site than at a second site where the Hoplolaimus columbus population density was above the damage threshold for cotton. The population density of H. columbus was suppressed with increasing rates of poultry litter application, but other plant-parasitic nematodes were affected marginally. PMID:19262834

  4. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil phosphorus (P) distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at rates of 4.5, 6.7...

  5. Combination of different methods to assess the fate of lignin in decomposing needle and leave litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbücher, Thimo; Filley, Timothy; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    Lignin is a major component of plant litter. However, its fate during litter decay is still poorly understood. One reason is the difficult analysis. Commonly used methods utilize different methodological approaches and focus on different aspects, e.g., content of lignin and/or of lignin-derived phenols and the degree of oxidation. The comparability and feasibility of the methods has not been tested so far. Our aims were: (1) to compare different methods with respect to track lignin degradation during plant litter decay and (2) to evaluate possible advantages of combining the different results. We assessed lignin degradation in decaying litter by 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis and CuO oxidation (each combined with GC/MS) and by determination of acid-detergent lignin (ADL) combined with near infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, water-extractable organic matter produced during litter decay was examined for indicators of lignin-derived compounds by UV absorbance at 280 nm, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 13C-TMAH GC/MS. The study included litter samples from 5 different tree species (acer, ash, beech, pine, spruce), exposed in litterbags to degradation in a spruce stand for 27 months. First results suggested stronger lignin degradation in coniferous than in deciduous litter. This was indicated by complementary results from various methods: Conifer litter showed a more pronounced decrease in ADL content and a stronger increase in oxidation degree of side chains (Ac/Al ratios of CuO oxidation and 13C-TMAH products). Furthermore water extracted organic matter from needles showed a higher aromaticity and molecule complexity. Thus properties of water extractable organic matter seemed to reflect the extents of lignin degradation in solid litter samples. Contents of lignin-derived phenols determined with the CuO method (VSC content) hardly changed during decay of needles and leaves. These results thus not matched the trends found with the ADL method. Our results suggested that water

  6. Comparison of different methods to assess root litter carbon input to the soil in a young deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzacchi, Pietro; Boldreghini, Pietro; Cantoni, Lucia; Gioacchini, Paola; Tonon, Giustino

    2010-05-01

    Estimating fine root turnover and rhizodeposition remains a mayor challenge in natural ecosystems studies. In the present research we estimated root litter carbon (C) imputs to the soil during 2006 coupling one direct and one indirect method. The study was carried out in a fifteen-year-old mixed hardwood plantation established in northern Italy on a former agricultural land (Clay content ~60%). A first estimation of net rhizodeposition was obtained by the application of an isotopic method by using in-growth cores filled with 'C4 soil'. Plastic mesh bags (2.5 cm diameter, 60 cm long, 0.5 cm mesh size) were packed respecting the original soil bulk density with soil from a long term Zea mais crop system (δ 13C = -22.0 ± 0.2 ) and placed in the soil at different distances from the stem of trees. 'Control' bags made with a special tissue, porous to water and gases but impenetrable to roots, were also placed nearby. By using the mass balance approach the flux of C to the soil was calculated. This latter estimation was then compared to the root litter input estimated by the application of the total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) approach for forests far from the steady state that can be simplified as follows: Ra + Lr+ ?rootC = TBCA = Rsoil --Ll+ ?litterC + ?soilC + ?rootC (1) where and Rsoil is total soil respiration, Ra is autotrophic soil respiration estimated by the 'trenching method', Lr and Ll are belowground and aboveground litter respectively, ?litterC, ?soilC and ?rootC are the variations of C of litter layer, soil and roots respectively. From equation 1 it is possible to extrapolate Lr: Lr = Rsoil --Ra+ ?litterC + ?soilC + ?rootC (2) The two methods, that have never been exploited with the aim to estimate rhizodeposition, gave similar final results. Actually, the net rhizodeposition (C input to the soil by root minus heterotrophic respiration) was 3.27 Mg of C ha-1 by isotopic approach and the total rhizodeposition was 3.22 Mg of C ha-1 by TBCA approach.

  7. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  8. Copper and Zinc Runoff from Land Application of Composted Poultry Litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2016-09-01

    Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients. The objective of this study was to measure copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in runoff water from plots fertilized with composted and fresh poultry litter. Seven treatments were evaluated in the first year: (i) unfertilized control, (ii) fresh poultry litter, (iii) normal compost (no amendment), (iv) composted litter with alum, (v) composted litter with phosphoric acid, (vi) composted litter with a microbial mixture, and (vii) composted litter with alum + microbial mixture. Six of these treatments were evaluated in Year 2 (alum + microbial mixture was not evaluated in Year 2). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5 cm h storm event sufficient in length to cause 30 min of continuous runoff. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were elevated in compost compared with fresh poultry litter. However, metal concentrations in compost did not correlate well with metal concentrations in runoff water and may have been affected by compost maturity and amendment. Total Cu and Zn concentrations in runoff water did not differ between alum-amended compost and fresh poultry litter in each year.

  9. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  10. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  11. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  12. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  13. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  14. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g., litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior and soil respiration. Real-time availability of this value would thus be a great benefit to fire risk management and prevention. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 < = r < = 0.947, p < 0.001). Standard deviations within sensor types were linearly correlated to daily sensor mean values; however, above a certain threshold they became irregular, which may be linked to exceedance of the working ranges. Thus, measurements with irregular standard deviations were considered unusable and relationships between gravimetric and automatic measurements of all individual sensors were compared only for useable periods. A large drift in these relationships became obvious from drought to drought period. This drift may be related to installation effects or settling and decomposition of the litter layer throughout the fire season. Because of the drift and the in situ calibration necessary, it cannot be recommended to use the methods presented here for monitoring purposes and thus operational hazard management. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  15. Subsurface band application of poultry litter and its influence on Phosphorus concentration and retention after runoff from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive P loss from agricultural fields has been identified as a major cause of eutrophication to river, lakes, and streams. To minimize and mitigate P loss from poultry litter (PL) applications, new technology is being developed for subsurface band application of litter below the soil surface. Th...

  16. Bacteria associated with rain runoff following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry rearing in the United States is approximately a thirty million dollar per year industry. Land application of poultry litter is an economical viable use of this manure byproduct. However the recent concern associated with organic food and pathogenic bacterial contamination has led to increa...

  17. Detection of pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over 18,000 kg of poultry litter (PL), a mixture of poultry manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed produced as a by-product. This PL is a valuable nutrient source for crop production however; land application of livestock ...

  18. Influence of Leaf Litter Moisture on the Efficiency of the Winkler Method for Extracting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Delsinne, Thibaut D.; Arias-Penna, Tania M.

    2012-01-01

    The Winkler extraction is one of the two fundamental sampling techniques of the standardized “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, which aims to allow qualitative and quantitative comparisons of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages. To achieve this objective, it is essential that the standard 48—hour extraction provides a reliable picture of the assemblages under study. Here, we tested to what extent the efficiency of the ant extraction is affected by the initial moisture content of the leaf litter sample. In an Ecuadorian mountain rainforest, the leaf litter present under rainfall—excluded and rainfall—allowed plots was collected, its moisture content measured, and its ant fauna extracted with a mini—Winkler apparatus for a 48—hour and a 96—hour period. The efficiency of the Winkler method to extract ant individuals over a 48—hour period decreased with the moisture content of the leaf litter sample. However, doubling the extraction time did not improve the estimations of the ant species richness, composition, and relative abundance. Although the moisture content of the leaf litter slightly affected the ant sampling, our results indicated that a 48—hour Winkler extraction, as recommended by the “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, is sufficient to allow reliable comparisons of ant assemblages. PMID:22962850

  19. Ammonia emission factors from broiler litter in barns, in storage, and after land application.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A; Miles, Dana; Burns, Robert; Pote, Dan; Berg, Kess; Choi, In Hag

    2011-01-01

    We measured NH₃ emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage, and after land application and conducted a mass balance of N in poultry houses. Four state-of-the-art tunnel-ventilated broiler houses in northwest Arkansas were equipped with NH₃ sensors, anemometers, and data loggers to continuously record NH₃ concentrations and ventilation for 1 yr. Gaseous fluxes of NH₃, N₂O, CH₄, and CO₂ from litter were measured. Nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs were quantified. Ammonia emissions during storage and after land application were measured. Ammonia emissions during the flock averaged approximately 15.2 kg per day-house (equivalent to 28.3 g NH₃per bird marketed). Emissions between flocks equaled 9.09 g NH₃ per bird. Hence, in-house NH₃ emissions were 37.5 g NH₃ per bird, or 14.5 g kg(-1) bird marketed (50-d-old birds). The mass balance study showed N inputs for the year to the four houses totaled 71,340 kg N, with inputs from bedding, chicks, and feed equal to 303, 602, and 70,435 kg, respectively (equivalent to 0.60, 1.19, and 139.56 g N per bird). Nitrogen outputs totaled 70,396 kg N. Annual N output from birds marketed, NH₃ emissions, litter or cake, mortality, and NO₂ emissions was 39,485, 15,571, 14,464, 635, and 241 kg N, respectively (equivalent to 78.2, 30.8, 28.7, 1.3, and 0.5 g N per bird). The percent N recovery for the N mass balance study was 98.8%. Ammonia emissions from stacked litter during a 16-d storage period were 172 g Mg(-1) litter, which is equivalent to 0.18 g NH₃ per bird. Ammonia losses from poultry litter broadcast to pastures were 34 kg N ha (equivalent to 15% of total N applied or 7.91 g NH₃ per bird). When the litter was incorporated into the pasture using a new knifing technique, NH₃ losses were virtually zero. The total NH₃ emission factor for broilers measured in this study, which includes losses in-house, during storage, and after land application, was 45.6 g NH₃ per bird marketed.

  20. Effects of frequency of multiple applications of litter amendment on litter ammonia and live performance in a shared airspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitigation of ammonia (NH3) volatilization from litter is of particular interest given its effects on broiler health and production efficiency, as well as air and water quality concerns. Typical management guidelines recommend aerial NH3 concentrations be limited to 25 ppm. However, concentrations i...

  1. A comparison of two methods for isolation of Salmonella from poultry litter samples.

    PubMed

    Read, S C; Irwin, R J; Poppe, C; Harris, J

    1994-10-01

    Two methods were compared to determine their ability and efficiency in detecting Salmonella in poultry litter samples. Method 1 consisted of pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), selective motility enrichment in Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar, and plating onto MacConkey (MC) agar. Method 2 employed tetrathionate brilliant green (TBG) broth and plating on brilliant green agar with novobiocin (BGAN) and on xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. Method 1 resulted in a significantly higher isolation rate, was cheaper, and was less labor intensive.

  2. Implement with adjustable band spacing for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  3. Application of composted poultry litter as a fertilizer for landscape bedding plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, over 16 million tons of poultry litter is produced in the U.S. Federal and state regulations now limit the amount of poultry litter that can be land-applied, making it difficult to store and dispose poultry litter. The objective of this study was to evaluate composted poultry litter (CPL)...

  4. Quantifying and characterizing dissolved carbon and nitrogen leaching from litter: a comparison of methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Litter decomposition has a fundamental role in ecosystem functioning. It recycles energy, carbon and nutrients, supporting ecosystem productivity and soil organic matter formation. Litter decomposition occurs through leaching, fragmentation, and catabolism. Leaching is, arguably, the least studie...

  5. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  6. Reducing Children's Littering on a Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.; Bailey, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    This study compared incentives and educational methods to motivate children to pick up litter and to prevent littering. Incentives did aid in getting litter picked up. One-sentence anti-litter statements, educational materials, and lectures reduced littering, but incentives did not. (MR)

  7. Evaluation of precision litter application practices for cotton production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is typically land applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes litter nutrients to volatilization or runoff losses. Placing litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may mitigate those losses and improve plant growth development, yield and quality. This study was cond...

  8. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  9. Long-term applications of untreated and alum-treated poultry litter drive soil nitrogen concentrations and associated microbial community dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum)-treatment retains ammonia in poultry litter, potentially altering nitrogen cycling after application to soil. The objective of this research was to assess if eight and nine years of annual application of untreated or alum-treated poultry litters or ammonium nitrate have resul...

  10. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  11. A TWO-PROBE METHOD FOR MEASURING WATER CONTENT OF THIN FOREST FLOOR LITTER LAYERS USING TIME DOMAIN REFLECTOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Few methods exist that allow non-destructive in situ measurement of the water content of forest floor litter layers (Oa,Oe, and Oi horizons). Continuous non-destructive measurement is needed in studies of ecosystem processes because of the relationship between physical structure ...

  12. Microbial biomass and soil carbon after 8 and 9 years of field applications of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter and inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amendment with aluminum sulfate (alum) is considered a best management practice for its benefits in poultry production and increased retention of nutrients in the litter. However, little is known about how long-term applications of alum-treated litter to soil will affect the microbial community and ...

  13. Agronomic and environmental soil test phosphorus method comparisons and diet modification impacts on poultry litter phosphorus composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugene, Branly

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields to freshwater ecosystems is of increasing concern due to elevated soil P levels brought on by long term and excessive application rates of manure and commercial fertilizers. Both Bray P1 and Mehlich-3 P (PM3) soil tests are used in Indiana to make fertilizer recommendations and to limit manure application rates. The Mehlich-3 P Saturation Ratio (PSRM3) has been proposed as an alternative to PM3 and the ammonium oxalate degree of P saturation (DPSOX) for assessing the risk of soluble P loss from soils. We assessed the correlations among agronomic soil test methods (PM3 and Bray P1), environmental soil test methods (soluble P: deionized water, DW; artificial rainwater, ARW; dilute salt extractable P, DSEP), ammonium oxalate P (POX), total P (TP), and P saturation methods from 565 Indiana surface soil samples. Significant correlations were found among the various STP methods evaluated, and Bray P1 and PM3 displayed the strongest coefficient of correlation (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). Mehlich-3 P had stronger correlations with TP and POX compared to correlations between Bray P1 and TP and POX, and their correlations were all highly significant ( p < 0.0001). Additionally, all soluble P forms were significantly correlated with Bray P1, PM3, and POX, and the correlations between Bray P1 and all three soluble P measures were consistently greater than those between other soil test methods and the soluble measures. Significant correlations were found between PM3 and PSRM3 (r = 0.93, p < 0.0001) and between PSRM3 and DPSOX (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001), suggesting that PSRM3 can be as effective as DPSOX to identify soils with a greater potential to contribute bioavailable (not just soluble) P to surface and ground water. We conclude that both PM3 and PSRM3 can be integrated into more comprehensive P loss risk algorithms to mitigate elevated P concentration in surface and ground water. The PSRM3 can be used as an alternative to PM3 as it does

  14. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods.

    PubMed

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  15. Identifying Shifts in Leaf-Litter Ant Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across Ecosystem Boundaries Using Multiple Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wiezik, Michal; Svitok, Marek; Wieziková, Adela; Dovčiak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Global or regional environmental changes in climate or land use have been increasingly implied in shifts in boundaries (ecotones) between adjacent ecosystems such as beech or oak-dominated forests and forest-steppe ecotones that frequently co-occur near the southern range limits of deciduous forest biome in Europe. Yet, our ability to detect changes in biological communities across these ecosystems, or to understand their environmental drivers, can be hampered when different sampling methods are required to characterize biological communities of the adjacent but ecologically different ecosystems. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have been shown to be particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and vegetation and they require different sampling methods in closed vs. open habitats. We compared ant assemblages of closed-forests (beech- or oak-dominated) and open forest-steppe habitats in southwestern Carpathians using methods for closed-forest (litter sifting) and open habitats (pitfall trapping), and developed an integrated sampling approach to characterize changes in ant assemblages across these adjacent ecosystems. Using both methods, we collected 5,328 individual ant workers from 28 species. Neither method represented ant communities completely, but pitfall trapping accounted for more species (24) than litter sifting (16). Although pitfall trapping characterized differences in species richness and composition among the ecosystems better, with beech forest being most species poor and ecotone most species rich, litter sifting was more successful in identifying characteristic litter-dwelling species in oak-dominated forest. The integrated sampling approach using both methods yielded more accurate characterization of species richness and composition, and particularly so in species-rich forest-steppe habitat where the combined sample identified significantly higher number of species compared to either of the two methods on their own. Thus, an integrated sampling

  16. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    SciTech Connect

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  17. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus soil chemistry and runoff water quality.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Mark S; Daniel, Tommy C; DeLaune, Paul B; Sharpley, Andrew N; Lory, John A

    2013-11-01

    Continuous application of poultry litter (PL) significantly changes many soil properties, including soil test P (STP); Al, Fe, and Ca concentrations; and pH, which can affect the potential for P transport in surface runoff water. We conducted rainfall simulations on three historically acidic silt loam soils in Arkansas, Missouri, and Virginia to establish if long-term PL applications would affect soil inorganic P fractions and the resulting dissolved reactive P (DRP) in runoff water. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were taken to find sites ranging in Mehlich-3 STP from 20 to 1154 mg P kg. Simulated rainfall events were conducted on 3-m plots at 6.7 cm h, and runoff was collected for 30 min. Correlation between Mehlich-3 and runoff DRP indicated a linear relationship to 833 mg Mehlich-3 P kg. As Mehlich-3 STP increased, a concomitant increase in soil pH and Ca occurred on all soils. Soil P fractionation demonstrated that, as Mehlich-3 STP generally increased above 450 mg P kg (from high to very high), the easily soluble and loosely bound P fractions decreased by 3 to 10%. Water-insoluble complexes of P bound to Al and Ca were the main drivers in the reduction of DRP in runoff, accounting for up to 43 and 38% of total P, respectively. Basing runoff DRP concentration projections solely on Mehlich-3 STP may overestimate runoff P losses from soils receiving long-term PL applications due to dissolution of water-insoluble Ca-P compounds.

  18. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  19. Detection of pathogens, indicators, and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over eight billion broilers produced yearly. Poultry litter (PL) is a mixture of manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed that is a by-product of broiler production. In 2009, the U.S. produced more than 50 million tons of PL...

  20. Meta-analysis as a tool to study crop productivity response to poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive research on the use of poultry litter (PL) under different agricultural practices in the USA has shown both negative and positive effects on crop productivity (either yield or aboveground biomass). However, these experimental results are substantially dependent on the experimental set-up, ...

  1. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  2. Broiler litter application and tillage effects on restoration of degraded soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was initiated in 2005 at Plant Material Center, NRCS, in Coffeeville Mississippi, on a degraded Loring silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Glossic Fragiudalf) soil to determine restorative potential of broiler litter, soil and crop management on selected soil physical, chemical, and...

  3. Application of Composted Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer for Landscape Annual Bedding Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been a major expansion in the poultry industry, leading to waste disposal problems in many of areas. A study was conducted to determine if the use of poultry litter in the landscape industry could provide an environmentally sound means of disposal for poultry producers as ...

  4. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  5. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    PubMed

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  6. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  7. Bermudagrass management in the southern Piedmont, USA: IX. Trace elements in soil with broiler litter application.

    PubMed

    Franzluebbers, A J; Wilkinson, S R; Stuedemann, J A

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the long-term cycling of trace elements in soil with broiler litter fertilization under various forage utilization strategies is needed to develop sustainable agricultural production systems. We evaluated differences in Cu, Mn, Zn, and six other trace elements in response to 5 yr of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] management varying in fertilization and harvest strategies on a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia. Chicken (Gallus gallus) broiler litter was a significant source of trace elements that led to 3.4 +/- 0.5 times higher Cu, 2.0 +/- 0.3 times higher Mn, and 2.1 +/- 0.2 times higher Zn in the surface 3 cm of soil than when forage was fertilized inorganically. There were variable effects of broiler litter fertilization on other trace elements, depending upon element, depth of sampling, and forage utilization strategy. Concentrations of all trace elements in soil were below levels considered toxic to plants. Soil at a depth of 0 to 3 cm under grazed paddocks had 33 +/- 5% greater Cd, 18 +/- 1% greater Cr, 53 +/- 24% greater Cu, and 24 +/- 7% greater Zn compared with unharvested and hayed management. Trace elements in soil were unaffected whether forage was unharvested or removed as hay. These results suggest that broiler litter is a significant source of several trace elements and that ruminant processing of forage and subsequent deposition of excreta on the paddock allow these trace elements to accumulate more at the soil surface where they might interact with the high concentration of organic matter.

  8. Enhancement of broiler litter to improve the fertilizer quality of litter

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents efforts to utilize poultry litter for feed, fertilizer, and soil amendments. Historical and programmatic efforts by TVA are discussed. Current methods of drying and pelleting the litter, along with more direct methods of composting are reported.

  9. Enhancement of broiler litter to improve the fertilizer quality of litter

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents efforts to utilize poultry litter for feed, fertilizer, and soil amendments. Historical and programmatic efforts by TVA are discussed. Current methods of drying and pelleting the litter, along with more direct methods of composting are reported.

  10. Influence of poultry litter land application on the concentrations of estrogens in water and sediment within a watershed.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qi; Adams, Paige; Lu, Junhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Huang, Qingguo

    2013-07-01

    This research studied the occurrence of estrogens in the Upper Satilla watershed, Georgia, USA, which was impacted by poultry litter land application and discharge from a sewage treatment plant (STP) receiving poultry wastes. Over 14 months, four estrogens in stream water, sediment, suspended particles, and STP samples were quantified by LC/MS. Estrogens were consistently found in the STP influent with high concentrations while they were below the detection limits in the majority of stream water, suspended particles, and sediment. Estrone, 17β-estradiol, and estriol were found in 18% of stream water samples with concentrations up to 46.4, 67.2, and 125 ng L(-1), respectively. However, 17α-ethinylestradiol was only detected in STP samples. Estrogens were found in 14% of suspended particle samples with the median concentration being 27.5 ng g(-1) for estrone, 104.5 ng g(-1) for 17β-estradiol, and 93.9 ng g(-1) for estriol. The estrogen concentrations in sediment were <4.95 ng g(-1), indicating that sediment is not a major sink for estrogens in this watershed. The quantitative analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of the estrogens suggests the occasional elevation of estrogens in the watershed above the predicted-no-effect-concentrations to fish likely to be associated with litter disposal and rainfall events.

  11. Litter composition effects on decomposition across the litter-soil interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Many studies have investigated the influence of plant litter species composition on decomposition dynamics, but given the variety of communities and environments around the world, a variety of consequences of litter-mixing have been reported. Litter ...

  12. 17beta-Estradiol and testosterone in drainage and runoff from poultry litter applications to tilled and no-till crop land under irrigation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Hartel, Peter G; Cabrera, Miguel L

    2009-06-01

    Thirteen million [corrected] metric tons of poultry litter are produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of poultry litter applications on estradiol and testosterone concentrations in subsurface drainage and surface runoff in irrigated crop land under no-till and conventional-till management. We conducted an irrigation study in fall of 2001 and spring of 2002. Four treatments, no-till plus poultry litter, conventional-till plus poultry litter, no-till plus conventional fertilizer, and conventional-till plus conventional fertilizer, were evaluated. Flow-weighted concentration and load ha(-1) of the two hormones were measured in drainage and runoff. Soil concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were measured. Based on comparisons to the conventional fertilizer (and control) treatments, poultry litter did not add to the flow-weighted concentration or load ha(-1) of either estradiol or testosterone in subsurface drainage or surface runoff. Significant differences were, however, observed between tillage treatments: flow-weighted concentrations of estradiol were greater for no-till than conventional-till plots of the June irrigation; and runoff loads of both estradiol and testosterone were less from no-till than conventional-till plots for the November irrigation. Although the differences between no-till and conventional-tillage appeared to affect the hydrologic transport of both hormones, the differences appeared to have inconsequential environmental impact.

  13. Soil respiration as affected by long-term broiler litter application to a udult in the ozark highlands.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Richard L; Brye, Kristofor R; Gbur, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The United States produced 8.4 billion broiler chickens () and an estimated 10.1 to 14.3 million Mg of broiler litter (BL) in 2012. Arkansas' production of 1 billion broilers in 2012 produced an estimated 1.2 to 1.7 million Mg of BL, most of which was concentrated in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Increased CO release from soils associated with agricultural practices has generated concerns regarding the contribution of certain agricultural management practices to global warming. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of long-term (>6 yr) BL application to a Udult on soil respiration and annual C emissions and to determine the predictability of soil respiration based on soil temperature and moisture in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Soil respiration was measured routinely between May 2009 and May 2012 in response to annual BL application rates of 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg dry litter ha that began in 2003. Soil respiration varied ( < 0.01) with BL rate, measurement date, and year. Additions of BL stimulated respiration after application, and rainfall events after dry-soil conditions stimulated respiration in all years. Soil temperature at the 10-cm depth, 0- to 6-cm soil volumetric water content (VWC), and annual CO-C emissions were unaffected ( > 0.05) by BL application rate but differed ( < 0.01) among study years. Multiple regression indicated that soil respiration could be reasonably predicted using 2-cm-depth soil temperature (T) and the product of T and VWC as predictors ( = 0.52; < 0.01). Results indicate that organic amendments, such as BL, can stimulate release of CO from the soil to the atmosphere, potentially negatively affecting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations; thus, there may be application rates above which the benefits of organic amendments may be diminished by adverse environmental effects. Improved BL management strategies are needed to lessen the loss of CO from BL-amended soils.

  14. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  15. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  16. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  17. Community level patterns in diverse systems: A case study of litter fauna in a Mexican pine-oak forest using higher taxa surrogates and re-sampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Claudia E.; Guevara, Roger; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo; Téllez, Dianeis; Verdú, José R.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental assessment at the community level in highly diverse ecosystems is limited by taxonomic constraints and statistical methods requiring true replicates. Our objective was to show how diverse systems can be studied at the community level using higher taxa as biodiversity surrogates, and re-sampling methods to allow comparisons. To illustrate this we compared the abundance, richness, evenness and diversity of the litter fauna in a pine-oak forest in central Mexico among seasons, sites and collecting methods. We also assessed changes in the abundance of trophic guilds and evaluated the relationships between community parameters and litter attributes. With the direct search method we observed differences in the rate of taxa accumulation between sites. Bootstrap analysis showed that abundance varied significantly between seasons and sampling methods, but not between sites. In contrast, diversity and evenness were significantly higher at the managed than at the non-managed site. Tree regression models show that abundance varied mainly between seasons, whereas taxa richness was affected by litter attributes (composition and moisture content). The abundance of trophic guilds varied among methods and seasons, but overall we found that parasitoids, predators and detrivores decreased under management. Therefore, although our results suggest that management has positive effects on the richness and diversity of litter fauna, the analysis of trophic guilds revealed a contrasting story. Our results indicate that functional groups and re-sampling methods may be used as tools for describing community patterns in highly diverse systems. Also, the higher taxa surrogacy could be seen as a preliminary approach when it is not possible to identify the specimens at a low taxonomic level in a reasonable period of time and in a context of limited financial resources, but further studies are needed to test whether the results are specific to a system or whether they are general

  18. Marine litter prediction by artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Balas, Can Elmar; Ergin, Aysen; Williams, Allan T; Koc, Levent

    2004-03-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques of neural network and fuzzy systems were applied as alternative methods to determine beach litter grading, based on litter surveys of the Antalya coastline (the Turkish Riviera). Litter measurements were categorized and assessed by artificial intelligence techniques, which lead to a new litter categorization system. The constructed neural network satisfactorily predicted the grading of the Antalya beaches and litter categories based on the number of litter items in the general litter category. It has been concluded that, neural networks could be used for high-speed predictions of litter items and beach grading, when the characteristics of the main litter category was determined by field studies. This can save on field effort when fast and reliable estimations of litter categories are required for management or research studies of beaches--especially those concerned with health and safety, and it has economic implications. The main advantages in using fuzzy systems are that they consider linguistic adjectival definitions, e.g. many/few, etc. As a result, additional information inherent in linguistic comments/refinements and judgments made during field studies can be incorporated in grading systems.

  19. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced caked litter production compared with control pens in 6 of 9 flocks. However, average total litter production over all 9 flocks was not different between the 2 litter management strategies. In all flocks, litter N content was significantly reduced in top-dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing

  20. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosph...

  1. Broiler litter management effects on the nutrient composition of the litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is a common practice in agriculture production. However, potential water quality concerns as a result of over application of poultry litter has risen as a major environmental issue in states with substantial poultry production. Fundamental to the ...

  2. Water quality benefits of subsurface-banded poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chicken production is an important industry in Alabama and several other states. Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. This litter has commonly been land-applied near the broiler houses and this has resulted in long-term repeated application of litter to...

  3. Evaluation of a method for removing cesium and reducing the volume of leaf litter from broad-leaved trees contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeki; Yanagisawa, Mitsunori

    2017-04-01

    The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter. We tested our method in three experiments. Experiment 1 used new leaf litter (232 Bq/kg) from the surface of a small stream at the forest edge nearby an area with air dose level higher than the national standard threshold of 0.23 μSv/h for the implementation of governmental decontamination works. Experiment 2 applied wet oxidation to older leaf litter (705 Bq/kg) harvested from a pasture nearby the stream mentioned above. We also used the same leaf litter in experiment 3 for a cesium release tests using pure water. In experiment 1 and 2 we treated leaf litter with a sodium hypochlorite solution, optimizing sodium hypochlorite concentration and reaction temperature. We measured a 50-60% decrease in the leaf litter weight and a 60% decrease in the cesium concentration. Moreover, we also measured the amount of cesium washout. The cesium budget of experiment 1 showed no cesium gasification (wet oxidation avoids airborne cesium as this element is prone to be volatile at 600 °C), and that high sodium hypochlorite concentration and high temperature had a strong positive effect on leaf litter volume reduction and cesium decontamination. Experiment 2 confirmed the reproducibility of these results in leaves with different cesium concentration and harvested in different conditions. We could also explain the

  4. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  5. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  6. Evaluations of sampling methods for darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) in the litter of turkey and broiler houses.

    PubMed

    Safrit, R D; Axtell, R C

    1984-12-01

    Materials placed on the litter in turkey and broiler houses were evaluated as sampling devices for the larvae and adults of Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm or darkling beetle). Insects harbored in, on, and between pieces of the materials were counted after 1-week exposure. Pan traps consisting of two stacked pieces of 1.3-cm thick foil-covered polyisocyanurate insulation (Celotex) placed under a protective metal pan staked to the litter surface was a more effective sampling device than pan traps using thicker (5 cm) Celotex, 3.8 cm thick polystyrene (Styrofoam), or two stacked pieces of wood. A tube trap consisting of rolled fluted corrugated cardboard inserted in a section of polyvinyl chloride pipe was as effective a sampling device as the two pieces of Celotex in a pan trap and was more convenient to use. Six pieces of corrugated cardboard stacked under a pan caught larger numbers of beetle larvae and adults but was awkward to handle and impractical. Placement of sampling devices in the major subhabitats (open center, near walls, near feeders, and near waterers) in turkey and broiler houses affected catches of beetle larvae and adults. The open center area was satisfactory and most convenient.

  7. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity.

  8. Leaf litter decomposition in a southern Sonoran Desert ecosystem, northwestern Mexico: Effects of habitat and litter quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Núñez, Silvia; Búrquez, Alberto

    2007-11-01

    Leaf litter decomposition of dominant woody perennial species in the three most common habitats of the southern Sonoran Desert was studied using the litter-bag method. Our objective was to assess the influence of litter quality on decomposition rates in three contrasting desert environments. The hypotheses were: (1) decomposition rates within the same litter type are faster in more mesic habitats, (2) decomposition rates are lower in higher lignin content or lower nutrient quality substrates, and (3) species-rich substrates enhance decomposition rates. For all litter types and habitats, a rapid loss of mass occurred during the summer rains at the start of the experiment, but total loss within the same litter type differed significantly among habitats. Decay rates were not higher in the more mesic habitat, but in the dry plains where solar irradiance and termite activity were highest. While termite activity was less important in the arroyos and absent in the hillsides habitats, proliferation of fungal mycelium in these sites was much higher than in the plains, suggesting that biotic and abiotic factors act both independently of litter richness. Lignin content seems to be an important factor controlling the loss of litter, because decay rates were inversely related to litter initial lignin content in all three habitats. Leaf litter diversity did not enhance rates of decomposition. The leaf litter mixture had k-values similar to the most recalcitrant monospecific litter in all three habitats, indicating a neutral or even antagonistic role of species-specific compounds in decomposition rates.

  9. The impact of alum addition on organic P transformations in poultry litter and litter-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jason G; Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Sistani, Karamat

    2008-01-01

    Poultry litter treatment with alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3) . 18H(2)O) lowers litter phosphorus (P) solubility and therefore can lower litter P release to runoff after land application. Lower P solubility in litter is generally attributed to aluminum-phosphate complex formation. However, recent studies suggest that alum additions to poultry litter may influence organic P mineralization. Therefore, alum-treated and untreated litters were incubated for 93 d to assess organic P transformations during simulated storage. A 62-d soil incubation was also conducted to determine the fate of incorporated litter organic P, which included alum-treated litter, untreated litter, KH(2)PO(4) applied at 60 mg P kg(-1) of soil, and an unamended control. Liquid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that phytic acid was the only organic P compound present, accounting for 50 and 45% of the total P in untreated and alum-treated litters, respectively, before incubation and declined to 9 and 37% after 93 d of storage-simulating incubation. Sequential fractionation of litters showed that alum addition to litter transformed 30% of the organic P from the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl to the 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH extractable fraction and that both organic P fractions were more persistent in alum-treated litter compared with untreated litter. The soil incubation revealed that 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH-extractable organic P was more recalcitrant after mixing than was the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl-extractable organic P. Thus, adding alum to litter inhibits organic P mineralization during storage and promotes the formation of alkaline extractable organic P that sustains lower P solubility in the soil environment.

  10. Effects of immobilizing agents on surface runoff water quality from bermudagrass sod fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcasting is the common method for applying poultry litter on perennial forages, but this application method concentrates nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms at the soil surface where they are vulnerable to runoff water. The potential impairment of surface water from soluble nutrients...

  11. Littering Behavior in Public Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stuart N.

    1976-01-01

    This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior. Available studies are categorized according to the variables that influence littering--individual and environmental. Theoretical issues of attitude-behavior consistency and incentive effectiveness are analyzed with respect to littering and litter control. Results…

  12. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  13. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-02-15

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  14. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  15. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  16. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17ß-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides plant nutrients for crop and pasture production. Fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17ß-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues are litter components, however, that may contaminate surface waters and become a public health risk. Our objective was to quantify transpor...

  17. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ferrer, I.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Debris is not a cheese: litter in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    An 18-month study of six Louisiana beaches determined the extent, composition, and possible sources of beach litter. Data showed that from 2590 to 23,154 items may be encountered along any one-mile stretch of Louisiana beach, depending upon location and season, and that densities of litter ranged from 5 to 28 items per 100 m2. Plastics constituted 47% of the total, followed by polystyrene at 16% and glass at 10%. Drink-related items accounted for 40% of the identifiable material; operational wastes, 21%; galley wastes, 15%; personal items, 11%; and fishing items, 6%. Litter laws already exist at state and federal levels. Strict enforcement of Annex V of MARPOL should significantly reduce plastic beach litter. Solutions to beach litter will come from public participation in adopt-a-beach programs and statewide clean-ups and from educational programs focusing on existing laws, proper disposal methods, recycling, and the threat litter poses to wildlife and public health.

  19. The Experimental Control of Littering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Behavior, incentives, and education programs were researched as factors relating to littering. Experiments in theaters, forest campgrounds, and hiking and dispersed car camping areas indicate incentive systems are necessary and feasible for curbing litter problems. (BL)

  20. Bacterial content in runoff from simulated rainfall applied to plots amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as com...

  1. Does Proximity to Subsurface Poultry Litter Affect Corn Seedling Survival and Growth?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia N escapes into the atmosphere. Subsurface application of litter...

  2. Fungal contamination of poultry litter: a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Malta-Vacas, J; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on microbial contaminants associated with various stages related to poultry and meat products processing, only a few reported on fungal contamination of poultry litter. The goals of this study were to (1) characterize litter fungal contamination and (2) report the incidence of keratinophilic and toxigenic fungi presence. Seven fresh and 14 aged litter samples were collected from 7 poultry farms. In addition, 27 air samples of 25 litters were also collected through impaction method, and after laboratory processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU/m³) and qualitative results were obtained. Twelve different fungal species were detected in fresh litter and Penicillium was the most frequent genus found (59.9%), followed by Alternaria (17.8%), Cladosporium (7.1%), and Aspergillus (5.7%). With respect to aged litter, 19 different fungal species were detected, with Penicillium sp. the most frequently isolated (42.3%), followed by Scopulariopsis sp. (38.3%), Trichosporon sp. (8.8%), and Aspergillus sp. (5.5%). A significant positive correlation was found between litter fungal contamination (CFU/g) and air fungal contamination (CFU/m³). Litter fungal quantification and species identification have important implications in the evaluation of potential adverse health risks to exposed workers and animals. Spreading of poultry litter in agricultural fields is a potential public health concern, since keratinophilic (Scopulariopsis and Fusarium genus) as well as toxigenic fungi (Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium genus) were isolated.

  3. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  4. A semi-automated Raman micro-spectroscopy method for morphological and chemical characterizations of microplastic litter.

    PubMed

    L, Frère; I, Paul-Pont; J, Moreau; P, Soudant; C, Lambert; A, Huvet; E, Rinnert

    2016-12-15

    Every step of microplastic analysis (collection, extraction and characterization) is time-consuming, representing an obstacle to the implementation of large scale monitoring. This study proposes a semi-automated Raman micro-spectroscopy method coupled to static image analysis that allows the screening of a large quantity of microplastic in a time-effective way with minimal machine operator intervention. The method was validated using 103 particles collected at the sea surface spiked with 7 standard plastics: morphological and chemical characterization of particles was performed in <3h. The method was then applied to a larger environmental sample (n=962 particles). The identification rate was 75% and significantly decreased as a function of particle size. Microplastics represented 71% of the identified particles and significant size differences were observed: polystyrene was mainly found in the 2-5mm range (59%), polyethylene in the 1-2mm range (40%) and polypropylene in the 0.335-1mm range (42%).

  5. Flower litters of alpine plants affect soil nitrogen and phosphorus rapidly in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinniu; Xu, Bo; Wu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Shi, Fusun

    2016-10-01

    Litters of reproductive organs have rarely been studied despite their role in allocating nutrients for offspring reproduction. This study determines the mechanism through which flower litters efficiently increase the available soil nutrient pool. Field experiments were conducted to collect plant litters and calculate biomass production in an alpine meadow of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. C, N, P, lignin, cellulose content, and their relevant ratios of litters were analyzed to identify their decomposition features. A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of litter addition on the soil nutrition pool by comparing the treated and control samples. The litter-bag method was used to verify decomposition rates. The flower litters of phanerophyte plants were comparable with non-flower litters. Biomass partitioning of other herbaceous species accounted for 10-40 % of the aboveground biomass. Flower litter possessed significantly higher N and P levels but less C / N, N / P, lignin / N, and lignin and cellulose concentrations than leaf litter. The litter-bag experiment confirmed that the flower litters of Rhododendron przewalskii and Meconopsis integrifolia decompose approximately 3 times faster than mixed litters within 50 days. Pot experiment findings indicated that flower litter addition significantly increased the available nutrient pool and soil microbial productivity. The time of litter fall significantly influenced soil available N and P, and soil microbial biomass. Flower litters fed the soil nutrition pool and influenced nutrition cycling in alpine ecosystems more efficiently because of their non-ignorable production, faster decomposition rate, and higher nutrient contents compared with non-flower litters. The underlying mechanism can enrich nutrients, which return to the soil, and non-structural carbohydrates, which feed and enhance the transitions of soil microorganisms.

  6. Rainfall timing effect on concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in surface runoff from broiler litter applied to grassed plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter contains the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, which may contaminate surface runoff following litter application to grasslands. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of runoff occurring at different times after litter application and under different environmental con...

  7. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on inorganic and enzyme hydrolyzable P of Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of livestock manure on soil phosphorus (P) distribution has been studied for several decades; however, the majority of this work has focused on changes in inorganic P forms (Pi) following manure application. Up to 80% of the P in poultry manure is present as phytate or other organic forms...

  8. Ecotoxicity of cadmium in a soil collembolan-predatory mite food chain: Can we use the (15)N labeled litter addition method to assess soil functional change?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Ke, Xin; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-12-01

    Effects of cadmium (Cd) on predator-prey relationships and soil ecological function are poorly understood and there are few methods available to measure soil functional change. Thus, we structured a soil-dwelling food chain containing the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and its collembolan prey Folsomia candida to study the effects of Cd exposure for eight weeks in a spiked soil aged for five years. The (15)N labeled litter was added as food to analyze the change in nitrogen (N) transfer content. H. aculeifer reproduction and growth and the survival and reproduction of F. candida were all negatively affected by Cd exposure, and H. aculeifer reproduction was the most sensitive parameter. The sensitivity responses of F. candida and H. aculeifer were different from those using the previous single species test. The results suggest that predator-prey interactions might influence the toxicity of Cd by predation and food restriction. Cadmium lethal body concentrations of adults and juveniles of F. candida and H. aculeifer juveniles were 500-600, 180-270 and 8-10 μg g(-1), respectively. The content of N transfer from litter to animals in the food chain decreased significantly with increasing soil Cd concentration between 100 and 400 mg kg(-1). The results suggest that the (15)N labeled litter addition method is potentially useful for quantitative assessment of soil functional change for further risk assessment purposes.

  9. The Preparation of Gelatine-Embedded Soil and Litter Sections and Their Application to Some Soil Ecological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing large gelatine-embedded soil sections for ecological studies. Sampling methods reduce structural disturbance of the samples to a minimum and include freezing the samples in the field to kill soil invertebrates in their natural microhabitats. Projects are suggested for upper secondary school students. (Author/BB)

  10. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate on aluminum availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Edwards, D R

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that alum [Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] applications to poultry litter can greatly reduce phosphorus (P) runoff, as well as decrease ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization. However, the long-term effects of fertilizing with alum-treated litter are unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term effects of normal poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) on aluminum (Al) availability in soils, Al uptake by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and tall fescue yields. A long-term study was initiated in April of 1995. There were 13 treatments (unfertilized control, four rates of normal litter, four rates of alum-treated litter, and four rates of NH(4)NO(3)) in a randomized block design. All fertilizers were broadcast applied to 52 small plots (3.05 x 1.52 m) cropped to tall fescue annually in the spring. Litter application rates were 2.24, 4.49, 6.73, and 8.98 Mg ha(-1) (1, 2, 3, and 4 tons acre(-1)); NH(4)NO(3) rates were 65, 130, 195, and 260 kg N ha(-1) and were based on the amount of N applied with alum-treated litter. Soil pH, exchangeable Al (extracted with potassium chloride), Al uptake by fescue, and fescue yields were monitored periodically over time. Ammonium nitrate applications resulted in reductions in soil pH beginning in Year 3, causing exchangeable Al values to increase from less than 1 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 2 to over 100 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 7 for many of the NH(4)NO(3) plots. In contrast, normal and alum-treated litter resulted in an increase in soil pH, which decreased exchangeable Al when compared to unfertilized controls. Severe yield reductions were observed with NH(4)NO(3) beginning in Year 6, which were due to high levels of acidity and exchangeable Al. Aluminum uptake by forage and Al runoff from the plots were not affected by treatment. Fescue yields were highest with alum-treated litter (annual average = 7.36 Mg ha(-1)), followed by normal litter (6.93 Mg ha(-1)), NH(4)NO

  11. The Effects of Litter on Littering Behavior in a Forest Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, S. Larry; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The effects of littered and nonlittered areas on littering behavior were determined in picnic areas in the Uinta National Forest, Utah. Littered and nonlittered conditions were controlled by spreading or removing litter from specified areas. Observations revealed that in the nonlittered areas there was more litter than in the littered areas. (CS)

  12. Stream carbon and nitrogen supplements during leaf litter decomposition: contrasting patterns for two foundation species.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ada; Compson, Zacchaeus G; Dijkstra, Paul; Riera, Joan L; Martí, Eugènia; Sabater, Francesc; Hungate, Bruce A; Marks, Jane C

    2014-12-01

    Leaf litter decomposition plays a major role in nutrient dynamics in forested streams. The chemical composition of litter affects its processing by microorganisms, which obtain nutrients from litter and from the water column. The balance of these fluxes is not well known, because they occur simultaneously and thus are difficult to quantify separately. Here, we examined C and N flow from streamwater and leaf litter to microbial biofilms during decomposition. We used isotopically enriched leaves ((13)C and (15)N) from two riparian foundation tree species: fast-decomposing Populus fremontii and slow-decomposing Populus angustifolia, which differed in their concentration of recalcitrant compounds. We adapted the isotope pool dilution method to estimate gross elemental fluxes into litter microbes. Three key findings emerged: litter type strongly affected biomass and stoichiometry of microbial assemblages growing on litter; the proportion of C and N in microorganisms derived from the streamwater, as opposed to the litter, did not differ between litter types, but increased throughout decomposition; gross immobilization of N from the streamwater was higher for P. fremontii compared to P. angustifolia, probably as a consequence of the higher microbial biomass on P. fremontii. In contrast, gross immobilization of C from the streamwater was higher for P. angustifolia, suggesting that dissolved organic C in streamwater was used as an additional energy source by microbial assemblages growing on slow-decomposing litter. These results indicate that biofilms on decomposing litter have specific element requirements driven by litter characteristics, which might have implications for whole-stream nutrient retention.

  13. Amino compounds in poultry litter, litter-amended pasture soils and grass shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic N accounts for 95-98% of total soil N contents with amino compounds (ACs) as major ingredients. But relatively little is known about the effects of poultry litter (PL) application on soil AC pools and turnover. In this work, we determined 21 AC contents in 23 PL samples, 15 soil samples with...

  14. Amino Compounds in Poultry Litter, Litter-Amended Soil and Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids and amino sugars generally constitute the bulk of N in soil, so understanding their cycling is critical for efficient N use in crop production. Although poultry litter (PL) is relatively rich in N, little is known about the effects of PL application on turnover and availability of amino...

  15. Mower/Litter Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Burg Corporation needed to get more power out of the suction system in their Vac 'N Bag grass mower/litter remover. The president submitted a problem statement to the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Transfer Office, which devised a way to guide heavier items of trash to a point where suction was greatest, and made changes to the impeller and the exhaust port, based on rocket propulsion technology. The improved system is used by highway departments, city governments and park authorities, reducing work time by combining the tasks of grass cutting and vacuuming trash and grass clippings.

  16. In situ characterization of forest litter using ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric; Jonard, François; Jonard, Mathieu; Lambot, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing litter accumulated on the soil surface in forests plays a major role in several ecosystem processes; its detailed characterization is therefore essential for thorough understanding of ecosystem functioning. In addition, litter is known to affect remote sensing radar data over forested areas and their proper processing requires accurate quantification of litter scattering properties. In the present study, ultrawideband (0.8-2.2 GHz) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in situ for a wide range of litter types to investigate the potential of the technique to reconstruct litter horizons in undisturbed natural conditions. Radar data were processed resorting to full-wave inversion. Good agreement was generally found between estimated and measured litter layer thicknesses, with root-mean-square error values around 1 cm for recently fallen litter (OL layer) and around 2 cm for fragmented litter in partial decomposition (OF layer) and total litter (OL + OF). Nevertheless, significant correlations between estimated and measured thicknesses were found for total litter only. Inaccuracies in the reconstruction of the individual litter horizons were mainly attributed to weak dielectric contrasts amongst litter layers, with absolute differences in relative dielectric permittivity values often lower than 2 between humus horizons, and to uncertainties in the ground truth values. Radar signal inversions also provided reliable estimates of litter electromagnetic properties, with average relative dielectric permittivity values around 2.9 and 6.3 for OL and OF litters, respectively. These results are encouraging for the use of GPR for noninvasive characterization and mapping of forest litter. Perspectives for the application of the technique in biogeosciences are discussed.

  17. Spatial and temporal analysis of litter in the Celtic Sea from Groundfish Survey data: Lessons for monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, M; Pedreschi, D; Stokes, D; Dransfeld, L; Reid, D G

    2016-02-15

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires EU Member States to sample and monitor marine litter. Criteria for sampling and detecting spatial and/or temporal variation in the amount of litter present have been developed and initiated throughout Europe. These include implementing standardised sampling and recording methods to enable cross-comparison and consistency between neighbours. Parameters of interest include; litter occurrence, composition, distribution and source. This paper highlights the litter-related initiatives occurring in Irish waters; presents an offshore benthic litter sampling series; provides a power analysis to determine trend detection thresholds; identifies areas and sources of litter; and proposes improvements to meet reporting obligations. Litter was found to be distributed throughout Irish waters with highest occurrences in the Celtic Sea. Over 50% of litter encountered was attributed to fishing activities: however only a small proportion of the variability in litter occurrence could be explained by spatial patterns in fishing effort. Issues in implementing standardised protocol were observed and addressed.

  18. Hyperspectral remote sensing tools for quantifying plant litter and invasive species in arid ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Sridhar, B.B. Maruthi; Olsson, Aaryn Dyami; Glenn, Edward P.; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Huete, Alfredo; Lyon, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Green vegetation can be distinguished using visible and infrared multi-band and hyperspectral remote sensing methods. The problem has been in identifying and distinguishing the non-photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) landscape components, such as litter and soils, and from green vegetation. Additionally, distinguishing different species of green vegetation is challenging using the relatively few bands available on most satellite sensors. This chapter focuses on hyperspectral remote sensing characteristics that aim to distinguish between green vegetation, soil, and litter (or senescent vegetation). Quantifying litter by remote sensing methods is important in constructing carbon budgets of natural and agricultural ecosystems. Distinguishing between plant types is important in tracking the spread of invasive species. Green leaves of different species usually have similar spectra, making it difficult to distinguish between species. However, in this chapter we show that phenological differences between species can be used to detect some invasive species by their distinct patterns of greening and dormancy over an annual cycle based on hyperspectral data. Both applications require methods to quantify the non-green cellulosic fractions of plant tissues by remote sensing even in the presence of soil and green plant cover. We explore these methods and offer three case studies. The first concerns distinguishing surface litter from soil using the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), as applied to no-till farming practices where plant litter is left on the soil after harvest. The second involves using different band combinations to distinguish invasive saltcedar from agricultural and native riparian plants on the Lower Colorado River. The third illustrates the use of the CAI and NDVI in time-series analyses to distinguish between invasive buffelgrass and native plants in a desert environment in Arizona. Together the results show how hyperspectral imagery can be applied to

  19. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting.

  20. Soil with a short history of poultry litter fertilization remains superior to normally fertilized soil for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton and other row crops. The productivity of soil that had received poultry litter as a fertilizer is not known after cessation of litter application and returning to conventional fertilization with inorganic fertilizers. This study ...

  1. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads in an Agricultural Watershed Affected by Poultry Litter Application and Wastewater Effluent, Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas, 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esralew, R.; Tortorelli, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lakes have experienced deteriorating water quality largely due to growth of algae, notably cyanobacteria, from the excess input of nutrients. As a result, the city of Tulsa has spent millions of dollars to eliminate taste and odor problems resulting from production of algal and bacterial byproducts. To evaluate changes in nutrient loading resulting from a reduction in land application of poultry litter, installation of best management practices, and reductions in the phosphorus concentrations in wastewater effluent, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from samples collected during baseflow and runoff and used regression models to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in two major tributaries to Lake Eucha, Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks, for the period 2002-2009. Estimated mean flow-weighted total unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the basin were about 5 to 10 times greater than the 75th percentile of flow-weighted nutrient concentrations in other mostly undeveloped basins of the United States. Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks contributed an estimated mean annual total load of about 762,500 kilograms of nitrogen and 49,200 kilograms of phosphorus per year, 76 to 91 percent of which was transported to Lake Eucha by runoff. Thirty-four percent of the nitrogen load and 48 percent of the phosphorus load to Lake Eucha occurred during the year 2008 which was the wettest year on record for the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin. The results of this analysis indicate that although efforts were made to control nutrient loading, nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus, were substantially augmented by non-point sources and that most loading occurs during runoff events

  2. Marine debris in central California: quantifying type and abundance of beach litter in Monterey Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Rosevelt, C; Los Huertos, M; Garza, C; Nevins, H M

    2013-06-15

    Monitoring beach litter is essential for reducing ecological threats towards humans and wildlife. In Monterey Bay, CA information on seasonal and spatial patterns is understudied. Central California's coastal managers require reliable information on debris abundance, distribution, and type, to support policy aimed at reducing litter. We developed a survey method that allowed for trained citizen scientists to quantify the types and abundance of beach litter. Sampling occurred from July 2009-June 2010. Litter abundance ranged from 0.03 to 17.1 items m(-2). Using a mixed model approach, we found season and location have the greatest effect on litter abundance. Styrofoam, the most numerically abundant item, made up 41% of the total amount of litter. Unexpected items included fertilizer pellets. The results of this study provide a baseline on the types and abundance of litter on the central coast and have directly supported policy banning Styrofoam take out containers from local municipalities.

  3. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed.

  4. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  5. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    SciTech Connect

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  6. [Effects of the decomposition of poplar and alder mixed leaf litters on soil microbial biomass].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Fang, Sheng-Zuo; Tian, Ye

    2012-08-01

    An incubation test was conducted to study the effects of the decomposition of poplar and trabeculate alder leaf litters with different mixed ratios and under different application ways on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN). The mixed ratio of the litters had significant effects on soil MBC and MBN. On the 30th day of incubation, soil MBC and MBN were significantly higher in the treatments with > or = 50% of alder litter than in the treatment with poplar litter only and the control. On the 75th day of incubation, the soil MBC in the treatments with > or = 40% of alder litter and the soil MBN in the treatments with > or = 30% of alder litter were significantly greater than those in the treatment with poplar litter only and the control. After 135 days incubation, soil MBC and MBN were significant higher in the treatments with > or = 20% and > or = 40% of alder litter than in the treatment with poplar litter only and the control, respectively. There was no significant difference in the soil MBC/MBN between the treatments with different mixed ratios of poplar and alder leaf litters and the control. Overall, soil MBC/MBN increased during the early period of incubation and decreased in the later period, suggesting that soil microflora changed during the decomposition of the litters. In the whole incubation period, the application ways of the litters had lesser effects on the soil MBC, MBN, and MBC/MBN, indicating that the addition ways of the litters did not affect soil microflora.

  7. Countervailing effects on pine and oak leaf litter decomposition in human-altered Mediterranean ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Efrat; Canham, Charles D; Kigel, Jaime; Perevolotsky, Avi

    2015-04-01

    Species affect the dynamics of litter decay through the intrinsic properties of their litter, but also by influencing the environmental conditions imposed by their canopy, roots, and litter layers. We examined how human-induced changes in the relative abundances of two dominant Mediterranean trees-Pinus halepensis and Quercus calliprinos-impact leaf litter decomposition. A reciprocal transplant experiment tested decomposition of pine, oak, and mixed leaf litter in oak woodland and pine forest ecosystems with different relative abundances of pine and oak. Using likelihood methods, we tested the importance and magnitude of the environmental effects of local species abundance, litter layer composition, and soil properties on litter mass loss. Oak litter decomposition was slower than pine, and had an antagonistic effect on mixed litter decay. These results differ from other reported pine-oak associations, and are probably associated with a higher content of tannins and phenols in oak compared to pine litter in our study sites. The environmental effects of the two species were opposite to their litter decomposition dynamics. An increased proportion of pine in the oak woodlands and a higher content of pine needles in the litter layer of pine forests reduced decay rates. The presence of more oak and broadleaf litter in the litter layer accelerated decomposition in pine forests. Our results highlight the importance of considering multidimensional species effects mediated by both chemical and physical properties, and imply that man-made changes in the composition and configuration of plant communities may result in complex unpredicted consequences to ecosystem biogeochemistry.

  8. Effects of 20-day litter weight on weaned piglets’ fighting behavior after group mixing and on heart rate variability in an isolation test

    PubMed Central

    Sun, YaNan; Lian, XinMing; Bo, YuKun; Guo, YuGuang; Yan, PeiShi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 20-day litter weight on behavior and heart rate variability (HRV) of piglets under stress. Methods Forty four original litters were categorized as high litter weight (HW) litters (n = 22) and low litter weight (LW) litters (n = 22) by 20-day litter weight. From each original HW litter, three males and three females were randomly selected after weaning and the 12 piglets from two original litters with similar age of days were regrouped into one new high litter weight (NHW) litter (11 NHW litters in total). The original LW litters were treated with a same program, so that there were 11 new low litter weight (NLW) litters as well. The latencies to first fighting, fighting frequencies and duration within three hours were recorded after regrouping and the lesions on body surface within 48 hours were scored. Besides, HR (heart rate, bpm, beats per minute) and activity count (ACT), time domain indexes and frequency domain indexes of the piglets were measured in an isolation trial to analyze the discrepancy in coping with stress between the original HW and LW litters. Results The results exhibited that piglets from the HW litters launched fighting sooner and got statistically higher skin lesion score than those from the LW litters (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Regarding the HRV detection, compared with the HW litters, the LW litters exhibited a lower mean HR (p<0.05). In the isolation test, a highly significant higher ACT value was observed between the HW litters, compared to the LW litters (p<0.01). Significant differences were observed in standard deviation of R-R intervals, standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals, and most frequency-domain indicators: very low-frequency, low-frequency, and high frequency between the HW and LW litters as well. The difference in LF:HF was not significant (p = 0.779). Conclusion This study suggests that compared with litters of low 20-day litter

  9. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic and environmental effects of different poultry litter application methods (surface vs. subsurface) and timings (fall ...

  10. A decadal prediction of the quantity of plastic marine debris littered on beaches of the East Asian marginal seas.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2014-04-15

    Large quantities of plastic litter are expected to wash ashore along the beaches of the East Asian marginal seas in the coming decade. Litter quantities were predicted using three techniques: a particle tracking model (PTM) used in conjunction with two-way PTM experiments designed to reveal litter sources, an inverse method used to compute litter outflows at each source, and a sequential monitoring system designed to monitor existing beach litter using webcams. Modeled year-to-year variation in litter quantities indicated that the amount of litter would continue to increase in the East Asian marginal seas if the level of outflow remains constant in the coming decade. The study confirms that about 3% of all East Asian beaches may potentially experience a 250-fold increase in the amount of plastic beach litter washed ashore in the next 10 years.

  11. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter and its allelopathic activity on the growth of maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Yang, Shanshan; Hu, Hongling; Hu, Tingxing; Wang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Luo, Jie; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Ruyi

    2017-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of decomposing Cinnamomum septentrionale leaf litter on the growth of maize. In this study, the morphological traits of maize were significantly inhibited when the leaf litter amount reached or exceeded 40 g per pot; Furthermore, during the early growth stage or with a large amount of litter addition, the pigment contents were inhibited by C. septentrionale leaf litter. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the volatile substances of leaf litter and 34 compounds were identified, several of which were reported to be phytotoxic. In conclusion, the leaf litter of C. septentrionale showed a strong allelopathic effect on the growth of maize. Thus, it is better to avoid the growing of maize under or near the C. septentrionale plantation unless the leaf litter could be eliminated in time or other effective leaf litter processing methods could be implemented.

  12. Interactions of tissue and fertilizer nitrogen on decomposition dynamics of lignin-rich conifer litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    High tissue nitrogen (N) accelerates decomposition of high-quality leaf litter in the early phases of mass loss, but the influence of initial tissue N variation on the decomposition of lignin-rich litter is less resolved. Because environmental changes such as atmospheric N deposition and elevated CO2 can alter tissue N levels within species more rapidly than they alter the species composition of ecosystems, it is important to consider how within-species variation in tissue N may shape litter decomposition and associated N dynamics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ) is a widespread lignin-rich conifer that dominates forests of high carbon (C) storage across western North America, and displays wide variation in tissue and litter N that reflects landscape variation in soil N. We collected eight unique Douglas-fir litter sources that spanned a two-fold range in initial N concentrations (0.67–1.31%) with a narrow range of lignin (29–35%), and examined relationships between initial litter chemistry, decomposition, and N dynamics in both ambient and N fertilized plots at four sites over 3 yr. High initial litter N slowed decomposition rates in both early (0.67 yr) and late (3 yr) stages in unfertilized plots. Applications of N fertilizer to litters accelerated early-stage decomposition, but slowed late-stage decomposition, and most strongly affected low-N litters, which equalized decomposition rates across litters regardless of initial N concentrations. Decomposition of N-fertilized litters correlated positively with initial litter manganese (Mn) concentrations, with litter Mn variation reflecting faster turnover of canopy foliage in high N sites, producing younger litterfall with high N and low Mn. Although both internal and external N inhibited decomposition at 3 yr, most litters exhibited net N immobilization, with strongest immobilization in low-N litter and in N-fertilized plots. Our observation for lignin-rich litter that high initial N can slow decomposition

  13. Conjugate gradient method - Electromagnetism applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosig, Juan R.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents a brief but rigorous description of the conjugate gradient technique as applied to the solution of algebraic linear systems with complex coefficients. The relationships between conjugate gradient techniques and other commonly used methods are established. A normalized algorithm is introduced which optimally exploits the computer capabilities. Its performance is compared with that of Gaussian elimination by numerical tests on Hilbert matrices of more than a thousand unknowns. As a practical application, the problem of electrostatic screening by a finite ground plane has been solved with this technique.

  14. Correlation of quantitative PCR for a poultry-specific brevibacterium marker gene with bacterial and chemical indicators of water pollution in a watershed impacted by land application of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Olsen, Roger L; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-03-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  15. Litter chemistry prevails over litter consumers in mediating effects of past steel industry activities on leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lucisine, Pierre; Lecerf, Antoine; Danger, Michaël; Felten, Vincent; Aran, Delphine; Auclerc, Apolline; Gross, Elisabeth M; Huot, Hermine; Morel, Jean-Louis; Muller, Serge; Nahmani, Johanne; Maunoury-Danger, Florence

    2015-12-15

    Soil pollution has adverse effects on the performance and life history traits of microorganisms, plants, and animals, yet evidence indicates that even the most polluted sites can support structurally-complex and dynamic ecosystems. The present study aims at determining whether and how litter decomposition, one of the most important soil ecological processes leaf, is affected in a highly trace-metal polluted site. We postulated that past steel mill activities resulting in soil pollution and associated changes in soil characteristics would influence the rate of litter decomposition through two non-exclusive pathways: altered litter chemistry and responses of decomposers to lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. We carried out a litter-bag experiment using Populus tremula L. leaf litter collected at, and allowed to decompose in, a trace metal polluted site and in three unpolluted sites used as controls. We designed a fully-factorial transplant experimental design to assess effects of litter origin and exposure site on the rate of litter decomposition. We further determined initial litter chemistry, fungal biomass, mesofauna abundance in litter bags, and the soil macrofauna community. Irrespective of the site of litter exposure, litter originating from the polluted site had a two-fold faster decomposition than litter from the unpolluted sites. Litter chemistry, notably the lignin content, seemed most important in explaining the degradation rate of the leaf litter. Abundance of meso and macro-detritivores was higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted sites. However, litter decomposition proceeded at similar rates in polluted and unpolluted sites. Our results show that trace metal pollution and associated soil and litter changes do not necessarily weaken consumer control on litter decomposition through lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress.

  16. Inorganic fertilizers after broiler litter amendment reduce surplus nutrients in orchardgrass soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common producer practice to dispose of broiler litter at high rates to forage crops allow excessive accumulation of soil nutrients. A remediation study was developed to examine if inorganic fertilizer application over the residual fertility of broiler litter would reduce surplus soil nutrients i...

  17. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  18. [Pharmacoepidemiology: definition, methods and applications].

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Sommet, Agnès; Montastruc, François; Moulis, Guillaume; Bagheri, Haleh; Damase-michel, Christine; Lapeyre-mestre, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of drugs before approval is based on the experimental design of clinical trial with randomization of drug exposure. Unfortunately, conclusions of clinical trials are necessarily limited to patients enrolled in the trial. It is therefore necessary to compare these experimental data from clinical trials with the real use of drugs in clinical practice. Pharmacoepidemiology is defined as the study in real conditions and on large populations, of use, effectiveness and risk of drugs. The methods and fields of application of pharmacoepidemiology are described. They allow to characterize conditions of use, misuse, clinical effectiveness, adverse drug reactions and risks of drugs. The development of pharmacoepidemiology should allow optimization of "rational use" of drugs.

  19. Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on Dissolved Organic Matter Export in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe*, A.; Eißfeller, V.; Langenbruch, C.; Seven, J.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils in order to understand the effect of tree diversity on below ground processes. We established a leaf litter exchange experiment in the National Park Hainich (Thuringia, Germany) in December 2008. Labeled (13C) and unlabeled leaf litter of beach (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were exposed to study the decomposition process. Soil water was collected biweekly with glass suction plates (1 μm pore size, UMS, Munich, Germany) in 5 cm soil depth and pH, conductivity, DOC and anions (Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, SO42-, F-) were determined. The 13DOC values were measured using high performance liquid chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS). The values of conductivity and pH in the soil water indicate slower decomposition processes for leaf litter of beech in comparison to ash leaf litter. The conductivity was correlated with the Cl- ion during the first spring, which suggests the export of carbon due to leaching processes. However during the summer the conductivity correlated with the NO3- ions, which indicates mineralization as driving process. Surprisingly, the contribution of litter 13C into the dissolved carbon pool was very low. The highest contribution with up to 8.6% DOC labeled by ash litter derived carbon was found in the first 3 month of application. However, in the mean only 1.2% and 2.6% of DOC was labeled by carbon of the beech and ash litter, respectively. This represents in total only up to 0.41% of labeled litter carbon that was added. The higher percentages of ash litter derived 13C in DOM of soil water compared to beech indicates a positive effect of litter quality on decomposition. However, we did not find a faster decomposition or higher ash litter derived carbon export in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments, which would indicate food selection or biodiversity effects.

  20. Litter decomposition patterns in a semiarid Mediterranean ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María, Almagro; Jorge, López; María, Martínez-Mena

    2010-05-01

    Accumulation of soil carbon is mainly controlled by the balance between litter production and litter decomposition. While aboveground litter decomposition in mesic systems is thought to be controlled by climate, litter quality, and soil faunal interactions (Aerts, 1997), it is becoming increasingly evident that factors other than water availability, including photodegradation, physical fragmentation of litter, and soil movement may play central roles in determining rates of carbon and nutrient turnover in arid and semiarid ecosystems (Whitford et al., 2002; Austin and Vivanco, 2006; Throop and Archer, 2007). Decomposition and its controls were studied using the litter-bag method by exposing two different litter types (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) for a 20 month period in two Mediterranean ecosystems of the eastern Iberian Peninsula: 1) a ~ 150-yr-old forest stand, and 2) an abandoned agricultural field. Both sites are covered by a typical Mediterranean shrubland (Rosmarinus officinalis, Quercus coccifera, and Juniperus oxycedrus) with scattered Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis). A single exponential decay model (Olson, 1963) fit the data well (R2 values ranging from 0.46 to 0.82). Litter types differed in their decomposition dynamics despite of similar initial content of C and N, and C:N ratios. Rosemary litter decomposed more rapidly than Aleppo pine litter across sites (R2 = 0.742; F= 132.18; P<0.0001). After 20 months, rosemary litterbags had significantly less mass than did Aleppo pine litterbags regardless of site (pooled across sites: rosemary = 44.77% ± 2.21% (mean ± SE), Aleppo pine = 70.25 % ± 2.21% (mean ± SE); F= 132.18; P<0.0001). There was also a significant site effect on decomposition rates. While P. halepensis litter decomposed 1.5 fold-more rapidly (R2= 0.68; F= 45.93; P<0.0001), R. officinalis litter decay rates were 1.2 fold-higher in forest than in abandoned field site. Soil temperature or water availability could

  1. [Dynamics of litter and under-ground biomass in Carex lasiocarpa wetland on Sanjiang Plain].

    PubMed

    He, Chiquan

    2003-03-01

    With net sack and coring methods, this paper analysed the seasonal dynamics of litter and under-ground biomass of Carex lasiocarpa population in Sanjiang Plain wetland. The standing litter showed exponential seasonal dynamics. The decomposition rate of litter was indicated by the rate of its weight loss, and the daily weight loss was gradually decreased from 0.7058% to 0.2372%. Carex lasiocarpa population produced 210.8876 g.m-2 litter in its vegetative season (from May 2, to October 10, 1999), and its under-ground biomass had an obvious vertical structure, like a converse pyramid or a parabola.

  2. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape.

  3. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-05-22

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricity and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter.

  4. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release.

  5. 46 CFR 108.709 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Litter. 108.709 Section 108.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.709 Litter. Each unit must have a litter that is— (a) Stowed in a location that...

  6. Poultry Industry Trends for Litter Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter utilization falls primarily into two broad categories, as fertilizer or in litter-to-energy processes. Without economic, environmentally sound litter uses, potential or real regional litigation may force alternative management that can be detrimental to the grower’s bottom line as wel...

  7. 46 CFR 108.709 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Litter. 108.709 Section 108.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.709 Litter. Each unit must have a litter that is— (a) Stowed in a location that...

  8. [Litter decomposition and its main affecting factors in tidal marshes of Minjiang River Estuary, East China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Hai; Zeng, Cong-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Tian-E; Tong, Chuan

    2012-09-01

    By using litterbag method, this paper studied the decomposition of the leaf- and flower litters of two emergent macrophytes, native species Phragmites australis and invasive species Spartina alterniflora, and related affecting factors in the Minjiang River estuary of East China. In the decomposition process of the litters, the decay of standing litter (0-90 days) was an important period, and the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 15.0 +/- 3.5% and 13.3 +/- 1.1%, and 31.9 +/- 1.1% and 20.8 +/- 1.4%, respectively. During lodging decay period (91-210 days), the loss rate of the flower- and leaf litters dry mass of P. australis and S. alterniflora was 69.5 +/- 0.6% and 71.5 +/- 2.5%, and 76.8 +/- 1.9% and 67.5 +/- 2.1%, respectively. In standing decay period, the decomposition rate of the two plants litters was positively correlated with the litters C/N but negatively correlated to the litters N/P, and the litters P was an important factor limiting the litters decay. In lodging decay period, the effects of the litters C/N, C/P, and N/P decreased, while the environment factors (climate, soil moisture, soil acidity and salinity, and sediment properties) acted more important roles. The differences in the factors affecting the decay of the litters in different decomposition periods were mainly related to the micro-environment and tidal process for the two plant communities.

  9. The generation and cost of litter resulting from the curbside collection of recycling.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Travis P; Broaddus, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the generation of litter, defined as spillage and uncollected residue, from a curbside collection system for residential recycling. The primary recycling containers used in the study were 18-gal (68 L), open-top bins. The study, conducted over a seven-week period, was comprised of both an urban and suburban area. Six litter characterizations were conducted in which all new litter larger than 1 in.(2) was collected, segregated, counted, and weighed. We found that each week the open-top recycling bins contributed approximately 20,590 pieces of litter over 1 in. in size per every 1000 households, which resulted in the generation of 3.74 tons of litter per 1000 households per year. In addition to the bins having no top, the primary root causes of the litter were constantly overflowing recycling bins, the method of collection, and material scavenging. Based on an estimated cost of litter cleanup ranging from $0.17 to $0.79 per piece of litter, the direct economic costs from the collection of litter and loss in recycling revenues were estimated at US$3920 to US$19,250 per 1000 households per year. Other notable impacts from the litter, such as increased risk of flood damage from storm drain impairment and marine ecosystem damages exist, but were not monetized. The results strongly suggest that modification of the curbside collection system would decrease the amount and associated cost of litter by replacing existing curbside collection containers with larger volume containers with covers and by modifying the task-based incentive system to emphasize litter prevention rather than the current aim of completing the task most quickly.

  10. Poultry litter-based biochar: preparation, characterization, and utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of poultry litter (PL) by land application in concentrated bird production regions has resulted in severe water eutrophication issues. Given its high lignocelluosic content and low moisture, PL can be readily converted into agriculture-use biochar through farm-scale slow pyrolysis, with bio...

  11. An integrated spectroscopic and wet chemical approach to investigate grass litter decomposition chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Litter decomposition is a key process for soil organic matter formation and terrestrial biogeochemistry. Yet we still lack complete understanding of the chemical transformations which occur in the litter residue as it decomposes. A number of methods such as bulk nutrient concentrations, chemical fra...

  12. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  13. Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the application of probabilistic ideas, especially Monte Carlo simulation, to calculus. Describes some applications using the Monte Carlo method: Riemann sums; maximizing and minimizing a function; mean value theorems; and testing conjectures. (YP)

  14. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models.

  15. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H.

    2015-01-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesized litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~27%). However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. PMID:23763716

  16. [Dynamics of microbes and enzyme activities during litter decomposition of Pinus massoniana forest in mid-subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Gu, Xi-Rong; Yan, Hai-Yuan; Mao, Wen-Tao; Wu, Xue-Lian; Wan, Yu-Xuan

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of microbial quantity and enzyme activities during decomposition process of masson pine (Pinus massoniana) leaf litter, oak (Quercus aliena) leaf litter and their mixture (at natural mass ratio, 8: 2) were studied with litterbag method in the pinus forest typical vegetations of mid-subtropical Jinyun Mountain nature reserve. The results showed that the decomposition constant K of leaf litter ranked as follows: mixture (0.94) > oak (0.86) > masson pine (0.67). Microbial groups and enzyme activity exhibited some similar responses to the litter decomposition process. After 135 days, fungal and microbial quantities reached the maximum while bacterial and actinomycetic number reached the minimum, presumably due to the high-temperature environment. The correlative analysis showed that the cellulase and acid phosphatase activity had significant positive relationship with the dry weight remaining rate (P < 0.05), which played a key role for microbes in utilizing the substrates at early stages. Meanwhile, the polyphenol oxidase activity showed highly significant negative correlation with the dry weight remaining rate (P < 0.01) in pine litter and the mixed litter, which worked on further decay of recalcitrant compound at late stages. Through the whole process, the microbial quantity and polyphenol oxidase activity were generally in the order of oak litter > mixed litter > pine litter, while in most cases the oak litter showed the lowest acid phosphatase activity, the ranking of which had some differences with the order of the decomposition constant K, indicating that litter decomposition was the result of integrated action by microbe and many kinds of enzymes. The results suggested that differences in litter composition and seasonal climate strongly influenced the microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they mediate. When mixed with oak leaves in given stand, the pine litter had an accelerating decomposition rate, which might depend on the higher

  17. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  18. Soil and Litter Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, George

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan for soil study utilizes the Tullgren extraction method to illustrate biological concepts. It includes background information, equipment, collection techniques, activities, and references for identification guides about soil fauna. (MCO)

  19. Factors That Can Undermine the Psychological Benefits of Coastal Environments: Exploring the Effect of Tidal State, Presence, and Type of Litter.

    PubMed

    Wyles, Kayleigh J; Pahl, Sabine; Thomas, Katrina; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-01

    The beneficial effects of blue environments have been well documented; however, we do not know how marine litter might modify these effects. Three studies adopted a picture-rating task to examine the influence of litter on preference, perceived restorative quality, and psychological impacts. Photographs varied the presence of marine litter (Study 1) and the type of litter (Studies 2 and 3). The influence of tide and the role of connectedness were also explored. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, it was shown that litter can undermine the psychological benefits that the coast ordinarily provides, thus demonstrating that, in addition to environmental costs of marine litter, there are also costs to people. Litter stemming from the public had the most negative impact. This research extends our understanding of the psychological benefits from natural coastal environments and the threats to these benefits from abundant and increasing marine litter.

  20. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  1. Responses of litter invertebrate communities to litter manipulation in a Japanese conifer plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tomohiro; Takito, Yuki; Soga, Masashi; Hijii, Naoki

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the litter invertebrate communities were affected by the temporal changes in the mass and structural complexity of the litter resources by adding and removing litter on the forest floor of a temperate conifer plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) in Japan. We showed that litter mass and depth in the litter-addition (L+) plots changed rapidly into a steady-state condition similar to those in the control plots, mainly due to accelerated decomposition processes during the rainy season. Higher area-based densities of litter invertebrates in the L+ plots, similar mass-based densities between the L+ and control plots, and significant positive correlations between litter mass and the number of individuals implied that the abundance of litter invertebrates would be governed by litter mass rather than by the litter depth. Many litter invertebrates including detritivores were collected even in the litter-removal (L-) area. The relative abundances of invertebrate predators collecting pitfall traps were higher in the L- plots and lower in the L+ plots compared to those in the control plots, whereas those collecting Tullgren funnels were higher in the L+ plots than in the control plots. In the L+ plots, the range of variation in the community compositions among the samples decreased significantly over time in response to a drastic decrease in litter mass, in contrast to the control plots, which showed a relatively constant community composition during the study period. Our litter manipulation experiment reveals some of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining an equilibrium state of forest-floor litter mass and for the responses of litter invertebrate communities to temporal changes in the litter.

  2. The Litter Census as a Tool in Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtol, Bruce E.; Williams, Jerry R.

    1972-01-01

    Various aspects of the litter problem can be manipulated in the classroom and in the field to effectively develop concepts of scientific method, information acquisition and recording, techniques of data analyses, means of classification and interpretation, and also to predict new problems and hypotheses. (Author)

  3. COVERING THEIR BUTTS: RESPONSES TO THE CIGARETTE LITTER PROBLEM

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; McDaniel, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette butt litter is a potential target of tobacco control. In addition to its toxicity and non-biodegradability, it can justify environmental regulation and policies that raise the price of tobacco and further denormalize its use. This paper examines how the tobacco industry has managed the cigarette butt litter issue and how the issue has been covered in the media. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) using a snowball strategy. We analyzed data from approximately 700 documents, dated 1959–2006, using an interpretive approach. We also searched two newspaper databases, Lexis/Nexis and Newsbank, and found 406 relevant articles, dated 1982–2009 which we analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results The tobacco industry monitored and developed strategies for dealing with the cigarette litter issue because it affected the social acceptability of smoking, created the potential for alliances between tobacco control and environmental advocates, and created a target for regulation. The industry developed anti-litter programs with Keep America Beautiful (KAB) and similar organizations. Media coverage focused on industry-acceptable solutions, such as volunteer clean-ups and installation of ashtrays; stories that mentioned KAB were also more frequently positive toward the tobacco industry. Among alternative approaches, clean outdoor air laws received the most media attention. Conclusions Cigarette litter, like secondhand smoke, is the result of smoker behavior and affects nonsmokers. The tobacco industry has tried and failed to mitigate the impact of cigarette litter. Tobacco control advocates should explore alliances with environmental groups and propose policy options that hold the industry accountable for cigarette waste. PMID:20966130

  4. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  5. XANES Spectroscopic Analysis of Phosphorus Speciation in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiter,J.; Staats-Borda, K.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Sparks, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2(SO4)3{center_dot}14H2O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ({approx}80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems.

  6. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-01-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg−1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg−1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems. PMID:28155886

  7. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Basahi, Jalal M; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-03

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg(-1) soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg(-1)) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  8. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg‑1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg‑1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  9. APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

  10. A multi-criteria evaluation system for marine litter pollution based on statistical analyses of OSPAR beach litter monitoring time series.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Neumann, Daniel; Fleet, David M; Matthies, Michael

    2013-12-01

    During the last decades, marine pollution with anthropogenic litter has become a worldwide major environmental concern. Standardized monitoring of litter since 2001 on 78 beaches selected within the framework of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) has been used to identify temporal trends of marine litter. Based on statistical analyses of this dataset a two-part multi-criteria evaluation system for beach litter pollution of the North-East Atlantic and the North Sea is proposed. Canonical correlation analyses, linear regression analyses, and non-parametric analyses of variance were used to identify different temporal trends. A classification of beaches was derived from cluster analyses and served to define different states of beach quality according to abundances of 17 input variables. The evaluation system is easily applicable and relies on the above-mentioned classification and on significant temporal trends implied by significant rank correlations.

  11. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  12. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  13. McDonald's Litter Hunt: A Community Litter Control System for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNees, M. Patrick; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community litter control program. Special adhesive stickers were randomly placed on existing litter throughout a community and youth were rewarded with special prizes for participating in the program. Litter was reduced 32 percent across the city. (Author/MA)

  14. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  15. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  16. Diet history: Method and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.

  17. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  18. Litter assessment on 99 Cuban beaches: A baseline to identify sources of pollution and impacts for tourism and recreation.

    PubMed

    Botero, C M; Anfuso, G; Milanes, C; Cabrera, A; Casas, G; Pranzini, E; Williams, A T

    2017-03-17

    Litter presence was assessed on the entire Cuban coastline, and includes 99 beaches from all Cuban regions, during field work carried out in 2012 and 2015. A standard method verified in several countries was applied, which classified beaches for nine types of litter into four grades (A-excellent to D-poor). Almost half of the Cuban beaches obtained excellent cleanliness scores, although many needed to be better managed. In this baseline, the most common types of residue were general litter (8% grade D and 35% grades B/C) and potentially harmful litter (<68% with grade A). Resort beaches and those with international visitors showed the best litter management. Tourism Impacts seems to be related to visitor origin therefore choices to develop sustainable tourism in rural and village beaches (64%) appears low, if beach cleaning gross investment is focused on resort beaches (24%). Finally, this paper highlights geographical distribution and types of litter patterns.

  19. Changes in lignin content of leaf litters during mulching.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhenfu; Akiyama, Takuya; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Matsumoto, Yuji; Iiyama, Kenji; Watanabe, Satomi

    2003-11-01

    Alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation, ozonation and methoxyl content determinations were applied to decomposing leaf litter of Ginkgo biloba L., Cinnamomum camphora sieb., Zelkova serrata Makino and Firmiana simplex W. F. Wight, respectively, during mulching to investigate the properties and estimate changes in lignin composition and content. Since the Klason lignin residue originated from components highly resistant to degradation by acid, the methoxyl content of Klason residue was used to estimate the lignin content of leaf litter. Quantitative analysis of presumed lignin-derived fragments, by use of alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation and ozonation methods, suggested that the estimated lignin content approximates that of the real lignin content of leaves, which is greatly overestimated by the Klason procedure. The estimated lignin contents ranged from 3.9 to 10.0% while the Klason lignan residue varied from 37.1 to 46.7% in un-mulched leaf litter. The absolute amounts of the measured lignin somewhat decreased during mulching, while the structure of lignin remaining in leaf litters after mulching was considered not to be very different from its original structure.

  20. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem.

  1. Effects of Litter Manipulation on Litter Decomposition in a Successional Gradients of Tropical Forests in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem. PMID:24901698

  2. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (plitter compost>M. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three

  3. Enzymatic activities in coniferous leaf litter

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1980-07-01

    Assays for measuring the activities of cellulase, xylanase, mannase, amylase, ..beta..-glucosidase, invertase, and protease employing buffered suspensions of ground coniferous and deciduous leaf litter exhibited zero-order kinetics. Only a small percentage of the whole-litter activities of invertase, ..beta..-glucosidase, and protease were extractable into 0.05M potassium acetate, pH 5.0; however, extractable activities of cellulase and xylanase represented from 39 to 174% of the whole-litter activities indicating their soluble exocellar nature. Extractable protease and amylase activities were best correlated with the average daily rates of CO/sub 2/ evolution in a group of 90 leaf litter samples equally representing 18 coniferous species. Enzymatic activities were readily detectable in extracts of all samples but classification of the samples by species provided little differentiation in the distribution of either enzymatic activities or rates of CO/sub 2/ evolution. Mannase, cellulase, and xylanase activities were well-correlated with each other in all samples. Assays attempting to measure a pool of readily-metabolizable substances in litter by extractable reducing substances, ninhydrin-positive substances, glucose, and phenolics failed to show correlation coefficients >0.41 with rates of CO/sub 2/ evolution. Addition of D-(+)-catechin to litter extracts, up to levels equivalent to those observed in the group of samples, did not inhibit any carbohydrase thus suggesting the lack of inhibition of litter-decomposing enzymes by the concentrations of phenolics present in these coniferous leaf litters.

  4. Broiler house litter sampling: the final frontier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, the sustainability of broiler operations reaches beyond the need for litter nutrient management plans that came to the forefront of the industry’s attention in the last fifteen years. Thorough characterization of litter within houses provides the basis for emission models to benefit growers,...

  5. 33 CFR 144.01-35 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Litter. 144.01-35 Section 144.01-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-35 Litter. On each...

  6. [A field study of tundra plant litter decomposition rate via mass loss and carbon dioxide emission: the role of biotic and abiotic controls, biotope, season of year, and spatial-temporal scale].

    PubMed

    Pochikalov, A V; Karelin, D V

    2014-01-01

    Although many recently published original papers and reviews deal with plant matter decomposition rates and their controls, we are still very short in understanding of these processes in boreal and high latiude plant communities, especially in permafrost areas of our planet. First and foremost, this is holds true for winter period. Here, we present the results of 2-year field observations in south taiga and south shrub tundra ecosystems in European Russia. We pioneered in simultaneous application of two independent methods: classic mass loss estimation by litter-bag technique, and direct measurement of CO2 emission (respiration) of the same litter bags with different types of dead plant matter. Such an approach let us to reconstruct intra-seasonal dynamics of decomposition rates of the main tundra litter fractions with high temporal resolution, to estimate the partial role of different seasons and defragmentation in the process of plant matter decomposition, and to determine its factors under different temporal scale.

  7. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  8. Soil and leaf litter metaproteomics—a brief guideline from sampling to understanding

    PubMed Central

    Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Fuchs, Stephan; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Riedel, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The increasing application of soil metaproteomics is providing unprecedented, in-depth characterization of the composition and functionality of in situ microbial communities. Despite recent advances in high-resolution mass spectrometry, soil metaproteomics still suffers from a lack of effective and reproducible protein extraction protocols and standardized data analyses. This review discusses the opportunities and limitations of selected techniques in soil-, and leaf litter metaproteomics, and presents a step-by-step guideline on their application, covering sampling, sample preparation, extraction and data evaluation strategies. In addition, we present recent applications of soil metaproteomics and discuss how such approaches, linking phylogenetics and functionality, can help gain deeper insights into terrestrial microbial ecology. Finally, we strongly recommend that to maximize the insights environmental metaproteomics may provide, such methods should be employed within a holistic experimental approach considering relevant aboveground and belowground ecosystem parameters. PMID:27549116

  9. Approaches to understanding the semi-stable phase of litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, C. M.; Trofymow, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    and Mn concentrations, but continuing increases in Al and Fe may also decrease attractiveness of litter, and P and N availability may be low. Unfortunately, recent advances in understanding the progression of microbial decomposer guilds, and also in modeling have remained largely disconnected from similar advances in organic matter chemistry, especially for the resistant MUC. For example, the emphasis on aryl C and oxidative enzymes for the semi-stable stage ignores its typically high alkyl component and associated hydrophobicity and many "lignin-based" hypotheses fail because AUR does not measure lignin. The past three decades have brought unimaginable advances in SOM chemistry and microbiology, and also in data analysis and ways of networking and collaborating. Substantial new insights into decomposition will require interdisciplinary networks that incorporate application of well-established methods to characterize the changing chemical and physical properties of the substrates.

  10. Water quality impacts of converting to a poultry litter fertilization strategy.

    PubMed

    Harmel, R D; Torbert, H A; Haggard, B E; Haney, R; Dozier, M

    2004-01-01

    When improperly managed, land application of animal manures can harm the environment; however, limited watershed-scale runoff water quality data are available to research and address this issue. The water quality impacts of conversion to poultry litter fertilization on cultivated and pasture watersheds in the Texas Blackland Prairie were evaluated in this three-year study. Edge-of-field N and P concentrations and loads in surface runoff from new litter application sites were compared with losses under inorganic fertilization. The impact on downstream nutrient loss was also examined. In the fallow year with no fertilizer application, nutrient losses averaged 3 kg N ha(-1) and 0.9 kg P ha(-1) for the cultivated watersheds and were below 0.1 kg ha(-1) for the pasture watersheds. Following litter application, PO(4)-P concentrations in runoff were positively correlated to litter application rate and Mehlich-3 soil P levels. Following litter application, NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N concentrations in runoff were typically greater from cultivated watersheds, but PO(4)-P concentrations were greater for the pasture watersheds. Total N and P loads from the pasture watersheds (0.2 kg N ha(-1) and 0.7 kg P ha(-1)) were significantly lower than from the cultivated watersheds (32 kg N ha(-1) and 5 kg P ha(-1)) partly due to lower runoff volumes from the pasture watersheds. Downstream N and P concentrations and per-area loads were much lower than from edge-of-field watersheds. Results demonstrate that a properly managed annual litter application (4.5 Mg ha(-1) or less depending on litter N and P content) with supplemental N should supply necessary nutrients without detrimental water quality impacts.

  11. A traits-based test of the home-field advantage in mixed-species tree litter decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Mark Davidson; Shipley, Bill; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Litter often decomposes faster in its environment of origin (at ‘home’) than in a foreign environment (‘away’), which has become known as the home-field advantage (HFA). However, many studies have highlighted the conditional nature of the HFA, suggesting that current understanding of this phenomenon is not yet sufficient to generalize across systems. Methods The HFA hypothesis was tested for mono-specific and mixed-species litter using a tree-based experiment that manipulated the functional identity and diversity of the host tree community. Litter types of varying quality were transplanted between several host tree communities and decomposition rates were measured using litterbags. Since the decomposer community should respond to traits of the litter input and not their taxonomic identity, a traits-based index of litter–tree similarity was developed. Key Results Mono-specific litter exhibited HFA, but when the same litter was decomposed in mixture, this trend was not observed. Mixed-species litter decomposed on average no faster or slower than monoculture litter and exhibited both positive and negative species interactions. These non-additive interactions of decomposition rates in mixture were influenced by the degree of similarity between litter and tree traits. Both synergistic and antagonistic interactions decreased in magnitude with increasing litter–tree similarity such that mixture rates were predictable from monocultures. Conclusions The HFA occurred more strongly for mono-specific litter than for the litter types mixed together because interactions between species may have masked this effect. However, when expressed as a function of trait similarity between litters and tree communities, the HFA was not detected. PMID:26162398

  12. Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Kenneth W.; New, Michael H.; Makhija, Shilpa; Parker, V. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Increasing soil nutrients through litter manipulation, pollution, or fertilization can adversely affect ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities by inhibiting fungal growth. In this study, we used molecular genetic methods to determine the effects of litter addition on the EM community of a Pinus contorta stand in Yellowstone National Park that regenerated after a stand-replacing fire. Two controls were used; in unmodified control plots nothing was added to the soil, and in perlite plots perlite, a chemically neutral substance, was added to maintain soil moisture and temperature at levels similar to those under litter. We found that (i) species richness did not change significantly following perlite addition (2.6 +/- 0.3 species/core in control plots, compared with 2.3 +/- 0.3 species/core in perlite plots) but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) following litter addition (1.8 +/- 0.3 species/core); (ii) EM infection was not affected by the addition of perlite but increased significantly (P < 0.001) in response to litter addition, and the increase occurred only in the upper soil layer, directly adjacent to the added litter; and (iii) Suillus granulatus, Wilcoxina mikolae, and agaricoid DD were the dominant organisms in controls, but the levels of W. mikolae and agaricoid DD decreased significantly in response to both perlite and litter addition. The relative levels of S. granulatus and a fourth fungus, Cortinariaceae species 2, increased significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) following litter addition. Thus, litter addition resulted in some negative effects that may be attributable to moisture-temperature relationships rather than to the increased nutrients associated with litter. Some species respond positively to litter addition, indicating that there are differences in their physiologies. Hence, changes in the EM community induced by litter accumulation also may affect ecosystem function.

  13. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, B.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Shu, C-W

    2000-12-31

    This volume contains a survey article for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGM) by the editors as well as 16 papers by invited speakers and 32 papers by contributed speakers of the First International Symposium on Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. It covers theory, applications, and implementation aspects of DGM.

  14. Statistical analyses of the results of 25 years of beach litter surveys on the south-eastern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Clemens, Thomas; Förster, Harald; Harder, Thorsten; Fleet, David; Gaus, Silvia; Grave, Christel; Flegel, Imme; Schrey, Eckart; Hartwig, Eike

    2015-08-01

    In the North Sea, the amount of litter present in the marine environment represents a severe environmental problem. In order to assess the magnitude of the problem and measure changes in abundance, the results of two beach litter monitoring programmes were compared and analysed for long-term trends applying multivariate techniques. Total beach litter pollution was persistently high. Spatial differences in litter abundance made it difficult to identify long-term trends: Partly more than 8000 litter items year(-1) were recorded on a 100 m long survey site on the island of Scharhörn, while the survey site on the beach on the island of Amrum revealed abundances lower by two orders of magnitude. Beach litter was dominated by plastic with mean proportions of 52%-91% of total beach litter. Non-parametric time series analyses detected many significant trends, which, however, did not show any systematic spatial patterns. Cluster analyses partly led to groupings of beaches according to their expositions to sources of litter, wind and currents. Surveys in short intervals of one to two weeks were found to give higher annual sums of beach litter than the quarterly surveys of the OSPAR method. Surveys at regular intervals of four weeks to five months would make monitoring results more reliable.

  15. Graphene doping methods and device applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jong Sik; Kim, Kyong Nam; Yeom, Geun Young

    2014-02-01

    Graphene has recently been studied as a promising material to replace and enhance conventional electronic materials in various fields such as electronics, photovoltaics, sensors, etc. However, for the electronic applications of graphene prepared by various techniques such as chemical vapor deposition, chemical exfoliation, mechanical exfoliation, etc., critical limitations are found due to the defects in the graphene in addition to the absence of a semiconducting band gap. For that, many researchers have investigated the doped graphene which is effective to tailor its electronic property and chemical reactivity. This work presents a review of the various graphene doping methods and their device applications. As doping methods, direct synthesis method and post treatment method could be categorized. Because the latter case has been widely investigated and used in various electronic applications, we will focus on the post treatment method. Post treatment method could be further classified into wet and dry doping methods. In the case of wet doping, acid treatment, metal chloride, and organic material coating are the methods used to functionalize graphene by using dip-coating, spin coating, etc. Electron charge transfer achieved from graphene to dopants or from dopants to graphene makes p-type or n-type graphenes, respectively, with sheet resistance reduction effect. In the case of dry doping, it can be further categorized into electrostatic field method, evaporation method, thermal treatment method, plasma treatment method, etc. These doping techniques modify Fermi energy level of graphene and functionalize the property of graphene. Finally, some perspectives and device applications of doped graphene are also briefly discussed.

  16. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and CO2 Release: Considering Changes in Litter Quantity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Chao; Hu, Ya-Lin; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qiong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impacts of changes in litter quantity under simulated N deposition on litter decomposition, CO2 release, and soil C loss potential in a larch plantation in Northeast China. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment using soil and litter collected from control and N addition (100 kg ha−1 year−1 for 10 years) plots. Different quantities of litter (0, 1, 2 and 4 g) were placed on 150 g soils collected from the same plots and incubated in microcosms for 270 days. We found that increased litter input strongly stimulated litter decomposition rate and CO2 release in both control and N fertilization microcosms, though reduced soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration. Carbon input (C loss from litter decomposition) and carbon output (the cumulative C loss due to respiration) elevated with increasing litter input in both control and N fertilization microcosms. However, soil C loss potentials (C output–C input) reduced by 62% in control microcosms and 111% in N fertilization microcosms when litter addition increased from 1 g to 4 g, respectively. Our results indicated that increased litter input had a potential to suppress soil organic C loss especially for N addition plots. PMID:26657180

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and CO2 Release: Considering Changes in Litter Quantity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Chao; Hu, Ya-Lin; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qiong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impacts of changes in litter quantity under simulated N deposition on litter decomposition, CO2 release, and soil C loss potential in a larch plantation in Northeast China. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment using soil and litter collected from control and N addition (100 kg ha-1 year-1 for 10 years) plots. Different quantities of litter (0, 1, 2 and 4 g) were placed on 150 g soils collected from the same plots and incubated in microcosms for 270 days. We found that increased litter input strongly stimulated litter decomposition rate and CO2 release in both control and N fertilization microcosms, though reduced soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration. Carbon input (C loss from litter decomposition) and carbon output (the cumulative C loss due to respiration) elevated with increasing litter input in both control and N fertilization microcosms. However, soil C loss potentials (C output-C input) reduced by 62% in control microcosms and 111% in N fertilization microcosms when litter addition increased from 1 g to 4 g, respectively. Our results indicated that increased litter input had a potential to suppress soil organic C loss especially for N addition plots.

  19. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.

  20. Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions.

  1. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  2. Chronic Nitrogen Deposition Has a Minor Effect on the Quantity and Quality of Aboveground Litter in a Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition enhances carbon (C) sequestration in boreal soils. However, key underlying mechanisms explaining this increase have not been resolved. Two potentially important mechanisms are that aboveground litter production increases, or that litter quality changes in response to N enrichment. As such, our aim was to quantify whether simulated chronic N deposition caused changes in aboveground litter production or quality in a boreal forest. We conducted a long-term (17 years) stand-scale (0.1 ha) forest experiment, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in northern Sweden, where background N deposition rates are very low. We measured the annual quantity of litter produced for 8 different litter categories, as well as their concentrations of C, N, phosphorus (P), lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Our results indicate that mosses were the only major litter component showing significant quantitative and qualitative alterations in response to the N additions, indicative of their ability to intercept a substantial portion of the N added. These effects were, however, offset by the other litter fractions where we found no changes in the total litter fluxes, or individual chemical constituents when all litter categories were summed. This study indicates that the current annual litter fluxes cannot explain the increase in soil C that has occurred in our study system in response to simulated chronic N application. These results suggest that other mechanisms are likely to explain the increased soil C accumulation rate we have observed, such as changes in soil microbial activity, or potentially transient changes in aboveground litter inputs that were no longer present at the time of our study. PMID:27580120

  3. Chronic Nitrogen Deposition Has a Minor Effect on the Quantity and Quality of Aboveground Litter in a Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition enhances carbon (C) sequestration in boreal soils. However, key underlying mechanisms explaining this increase have not been resolved. Two potentially important mechanisms are that aboveground litter production increases, or that litter quality changes in response to N enrichment. As such, our aim was to quantify whether simulated chronic N deposition caused changes in aboveground litter production or quality in a boreal forest. We conducted a long-term (17 years) stand-scale (0.1 ha) forest experiment, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in northern Sweden, where background N deposition rates are very low. We measured the annual quantity of litter produced for 8 different litter categories, as well as their concentrations of C, N, phosphorus (P), lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Our results indicate that mosses were the only major litter component showing significant quantitative and qualitative alterations in response to the N additions, indicative of their ability to intercept a substantial portion of the N added. These effects were, however, offset by the other litter fractions where we found no changes in the total litter fluxes, or individual chemical constituents when all litter categories were summed. This study indicates that the current annual litter fluxes cannot explain the increase in soil C that has occurred in our study system in response to simulated chronic N application. These results suggest that other mechanisms are likely to explain the increased soil C accumulation rate we have observed, such as changes in soil microbial activity, or potentially transient changes in aboveground litter inputs that were no longer present at the time of our study.

  4. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  5. The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is a guide for helping secondary school students investigate the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest, background information on litter, and activities keyed to the learning objectives. Each lesson includes brief…

  6. The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Elementary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is a guide for helping elementary school students become aware of the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest instrument, background information on litter, and 12 lessons designed to promote attainment of the learning…

  7. Litter quality mediated nitrogen effect on plant litter decomposition regardless of soil fauna presence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Chao, Lin; Yang, Qingpeng; Wang, Qingkui; Fang, Yunting; Wang, Silong

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen addition has been shown to affect plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. The way that nitrogen deposition impacts the relationship between plant litter decomposition and altered soil nitrogen availability is unclear, however. This study examined 18 co-occurring litter types in a subtropical forest in China in terms of their decomposition (1 yr of exposure in the field) with nitrogen addition treatment (0, 0.4, 1.6, and 4.0 mol·N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ) and soil fauna exclusion (litter bags with 0.1 and 2 cm mesh size). Results showed that the plant litter decomposition rate is significantly reduced because of nitrogen addition; the strength of the nitrogen addition effect is closely related to the nitrogen addition levels. Plant litters with diverse quality responded to nitrogen addition differently. When soil fauna was present, the nitrogen addition effect on medium-quality or high-quality plant litter decomposition rate was -26% ± 5% and -29% ± 4%, respectively; these values are significantly higher than that of low-quality plant litter decomposition. The pattern is similar when soil fauna is absent. In general, the plant litter decomposition rate is decreased by soil fauna exclusion; an average inhibition of -17% ± 1.5% was exhibited across nitrogen addition treatment and litter quality groups. However, this effect is weakly related to nitrogen addition treatment and plant litter quality. We conclude that the variations in plant litter quality, nitrogen deposition, and soil fauna are important factors of decomposition and nutrient cycling in a subtropical forest ecosystem.

  8. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4. PMID:27877527

  9. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles: fabrication methods and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite, HAp) exhibits excellent biocompatibility with various kinds of cells and tissues, making it an ideal candidate for tissue engineering, orthopedic and dental applications. Nanosized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. This review summarizes existing knowledge and recent progress in fabrication methods of nanosized (or nanostructured) HAp particles, as well as their recent applications in medical and dental fields. In section 1, we provide a brief overview of HAp and nanoparticles. In section 2, fabrication methods of HAp nanoparticles are described based on the particle formation mechanisms. Recent applications of HAp nanoparticles are summarized in section 3. The future perspectives in this active research area are given in section 4.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions.

  11. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1988-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  12. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  13. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  14. Runoff water quality from broiler litter-amended tall fescue in response to natural precipitation in the Ozark Highlands.

    PubMed

    Menjoulet, B C; Brye, K R; Pirani, A L; Haggard, B E; Gbur, E E

    2009-01-01

    The Arkansas poultry industry produced more than 1.2 billion broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and generated approximately 1.3 million Mg of broiler litter in 2002. High transportation costs of relocating broiler litter have led to annual land applications near poultry houses, increasing concern for potential surface water contamination from runoff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of broiler litter application rate on runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation. Six plots (1.5 by 6.0 m), located on a Captina silt loam (finesilty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult), were amended with fresh broiler litter at 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg ha(-1) (control, low, and high litter treatments, respectively) once annually for 4 yr (May 2003 through April 2007). Runoff collected after each runoff-producing event was analyzed for soluble nutrients and metals. Cumulative runoff did not differ among litter treatments over the 4-yr study. At times, flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of As from all litter treatments exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water (0.01 mg As L(-1)). Four-year FWM Fe concentrations and runoff losses were greater (P < 0.05) from the high than from the low litter treatment and unamended control, and the 4-yr FWM P concentration from the low litter treatment (3.0 mg L(-1)) was greater than that from the unamended control (1.8 mg L(-1)). Since precipitation is temporally variable, evaluating runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation over several years is key to ascertaining the long-term impacts of surface-applied soil amendments like broiler litter.

  15. Volatile organic compounds from leaves litter.

    PubMed

    Isidorov, Valery; Jdanova, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Qualitative composition of volatile emissions of litter of five species of deciduous trees was investigated by GC-MS. The list of identified substances contains more than 70 organic compounds of various classes. It was established that the composition of components emitted by the litter into the gas phase greatly differs from that of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from turned leaves collected from trees during fall. It is suggested that most compounds found in litter emissions are products of vital activity of microorganisms decomposing it. The reported data indicate that after the vegetative period is over the decomposition processes of litter are important seasonal sources of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  16. No Litter Will Make a Better Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Describes a community anti-litter campaign developed by second grades, involving letter writing, dramatics, photography, and the creation of posters and a videotape. Identifies skills from the Kentucky Essential Skills list that were taught by the project. (SV)

  17. Pretreatment of poultry litter improves Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides production.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Orhan; Icgen, Bulent; Ozcengiz, Gulay

    2010-04-01

    Pretreated poultry litter was used in batch cultures for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticide of lepidoptera- and diptera-specific Cry1 and Cry2, diptera-specific Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa and coleoptera-specific Cry3Aa toxins by Bt subsp. kurstaki 81, subsp. israelensis HD500 and subsp. tenebrionis 3203, respectively. Bt kurstaki 81 showed improved growth and produced more toxin in this medium as compared to other subspecies. Base and acid hydrolysis were tested as the methods of substrate pretreatment. The use of poultry litter pretreated with 2N HCl yielded 94% more bioinsecticidal protein than 2N NaOH-pretreated poultry litter when Bt kurstaki 81 was cultured. With appropriate pretreatment, poultry litter demonstrated potential as a valuable raw material for a low-cost complex medium to produce Bt-based biopesticides.

  18. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  19. Removal of volatile organic compounds by natural materials during composting of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Turan, N G; Akdemir, A; Ergun, O N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of poultry litter. The natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite as the natural materials were used for the reducing of VOCs. Composting was performed in a laboratory scale in-vessel composting plant. Poultry litter was composted for 100 d with volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. The VOCs were tested using the FT-IR method by VOCs analyzer. Studies showed that VOCs generation was the greatest in the control treatment without any natural materials. The natural materials significantly reduced VOCs. At the end of the processes, removal efficiency was 79.73% for NZ treatment, 54.59% for EP treatment, 88.22% for P treatment and 61.53% for EV treatment. Potential of removal for VOCs on poultry litter matrix using natural materials was in order of: P>NZ>EV>EP.

  20. [Water-holding characteristics and accumulation amount of the litters under main forest types in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Ling, Lei; Zhang, Guang-zhong; Yan, Pei-bin; Tao, Ji-xin; Chai, Chun-shan; Xue, Rui

    2011-10-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory soaking extraction, an investigation was conducted on the accumulation amount, water-holding capacity, water-holding rate, and water-absorption rate of the litters under six main forests (Picea wilsonii forest, P. wilsonii - Betula platyphlla forest, Populus davidiana - B. platyphlla forest, Cotonester multiglorus - Rosa xanthina shrubs, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, and Larix principis-rupprechtii forest) in Xinglong Mountain of Gansu. The accumulation amount of the litters under the forests was 13.40-46.32 t hm(-2), and in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus-R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litter storage of coniferous forests was greater than that of broadleaved forests, and the storage percentage of semi-decomposed litters was all higher than that of un-decomposed litters. The maximum water-holding rate of the litters was 185.5%-303.6%, being the highest for L. principis-rupprechtii forest and the lowest for P. tabulaeformis forest. The litters' water-holding capacity changed logarithmically with their soaking time. For coniferous forests, un-decomposed litters had a lower water-holding rate than semi-decomposed litters; whereas for broadleaved forests, it was in adverse. The maximum water-holding capacity of the litters varied from 3.94 mm to 8.59 mm, and was in the order of P. tabulaeformis forest > L. principis-rupprechtii forest > P. wilsonii - B. platyphlla forest > P. wilsonii forest > C. multiglorus - R. xanthina shrubs > P. davidiana - B. platyphlla forest. The litters' water-holding capacity also changed logarithmically with immersing time, and the half-decomposed litters had a larger water-holding capacity than un-decomposed litters. The water-absorption rate of the litters presented a power function with immersing time. Within the first one hour of immersed in water, the

  1. Microwave thermography: principles, methods and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Myers, P C; Sadowsky, N L; Barrett, A H

    1979-06-01

    We review the physical principles, method of operation, measurement limitations, and potential medical applications of microwave thermography. We present detailed results of a study of breast cancer detection at 1.3 and 3.3 GHz, including the dependence of detection rates on microwave frequency, time, tumor depth, and tumor size. At 1.3 GHz, microwave thermography detects breast cancer as well as infrared thermography (true-positive rate = 0.76 when true-negative rate = 0.63). When the two methods are combined, the true-positive rate increases by about 0.1 over that of either method alone.

  2. Satellite Geodesy—Foundations, Methods, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fell, Patrick

    This text is an updated English translation of Satellitengeodasie, a book that was published in German in 1989. The text is the first in many years that attempts to cover the broad spectrum of methods, applications, and systems, both classical and current, that have developed in the field of satellite geodesy.The material is presented in a structure that follows the major observational methods used in satellite geodesy: classical techniques, Doppler, GPS, laser, altimetry, and special methods including satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite radiometry, and VLBI. Before introducing these observational techniques in detail, the author provides the fundamentals on reference frames, time signal propagation, orbital mechanics and basic applications of satellite geodesy in positioning, gravity field modeling, navigation, marine geodesy, kinematics, and geodynamics. An excellent reference list completes the text.

  3. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. The techniques include a finite difference step size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with plans for dealing with some of those needs.

  4. Structural sensitivity analysis: Methods, applications, and needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Camarda, C. J.; Walsh, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Some innovative techniques applicable to sensitivity analysis of discretized structural systems are reviewed. These techniques include a finite-difference step-size selection algorithm, a method for derivatives of iterative solutions, a Green's function technique for derivatives of transient response, a simultaneous calculation of temperatures and their derivatives, derivatives with respect to shape, and derivatives of optimum designs with respect to problem parameters. Computerized implementations of sensitivity analysis and applications of sensitivity derivatives are also discussed. Finally, some of the critical needs in the structural sensitivity area are indicated along with Langley plans for dealing with some of these needs.

  5. Development of behavior in the litter huddle in rat pups: within- and between-litter differences.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Amando; García-Torres, Esmeralda; Prager, Geraldine; Hudson, Robyn; Rödel, Heiko G

    2010-01-01

    Early postnatal growth in mammals can be considerably influenced by litter size and often differs among littermates in relation to birth mass. In a study of Long Evans laboratory rats we asked whether within- and between-litter differences in body mass and growth are related to behavioral development during early postnatal life. For this, we analyzed the amount of general motor activity and the display of directed, seemingly goal-oriented interactions within the litter huddle in previsual pups. During the study period from postnatal days 2 to 11, we found significant changes in pup behavior, showing a nonlinear, quadratic shape. General motor activity and, more specifically, the display of behaviors apparently directed to reaching central positions in the litter huddle increased during the first postnatal days and then decreased again. However, pups from small litters that grow more rapidly than pups from large litters, showed a faster increase in both behaviors, whereas the young from large litters reached a higher maximum. We also found striking within-litter differences in the amount of directed behavior performed by light and heavy pups, with higher levels in the former group, most probably because light pups that have a less favorable body mass-to-volume ratio and more often occupy peripheral positions in the litter huddle, make a greater effort to reach thermally favorable central positions. In conclusion, our study shows there to be consistent between-litter as well as within-litter differences in behavioral patterns during early life. These differences might have important implications for an individual's long-term behavioral and physiological performance.

  6. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to target a novel group of ammonia-producing bacteria found in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, M J; Cook, K L; Lovanh, N; Warren, J G; Sistani, K

    2008-06-01

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. In poultry litter, the conversion of organic N (uric acid and urea) to NH(4)-N is a microbially mediated process. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of urea to NH(4)-N. Cloning and analysis of 168 urease sequences from extracted genomic DNA from poultry litter samples revealed the presence of a novel, dominant group of ureolytic microbes (representing 90% of the urease clone library). Specific primers and a probe were designed to target this novel poultry litter urease producer (PLUP) group, and a new quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed. The assay allowed for the detection of 10(2) copies of target urease sequences per PCR reaction (approximately 1 x 10(4) cells per gram of poultry litter), and the reaction was linear over 8 orders of magnitude. Our PLUP group was present only in poultry litter and was not present in environmental samples from diverse agricultural settings. This novel PLUP group represented between 0.1 to 3.1% of the total microbial populations (6.0 x 10(6) to 2.4 x 10(8) PLUP cells per gram of litter) from diverse poultry litter types. The PLUP cell concentrations were directly correlated to the total cell concentrations in the poultry litter and were found to be influenced by the physical parameters of the litters (bedding material, moisture content, pH), as well as the NH(4)-N content of the litters, based on principal component analysis. Chemical parameters (organic N, total N, total C) were not found to be influential in the concentrations of our PLUP group in the diverse poultry litters Future applications of this assay could include determining the efficacy of current NH(4)-N-reducing litter amendments or in designing more efficient treatment protocols.

  7. Extended applications of the vortex lattice method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    The application of the vortex lattice method to problems not usually dealt with by this technique is considered. It is shown that if the discrete vortex lattice is considered as an approximation to surface-distributed vorticity, then the concept of the generalized principal part of an integral yields a residual term to the vortex-induced velocity that renders the vortex lattice method valid for supersonic flow. Special schemes for simulating non-zero thickness lifting surfaces and fusiform bodies with vortex lattice elements are presented. Thickness effects of wing-like components are simulated by a double vortex lattice layer, and fusiform bodies are represented by a vortex grid arranged on a series of concentric cylindrical surfaces. Numerical considerations peculiar to the application of these techniques are briefly discussed.

  8. Effect of Fresh Poultry Litter and Compost on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Stacy; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Application of poultry litter and compost as a substitute for fertilizer not only uses unwanted waste and decreases expenditures for commercial fertilizer, it adds nutrients to soil for plant uptake. The properties of soil affected by poultry litter were analyzed to determine the positive and negative aspects of using this substitute fertilizer. This study focused on changes associated with saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, nitrate concentrations, and pH after application of varying concentrations of poultry litter and compost. Soil samples from Tennessee Valley Substation in Alabama were analyzed in a laboratory at Alabama A&M University. As a result of the application of fresh poultry litter and compost, we found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased and the bulk density decreased, while the pH was generally not affected. Using poultry litter and compost as an alternative commercial fertilizers could be adapted by the farming community to protect the sustainability of our environment. Unwanted waste is used productively and soil is enriched for farming.

  9. Simulating protein dynamics: Novel methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishal, V.

    This Ph.D dissertation describes several methodological advances in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Methods like Markov State Models can be used effectively in combination with distributed computing to obtain long time scale behavior from an ensemble of short simulations. Advanced computing architectures like Graphics Processors can be used to greatly extend the scope of MD. Applications of MD techniques to problems like Alzheimer's Disease and fundamental questions in protein dynamics are described.

  10. Nuclear data calculation methods for medical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shubin, Yu.N.; Lunev, V.P.; Masterov, V.S.; Kurenkov, N.V.; Kulikov, E.V.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron deficient radionuclides play an important role in medicine, where they are used for diagnostic with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET). Using some reactions connected with the producing most widely used radioisotopes {sup 123}I, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99}Tc as example we calculated reaction cross sections and discuss the possibilities of the models and codes and recent progress in the methods to predict nuclear data for medical and other applications in medium energy region.

  11. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  12. Harmony search method: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, X Z; Govindasamy, V; Xu, H; Wang, X; Zenger, K

    2015-01-01

    The Harmony Search (HS) method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem.

  13. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O’Connor, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22–0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04–0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering. PMID:26644979

  14. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O'Connor, Abby; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22-0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04-0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering.

  15. Regional contingencies in the relationship between aboveground Bbomass and litter in the world’s grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O’Halloran, Lydia R.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Cleland, Elsa E.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Hobbie, Sarah; Harpole, W. Stan; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Davies, Kendi F.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hagenah, Nicole; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Li, Wei; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Stevens, Carly J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on regional-scale studies, aboveground production and litter decomposition are thought to positively covary, because they are driven by shared biotic and climatic factors. Until now we have been unable to test whether production and decomposition are generally coupled across climatically dissimilar regions, because we lacked replicated data collected within a single vegetation type across multiple regions, obfuscating the drivers and generality of the association between production and decomposition. Furthermore, our understanding of the relationships between production and decomposition rests heavily on separate meta-analyses of each response, because no studies have simultaneously measured production and the accumulation or decomposition of litter using consistent methods at globally relevant scales. Here, we use a multi-country grassland dataset collected using a standardized protocol to show that live plant biomass (an estimate of aboveground net primary production) and litter disappearance (represented by mass loss of aboveground litter) do not strongly covary. Live biomass and litter disappearance varied at different spatial scales. There was substantial variation in live biomass among continents, sites and plots whereas among continent differences accounted for most of the variation in litter disappearance rates. Although there were strong associations among aboveground biomass, litter disappearance and climatic factors in some regions (e.g. U.S. Great Plains), these relationships were inconsistent within and among the regions represented by this study. These results highlight the importance of replication among regions and continents when characterizing the correlations between ecosystem processes and interpreting their global-scale implications for carbon flux. We must exercise caution in parameterizing litter decomposition and aboveground production in future regional and global carbon models as their relationship is complex.

  16. Marine anthropogenic litter on British beaches: A 10-year nationwide assessment using citizen science data.

    PubMed

    Nelms, S E; Coombes, C; Foster, L C; Galloway, T S; Godley, B J; Lindeque, P K; Witt, M J

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic litter, particularly plastic, represents a highly pervasive and persistent threat to global marine ecosystems. Multinational research is progressing to characterise its sources, distribution and abundance so that interventions aimed at reducing future inputs and clearing extant litter can be developed. Citizen science projects, whereby members of the public gather information, offer a low-cost method of collecting large volumes of data with considerable temporal and spatial coverage. Furthermore, such projects raise awareness of environmental issues and can lead to positive changes in behaviours and attitudes. We present data collected over a decade (2005-2014 inclusive) by Marine Conservation Society (MCS) volunteers during beach litter surveys carried along the British coastline, with the aim of increasing knowledge on the composition, spatial distribution and temporal trends of coastal debris. Unlike many citizen science projects, the MCS beach litter survey programme gathers information on the number of volunteers, duration of surveys and distances covered. This comprehensive information provides an opportunity to standardise data for variation in sampling effort among surveys, enhancing the value of outputs and robustness of findings. We found that plastic is the main constituent of anthropogenic litter on British beaches and the majority of traceable items originate from land-based sources, such as public littering. We identify the coast of the Western English Channel and Celtic Sea as experiencing the highest relative litter levels. Increasing trends over the 10-year time period were detected for a number of individual item categories, yet no statistically significant change in total (effort-corrected) litter was detected. We discuss the limitations of the dataset and make recommendations for future work. The study demonstrates the value of citizen science data in providing insights that would otherwise not be

  17. Experimental design methods for bioengineering applications.

    PubMed

    Keskin Gündoğdu, Tuğba; Deniz, İrem; Çalışkan, Gülizar; Şahin, Erdem Sefa; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Experimental design is a form of process analysis in which certain factors are selected to obtain the desired responses of interest. It may also be used for the determination of the effects of various independent factors on a dependent factor. The bioengineering discipline includes many different areas of scientific interest, and each study area is affected and governed by many different factors. Briefly analyzing the important factors and selecting an experimental design for optimization are very effective tools for the design of any bioprocess under question. This review summarizes experimental design methods that can be used to investigate various factors relating to bioengineering processes. The experimental methods generally used in bioengineering are as follows: full factorial design, fractional factorial design, Plackett-Burman design, Taguchi design, Box-Behnken design and central composite design. These design methods are briefly introduced, and then the application of these design methods to study different bioengineering processes is analyzed.

  18. Leaf litter bags as an index to populations of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalmers, R.J.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about recent amphibian declines has led to research on amphibian populations, but few statistically tested, standardized methods of counting amphibians exist. We tested whether counts of northern two-lined salamander larvae (Eurycea bislineata) sheltered in leaf litter bags--a relatively new, easily replicable survey technique--had a linear correlation to total number of larvae. Using experimental enclosures placed in streams, we compared number of salamanders found in artificial habitat (leaf litter bags) with total number of salamanders in each enclosure. Low numbers of the animals were found in leaf litter bags, and the relative amount of variation in the index (number of animals in leaf litter bags compared to total number of animals in stream enclosures) was high. The index of salamanders in leaf litter bags was not significantly related to total number of salamanders in enclosures for two-thirds of the replicates or with pooled replicates (P= 0.066). Consequently, we cannot recommend using leaf litter bags to index populations of northern two-lined salamanders.

  19. [Water-holding characteristics of coniferous forest litters in west Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-jun; Cao, Jing; Ma, Jian-wei; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Lin

    2008-11-01

    By the methods of field survey and soaking extraction, the storage, water-holding capacity, water-holding rate, and water-absorption rate of the litters in Larix principis-ruprechtii, Larix kaempferi, Picea asperate, and Picea abies plantations in west Qinling Mountains were studied. The results showed that the litter storage in the four similar aged coniferous forests decreased in the order of P. asperate (29.81 t x hm(-2)) > P. abies (26.17 t x hm(-2)) > L. kaempferi (13.30 t x hm(-2)) > L. ruprechtii (8.46 t x hm(-2)). The water-holding capacity and water-holding rate of the litters at different decomposition degree changed logarithmically with soaking time while the water-absorption rate assumed a power function, but all the test water-holding characteristics had less correlation with forest type and litter decomposition degree. Under the four coniferous forests, the litters in semi-decomposed layer had a stronger water-holding capability than those in decomposed layer, and the water-holding capability of the litters under larch forest was stronger than that under spruce forest.

  20. Relationships between Chemical Characteristics and Phytotoxicity of Biochar from Poultry Litter Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Alessandro G; Marisi, Giovanni; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Ghidotti, Michele; Hornung, Andreas

    2015-08-05

    Three biochars were prepared by intermediate pyrolysis from poultry litter at different temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C with decreasing residence times) and compared with biochars from corn stalk prepared under the same pyrolysis conditions. The phytotoxicity of these biochars was estimated by means of seed germination tests on cress (Lepidium sativum L.) conducted in water suspensions (at 2, 5, and 40 g/L) and on biochars wetted according to their water-holding capacity. Whereas the seeds germinated after 72 h in water suspensions with corn stalk biochar were similar to the control (water only), significant inhibition was observed with poultry litter biochars. In comparison to corn stalk, poultry litter generated biochars with higher contents of ash, ammonium, nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and a similar concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results from analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC-MS) indicated that nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NCCs) and aliphatic components were distinctive constituents of the thermally labile fraction of poultry litter biochar. The inhibition of germination due to poultry litter biochar produced at 400 °C (PL400) was suppressed after solvent extraction or treatment with active sludge. A novel method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) enabled the identification of mobile organic compounds in PL400 capable of being released in air and water, including VFAs and NCCs. The higher phytotoxicity of poultry litter than corn biochars was tentatively attributed to hydrophilic biodegradable substances derived from lipids or proteins removable by water leaching or microbial treatments.

  1. Lignin degradation during plant litter photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant compound, after cellulose, synthesized by plants. Numerous studies have demonstrated that initial lignin concentration is negatively correlated with litter decomposition rate under both laboratory and field conditions. Thus lignin is commonly considered to be a "recalcitrant" compound during litter decomposition. However, lignin can also serve as a radiation-absorbing compound during photodegradation, the process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter. Here, we synthesize recent studies concerning lignin degradation during litter photodegradation and report results from our study on how photodegradation changes lignin chemistry at a molecular scale. Recent field studies have found that litter with high initial lignin concentration does not necessarily exhibit high mass loss during photodegradation. A meta-analysis (King et al. 2012) even found a weak negative correlation between initial lignin concentration and photodegradation rate. Contradicting results have been reported with regard to the change in lignin concentration during photodegradation. Some studies have found significant loss of lignin during photodegradation, while others have not. In most studies, loss of lignin only accounts for a small proportion of the overall mass loss. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found significant loss of lignin structural units containing beta-aryl ether linkages during photodegradation of a common grass litter, Bromus diandrus, even though conventional forage fiber analysis did not reveal changes in lignin concentration. Both our NMR and fiber analyses supported the idea that photodegradation induced loss of hemicellulose, which was mainly responsible for the litter mass loss during photodegradation. Our results suggest that photodegradation induces degradation, but not necessarily complete breakdown, of lignin structures and consequently exposes hemicellulose and cellulose to microbial decomposition. We conclude that lignin

  2. Welcome to Methods and Applications in Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David; Mély, Yves; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    2013-03-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board of Methods and Applications in Fluorescence and IOP Publishing we are delighted to invite you to read the first articles in our new journal. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence is forged out of the renowned MAF conference series of the same name and we fully expect the natural synergy between the two to provide the ideal platform for moving the field of fluorescence forward. Our aim is for this new journal to reflect the truly global and diverse impact fluorescence is having across many disciplines and help fluorescence achieve its full potential. Just as MAF is the leading conference in fluorescence we are confident of the high impact of this new journal. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence has a distinguished Editorial Board that is drawn from the MAF conference Permanent Steering Committee. Together with the Editorial Board and the rest of the community, the journal will closely track the very latest developments in fluorescence while delivering a fair and constructive review process. We are very pleased that this journal is backed by the Institute of Physics, one of the world's premier learned societies. IOP Publishing has a wealth of experience in science publishing that dates back to 1874. It is a not-for-profit organization that publishes over 60 journals, many on multidisciplinary topics and many including seminal contributions from Nobel Laureates. Any funding surplus generated by IOP Publishing goes directly back into science through the Institute of Physics, thus helping to nurture science for future generations. We invite submissions as regular articles, review articles and technical notes within the scope of the journal, which includes all the major aspects of fluorescence. This covers both theory and experiment across spectroscopy, imaging, materials, labels, probes and sensors. The applications of fluorescence to emerging areas in bionanotechnology, nanotechnology and medicine are very much part of the

  3. Biological and climatic controls on leaf litter decomposition across European forests and grasslands revealed by reciprocal litter transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Levula, J.; Frumau, A. K. F.; Ibrom, A.; Lembrechts, J. J.; Morillas, L.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.; Niinemets, Ü.

    2015-11-01

    Projection of carbon and nitrogen cycles to future climates is associated with large uncertainties, in particular due to uncertainties how changes in climate alter soil turnover, including litter decomposition. In addition, future conditions are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter type and quality, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across 6 European sites (4 forest and 2 grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 °C in annual temperature 511-878 mm in precipitation) to gain insight into biological (litter origin and type, soil type) and climatic controls on litter decomposition. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated to the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species, litter origin and soil type. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below 0 °C), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (Mr). And Mr and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during decomposition. We concluded with an equation for predicting the decomposition k rate by using mean annual air temperature and litter total specific leaf area.

  4. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  5. VOC Emissions From Decomposing Leaf Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. M.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Fierer, N.; Monson, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    The emission of VOCs from the biosphere has a profound effect on the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. Most studies of the flux of reactive carbon from the biosphere have focused on BVOC emissions at leaf and canopy scales with relatively few studies investigating BVOC emissions from soils. Here we present results describing the emissions of a suite of BVOCs from different litter types under different levels of nitrogen availability. To investigate these effects, three biochemically distinct litter types (Deschampsia sp., Acomostylis sp., and Rhododendron sp.) were coarsely ground and incubated in the dark for two months under different nitrogen regimes at optimal conditions for microbial activity. We used proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to monitor BVOC emissions and CO2 production rates throughout the course of the investigation. When different leaf litter types decomposed, they released distinctly different types and quantities of VOCs. However, varying nitrogen availability caused the VOC signature from some litters to change dramatically. We suggest that decomposition of leaf litter could provide a substantive source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere at local and regional scales and hypothesize that nitrogen deposition may play a role in attenuating the release of some reactive species.

  6. Effects of pelletized and non-pelletized poultry litter and nutrient immobilizing agent on surface runoff water quality from a forage based system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is recognized as a desirable organic fertilizer that improves soil fertility by adding essential plant nutrients and organic matter. Poultry litter is pelletized to improve the economics and handling and transport from production areas to land application sites. Compared to non-pell...

  7. Industrial applications of laser methods profilometry

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Laser-based profilometry has evolved rapidly over the past ten years. During that period, QUEST Integrated Inc. has been actively involved in the development of systems for a wide variety of NDE applications. The measurement method is based on the principle of optical triangulation. The sensor includes a diode laser which generates the collimated laser beam that is projected orthogonally onto a target surface. Receiving optics, positioned at an oblique angle to the beam, image the reflected light onto a lateral-effect photodetector. Depending on the packaging constraints and resolution requirements, probes use either a single or dual-axis lateral-effect photodetector. As the target surface moves toward or away from the laser source, the imaged light moves across the photodetector in a predictable and repeatable manner. Since the laser beam can be focused to a ``footprint`` as small as a few microns in diameter, this method provides unparalleled spatial resolution. In addition, lateral effect photodetectors are composed or a single silicon element that provides almost infinite lateral resolution. This method was applied to two applications in this paper. The first was to locate and identify flows caused by pitting corrosion in steam generator tubes at nuclear power plants. The second was for inspection of gun tubes by the US army.

  8. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  9. Control of climate and litter quality on leaf litter decomposition in different climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Climate and initial litter quality are the major factors influencing decomposition rates on large scales. We established a comprehensive database of terrestrial leaf litter decomposition, including 785 datasets, to examine the relationship between climate and litter quality and evaluate the factors controlling decomposition on a global scale, the arid and semi-arid (AS) zone, the humid middle and humid low (HL) latitude zones. Initial litter nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration only increased with mean annual temperature (MAT) in the AS zone and decreased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the HL zone. Compared with nutrient content, MAT imposed less effect on initial litter lignin content than MAP. MAT were the most important decomposition driving factors on a global scale as well as in different climatic zones. MAP only significantly affected decomposition constants in AS zone. Although litter quality parameters also showed significant influence on decomposition, their importance was less than the climatic factors. Besides, different litter quality parameters exerted significant influence on decomposition in different climatic zones. Our results emphasized that climate consistently exerted important effects on decomposition constants across different climatic zones.

  10. [Effects of litter and mineral nitrogen input on soil organic carbon decomposition in subtropical mixed forest in Dinghu Mountain, South China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Juan; Zeng, Hui; Guo, Da-Li

    2011-12-01

    In July-December 2010, a complete factor-controlled experiment was conducted to study the effects of litter and mineral nitrogen addition on soil organic matter decomposition (soil respiration) at the depths of 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm in Dinghu Mountain National Reserve. Coniferous needle litter and broadleaved litter were added, respectively, and 70 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) of NH4 NO3 was applied to simulate soil nitrogen saturation whereas soil mineral nitrogen was removed by ion-exchange membrane to simulate the decreased nitrogen absorption by root. The addition of both needle litter and broadleaved litter increased the respiration rate of soil-litter system significantly from July to November, but this effect disappeared in December. Both mineral nitrogen application and soil mineral nitrogen removal increased the soil-litter respiration significantly. These results suggest that litter decomposed completely in a short period therefor had limited effects on soil organic matter decomposition and accumulation, and thus, foliar litters could be not the major source of soil organic matter, whereas soil mineral nitrogen removal could obviously promote the soil organic matter decomposition in the system.

  11. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality.

  12. Global Precipitation Measurement: Methods, Datasets and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco; Turk, Francis J.; Petersen, Walt; Hou, Arthur Y.; Garcia-Ortega, Eduardo; Machado, Luiz, A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Salio, Paola; Kidd, Chris; Huffman, George J.; De Castro, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the many aspects of precipitation measurement that are relevant to providing an accurate global assessment of this important environmental parameter. Methods discussed include ground data, satellite estimates and numerical models. First, the methods for measuring, estimating, and modeling precipitation are discussed. Then, the most relevant datasets gathering precipitation information from those three sources are presented. The third part of the paper illustrates a number of the many applications of those measurements and databases. The aim of the paper is to organize the many links and feedbacks between precipitation measurement, estimation and modeling, indicating the uncertainties and limitations of each technique in order to identify areas requiring further attention, and to show the limits within which datasets can be used.

  13. New color segmentation method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    1999-01-01

    Segmentation is an important step in the early stage of image analysis. Color or multi-spectral image segmentation usually involves search and clustering techniques in a three or higher dimensional spectral space - an exercise which is considered computationally expensive. This paper presents a new color segmentation method for color image analysis with its application to plant leaf area measurement. A 3D histogram for an RGB color image is established basing on an octree data structure. The histogram represents the color distribution of the image in the RGB color space on which a 3D Gaussian filter is applied to smooth out small maxima of this distribution. The color space is then searched to find out al the major maxima. Around each maxima, a covering cube with a controlled side width is established. These maxima and covering cubes are considered to be potential color classes. Each cube may expand according to the value of surrounding neighbors. Once enough modes and their cover cubes have been found, a k-means clustering algorithm is used to classify these maxima into a predetermined number of classes. Then, the classified modes and the color covered by the cubes are used as training samples for a Bayes classifier which can be used to classify all the pixels in the image. A statistical relaxation method is then sued as a find segmentation. This method can either be supervised or unsupervised, depending on the different requirements of specific applications. The octree data structure significantly reduces the color space to be searched and consequently reduces computational cost. An extension of this method can also be applied to multi-spectral image analysis.

  14. The origin of litter chemical complexity during decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A Stuart; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2012-10-01

    The chemical complexity of decomposing plant litter is a central feature shaping the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, but explanations of the origin of this complexity remain contentious. Here, we ask: How does litter chemistry change during decomposition, and what roles do decomposers play in these changes? During a long-term (730 days) litter decomposition experiment, we tracked concurrent changes in decomposer community structure and function and litter chemistry using high-resolution molecular techniques. Contrary to the current paradigm, we found that the chemistry of different litter types diverged, rather than converged, during decomposition due to the activities of decomposers. Furthermore, the same litter type exposed to different decomposer communities exhibited striking differences in chemistry, even after > 90% mass loss. Our results show that during decomposition, decomposer community characteristics regulate changes in litter chemistry, which could influence the functionality of litter-derived soil organic matter (SOM) and the turnover and stabilisation of soil C.

  15. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling

    PubMed Central

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E.; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn2+ provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn3+ species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn3+/4+ oxides. Formation of reactive Mn3+ species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn3+-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn3+ species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant–soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates. PMID:26372954

  16. Subsurface Banded Broiler Litter Improves Cotton Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is typically land-applied as a fertilizer by surface broadcasting, a practice that results in volatilization loss of N as NH3. This loss may be drastically reduced or eliminated by the use of a newly developed precision litter implement designed to apply the litter in bands just belo...

  17. The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark C.; Wilson, Beth E.

    1988-01-01

    Behavior modification techniques were evaluated by observing litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. The number of litter pieces retrieved by treatment and control groups was significantly different. Results support the idea that verbal appeal and role modeling can be effective litter control techniques. (Author/CW)

  18. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  19. Methods and applications in single molecule electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihath, Joshua

    In recent years it has become possible to measure charge transport in a single molecule contacted to two metal electrodes. However, a thorough understanding of how a molecule behaves while contacted to two electrodes and how it interacts with its environment is still lacking. This thesis demonstrates various experimental methods for understanding and controlling charge transport in a single molecule junction and the application of these methods to various molecular systems to help elucidate the conduction mechanisms invoked. First, the conductance of DNA is examined in a controlled environment while varying the length, sequence, base-pair matching, bias, temperature, and electrochemical gate of the molecule. These studies show that the conductance of DNA is extremely sensitive to changes in length, sequence, and base-matching, but not as sensitive to temperature and electrochemical gate. Despite the variety of experimental methods applied, the subtleties of the conduction mechanism remain uncertain, and as such necessitate the development of additional tools for understanding the behavior of a single molecule junction. Next, the Conductance Screening Tool for Molecules (CSTM) is described. This is a new tool capable of creating 1000's of single molecules junctions in a matter of minutes. This tool has been used to study the conductance of alkanedithiols, molecules in an array, and single amino acid residues. This system allows for greater speed and flexibility in determining the conductance of a single molecule junction, and provides a capability for performing large-scale systematic studies of molecular systems to determine the conduction mechanism. Finally, an additional experimental method capable of extracting information about the interaction between a molecule and its environment is developed. Here, electron-phonon interactions in a single molecule contacted to two electrodes are studied. This method allows one to obtain a specific, chemical signature of a

  20. The Effect of Litter Position on Ultraviolet Photodegradation of Standing Dead Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2012-12-01

    In dryland ecosystems, models incorporating only biotic mechanisms usually underestimate the decay rate of plant litter. Photodegradation, an abiotic process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter, has recently been proposed as an important pathway of litter decomposition in dryland ecosystems, accounting for as much as 25 to 60% of mass loss. However, it remains unclear what factors control the relative importance of photodegradation and biotic decomposition. It is hypothesized that this balance is affected by the location of litter within the litter layer (or thatch): in upper layers of thatch, photodegradation is significant because litter is exposed to sunlight; in lower layers where litter is strongly shaded, photodegradation is negligible compared to biotic decomposition. In August 2011, a field experiment was initiated at the University of California's Sedgwick Reserve, Santa Ynez, CA, in order to understand how ultraviolet (UV) radiation and litter position within the thatch affect litter decomposition. Two levels of UV radiation (280-400 nm) are achieved by screens: "UV-Pass" (transmitting > 81% of UV radiation) and "UV-Block" (transmitting < 8% of UV radiation). Litterbags were placed either at the top or at the bottom of the thatch. Results after 9 months of field exposure show that at the top of the thatch, litter mass loss was 13% higher in UV-Pass than in UV-Block, suggesting the occurrence of UV photodegradation. Surprisingly, litter mass loss was 52% higher in UV-Pass at the bottom of the thatch, even though very limited UV radiation penetrated through the thatch (at least 10 cm thick). The relative humidity in the thatch was higher in UV-Pass than in UV-Block treatments, especially at night; thus it is speculated that the UV manipulation not only alters the incoming radiation spectrum but also affects microclimate, consequently changing biotic decomposition. At the bottom of the thatch, lignin concentration of plant litter was 19

  1. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  2. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  3. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  4. Converting Poultry Litter into Activated Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of animal manure is one of the biggest problems facing agriculture today. Now new technology has been designed to covert manure into environmentally friendly and highly valued activated carbon. When pelletized and activated under specific conditions, the litter becomes a highly porous mat...

  5. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  6. Litter Study: A School Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Dannel

    1976-01-01

    Describes a project done to verify or dispute the breakdown in litter content proposed by Keep America Beautiful, Inc. (KAB). Decisions made relating to quantity of materials, area to be studied, and a complete description of the project are given. (EB)

  7. Extension Leads Model City Litter Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Doris

    1971-01-01

    A three-year war on litter is in effect in the Portland, Maine, area, as a result of the University of Maine's enlisting the county extension service to help the local Model Cities program clean up the inner city. Article details problems and progress in meeting the objectives. (PD)

  8. Critical litter moisture maximizes ammonia generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water) generates ammonia in poultry houses. Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. Findings from a recent publication indicate there is a critical litt...

  9. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  10. Applications of Langevin and Molecular Dynamics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomdahl, P. S.

    Computer simulation of complex nonlinear and disordered phenomena from materials science is rapidly becoming an active and new area serving as a guide for experiments and for testing of theoretical concepts. This is especially true when novel massively parallel computer systems and techniques are used on these problems. In particular the Langevin dynamics simulation technique has proven useful in situations where the time evolution of a system in contact with a heat bath is to be studied. The traditional way to study systems in contact with a heat bath has been via the Monte Carlo method. While this method has indeed been used successfully in many applications, it has difficulty addressing true dynamical questions. Large systems of coupled stochastic ODE's (or Langevin equations) are commonly the end result of a theoretical description of higher dimensional nonlinear systems in contact with a heat bath. The coupling is often local in nature, because it reflects local interactions formulated on a lattice, the lattice for example represents the underlying discreteness of a substrate of atoms or discrete k-values in Fourier space. The fundamental unit of parallelism thus has a direct analog in the physical system the authors are interested in. In these lecture notes the authors illustrate the use of Langevin stochastic simulation techniques on a number of nonlinear problems from materials science and condensed matter physics that have attracted attention in recent years. First, the authors review the idea behind the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which forms that basis for the numerical Langevin stochastic simulation scheme. The authors then show applications of the technique to various problems from condensed matter and materials science.

  11. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  12. Effect of five-year continuous poultry litter use in cotton production on major soil nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated application of poultry litter to crop lands may lead to nitrate leaching and build up of P and other elements in the soil profile, which are prone to loss from runoff and erosion. A study was conducted for five years at Belle Mina, AL on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typi...

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from nitrogen enriched low-phosphorus pelletized broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High concentration of the poultry industry in certain regions of the United States promoted an excess of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) because of recurrent land application of broiler litter waste. A new waste treatment technology developed by USDA-ARS, called “Quick Wash”, can recover phosph...

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil amended with low-phosphorus broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regions of the United States with a high concentration of poultry farms have soils with excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) far beyond the agronomic requirement of crops because of recurrent land application of broiler litter. A new waste treatment technology developed by USDA-ARS, called “Quick ...

  15. Seasonal changes in phosphorus and phosphatase compositions in soils enriched with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Season and soil depth may play an important role in phosphorus (P) dynamics and mineralization in soil because of changes in soil moisture, temperature and microbial activity. This study was conducted to quantify P fractions and enzymatic activity from poultry litter (PL) application as affected by ...

  16. Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Wickey, Philipp; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting. Arthropod abundance, measures of richness and diversity, and a number of functional groups were greater in the island treatment than in natural regeneration or plantation treatments and, in many cases, were similar to reference forest. Litter and pitfall morphospecies and functional group composition in all three restoration treatments were significantly different than reference sites, but island and plantation treatments showed more recovery than natural regeneration. Abundance and functional group diversity showed a much greater degree of recovery than community composition. Synthesis and applications: The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness, and functional diversity. None of the restoration strategies, however, resulted in similar community composition as reference forest after 8 years of recovery, highlighting the slow rate of recovery of arthropod communities after disturbance, and underscoring the importance of conservation of remnant forests in fragmented landscapes.

  17. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  18. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  19. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J

    2013-03-01

    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  20. Developing a two-step heat treatment for inactivating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of a two-step heat treatment for eliminating desiccation-adapted Salmonella spp. in aged chicken litter was evaluated. The aged chicken litter with 20, 30, 40, and 50% moisture contents was inoculated with a mixture of four Salmonella serotypes for a 24-h adaptation. Afterwards, the inoculated chicken litter was added into the chicken litter with the adjusted moisture content for a 1-h moist-heat treatment at 65 °C and 100% relative humidity inside a water bath, followed by a dry-heat treatment in a convection oven at 85 °C for 1 h to the desired moisture level (<10-12%). After moist-heat treatment, the populations of Salmonella in aged chicken litter at 20 and 30% moisture contents declined from ≈6.70 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g to 3.31 and 3.00 log CFU/g, respectively. After subsequent 1-h dry-heat treatment, the populations further decreased to 2.97 and 2.57 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella cells in chicken litter with 40% and 50% moisture contents were only detectable by enrichment after 40 and 20 min of moist-heat treatment, respectively. Moisture contents in all samples were reduced to <10% after a 1-h dry-heat process. Our results demonstrated that the two-step heat treatment was effective in reducing >5.5 logs of desiccation-adapted Salmonella in aged chicken litter with moisture content at or above 40%. Clearly, the findings from this study may provide the chicken litter processing industry with an effective heat treatment method for producing Salmonella-free chicken litter.

  1. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions § 425.03 Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration... the potassium ferricyanide titration method for the determination of sulfide in wastewaters...

  2. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  3. Changes in litter near an aluminum reduction plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Fleming, W.J.; Swineford, D.

    1987-01-01

    Litter was collected from eight sites at distances as far as 33 km from an AI reduction plant in western Tennessee. As a result of an accumulation of fine litter (< 4.75 mm) the weight of the litter per unit area was abnormally high at the two sites within 2 km of the plant. Compared to litter collected far from the plant, it had a lower fiber content, was more sapric, and was less acid. Fluoride emissions from the plant were suggested as the probable cause of litter changes. Concentrations of water-extractable and acid-extractable F- in the litter, the 0- to 5-cm soil layer, and the 5- to 15-cm soil layer were strongly correlated with distance from the plant. Total acid-extractable F- in the litter and upper 15 cm of soil was about 41 times as much at the closest site (700 mg/kg) as at the most distant sites (12 and 16 mg/kg). In a bioassay of litter from our study sites, woodlice (Porcellio scaber Latr.) had an abnormally high mortality in litter that contained 440 mg/kg or more of acid-extractable F-. However, when F- was added as NaF to litter, a significant increase in mortality was observed only in treatments exceeding 800 mg/kg. The decrease in the rate of decomposition of the litter might eventually induce a deficiency of soil macronutrients, but none was detected.

  4. Nutrient loss in leachate and surface runoff from surface-broadcast and subsurface-banded broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to reduce the transport of nutrients from fields in surface runoff, compared to the conventional surface broadcast application. Little in situ research has been conducted to determine effects of surface broadcast application and subsurfac...

  5. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  6. [Litter decomposition of typical forests along an altitude gradient in Mt. Shennongjia, Hubei, China].

    PubMed

    Pan, Dong-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Ni; Shen, Guo-Zhen; Xie, Zong-Qiang; Luo, Lu; Liu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Based on the litterbag method, we explored the decomposition dynamics of the litter from the evergreen broad-leaved forests, the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests, and the deciduous broad-leaved forests along an altitude gradient in Mt. Shennongjia, Hubei, China. According to the decomposition rate, the decomposition of the litter could be divided into early stage (0-360 days) and later stage (361-720 days). With the increase of altitude, the mass loss rates of the litter from the three types of forests at the early stage were 2.62-4.08 times that of the later stage, the litter decomposition rates at the early stage were 2.71, 1.72 and 2.69 times of that at the later stage, respectively, and 95% decomposition of the litter needed 3.84, 4.54 and 4.16 years respectively. The decomposition rate at the later stage was significantly correlated with C/N, and the contents of N, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin.

  7. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  8. Determinants of the pathways of litter chemical decomposition in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Scott A; Congdon, Robert A; Lawler, Ivan R

    2014-08-01

    Litter decomposition is a key ecosystem process, yet our understanding of the drivers in chemical changes in leaves during decay is limited. Our aim was to determine the comparative differences (chemical divergence or convergence) between sites and the drivers of decay pathways. We used the litterbag method ('in situ' litterfall and standardized 'control' leaves) in Australian tropical rainforests and near-infrared spectrometry to show the chemical pathways during decomposition (c. 360 d; 12 control sites; 17 in situ sites). Chemical convergence/divergence was determined from spectral dissimilarity and quantile regression along a mass loss moving average. The influence of environment (climate and soil) and litter quality on decay pathways was determined between sites using correlation analysis. Throughout the region, litter composition in both treatments converged chemically during decay. However, divergent chemical pathways were shown for some samples/sites (especially with high initial lignin, phenolics and carbon (C), poor soil phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and more seasonal moisture), and the diversity of decay residues increased with mass loss despite overall chemical convergence. Our study suggests that there is general chemical convergence of leaf litter during early decay, but also that divergent chemical pathways occur in locations that experience more intense seasonal drying, and contain species or conditions that promote poor-quality litter.

  9. Temporal dynamics of biotic and abiotic drivers of litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Shaw, E Ashley; Wall, Diana H; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Climate, litter quality and decomposers drive litter decomposition. However, little is known about whether their relative contribution changes at different decomposition stages. To fill this gap, we evaluated the relative importance of leaf litter polyphenols, decomposer communities and soil moisture for litter C and N loss at different stages throughout the decomposition process. Although both microbial and nematode communities regulated litter C and N loss in the early decomposition stages, soil moisture and legacy effects of initial differences in litter quality played a major role in the late stages of the process. Our results provide strong evidence for substantial shifts in how biotic and abiotic factors control litter C and N dynamics during decomposition. Taking into account such temporal dynamics will increase the predictive power of decomposition models that are currently limited by a single-pool approach applying control variables uniformly to the entire decay process.

  10. The effect of saprophagous macrofauna on litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous experiments show that feeding of the larvae of Bibionidae on lef litter cause short term increase of respiration but in long term the decomposition of bibio feces is slower than decomposition of litter from which feces were produced. To understand why excrements of decompose more slowly than leaf litter, we fed Bibio marci larvae the litter of tree species differing in litter quality (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and then measured respiration induced by litter and excrements. We also measured respiration induced by the same litter artificially modified to mimic faunal effects; the litter was modified by grinding, grinding with alkalinization to pH 11, grinding with coating by kaolinite, and grinding with both alkalinization and coating. Decomposition of excrements tended to be slower for willow and was significantly slower for oak and alder than for the corresponding litter. With oak, decomposition was slower for all artificially modified litter than for non-modified litter. The reduction in the decomposition was similar for excrements and for alder and willow litter that was ground, coated, and alkalinized. In alder, a similar reduction was found in ground and alkalinized litter. 13C NMR indicated that gut passage increases aliphatic components and decreases polysaccharides. Pyrolysis indicated that gut passage increases the ratio of guaiacyl to hydroxymethyl derivatives in lignin. Our findings indicate that the decreased decomposition rate of excrements might result from the removal of easily available polysaccharides, the increase in aliphatic components, an increase in the resistant components of lignin, the accumulation of microbial cell walls, and the binding of nitrogen into complexes with aromatic components. Several of these mechanisms are supported or determined by litter alkalinization during gut passage.

  11. Serum proteomics of glioma: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Nijaguna, Mamatha B; Kumar, Durairaj Mohan

    2009-10-01

    The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma, the most malignant adult glial brain tumor, remains poor in spite of advances in treatment procedures, including surgical resection, irradiation and chemotherapy. Genetic heterogeneity of glioblastoma warrants extensive studies in order to gain a thorough understanding of the biology of this tumor. While there have been several studies of global transcript profiling of glioma with the identification of gene signatures for diagnosis and disease management, translation into clinics is yet to happen. Serum biomarkers have the potential to revolutionize the process of cancer diagnosis, grading, prognostication and treatment response monitoring. Besides having the advantage that serum can be obtained through a less invasive procedure, it contains molecules at an extraordinary dynamic range of ten orders of magnitude in terms of their concentrations. While the conventional methods, such as 2DE, have been in use for many years, the ability to identify the proteins through mass spectrometry techniques such as MALDI-TOF led to an explosion of interest in proteomics. Relatively new high-throughput proteomics methods such as SELDI-TOF and protein microarrays are expected to hasten the process of serum biomarker discovery. This review will highlight the recent advances in the proteomics platform in discovering serum biomarkers and the current status of glioma serum markers. We aim to provide the principles and potential of the latest proteomic approaches and their applications in the biomarker discovery process. Besides providing a comprehensive list of available serum biomarkers of glioma, we will also propose how these markers will revolutionize the clinical management of glioma patients.

  12. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature.

    PubMed

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has become increasingly utilized for medical applications and is of great interest as an approach to killing or reducing the activity of numerous microorganisms. While some natural antibacterial materials, such as zinc and silver, possess greater antibacterial properties as particle size is reduced into the nanometer regime (due to the increased surface to volume ratio of a given mass of particles), the physical structure of a nanoparticle itself and the way in which it interacts with and penetrates into bacteria appears to also provide unique bactericidal mechanisms. A variety of techniques to evaluate bacteria viability, each with unique advantages and disadvantages, has been established and must be understood in order to determine the effectiveness of nanoparticles (diameter ≤ 100 nm) as antimicrobial agents. In addition to addressing those techniques, a review of select literature and a summary of bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms are covered in this manuscript.

  13. Presence and incidence of food-borne pathogens in Australian chicken litter.

    PubMed

    Chinivasagam, H N; Redding, M; Runge, G; Blackall, P J

    2010-06-01

    1. Litter samples were collected at the end of the production cycle from spread litter in a single shed from each of 28 farms distributed across the three Eastern seaboard States of Australia. 2. The geometric mean for Salmonella was 44 Most Probable Number (MPN)/g for the 20 positive samples. Five samples were between 100 and 1000 MPN/g and one at 10(5) MPN/g, indicating a range of factors are contributing to these varying loads of this organism in litter. 3. The geometric mean for Campylobacter was 30 MPN/g for the 10 positive samples, with 7 of these samples being <100 MPN/g. The low prevalence and incidence of Campylobacter were possibly due to the rapid die-off of this organism. 4. E. coli values were markedly higher than the two key pathogens (geometric mean 20 x 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/g) with overall values being more or less within the same range across all samples in the trial, suggesting a uniform contribution pattern of these organisms in litter. 5. Listeria monocytogenes was absent in all samples and this organism appears not to be an issue in litter. 6. The dominant (70% of the isolates) Salmonella serovar was S. Sofia (a common serovar isolated from chickens in Australia) and was isolated across all regions. Other major serovars were S. Virchow and S. Chester (at 10%) and S. Bovismorbificans and S. Infantis (at 8%) with these serovars demonstrating a spatial distribution across the major regions tested. 7. There is potential to re-use litter in the environment depending on end use and the support of relevant application practices and guidelines.

  14. Method and apparatus for collaborative use of application program

    DOEpatents

    Dean, Craig D.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus permitting the collaborative use of a computer application program simultaneously by multiple users at different stations. The method is useful with communication protocols having client/server control structures. The method of the invention requires only a sole executing copy of the application program and a sole executing copy of software comprising the invention. Users may collaboratively use a set of application programs by invoking for each desired application program one copy of software comprising the invention.

  15. Improved polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the species composition of Eimeria in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Miska, K; Klopp, S

    2006-12-01

    An improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for determining the species composition of Eimeria in poultry litter was developed by incorporating species-specific internal standards in the assay. Internal standard molecules were prepared by fusing seven different Eimeria species-specific intervening transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1) rDNA primer pairs to a non-Eimeria DNA molecule and by cloning the hybrid DNA molecules into a plasmid. The internal DNA standards were then used in Eimeria-specific ITS 1 PCR, and they were found to be capable of detecting E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. praecox, and E. tenella oocysts isolated directly from poultry litter.

  16. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS).

  17. On Applicability of Formal Methods and Tools to Dependable Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Fuyuki; Honiden, Shinichi

    As a variety of digital services are provided through networks, more and more efforts are made to ensure dependability of software behavior implementing services. Formal methods and tools have been considered as promising means to support dependability in complex software systems during the development. On the other hand, there have been serious doubts on practical applicability of formal methods. This paper overviews the present state of formal methods and discusses their applicability, especially focusing on two representative methods (SPIN and B Method) and their recent industrial applications. This paper also discusses applications of formal methods to dependable networked software.

  18. What aspect of dietary modification in broilers controls litter water-soluble phosphorus: dietary phosphorus, phytase, or calcium?

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Kwanyuen, P; Brake, J

    2007-01-01

    Environmental concerns about phosphorus (P) losses from animal agriculture have led to interest in dietary strategies to reduce the concentration and solubility of P in manures and litters. To address the effects of dietary available phosphorus (AvP), calcium (Ca), and phytase on P excretion in broilers, 18 dietary treatments were applied in a randomized complete block design to each of four replicate pens of 28 broilers from 18 to 42 d of age. Treatments consisted of three levels of AvP (3.5, 3.0, and 2.5 g kg(-1)) combined with three levels of Ca (8.0, 6.9, and 5.7 g kg(-1)) and two levels of phytase (0 and 600 phytase units [FTU]). Phytase was added at the expense of 1.0 g kg(-1) P from dicalcium phosphate. Fresh litter was collected from pens when the broilers were 41 d of age and analyzed for total P, soluble P, and phytate P as well as P composition by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that the inclusion of phytase at the expense of inorganic P or reductions in AvP decreased litter total P by 28 to 43%. Litter water-soluble P (WSP) decreased by up to 73% with an increasing dietary Ca/AvP ratio, irrespective of phytase addition. The ratio of WSP/total P in litter decreased as the dietary Ca/AvP ratio increased and was greater in the phytase-amended diets. This study indicated that while feeding reduced AvP diets with phytase decreased litter total P, the ratio of Ca/AvP in the diet was primarily responsible for effects on WSP. This is important from an environmental perspective as the amount of WSP in litter could be related to potential for off-site P losses following land application of litter.

  19. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (< 15 mg kg-1) was found in long-term PL-a mended agricultural surface soils. This suggests that As in the PL may have undergone surface and subsurface transport processes. Our research results raise concerns about long-term PL amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  20. Do leaf-litter attributes affect the richness of leaf-litter ants?

    PubMed

    Silva, Paulo S D; Bieber, A G D; Corrêa, M M; Leal, I R

    2011-10-01

    The search for factors shaping leaf-litter ant communities has received particular attention due to the essential role of these insects in many ecological processes. Here, we aimed to investigate how the number of leaves and leaf morphotypes affect the litter-ant species density at forest edge and interior in an Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. This study was developed based on 28 litter plots (1m² each), 14 in the forest interior and 14 in the forest edge. As we early expected, ant species density increased with increasing both the number of leaves and the number of leaf morphotypes, but this result was clearly influenced by plot location. Contrasting with the forest interior, ant species density did not increase as the number of leaves increased in the forest edge. Possibly, factors such as plant species richness, vegetation structure and environmental conditions affect ant species density as well as promote a patchy distribution of species in ant communities along the edge-to-interior gradient. Our findings suggest that edge-affected forests present more simplified ant communities, with different factors shaping its structure. We encourage future studies to include leaf litter heterogeneity as one of the explanatory variables investigated.

  1. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  2. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. K.; Gomes-Pereira, J. N.; Isidro, E. J.; Santos, R. S.; Morato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine litter is an emerging problem for the world's ocean health but little is known on its distribution and abundance on seamounts and how it affects deep-sea ecosystems. The scientific underwater laboratory set up on Condor seamount offered an ideal case study for the first documentation of litter distribution on a shallow seamount with historical fishing. A total of 48 video transects deployed on the summit (n=45) and the northern flank (n=3) covered an area of 0.031 and 0.025km2, respectively, revealing 55 litter items. Litter density on the summit was 1439 litter items km-2, whilst on the deeper northern flank, estimates indicate densities of 397 litter items km-2. Lost fishing line was the dominant litter item encountered on both areas (73% of total litter on the summit and 50% on northern flank), all being entirely or partly entangled in the locally abundant gorgonians Dentomuricea cf. meteor and Viminella flagellum. Other items included lost weights, anchors and glass bottles. The predominance of lost fishing gear identifies the source of litter on Condor seamount as exclusively ocean-based and related to fishing activities. Abundance of litter on the Condor seamount was much lower than that reported from other locations closer to populated areas.

  3. Trees as templates for tropical litter arthropod diversity.

    PubMed

    Donoso, David A; Johnston, Mary K; Kaspari, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Increased tree species diversity in the tropics is associated with even greater herbivore diversity, but few tests of tree effects on litter arthropod diversity exist. We studied whether tree species influence patchiness in diversity and abundance of three common soil arthropod taxa (ants, gamasid mites, and oribatid mites) in a Panama forest. The tree specialization hypothesis proposes that tree-driven habitat heterogeneity maintains litter arthropod diversity. We tested whether tree species differed in resource quality and quantity of their leaf litter and whether more heterogeneous litter supports more arthropod species. Alternatively, the abundance-extinction hypothesis states that arthropod diversity increases with arthropod abundance, which in turn tracks resource quantity (e.g., litter depth). We found little support for the hypothesis that tropical trees are templates for litter arthropod diversity. Ten tree species differed in litter depth, chemistry, and structural variability. However, the extent of specialization of invertebrates on particular tree taxa was low and the more heterogeneous litter between trees failed to support higher arthropod diversity. Furthermore, arthropod diversity did not track abundance or litter depth. The lack of association between tree species and litter arthropods suggests that factors other than tree species diversity may better explain the high arthropod diversity in tropical forests.

  4. [Forest litter decomposition and its responses to global climate change].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Qin; Deng, Ren-Ju; Zhang, Jian

    2007-12-01

    Litter decomposition is one of the important processes in forest ecosystem, which is controlled by both biotic and abiotic factors such as climate, litter quality, and soil organisms. Up to now, numerous studies have been made on the dynamics of aboveground litter in different forest ecosystems, nutrient release during its decomposition, and effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the decomposition, but less information has been reported on the decomposition of belowground forest litter. Recently, the responses of forest litter decomposition to global climate change characterized by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature have got worldwide concern, but there remains uncertainty in research results. In the further study, more attention should be paid on the contribution of forest litter decomposition to soil organic carbon sequestration, the physical, chemical and biological processes of below- and above-ground litter decomposition, the responses of forest litter decomposition to the ecological factors (e.g. seasonal freeze-thaw cycle and drying-rewetting cycle) and their interactions, and the mechanisms of litter (especially belowground litter) decomposition responses to global climate change.

  5. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance with... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of Application. 18.6 Section...

  6. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  7. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  8. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  9. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  10. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  11. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  12. 42 CFR 61.35 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of application. 61.35 Section 61.35 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.35 Method of application. Application for a service fellowship shall...

  13. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  14. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  15. 42 CFR 61.6 - Method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of application. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.6 Method of application. Application for a regular fellowship shall...

  16. Statistical analysis of litter experiments in teratology

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    Teratological data is binary response data (each fetus is either affected or not) in which the responses within a litter are usually not independent. As a result, the litter should be taken as the experimental unit. For each litter, its size, n, and the number of fetuses, x, possessing the effect of interest are recorded. The ratio p = x/n is then the basic data generated by the experiment. There are currently three general approaches to the analysis of teratological data: nonparametric, transformation followed by t-test or ANOVA, and parametric. The first two are currently in wide use by practitioners while the third is relatively new to the field. These first two also appear to possess comparable power levels while maintaining the nominal level of significance. When transformations are employed, care must be exercised to check that the transformed data has the required properties. Since the data is often highly asymmetric, there may be no transformation which renders the data nearly normal. The parametric procedures, including the beta-binomial model, offer the possibility of increased power.

  17. Quantifying Littered Cigarette Butts to Measure Effectiveness of Smoking Bans to Building Perimeters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Strack, Robert W.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Rosario, Carrie; Haugh, Christie; Rice, Rebecca; Wyrick, David L.; Wagner, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors estimated the number of violations of a university policy that prohibited smoking within 25 ft of all campus buildings. Participants: The project was conducted by 13 student researchers from the university and a member of the local public health department. Methods: Students quantified cigarette butts that were littered in a…

  18. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  19. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  20. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  1. 40 CFR 18.6 - Method of Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.6 Method of Application. Application for an Environmental Protection Research fellowship shall be made in accordance...

  2. The effects of UV radiation, litter chemistry, and drought on desert litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Nieto, B.; Hewins, D. B.; Barnes, P. W.; McDowell, N. G.; Pockman, W.; Rahn, T.; Throop, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that photodegradation by solar UV radiation can be a major driver of litter decomposition in dryland ecosystems. The importance of photodegradation in litter decomposition appears to decline with precipitation, suggesting that the relative importance of photodegradation may increase given current projections of future increases in drought severity in the southwestern USA. Several previous studies indicate that UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) is the most effective waveband in breaking chemical bonds forming organic material, but whether UV-B exposure may facilitate subsequent decomposition by microbes (i.e., photo-priming) has received little attention. In this study, we tested the effects of pre-exposure UV radiation (photo-priming), litter chemistry (lignin and cellulose content and nitrogen content), and drought on the rate of litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem. To understand the effects of UV radiation on litter decomposition, we pre-exposed litter to three radiation treatments: control (no radiation), UV-A+visible, UV-A+UV-B+visible. Litter was exposed to the equivalent of three months' solar radiation of southern New Mexico prior to microbial decomposition. There were three litter types: basswood sheets (high lignin content), pure cellulose filter paper, and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) leaflets. Following radiation treatment, litter was placed in mesh litterbags that were buried within a large-scale precipitation manipulation experiment at the Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research site: control (ambient precipitation), elevated precipitation (x2 ambient precipitation), and drought (x0.5 ambient precipitation). We collected a subset of bags at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months and measured mass remaining and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content. After 6 months, mass remaining of filter paper and basswood sheets did not differ from the initial mass, but mesquite mass remaining declined over 30%. The pre-exposure UV effects had minimal

  3. Litter decomposition in two subalpine forests during the freeze-thaw season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhang, Jian; Deng, Renju

    2010-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient release of forest litter during the freeze-thaw season could play an essential role in C and nutrient cycling in cold regions, but few studies in some key ecosystems have been available. In order to characterize litter decomposition during the freeze-thaw season in a subalpine forest region of western China, a field experiment using the litterbag method was conducted on the decomposition of foliar litter of two dominant species, fir ( Abies faxoniana) and birch ( Betula platyphylla) under their respective forests. Over the freeze-thaw season following leaf-fall, about 18% and 20% of mass, 13% and 14% of lignin, 30% and 26% of cellulose, 14% and 21% of C, 30% and 27% of N, 17% and 15% of P, and 17% and 13% of K were lost from fir and birch litters, respectively. The lost mass and components accounted for more than 64% and 65% of mass, 72% and 69% of lignin, 75% and 60% of cellulose, 49% and 59% of C, 56% and 71% of N, 62% and 37% of P, and 38% and 37% of K in 1 year net loss rate of fir and birch litter, respectively. In addition, the loss of mass, lignin, cellulose and component bio-elements during the freeze-thaw season correlated closely with the initial substrate type and the levels of the individual bio-elements. The results demonstrated that litter decomposition during the freeze-thaw season contributes significantly to the first year decomposition in these subalpine forests.

  4. Leaf litter breakdown, microbial respiration and shredder production in metal-polluted streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, D.M.; Clements, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    1. If species disproportionately influence ecosystem functioning and also differ in their sensitivities to environmental conditions, the selective removal of species by anthropogenic stressors may lead to strong effects on ecosystem processes. We evaluated whether these circumstances held for several Colorado, U.S.A. streams stressed by Zn. 2. Benthic invertebrates and chemistry were sampled in five second-third order streams for 1 year. Study streams differed in dissolved metal concentrations, but were otherwise similar in chemical and physical characteristics. Secondary production of leaf-shredding insects was estimated using the increment summation and size-frequency methods. Leaf litter breakdown rates were estimated by retrieving litter-bags over a 171 day period. Microbial activity on leaf litter was measured in the laboratory using changes in oxygen concentration over a 48 h incubation period. 3. Dissolved Zn concentrations varied eightfold among two reference and three polluted streams. Total secondary production of shredders was negatively associated with metal contamination. Secondary production in reference streams was dominated by Taenionema pallidum. Results of previous studies and the current investigation demonstrate that this shredder is highly sensitive to metals in Colorado headwater streams. Leaf litter breakdown rates were similar between reference streams and declined significantly in the polluted streams. Microbial respiration at the most contaminated site was significantly lower than at reference sites. 4. Our results supported the hypothesis that some shredder species contribute disproportionately to leaf litter breakdown. Furthermore, the functionally dominant taxon was also the most sensitive to metal contamination. We conclude that leaf litter breakdown in our study streams lacked functional redundancy and was therefore highly sensitive to contaminant-induced alterations in community structure. We argue for the necessity of simultaneously

  5. [Soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus dynamics during foliar litter decomposition in winter in alinine forest streams].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Wan-qin; Yue, Kai; Huang, Chun-ping; Peng, Yan; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the dynamic pattern of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus in the headwater streams during the process of litter decomposition in winter, a field experiment using litterbag method was conducted in an alpine forest in Western Sichuan, China. The foliar litter of two dominant canopy trees (Sabina saltuaria, and Larix mastersiana) and two shrubs (Salix paraplesia and Rhododendron lapponicum) were selected. The litterbags were placed in a headwater stream, river, riparian zone and closed canopy, and sampled in different freezing-thawing periods of winter (pre-freezing period, freezing period and thawing period). The results indicated that the soluble nitrogen content of foliar litter showed little changes over a whole winter decomposition regardless of species. In contrast, the soluble phosphorus content displayed the order as river < stream < riparian zone < closed canopy, and showed a decrease tendency in stream, river and riparian, although little changes under closed canopy over a whole winter decomposition. Correlation analysis suggested that the dynamics of soluble phosphorus content significantly correlated to the average temperature, positive accumulated temperature, negative accumulated temperature and flow velocity during the decomposition in winter. The dynamics of soluble nitrogen content only exhibited significant correlations with positive accumulated temperature. Additionally, litter quality (species) also controlled the dynamics of soluble nitrogen and soluble phosphorus content as litter decomposition proceeded. The results implied that soluble phosphorus could be more liable to loss in streams and rivers during litter decomposition compared with soluble nitrogen, which could further provide some new ideas in understanding nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in this alpine forest.

  6. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts.

  7. Mixing effects of understory plant litter on decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter in two plantations in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Hu, Ya-Lin; Lin, Gui-Gang; Gao, Yong-chao; Fang, Yun-Ting; Zeng, De-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Understory vegetation plays a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems; however, it is not clear how understory species affect tree litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we examined the impacts of understory litter on the decomposition and nutrient release of tree litter both in a pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) and a poplar (Populus × xiaozhuanica) plantation in Northeast China. Leaf litter of tree species, and senesced aboveground materials from two dominant understory species, Artemisia scoparia and Setaria viridis in the pine stand and Elymus villifer and A. sieversiana in the poplar stand, were collected. Mass loss and N and P fluxes of single-species litter and three-species mixtures in each of the two forests were quantified. Data from single-species litterbags were used to generate predicted mass loss and N and P fluxes for the mixed-species litterbags. In the mixture from the pine stand, the observed mass loss and N release did not differ from the predicted value, whereas the observed P release was greater than the predicted value. However, the presence of understory litter decelerated the mass loss and did not affect N and P releases from the pine litter. In the poplar stand, litter mixture presented a positive non-additive effect on litter mass loss and P release, but an addition effect on N release. The presence of understory species accelerated only N release of poplar litter. Moreover, the responses of mass loss and N and P releases of understory litter in the mixtures varied with species in both pine and poplar plantations. Our results suggest that the effects of understory species on tree litter decomposition vary with tree species, and also highlight the importance of understory species in litter decomposition and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems.

  8. Climatic controls on leaf litter decomposition across European forests and grasslands revealed by reciprocal litter transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Pihlatie, Mari; Korhonen, Janne F. J.; Levula, Janne; Frumau, Arnoud K. F.; Ibrom, Andreas; Lembrechts, Jonas J.; Morillas, Lourdes; Horváth, László; Jones, Stephanie K.; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-03-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling under future climate change is associated with large uncertainties in litter decomposition and the turnover of soil C and N. In addition, future conditions (especially altered precipitation regimes and warming) are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter species and chemical composition, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across six European sites (four forests and two grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 °C in annual temperature 511-878 mm in precipitation) to gain insight into the climatic controls on litter decomposition as well as the effect of litter origin and species. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated with the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species or site of origin. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation, soil water content and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below zero degrees Celsius), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (Mr). Mr and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during the decomposition. Using mean annual air temperature, precipitation, soil water content and litter total specific leaf area as parameters we were able to predict the annual decomposition rate (k) accurately.

  9. Stages of litter transformation in bog birch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, T. T.; Avrova, A. F.; Efremov, S. P.; Melent'eva, N. V.

    2009-10-01

    In the litters (peaty, weakly decomposed, and strongly decomposed) of bog birch forests, the biochemical transformation of plant material includes several discrete stages. The best prediction of the decomposition stages is the set of indices characterizing the humus status of the soils: the C/N ratio, (ΣHA + ΣFA)/Cpolysaccharides, and the contents of humic and fulvic acids of fraction 1 in the groups of plant debris of different sizes. The discrimination of the litters according to the level of the biochemical transformation of the organic residues was observed when using the (ΣHA + ΣFA)/Cpolysaccharides ratio, which is 6.3 in the peaty litter and 11.2 and 18.4 in the weakly decomposed and strongly decomposed litters, respectively. The biochemical classification of litters in the bog birch forests is in agreement with the morphological classification of litters.

  10. Soil fauna slow down decomposition of leaf litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouz, J.

    2009-04-01

    In one year incubation laboratory experiment, decomposition of alder, oak and willow litter was compared with decomposition of excrements of St marks Fly larvae (Bibio marci), produced from the same liter. Decomposition (amount of CO2 produced) was significantly higher in leas litter than in excrements. Invertebrates affect litter by many ways liter is fragmented mechanically during feeding exposed to alkaline environment and enzymes in the gut and coated by clay mineral during gut passage. In order to explore potential mechanisms that may be responsible for reduction of decomposition process 3 litter treatments with mimic certain aspects of invertebrate influence was prepared: fragmented litter, litter treated by alkaline solution and mixed with clay (kaolinite). Among those treatments Alkalization has the most strong effect on decomposition slow down.

  11. Combined effects of nitrogen addition and litter manipulation on nutrient resorption of Leymus chinensis in a semi-arid grassland of northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Liu, J; Fan, J; Ma, Y; Ding, S; Zhong, Z; Wang, D

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth in semi-arid ecosystems is usually severely limited by soil nutrient availability. Alleviation of these resource stresses by fertiliser application and aboveground litter input may affect plant internal nutrient cycling in such regions. We conducted a 4-year field experiment to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N) addition (10 g N·m(-2) ·year(-1)) and plant litter manipulation on nutrient resorption of Leymus chinensis, the dominant native grass in a semi-arid grassland in northern China. Although N addition had no clear effects on N and phosphorus (P) resorption efficiencies in leaves and culms, N fertilisation generally decreased leaf N resorption proficiency by 54%, culm N resorption proficiency by 65%. Moreover, N fertilisation increased leaf P resorption proficiency by 13%, culm P resorption proficiency by 20%. Under ambient or enriched N conditions, litter addition reduced N and P resorption proficiencies in both leaves and culms. The response of P resorption proficiency to litter manipulation was more sensitive than N resorption proficiency: P resorption proficiency in leaves and culms decreased strongly with increasing litter amount under both ambient and enriched N conditions. In contrast, N resorption proficiency was not significantly affected by litter addition, except for leaf N resorption proficiency under ambient N conditions. Furthermore, although litter addition caused a general decrease of leaf and culm nutrient resorption efficiencies under both ambient and enriched N conditions, litter addition effects on nutrient resorption efficiency were much weaker than the effects of litter addition on nutrient resorption proficiency. Taken together, our results show that leaf and non-leaf organs of L. chinensis respond consistently to altered soil N availability. Our study confirms the strong effects of N addition on plant nutrient resorption processes and the potential role of aboveground litter, the most important natural fertiliser in

  12. Fecal bacterial losses in runoff from conventional and no-till pearl millet fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Georgia farmers are increasing preemergence applications of soil residual herbicides to control glyphosate resistant weeds. To be effective these herbicides must be activated by post-application irrigation. Broiler litter is often applied to fields before these herbicides. This wetting-in practice ...

  13. [Seasonal release characteristics of Ca, Mg and Mn of foliar litter of six tree species in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhi-liang; Gao, Shun; Yang, Wan-qin; Wu, Fu-zhong

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal release dynamics of Ca, Mg and Mn during decomposition of foliar litter of Pinus massoniana, Cryptomeria fortunei, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Cinnamomum camphora, Toona ciliate, and Quercus acutissima were investigated in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest employing the method of litterbag. After one-year decomposition, the release rates of Ca, Mg and Mn in foliar litter of the studied tree species ranged from -13.8% to 92.3%, from 4.0% to 64.8%, and from 41.6% to 81.1%, respectively. Ca dynamics in foliar litter of P. massoniana, C. camphora exhibited the pattern of accumulating early and releasing later, while that of the other four tree species showed direct release. Similarly, the dynamics of Mg released from foliar litter of C. camphora showed the pattern of accumulating early and then releasing, while that of the other five tree species exhibited continuous release. Meanwhile, the dynamics of Mn released from foliar litter of C. fortunei and T. ciliate exhibited early accumulation, and subsequent release, while that of the other four tree species showed continuous release. The releases of Ca, Mg and Mn in foliar litter were greatly influenced by seasonal rainfall, and varied with tree species. Furthermore, the rates and amounts of Ca, Mg and Mn released from foliar litter were higher in rainy season than in dry season. In conclusion, the initial nutrient concentrations and precipitation were two key factors influencing the release dynamics of Ca, Mg and Mn during decomposition of foliar litter in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest.

  14. Recent (<4 year old) Leaf Litter is Not a Major Source of Microbial Carbon in a Temperate Forest Mineral Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Christiane; Trumbore, Susan E.; Froberg, Mats J.; Cisneros dozal, Luz Maria; Zhang, Dachun; Xu, Xiamei; Santos, Guaciara; Hanson, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Microbial communities in soil A horizons derive their carbon from several potential sources: organic carbon (C) transported down from overlying litter and organic horizons, root-derived C, or soil organic matter. We took advantage of a multi-year experiment that manipulated the {sup 14}C isotope signature of surface leaf litter inputs in a temperate forest at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA, to quantify the contribution of recent leaf litter C to microbial respiration and biomarkers in the underlying mineral soil. We observed no measurable difference (< {approx}40{per_thousand} given our current analytical methods) in the radiocarbon signatures of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) isolated from the top 10 cm of mineral soil in plots that experienced 3 years of litterfall that differed in each year by {approx}750{per_thousand} between high-{sup 14}C and low-{sup 14}C treatments. Assuming any difference in {sup 14}C between the high- and low-{sup 14}C plots would reflect C derived from these manipulated litter additions, we estimate that <6% of the microbial C after 4 years was derived from the added 1-4-year-old surface litter. Large contributions of C from litter < 1 year (or >4 years) old (which fell after (or prior to) the manipulation and therefore did not differ between plots) are not supported because the {sup 14}C signatures of the PLFA compounds (averaging 200-220{per_thousand}) is much higher that of the 2004-5 leaf litter (115{per_thousand}) or pre-2000 litter. A mesocosm experiment further demonstrated that C leached from {sup 14}C-enriched surface litter or the O horizon was not a detectable C source in underlying mineral soil microbes during the first eight months after litter addition. Instead a decline in the {sup 14}C of PLFA over the mesocosm experiment likely reflected the loss of a pre-existing substrate not associated with added leaf litter. Measured PLFA {Delta}{sup 14}C signatures were higher than those measured in bulk

  15. Detection and quantification of additives (urea, biuret and poultry litter) in alfalfas by NIR spectroscopy with fibre-optic probe.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2008-09-15

    The additives (urea, biuret and poultry litter) present in alfalfa, which contribute non-proteic nitrogen, were analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe. We used 75 samples of known alfalfa without additives and 75 samples with each of the additives, urea (0.01-10%), biuret (0.01-10%) and poultry litter (1-25%). Using the discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) algorithm, the presence or absence of the additives urea, biuret and poultry litter is classified and predicted with a high prediction rate of 96.9%, 100% and 100%, obtaining the equations of discrimination for each additive. The regression method employed for the quantification was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The equations were developed using the fibre-optic probe to determine the content of urea, biuret and poultry litter with multiple correlation coefficients (RSQ) and prediction corrected standard errors (SEP (C)) of 0.990, 0.28% for urea, 0.991, 0.29% for biuret and 0.925, 2.08% for poultry litter. The work permits the instantaneous and simultaneous prediction and determination of urea, biuret and poultry litter in alfalfas, applying the fibre-optic directly on the ground samples of alfalfa.

  16. Does the precipitation redistribution of the canopy sense in the moisture pattern of the forest litter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita; Kalicz, Péter; Csáfordi, Péter; Kucsara, Mihály; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation is trapped and temporarily stored by the surfaces of forest crown (canopy interception) and forest litter (litter interception). The stemflow and throughfall reach the litter, thus theoretically the litter moisture content depends on these parts of precipitation. Nowadays the moisture pattern of the forest floor, both spatial and temporal scale, have growing respect for the forestry. The transition to the continuous cover forestry induce much higher variability compared to the even aged, more-less homogeneous, monocultural stands. The gap cutting is one of the key methods in the Hungarian forestry. There is an active discussion among the forest professionals how to determine the optimal gap size to maintain the optimal conditions for the seedlings. Among the open questions is how to modify surrounding trees the moisture pattern of the forest floor in the gap? In the early steps of a multidisciplinary project we processed some available data, to estimate the spatial dependency between the water content of forest litter and the spatial pattern of the canopy represented by the tree trunk. The maximum water content depends on dry weight of litter, thus we also analysed that parameter. Data were measured in three different forest ecosystems: a middle age beech (Fagus sylvatica), a sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and a spruce (Picea abies) stand. The study site (Hidegvíz Valley Research Cathcment) is located in Sopron Hills at the eastern border of the Alps. Litter samples were collected under each stand (occasionally 10-10 pieces from 40?40 cm area) and locations of the samples and neighbouring trees were mapped. We determined dry weight and the water content of litter in laboratory. The relationship between water content and the distance of tree trunks in case of spruce and oak stands were not significant and in case of the beech stand was weakly significant. Climate change effects can influence significantly forest floor moisture content, therefore this

  17. Wide-field TCSPC: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Suhling, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is a widely used, robust and mature technique to measure the photon arrival time in applications such as fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, LIDAR and optical tomography. In the past few years there have been significant developments with wide-field TCSPC detectors, which can record the position as well as the arrival time of the photon simultaneously. In this review, we summarise different approaches used in wide-field TCSPC detection, and discuss their merits for different applications, with emphasis on fluorescence lifetime imaging.

  18. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    PubMed

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  19. Problems of applicability of statistical methods in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, S. F.

    2015-12-15

    The problems arising from the incorrect formulation of measuring problems of identification for cosmological models and violations of conditions of applicability of statistical methods are considered.

  20. Functionally dissimilar neighbors accelerate litter decomposition in two grass species.

    PubMed

    Barbe, Lou; Jung, Vincent; Prinzing, Andreas; Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Butenschoen, Olaf; Mony, Cendrine

    2017-02-16

    Plant litter decomposition is a key regulator of nutrient recycling. In a given environment, decomposition of litter from a focal species depends on its litter quality and on the efficiency of local decomposers. Both may be strongly modified by functional traits of neighboring species, but the consequences for decomposition of litter from the focal species remain unknown. We tested whether decomposition of a focal plant's litter is influenced by the functional-trait dissimilarity to the neighboring plants. We cultivated two grass species (Brachypodium pinnatum and Elytrigia repens) in experimental mesocosms with functionally similar and dissimilar neighborhoods, and reciprocally transplanted litter. For both species, litter quality increased in functionally dissimilar neighborhoods, partly as a result of changes in functional traits involved in plant-plant interactions. Furthermore, functional dissimilarity increased overall decomposer efficiency in one species, probably via complementarity effects. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in grasslands: interspecific functional diversity within plant communities can enhance intraspecific contributions to litter decomposition. Thus, plant species might better perform in diverse communities by benefiting from higher remineralization rates of their own litter.

  1. Free and conjugated estrogen exports in surface-runoff from poultry litter-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sudarshan; Inamdar, Shreeram; Tso, Jerry; Aga, Diana S; Sims, J Tom

    2010-01-01

    Land application of animal manures such as poultry litter is a common practice, especially in states with surplus manure. Past studies have shown that animal manure may contain estrogens, which are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and may pose a threat to aquatic and wildlife species. We evaluated the concentrations of estrogens in surface runoff from experimental plots (5 x 12 m each) receiving raw and pelletized poultry litter. We evaluated the free (estrone, E1; 17beta-estradiol, E2beta; estriol, E3) and conjugate forms (glucuronides and sulfates) of estrogens, which differ in their toxicity. Sampling was performed for 10 natural storm events over a 4-mo period (April-July 2008). Estrogen concentrations were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by quantification using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Concentrations of estrogens from ELISA were much higher than the LC/MS/MS values, indicating crossreactivity with organic compounds. Exports of estrogens were much lower from soils amended with pelletized poultry litter than the raw form of the litter. No-tillage management practice also resulted in a lower export of estrogens with surface runoff compared with reduced tillage. The concentrations and exports of conjugate forms of estrogens were much higher than the free forms for some treatments, indicating that the conjugate forms should be considered for a comprehensive assessment of the threat posed by estrogens.

  2. Ground water modeling applications using the analytic element method.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J

    2006-01-01

    Though powerful and easy to use, applications of the analytic element method are not as widespread as finite-difference or finite-element models due in part to their relative youth. Although reviews that focus primarily on the mathematical development of the method have appeared in the literature, a systematic review of applications of the method is not available. An overview of the general types of applications of analytic elements in ground water modeling is provided in this paper. While not fully encompassing, the applications described here cover areas where the method has been historically applied (regional, two-dimensional steady-state models, analyses of ground water-surface water interaction, quick analyses and screening models, wellhead protection studies) as well as more recent applications (grid sensitivity analyses, estimating effective conductivity and dispersion in highly heterogeneous systems). The review of applications also illustrates areas where more method development is needed (three-dimensional and transient simulations).

  3. Effect of neonatal stunting on development of rats: large litter rearing.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, S F; Turkewitz, G

    1979-03-01

    As nurslings, rat pups reared in large litters showed reduced frequencies of returns to their nest from other parts of the home cage and reached maximum levels of nest returns at older ages than control animals from small litters. These differences were not due to differences in activity level or attraction to the nest but appeared to be perceptual in nature. As adults, animals from large litters showed deficits in learning the 1st 2 problems in a series of visual discriminations in a modified version of the Lashley jumping stand technique in which food reinforcement was not used. The deficits were confined to male animals only and were the result of stronger position habits in the early part of training, rather than an inability to make the discriminations. A comparison of these results with those obtained when other methods of stunting animals are employed revealed that different methods of stunting may result in both common and divergent effects on behavior. One long-term consequence of large litter rearing appears to be increased emotional response to noval situations.

  4. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  5. 7 CFR 1430.503 - Time and method for application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430.503 Time and method for application. (a) Dairy operations may obtain an application, Form CCC-1040 (Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program Payment Application), in person, by mail,...

  6. Global patterns in litter decomposition: a synthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auch, W. E.; Ross, D. S.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf and coarse woody debris (LCWD) decay catalyzes the biochemical mechanisms of the soil-aboveground interface, and should be an important component of climate change models that address carbon and nitrogen. There is a clear need for the identification of determinant climate or litter chemistry parameters at the global scale. Local and global decay is commonly attributed to litter chemistry and climate, respectively. The objective of this synthesis was to illustrate LCWD decay across a global climate-chemistry continuum and contrast results with a previous assessment via both standard first-order (|k|) decay kinetics and gradient exponent values arranged in order of influence from initial to latter decay stages. Results suggest greater initial LCWD cation concentrations yielded the fastest initial rates of decomposition and most climatic indices appeared relevant at intermediate stages of decay. Elevation and refractory LCWD carbon (i.e. carbon, lignin, and tannins) were inversely correlated with decay, prolonging the process and possibly acting in concert as "end-point" determinants. Furthermore, the initial influence of nitrogen and phosphorus is universal across LCWD-type as well as ecoregion. Climate acts in a transitional role between easily solubilized and late or aromatic substrate decay. Global and continental carbon cycling assumptions and models must acknowledge: i) the influence of LCWD cation and N concentration during initial fragmentation, leaching, and transformation; ii) climate, specifically seasonal temperature averages > evapotranspiration > precipitation, during the interim; and iii) the ever-present influence of seasonality and litter aromatic components. Key Words: Leaf and Coarse Woody Debris (LCWD) decomposition, |k|, first-order kinetics, Carbon Cycle, Global Climate Change (GCC), Actual Evapotranspiration (AET).

  7. Efficacy of Activated Carbon from Broiler Litter in the Removal of Litter Generated Ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability which requires innovative treatment options. This research focused on the use of broiler litter ...

  8. Efffacy of activated carbon from broiler litter in the removal of litter generated ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 10 years, the production of broilers has increased by 29 percent to approximately 9 billion in 2005. Ammonia (NH3) pollution from broiler excreta is a primary concern for industry viability. The consequent rise in the manure/litter production rates requires innovative treatment optio...

  9. Effect of Litter Amendments on Poultry Litter Microbial Communities and the Subsequent Effect on Nitrogen Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. Numerous amendments are available for reducing ammonia volatilization, with acidifier-types being the most prevalent due ...

  10. Assessing changes in the composition of broiler litters from commercial poultry units in Northern Ireland following the adoption of phytase in diets.

    PubMed

    Foy, R H; Ball, M E E; George, J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial phytases increase the bioavailability of phytate P in poultry diets, and a survey was undertaken to determine if their use had lowered the P composition of broiler litter in Northern Ireland compared with standard values of litter composition listed in the current United Kingdom fertilizer recommendations. Litter samples were collected from a total of 20 units across Northern Ireland in 2010 and analyzed for DM, N, phosphate (P2O5), potash (K2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), water-soluble P (WSP), ammonium N (NH4N), and uric acid N. Dry matter of litter was positively correlated (P < 0.001) with N (r(2) = 0.65), P2O5 (r(2) = 0.63), K2O (r(2) = 0.56), and MgO (r(2) = 0.58). Negative correlations were observed between litter DM and WSP (r(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001) and NH4N (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.038) contents. A standardized litter composition with a 60% DM gave a phosphate content of 13.7 kg/t that was 45% lower than the fertilizer book value (RB209), but there were only slight differences (<3%) between book values and DM standardized values for N and potash contents. Uric acid and NH4 contents were similar to published values. Mean N:P ratio (by weight) of litter increased from 3.7 in 2004 to 5.0 in 2010, lowering the risk of oversupply of P if land applications are targeted to meet N supply. Using the standard RB209 values to plan land applications of broiler litter to meet crop P demands risks undersupplying P, and there is a need for the regulatory values to be modified in light of the changing composition of broiler litter.

  11. [Responses of soil microbial carbon metabolism to the leaf litter composition in Liaohe River Nature Reserve of northern Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-yu; Kang, Feng-feng; Han, Hai-rong; Gao, Jing; Song, Xiao-shuai; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Jin-long; Yu, Xiao-wen

    2015-03-01

    Using litter bag method, we studied the effects of single and mixed litters from Betula platyphlla, Populus davidiana and Quercus mongolica on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers. The results showed that the average contents of MBC in 0-20 cm soil layer were 124.84, 325.29, 349.79 and 319.02 mg . kg-1 in the leaf litter removal treatment, Betula platyphlla treatment, Populus davidiana treatment and Quercus mongolica treatment, and the corresponding average rates of MR were 0.66, 1.12, 1.16 and 1.10 µg . g-1 . h-1, respectively. Meanwhile, in 0-20 cm soil layer, the average contents of MBC in the treatments with single leaf litter, mixed litter of two plant species and mixed litter of three plant species were 331. 37, 418. 52 and 529. 34 mg . kg-1, and the corresponding average rates of MR were 1.13, 1.30 and 1.46 µg . g-1 . h-1, respectively. In contrast to the MBC and MR, qCO2 in soil showed a reverse pattern. Our study suggested that characteristics of microbial carbolic metabolism were influenced by litter quality. Namely, the treatment with high litter quality had higher MBC, MR and utilization efficiency of soil carbon, compared with the treatment with low litter quality. Moreover, mixture of different species of leaf litter improved soil microbial activities, increased utilization efficiency on soil carbon and promoted diversity of microbial metabolic pathways, which could then contribute to maintaining and enhancing soil quality of forestland.

  12. Fenbendazole treatment and litter size in rats.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Nancy A; Bieszczak, Jeremiah R; Verhulst, Steven; Disney, Kimberly E; Montgomery, Kyle E; Toth, Linda A

    2006-11-01

    Fenbendazole is commonly used in laboratory animal medicine as an anthelmintic for elimination of pinworms. It is generally regarded as a safe drug with minimal side effects. In our facility, 2 breeding colonies of rats were treated with fenbendazole to eliminate pinworms. Analysis of the breeding records revealed that feeding Sprague-Dawley rats a diet containing fenbendazole on a continuous basis for 7 consecutive weeks was associated with a significant reduction in litter size. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown, the finding prompts caution when using fenbendazole to treat valuable breeding colonies or strains that are poor breeders.

  13. A General Symbolic Method with Physical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory M.

    2000-06-01

    A solution to the problem of unifying the General Relativistic and Quantum Theoretical formalisms is given which introduces a new non-axiomatic symbolic method and an algebraic generalization of the Calculus to non-finite symbolisms without reference to the concept of a limit. An essential feature of the non-axiomatic method is the inadequacy of any (finite) statements: Identifying this aspect of the theory with the "existence of an external physical reality" both allows for the consistency of the method with the results of experiments and avoids the so-called "measurement problem" of quantum theory.

  14. ESTIMATING THE BREAKDOWN AND ACCUMULATION OF EMERGENT MACROPHYTE LITTER: A MASS-BALANCE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Litter accumulation within emergent macrophyte marshes may significantly influence abiotic conditions and biota but litter is rarely considered in emergent macrophyte studies. Litter is defined here as the standing and fallen dead plant material that can be collected using harv...

  15. WETLAND INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO VARYING EMERGENT LITTER IN A PRAIRIE POTHOLE EMERGENT MARSH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant litter produced in the interior of dense emergent stands may directly or indirectly influence invertebrate communities. Low litter may provide structure and refuge to invertebrates while high litter may shade out vegetation and algae and decrease oxygen concentrations. With...

  16. Krylov subspace methods - Theory, algorithms, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sad, Youcef

    1990-01-01

    Projection methods based on Krylov subspaces for solving various types of scientific problems are reviewed. The main idea of this class of methods when applied to a linear system Ax = b, is to generate in some manner an approximate solution to the original problem from the so-called Krylov subspace span. Thus, the original problem of size N is approximated by one of dimension m, typically much smaller than N. Krylov subspace methods have been very successful in solving linear systems and eigenvalue problems and are now becoming popular for solving nonlinear equations. The main ideas in Krylov subspace methods are shown and their use in solving linear systems, eigenvalue problems, parabolic partial differential equations, Liapunov matrix equations, and nonlinear system of equations are discussed.

  17. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V. |; Morrison, H.F. |

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles.

  19. Multigrid methods with applications to reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Shengyou

    1994-05-01

    Multigrid methods are studied for solving elliptic partial differential equations. Focus is on parallel multigrid methods and their use for reservoir simulation. Multicolor Fourier analysis is used to analyze the behavior of standard multigrid methods for problems in one and two dimensions. Relation between multicolor and standard Fourier analysis is established. Multiple coarse grid methods for solving model problems in 1 and 2 dimensions are considered; at each coarse grid level we use more than one coarse grid to improve convergence. For a given Dirichlet problem, a related extended problem is first constructed; a purification procedure can be used to obtain Moore-Penrose solutions of the singular systems encountered. For solving anisotropic equations, semicoarsening and line smoothing techniques are used with multiple coarse grid methods to improve convergence. Two-level convergence factors are estimated using multicolor. In the case where each operator has the same stencil on each grid point on one level, exact multilevel convergence factors can be obtained. For solving partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients, interpolation and restriction operators should include information about the equation coefficients. Matrix-dependent interpolation and restriction operators based on the Schur complement can be used in nonsymmetric cases. A semicoarsening multigrid solver with these operators is used in UTCOMP, a 3-D, multiphase, multicomponent, compositional reservoir simulator. The numerical experiments are carried out on different computing systems. Results indicate that the multigrid methods are promising.

  20. Interacting microbe and litter quality controls on litter decomposition: a modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Daryl; Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Recous, Sylvie; Bertrand, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of plant litter in soil is a dynamic process during which substrate chemistry and microbial controls interact. We more clearly quantify these controls with a revised version of the Guild-based Decomposition Model (GDM) in which we used a reverse Michaelis-Menten approach to simulate short-term (112 days) decomposition of roots from four genotypes of Zea mays that differed primarily in lignin chemistry. A co-metabolic relationship between the degradation of lignin and holocellulose (cellulose+hemicellulose) fractions of litter showed that the reduction in decay rate with increasing lignin concentration (LCI) was related to the level of arabinan substitutions in arabinoxylan chains (i.e., arabinan to xylan or A∶X ratio) and the extent to which hemicellulose chains are cross-linked with lignin in plant cell walls. This pattern was consistent between genotypes and during progressive decomposition within each genotype. Moreover, decay rates were controlled by these cross-linkages from the start of decomposition. We also discovered it necessary to divide the Van Soest soluble (labile) fraction of litter C into two pools: one that rapidly decomposed and a second that was more persistent. Simulated microbial production was consistent with recent studies suggesting that more rapidly decomposing materials can generate greater amounts of potentially recalcitrant microbial products despite the rapid loss of litter mass. Sensitivity analyses failed to identify any model parameter that consistently explained a large proportion of model variation, suggesting that feedback controls between litter quality and microbial activity in the reverse Michaelis-Menten approach resulted in stable model behavior. Model extrapolations to an independent set of data, derived from the decomposition of 12 different genotypes of maize roots, averaged within <3% of observed respiration rates and total CO2 efflux over 112 days.

  1. Precision cleaning methods for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Lindewall, H.

    1988-01-01

    A small CO2 snow cleaning apparatus to clean both molecular films and particles from small and large components and surfaces was constructed. Various types of surfaces were cleaned using the CO2 technique. Vacuum deposited and sputtered metallic coatings such as germanium, aluminum, and silver and silicon wafers, and polished copper conical mirrors were purposely contaminated with everyday aerospace contaminants, including particle fallout and fingerprints. Precleaning characterization by Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), ellipsometry, nonvolatile residue, and microscopic particle evaluation served as evaluation of cleaning efficiency. Good results were obtained in trial application.

  2. Applications of a transonic wing design method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.

  3. Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k = 0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k = 0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration

  4. Optical Element, Device, Method, and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-14

    optical element is a phase-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). 28. The method of claim 26, further comprising: c1) in step (c), setting...jl(l;, 11) to 0, wherein the optical element is an amplitude-only element; and h) repeating steps ( c -f). * * * * *

  5. Translational bioinformatics in psychoneuroimmunology: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Translational bioinformatics plays an indispensable role in transforming psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) into personalized medicine. It provides a powerful method to bridge the gaps between various knowledge domains in PNI and systems biology. Translational bioinformatics methods at various systems levels can facilitate pattern recognition, and expedite and validate the discovery of systemic biomarkers to allow their incorporation into clinical trials and outcome assessments. Analysis of the correlations between genotypes and phenotypes including the behavioral-based profiles will contribute to the transition from the disease-based medicine to human-centered medicine. Translational bioinformatics would also enable the establishment of predictive models for patient responses to diseases, vaccines, and drugs. In PNI research, the development of systems biology models such as those of the neurons would play a critical role. Methods based on data integration, data mining, and knowledge representation are essential elements in building health information systems such as electronic health records and computerized decision support systems. Data integration of genes, pathophysiology, and behaviors are needed for a broad range of PNI studies. Knowledge discovery approaches such as network-based systems biology methods are valuable in studying the cross-talks among pathways in various brain regions involved in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Gas sensing method applicable to real conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, A.; Maciejewska, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we tested the influence of various sampling techniques and modes of operation on the response of sensor systems under real conditions. The first system was based on diffusive sampling. The second one used a dynamic method of sampling. In the third system, a stop flow mode of operation was applied. A considerable error of target gas concentration assessment was obtained in the first two cases. The error resulted from sensor signal fluctuations encountered during their exposure either to the air at the measurement point (diffusive sampling) or to the air drawn from the measurement point (dynamic sampling). The fluctuations could be attributed to the temporal variation of physical and chemical parameters of air. The main merit of the third method consists in utilizing sensor exposure under the conditions of stopped flow for the purpose of pollutant concentration assessment. While using this method, the accuracy of target gas quantification under real conditions was comparable to the one achieved when measuring standard gases. We think that the proposed method is a valuable contribution, which addresses the increasing demand for sensor systems that perform quantitative pollution assessment in workplace air, under real conditions. This paper was presented at the Conference on Optoelectronic and Electronic Sensors held in Karpacz, Poland, on 24-27 June 2012.

  7. Symmetries in nuclei: New methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, Mark A.

    2011-04-01

    When a symmetry is a ``good'' symmetry of the nuclear system, as in the dynamical symmetries of the shell model and interacting boson model, this symmetry can directly give the spectroscopic properties of the nucleus, without the need for involved calculations. However, even if a symmetry is strongly broken, it nonetheless provides a calculational tool, classifying the basis states used in a full computational treatment of the many-body problem and greatly simplifying the underlying computational machinery. The symmetry then serves as the foundation for a physically meaningful truncation scheme for the calculation. This talk will provide an introduction to new applications of symmetry approaches to the nuclear problem, including the required mathematical developments. Supported by the US DOE under grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934 and by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  8. The influence of litter quality and micro-habitat on litter decomposition and soil properties in a silvopasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, G.; Deora, R.; Singh, G.

    2013-07-01

    Studies to understand litter processes and soil properties are useful for maintaining pastureland productivity as animal husbandry is the dominant occupation in the hot arid region. We aimed to quantify how micro-habitats and combinations of litters of the introduced leguminous tree Colophospermum mopane with the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris or Lasiurus sindicus influence decomposition rate and soil nutrient changes in a hot desert silvopasture system. Litter bags with tree litter alone (T), tree + C. ciliaris in 1:1 ratio (TCC) and tree + L. sindicus 1:1 ratio (TLS) litter were placed inside and outside of the C. mopane canopy and at the surface, 3-7 cm and 8-12 cm soil depths. We examined litter loss, soil fauna abundance, organic carbon (SOC), total (TN), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) nitrogen, phosphorus (PO4-P), soil respiration (SR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil adjacent to each litter bag. After 12 months exposure, the mean residual litter was 40.2% of the initial value and annual decomposition rate constant (k) was 0.98 (0.49-1.80). Highest (p < 0.01) litter loss was in the first four months, when faunal abundance, SR, DHA and humidity were highest but it decreased with time. These variables and k were highest under the tree canopies. The litter loss and k were highest (p < 0.01) in TLS under the tree canopy, but the reverse trend was found for litter outside the canopy. Faunal abundance, litter loss, k, nutrient release and biochemical activities were highest (p < 0.01) in the 3-7 cm soil layer. Positive correlations of litter loss and soil fauna abundance with soil nutrients, SR and DHA demonstrated the interactions of litter quality and micro-habitats together with soil fauna on increased soil fertility. These results suggest that a Colophospermum mopane and L. sindicus silvopasture system best promotes faunal abundance, litter decomposition and soil fertility. The properties of these species and the associated faunal resources may be

  9. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter

  10. Alum affects ammonia-producing microorganisms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS in Bowling Green, KY and in Fayetteville, AR are working to uncover the microbiology of ammonia production in poultry litter. Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants and microorganisms that contains high levels of protein, nitrogen, and other minerals. Howe...

  11. Anti-Litter Curriculum Packet, Interdisciplinary, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillis, Richard

    This curriculum packet consists of 20 illustrated cards with 15 activities designed to create "positive feelings" about a clean environment. Activities range from picture coloring for younger students, to lessons such as the economic and health problems litter creates for older students. Objectives include encouraging anti-litter and…

  12. Leaf Litter Inhibits Growth of an Amphibian Fungal Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Stoler, Aaron B; Berven, Keith A; Raffel, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    Past studies have found a heterogeneous distribution of the amphibian chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Recent studies have accounted for some of this heterogeneity through a positive association between canopy cover and Bd abundance, which is attributed to the cooling effect of canopy cover. We questioned whether leaf litter inputs that are also associated with canopy cover might also alter Bd growth. Leaf litter inputs exhibit tremendous interspecific chemical variation, and we hypothesized that Bd growth varies with leachate chemistry. We also hypothesized that Bd uses leaf litter as a growth substrate. To test these hypotheses, we conducted laboratory trials in which we exposed cultures of Bd to leachate of 12 temperate leaf litter species at varying dilutions. Using a subset of those 12 litter species, we also exposed Bd to pre-leached litter substrate. We found that exposure to litter leachate and substrate reduced Bd spore and sporangia densities, although there was substantial variation among treatments. In particular, Bd densities were inversely correlated with concentrations of phenolic acids. We conducted a field survey of phenolic concentrations in natural wetlands which verified that the leachate concentrations in our lab study are ecologically relevant. Our study reinforces prior indications that positive associations between canopy cover and Bd abundance are likely mediated by water temperature effects, but this phenomenon might be counteracted by changes in aquatic chemistry from leaf litter inputs.

  13. Soil and litter exchange of reactive trace gases

    EPA Science Inventory

    The soil and litter play an important role in the exchange of trace gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. - The exchange of ammonia between vegetation and the atmosphere is highly influenced by soil and litter emissions especially in managed ecosystems (grassla...

  14. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  15. Application of the Conditioned Reverse Path Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, L.

    2003-01-01

    The conditioned reverse path (CRP) method has been applied to identify the non-linear behaviour of a beam-like structure, both ends clamped, one with a non-linear stiffness characteristic. The same method was already successfully applied to the identification of another COST benchmark, known as the VTT non-linear suspension. This benchmark shows the enhancements of the technique, now applied to a real multi-degree-of-freedom (mdof) system, with single-point excitation subject to bending modes; the non-linearity is acting on one end of the beam in terms of displacements. The CRP technique is based on the construction of a hierarchy of uncorrelated response components in the frequency domain, allowing the estimation of the coefficients of the non-linearities away from the location of the applied excitation and also the identification of the linear dynamic compliance matrix when the number of excitations is smaller than the number of response locations.

  16. Domain adaptive boosting method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jie; Miao, Zhenjiang

    2015-03-01

    Differences of data distributions widely exist among datasets, i.e., domains. For many pattern recognition, nature language processing, and content-based analysis systems, a decrease in performance caused by the domain differences between the training and testing datasets is still a notable problem. We propose a domain adaptation method called domain adaptive boosting (DAB). It is based on the AdaBoost approach with extensions to cover the domain differences between the source and target domains. Two main stages are contained in this approach: source-domain clustering and source-domain sample selection. By iteratively adding the selected training samples from the source domain, the discrimination model is able to achieve better domain adaptation performance based on a small validation set. The DAB algorithm is suitable for the domains with large scale samples and easy to extend for multisource adaptation. We implement this method on three computer vision systems: the skin detection model in single images, the video concept detection model, and the object classification model. In the experiments, we compare the performances of several commonly used methods and the proposed DAB. Under most situations, the DAB is superior.

  17. Marine litter in bottom trawls off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-10-15

    Benthic marine litter along the Portuguese coast, was recorded in 14 trips on stern trawlers covering a distance of 2117 km and an area of 56.2 km(2), average depth range 90-349 m. 2034 items of marine litter were registered, 76% were plastics and 38.6% were originated from fishing related activities. Plastic was present in all the trawls and had the highest average density of all litter categories, 50 items km(-2). The highest density of marine litter (178.9 ± 64.0 items km(-2)) was found in the proximity of the Tagus river mouth, probably related to the high population density in the Lisbon metropolitan area. This study highlights the need to raise fishermen awareness for the adoption of good environmental practices that will contribute to the reduction of marine litter.

  18. Increased decomposer diversity accelerates and potentially stabilises litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kitz, Florian; Steinwandter, Michael; Traugott, Michael; Seeber, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the effect of decomposer diversity on litter decomposition in alpine areas. Especially under the premise that alpine ecosystems are very sensitive to global change and are currently undergoing extensive land-use changes, a better understanding is needed to predict how environmental change will affect litter decomposition. A mesocosm experiment was conducted to compare the effects of the most common and functionally diverse invertebrates (earthworms, millipedes and sciarid larvae) found in alpine soils on decomposition rates and to assess how decomposer diversity affects litter decomposition. Experimental and estimated (i.e. projected to field decomposer-biomass) litter mass loss was 13-33% higher in the three-species treatment. Notably, the variability in decomposition was greatly reduced when decomposer diversity was high, indicating a portfolio effect. Our results suggest that invertebrate decomposer diversity is essential for sustaining litter decomposition in alpine areas and for the stability of this service.

  19. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected piñon-juniper woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, E.; Marshall, J. D.; Rahn, T.; Litvak, M.; Butnor, J.

    2012-10-01

    Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C) substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting piñon-juniper ecosystems in Southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways; for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of root exudation. To determine piñon mortality effects on C and water limitation of microbial respiration, we applied field amendments (sucrose and water) to two piñon-juniper sites in central New Mexico, USA: one with a recent (< 1 yr), experimentally-induced mortality event and a nearby site with live canopy. We monitored the respiration response to water and sucrose applications to the litter surface and to the underlying mineral soil surface, testing the following hypotheses: (1) soil respiration in a piñon-juniper woodland is water- and labile C-limited in both the litter layer and mineral soil; (2) water and sucrose applications increase temperature sensitivity of respiration; (3) the mortality-affected site will show a reduction in C limitation in the litter; (4) the mortality-affected site will show an enhancement of C limitation in the mineral soil. Litter respiration at both sites responded to increased water availability, yet surprisingly, mineral soil respiration was not limited by water. Temperature sensitivity was enhanced by some of the sucrose and water treatments. Consistent with hypothesis 3, C limitation of litter respiration was lower at the recent mortality site compared to the intact canopy site. Results following applications to the mineral soil suggest the presence of abiotic effects of increasing water availability, precluding our ability to measure labile C limitation in soil. Widespread piñon mortality may decrease labile C limitation of litter respiration, at least during the first growing season following mortality.

  20. [Decomposition of different plant litters in Loess Plateau of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Zhou, Jian-Bin; Dong, Yan-Jie; Xia, Zhi-Min; Chen, Zhu-Juin

    2012-12-01

    Taking the litters of species Hippophae rhamnoides, Medicago sativa, Populus simonii, Robinia pseudoacaci, Salix psammophila, and Stipa bungeana in the Loess Plateau of Northeast China as test objects, and by using mesh bags, this paper studied the dynamic changes of the litters mass, carbon, and nitrogen during decomposition after buried in the field in semiarid region. The litters buried were from one, two, or three of the plant species, and mixed thoroughly with equal proportion of masses. During decomposition, the mass loss rate, total carbon and nitrogen release rates, and total soluble carbon and nitrogen contents of different litters were higher at the early than at the later decomposition stage. After 412 d decomposition, the average mass loss rate of the litters was in the order of mixed litters of three plant species > mixed litters of two plant species > one plant species litter. By the end of this experiment, the average release rates of the litter total carbon and nitrogen ranked as one plant species litter > mixed litters of two plant species > mixed litters of three plant species, the litter soluble organic carbon content was mixed litters of two plant species > mixed litters of three plant species > one plant species litter, while the litter soluble total nitrogen content was mixed litters of three plant species > mixed litters of two plant species > one plant species litter. Correlation analysis showed that the litter mass loss rate had definite correlation with the litter soluble organic matter, especially soluble organic carbon. From the viewpoint of mass loss rate, the mixture of the litters of P. simonii, H. rhamnoide, and M. sativa was the optimum. It was suggested that in the process of returning farmland into forestland and grassland in the gully and valley region of Loess Plateau, it would be required to rationally increase plant species diversity to improve soil fertility.

  1. COMPLEX VARIABLE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD: APPLICATIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.; Yen, C.C.; Guymon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM) is used to approximate several potential problems where analytical solutions are known. A modeling result produced from the CVBEM is a measure of relative error in matching the known boundary condition values of the problem. A CVBEM error-reduction algorithm is used to reduce the relative error of the approximation by adding nodal points in boundary regions where error is large. From the test problems, overall error is reduced significantly by utilizing the adaptive integration algorithm.

  2. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P < 0.001) with an average difference of 1.32 ± 0.24 units. Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P < 0.001), with an average of 4.8 ppm at 42 days of age (62.9% lower than the control), and

  3. A review of droplet resonators: Operation method and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Hanyang; Zhao, Liyuan; Wu, Bing; Liu, Shuangqiang; Liu, Yongjun; Yang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Droplet resonators hold promise as a special class of optical cavities for numerous applications in micro-optical. Owing to liquid surface tension, droplet resonators possess nearly perfect spherical geometry and exceptionally smooth surfaces that prompt more and more meritorious applications to be exploit. Herein, we survey two typical operation methods of the droplet resonators, passive and active droplet resonator. Besides, droplet applications as high-performance lasers and sensors have been discussed. Although these applications have brought us tremendous value, the research for droplet resonators are still in its infancy, added potential application and intrinsic investigation of the droplet resonators should be developed in the future work.

  4. Litter mixture dominated by leaf litter of the invasive species, Flaveria bidentis, accelerates decomposition and favors nitrogen release.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyan; Wei, Zishang; Huangfu, Chaohe; Chen, Xinwei; Yang, Dianlin

    2017-01-01

    In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage. During the initial stages of decomposition, all mixtures had a neutral effect on the mass loss; however, at later stages of decomposition, mixtures containing more invasive litter had synergistic effects on mass loss. Importantly, an increase in F. bidentis litter with a lower C:N ratio in mixtures led to greater net release of N over time. These results highlight the importance of trait dissimilarity in determining the decomposition rates of litter mixtures and suggest that F. bidentis could further synchronize N release from litter as an invasion proceeds, potentially creating a positive feedback linked through invasion as the invader outcompetes the natives for nutrients. Our findings also demonstrate the importance of species composition as well as the identity of dominant species when considering how changes in plant community structure influence plant invasion.

  5. Litter production and litter elemental composition in two rehabilitated Kandelia obovata mangrove forests in Jiulongjiang Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Chen, Y P; Chen, G C

    2013-02-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations in litter production and C, N, and P concentrations were compared between the 24 and 48 year old Kandelia obovata mangrove forests in the Jiulongjiang estuary, China. The 24 yr forest had significantly higher production of total, leaf and branch litter, but lower flower and fruit litter than the 48 yr forest. Total, leaf and branch litter production were significantly positively correlated to monthly temperature and rainfall. Spatial patterns of litter production among the inner, mid and outer zones in the same forest were similar to those of tree heights. C, N and P concentrations of leaf litter showed significant seasonality but varied little among these three forest zones. C/N and N/P ratios of leaf litter were significantly lower for the 24 yr forest than those for the 48 yr forest. During the entire sampling year, total litter of the 24 and 48 yr forests contained 590.31 and 437.31 g C m(-2) yr(-1), 8.46 and 5.47 g N m(-2) yr(-1), 1.92 and 1.16 g P m(-2) yr(-1), respectively.

  6. Endothelial cell micropatterning: Methods, effects, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deirdre E.J.; Hinds, Monica T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of flow on endothelial cells have been widely examined for the ability of fluid shear stress to alter cell morphology and function; however, the effects of endothelial cell morphology without flow have only recently been observed. An increase in lithographic techniques in cell culture spurred a corresponding increase in research aiming to confine cell morphology. These studies lead to a better understanding of how morphology and cytoskeletal configuration affect the structure and function of the cells. This review examines endothelial cell micropatterning research by exploring both the many alternative methods used to alter endothelial cell morphology and the resulting changes in cellular shape and phenotype. Micropatterning induced changes in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organization, mechanical properties, and cell functionality. Finally, the ways these cellular manipulation techniques have been applied to biomedical engineering research, including angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue engineering, is discussed. PMID:21761242

  7. Formulation and application of Russell's method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the numerical technique of Russell's momentum approach can be derived by using Hamilton's principle and Vance's numerical scheme. It results in a set of first order differnce equations for solving the angular velocities. The numerical examples show that the method is reliable. The algorithm is modified next to perform the analysis of N-body systems with closed loop topology. To increase the formulation flexibility, the equations of motion are represented by using Cartesian coordinates and Lagrange multipliers. The algorithm consists of two parts, Vance's scheme and an unconstrained minimization. The Vance's scheme is used to find the angular velocities, and the unconstrained minimization is applied to provide the correct angular displacements. The proposed scheme is further extended to find the design sensitivity of an N-body system with closed loop configuration, and to carry out the design optimization as well. The numerical example of a small-scaled mechanical system is presented to verify the proposed formulation.

  8. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  9. Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi method: Improvements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsuara, J. E.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Elliptic partial differential equations (ePDEs) appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics, physics and engineering. Typically, ePDEs must be solved numerically, which sets an ever growing demand for efficient and highly parallel algorithms to tackle their computational solution. The Scheduled Relaxation Jacobi (SRJ) is a promising class of methods, atypical for combining simplicity and efficiency, that has been recently introduced for solving linear Poisson-like ePDEs. The SRJ methodology relies on computing the appropriate parameters of a multilevel approach with the goal of minimizing the number of iterations needed to cut down the residuals below specified tolerances. The efficiency in the reduction of the residual increases with the number of levels employed in the algorithm. Applying the original methodology to compute the algorithm parameters with more than 5 levels notably hinders obtaining optimal SRJ schemes, as the mixed (non-linear) algebraic-differential system of equations from which they result becomes notably stiff. Here we present a new methodology for obtaining the parameters of SRJ schemes that overcomes the limitations of the original algorithm and provide parameters for SRJ schemes with up to 15 levels and resolutions of up to 215 points per dimension, allowing for acceleration factors larger than several hundreds with respect to the Jacobi method for typical resolutions and, in some high resolution cases, close to 1000. Most of the success in finding SRJ optimal schemes with more than 10 levels is based on an analytic reduction of the complexity of the previously mentioned system of equations. Furthermore, we extend the original algorithm to apply it to certain systems of non-linear ePDEs.

  10. Litter Breakdown and Microbial Succession on Two Submerged Leaf Species in a Small Forested Stream

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Molli M.; Liles, Mark R.; Feminella, Jack W.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial succession during leaf breakdown was investigated in a small forested stream in west-central Georgia, USA, using multiple culture-independent techniques. Red maple (Acer rubrum) and water oak (Quercus nigra) leaf litter were incubated in situ for 128 days, and litter breakdown was quantified by ash-free dry mass (AFDM) method and microbial assemblage composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and bar-coded next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Leaf breakdown was faster for red maple than water oak. PLFA revealed a significant time effect on microbial lipid profiles for both leaf species. Microbial assemblages on maple contained a higher relative abundance of bacterial lipids than oak, and oak microbial assemblages contained higher relative abundance of fungal lipids than maple. RISA showed that incubation time was more important in structuring bacterial assemblages than leaf physicochemistry. DGGE profiles revealed high variability in bacterial assemblages over time, and sequencing of DGGE-resolved amplicons indicated several taxa present on degrading litter. Next-generation sequencing revealed temporal shifts in dominant taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria, whereas γ-Proteobacteria dominated pre-immersion and α- and β-Proteobacteria dominated after 1 month of instream incubation; the latter groups contain taxa that are predicted to be capable of using organic material to fuel further breakdown. Our results suggest that incubation time is more important than leaf species physicochemistry in influencing leaf litter microbial assemblage composition, and indicate the need for investigation into seasonal and temporal dynamics of leaf litter microbial assemblage succession. PMID:26098687

  11. Litter Breakdown and Microbial Succession on Two Submerged Leaf Species in a Small Forested Stream.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Liles, Mark R; Feminella, Jack W

    2015-01-01

    Microbial succession during leaf breakdown was investigated in a small forested stream in west-central Georgia, USA, using multiple culture-independent techniques. Red maple (Acer rubrum) and water oak (Quercus nigra) leaf litter were incubated in situ for 128 days, and litter breakdown was quantified by ash-free dry mass (AFDM) method and microbial assemblage composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and bar-coded next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Leaf breakdown was faster for red maple than water oak. PLFA revealed a significant time effect on microbial lipid profiles for both leaf species. Microbial assemblages on maple contained a higher relative abundance of bacterial lipids than oak, and oak microbial assemblages contained higher relative abundance of fungal lipids than maple. RISA showed that incubation time was more important in structuring bacterial assemblages than leaf physicochemistry. DGGE profiles revealed high variability in bacterial assemblages over time, and sequencing of DGGE-resolved amplicons indicated several taxa present on degrading litter. Next-generation sequencing revealed temporal shifts in dominant taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria, whereas γ-Proteobacteria dominated pre-immersion and α- and β-Proteobacteria dominated after 1 month of instream incubation; the latter groups contain taxa that are predicted to be capable of using organic material to fuel further breakdown. Our results suggest that incubation time is more important than leaf species physicochemistry in influencing leaf litter microbial assemblage composition, and indicate the need for investigation into seasonal and temporal dynamics of leaf litter microbial assemblage succession.

  12. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P < 0.05). In the flowing water of the undisturbed and ecologically restored streams, the decomposition rate of leaf litter was 0.0064 d(-1) and 0.0030 d(-1); while in the still water of the streams, it was 0.0016 d(-1) and 0. 0018 d(-1), respectively. The abundance and biomass of benthic macro-invertebrate were significantly higher in the flowing water of undisturbed stream than in that of ecologically restored stream (P < 0.05), but had no significant differences in the still water of the two streams. Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P < 0.01), but had less correlation with the biomass of the shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  13. [Litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics at different succession stages of typical mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-ling; Jin, Guang-ze; Zhao, Feng-xia

    2010-09-01

    Taking the mixed leaf litters in broadleaved-Korean pine forests at different succession stages (secondary birch forest, selective cutting forest, and original mixed forest) and the leaf litters of the dominant tree species (Betula costata, Tilia amurensis, and Pinus koraiensis) in these forests in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, China as test objects, this paper studied their remaining rates and nutrient dynamics in October 2006-November 2008 by using decomposition bag method. For all test leaf litters, their remaining rate had an exponential relationship with time. The annual decomposition constant (k) ranged from 0.137 to 0.328, and the time for decomposing 50% (t50%) and 95% (t95%) was 2.340-4.989 years and 9.360-21.796 years, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the decomposition rates of the leaf litters among the forests, but the k value of the mixed leaf litters was decreased in the order of original mixed forest > selective cutting forest > secondary birch forest, while that of the dominant tree species leaf litters had no obvious pattern. During decomposition, the elements C, P, and K in leaf litters released continuously, and the release pattern of C followed linear function, while that of P and K followed a function of higher degree. Element N presented different levels of accumulation, but had no clear pattern.

  14. Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. air transportation system is the most productive in the world, moving far more people and goods than any other. It is also the safest system in the world, thanks in part to its venerable air traffic control system. But as demand for air travel continues to grow, the air traffic control system s aging infrastructure and labor-intensive procedures are impinging on its ability to keep pace with demand. And that impinges on the growth of our economy. Air traffic control modernization has long held the promise of a more efficient air transportation system. Part of NASA s current mission is to develop advanced automation and operational concepts that will expand the capacity of our national airspace system while still maintaining its excellent record for safety. It is a challenging mission, as efforts to modernize have, for decades, been hamstrung by the inability to assure safety to the satisfaction of system operators, system regulators, and/or the traveling public. In this talk, we ll provide a brief history of air traffic control, focusing on the tension between efficiency and safety assurance, and the promise of formal methods going forward.

  15. Distinct bacterial communities dominate tropical and temperate zone leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mincheol; Kim, Woo-Sung; Tripathi, Binu M; Adams, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Little is known of the bacterial community of tropical rainforest leaf litter and how it might differ from temperate forest leaf litter and from the soils underneath. We sampled leaf litter in a similarly advanced stage of decay, and for comparison, we also sampled the surface layer of soil, at three tropical forest sites in Malaysia and four temperate forest sites in South Korea. Illumina sequencing targeting partial bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene revealed that the bacterial community composition of both temperate and tropical litter is quite distinct from the soils underneath. Litter in both temperate and tropical forest was dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while soil is dominated by Acidobacteria and, to a lesser extent, Proteobacteria. However, bacterial communities of temperate and tropical litter clustered separately from one another on an ordination. The soil bacterial community structures were also distinctive to each climatic zone, suggesting that there must be a climate-specific biogeographical pattern in bacterial community composition. The differences were also found in the level of diversity. The temperate litter has a higher operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity than the tropical litter, paralleling the trend in soil diversity. Overall, it is striking that the difference in community composition between the leaf litter and the soil a few centimeters underneath is about the same as that between leaf litter in tropical and temperate climates, thousands of kilometers apart. However, one substantial difference was that the leaf litter of two tropical forest sites, Meranti and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), was overwhelmingly dominated by the single genus Burkholderia, at 37 and 23 % of reads, respectively. The 454 sequencing result showed that most Burkholderia species in tropical leaf litter belong to nonpathogenic "plant beneficial" lineages. The differences from the temperate zone in the bacterial

  16. Mixing effects on litter decomposition rates in a young tree diversity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila; Vanhellemont, Margot; De Schrijver, An; Schelfhout, Stephanie; Baeten, Lander; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Litter decomposition is an essential process for biogeochemical cycling and for the formation of new soil organic matter. Mixing litter from different tree species has been reported to increase litter decomposition rates through synergistic effects. We assessed the decomposition rates of leaf litter from five tree species in a recently established tree diversity experiment on a post-agriculture site in Belgium. We used 20 different leaf litter compositions with diversity levels ranging from 1 up to 4 species. Litter mass loss in litterbags was assessed 10, 20, 25, 35, and 60 weeks after installation in the field. We found that litter decomposition rates were higher for high-quality litters, i.e., with high nitrogen content and low lignin content. The decomposition rates of mixed litter were more affected by the identity of the litter species within the mixture than by the diversity of the litter per se, but the variability in litter decomposition rates decreased as the litter diversity increased. Among the 15 different mixed litter compositions in our study, only three litter combinations showed synergistic effects. Our study suggests that admixing tree species with high-quality litter in post-agricultural plantations helps in increasing the mixture's early-stage litter decomposition rate.

  17. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. II. Nutrient release in decomposing leaf litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    The factors influencing leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release patterns were investigated for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forests in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia–fir forest was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendrongiganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abiesconcolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinuslambertiana Dougl.). The fir–pine forest was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrusdecurrens (Torr.) Florin). Initial concentrations of nutrients and percent lignin, cellulose, and acid detergent fiber vary considerably in freshly abscised leaf litter of the studied species. Giant sequoia had the highest concentration of lignin (20.3%) and the lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.52%), while incense cedar had the lowest concentration of lignin (9.6%) and second lowest concentration of nitrogen (0.63%). Long-term (3.6 years) foliage decomposition rates were best correlated with initial lignin/N (r2 = 0.94, p r2 = 0.92, p r2 = 0.80, p < 0.05). Patterns of nutrient release were highly variable. Giant sequoia immobilized N and P, incense cedar immobilized N and to a lesser extent P, while sugar pine immobilized Ca. Strong linear or negative exponential relationships existed between initial concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and percent original mass remaining of those nutrients after 3.6 years. This suggests efficient retention of these nutrients in the litter layer of these ecosystems. Nitrogen concentrations steadily increase in decomposing leaf litter, effectively reducing the C/N ratios from an initial range of 68–96 to 27–45 after 3.6 years.

  18. Illustrated structural application of universal first-order reliability method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1994-01-01

    The general application of the proposed first-order reliability method was achieved through the universal normalization of engineering probability distribution data. The method superimposes prevailing deterministic techniques and practices on the first-order reliability method to surmount deficiencies of the deterministic method and provide benefits of reliability techniques and predictions. A reliability design factor is derived from the reliability criterion to satisfy a specified reliability and is analogous to the deterministic safety factor. Its application is numerically illustrated on several practical structural design and verification cases with interesting results and insights. Two concepts of reliability selection criteria are suggested. Though the method was developed to support affordable structures for access to space, the method should also be applicable for most high-performance air and surface transportation systems.

  19. NEOCHIM: An electrochemical method for environmental application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leinz, R.W.; Hoover, D.B.; Meier, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Ion migration and electroosmosis are the principal processes underlying electrokinetic remediation of hazardous wastes from soils. These processes are a response of charged species to an applied electrical current and they are accompanied by electrolysis of water at the electrodes through which the current is applied. Electrolysis results in the formation of OH- at the cathode and H+ at the anode. The current drives the OH- and H+ thus formed from the electrodes, through the soil and to the electrode of opposite charge. Introduction of OH- and H+ into the soil being treated modifies soil chemistry and can interfere with either the collection or immobilization of hazardous waste ions. The introduction of either OH- or H+ to the soil can be problematic to electrokinetic remediation but the problem caused by OH- has been the focus of most researchers. The problem has been addressed by flushing the OH- from the soil near the cathode or treating the soil with buffers. These treatments would apply as well to soils affected by H+. With the NEOCHIM technology, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use as a sampling technique in exploration for buried ore deposits, OH- and H+ are retained in the inner compartment of two-compartment electrodes and are thus prevented from reaching the soil. This enables the extraction of cations and anions, including anionic forms of toxic metals such as HAsO42-. One of the principal attributes of NEOCHIM is the large volume of soil from which ions can be extracted. It is mathematically demonstrable that NEOCHIM extraction volumes can be orders of magnitude greater than volumes typically sampled in more conventional geochemical exploration methods or for environmental sampling. The technology may also be used to introduce selected ions into the soil that affect the solubility of ceratin ions present in the soil. Although field tests for mineral exploration have shown NEOCHIM extraction efficiencies of about 25-35%, laboratory

  20. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected piñon-juniper woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, E.; Marshall, J. D.; Rahn, T.; Litvak, M.; Butnor, J.

    2013-03-01

    Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C) substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting piñon-juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of root exudation. To determine piñon mortality effects on C and water limitation of microbial respiration, we applied field amendments (sucrose and water) to two piñon-juniper sites in central New Mexico, USA: one with a recent (< 1 yr), experimentally induced mortality event and a nearby site with live canopy. We monitored the respiration response to water and sucrose applications to the litter surface and to the underlying mineral soil surface, testing the following hypotheses: (1) soil respiration in a piñon-juniper woodland is water- and labile C-limited in both the litter layer and mineral soil; (2) piñon mortality reduces the C limitation of litter respiration; and (3) piñon mortality enhances the C limitation of mineral soil respiration. Litter respiration at both sites responded to increased water availability, yet surprisingly, mineral soil respiration was not limited by water. Consistent with hypothesis 2, C limitation of litter respiration was lower at the recent mortality site compared to the intact canopy site. Applications to the mineral soil showed evidence of reduction in CO2 flux on the girdled site and a non-significant increase on the control. We speculate that the reduction may have been driven by water-induced carbonate dissolution, which serves as a sink for CO2 and would reduce the net flux. Widespread piñon mortality may decrease labile C limitation of litter respiration, at least during the first growing season following mortality.

  1. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  2. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  3. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  4. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  5. 7 CFR 786.103 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DAIRY DISASTER ASSISTANCE PAYMENT PROGRAM (DDAP-III) § 786.103 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an application, in person, by mail,...

  6. [Application of morpheme translation method in english translation of TCM].

    PubMed

    Diao, Xiang; Hu, You-Ping

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, application of morpheme translation method in English translation of TCM was introduced, and its superiorities and limitations were analyzed in order to promote the standardization and improve the confused current status of the English translation of TCM.

  7. Changes in litter quality induced by nutrient addition alter litter decomposition in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenyan; Wang, Jinzhou; Zhang, Zhenhua; Ren, Fei; Chen, Litong; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition on litter decomposition are poorly understood in Tibetan alpine meadows. Leaf litter was collected from plots within a factorial N × P addition experiment and allowed to decompose over 708 days in an unfertilized plot to determine the effects of N and/or P addition on litter decomposition. Results showed that nutrient addition significantly affected initial P and P-related biochemical properties of litter from all four species. However, the responses of litter N and N-related biochemical properties to nutrient addition were quite species-specific. Litter C decomposition and N release were species-specific. However, N and P addition significantly affected litter P release. Ratios of Hemicellulose + Cellulose to N and P were significantly related to litter C decomposition; C:N ratio was a determinant of litter N release; and C:P and (Hemicellulose + Cellulose):P controlled litter P release. Overall, litter C decomposition was controlled by litter quality of different plant species, and strongly affected by P addition. Increasing N availability is likely to affect litter C decomposition more indirectly by shifting plant species composition than directly by improving litter quality, and may accelerate N and P cycles, but shift the ecosystem to P limitation. PMID:27694948

  8. Changes in litter quality induced by nutrient addition alter litter decomposition in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenyan; Wang, Jinzhou; Zhang, Zhenhua; Ren, Fei; Chen, Litong; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-10-03

    The effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition on litter decomposition are poorly understood in Tibetan alpine meadows. Leaf litter was collected from plots within a factorial N × P addition experiment and allowed to decompose over 708 days in an unfertilized plot to determine the effects of N and/or P addition on litter decomposition. Results showed that nutrient addition significantly affected initial P and P-related biochemical properties of litter from all four species. However, the responses of litter N and N-related biochemical properties to nutrient addition were quite species-specific. Litter C decomposition and N release were species-specific. However, N and P addition significantly affected litter P release. Ratios of Hemicellulose + Cellulose to N and P were significantly related to litter C decomposition; C:N ratio was a determinant of litter N release; and C:P and (Hemicellulose + Cellulose):P controlled litter P release. Overall, litter C decomposition was controlled by litter quality of different plant species, and strongly affected by P addition. Increasing N availability is likely to affect litter C decomposition more indirectly by shifting plant species composition than directly by improving litter quality, and may accelerate N and P cycles, but shift the ecosystem to P limitation.

  9. Analysis of litter size and average litter weight in pigs using a recursive model.

    PubMed

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel; Thompson, Robin

    2007-11-01

    An analysis of litter size and average piglet weight at birth in Landrace and Yorkshire using a standard two-trait mixed model (SMM) and a recursive mixed model (RMM) is presented. The RMM establishes a one-way link from litter size to average piglet weight. It is shown that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the parameters of SMM and RMM and that they generate equivalent likelihoods. As parameterized in this work, the RMM tests for the presence of a recursive relationship between additive genetic values, permanent environmental effects, and specific environmental effects of litter size, on average piglet weight. The equivalent standard mixed model tests whether or not the covariance matrices of the random effects have a diagonal structure. In Landrace, posterior predictive model checking supports a model without any form of recursion or, alternatively, a SMM with diagonal covariance matrices of the three random effects. In Yorkshire, the same criterion favors a model with recursion at the level of specific environmental effects only, or, in terms of the SMM, the association between traits is shown to be exclusively due to an environmental (negative) correlation. It is argued that the choice between a SMM or a RMM should be guided by the availability of software, by ease of interpretation, or by the need to test a particular theory or hypothesis that may best be formulated under one parameterization and not the other.

  10. Diversity of Fungi on Decomposing Leaf Litter in a Sugarcane Plantation and Their Response to Tillage Practice and Bagasse Mulching: Implications for Management Effects on Litter Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiko; Niswati, Ainin; Swibawa, I G; Haryani, Sri; Gunito, Heru; Shimano, Satoshi; Fujie, Koichi; Kaneko, Nobuhiro

    2015-10-01

    To minimize the degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) content in conventional sugarcane cropping, it is important to understand how the fungal community contributes to SOM dynamics during the decomposition of sugarcane leaf litter. However, our knowledge of fungal diversity in tropical agroecosystems is currently limited. Thus, we determined the fungal community structure on decomposing sugarcane leaf litter and their response to different soil management systems using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing method afforded by Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). The results indicate that no-tillage had positive effects on the relative abundance of Zygomycota and of some taxa that may prefer a moist environment over conventional tillage, whereas bagasse mulching decreased the richness of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and had positive effect on the relative abundance of slow-growing taxa, which may prefer poor nutrient substrates. Furthermore, a combination of no-tillage and bagasse mulching increased the abundance of unique OTUs. We suggest that the alteration of fungal communities through the changes in soil management practices produces an effect on litter decomposition.

  11. A study of litter and waste management policies at (primary) eco-schools in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Kayihan, Kutlu Sevinç; Tönük, Seda

    2012-01-01

    In addition to environmental and economic benefits, systematic application of sustainable waste management in elementary education buildings also makes a positive contribution to the education of future generations. This study examines elementary schools in Istanbul, which are part of the Eco-Schools International Programme. This programme was established in 1994 with European Union support and it aims to introduce environmental management systems into primary schools within the scope of ISO 14001/EMAS. A questionnaire study was administered on the theme of litter management and sustainable waste management within elementary schools located in the Asian and European parts of Istanbul city, and the findings of a field survey were examined. Questionnaire findings were gathered under five themes: litter management, composting of organic waste, re-use of school materials, reducing consumption-selection of recycled products, waste management and sorting of recyclable materials.

  12. Alkane-degrading bacteria at the soil-litter interface: comparing isolates with T-RFLP-based community profiles.

    PubMed

    Giebler, Julia; Wick, Lukas Y; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Harms, Hauke

    2013-10-01

    Alkane-degrading bacteria were isolated from uncontaminated soil microcosms, which had been incubated with maize litter as natural alkane source. The isolates served to understand spatio-temporal community changes at the soil-litter interface, which had been detected using alkB as a functional marker gene for bacterial alkane degraders. To obtain a large spectrum of isolates, liquid subcultivation was combined with a matrix-assisted enrichment (Teflon membranes, litter). Elevated cell numbers of alkane degraders were detected by most probable number counting indicating enhanced alkane degradation potential in soil in response to litter treatment. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 395 isolates revealed forty different phylogenetic groups [operational taxonomic units (OTUs)] and spatio-temporal shifts in community composition. Ten OTUs comprised so far unknown alkane degraders, and five OTUs represented putative new bacterial genera. The combination of enrichment methods yielded a higher diversity of isolates than liquid subcultivation alone. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP profiles indicated that many alkane degraders present in the enrichments were not detectable in the DNA extracts from soil microcosms. These possibly rare specialists might represent a seed bank for the alkane degradation capacity in uncontaminated soil. This relevant ecosystem function can be fostered by the formation of the soil-litter interface.

  13. Effects of multiple but low pesticide loads on aquatic fungal communities colonizing leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Talk, Anne; Kublik, Susanne; Uksa, Marie; Engel, Marion; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Welzl, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Mohr, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm. For that, fungi colonizing black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves were exposed to multiple, low pulses of 11 different pesticides over a period of 60days using a real farmer's pesticide application protocol for apple cropping. Four pond mesocosms served as treatments and 4 as controls. The composition of fungal communities colonizing the litter material was analyzed using a molecular fingerprinting approach based on the terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (t-RFLP) of the fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene(s). Our data indicated a clear fluctuation of fungal communities based on the degree of leaf litter degradation. However significant effects of the applied spraying sequence were not observed. Consequently also degradation rates of the litter material were not affected by the treatments. Our results indicate that the nutrient rich environment of the leaf litter material gave fungal communities the possibility to express genes that induce tolerance against the applied pesticides. Thus our data may not be transferred to other fresh water habitats with lower nutrient availability.

  14. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  15. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Staats, Kristin E; Arai, Yuji; Sparks, Donald L

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha(-1) of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  16. Simultaneous multi-residue determination of twenty one veterinary drugs in poultry litter by modeling three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and absorption detection data.

    PubMed

    Teglia, Carla M; Peltzer, Paola M; Seib, Silvia N; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Culzoni, María J; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2017-05-15

    A method for the simultaneous investigation of twenty one veterinary active ingredients in poultry litter based on MCR-ALS modeling of three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection data is presented. The chromatographic procedure was optimized in terms of both the nature of the organic solvent and the pH of the mobile phase to maximize the resolution of the analytes. In order to improve the simultaneous extraction efficiency of the twenty one veterinary drugs, a simplex-centroid design with combinations of the three components of the extracting mixture, i.e. MeOH, ACN and sodium phosphate buffer 10mmolL(-1) pH =3.50, was carried out. The second-order advantage was exploited in the analysis of highly complex samples containing unmodeled components. The qualitative and quantitative results showed that the application of MCR-ALS was appropriate to resolve highly overlapped peaks in the presence of unknown matrix compounds. Limits of quantification, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries ranging from 0.02 to 0.61µgg(-1), 3.09-9.35% and 91.0-105.6%, respectively, were obtained. Eventually, the method was successfully applied to the determination of active ingredients in five poultry litter samples collected from different poultry livestock in Argentina.

  17. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes broiler litter to the atmosphere and rain events, enhances the potential loss of nutrients to the air and surface runoff water and may limit benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A 2-...

  18. Soil-incorporating Poultry Litter Increases Cotton Tissue Nitrogen Concentration and Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying poultry litter to fertilize no-till cotton implies the litter is left on the surface without soil-incorporation which exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization. This research was conducted to test if light soil-incorporation of litter increases...

  19. Poultry litter placement effects on cotton seedling emergence and early growth stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in using poultry litter (PL) as a nutrient source for row crop production has increased in the Southeastern U.S. Poultry litter is generally broadcasted on the soil surface. This practice exposes litter N to volatilization and litter P to loss with surface water runoff, which potentially ne...

  20. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from broiler houses with downtime windrowed litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emerging poultry manure management practice is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this practi...

  1. Cotton response to poultry litter applied by subsurface banding relative to surface broadcasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry poultry litter is typically land-applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes certain litter nutrients to volatilization loss. Applying litter with a new, experimental implement that places the litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may reduce or eliminate such losses but has...

  2. 9 CFR 82.7 - Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... litter from a quarantined area. 82.7 Section 82.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Interstate movement of manure and litter from a quarantined area. (a) Manure generated by and litter used by... if: (1) The manure and litter is accompanied by a permit obtained in accordance with § 82.11; (2)...

  3. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emission from a litter-windrowing in bird houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of emerging poultry manure management practices is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this p...

  4. Distribution of plant nutrient elements and carbon in particle size fractions of broiler litter ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 10.8 million tons of broiler litter and 3.0 million tons of turkey litter were produced in the United States in 2009. Poultry litter is a mixture of manure, bedding material (e.g., wood chips, sawdust, or straw), feathers, and spilled feed. Poultry litter contains high levels of Ca, N...

  5. [Dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorus and potassium release in Jinggang Mountain region of Jiangxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Hait-tao; Yu, Gui-rui; Li, Jia-yong; Liang, Tao; Chen, Yong-rui

    2007-02-01

    By using litter bag method, a 2-year experiment was made to study the dynamics of litter decomposition and phosphorous and potassium release of Castanopsis eyrei-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF), Pinus taiwanensis, Cyclobalanopsis nubium and Castanopsisfabri coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (CBF) , and Rhododendron simiarum-dominated mountainous dwarf forest (MDF) in Jinggang Mountain region of Jiangxi Province, China. In each forest, litter bags were placed on soil surface (aboveground treatment, AG) and at the depth of 10 cm (below-ground treatment, BG). An inverse exponential relationship was found between litter decay rate and time for each of the three forests. The average value of the litter mass loss of AG and BG was 50.6% for EBF, 41. 7% for CBF, and 40. 13% for MDF by the end of first year, and 60.95% for EBF, 57. 06% for CBF, and 56. 60% for MDF by the end of second year, indicating that the litter decomposition of the forests was faster in first year than in second year. The annual litter loss decreased in the order of EBF > CBF > MDF, and that of AG was significantly higher than that of BG in first year but no significant difference was found in second year. According to the model simulation by Olson' s exponential function, it might take 6. 8-9. 9 years to reach 95% of decay (t095) for the forests investigated, compared with 8-17 years for warm temperate forests and 2 -8 years for south subtropical forests. The t0.95 value of the three test forests increased in the order of EBF < CBF < MDF. A net phospbhorus (P) immobilization was observed in the process of litter decomposition, with the intensity decreased in the order of MDF > CBF > EBF, which was related to the initial P content and C/P ratio of the litter. As for potassium ( K) , it was net release in most cases. By the end of the experiment, the release rate of P had little difference between AG and BG, while that of K was significantly higher in AG than in BG.

  6. Forest Gaps Inhibit Foliar Litter Pb and Cd Release in Winter and Inhibit Pb and Cd Accumulation in Growing Season in an Alpine Forest

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Yang, Wanqin; Li, Han; Xu, Liya; Ni, Xiangyin; Tan, Bo; Zhao, Yeyi; Wu, Fuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Aims The release of heavy metals (such as Pb and Cd) from foliar litter play an important role in element cycling in alpine forest ecosystems. Although natural forest gaps could play important roles in the release of heavy metals from foliar litter by affecting the snow cover during the winter and solar irradiation during the growing season, few studies have examined these potential roles. The objectives of this study were to document changes in Pb and Cd dynamics during litter decomposition in the center of gaps and under closed canopies and to investigate the factors that controlled these changes during the winter and growing seasons. Methods Senesced foliar litter from six dominant species, including Kangding willow (Salix paraplesia), Masters larch (Larix mastersiana), Mingjiang fir (Abies faxoniana), Alpine azalea (Rhododendron lapponicum), Red birch (Betula albosinensis) and Mourning cypress (Sabina saltuaria), was placed in litterbags and incubated between the gap center and closed canopy conditions in an alpine forest in the eastern region of the Tibetan Plateau. The litterbags were sampled at the snow formation stage, snow coverage stage, snow melt stage and during the growing season. The Pb and Cd concentrations in the sampled foliar litter were determined by acid digestion (HNO3/HClO4). Important findings Over one year of decomposition, Pb accumulation and Cd release from the foliar litter occurred, regardless of the foliar litter species. However, Pb and Cd were both released from the foliar litter during the winter and accumulated during the growing season. Compared with the gap center and the canopy gap edge, the extended gap edge and the closed canopy showed higher Pb and Cd release rates in winter and higher Pb and Cd accumulation rates during the growing season, respectively. Statistical analyses indicate that the dynamics of Pb were significantly influenced by frequent freeze–thaw cycles in winter and appropriate hydrothermal conditions during

  7. Applications of Genetic Methods to NASA Design and Operations Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    We review four recent NASA-funded applications in which evolutionary/genetic methods are important. In the process we survey: the kinds of problems being solved today with these methods; techniques and tools used; problems encountered; and areas where research is needed. The presentation slides are annotated briefly at the top of each page.

  8. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the incidence of ascites in broilers in response to feed restriction and litter oiling.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    1999-04-01

    The effect of feed restriction and the application of canola oil to broiler straw litter to contain respirable dust on growth performance, carcass traits, and the incidence of ascites was evaluated with 800 male broilers studied in two 6-wk periods. Two pens of birds were feed restricted. Two pens of birds received feed ad libitum for the 6-wk trial. One restricted and one ad libitum pen received biweekly addition of canola oil to the litter. At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fat pad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for the incidence of ascites at processing. A cross sectional image of each heart was digitally recorded and, using image analysis, the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA) were determined. The right ventricular wall was removed and its weight was expressed as a percentage of total heart weight (PRVW). The 40-d BW was significantly greater in the ad libitum birds (2.07 kg) than in the feed-restricted birds (1.86 kg). The right ventricular weight (RVW) (1.69 and 1.92 g) and the RVA (0.35 and 0.40 cm2) were also significantly different between the two feeding treatments. The ascites score was significantly correlated to the RVW (r = 0.50) and RVA (r = 0.52). The RVA was also correlated to the RVW (r = 0.63). Oiling the litter did not result in differences in carcass characteristics. Litter oiling significantly reduced the RVA of the ad libitum birds (0.36 cm2) compared to the ad libitum birds that did not have oiled litter (0.44 cm2). Feed restriction reduced the incidence of ascites, but also reduced gain. Litter oiling in the feed-restricted groups reduced the RVA, but did not reduce mortality.

  9. Probabilistic logic methods and some applications to biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Sakhanenko, Nikita A; Galas, David J

    2012-03-01

    For the computational analysis of biological problems-analyzing data, inferring networks and complex models, and estimating model parameters-it is common to use a range of methods based on probabilistic logic constructions, sometimes collectively called machine learning methods. Probabilistic modeling methods such as Bayesian Networks (BN) fall into this class, as do Hierarchical Bayesian Networks (HBN), Probabilistic Boolean Networks (PBN), Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and Markov Logic Networks (MLN). In this review, we describe the most general of these (MLN), and show how the above-mentioned methods are related to MLN and one another by the imposition of constraints and restrictions. This approach allows us to illustrate a broad landscape of constructions and methods, and describe some of the attendant strengths, weaknesses, and constraints of many of these methods. We then provide some examples of their applications to problems in biology and medicine, with an emphasis on genetics. The key concepts needed to picture this landscape of methods are the ideas of probabilistic graphical models, the structures of the graphs, and the scope of the logical language repertoire used (from First-Order Logic [FOL] to Boolean logic.) These concepts are interlinked and together define the nature of each of the probabilistic logic methods. Finally, we discuss the initial applications of MLN to genetics, show the relationship to less general methods like BN, and then mention several examples where such methods could be effective in new applications to specific biological and medical problems.

  10. Broiler litter ammonia emissions near sidewalls, feeders and waterers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilized from broiler litter diminishes indoor air quality which can potentially decrease bird productivity. Emissions of NH3 exhausted from broiler houses pose environmental concerns for ecosystem biodiversity, aquatic nutrient enrichment and particulate formation in the atmospher...

  11. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are investigated. Constructions of special elements which containing traction-free circular boundaries are investigated. New versions of mixed variational principle and version of hybrid stress elements are formulated. A method is established for suppression of kinematic deformation modes. semiLoof plate and shell elements are constructed by assumed stress hybrid method. An elastic-plastic analysis is conducted by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  12. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Opinions about Mathematical Modeling Method and Applicability of This Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgün, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify prospective secondary mathematics teachers' opinions about the mathematical modeling method and the applicability of this method in high schools. The case study design, which is among the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The study was conducted with six prospective secondary mathematics…

  13. Interventions to reduce the bacterial load in recycled broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; de Avila, V S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2017-03-23

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the bacterial load in recycled litter between broiler flocks following addition of quicklime (T1), windrowing (T2), shallow fermentation (T3), and control (no intervention, T4). The first experiment was developed in field conditions in which the broiler houses were accompanied by 6 consecutive flocks and the effect of the treatments was assessed on enterobacteria and aerobic mesophiles. The second experiment was conducted in an experimental broiler house with recycled litter for assessment of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4). In the field study, T3 presented the best results in reducing enterobacteria in broiler litter in relation to the other treatments, with the highest reduction occurring in the first 3 flocks, tending to stabilization from the fourth flock onward for all the treatments assessed. From the third to sixth flocks, enterobacteria level at the end of the treatments (d 12) was lower than the average in the fresh litter, except in T4. All treatments reduced aerobic mesophiles throughout the flocks, where T2 showed the highest reduction. The percentage of dry matter in the broiler litter diminished in T4 and increased in T3 over the course of the flocks. In the second experiment, the drop in the SE PT4 level in the broiler litter first occurred in T2 and T3. However, all the treatments except for T4 eliminated SE PT4 within 12 d. The temperature of the broiler litter in T2 was higher in relation to the other treatments. The results show that litter treatment prior to reutilization by the successive broiler flock is required to reduce the level of residual bacteria. The fermentative treatments (T2 and T3) were found to be superior to the others in terms of reducing the bacterial load, with shallow fermentation standing out with the highest reduction of enterobacteria and equivalent SE PT4 elimination when compared to windrowing.

  14. Do images of 'watching eyes' induce behaviour that is more pro-social or more normative? A field experiment on littering.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Melissa; Callow, Luke; Holmes, Jessica R; Redmond Roche, Maximilian L; Nettle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Displaying images of eyes causes people to behave more pro-socially in a variety of contexts. However, it is unclear whether eyes work by making people universally more pro-social, or by making them more likely to conform to local norms. If the latter, images of eyes could sometimes make people less pro-social if pro-social behaviour is not the local norm. To separate these hypotheses we conducted a field experiment in which we explored whether manipulating a local descriptive norm altered the eyes effect. We recorded litter dropping decisions on a university campus in a 2 x 2 design, comparing situations with and without litter already on the ground (a manipulation of the local descriptive norm) and with and without large signs displaying images of watching eyes. We additionally recorded the number of potential human observers in the vicinity at the time of each littering decision. We observed a norm effect: the presence of litter on the ground increased littering, replicating previous findings. We also found that images of watching eyes reduced littering, although contrary to previous findings this was only when there were larger numbers of people around. With regard to our central aim, we found no evidence that litter on the ground interacted non-additively with images of eyes to induce increased littering behaviour. Our data therefore support the hypothesis that images of eyes induce more pro-social behaviour, independent of local norms. This finding has positive implications for the application of eye images in combating anti-social behaviour.

  15. New paradigms and old data: how does the new view of litter decomposition hold up?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, C.

    2012-12-01

    In contrast to the traditional view of decomposition as the gradual breakdown of increasingly recalcitrant plant tissues, recent advances in characterization of soil organic matter suggest that all plant tissues and compounds are decayed within a few years and that humus and soil organic matter (SOM) are products of microbial transformations. Likewise, contrary to the assumption that aboveground litter is the key source of SOM, evidence indicates that roots are the primary source of SOM. I will examine findings from a suite of long-term decomposition studies and observations of surface organic layers in Canadian forests through the lens of the new paradigm to determine if it is consistent with observations, and if it explains some of the anomalous findings that were not in keeping with the earlier paradigm, such as the consistent near-cessation of mass loss with 20-30% mass remaining, regardless of forest type, and the convergence of C:nutrient ratios to similar levels regardless of litter type. I will also explore if the new paradigm better explains the deep accumulations of surface organic matter in cold, wet forests despite rapid surface litter decomposition. Finally I will address the issue of how well the new paradigm fit s in ecosystems with surface accumulations of organic matter, and whether or not it is applicable to the decomposition of woody debris.

  16. Plant Litter Submergence Affects the Water Quality of a Constructed Wetland.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu; Ping, Yunmei; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Fei-Hai; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Plant litter is an indispensable component of constructed wetlands, but how the submergence of plant litter affects their ecosystem functions and services, such as water purification, is still unclear. Moreover, it is also unclear whether the effects of plant litter submergence depend on other factors such as the duration of litter submergence, water source or litter species identity. Here we conducted a greenhouse experiment by submerging the litter of 7 wetland plant species into three types of water substrates and monitoring changes in water nutrient concentrations. Litter submergence affected water quality positively via decreasing the concentration of nitrate nitrogen and negatively via increasing the concentrations of total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus. The effects of litter submergence depended on the duration of litter submergence, the water source, the litter species identity, and the plant life form. Different plant species had different effects on the water nutrient concentrations during litter submergence, and the effects of floating plants might be more negative than that of emergent plants. These results are novel evidence of how the submergence of different plant (life form) litter may affect the purification function of constructed wetlands. For water at low eutrophication levels, submerging a relative small amount of plant litter might improve water quality, via benefiting the denitrification process in water. These findings emphasized the management of floating plant litter (a potential removal) during the maintenance of human-controlled wetland ecosystems and provided a potential tool to improve the water quality of constructed wetlands via submerging plant litter of different types.

  17. Survival of coccidia in poultry litter and reservoirs of infection.

    PubMed

    Reyna, P S; McDougald, L R; Mathis, G F

    1983-01-01

    The survival of coccidia was studied in poultry litter, dust, soil, and invertebrate animals. The populations of coccidia in litter were recorded during broiler growout in 16 broiler houses and in floor-pen trials involving anticoccidial drugs. The viability of oocysts declined rapidly in poultry litter regardless of the species; it was retained best in 40% moisture at 4 C. Sporocysts from broken oocytes did not survive even short exposure to poultry litter. Survival of oocysts was poorest at temperatures higher than 4 C, regardless of the carrier. In four floor-pen experiments designed to study the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs, the oocyst counts correlated in a general way with lesion scores and performance, indicating the oocyst counts might be useful along with other parameters to judge the effectiveness of drugs. Coccidia were transmitted to susceptible chicks by feeding them darkling beetles, flies, or house dust from poultry houses. More carrier samples were positive during the warmer months. Oocyst counts in litter of commercial poultry houses were very low during the first or last weeks of broiler growout but were high during the normal 3-to-6-week stress period. These results confirm the poor survival of oocysts in poultry litter and suggest that carryover from one flock to the next depends on the survival of a few oocysts in dust or arthropod vectors.

  18. Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes.

    PubMed

    Handa, I Tanya; Aerts, Rien; Berendse, Frank; Berg, Matty P; Bruder, Andreas; Butenschoen, Olaf; Chauvet, Eric; Gessner, Mark O; Jabiol, Jérémy; Makkonen, Marika; McKie, Brendan G; Malmqvist, Björn; Peeters, Edwin T H M; Scheu, Stefan; Schmid, Bernhard; van Ruijven, Jasper; Vos, Veronique C A; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2014-05-08

    The decomposition of dead organic matter is a major determinant of carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, and of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Decomposition is driven by a vast diversity of organisms that are structured in complex food webs. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of biodiversity on decomposition is critical given the rapid loss of species worldwide and the effects of this loss on human well-being. Yet despite comprehensive syntheses of studies on how biodiversity affects litter decomposition, key questions remain, including when, where and how biodiversity has a role and whether general patterns and mechanisms occur across ecosystems and different functional types of organism. Here, in field experiments across five terrestrial and aquatic locations, ranging from the subarctic to the tropics, we show that reducing the functional diversity of decomposer organisms and plant litter types slowed the cycling of litter carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we found evidence of nitrogen transfer from the litter of nitrogen-fixing plants to that of rapidly decomposing plants, but not between other plant functional types, highlighting that specific interactions in litter mixtures control carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition. The emergence of this general mechanism and the coherence of patterns across contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggest that biodiversity loss has consistent consequences for litter decomposition and the cycling of major elements on broad spatial scales.

  19. Invertebrate grazers affect metal/metalloid fixation during litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Brackhage, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Plant litter and organic sediments are main sinks for metals and metalloids in aquatic ecosystems. The effect of invertebrates as key species in aquatic litter decomposition on metal/metalloid fixation by organic matter is described only for shredders, but for grazers as another important animal group less is known. Consequently, a laboratory batch experiment was conducted to examine the effect of invertebrate grazers (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization during aquatic litter decomposition. It could be shown that invertebrate grazers facilitate significantly the formation of smaller sizes of particulate organic matter (POM), as shown previously for invertebrate shredders. The metal/metalloid binding capacity of these smaller particles of POM is higher compared to leaf litter residuals. But element enrichment is not as high as shown previously for the effect by invertebrate shredders. Invertebrate grazers enhance also the mobilization of selected elements to the water, in the range also proven for invertebrate shredders but different for the different elements. Nonetheless invertebrate grazers activity during aquatic litter decomposition leads to a metal/metalloid fixation into leaf litter as part of sediment organic matter. Hence, the effect of invertebrate grazers on metal/metalloid fixation/remobilization contrasts partly with former assessments revealing the possibility of an enhanced metal/metalloid fixation.

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-02-05

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

  1. Plastic litter on an urban beach---a case study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; de Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa; da Costa, Monica Ferreira

    2009-02-01

    Beaches are subject to solid waste contamination at the strandline. Litter depositional dynamics is influenced by specific beach morphology and sources of solid wastes. The amount of items on the strandline of Boa Viagem beach (Recife, Brazil) was evaluated during dry and rainy seasons of 2005 to characterize their sources and depositional patterns. The strandline was surveyed once a month to count and classify all visible solid waste items within a belt-transect. Plastics were used for detailed analysis of the wastes accumulated. There were quantitative, but not qualitative, differences in litter accumulation during the year and parts of the beach. The main source of debris was land-based. In general, the beach was low-polluted in the dry season and medium-polluted during the rainy season. The method is a low-cost and highly efficient characterization of solid wastes contamination of urban beaches.

  2. [Spatial structure of acid properties of litter in the succession row of swamp birch woods ].

    PubMed

    Efremova, T T; Sekretenko, O P; Avrova, A F; Efremov, S P

    2013-01-01

    The general potential, exchange, and actual (pH) acidities were investigated in the litter of the succession row of swamp birch woods. Their variabilities constitute, respectively, 75.9-174.4, 3.7-25.8 mmol (+)/100 g of the sampling, 3.7-5.5. For the first time, using the methods ofgeostatistics, their spatial variability was analyzed and the contributions of the trend, autocorrelation component, and the radius of the spatial correlation were estimated. It was established that in combination with the tree waste, which is uniformly distributed along the ecological profile, the specific composition of the grass-moss tier, which corresponds to the humidity of edaphon, forms the picture of the spatial structure of acid properties of the litter. It was noted that the prime cause of variability consists in the particularities of the water regime of the habitats of swamp birch woods.

  3. Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Suocheng; Hou, Xiaoli

    2004-11-01

    Application of geo-information science methods in ecotourism development was discussed in the article. Since 1990s, geo-information science methods, which take the 3S (Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing) as core techniques, has played an important role in resources reconnaissance, data management, environment monitoring, and regional planning. Geo-information science methods can easily analyze and convert geographic spatial data. The application of 3S methods is helpful to sustainable development in tourism. Various assignments are involved in the development of ecotourism, such as reconnaissance of ecotourism resources, drawing of tourism maps, dealing with mass data, and also tourism information inquire, employee management, quality management of products. The utilization of geo-information methods in ecotourism can make the development more efficient by promoting the sustainable development of tourism and the protection of eco-environment.

  4. Application of linear gauss pseudospectral method in model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liang; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Wanchun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control(MPC) method aimed at solving the nonlinear optimal control problem with hard terminal constraints and quadratic performance index. The method combines the philosophies of the nonlinear approximation model predictive control, linear quadrature optimal control and Gauss Pseudospectral method. The current control is obtained by successively solving linear algebraic equations transferred from the original problem via linearization and the Gauss Pseudospectral method. It is not only of high computational efficiency since it does not need to solve nonlinear programming problem, but also of high accuracy though there are a few discrete points. Therefore, this method is suitable for on-board applications. A design of terminal impact with a specified direction is carried out to evaluate the performance of this method. Augmented PN guidance law in the three-dimensional coordinate system is applied to produce the initial guess. And various cases for target with straight-line movements are employed to demonstrate the applicability in different impact angles. Moreover, performance of the proposed method is also assessed by comparison with other guidance laws. Simulation results indicate that this method is not only of high computational efficiency and accuracy, but also applicable in the framework of guidance design.

  5. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha(-1) y(-1). Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g(-1) was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m(-2) yr(-1). This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed.

  6. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  7. Influence of habitat, litter type, and soil invertebrates on leaf-litter decomposition in a fragmented Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Laurance, William F

    2005-07-01

    Amazonian forest fragments and second-growth forests often differ substantially from undisturbed forests in their microclimate, plant-species composition, and soil fauna. To determine if these changes could affect litter decomposition, we quantified the mass loss of two contrasting leaf-litter mixtures, in the presence or absence of soil macroinvertebrates, and in three forest habitats. Leaf-litter decomposition rates in second-growth forests (>10 years old) and in fragment edges (<100 m from the edge) did not differ from that in the forest interior (>250 m from the edges of primary forests). In all three habitats, experimental exclusion of soil invertebrates resulted in slower decomposition rates. Faunal-exclosure effects were stronger for litter of the primary forest, composed mostly of leaves of old-growth trees, than for litter of second-growth forests, which was dominated by leaves of successional species. The latter had a significantly lower initial concentration of N, higher C:N and lignin:N ratios, and decomposed at a slower rate than did litter from forest interiors. Our results indicate that land-cover changes in Amazonia affect decomposition mainly through changes in plant species composition, which in turn affect litter quality. Similar effects may occur on fragment edges, particularly on very disturbed edges, where successional trees become dominant. The drier microclimatic conditions in fragment edges and second-growth forests (>10 years old) did not appear to inhibit decomposition. Finally, although soil invertebrates play a key role in leaf-litter decomposition, we found no evidence that differences in the abundance, species richness, or species composition of invertebrates between disturbed and undisturbed forests significantly altered decomposition rates.

  8. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    PubMed

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment.

  9. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.05) of males but not females. The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01) from 0 to 49 d but improved adjusted feed conversion ratio (AdjFCR) from 35 to 49 d (P<0.05). Male broilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01), and improved FCR (P<0.01), but with increased mortality (P<0.05). The inclusion of CC increased relative gizzard weight (P<0.01) and decreased relative proventriculus weight (P<0.01) at 49 d. Experiment 2 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 CC levels (0 or 50%) and 2 litter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (P<0.01). New litter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (P<0.01). At 49 d, the birds fed the CC diet had reduced excreta nitrogen (P<0.05) and litter moisture (P<0.05). In conclusion, 50% CC inclusion initially produced negative effects on live performance that became positive as BW increased. The effects of CC became evident at an earlier age for males. New litter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance.

  10. Abundance of pathogens in the gut and litter of broiler chickens as affected by bacitracin and litter management.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shan; Gutek, Amanda; Lilburn, Michael; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-10-25

    Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. are food-borne enteric pathogens that are commonly associated with poultry. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplemental bacitracin and litter management (fresh vs. reused) on the abundance of these pathogens in commercial broiler chickens. Specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to quantify C. perfringens, virulent C. perfringens that carried the genes encoding α-toxin (cpa) and NetB-toxin (netB), Salmonella, and Campylobacter in samples of ileal mucosa, cecal content, and litter. Campylobacter was not detected in any of the samples collected. The abundance of Salmonella was not affected by either bacitracin or litter condition. Generic C. perfringens was detected in the ileal mucosa at very low level at 10 days of age but was much higher at 35 days. Chickens reared on reused litter tended to have a lower abundance of generic C. perfringens compared with those reared on fresh litter. In the ileal mucosa, no cpa or netB was detected at day 10 but was detected at day 35 in the chickens that were not fed supplemental bacitracin. Chicks fed supplemental bacitracin had reduced abundance of generic C. perfringens as well as the cpa and netB genes in the ileal mucosa, cecal content, and litters. A strong positive correlation was found between the abundance of all three measurements of C. perfringens. The abundance of Salmonella spp. and C. perfringens was also shown to be correlated. This is the first study that has examined the effect of dietary bacitracin and litter conditions on the prevalence of these three common enteric pathogens. Unless contaminated from previous flocks, reused litter may not necessarily contain significantly greater abundances of C. perfringens or Salmonella.

  11. Evaluation of phosphorus characterization in broiler ileal digesta, manure, and litter samples: (31)P-NMR vs. HPLC.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Kwanyuen, P; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Brake, J

    2008-01-01

    Using 31-phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-NMR) to characterize phosphorus (P) in animal manures and litter has become a popular technique in the area of nutrient management. To date, there has been no published work evaluating P quantification in manure/litter samples with (31)P-NMR compared to other accepted methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To evaluate the use of (31)P-NMR to quantify myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in ileal digesta, manure, and litter from broilers, we compared results obtained from both (31)P-NMR and a more traditional HPLC method. The quantification of phytate in all samples was very consistent between the two methods, with linear regressions having slopes ranging from 0.94 to 1.07 and r(2) values of 0.84 to 0.98. We compared the concentration of total monoester P determined with (31)P-NMR with the total inositol P content determined with HPLC and found a strong linear relationship between the two measurements having slopes ranging from 0.91 to 1.08 and r(2) values of 0.73 to 0.95. This suggests that (31)P-NMR is a very reliable method for quantifying P compounds in manure/litter samples.

  12. Litter stoichiometric traits of plant species of high-latitude ecosystems show high responsiveness to global change without causing strong variation in litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Aerts, R; van Bodegom, P M; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-10-01

    • High-latitude ecosystems are important carbon accumulators, mainly as a result of low decomposition rates of litter and soil organic matter. We investigated whether global change impacts on litter decomposition rates are constrained by litter stoichiometry. • Thereto, we investigated the interspecific natural variation in litter stoichiometric traits (LSTs) in high-latitude ecosystems, and compared it with climate change-induced LST variation measured in the Meeting of Litters (MOL) experiment. This experiment includes leaf litters originating from 33 circumpolar and high-altitude global change experiments. Two-year decomposition rates of litters from these experiments were measured earlier in two common litter beds in sub-Arctic Sweden. • Response ratios of LSTs in plants of high-latitude ecosystems in the global change treatments showed a three-fold variation, and this was in the same range as the natural variation among species. However, response ratios of decomposition were about an order of magnitude lower than those of litter carbon/nitrogen ratios. • This implies that litter stoichiometry does not constrain the response of plant litter decomposition to global change. We suggest that responsiveness is rather constrained by the less responsive traits of the Plant Economics Spectrum of litter decomposability, such as lignin and dry matter content and specific leaf area.

  13. Increased litter size and suckling intensity inhibit KiSS-1 mRNA expression in rat arcuate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Tamadon, Amin; Akhlaghi, Amir; Tanideh, Nader; Niazi, Ali; Moghadam, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The effect of litter size and suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of rats were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirty two pregnant and four non-lactating ovariectomized (as control group) rats were used in this experiment. Lactating rats were allotted to eight equal groups. In three groups, litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition and allowed to suckle their pups continuously by 8 days postpartum. In the other three groups, litter size was adjusted to five upon birth; the pups were separated from the dams for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 min prior to killing the dams. Two groups of lactating rats with either 10 or 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hr on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 min before the dams were killed on day 8 postpartum. The ARC was removed and the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was evaluated, using real-time PCR. Results: The expression of KiSS-1 mRNA in the ARC was decreased as the litter size and intensity of suckling stimulus were increased. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA was more pronounced than that of litter size. Conclusion: Increased litter size and suckling intensity decreased KiSS-1 mRNA expression in the ARC which may contribute to lactation anestrus in rat. PMID:25422754

  14. Increased Litter Size and Suckling Intensity Stimulate mRNA of RFamide-related Peptide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Atefeh; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Tamadon, Amin; Moghadam, Ali; Niazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in rats. This study evaluates the effects of litter size and suckling intensity on RFRP mRNA expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) of rats. Materials and Methods A total of 32 pregnant and 4 non-lactating ovariectomized (control group) Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experimental study. Lactating rats were allotted to 8 equal groups. In 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5, 10, or 15 pups upon parturition. Dams were allowed to suckle their pups continuously until 8 days postpartum. In the other 3 groups, the litter size was adjusted to 5 pups following birth. These pups were separated from the dams for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum, after which the pups were allowed to suckle for 2.5, 5, or 7.5 minutes prior to killing the dams. In 2 groups, lactating rats with 10 and 15 pups were separated from their pups for 6 hours on day 8 postpartum. In these groups, the pups were allowed to suckle their dams for 5 minutes before the dams were killed. All rats were killed on day 8 postpartum and the DMH was removed from each rat. We evaluated RFRP mRNA expression using realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The expression of RFRP mRNA in the DMH increased with increased litter size and suckling intensity compared to the controls. The effect of suckling intensity on the expression of RFRP mRNA was more pronounced compared to the litter size. Conclusion Increased litter size and suckling intensity stimulated RFRP mRNA expression in the DMH which might contribute to lactation anestrus in rats. PMID:26644862

  15. Application of Vacuum Deposition Methods to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, Larry R.; Singh, Prabhakar; Zhou, Xiao Dong

    2006-07-01

    The application of vacuum deposition techniques to the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell materials and structures are reviewed, focusing on magnetron sputtering, vacuum plasma methods, laser ablation, and electrochemical vapor deposition. A description of each method and examples of use to produce electrolyte, electrode, and/or electrical interconnects are given. Generally high equipment costs and relatively low deposition rates have limited the use of vacuum deposition methods in solid oxide fuel cell manufacture, with a few notable exceptions. Vacuum methods are particularly promising in the fabrication of micro fuel cells, where thin films of high quality and unusual configuration are desired.

  16. Growth, carcass characteristics, and incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to environmental fluctuations and oiled litter.

    PubMed

    McGovern, R H; Feddes, J J; Robinson, F E; Hanson, J A

    2000-03-01

    The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations and removal of respirable dust, by application of canola oil to straw litter, on growth, carcass traits, and the degree of ascites was evaluated with 1,200 male broilers studied in two replicated 6-wk trials. Each trial used four pens of 150 birds. The temperature treatment consisted of a fluctuation of 3 C in temperature above the required temperature during the day (0600 to 1800 h) and 3 C below the required temperature at night (1800 to 0600 h) for a 6 C change in daily temperature. The control temperature was constant. All pens had the same mean daily temperature. In each trial, one control temperature pen and one fluctuation temperature pen received bi-weekly applications of canola oil to the litter (1.1 L/m2 of oil over 6 wk). At 6 wk of age, 30 birds from each pen were killed for determination of breast muscle, fatpad, and heart weights. All birds were scored for lesions of ascites at time of processing. A score of 0 or 1 represented slight pericardial effusion, slight pulmonary congestion, and edema. A score of 4 represented birds with marked accumulation of ascitic fluid in one or more ceolomic cavities (other than the pericardium) and advanced liver lesions. A cross-sectional image of each 4-mm heart slice (cross-section of the ventricles) was digitally recorded, and with image analysis we determined the right ventricular area (RVA), left ventricular area (LVA), and total heart area (HA). The final BW of the broilers were significantly different, the oiled-litter treatment (2,249 g) had lower weight gain compared with the nonoiled litter treatment (2,293 g). There were no differences in fatpad weight, shank length, lung weight, and percentage breast muscle between the main treatments. The Pectoralis minor and Pectoralis major weight were significantly heavier in the temperature fluctuation treatment than in the control temperature treatment by 3.0 and 12.0 g, respectively. The birds subjected to the control

  17. Application of the {gamma}SF method to palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Iwamoto, C.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Arteaga, D. P.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 108}Pd, {sup 106}Pd, and {sup 105}Pd with laser-Compton scattering {gamma}-ray beams in an application of the {gamma}SF method to a radioactive nucleus {sup 107}Pd. We present radiative neutron cross sections for {sup 107}Pd[6.5x10{sup 6} y] obtained with the {gamma}SF method.

  18. Application of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method to Acoustic Scatter Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, H. L.

    1997-01-01

    The application of the quadrature-free form of the discontinuous Galerkin method to two problems from Category 1 of the Second Computational Aeroacoustics Workshop on Benchmark problems is presented. The method and boundary conditions relevant to this work are described followed by two test problems, both of which involve the scattering of an acoustic wave off a cylinder. The numerical test performed to evaluate mesh-resolution requirements and boundary-condition effectiveness are also described.

  19. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.

  1. Manufacturing methods and applications of membranes in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Hu, Zengliang; Huo, Xuyao

    2016-12-01

    Applications of membranes in microfluidics solved many thorny problems for analytical chemistry and bioscience, so that the use of membranes in microfluidics has been a topic of growing interest. Many different examples have been reported, demonstrating the versatile use of membranes. This work reviews a lot of applications of membranes in microfluidics. Membranes in microfluidics for applications including chemical reagents detection, gas detection, drug screening, cell, protein, microreactor, electrokinetical fluid, pump and valve and fluid transport control and so on, have been analyzed and discussed. In addition, the definition and basic concepts of membranes are summed up. And the methods of manufacturing membranes in microfluidics are discussed. This paper will provide a helpful reference to researchers who want to study applications of membranes in microfluidics.

  2. Ingestion of marine litter by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in Portuguese continental waters.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Lídia; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Sá, Sara; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    The accumulation of litter in marine and coastal environments is a major threat to marine life. Data on marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of stranded loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, found along the Portuguese continental coast was presented. Out of the 95 analysed loggerheads, litter was present in 56 individuals (59.0%) and most had less than 10 litter items (76.8%) and less than 5 g (dm) (96.8%). Plastic was the main litter category (frequency of occurrence=56.8%), while sheet (45.3%) was the most relevant plastic sub-category. There was no influence of loggerhead stranding season, cause of stranding or size on the amount of litter ingested (mean number and dry mass of litter items per turtle). The high ingested litter occurrence frequency in this study supports the use of the loggerhead turtle as a suitable tool to monitor marine litter trends, as required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  3. Artificial neural networks for modeling time series of beach litter in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Matthies, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In European marine waters, existing monitoring programs of beach litter need to be improved concerning litter items used as indicators of pollution levels, efficiency, and effectiveness. In order to ease and focus future monitoring of beach litter on few important litter items, feed-forward neural networks consisting of three layers were developed to relate single litter items to general categories of marine litter. The neural networks developed were applied to seven beaches in the southern North Sea and modeled time series of five general categories of marine litter, such as litter from fishing, shipping, and tourism. Results of regression analyses show that general categories were predicted significantly moderately to well. Measured and modeled data were in the same order of magnitude, and minima and maxima overlapped well. Neural networks were found to be eligible tools to deliver reliable predictions of marine litter with low computational effort and little input of information.

  4. How to save water by choice of irrigation application method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  5. Click Reaction: An Applicable Radiolabeling Method for Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Byung Chul

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the click reaction has found rapidly growing applications in the field of radiochemistry, ranging from a practical labeling method to molecular imaging of biomacromolecules. This present review details the development of highly reliable, powerful and selective click chemistry reactions for the rapid synthesis of new radiotracers for molecular imaging.

  6. Application of geophysical methods to agriculture: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  7. An Overview of the Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, & Applications Group

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, Travis John

    2016-08-30

    This report sketches the work of the Group to deliver first-principle Monte Carlo methods, production quality codes, and radiation transport-based computational and experimental assessments using the codes MCNP and MCATK for such applications as criticality safety, non-proliferation, nuclear energy, nuclear threat reduction and response, radiation detection and measurement, radiation health protection, and stockpile stewardship.

  8. 7 CFR 1430.303 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS 2004 Dairy Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.303 Time and method of application. (a) Dairy producers may obtain an... where the dairy operation is located but, in any case, must be received by the FSA county office by...

  9. 7 CFR 784.4 - Time and method of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.4 Time and method of application. (a) A request for benefits under this part must be submitted on the Ewe Lamb... documents that prove the eligibility of the qualifying ewe lambs and the sheep and lamb operation....

  10. The ReaxFF method - new applications and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Duin, Adri

    The ReaxFF method provides a highly transferable simulation method for atomistic scale simulations on chemical reactions at the nanosecond and nanometer scale. It combines concepts of bond-order based potentials with a polarizable charge distribution. Since it initial development for hydrocarbons in 2001, we have found that this concept is transferable to applications to elements all across the periodic table, including all first row elements, metals, ceramics and ionic materials. For all these elements and associated materials we have demonstrated that ReaxFF can reproduce quantum mechanics-based structures, reaction energies and reaction barriers with reasonable accuracy, enabling the method to predict reaction kinetics in complicated, multi-material environments at a relatively modest computational expense. This presentation will describe the current concepts of the ReaxFF method, the current status of the various ReaxFF codes, including parallel implementations and recently developed hybrid Grand Canonical Monte Carlo options - which significantly increase its application areas. Also, we will present and overview of recent applications to a range of materials of increasing complexity, with a focus on applications to combustion, biomaterials, batteries, tribology and catalysis.

  11. Radiocesium leaching from contaminated litter in forest streams.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Naito, Risa S; Negishi, Junjiro N; Sasaki, Michiko; Toda, Hiroto; Nunokawa, Masanori; Murase, Kaori

    2015-06-01

    In Japanese forests suffering from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, litter fall provides a large amount of radiocesium from forests to streams. Submerged litter is processed to become a vital food resource for various stream organisms through initial leaching and subsequent decomposition. Although leaching from litter can detach radiocesium similarly to potassium, radiocesium leaching and its migration are poorly understood. We examined both radiocesium and potassium leaching to the water column and radiocesium allocation to minerals (glass beads, silica sand, and vermiculite) in the laboratory using soaked litter with and without minerals on a water column. The mineral types did not affect radiocesium leaching from litter, but soaking in water for 1, 7, and 30 days decreased the radiocesium concentration in litter by ×0.71, ×0.66, and ×0.56, respectively. Meanwhile, the 1-, 7-, and 30-day experiments decreased potassium concentration in litter by ×0.17, ×0.11, and ×0.09, respectively. Leached radiocesium remained in a dissolved form when there was no mineral phases present in the water, whereas there was sorption onto the minerals when they were present. In particular, vermiculite adsorbed radiocesium by two to three orders of magnitude more effectively than the other minerals. Because radiocesium forms (such as that dissolved or adsorbed to organic matter or minerals) can further mobilize to ecosystems, our findings will increase our understanding regarding the dynamics of radiocesium in stream ecosystems.

  12. [Contributions of soil fauna to litter decomposition in alpine/subalpine forests].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Long; Li, Wei-Min; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo; Wang, Wen-Jun; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong

    2013-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted using the litterbag method to quantify the contribution of soil fauna to litter mass loss of Salix paraplesia, Sabina saltuaria, Betula albosinensis and Abies faxoniana during different key periods of the decomposition process of the first year (from November 2011 to October 2012). The results showed that the mass loss rate showed S. paraplesia > B. albosinensis > A. faxoniana > S. saltuaria, and the rate in the growing season was greater than in the freeze-thaw season. The contribution rate of soil fauna to the mass decomposition displayed as S. saltuaria (26.7%) > A. faxoniana (18.8%) > B. albosinensis (15.7%) > S. paraplesia (13.2%), which was higher in the freeze-thaw season than in the growing season for litter of B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana while vice versa for litter of B. albosinensis and A. faxoniana. The contribution of soil fauna was mainly related to organic C, P and N/P in the freeze-thaw season, while N, C/N, lignin and lignin/cellulose in the growing season.

  13. Investigation of nitrogen-bearing species in catalytic steam gasification of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Atul C; Bagchi, Bratendu

    2005-05-01

    The production of broiler chickens has become one of the largest sectors in U.S. agriculture, and the growing demand for poultry has led to an annual production growth rate of 5%. With increased demand for poultry, litter management has become a major challenge in the agriculture industry. Although the catalytic steam gasification has been accepted as a possible and feasible method for litter management, concern has been expressed about the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus containing species in the fuel gas and/or in the final solid residue. The possible release of phosphorus as phosphine gas in the fuel gas can have an adverse impact on the environment. Similarly, possible release of ammonia from the nitrogen containing species is also not acceptable. Hence, under partial U.S. Department of Agriculture support, a study was conducted to examine the fate and the environmental impact of the nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing species released during catalytic steam gasification of poultry litter. From various preliminary tests, it was concluded that most (approximately 100%) of the phosphorus would remain in the residue, and some (20-70%) of the nitrogen would end up as ammonia in the fuel gas. The effects of temperature, catalyst loading, and type of catalyst on ammonia liberation were studied in a muffled furnace setup at atmospheric pressure. The fraction of nitrogen released as ammonia was found to decrease with an increase in temperature during pyrolysis and steam gasification. It also decreased with an increase in catalyst loading.

  14. Plant Litter to Mineral Soil Sinks: Tracking Carbon Flux into Soil Sinks in Temperate Broadleaf Forests in the Eastern US with Radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Hanson, P. J.; Matamala, R.; Porras, R. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, a multiyear study was initiated to characterize the rate of C flux from litter sources to mineral soil sinks in four Eastern deciduous forests spanning a range of climatic and soil conditions. The Enriched Background Isotope Study focusing on AmeriFlux Sites (EBIS-AmeriFlux) provides quantitative data on the rate of C flux from litter to soil sinks using unique radiocarbon-enriched materials. Radiocarbon-enriched leaf and root litter and humus have been deployed under at the University of Michigan Biological Station (MI-UMBS), Bartlett Forest (NH-BF), Harvard Forest (MA-HF), and Baskett Research and Education Area in the Missouri Ozarks (MO-OZ). In addition to investigating rates of C transfer from litter to bulk O horizon sand mineral soil, we used density fractionation to separate bulk mineral soil into three pools of varying stability. These fractions are being used to identify which soil organic matter pools incorporate C from the experimental sources and determine pool-specific transfer rates. We will present results from the first two years of enriched-leaf and -humus applications and first year of enriched-root decomposition experiments. Preliminary results show that little humus-C was incorporated into soil over 2 years, but that by the second year after enriched-litter applications began new litter C had been transferred to mineral soil at MO-OZ and MI-UMBS. After 1 year, root-derived 14C label was detected in all three soil-density fractions isolated from the MO-OZ, but not in fractions from NH-BF. These data allow for the calculation of annual transfer rates for carbon from plant litter sources to mineral soil sinks.

  15. Eutrophication triggers contrasting multilevel feedbacks on litter accumulation and decomposition in fens.

    PubMed

    Emsens, W-J; Aggenbach, C J S; Grootjans, A P; Nfor, E E; Schoelynck, J; Struyf, E; van Diggelen, R

    2016-10-01

    Eutrophication is a major threat for the persistence of nutrient-poor fens, as multilevel feedbacks on decomposition rates could trigger carbon loss and increase nutrient cycling. Here, we experimentally investigate the effects of macronutrient (NPK) enrichment on litter quality of six species of sedge (Carex sp.), which we relate to litter decomposition rates in a nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich environment. Our research focused on four levels: we examined how eutrophication alters (1) fresh litter production ("productivity shift"), (2) litter stoichiometry within the same species ("intraspecific shift"), (3) overall litter stoichiometry of the vegetation under the prediction that low-competitive species are outcompeted by fast-growing competitors ("interspecific shift"), and (4) litter decomposition rates due to an altered external environment (e.g., shifts in microbial activity; "exogenous shift"). Eutrophication triggered a strong increase in fresh litter production. Moreover, individuals of the same species produced litter with lower C:N and C:P ratios, higher K contents, and lower lignin, Ca and Mg contents (intraspecific shift), which increased litter decomposability. In addition, species typical for eutrophic conditions produced more easily degradable litter than did species typical for nutrient-poor conditions (interspecific shift). However, the effects of nutrient loading of the external environment (exogenous shift) were contradictory. Here, interactions between litter type and ambient nutrient level indicate that the (exogenous) effects of eutrophication on litter decomposition rates are strongly dependent of litter quality. Moreover, parameters of litter quality only correlated with decomposition rates for litter incubated in nutrient-poor environments, but not in eutrophic environments. This suggests that rates of litter decomposition can be uncoupled from litter stoichiometry under eutrophic conditions. In conclusion, our results show that

  16. Seasonal and interannual litter dynamics of a tropical semideciduous forest of the southern Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanches, Luciana; Valentini, Carla Maria Abido; Júnior, Osvaldo Borges Pinto; de Souza Nogueira, José; Vourlitis, George Louis; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; da Silva, Carlos José; Bambi, Paulino; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco

    2008-12-01

    This study analyzed how seasonal and interannual variations in climate alter litter dynamics, including production, decomposition, and accumulation. Monthly measurements of leaf, stem, and reproductive (flower plus fruit) litter and the forest floor litter mass were combined with a mass balance model to determine rates of litter decomposition for a semideciduous tropical forest located in the rain forest-savanna ecotone of the southern Amazon Basin for 2001-2007. Annual rates of litter production varied between 8 and 10.5 Mg ha-1 a-1, and leaf litter production accounted for the majority (˜70%) of the total litter production. Leaf litter production peaked at the end of the May-August dry season while stem litter production peaked during the wet season and reproductive litter production peaked during the dry-wet season transition. Forest floor litter mass ranged between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 over the study period and generally declined as litter inputs declined. Litter decomposition rates were remarkably stable from year-to-year and varied between 10.8 and 12.4 Mg ha-1 a-1. On average, rates of litter decomposition were highest during the dry-wet season transition. Overall, our results suggest that rainfall variability directly altered litter production dynamics and indirectly altered forest floor litter mass and decomposition kinetics through its effect on litter production. Future changes in seasonal and/or interannual rainfall patterns, whether in response to El Niño or to anthropogenic climate change, will likely have important consequences for the litter dynamics of Amazonian semideciduous forest.

  17. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species—and litter amount—shallow (4 mm), deep (12 mm) and leachate—on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow) or neutral effect (deep) on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness. PMID:22028890

  18. Histotripsy Methods in Mechanical Disintegration of Tissue: Toward Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khokhlova, VA; Fowlkes, JB; Roberts, WW; Schade, GR; Xu, Z; Khokhlova, TD; Hall, TL; Maxwell, AD; Wang, YN; Cain, CA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently, there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Material and Methods Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapor cavity causes tissue disintegration. Results Recent pre-clinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumors, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing antitumor immune response, and tissue decellularization for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Conclusions Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilize different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of noninvasive surgery. PMID:25707817

  19. Review of SMS design methods and real-world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dross, Oliver; Mohedano, Ruben; Benitez, Pablo; Minano, Juan Carlos; Chaves, Julio; Blen, Jose; Hernandez, Maikel; Munoz, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Simultaneous Multiple Surfaces design method (SMS), proprietary technology of Light Prescription Innovators (LPI), was developed in the early 1990's as a two dimensional method. The first embodiments had either linear or rotational symmetry and found applications in photovoltaic concentrators, illumination optics and optical communications. SMS designed devices perform close to the thermodynamic limit and are compact and simple; features that are especially beneficial in applications with today's high brightness LEDs. The method was extended to 3D "free form" geometries in 1999 that perfectly couple two incoming with two outgoing wavefronts. SMS 3D controls the light emitted by an extended light source much better than single free form surface designs, while reaching very high efficiencies. This has enabled the SMS method to be applied to automotive head lamps, one of the toughest lighting tasks in any application, where high efficiency and small size are required. This article will briefly review the characteristics of both the 2D and 3D methods and will present novel optical solutions that have been developed and manufactured to meet real world problems. These include various ultra compact LED collimators, solar concentrators and highly efficient LED low and high beam headlamp designs.

  20. Application of integrated fluid-thermal-structural analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieting, Allan R.; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Bey, Kim S.; Thornton, Earl A.; Morgan, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles operate in a hostile aerothermal environment which has a significant impact on their aerothermostructural performance. Significant coupling occurs between the aerodynamic flow field, structural heat transfer, and structural response creating a multidisciplinary interaction. Interfacing state-of-the-art disciplinary analysis methods is not efficient, hence interdisciplinary analysis methods integrated into a single aerothermostructural analyzer are needed. The NASA Langley Research Center is developing such methods in an analyzer called LIFTS (Langley Integrated Fluid-Thermal-Structural) analyzer. The evolution and status of LIFTS is reviewed and illustrated through applications.

  1. Control of chaos: methods and applications in mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fradkov, Alexander L; Evans, Robin J; Andrievsky, Boris R

    2006-09-15

    A survey of the field related to control of chaotic systems is presented. Several major branches of research that are discussed are feed-forward ('non-feedback') control (based on periodic excitation of the system), the 'Ott-Grebogi-Yorke method' (based on the linearization of the Poincaré map), the 'Pyragas method' (based on a time-delayed feedback), traditional for control-engineering methods including linear, nonlinear and adaptive control. Other areas of research such as control of distributed (spatio-temporal and delayed) systems, chaotic mixing are outlined. Applications to control of chaotic mechanical systems are discussed.

  2. Applications of alignment-free methods in epigenomics

    PubMed Central

    Pinello, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of cell type-specific gene activities, yet how epigenetic patterns are established and maintained remains poorly understood. Recent studies have supported a role of DNA sequences in recruitment of epigenetic regulators. Alignment-free methods have been applied to identify distinct sequence features that are associated with epigenetic patterns and to predict epigenomic profiles. Here, we review recent advances in such applications, including the methods to map DNA sequence to feature space, sequence comparison and prediction models. Computational studies using these methods have provided important insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:24197932

  3. Applications of alignment-free methods in epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Pinello, Luca; Lo Bosco, Giosuè; Yuan, Guo-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of cell type-specific gene activities, yet how epigenetic patterns are established and maintained remains poorly understood. Recent studies have supported a role of DNA sequences in recruitment of epigenetic regulators. Alignment-free methods have been applied to identify distinct sequence features that are associated with epigenetic patterns and to predict epigenomic profiles. Here, we review recent advances in such applications, including the methods to map DNA sequence to feature space, sequence comparison and prediction models. Computational studies using these methods have provided important insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms.

  4. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  5. Applications of nuclear analytical methods to materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear analytical methods have now become important in the characterization of many types of materials and have been shown to be an extremely important extension of many more common methods. To illustrate the breadth of their use, some recent Brookhaven experiments are described that deal with the depth distribution of hydrogen in Nb-H alloys, the diffusion of Mo in graphite at high temperatures, and the measurement of Al and Si concentrations in zeolite catalysts. It is hoped that the presentation of these illustrative examples will serve as a stimulus and encouragement for the further application of nuclear analytical methods.

  6. Applications of New Technologies and New Methods in ZHENG Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jianye; Sun, Shujun; Cao, Huijuan; Zheng, Ningning; Wang, Wenyu; Gou, Xiaojun; Su, Shibing; Zhang, Yongyu

    2012-01-01

    With the hope to provide an effective approach for personalized diagnosis and treatment clinically, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is being paid increasing attention as a complementary and alternative medicine. It performs treatment based on ZHENG (TCM syndrome) differentiation, which could be identified as clinical special phenotypes by symptoms and signs of patients. However, it caused skepticism and criticism because ZHENG classification only depends on observation, knowledge, and clinical experience of TCM practitioners, which is lack of objectivity and repeatability. Scientists have done fruitful researches for its objectivity and standardization. Compared with traditional four diagnostic methods (looking, listening and smelling, asking, and touching), in this paper, the applications of new technologies and new methods on the ZHENG differentiation were systemically reviewed, including acquisition, analysis, and integration of clinical data or information. Furthermore, the characteristics and application range of these technologies and methods were summarized. It will provide reference for further researches. PMID:22675378

  7. Genetic determinism for within-litter birth weight variation and its relationship with litter weight and litter size in the Ripollesa ewe breed.

    PubMed

    Casellas, J; Caja, G; Piedrafita, J

    2007-06-01

    Birth weight plays a central role in lamb survival and growth, and the knowledge of its genetic determinism has become essential in worldwide selection programmes. Within this context, within-litter birth weight variation (BWV) has been suggested as an attractive trait to homogenise litters in prolific species, although it has not been analysed in sheep. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for BWV in Ripollesa ewes, and to study its genetic, permanent environmental and residual relationships with litter weight (LW) and litter size (LS) at birth. Data were recorded in the Ripollesa experimental flock of the Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona, between 1986 and 2005, and included 1 662 litters from 380 ewes, with 712 records of BWV and 1 530 records of LW. Traits were analysed with a multivariate animal model solved through Bayesian methodologies, and with a threshold characterisation of LS. Additionally, the effect of BWV on lamb survival was studied. Additive genetic variance was observed for BWV (h2 = 0.061), as well as for LW (h2 = 0.200) and LS (h2 = 0.141). Nevertheless, genetic correlations among those traits were not substantial (BWV and LW = 0.151; BWV and LS = - 0.219; LW and LS = - 0.320) and suffered from a high degree of uncertainly, with the null correlation included within the highest posterior interval at 95%. Within-litter birth weight variation and LS showed a negative and large permanent environmental correlation ( - 0.872), and LW and LS were negatively correlated due to residual ( - 0.762) and permanent environmental ( - 0.449) random sources of variation. Within-litter birth weight variation influenced lamb mortality during the first 7 days of life (P < 0.05), increasing and decreasing survivability in heavier and lighter littermates, respectively. Nevertheless, stillbirths and lambs died after the 1st week of life were not affected by BWV (P>0.05). The low

  8. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  9. Metrology, applications and methods with high energy CT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlmann, N.; Voland, V.; Salamon, M.; Hebele, S.; Boehnel, M.; Reims, N.; Schmitt, M.; Kasperl, S.

    2014-02-18

    The increase of Computed Tomography (CT) as an applicable metrology and Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method raises interest on developing the application fields to larger objects, which were rarely used in the past due to their requirements on the imaging system. Especially the classical X-ray generation techniques based on standard equipment restricted the applications of CT to typical material penetration lengths of only a few cm of steel. Even with accelerator technology that offers a suitable way to overcome these restrictions just the 2D radioscopy technique found a widespread application. Beside the production and detection of photons in the MeV range itself, the achievable image quality is limited using standard detectors due to the dominating absorption effect of Compton Scattering at high energies. Especially for CT reconstruction purposes these effects have to be considered on the development path from 2D to 3D imaging. Most High Energy CT applications are therefore based on line detectors shielding scattered radiation to a maximum with an increase in imaging quality but with time consuming large volume scan capabilities. In this contribution we present the High-Energy X-ray Imaging project at the Fraunhofer Development Centre for X-ray Technology with the characterization and the potential of the CT-system according to metrological and other application capabilities.

  10. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have

  11. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  12. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guannan; Guo, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed numerous micropores in the matrix. The product exhibited a mean particle diameter of 2.59 mm, an apparent density of 0.45 g cm(-3), a ball-pan hardness of 91.0, an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1), and a BET surface area of 403 m(2) g(-1). It contained high ash, nitrogen, phosphorus contents and the trace elements Cu, Zn, and As. Most of the nutrients and toxic elements were solidified and solution-unextractable. In general, poultry litter-based activated carbon demonstrated overall quality comparable to that of low-grade commercial activated carbon derived from coconut shell and bituminous coal. It is promising to use poultry litter as a feedstock to manufacture activated carbon for wastewater treatment.

  13. Observations of mixed-aged litters in brown bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, J.E.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on 3 cases of mixed-aged litters (young born in different years) in brown bears (Ursus arctos); in 1 instance the cub-of-the-year (hereafter called cubs) died in the den. Two cases occurred in Sweden after mothers were separated from their young during the breeding season. In one, the mother was separated from the accompanying cub for at least 12.5 hours and possibly up to 3.3 days, and later possibly separated for 4 days. In the other, the mother was separated from her yearling at least 3 times for 1-14, 1-6 and 1-6 days. She was with a male during the first separation. Specific events that produced the mixed-aged litter observed in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem were unknown and our interpretation is based on estimates of ages of accompanying young from photographs. The observation of only 2 mixed-aged litters, after den emergence, from a sample of 406 observed cub litters accompanying radiomarked females confirms the rarity of this phenomenon. The mechanism apparently includes a short separation of mother and young, and, in the case of cubs, the mother must mate while lactating. Better understanding of the physiological mechanisms that allow mixed-age litters would help us in the debate about the occurrence of sexually selected infanticide in bears.

  14. Litter survey detects the South Atlantic 'garbage patch'.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G

    2014-02-15

    A distance-based technique was used to assess the distribution and abundance of floating marine debris (>1cm) in the southeast Atlantic Ocean between Cape Town and Tristan da Cunha, crossing the southern edge of the South Atlantic 'garbage patch' predicted by surface drift models. Most litter was made of plastic (97%). Detection distances were influenced by the size and buoyancy of litter items. Litter density decreased from coastal waters off Cape Town (>100 items km(-2)) to oceanic waters (<10 items km(-2)), and was consistently higher (6.2 ± 1.3 items km(-2)) from 3 to 8°E than in adjacent oceanic waters (2.7 ± 0.3 items km(-2)) or in the central South Atlantic around Tristan (1.0 ± 0.4 items km(-2)). The area with high litter density had few seaweeds, suggesting that most litter had been drifting for a long time. The results indicate that floating debris is accumulating in the South Atlantic gyre as far south as 34-35°S.

  15. SOA formation potential of emissions from soil and leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Faiola, Celia L; Vanderschelden, Graham S; Wen, Miao; Elloy, Farah C; Cobos, Douglas R; Watts, Richard J; Jobson, B Thomas; Vanreken, Timothy M

    2014-01-21

    Soil and leaf litter are significant global sources of small oxidized volatile organic compounds, VOCs (e.g., methanol and acetaldehyde). They may also be significant sources of larger VOCs that could act as precursors to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. To investigate this, soil and leaf litter samples were collected from the University of Idaho Experimental Forest and transported to the laboratory. There, the VOC emissions were characterized and used to drive SOA formation via dark, ozone-initiated reactions. Monoterpenes dominated the emission profile with emission rates as high as 228 μg-C m(-2) h(-1). The composition of the SOA produced was similar to biogenic SOA formed from oxidation of ponderosa pine emissions and α-pinene. Measured soil and litter monoterpene emission rates were compared with modeled canopy emissions. Results suggest surface soil and litter monoterpene emissions could range from 12 to 136% of canopy emissions in spring and fall. Thus, emissions from leaf litter may potentially extend the biogenic emissions season, contributing to significant organic aerosol formation in the spring and fall when reduced solar radiation and temperatures reduce emissions from living vegetation.

  16. Lost fishing gear and litter at Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Rui P.; Raposo, Isabel P.; Sobral, Paula; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Bell, Katherine L. C.; Cunha, Marina R.

    2015-06-01

    Studies concerning marine litter have received great attention over the last several years by the scientific community mainly due to their ecological and economic impacts in marine ecosystems, from coastal waters to the deep ocean seafloor. The distribution, type and abundance of marine litter in Ormonde and Gettysburg, the two seamounts of Gorringe Bank, were analyzed from photo and video imagery obtained during ROV-based surveys carried out at 60-3015 m depths during the E/V Nautilus cruise NA017. Located approximately 125 nm southwest of Portugal, Gorringe Bank lays at the crossroad between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and is therefore characterized by an intense maritime traffic and fishing activities. The high frequency of lost or discarded fishing gear, such as cables, longlines and nets, observed on Gorringe Bank suggests an origin mostly from fishing activities, with a clear turnover in the type of litter (mostly metal, glass and to a much lesser extent, plastic) with increasing depth. Litter was more abundant at the summit of Gorringe Bank (ca. 4 items·km- 1), decreasing to less than 1 item·km- 1 at the flanks and to ca. 2 items·km- 1 at greater depths. Nevertheless, litter abundance appeared to be lower than in continental margin areas. The results presented herein are a contribution to support further actions for the conservation of vulnerable habitats on Gorringe Bank so that they can continue contributing to fishery productivity in the surrounding region.

  17. Application of the Finite Element Method to Rotary Wing Aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, F. K.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A finite element method for the spatial discretization of the dynamic equations of equilibrium governing rotary-wing aeroelastic problems is presented. Formulation of the finite element equations is based on weighted Galerkin residuals. This Galerkin finite element method reduces algebraic manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the application of the global Galerkin method in similar problems. The coupled flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries of hingeless helicopter rotor blades in hover are calculated. The linearized dynamic equations are reduced to the standard eigenvalue problem from which the aeroelastic stability boundaries are obtained. The convergence properties of the Galerkin finite element method are studied numerically by refining the discretization process. Results indicate that four or five elements suffice to capture the dynamics of the blade with the same accuracy as the global Galerkin method.

  18. A poroelastic immersed boundary method with applications to cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Copos, Calina A.; Lewis, Owen L.; Guy, Robert D.

    2015-02-01

    The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In the traditional immersed boundary method, the fluid and structure move with the same velocity field. In this work, a model based on the immersed boundary method is presented for simulating poroelastic media in which the fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of small volume fraction that moves with its own velocity field. Two distinct methods for calculating elastic stresses are presented and compared. The methods are validated on a radially symmetric test problem by comparing with a finite difference solution of the classical equations of poroelasticity. Finally, two applications of the modeling framework to cell biology are provided: cellular blebbing and cell crawling. It is shown that in both examples, poroelastic effects are necessary to explain the relevant mechanics.

  19. Histotripsy methods in mechanical disintegration of tissue: towards clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Vera A; Fowlkes, J Brian; Roberts, William W; Schade, George R; Xu, Zhen; Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Hall, Timothy L; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Cain, Charles A

    2015-03-01

    In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapour cavity causes tissue disintegration. Recent preclinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumours, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing anti-tumour immune response, and tissue decellularisation for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilise different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of non-invasive surgery.

  20. Spectrum-transformed sequential testing method for signal validation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.C.; Hoyer, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) has proven to be a valuable tool in a variety of reactor applications for signal validation and for sensor and equipment operability surveillance. One drawback of the conventional SPRT method is that its domain of application is limited to signals that are contaminated by gaussian white noise. Nongaussian process variables contaminated by serial correlation can produce higher-than-specified rates of false alarms and missed alarms for SPRT-based surveillance systems. To overcome this difficulty we present here the development and computer implementation of a new technique, the spectrum-transformed sequential testing method. This method retains the excellent surveillance advantage of the SPRT (extremely high sensitivity for very early annunciation of the onset of disturbances in monitored signals), and its false-alarm and missed-alarm probabilities are unaffected by the presence of serial correlation in the data. Example applications of the new method to serially-correlated reactor variables are demonstrated using data recorded from EBR-II.