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Sample records for littoral cell angioma

  1. Littoral Cell Angioma in a Patient with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Ignatova, Simone; Sandström, Per; Ekstedt, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. The pathogenesis is unknown but the lesion is associated with several malignancies and immunological disorders. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination. The malignant potential of this lesion is unknown, which is why splenectomy is recommend for all cases. Symptomatic cases generally suffer from hypersplenism and pyrexia. A previously healthy 20-year-old female was diagnosed with colonic Crohn's disease; as part of the work-up a magnetic resonance enterography was performed which showed multiple signal changes of the spleen. The patient reported chronic abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, malaise, and fever. The unknown splenic lesions prompted a laparoscopic splenectomy; pathology revealed a littoral cell angioma. The abdominal pain and malaise remitted but the fever persisted one year despite adequate treatment of the patient's Crohn's disease. Littoral cell angioma is associated with immune-dysregulation including Crohn's disease with several reported cases. Signs and symptoms of hypersplenism and splenic lesions on imaging should raise suspicion of littoral cell angioma in patients with Crohn's disease. Magnetic resonance enterography to assess disease severity in Crohn's disease may provide an opportunity to study the prevalence and natural history of this rare splenic tumor. PMID:25705528

  2. Littoral-cell angioma of the spleen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Angel; Tejada, Angel; Bujanda, Luis; Vaquero, Manuel; Elorza, José Luis; Ojeda, Evelia; Goikoetxea, Unai

    2007-12-28

    Littoral-cell angioma (LCA) is a primary splenic vascular tumor that arises from the normal littoral cells lining the sinus channels of the splenic red pulp. We report a case of LCA of the spleen, which has been infrequently communicated in the literature. A 76-year-old man with a 2-wk history of weight loss, abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits was admitted to our hospital. Imaging studies (CT and MRI) showed multiple lesions in the spleen. Splenectomy was performed. Lining cells were positive for CD31/CD68 markers. Our case was associated with a serrated colonic adenoma. LCA is a benign vascular tumor of the spleen that needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of multiple splenic nodules.

  3. Persistent thrombocytopaenia in a young man with splenomegaly, rebound thrombocytosis after splenectomy and subsequent pulmonary embolism: splenic littoral cell angioma and associated events.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Gustaaf Gregoire; Galeotti, Jonathan; Carney, John; Wang, Endi

    2015-11-24

    Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare endothelial cell neoplasm in the spleen. Although many cases of LCA are asymptomatic, some present with signs and symptoms related to splenomegaly, whereas others manifest with haematological abnormalities, including anaemia and/or thrombocytopaenia (ie, hypersplenism). We report a case of LCA presenting with chronic thrombocytopaenia, probably due to splenic sequestration of platelets or phagocytosis of platelets by neoplastic cells. Following therapeutic splenectomy, the patient suffered from a marked rebound thrombocytosis and subsequently developed pulmonary embolisms. He was treated with anticoagulant therapy combined with antiplatelet therapy, and his symptoms were quickly resolved. This case emphasises an exclusion of primary splenic disorders in patients with chronic thrombocytopaenia, especially in those with splenomegaly and the contemplation of thromboembolism prophylaxis postsplenectomy.

  4. Angioma Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... new program plans, events, and more. READ MORE Chicago Proclaims Oct 24th Cavernous Angioma Awareness Day Angioma ... first Clinical Center of Excellence at University of Chicago. LEARN MORE Free Genetic Testing through Angioma Alliance ...

  5. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-01-01

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas. PMID:20652121

  6. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-11-11

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas.

  7. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  8. Interannual sandbar variability within the Columbia River Littoral Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. P.; Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.

    2013-12-01

    Examining nearshore sandbar behavior is highly relevant to understanding past and predicting future coastal change because of the role that these morphologic features play in regional sand budgets. However, because of the difficulty and expense of collecting nearshore bathymetric data, relatively few long-term data sets of sandbar morphology exist. At sites where sufficient data has been collected, a common phenomenon observed is a cyclic, multi-year offshore migration of sandbars. This cycle typically follows a general three-stage conceptual model of net offshore migration (NOM) originally proposed by Ruessink and Kroon (1994) whereby each individual bar is: (1) generated close to shore, (2) migrates seaward, and (3) decays at the outer margin of the nearshore zone. One such location where a clear NOM cycle has been observed is in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC).The CRLC is a high energy, dissipative coast located in northwest Oregon and southwest Washington which is characterized by fine sand and an intense wave climate. A beach morphology monitoring program that includes annual nearshore bathymetry surveys and quarterly subaerial beach topography measurements was initiated in 1997 (Ruggiero et al., 2005). Data from this long-term field effort indicates that there are large spatial and temporal differences in bar behavior throughout the littoral cell, but that in general there is a net offshore movement of the bars on interannual time scales. In this study, the high-resolution coastal profile data from the beach monitoring program are used to specifically evaluate bar dynamics along the Long Beach subcell of the CRLC. Parameters such as bar crest position from the shoreline, bar crest depth, and bar height have been extracted from the dataset and are being used to evaluate both spatial and temporal trends in bar morphology. Initial results indicate that NOM cycles have approximately three-year return periods in Long Beach. Further analysis will focus on

  9. Classification of rocky headlands in California with relevance to littoral cell boundary delineation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Douglas A.; Largier, John L.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of hydrodynamics and sediment flux along beaches, there is little information on the processes, pathways and timing of water and sediment transport around rocky headlands. In this study, headlands along the California coast are classified to advance understanding of headland dynamics and littoral cell boundaries in support of improved coastal management decisions. Geomorphological parameters for 78 headlands were quantified from geological maps, remote-sensing imagery, navigational charts, and shoreline geospatial databases. K-means cluster analysis grouped the headlands into eight distinct classes based on headland perimeter, bathymetric slope ratio, and the headland apex angle. Wave data were used to investigate the potential for sediment transport around the headland types and determine the efficacy of the headland as a littoral cell boundary. Four classes of headland appear to function well as littoral cell boundaries, with headland size (e.g., perimeter or area) and a marked change in nearshore bathymetry across the headland being relevant attributes. About half of the traditional California littoral cell boundaries align with headland classes that are expected to perform poorly in blocking alongshore sediment transport, calling into question these boundaries. Better definition of these littoral cell boundaries is important for regional sediment management decisions.

  10. Regional Sediment Budget of the Columbia River Littoral Cell, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Gibbs, A.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Franklin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Summary -- In this Open-File Report we present calculations of changes in bathymetric and topographic volumes for the Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Columbia River entrances and the adjacent coasts of North Beach, Grayland Plains, Long Beach, and Clatsop Plains for four intervals: pre-jetty - 1920s (Interval 1), 1920s - 1950s (Interval 2), 1950s - 1990s (Interval 3), and 1920s 1990s (Interval 4). This analysis is part of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study (SWCES), the goals of which are to understand and predict the morphologic behavior of the Columbia River littoral cell on a management scale of tens of kilometers and decades. We obtain topographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from a joint project by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE) and bathymetric data from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), USGS, and the DOE. Shoreline data are digitized from T-Sheets and aerial photographs from the USC&GS and National Ocean Service (NOS). Instead of uncritically adjusting each survey to NAVD88, a common vertical land-based datum, we adjust some surveys to produce optimal results according to the following criteria. First, we minimize offsets in overlapping surveys within the same era, and second, we minimize bathymetric changes (relative to the 1990s) in deep water, where we assume minimal change has taken place. We grid bathymetric and topographic datasets using kriging and triangulation algorithms, calculate bathymetric-change surfaces for each interval, and calculate volume changes within polygons that are overlaid on the bathymetric-change surfaces. We find similar morphologic changes near the entrances to Grays Harbor and the Columbia River following jetty construction between 1898 and 1916 at the Grays Harbor entrance and between 1885 and

  11. Large-scale coastal change in the Columbia River littoral cell: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, Guy; Kaminsky, George M.

    2010-01-01

    This overview introduces large-scale coastal change in the Columbia River littoral cell (CRLC). Covering 165 km of the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coasts, the littoral cell is made up of wide low-sloping dissipative beaches, broad coastal dunes and barrier plains, three large estuaries, and is bounded by rocky headlands. The beaches and inner shelf are composed of fine-grained sand from the Columbia River and are exposed to a high-energy winter wave climate. Throughout the Holocene, the CRLC has undergone large fluctuations in shoreline change trends, responding to a variety of coastal change drivers, including changing rates of sea-level rise, infrequent, yet catastrophic, co-seismic subsidence events, a large regional sediment supply, inter-annual climatic fluctuations (El Niño cycles), seasonally varying wave climate, and numerous anthropogenic influences. Human influences on the CRLC include construction of over 200 dams in the Columbia River drainage basin, dredging of navigation channels removing sand to upland sites and offshore deep-water sites, and construction of large inlet jetties at the entrances to the Columbia River and Grays Harbor. The construction of these massive entrance jetties at the end of the 19th century has been the dominant driver of coastal change through most of the littoral cell over the last hundred years. Presently, some beaches in the littoral cell are eroding in response to nearshore sediment deficits resulting from a) ebb-jets of the confined entrances pushing the previously large, shallow ebb-tidal deltas offshore into deeper water, and b) waves dispersing the nearshore delta flanks initially onshore and then alongshore away from the jetties. This overview describes 1) the motivation for developing a system-wide understanding of sediment dynamics in the littoral cell at multiple time and space scales, 2) the formation and approach of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study, and 3) an introduction to the

  12. Beach morphology monitoring in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathon A.; George, Douglas A.; Stevens, Andrew W.; Eshleman, Jodi; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Kaminsky, George M.; Schwartz, Andrew K.; Bierne, Matt

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Elwha River Littoral Cell, starting in 2004. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology collaborated in the data collection with the support of the local Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe. Beach monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data by using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). The monitoring program was designed to characterize the littoral system of the Elwha River before the scheduled removal of two large dams in 2012. A primary objective of this work is to quantitatively describe the topography and bathymetry of the Elwha River littoral system so that the effects of dam removal may be quantified. Sediment inputs following dam removal are hypothesized to result in (A) larger amounts of fine sediment grain-sizes entering the littoral system and, (B) a reduction or reversal of coastal erosion.

  13. Cherry angiomas associated with exposure to bromides.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A D; Cagnano, E; Vardy, D A

    2001-01-01

    Cherry angiomas are the most common vascular proliferation; however, little is known about the pathogenesis and etiology of these lesions. We present two laboratory technicians who were exposed to brominated compounds for prolonged periods and who developed multiple cherry angiomas on the trunk and extremities. We suggest that the association between exposure to bromides and cherry angiomas should be investigated by a controlled study.

  14. Superimposed segmental manifestation of cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Teresa; Andres, Christian; Hein, Rüdiger; Ring, Johannes; Chen, Wenchieh

    2011-01-01

    Cherry angioma is a common, acquired, vascular proliferation, probably of a polygenic mode of inheritance. Segmental manifestation of multiple cherry angiomas associated with the development of non-segmental lesions has not yet been reported. We describe a 62-year-old Caucasian woman with early formation of segmental cherry angiomas after pregnancy, which are superimposed on non-segmental lesions of later onset after menopause. In this pattern, segmental cherry angiomas could be taken as a further example of superimposed segmental manifestation of a polygenic skin disorder. Molecular research would be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Seasonal to interannual morphodynamics along a high-energy dissipative littoral cell

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Voigt, B.

    2005-01-01

    A beach morphology monitoring program was initiated during summer 1997 along the Columbia River littoral cell (CRLC) on the coasts of northwest Oregon and southwest Washington, USA. This field program documents the seasonal through interannual morphological variability of these high-energy dissipative beaches over a variety of spatial scales. Following the installation of a dense network of geodetic control monuments, a nested sampling scheme consisting of cross-shore topographic beach profiles, three-dimensional topographic beach surface maps, nearshore bathymetric surveys, and sediment size distribution analyses was initiated. Beach monitoring is being conducted with state-of-the-art real-time kinematic differential global positioning system survey methods that combine both high accuracy and speed of measurement. Sampling methods resolve variability in beach morphology at alongshore length scales of approximately 10 meters to approximately 100 kilometers and cross-shore length scales of approximately 1 meter to approximately 2 kilometers. During the winter of 1997/1998, coastal change in the US Pacific Northwest was greatly influenced by one of the strongest El Nin??o events on record. Steeper than typical southerly wave angles resulted in alongshore sediment transport gradients and shoreline reorientation on a regional scale. The La Nin??a of 1998/1999, dominated by cross-shore processes associated with the largest recorded wave year in the region, resulted in net beach erosion along much of the littoral cell. The monitoring program successfully documented the morphological response to these interannual forcing anomalies as well as the subsequent beach recovery associated with three consecutive moderate wave years. These morphological observations within the CRLC can be generalized to explain overall system patterns; however, distinct differences in large-scale coastal behavior (e.g., foredune ridge morphology, sandbar morphometrics, and nearshore beach slopes

  16. Immunohistochemistry of Angiogenesis Mediators Before and After Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment of Angiomas

    PubMed Central

    Laquer, Vivian T.; Dao, Belinda M.; Pavlis, Janelle M.; Nguyen, Amy N.; Chen, Tina S.; Harris, Ronald M.; Rugg, Elizabeth L.; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Tissue effects of vascular lesion laser treatment are incompletely understood. Injury caused by pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment may result in altered expression of mediators associated with angiogenesis. Materials and Methods: Eight human subjects had one angioma treated with PDL (7 mm, 1.5 millisecond pulse duration, 9 J/cm2, cryogen spray cooling of 30 millisecond with a 30 millisecond delay). One week later, three biopsies were taken: normal skin, untreated angioma, angioma post-PDL. Tissue was frozen and sections processed for immunohistochemistry staining of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and angiopoietin 2 (ANG-2). Images were graded in a blinded fashion by a board certified dermatopathologist. Results: There were no clear trends in VEGF expression in the epidermis, dermis, or endothelial cells. As compared to normal skin, angiomas demonstrated the following: bFGF was decreased in the epidermis; MMP-9 was decreased or unchanged in the epidermis and increased in the endothelial cells; ANG-2 was increased in the endothelial cells. When comparing normal skin to angiomas + PDL, bFGF was decreased in the epidermis and increased in the dermis; MMP-9 was decreased or unchanged in the epidermis; ANG-2 was again increased in the endothelial cells. Comparison of staining in angioma to angioma + PDL samples revealed increased dermal bFGF expression. Conclusion: Alterations in angiogenesis mediators were noted after PDL. Angiogenesis mediator changes associated with PDL treatment differed from those previously reported for incisional biopsies. This pilot study can guide future work on laser-induced alterations in vascular lesions and such information may ultimately be used to optimize treatment outcomes. Lasers Surg. Med. 44:205–210, 2012. PMID:22302773

  17. An application of LIDAR to analyses of El Nino erosion in the Netarts littoral cell, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revell, D.L.; Komar, P.D.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    El Nin??o produces coastal and beach erosion along the West Coast of the USA by elevating mean water levels so that tides are significantly higher than predicted, and by altering the paths of storms that generate large waves. In the past it has been difficult to adequately document the erosion impacts since they are so widespread. This difficulty has been solved through the application of LIDAR, which uses a scanning laser mounted in a small aircraft to rapidly and accurately survey beach elevations. This study uses LIDAR to document the beach changes and shoreline erosion that occurred during the 1997-98 El Nin??o within the Netarts Littoral Cell on the Oregon coast, a 14-km long "pocket beach" between large rocky headlands. The LIDAR surveys demonstrate that sand generally migrated northward within the cell due to the southwest approach of the El Nin??o storm waves, but there was a complex pattern of beach-elevation change due to the superposition of eroded rip-current embayments. The greatest beach erosion occurred near the south end of the cell, where it impacted Cape Lookout State Park, and to the north of the inlet to Netarts Bay where it threatened The Capes, a development of condominiums located on a high bluff. In both cases the LIDAR data proved to be extremely useful in quantifying the erosion, and in providing a better understanding of the erosion processes that occur during an El Nin??o.

  18. Beach morphology monitoring in the Columbia River Littoral Cell: 1997-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, Peter; Eshleman, Jodi L.; Kingsley, Etienne; Thompson, David M.; Voigt, Brian; Kaminsky, George M.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2007-01-01

    This report describes methods used, data collected, and results of the Beach Morphology Monitoring Program in the Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC) from 1997 to 2005. A collaborative group primarily consisting of the US Geological Survey and the Washington State Department of Ecology performed this work. Beach Monitoring efforts consisted of collecting topographic and bathymetric horizontal and vertical position data using a Real Time Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System (RTK-DGPS). Sediment size distribution data was also collected as part of this effort. The monitoring program was designed to: 1) quantify the short- to medium-term (seasonal to interannual) beach change rates and morphological variability along the CRLC and assess the processes responsible for these changes; 2) collect beach state data (i.e., grain size, beach slope, and dune/sandbar height/position) to enhance the conceptual understanding of CRLC functioning and refine predictions of future coastal change and hazards; 3) compare and contrast the scales of environmental forcing and beach morphodynamics in the CRLC to other coastlines of the world; and 4) provide beach change data in a useful format to land use managers.

  19. Choroidal melanoma clinically simulating a retinal angioma.

    PubMed

    Shields, J A; Joffe, L; Guibor, P

    1978-01-01

    An amelanotic fundus lesion in a 35-year-old man was associated with a dilated retinal vessel, thus suggesting the diagnosis of retinal angioma. Fluorescein angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were not diagnostic, but a radioactive phosphorus uptake test suggested the lesion was malignant. The enucleated globe showed a malignant choroidal melanoma drained by a large retinal vein.

  20. Angioma serpiginosum: a simulator of purpura.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, N. H.; Paterson, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe two patients with angioma serpiginosum who had both undergone a variety of haematological tests for investigation of purpura, but in whom careful examination of the skin demonstrated abnormal blood vessels rather than extravasated blood. Recognition of vascular disorders which simulate purpura may avoid unnecessary investigations. Images Figure 1 PMID:1800966

  1. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 sequences in cutaneous cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Alessandro; Benedetti, Sabrina; Corazza, Monica; Gentili, Valentina; Ruina, Giulia; Di Luca, Dario; Virgili, Anna; Caselli, Elisabetta

    2013-09-01

    Cherry angiomas (CAs) are common vascular benign skin tumors, characterized by abnormal angiogenesis, whose etiology is still unclear and poorly studied. We investigated the presence of HHV8 in CAs due to virus ability of inducing neoangiogenesis in endothelial cells. A total of 29 patients were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded analysis of skin specimens including various vascular lesions. All clinical samples were anonymized and analyzed by three different biomolecular assays to minimize the risk of false positive/negative results. Results showed that 53 % of eruptive CAs harbor HHV8 sequences, with the highest viral loads in samples derived from immunosuppressed patients. By contrast, no paucilesional CAs were positive for HHV8. Considering HHV8 prevalence in the Mediterranean population (10-15 %), results obtained in eruptive CAs are significant and suggest for the first time a possible involvement of HHV8 in eruptive cherry angiomas development, particularly in the context of immunosuppression, similar to that recognized for major HHV8-induced pathologies.

  2. Late onset angioma serpiginosum of the breast with co-existing cherry angioma

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Samipa; Salphale, Pankaj; Singh, Vandita

    2014-01-01

    Angioma serpiginosum is a cutaneous vascular nevoid disorder that presents as red, nonblanchable and grouped macules distributed in a serpiginous pattern and resembles purpura. It usually begins in childhood and commonly affects the lower limbs and the buttocks. Late onset of the lesions is unusual. We report a 46-year-old female who presented with progressively extending lesions on her breast since preceding four years. She also had a cherry angioma overlying the lesions, an observation hitherto not reported so far. PMID:25165654

  3. Meningioma and cavernous angioma following childhood radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baheti, Akshay D; Mahore, Amit S; Zade, Bhooshan P; Jalali, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been a part of multimodality management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). With optimum treatment and the resultant long-term cure rates, long-term side effects of radiation including radiation-induced neoplasms have been increasingly unearthed. We report a rare case of development of both a meningioma and a cavernous angioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation as a part of treatment of ALL. Regular follow-up and high index of suspicion for late radiation sequelae after treatment are therefore justifiable in leukemia survivors with history of prophylactic cranial irradiation.

  4. Beach response dynamics of a littoral cell using a 17-year single-point time series of sand thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hubbard, D.M.; Dugan, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    A 17-year time series of near-daily sand thickness measurements at a single intertidal location was compared with 5. years of semi-annual 3-dimensional beach surveys at the same beach, and at two other beaches within the same littoral cell. The daily single point measurements correlated extremely well with the mean beach elevation and shoreline position of ten high-spatial resolution beach surveys. Correlations were statistically significant at all spatial scales, even for beach surveys 10s of kilometers downcoast, and therefore variability at the single point monitoring site was representative of regional coastal behavior, allowing us to examine nearly two decades of continuous coastal evolution. The annual cycle of beach oscillations dominated the signal, typical of this region, with additional, less intense spectral peaks associated with seasonal wave energy fluctuations (~. 45 to 90. days), as well as full lunar (~. 29. days) and semi-lunar (~. 13. days; spring-neap cycle) tidal cycles. Sand thickness variability was statistically linked to wave energy with a 2. month peak lag, as well as the average of the previous 7-8. months of wave energy. Longer term anomalies in sand thickness were also apparent on time scales up to 15. months. Our analyses suggest that spatially-limited morphological data sets can be extremely valuable (with robust validation) for understanding the details of beach response to wave energy over timescales that are not resolved by typical survey intervals, as well as the regional behavior of coastal systems. ?? 2011.

  5. Tufted Angioma of Eyelid in an Adult - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anshul; Misra, Vatsala; Singh, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Tufted Angiomas also known as angioblastomas /Angioblastoma of Nagakawa are rare vascular neoplasms localised to the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the upper trunk and neck being most common sites. They are mainly seen in children but a few cases in juveniles and adults have been reported. We hereby report this case, a 40-year-old male who presented with a right lower lid, painless, slowly progressive, firm swelling diagnosed as Tufted Angioma on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:27504301

  6. Multiple cerebrospinal cavernous angiomas

    PubMed Central

    Kodeeswaran, M.; Udesh, Reshmi; Ramya, L.; Jothi Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous angiomas represent 5–12% of all spinal vascular lesions and 1% of all intramedullary lesions in pediatric patients. Intramedullary spinal cavernomas are relatively rare with only 24 cases reported till date to the best of our knowledge. A 15 -year-old boy presented to the clinic with acute onset motor weakness in all four limbs. He was diagnosed with multiple cerebral cavernomas and an acutely bleeding spinal cavernoma. Complete surgical excision of the spinal cavernoma was done. Postoperatively the patient's weakness gradually improved to a power of 4/5 in all his limbs over a period of 10 days. Only 24 cases of pediatric spinal cavernomas have been reported in the current literature. Current consensus on management of these rare lesions is based on previously published case reports/series and surgery appears to be the only definitive treatment. Further studies regarding any non-surgical expectant management appears warranted. PMID:27651109

  7. Posterior foss avenous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, T.R.; Truwit, C.L. ); Dowd, C.F. ); Symonds, D.L. )

    1994-04-01

    To describe 11 cases of posterior fossa venous angiomas with drainage through the brain stem. Eleven cases of posterior fossa venous angioma with drainage through the brain stem were evaluated using MR. Correlation with known routes of venous drainage for the cerebellum and brain stem is made. Six of the 11 venous angiomas were found in the cerebellum, four in the brain stem; one involved both the cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebellar venous angiomas drained to subependymal veins about the fourth ventricle and dorsal pons. These then connected with an enlarged transmesencephalic or transpontine vein, to drain anteriorly to the anterior pontine veins. The brain stem angiomas had variable drainage depending on location. Evidence of hemorrhage was seen in five cases. Cerebellar and brain stem venous angiomas have several potential routes of drainage, including an enlarged vein traversing the pons, midbrain, or medulla. A knowledge of the normal venous anatomy of this region helps to understand the occurrence of these uncommon routes of venous drainage. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Intracranial intraaxial cerebral tufted angioma: case report.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Randy S; Zanazzi, George; Hargus, Gunnar; Dyster, Timothy; Chan, Shirley; Lignelli-Dipple, Angela; Wang, Tony J C; Faust, Phyllis L; McKhann, Guy M

    2017-02-24

    Tufted angioma (TA) is a rare, slow-growing, vascular lesion that commonly presents as a solitary macule, papule, or nodule arising in the soft tissues of the torso, extremities, and head and neck in children and young adults. Adult-onset cases have been infrequently reported. While typically benign, TAs may be locally aggressive. Complete physical examination and hematological workup are recommended in patients with TA to exclude the presence of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP). The authors describe the case of a 69-year-old man with a contrast-enhancing frontal lobe lesion, with surrounding vasogenic edema, which was treated by gross-total resection. Characteristic histological features of a TA were demonstrated, with multiple cannonball-like tufts of densely packed capillaries emanating from intraparenchymal vessels in cerebral cortex and adjacent white matter. Tumor recurrence was detected after 4 months and treated with adjuvant Gamma Knife radiosurgery. To the extent of the authors' knowledge, this case illustrates the first report of TA presenting in an adult as an intracranial intraaxial tumor without associated KMP. The fairly rapid regrowth of this tumor, requiring adjuvant treatment after resection, is consistent with a potential for locally aggressive growth in a TA occurring in the brain.

  9. Eruptive cherry angiomas associated with vitiligo: provoked by topical nitrogen mustard?

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Shi, Fei; Wang, Yi-Xia

    2006-12-01

    We report a 27-year-old man who had suffered with vitiligo for 7 years and with eruptive cherry angiomas within or around the repigmented vitiliginous skin for 2 years. After continual therapy for vitiligo with topical nitrogen mustard in a concentration of 0.001% for 5 years, multiple cherry angiomas erupted within or around the repigmented vitiliginous plaques. The discontinue therapy with nitrogen mustard stopped the appearance of new cherry angiomas. The presence of eruptive cherry angiomas was evident and was confirmed by histopathology. We suggest that the chronic chemical stimuli caused by topical nitrogen mustard might result in the formation of eruptive cherry angiomas.

  10. Unilateral Glaucoma Associated with Conjunctival Angioma and Choroidal Thickening without Facial Angioma

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Osamah J.; Chang, Luke Y.; Arora, Karun S.; Jampel, Henry D.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a suspected Sturge–Weber syndrome variant diagnosed at the age of 58 with the help of enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (EDI-SDOCT). A 58-year-old female with unilateral glaucoma was suspected to have choroidal vascular lesion, conjunctival angioma, and no facial port-wine stain who presented to the clinic with bleb dysesthesia many years after trabeculectomy. EDI-SDOCT was performed and revealed markedly increased choroidal thickness in the affected eye. EDI-SDOCT may be helpful in diagnosing Sturge–Weber variants without facial involvement and may aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:27555719

  11. Observations of Interannual Dune Morphological Evolution With Comparisons to Shoreline Change Along the Columbia River Littoral Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doermann, L.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-12-01

    Beach topographic data have been collected along the 160 km-long Columbia River Littoral Cell in southwest Washington and northwest Oregon, USA as part of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study and a NANOOS pilot project. The monitoring program includes the collection of cross-shore beach profiles at 49 sites for each of the 34 seasons since 1997 (with few exceptions), enabling the investigation of the seasonal to interannual morphological variability of this high-energy coast. We focus here on the dunes backing the beaches, aiming to quantitatively describe the wide variety of characteristics they exhibit, as well as to relate dune evolution to shoreline change. To analyze the large volume of high-quality data, we use automated algorithms and systematic processes to identify the location of the dune toe, crest, and face, and calculate a volume (where enough data are available) and beach width for each survey. We define the position of the dune face as the elevation half-way between the average dune toe and average dune crest elevations at each profile location, and beach width as the horizontal distance between the 2-m contour (~MSL) and the dune toe. Much like shoreline proxies lower on the beach profile, (e.g., the 3-m contour), the location of the dune toe shows large seasonal variability with onshore deposition of sand in summer months and offshore sand transport in the winter. However, the location of the dune face and the elevation of the dune crest are much less variable and are useful in describing the evolution of the dune/beach system in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, over interannual time scales. On beaches with the highest shoreline change rates in the study area, the dune face follows the progradational trend of the shoreline with the dune face prograding at approximately 25-50% of the rate of the shoreline. Along many of these beaches that experienced severe erosion during the El Niño of 1997/98, the dune face

  12. [Giant cervical angioma caused by "malignant" arteriovenous fistulae].

    PubMed

    Palou, J; Mir y Mir, L

    1992-01-01

    A case of angioma by malignant AV fistula (described by F. Martorell in 1970) is reported. Such kind of fistulas have usually a lethal course. The case reported underwent a surgical correction, and after a following of 10 years, no major complications have been reported.

  13. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-374 Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Executive Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition...Frigates, and down- select to one variant in FY 2019. The FY 2017 acquisition strategy supporting the final procurement of LCS is currently under review

  14. Littoral Refractivity Prognostic Advancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    situational awareness of the 3D radio-frequency (RF) propagation environment and a quantitative diagnostic and prognostic capability for assessing sub- and...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 with the benchmark showing the quantitative improvement with each stage of model development...grid point. Modified the NSWCDD littoral clutter model ( LCM ) to accept COAMPS® derived refractivity fields. Analyzed the impact on ducting of

  15. Segmental cherry angiomas associated with extragenital lichen sclerosus: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ingram, J R; Belgi, G; Cook, L J; Hughes, B R; Karim, A; Finlay, A Y

    2013-06-01

    Cherry angiomas (Campbell de Morgan spots) are common acquired red skin papules composed of dilated capillary loops, usually of unknown aetiology. Extragenital lichen sclerosus (LS) presents as porcelain-white scaly atrophic lesions with or without genital involvement. We report two cases of segmental multiple cherry angiomas in association with extragenital LS. Two unrelated women, aged 46 and 66 years, presented with extragenital LS affecting their axillae and lower abdomen. During the examination, both patients were noted to have several hundred red skin papules in a segmental distribution, affecting the left thigh and flank of one woman, and the right abdomen and back of the other. Clinically and histologically, the papules were consistent with cherry angiomas. The striking segmental distribution of multiple cherry angiomas may be due to genetic mosaicism; however, segmental Fabry disease was excluded by sequence analysis of the α-galactosidase A gene. Any causal link between cherry angiomas and LS remains uncertain.

  16. [Pontine cavernous angioma (cavernoma) with initial ENT manifestations].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Marqués Rebollo, L; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 22 years old female who consulted us for facial parestesias, hearing loss in right ear and sudden tinnitus. Her audiometry showed an unilateral discreet sensorineural hipoacusia and the cranial IRM, a mass of 20 mm diameter in right pontine region and bulbus informed as cavernous angioma with signs of recent bleeding. The patient was sent to Neurosurgery but she refused the intervention. The risk of hemorrhage in the cavernomas is estimated at 0.25% to 1.6% per year and represents the main reason to advise a surgical treatment.

  17. Cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum presenting with acute psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Giacomo; Causin, Francesco; Feletti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients' behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  18. Established Dermascan Treatment Parameters Using Cherry Angiomas As A Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzkan, I.; Bourgelais, D. B. C.

    1987-03-01

    Cherry angiomas, small red spots found on normal skin, usually 1-3 mm in diameter, were used as a model to evaluate the Ofect on cutaneous vascular lesions of a cw laser treatment applied through a Dermascan delivery system. This device permits effective laser exposure times of 1 millisecond, thus limiting thermal diffusion damage in tissues adjacent to the optically absorbing vasculature. Treatment requires no anesthesia and produces no burn/blister response. Clearing of the lesion is complete about five weeks after treatment.

  19. Surgical removal of cavernous angioma in the medulla oblongata. A case report.

    PubMed

    Abe, M; Ogawa, A; Yoshida, Y; Hidaka, T; Suzuki, M; Takahashi, S

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroradiology have enabled us to approach cavernous angioma in the medulla oblongata, rather rare vascular lesion in the central nervous system. We describe a such surgical case without additional neurological symptoms and discuss surgical indications in this paper. A 61-year-old woman presented with vertigo and swallowing disturbance. T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed a low intensity mass in the dorsolateral portion of the medulla oblongata, and T2-weighted imaging revealed a hemosiderin rim surrounding the lesion. Angiography showed no abnormalities. Surgery using far lateral approach achieved complete removal of the mass and hematoma. Histological examination of the surgical specimen disclosed cavernous angioma. This case suggests that direct surgery can be recommended for cavernous angioma located in the dorsal or lateral medulla oblongata to remove the hematoma and angioma if bleeding clearly provokes neurological symptoms.

  20. Littoral Combat Ship Crew Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    have completed this step in my academic journey without your patience and understanding. I would also like to thank my advisor, Dr. Salmeron, for...waters against threats commonly found in those regions: enemy mines, submarines and swarm boats . To accomplish this wide variety of littoral mission

  1. Accommodation space in a high-wave-energy inner-shelf during the Holocene marine transgression: Correlation of onshore and offshore inner-shelf deposits (0–12 ka) in the Columbia River littoral cell system, Washington and Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, C. D.; Twichell, D. C.; Roberts, M. C.; Vanderburgh, S.; Hostetler, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC), a high-wave-energy littoral system, extends 160 km alongshore, generally north of the large Columbia River, and 10–15 km in across-shelf distance from paleo-beach backshores to about 50 m present water depths. Onshore drill holes (19 in number and 5–35 m in subsurface depth) and offshore vibracores (33 in number and 1–5 m in subsurface depth) constrain inner-shelf sand grain sizes (sample means 0.13–0.25 mm) and heavy mineral source indicators (> 90% Holocene Columbia River sand) of the inner-shelf facies (≥ 90% fine sand). Stratigraphic correlation of the transgressive ravinement surface in onshore drill holes and in offshore seismic reflection profiles provide age constraints (0–12 ka) on post-ravinement inner-shelf deposits, using paleo-sea level curves and radiocarbon dates. Post-ravinement deposit thickness (1–50 m) and long-term sedimentation rates (0.4–4.4 m ka− 1) are positively correlated to the cross-shelf gradients (0.36–0.63%) of the transgressive ravinement surface. The total post-ravinement fill volume of fine littoral sand (2.48 × 1010 m3) in the inner-shelf represents about 2.07 × 106 m3 year− 1 fine sand accumulation rate during the last 12 ka, or about one third of the estimated middle- to late-Holocene Columbia River bedload or sand discharge (5–6 × 106 m3 year− 1) to the littoral zone. The fine sand accumulation in the inner-shelf represents post-ravinement accommodation space resulting from 1) geometry and depth of the transgressive ravinement surface, 2) post-ravinement sea-level rise, and 3) fine sand dispersal in the inner-shelf by combined high-wave-energy and geostrophic flow/down-welling drift currents during major winter storms.

  2. Expression of prox1, lymphatic endothelial nuclear transcription factor, in Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma.

    PubMed

    Le Huu, Aude Rimella; Jokinen, Chris H; Rubin, Brian P; Ruben, Brian P; Mihm, Martin C; Weiss, Sharon W; North, Paula E; Dadras, Soheil S

    2010-11-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA) are rare tumors mainly occurring in early childhood. Our recent results showed that ectopic overexpression of human Prox1 gene, a lymphatic endothelial nuclear transcription factor, promoted an aggressive behavior in 2 murine models of KHE. This dramatic Prox1-induced phenotype prompted us to investigate immunohistochemical staining pattern of Prox1, podoplanin (D2-40), LYVE-1, and Prox1/CD34 as well as double immunofluorescent staining pattern of LYVE-1/CD31 in KHE and TA, compared with other pediatric vascular tumors. For this purpose, we examined 75 vascular lesions: KHE (n=18), TA (n=13), infantile hemangioma (n=13), pyogenic granuloma (n=18), and granulation tissue (n=13). Overall, KHE and TA shared an identical endothelial immunophenotype: the neoplastic spindle cells were Prox1, podoplanin, LYVE-1, CD31, and CD34, whereas endothelial cells within glomeruloid foci were Prox1, podoplanin, LYVE-1, CD31, and CD34. The lesional cells of all infantile hemangiomas and pyogenic granulomas were negative for Prox1 in the presence of positive internal control. These findings provide immunophenotypic evidence to support a preexisting notion that KHE and TA are closely related, if not identical. Overall, our results show, for the first time, that Prox1 is an immunohistochemical biomarker helpful in confirming the diagnosis of KHE/TA and in distinguishing it from infantile hemangioma and pyogenic granuloma.

  3. Venous angioma may be associated with epilepsy in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Ryung; Lee, Yun Jin; Nam, Sang Ook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Venous angioma (VA) is the most common congenital abnormality of the intracranial vasculature. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between VA and epilepsy and to identify the characteristics of children with VA and epilepsy. Methods The records of all patients aged less than 18 years who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at Pusan National University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with isolated VA and patients with normal MRI were compared in terms of the prevalence of epilepsy. Results In total, 2,385 pediatric patients who underwent brain MRI were enrolled. Isolated VA was identified in 26 patients (VA group). Among the patients with normal MRI findings, 225 age- and sex-matched patients to the VA-group were assigned to the control group. Nine patients in the VA group (9 of 26, 34.6%) and 27 patients in the control group (26 of 225, 11.5%; P<0.001) had epilepsy. In the VA group, 20 patients (76.9%) had the VA in the cerebral hemispheres, and 6 patients (23.1%) had the VA in the brainstem and cerebellum. The latter showed a higher prevalence of epilepsy (5 of 6, 83.3%) than the former (4 of 20, 20.0%; P=0.004). Among the nine patients who had epilepsy with VA, patients whose VA involved the brainstem and cerebellum showed a significantly higher frequency of abnormal Electroencephalographic findings than patients whose VA involved the cerebral hemispheres (P=0.016). Conclusion VA, especially in the brainstem and cerebellum, might be associated with epilepsy. PMID:27610183

  4. Beyond the lesion: the epileptogenic networks around cavernous angiomas.

    PubMed

    Sevy, Amandine; Gavaret, Martine; Trebuchon, Agnès; Vaugier, Lisa; Wendling, Fabrice; Carron, Romain; Regis, Jean; Chauvel, Patrick; Gonigal, Aileen Mc; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between epileptogenic lesions and the extension of epileptogenicity is a major challenge in presurgical evaluation of drug resistant epilepsies. In this study, we aimed at quantifying the epileptogenic properties of brain structures explored by depth electrodes in patients investigated by stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and suffering from focal drug-resistant epilepsy associated with cavernous angioma (CA). Epileptogenicity of the perilesional region and distant brain areas was calculated according to the "epileptogenicity index" (EI), a technique that allows mathematical quantification of rapid discharges at seizure onset taking into account the time at which the discharge occurs. Thirteen seizures from 6 patients were studied. Localization of the cavernoma was the frontal lobe (two cases), the temporal lobe (three cases) or the anterior insula (one case). Visual inspection of the ictal discharge showed that in the majority of cases (5/6) the perilesional region was either not involved or involved with other distant sites. Using EI quantification, complex patterns of epileptogenicity were observed in five patients. A large number of brain regions out of the lesional region disclosed higher values than the lesion site. Mean values in the perilesional region and in the extralesional sites were not significantly different (p=0.34). Complex organization of the epileptogenic zone may be found in drug-resistant CA associated epilepsy. Thus, this result should be borne in mind when patients with CA and drug resistant epilepsy are investigated. If there is a suspicion of a larger epileptogenic zone than the lesion, intra-cerebral exploration by SEEG may be required before surgery that may be guided by the definition of the EZ.

  5. Littoral steering of deltaic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-11-01

    The typically single-threaded channels on wave-influenced deltas show striking differences in their orientations, with some channels oriented into the incoming waves (e.g., Ombrone, Krishna), and others oriented away from the waves (e.g., Godavari, Sao Francisco). Understanding the controls on channel orientation is important as the channel location greatly influences deltaic morphology and sedimentology, both subaerially and subaqueously. Here, we explore channel orientation and consequent feedbacks with local shoreline dynamics using a plan-form numerical model of delta evolution. The model treats fluvial sediment delivery to a wave-dominated coast in two ways: 1) channels are assumed to prograde in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation and 2) a controlled fraction of littoral sediment transport can bypass the river mouth. Model results suggest that channels migrate downdrift when there is a significant net littoral transport and alongshore transport bypassing of the river mouth is limited. In contrast, river channels tend to orient themselves into the waves when fluvial sediment flux is relatively large, causing the shoreline of the downdrift delta flank to attain the orientation of maximum potential sediment transport for the incoming wave climate. Using model results, we develop a framework to estimate channel orientations for wave-influenced deltas that shows good agreement with natural examples. An increase in fluvial sediment input can cause a channel to reorient itself into incoming waves, behavior observed, for example, in the Ombrone delta in Italy. Our results can inform paleoclimate studies by linking channel orientation to fluvial sediment flux and wave energy. In particular, our approach provides a means to quantify past wave directions, which are notoriously difficult to constrain.

  6. A field study of littoral processes in Estero Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Anima, R.J.; Molzan, D.E.; Luepke, Gretchen; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Estero Bay, which lies on the central California coast, has rocky headlands at both ends and sandy beaches within it. The shoreline of the bay has adjusted to be in equilibrium with the predominant wave climate, which is from the northwest. Because of its present shoreline configuration, the net southward littoral transport found along much of the California coast does not occur within Estero Bay. Instead, the sand primarily moves on- and offshore with a reversing longshore component. This sand transport pattern produces a littoral cell within Estero Bay even though there is no submarine canyon in the area. The primary sand sinks for this cell appear to be the sand spit south of Morro Rock and the entrance to Morro Bay itself, although this opinion was not experimentally verified. Field work during one summer (1978) and the following winter (1979) produced baseline data on the profile of and grain-size distribution across the littoral zone. In the offshore part of the littoral zone we also studied ripple size and type, internal structure, depth of erosion, and mineralogy. Although these data, which were collected along nine transects spaced 2 km apart, are inadequate to yield transport and energy rates, they indicate a northward decrease in wave energy within Estero Bay and a mixing of the sediments in the offshore. Box core and rod height data from grid points in seven meters of water showed that on the order of a meter of erosion occurred in the central part of the bay between the two sampling periods. Offshore, the data were incomplete, but at one station, in 17 m of water, at least 20 cm of erosion occurred.

  7. Proliferation and differentiation of ductular progenitor cells and littoral cells during the regeneration of the rat liver to CCl4/2-AAF injury.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Lynch, D; Ilic, Z; Sell, S

    2002-01-01

    Restoration of centrolobular injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited by treatment with N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), is accomplished by proliferation of ductular progenitor cells, that arise intraportally and extend into the liver lobule. This pattern contrasts to the restitutive proliferation of hepatocytes when AAF is not administered, and the proliferation of non-ductular periportal oval cells follows periportal necrosis induced by allyl alcohol. The expanding ducts stain for alphafetoprotein (AFP), OV-6, pan-cytokeratin (CKPan), and laminin. The neoductular proliferation is accompanied by fibronectin-positive Kupffer cells and desmin-positive stellate (Ito) cells, which may play critical roles not only in controlling proliferation and differentiation of ductular progenitor cells, but also in reestablishing hepatic cord structure. When AAF is discontinued 7 days after injury, clusters of small hepatocytes appear next to the neoductules. Some of these small hepatocytes, as well as some larger hepatocytes adjacent to the ducts, stain for AFP and for carbamoylphosphate synthetase I (CPS-I), suggesting that the ductular progenitor cells may differentiate into hepatocytes when AAF is withdrawn. The restitutive process is facilitated by clearing of the central necrotic zone by infiltrating macrophages and co-migration of mature hepatocytes, with Kupffer cells and stellate cells, into the necrotic zone.

  8. Holocene coastal dune fields used as indicators of net littoral transport: West Coast, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Stock, Errol; Hart, Roger; Percy, David; Hostetler, Steve W.; Knott, Jeffrey R.

    2010-03-01

    Between Point Grenville, Washington, and Point Conception, California (1500 km distance) 21 dune fields record longshore transport in 20 littoral cells during the late Holocene. The direction of predominant littoral transport is established by relative positions of dune fields (north, central, or south) in 17 representative littoral cells. Dune field position is north of cell midpoints in northernmost Oregon and Washington, but is south of cell midpoints in southern Oregon and California. Downdrift sand trapping occurs at significant changes in shoreline angle and/or at bounding headlands that project at least 2.5 km seaward from the general coastal trend. Sand bypassing occurs around small headlands of less than 0.5 km in projection distance. A northward shift of the winter low-pressure center in the northeast Pacific Ocean is modeled from 11 ka to 0 ka. Nearshore current forcing in southern Oregon and northern California switched from northward in earliest Holocene time to southward in late Holocene time. The late Holocene (5-0 ka) is generally characterized by net northward littoral drift in northernmost Oregon and Washington and by net southward littoral drift in southernmost Oregon and California. A regional divergence of net transport direction in central Oregon, i.e. no net drift, is consistent with modeled wind and wave forcing at the present time (0 ka).

  9. Holocene coastal dune fields used as indicators of net littoral transport: West Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, C.D.; Stock, E.; Hart, R.; Percy, D.; Hostetler, S.W.; Knott, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Between Point Grenville, Washington, and Point Conception, California (1500 km distance) 21 dune fields record longshore transport in 20 littoral cells during the late Holocene. The direction of predominant littoral transport is established by relative positions of dune fields (north, central, or south) in 17 representative littoral cells. Dune field position is north of cell midpoints in northernmost Oregon and Washington, but is south of cell midpoints in southern Oregon and California. Downdrift sand trapping occurs at significant changes in shoreline angle and/or at bounding headlands that project at least 2.5 km seaward from the general coastal trend. Sand bypassing occurs around small headlands of less than 0.5 km in projection distance. A northward shift of the winter low-pressure center in the northeast Pacific Ocean is modeled from 11 ka to 0 ka. Nearshore current forcing in southern Oregon and northern California switched from northward in earliest Holocene time to southward in late Holocene time. The late Holocene (5-0 ka) is generally characterized by net northward littoral drift in northernmost Oregon and Washington and by net southward littoral drift in southernmost Oregon and California. A regional divergence of net transport direction in central Oregon, i.e. no net drift, is consistent with modeled wind and wave forcing at the present time (0 ka). ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Extending the littoral battlespace (ELB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, Edward J.

    1999-07-01

    The ELB program is a joint Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration funded by the Navy, Marine Corps and the Office of the Secretary of Defence, and managed by the Naval Research. ELB is based on the new warfare paradigm defined by 'joint vision 2010, and on concepts developed by the Navy and Marine Corps in 'From the Sea', 'Forward...from the Sea', 'Ship to Objective Maneuver (STOM)', and 'Operational Maneuver from the Sea'. The objective of ELB is to demonstrate effective operation of dispersed forces in a variety of littoral environments, and to provide those forces timely remote fire support. Successful operation will depend on achieving a common situational awareness among a mobile, distributed command and control, a shortened sensor- to-shooter timeline, and effective utilization of all information source. The glue to hold this system of systems together is a reliable wide band communications system and network infrastructure. This paper will describe the overall architecture of ELB and focus on the core command and control functions associated with achieving a common situational awareness.

  11. An Unusual Case of a Thrombosed Giant Distal PICA Aneurysm Simulating a Large Cavernous Angioma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Ho; Jung, Tae-Young; Kim, Tae-Sun

    2008-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a one-month history of progressive headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hemorrhagic mass adjacent to the left inferior cerebellar hemisphere associated with a peripheral rim of signal void. Angiography demonstrated an avascular mass and the provisional diagnosis was a large cavernous angioma in the cerebellum. Intraoperative findings revealed a thrombosed giant aneurysm of the left distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We report an unusual case of a completely thrombosed giant aneurysm simulating a large cavernous angioma in the cerebellum. The cerebellar cisternal location of the mass may be a clue for the pre-operative diagnosis of an aneurysm. PMID:19096624

  12. Conus medullaris hematomyelia associated with an intradural-extramedullary cavernous angioma.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, L; Frondizi, D; Guiducci, A; Nardi, M; Maira, G

    1999-01-01

    A unique case of a 50-year-old woman with a conus medullaris hematomyelia associated with a low thoracic intradural-extramedullary cavernous angioma localized 2 cm above is reported. The patient had a 2-month history of progressive paraparesis, hypoesthesia of legs, and bowel and bladder disturbances. The symptoms worsened acutely during the last days before admission. A thoraco-lumbar MRI showed a space-occupying lesion at T10-T11 (vertebral interspace associated with a hematomyelia localized about 2 cm below. A T10-L1 laminectomy was performed and complete removal of both lesions was obtained with microsurgical technique. A non-traumatic hematomyelia should always prompt the suspicion of a spinal AVM or, more rarely, of a cavernous angioma. The possible anatomical and clinical correlations of this unusual association are discussed.

  13. Does littoral sand bypass the head of Mugu Submarine Canyon? - a modeling study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Elias, Edwin; Kinsman, Nicole; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed sand-tracer code for the process-based model Delft3D (Deltares, The Netherlands) was used to simulate the littoral transport near the head of the Mugu Submarine Canyon in California, USA. For westerly swells, which account for more than 90% of the wave conditions in the region, the sand tracers in the downcoast littoral drift were unable to bypass the canyon head. A flow convergence near the upcoast rim of the canyon intercepts the tracers and moves them either offshore onto the shelf just west of the canyon rim (low wave height conditions) or into the canyon head (storm wave conditions). This finding supports the notion that Mugu Canyon is the true terminus of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell.

  14. Littoral Combat Ship Mission Modules (LCS MM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-443 Littoral Combat Ship Mission Modules (LCS MM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY

  15. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    and CAPT Jeff Kline for sparking my interest in the Littoral Combat Ship and CAPT James Stewart at Commander, Naval Surface Forces Pacific and CDR...Senior Lecturer of Operations Research Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 76 10. James Stewart , CAPT, USN Warfare Requirements, N8

  16. Littoral Subsonic Seismoacoustic Phenomena Ultrasonic Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    underwater acoustic waves, interface Scholte waves, and surface Rayleigh waves with naturally-deposited /disturbed heterogeneous marine sediments with...topography, variable water/air content, and benthic shelled animals leading to accurate acoustic modeling of littoral surficial layer and geophysical

  17. Lions in the Littoral - Leadership on Risk’s Edge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Royal Swedish Society of Naval Sciences (right). Lions in the Littoral Leadership on Risk’s Edge As U.S. Navy forces focus on littoral operations...water force structure from the U.S. Navy’s key naval partners. This Navy force, optimized for littoral operations will act indepen- dently within...coast-line and the Baltic Sea have through history been a natural defense line against attacking enemies. The U.S. Navy has invited the Swedish

  18. Glomeruloid hemangioma in POEMS syndrome shows two different immunophenotypic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, S; Takenaka, H; Shibagaki, R; Noda, Y; Yamamoto, M; Yasuno, H

    2000-02-01

    The case of a Japanese woman with glomeruloid hemangioma, an initial marker for POEMS syndrome, is reported. Her cutaneous lesions were multiple and consisted of glomeruloid hemangiomas, cherry-type capillary hemangiomas, and a mixture of both. The specimens of glomeruloid hemangiomas were studied by paraffin section immunohistochemistry with a large panel of antibodies and electron microscopy, respectively. The lesions, whose size ranged from minute foci to large nodules, were composed of anastomosing vascular channels resembling renal glomeruli and had irregular lumina, often featuring capillaries and sinusoid-like spaces. The vascular channels were lined by a single layer of endothelial cells, which showed two types of cells. The capillary-type endothelium possessed large vesicular nuclei with open chromatin and large amount of cytoplasm. The sinusoidal endothelium possessed small basal nuclei with dense chromatin as well as scant amount of cytoplasm. The former cells had a characteristic CD31+/CD34+/UEA I+/CD68- phenotype. Some of these cells ultrastructurally showed intracytoplasmic lumen formation. The latter cells had a characteristic CD31+/CD34-/UEA I-/CD68+ phenotype. The present study shows that glomeruloid hemangioma has unique morphologic and immunologic features that differ from the traditional hemangiomas as well as littoral cell angioma of the spleen.

  19. Late-onset Fabry disease associated with angiokeratoma of Fordyce and multiple cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, V; Dhoat, S; Mehta, A B; Orteu, C H

    2011-07-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder. The prevalence and clinical spectrum is higher than previously thought. The average time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis is 10 years. Early identification of patients is essential to institute enzyme therapy and reduce morbidity. We report the case of a 76-year-old man, who presented with loss of consciousness following exertional chest pain. He was found to have tortuous corneal vessels, > 100 cherry angiomas on his trunk, and angiokeratomas on his scrotum. The latter were indistinguishable from angiokeratoma of Fordyce, a diagnosis reported in 15% of men over the age of 50 years, and generally ignored by them. The patient's α-galactosidase levels were low, and a mutation in exon 5 of the GLA gene was identified on DNA analysis, confirming the diagnosis of FD. This case highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of FD in all male patients with angiokeratoma. It also raises the question of whether the presence of multiple cherry angiomas in patients with cardiac disease should raise the possible diagnosis of FD.

  20. A Novel MGC4607/CCM2 Gene Mutation Associated with Cerebral Spinal and Cutaneous Cavernous Angiomas.

    PubMed

    Cigoli, M S; De Benedetti, S; Marocchi, A; Bacigaluppi, S; Primignani, P; Gesu, G; Citterio, A; Tassi, L; Mecarelli, O; Pulitano, P; Penco, S

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular abnormalities that may cause seizures, headaches, intracerebral hemorrhages, and focal neurological deficits; they can also be clinically silent and occur as a sporadic or an autosomal dominant condition. Three genes have been identified as causing familial CCM: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3, mapping, respectively, on chromosomes 7q, 7p, and 3q. Here, we report an Italian family affected by CCM due to a MGC4607 gene mutation, on exon 4. All the affected subjects suffered from seizures, and some of them underwent surgery for removal of a cavernous angioma. Brain MRI showed multiple lesions consistent with CCMs in all patients. Spinal and cutaneous cavernous angiomas were present too. This report underlines the need for a careful interdisciplinarity among neurologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, geneticists, ophthalmologists, and dermatologists for a total evaluation of the different manifestations of familial CCM. This points out that only referral centers are organized to offer a multidisciplinary management of this disease.

  1. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  2. Spider angioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 106. Review Date 11/14/2014 Updated by: Richard J. Moskowitz, MD, dermatologist in private practice, Mineola, ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  3. Deforestation and plant diversity of Madagascar's littoral forests.

    PubMed

    Consiglio, Trisha; Schatz, George E; McPherson, Gordon; Lowry, Porter P; Rabenantoandro, Johny; Rogers, Zachary S; Rabevohitra, Raymond; Rabehevitra, David

    2006-12-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify the reduction or document the floristic composition of forests in Madagascar. Thus, we focused specifically on deforestation and plant diversity in Madagascar's eastern littoral community. We used a data set of approximately 13,500 specimen records compiled from both historical and contemporary collections resulting from recent intensive inventory efforts to enumerate total plant species richness and to analyze the degree of endemism within littoral forests. Change in littoral forest cover from original to current extent was estimated using geographical information systems tools, remote sensing data (satellite imagery and low-elevation digital photography), and environmental data layers. Of the original littoral forest only 10.3% remains in the form of small forest parcels, and only 1.5% of these remaining fragments are included within the existing protected-areas network. Additionally, approximately 13% of Madagascar's total native flora has been recorded from these forests that originally occupied <1% of its total land surface, and over 25% of the 1535 plant species known from littoral forests are endemic to this community. Given the ongoing pressure from human settlement along Madagascar's eastern coast, protection of the remaining forest fragments is critical for their survival. Fifteen of the largest intact littoral forest fragments we identified, collectively representing 41.5% of remaining littoral forest, are among priority sites recommended to the government of Madagascar for plant conservation and incorporation into the protected-areas network.

  4. Eruptive cherry angiomas and irritant symptoms after one acute exposure to the glycol ether solvent 2-butoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Raymond, L W; Williford, L S; Burke, W A

    1998-12-01

    Seven clerical workers were evaluated in 1993, 8 months after exposure to vaporized 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE; also called butyl cellosolve or ethylene glycol monobutyl ether [EGMBE or EGBE]), which had been applied overnight to strip the floor of their file room. At the time of exposure, they had noted intense eye and respiratory irritation, marked dyspnea, nausea, and faintness, suggesting a concentration of 2-BE in the air of 200-300 parts per million (ppm). All seven workers later experienced recurrent eye and respiratory irritation, dry cough, and headache. Four months after the exposure, cherry angiomas began to appear on the arms, trunk, and thighs of six workers, who voiced concerns about the possibility of cancer. Our evaluation found no evidence of hematologic, liver, lung, or renal toxicity, but elevations in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood pressure of each subject were found. Workplace air sampling found no detectable 2-BE, but traces (0.1-0.2 ppm) of formaldehyde were identified. Irritant symptoms abated after the group was moved to a room with better ventilation, and the mild hypertension gradually cleared, but new cherry angiomas have continued to appear 5 years after the acute exposure, as the initial ones persisted. These angiomas occur in healthy persons as they age but in this instance appear to have resulted from a single overexposure to 2-BE. We felt confident in reassuring the workers that they would suffer no serious consequences from this exposure.

  5. Littoral Zone Sediments, San Diego, Region, October 1983-June 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    corresponding foreshore samples within the five littoral segments at Lake Tahoe which show the most persistent grain-size fining trends. The value for the...terrains exposed at higher elevations as the dominant ultimate source rocks for the obtained sample set. 3.03 The Geologic Map of the Corona, Elsinore ...Austin, Texas, Hemphill’s Bookstore, 182 p. Gaynor, J. M., 1984, Sources and transport of sand in the littoral zone of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

  6. Clinical Outcomes for Systemic Corticosteroids Versus Vincristine in Treating Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma and Tufted Angioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohan; Li, Jiaying; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Weili; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Shanyong; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of systemic corticosteroids versus those of vincristine in the treatment of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA).A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was performed for clinical studies on systemic corticosteroid versus vincristine therapies in treating KHE/TA. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and response rate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure outcomes. Heterogeneity, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias analysis were performed for result evaluation.Thirteen studies, comprising 344 participants, were used in the analysis. Vincristine therapy was found to be relatively more effective than systemic corticosteroids (RRs = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.35-0.58). The result of pooled adverse reactions response rate for systemic corticosteroids was 0.31 (95%CI, 0.18-0.43), significantly higher than that for vincristine, which was 0.12 (95%CI, 0.06-0.19). In subgroup analyses, factors including mean age and race of patients, and period of follow-up were examined as possible sources of heterogeneity.This is the first meta-analysis estimating the clinical outcomes of systemic corticosteroids in comparison with those of vincristine in the treatment of KHE/TA. The results showed that vincristine was considerably more effective with lower complication rates than systemic corticosteroids; thus, vincristine could be suggested as the first-line therapy for KHE/TA.

  7. Lake shoreline and littoral physical habitat structure in a national lakes assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian and littoral habitat components are important to lake biological assemblages, providing refuge from predation, living and egg-laying substrates, and food. Shoreline structure also affects nutrient cycling, littoral production, and sedimentation rates. Measures of ripar...

  8. Small-beam, low-power argon-pumped tunable dye laser at 585 nm for the treatment of cherry angiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littler, Curt M.

    1990-06-01

    An argon-pumped tunable dye laser tuned to 585 nm was used to treat clinically typical cherry angiomas in a preliminary study. A spot size of 0.1 mm and low power (0.1 - 0.15W) in the continuous mode was used for treatment. Results ranged from decrease in size of the cherry angioma to complete regression. In all cases, there was minimal to no scarring. Further study in the treatment of elevated cutaneous vascular lesions with the continuous wave dye laser seems warranted.

  9. EO system concepts in the littoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  10. [Early magnetic resonance imaging detection of a cavernous angioma after cranial radiotherapy for an anaplastic ependymoma in a boy].

    PubMed

    Martínez León, M I

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy forms part of most therapeutic, preventive, and conditioning regimens in pediatric oncology. Numerous late secondary effects of cranial radiation are well known. However, radiation-induced cavernous angiomas (RICA) have been reported only sporadically and even fewer cases of earlier presentation of RICA have been reported. In this brief report, we describe a RICA that appeared in a boy treated for a CNS tumor (an infratentorial anaplastic ependymoma) after a short latency period between the end of radiotherapy and the development of the RICA. We comment on the different variables proposed to explain the formation of these lesions, as well as on their imaging features, treatment, prognosis, and follow-up.

  11. Neonatal birth weight variations between inland and littoral Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bralić, Irena; Rodin, Urelija; Matanić, Dubravka; Jovancevic, Milivoj

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess neonatal birth weight (BW) differences between inland and littoral Croatia, to identify BW groups with most pronounced differences, and possible variations in the rate of BW > or = 4000 g between Sibenik area and the rest of littoral (counties with access to the Adriatic Sea) and inland Croatia. The study included data on 99.42% of 200,740 live births recorded in 37 Croatian maternity hospitals during the 2001-2005 period. Distribution of 500-g BW groups was analyzed irrespective of neonatal sex and gestational age. Differences were found between the inland and littoral parts of Croatia according to distribution of the BW groups of < 2500 g (5.4% vs. 4.4%), 2500-3999 g (84% vs. 80.2%) and > or = 4000 g (10.6% vs. 15.4%) (chi2 = 882; p < 0.001).The highest rate of BW > or = 4000 g was recorded in Sibenik-Knin County (5-year mean 18.32%) and was greater throughout the littoral as compared with inland Croatia (5-year mean 14.99% vs. 9.58%). A shift towards higher BWgroups recorded throughout littoral as compared with inland Croatia supports the hypothesis on variation in anthropologic characteristics in the respective populations to be pronounced as early as at birth. Study results confirmed fetal macrosomia not to be exclusively characteristic of Sibenik-Knin County, since the rate of neonatal BW > or =4000 g was significantly higher in the entire littoral as compared with inland Croatia.

  12. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Littoral Applications Andrew T. Jessup Chris Chickadel, Gordon Farquharson, Jim Thomson Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington Seattle...WA 98105 phone: (206) 685-2609 fax: (206) 543-6785 email: jessup @apl.washington.edu Robert A. Holman Merrick Haller, Alexander Kuropov, Tuba...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  13. The Littoral Environment Observation (LEO) Data Collection Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    C SCHNEIDER UNCLASSIFIED ERC- CETA -81-5 NL * EEEEEEEEEEEEIBlag~lli/lii ND CETA 81-5 The Littoral Environment Observation ’. (LEO) Data Collection...E 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER - CETA -81-5 / 4. TITLE (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED/ , oas tal...pp. 2WALTON, T.L., Jr., "Computation of Longshore Energy using LEO Current Observations," CETA 80-3, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal

  14. Rare Cervical Intramedullary Cavernous Angioma with Trigeminal Neuralgia and Cervical Itch: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Shuhui, Gong; Jiagang, Liu; Siqing, Huang; Haifeng, Chen; Qingrong, Tang; Bohao, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intramedullary cavernous angioma (ICA) is a rare lesion of the spinal cord, representing only 3% - 5% of central nervous system lesions. The coexistence of trigeminal neuralgia and refractory itch is very rarely encountered in clinical practice. To our knowledge, a report of an ICA with trigeminal neuralgia and local neuropathic itch has never been published to date. Thus, we present a very interesting case of a C2 ICA. Case Presentation A 61-year-old female presented with right facial pain for three years, which was exacerbated by accompanying cervical pain and itch for one month. The patient’s symptoms were relieved after surgery, and there was no recurrence of lesions one year later. Conclusions ICA with trigeminal neuralgia and local neuropathic itch is very rarely encountered in clinical practice. As it is not always diagnosed at first, some patients miss the best treatment period. Therefore, we call for emphasis to be placed on early diagnosis and timely surgical treatment. PMID:28191336

  15. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  16. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  17. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  18. Littoral processes: US Coast Guard Station, Fort Point, San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1983-10-01

    The US Coast Guard Station, Fort Point is located three-quarters of a nautical mile southeast of the Golden Gate Strait, the entrance to San Francisco Bay. The existing storm wave conditions at Fort Point Station pier make it extremely dangerous for the SAR crews to get on and off the Motor Life Boats at times requiring the vessels to be moored at the San Francisco Yacht Harbor about 1.5 miles east of the Fort Point Station. To mitigate these harsh working conditions the US Coast Guard is considering the feasibility of constructing suitable all-weather moorings for the three Motor Life Boats at the Fort Point Station to enable unimpeded SAR operations, to provide safe working conditions for Coast Guard small boat crews, and to improve small boat maintenance conditions at Fort Point Station. The purpose of this report is to identify, analyze and evaluate physical environmental factors that could affect all-weather moorings siting, configuration and entrance location, as well as potential post construction alterations to littoral conditions and processes. This report includes a description of the site, description of pertinent littoral processes, evaluation of how these processes could affect construction of all-weather moorings, and discussion of design considerations, as well as mitigation measures to minimize potential adverse effects to the physical environment. 19 references, 27 figures, 26 tables.

  19. Zooplankton in littoral waters of a tropical lake: a revisited biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Maia-Barbosa, P M; Peixoto, R S; Guimarães, A S

    2008-11-01

    The present study was carried out in Lake Dom Helvécio, in the state of Minas Gerais, with two main objectives: to demonstrate the contribution of the littoral zone, in order to better characterize zooplankton fauna; and to assess the distribution of zooplankton species in different habitats, i.e., the littoral zone with and without aquatic vegetation. The samples were collected in February and July 2006, throughout the littoral zone of the lake, in areas with and without aquatic vegetation. We identified a total of 188 species, of which 130 are new records for Lake Dom Helvécio. One hundred and eighty-four species were identified in the littoral zone with aquatic vegetation, and 117 in the zone with no vegetation. The higher zooplankton richness in areas of the littoral zone with aquatic vegetation can be related to the greater environmental heterogeneity. Compared to previous studies on the littoral zones of lakes along the middle River Doce, the present study expended greater sampling effort, and identified many more species. In relation to biological conservation, this study demonstrated the importance of the littoral zone for better characterization and conservation of the zooplankton fauna, especially when it is colonized by aquatic vegetation. Underestimating the richness of species may provide inaccurate data on the biota, as well as on the ecological conditions in an environment.

  20. Ipsilateral facial and uveal arteriovenous and capillary angioma, microphthalmos, heterochromia of the iris, and hypotony: an oculocutaneous syndrome simulating Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gass, J D

    1996-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome is a disorder characterized by ipsilateral cavernous hemangioma of the face, uvea, and brain in patients who may present with an enlarged eye, exudative retinal detachment, glaucoma, and seizures. This report presents the clinicopathologic findings of an otherwise healthy infant with ipsilateral arteriovenous and capillary hemangiomas of the face and uveal tract, microphthalmos, iris heterochromia, hypotony, and absence of central nervous system involvement. The association of an arteriovenous-capillary angioma of the ocular adnexa and ipsilateral uveal tract is a syndrome that is distinct from Sturge-Weber syndrome.

  1. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  2. The role of omnivorous crayfish in littoral communities.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Nathan J; Wojdak, Jeremy M

    2004-06-01

    Large omnivorous predators may play particularly important roles determining the structure of communities because of their broad diets and simultaneous effects on multiple trophic levels. From June 2001 to June 2002 we quantified community structure and ecosystem attributes of six newly establishing freshwater ponds (660 m2 each) after populations of omnivorous crayfish (Orconectes virilis) were introduced to three of the ponds. Crayfish preyed heavily on fish eggs in this experiment, which reduced recruitment of young-of-year fish. This effect indirectly enhanced zooplankton biomass in crayfish ponds. Phytoplankton abundance exhibited a more complex pattern and was probably influenced by non-trophic (e.g., bioturbation) effects of crayfish. Peak dissolved oxygen levels were lower in the crayfish ponds indicating that they had lower primary production: respiration ratios. Metaphytic algae were strongly affected by crayfish presence; filamentous greens quickly disappeared and the blue-green Gleotrichia (a less preferred food item) eventually dominated the composition in crayfish ponds. Chara vulgaris and vascular macrophytes established 34% cover in control ponds by June 2002, but were not able to establish in crayfish ponds. Two important periphyton herbivores (tadpoles and gastropods) were absent or significantly reduced in the crayfish ponds, but periphyton differences were temporally variable and not easily explained by a simple trophic cascade (i.e., crayfish-snails and tadpoles-periphyton). Our results indicate that crayfish can have dramatic direct and indirect impacts on littoral pond communities via feeding links with multiple trophic levels (i.e., fish, invertebrates, and plants) and non-trophic activities (bioturbation). Although the effects of omnivorous crayfish on littoral communities can be large, their complex effects do not fit neatly into current theories about trophic interactions or freshwater community structure.

  3. AN INTEGRATED EVALUATION OF THE PERSISTENCE AND EFFECTS OF 4-NONYLPHENOL IN AN EXPERIMENTAL LITTORAL ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity and bioaccumulation in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) of 4-nonphenyol (NP), a common precursor and degradation intermediate of certain nonionic surfactants, were evaluated in a set of 18 aquatic mesocosms (littoral enclosures) in northeastern Minnesota. Nonylphe...

  4. Physical habitat structure of the lake shoreline and littoral zone -- How important is it?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent National Lakes Assessment (NLA) included the first national assessment of littoral and lakeshore physical habitat. It quantified water depth, surface characteristics, bank morphology, lake level fluctuations, substrate, fish concealment features, aquatic macrophytes, l...

  5. Development of a regional littoral benthic macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) for lakes from the National Lakes Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA) benthic macroinvertebrate samples were collected from the lake littoral zone. The purpose of the sampling was to assess the feasibility of a multi-metric index (MMI) to assess the condition of the littoral benthic macroinvertebrate...

  6. Modeling the effects of wave skewness and beach cusps on littoral sand transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, K.A.; Check, L.A.; Hanes, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    A process-based numerical modeling system is utilized for predicting littoral sand transport. The intent is to examine conditions slightly more complex than linear waves impinging upon a plane beach. Two factors that we examine are wave skewness and longshore varying bathymetry. An empirical model is used for calculating the skewed bottom wave orbital velocity. The advection of sediment due to the skewed wave velocity is larger and in the direction of the waves, opposite to the results with sinusoidal wave velocities, due to the increase in the bottom shear stress under the wave crests. The model system is also applied to bathymetry containing beach cusps. When the wave field has relatively weak longshore wave power, the currents and the littoral transport exhibit significant longshore variability, thereby altering the overall mean littoral transport.

  7. Littoral foraging by red phalaropes during spring in the northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, J. Chris; Stone, Amy E.

    1988-01-01

    Phalaropes demonstrate considerable plasticity in their choice of foraging habitats. The Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicaria) alternates use of pelagic environments in winter and migration (Taning 1933, Stanford 1953, Briggs et al 1984) with wet tundra habitats during the breeding season (Kistchinski 1975, Mayfield 1979, Ridley 1980). Foods available and taken in littoral zones of the Arctic Ocean in fall have been identified (Conners and Risebrough 1978, Johnson and Richardson 1980), but otherwise little attention has been devoted to the transition between the marine and terrestrial periods of the Red Phalarope’s life history. We report phalarope use of littoral areas during spring in the northern Bering Sea and Kongkok Bay, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. In addition, we describe phalarope foraging tactics and foods available in the sur zone, emphasizing this form of littoral foraging as an opportunistic and facultative feeding strategy.

  8. Brainstem Cavernous Angioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... the floor of this ventricle. Stereotactic radiosurgery (“gamma knife”) is generally not an accepted method of treatment ... J, Suematsu K, Nakamura J, Nagashima K. Gamma Knife surgery for angiographically occult vascular malformations. Stereotact Funct ...

  9. Cavernous Angioma and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... three categories: Minimal sedation or anxiolysis Moderate sedation Deep sedation During minimal sedation , you will feel relaxed, ... not remember being in the procedure room. During deep sedation , you will sleep through the procedure with ...

  10. Lower respiration in the littoral zone of a subtropical shallow lake.

    PubMed

    They, Ng Haig; da Motta Marques, David; Souza, Rafael Siqueira

    2012-01-01

    Macrophytes are important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to littoral zones of lakes, but this DOC is believed to be mostly refractory to bacteria, leading to the hypothesis that bacterial metabolism is different in littoral and pelagic zones of a large subtropical shallow lake. We tested this hypothesis by three approaches: (I) dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulation in littoral and pelagic water; (II) O(2) consumption estimate for a cloud of points (n = 47) covering the entire lake; (III) measurement of O(2) consumption and CO(2) accumulation in dark bottles, pCO(2) in the water, lake-atmosphere fluxes of CO(2) (fCO(2)) and a large set of limnological variables at 19 sampling points (littoral and pelagic zones) during seven extensive campaigns. For the first two approaches, DIC and O(2) consumption were consistently lower in the littoral zone, and O(2) consumption increased marginally with the distance to the nearest shore. For the third approach, we found in the littoral zone consistently lower DOC, total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a, and a higher proportion of low-molecular-weight substances. Regression trees confirmed that high respiration (O(2) consumption and CO(2) production) was associated to lower concentration of low-molecular-weight substances, while pCO(2) was associated to DOC and TP, confirming that CO(2) supersaturation occurs in an attempt to balance phosphorus deficiency of macrophyte substrates. Littoral zone fCO(2) showed a tendency to be a CO(2) sink, whereas the pelagic zone showed a tendency to act as CO(2) source to the atmosphere. The high proportion of low-molecular-weight, unreactive substances, together with lower DOC and TP may impose lower rates of respiration in littoral zones. This effect of perennial stands of macrophytes may therefore have important, but not yet quantified implications for the global carbon metabolism of these lakes, but other issues still need to be carefully addressed before rejecting

  11. Lower Respiration in the Littoral Zone of a Subtropical Shallow Lake

    PubMed Central

    They, Ng Haig; da Motta Marques, David; Souza, Rafael Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    Macrophytes are important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to littoral zones of lakes, but this DOC is believed to be mostly refractory to bacteria, leading to the hypothesis that bacterial metabolism is different in littoral and pelagic zones of a large subtropical shallow lake. We tested this hypothesis by three approaches: (I) dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulation in littoral and pelagic water; (II) O2 consumption estimate for a cloud of points (n = 47) covering the entire lake; (III) measurement of O2 consumption and CO2 accumulation in dark bottles, pCO2 in the water, lake-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 (fCO2) and a large set of limnological variables at 19 sampling points (littoral and pelagic zones) during seven extensive campaigns. For the first two approaches, DIC and O2 consumption were consistently lower in the littoral zone, and O2 consumption increased marginally with the distance to the nearest shore. For the third approach, we found in the littoral zone consistently lower DOC, total phosphorus (TP), and chlorophyll a, and a higher proportion of low-molecular-weight substances. Regression trees confirmed that high respiration (O2 consumption and CO2 production) was associated to lower concentration of low-molecular-weight substances, while pCO2 was associated to DOC and TP, confirming that CO2 supersaturation occurs in an attempt to balance phosphorus deficiency of macrophyte substrates. Littoral zone fCO2 showed a tendency to be a CO2 sink, whereas the pelagic zone showed a tendency to act as CO2 source to the atmosphere. The high proportion of low-molecular-weight, unreactive substances, together with lower DOC and TP may impose lower rates of respiration in littoral zones. This effect of perennial stands of macrophytes may therefore have important, but not yet quantified implications for the global carbon metabolism of these lakes, but other issues still need to be carefully addressed before rejecting the general belief that

  12. Wide-area littoral discreet observation: success at the tactical edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Susan; Hughes, William; Ladas, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In June 2011, the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) participated in Empire Challenge 2011 (EC-11). EC-11 was United States Joint Forces Command's (USJFCOM) annual live, joint and coalition intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) interoperability demonstration under the sponsorship of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD/I). EC-11 consisted of a series of ISR interoperability events, using a combination of modeling & simulation, laboratory and live-fly events. Wide-area Littoral Discreet Observation (WALDO) was ARL's maritime/littoral capability. WALDO met a USD(I) directive that EC-11 have a maritime component and WALDO was the primary player in the maritime scenario conducted at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The WALDO effort demonstrated the utility of a networked layered sensor array deployed in a maritime littoral environment, focusing on maritime surveillance targeting counter-drug, counter-piracy and suspect activity in a littoral or riverine environment. In addition to an embedded analytical capability, the sensor array and control infrastructure consisted of the Oriole acoustic sensor, iScout unattended ground sensor (UGS), OmniSense UGS, the Compact Radar and the Universal Distributed Management System (UDMS), which included the Proxy Skyraider, an optionally manned aircraft mounting both wide and narrow FOV EO/IR imaging sensors. The capability seeded a littoral area with riverine and unattended sensors in order to demonstrate the utility of a Wide Area Sensor (WAS) capability in a littoral environment focused on maritime surveillance activities. The sensors provided a cue for WAS placement/orbit. A narrow field of view sensor would be used to focus on more discreet activities within the WAS footprint. Additionally, the capability experimented with novel WAS orbits to determine if there are more optimal orbits for WAS collection in a littoral environment. The demonstration objectives for WALDO at EC-11 were

  13. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-18

    equivalent of the JROC inside of the service , our requirements definition process. That’s ongoing today. We’ve got a target to get down to JROC in the June......Congressional Research Service Summary The Navy’s Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate program is a program to procure a large number of LCSs and

  14. Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-continent great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...

  15. PERSISTENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF AZINPHOS-METHYL FOLLOWING APPLICATION TO LITTORAL ENCLOSURE MESOCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organophosphorus insecticide azinphos-methyl was applied once to the surface of 12 of 18 littoral enclosure mesocosms (5 x 10m) constructed in a 2-ha pond near Duluth, Minnesota. Water, sediment, macrophytes, and adult fathead minnows were analyzed for residue to determine th...

  16. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-05

    RAND Corporation , 2006, p. 45. (Report MG-484)) 15 Department of Defense, Selected Acquisition Report (SAR), LCS, as of December 31, 2012, p. 14...to-Shore Comunications Seen Deficient, GAO Says,” Bloomberg News, November 19, 2013. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues

  17. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-05

    Naval Ship Costs Over the Past Several Decades, Santa Monica (CA), RAND Corporation , 2006, p. 45. (Report MG-484)) 14 Department of Defense, Selected... Comunications Seen Deficient, GAO Says,” Bloomberg News, November 19, 2013. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

  18. Life on the boundary: Environmental factors as drivers of habitat distribution in the littoral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalì, Maria Elena; Cebrian, Emma; Chappuis, Eglantine; Pinedo, Susana; Terradas, Marc; Mariani, Simone; Ballesteros, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The boundary between land and sea, i.e. the littoral zone, is home to a large number of habitats whose distribution is primarily driven by the distance to the sea level but also by other environmental factors such as littoral's geomorphological features, wave exposure, water temperature or orientation. Here we explore the relative importance of those major environmental factors that drive the presence of littoral rocky habitats along 1100 Km of Catalonia's shoreline (Spain, NW Mediterranean) by using Geographic Information Systems and Generalized Linear Models. The distribution of mediolittoral and upper infralittoral habitats responded to different environmental factors. Mediolittoral habitats showed regional differences drawn by sea-water temperature and substrate type. Wave exposure (hydrodynamism), slope and geological features were only relevant to those mediolittoral habitats with specific environmental needs. We did not find any regional pattern of distribution in upper infralittoral habitats, and selected factors only played a moderate role in habitat distribution at the local scale. This study shows for the first time that environmental factors determining habitat distribution differ within the mediolittoral and the upper infralittoral zones and provides the basis for further development of models oriented at predicting the distribution of littoral marine habitats.

  19. Methane efflux from littoral vegetation stands of southern boreal lakes: An upscaled regional estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Irina; Mäkelä, Suvi; Kankaala, Paula; Kortelainen, Pirkko

    We studied the role of vegetated littoral area in the efflux of methane (CH 4) in a southern boreal landscape (1600 km 2), in Finland, covered by 619 lakes. A regression model was constructed to describe the relationship between lake area or lake shoreline length and total macrophyte or total emergent macrophyte coverage. Phragmites australis and Equisetum fluviatile were by far the most widely distributed emergent macrophytes in the area with a proportion of 40% of all zone-forming macrophytes. The zone-forming floating-leaved species Nuphar lutea, Potamogeton natans and Sparganium spp. covered 44% of all vegetated littoral areas. The strong temperature dependence of the emission rates was taken into consideration in the emission estimations for P. australis and E. fluviatile. The regional efflux, estimated for the growing seasons 1998-2002, varied between 0.8×10 5 and 1.1×10 5 kg CH 4 and between 1.6×10 5 and 2.4×10 5 kg CH 4, respectively. The emissions from the stands of floating-leaved species were negligible compared to the emissions from stands of P. australis and E. fluviatile. This indicates that species specific emission rates and areal coverage of the dominating species, as well as ambient temperature, should all be carefully considered when estimating the total regional emissions of CH 4 from lake littorals. The natural open ombrogenous bogs and minerogenous fens in the study region covered a 2.5-fold larger area than P. australis and E. fluviatile littoral, but their emissions were estimated to be only 78% of the emissions of P. australis and E. fluviatile, indicating that vegetated lake littoral is an important natural CH 4 source in the region.

  20. Nitrous oxide flux to the atmosphere from the littoral zone of a boreal lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, Jari T.; Juutinen, Sari; Alm, Jukka; Larmola, Tuula; Hammar, Taina; Silvola, Jouko; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2003-07-01

    The surface-atmospheric exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O) was investigated in the vegetated littoral zone of a eutrophied midboreal lake (Lake Kevätön, Finland) with a static chamber technique. During a dry summer (three to six samplings per site), the meadow site and two marsh sites in the temporarily flooded eulittoral zone and the Phragmites australis-dominated site in the continuously flooded infralittoral zone had mean daytime N2O-N emissions from 11 ± 7 to 22 ± 7 μg m-2 h-1, whereas the Nuphar lutea-dominated site in the infralittoral zone had a mean N2O flux close to zero. During a wet summer (13-14 samplings per site), the mean daytime N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 ± 1 to 15 ± 5 μg m-2 h-1 at the three eulittoral sites and were negligible at the two infralittoral sites. The littoral zone occupied 26% of the lake area but was estimated to account for most of the N2O emissions from the lake. The studied eulittoral zone, which did not have adjacent nitrogen fertilization, exhibited higher N2O emissions during the summer than seen in northern natural ecosystems in general, including peatlands, forests, and the pelagic regions of lakes. Thus in lake-rich landscapes the littoral zone and other lake-associated wetlands must be considered as potential sources of atmospheric N2O. An assessment of their atmospheric importance requires further data on the N2O fluxes and their regulation in different littoral areas and on the total littoral coverage, neither of which is yet available.

  1. Trends in Littoral Zone Turbidty at Lake Tahoe During the Previous Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirick, C. M.; McConnell, J. R.; Taylor, K.; Panorska, A. K.

    2001-12-01

    A marked decrease in lake clarity over the past 3 decades at Lake Tahoe has caused both policy makers and scientists to focus their attention on preserving the exceptional clarity of the lake. It has been well established that clarity in the pelagic zone has declined by 30% during this time. However, it is unclear if similar changes have occurred in the littoral zone. While biologic activity appears to be responsible for declines in pelagic zone clarity, other factors may be influencing near-shore clarity and its inverse, turbidity. These include changes in suspended sediment loading from variations in stream discharge, wave action, lake level, and precipitation. In this study, turbidity data from a number of sites in the littoral zone of Lake Tahoe have been analyzed using stochastic methods. The analysis focused on determining if long term trends in turbidity levels in the last decade as well as relationships between environmental and climatological factors and turbidity are statistically significant.

  2. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Oversight Issues and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the...Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 41 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified...Summary The Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is a small, fast ship that uses modular “plug- and- fight ” mission packages, including unmanned vehicles (UVs). The

  3. Suitability of Taxodium distichum for Afforesting the Littoral Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Du, Chunlan; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J. H. Martin; Xiao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The littoral zone ecosystem of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) has become significantly degraded by annual cycles of prolonged winter flooding and summer drought. For purposes of flood control and sediment management, the water level in the reservoir is lowered by 30 m during the summer monsoon season and raised again to 175 m above sea level each year at the end of the monsoon period. To explore an effective way to promote biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, we examined Taxodium distichum as a species for afforesting the littoral zone. Sapling growth variations were measured after two rounds of winter flooding. Dominant influence factors were determined by redundancy analysis. Herb community similarities between the experimental afforested areas and nearby control areas were assessed to detect the ecosystem influence of the experimental afforestation. 94.5% of saplings planted at elevations above 168 m survived. All measured growth indices (tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width and foliage density) decreased as the flood depth increased. Completely submerged saplings had a mean dieback height of -0.65 m. Greater initial foliage density led to increased tree height and stem diameter. Shannon-Wiener indices were not significantly different between plots in experimental and control areas, but the low similarity of herb communities between experimental and control areas (0.242 on average) suggested that afforestation would enrich plant community structure and improve littoral zone ecosystem stability. Because littoral zone afforestation provides several ecosystem services (habitat, carbon sink, water purification and landscaping), it is a promising revegetation model for the TGR. PMID:26771509

  4. Zone Defense -- Anti-Submarine Warfare Strategy in the age of Littoral Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    and one of the most enthusiastic about the possibilities of this research, CDR Harrington passed away from cancer during the course of this... prevalence of noise from nearby surface ships.17 Zurk, Lee and Tracy accurately describe the complexity of the acoustic situation in the littorals, but a...Britain and Argentina over control of the Falkland Islands revealed several lessons on maritime strategy but the most useful is in regard to the effect

  5. Littoral Combat Ship: Need to Address Fundamental Weaknesses in LCS and Frigate Acquisition Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Navy’s vision for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) has evolved since its inception. As we have previously reported, LCS was initially envisioned as a...2018. LCS/frigate beyond LCS 29 Navy currently intends to request one ship in fiscal years 2019 and 2020 , and two ships in fiscal year 2021...through fiscal year 2020 and two ships in fiscal year 2021. According to the Secretary of Defense’s memorandum, this new direction was in part a response

  6. Evaluation of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Potential for the Turkish Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    more complete capabilities but is not intended to serve as the sole design for the more than 50 LCS the U.S. Navy ultimately plans to buy. The U.S... ultimately too late. Another challenge in conducting operations in the littoral concerns human factors. People play a crucial role in operating the...Sea in addition to the Bosporus Straits under Turkish control. Turkey’s Coast Guard Command has also boosted its strength and added coastal vessels

  7. Littoral Infrared Ship Self Defence Technology Studies (Autodefense cotiere infrarouge des navires etudes technologiques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Modeling Radiometry Ship signature control Surveillance 14. Abstract Task Group Number 51 (RTG-51/SET-088), titled “Littoral Infrared Ship...Centre Renaissancelaan 30, 1000 Bruxelles Armaments Department ITALIE 9-11, Drumul Taberei Street CANADA Centro Gestione Conoscenza Sector 6...Distribučné a Defence R&D Canada informačné stredisko STO Department of National Defence ITALY Demänová 393 305 Rideau Street, 9th Floor Centro Gestione

  8. Phosphorus mobilization from littoral sediments of an inlet region in Lake Delavan, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, W.F.; Barko, J.W.; Field, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Rates of P release from littoral sediments of the inlet region of Lake Delavan, Wisconsin, were examined in the laboratory under different redox and pH regimes using sediment systems and also in situ using sediment peppers. In the laboratory, rates of P release from sediments increased about two-fold (i.e., to 7 mg m-2 d-1) under oxic conditions as a result of adjusting the pH of the overlying water from 8.5 to about 9.0. Laboratory rates increased to a maximum of 23 mg m-2 d-1 under anoxic conditions. Both in situ pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) exhibited marked seasonal fluctuations due, primarily, to metabolism by submersed macrophytes, which occupied over 50% of the inlet region. Using continuous records of in situ pH and DO and ranges in rates of P release measured in the laboratory, we estimated an overall mean rate of P release of 5.7 mg m-2 d-1 from the littoral sediments during the summer (April-September) of 1994. Rates of P release estimated from Fickean diffusional fluxes were similar to rates estimated from pH and DO. Our results suggest that aquatic macrophyte communities of the inlet region enhance the mobilization of P from littoral sediment by regulating pH and DO in the surrounding environment.

  9. Evidence of a Shift in the Littoral Fish Community of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    PubMed Central

    Farruggia, Mary Jade; Schreier, Brian; Sommer, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Many estuarine and freshwater ecosystems worldwide have undergone substantial changes due to multiple anthropogenic stressors. Over the past two decades, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) in California, USA, saw a severe decline in pelagic fishes, a shift in zooplankton community composition, and a rapid expansion of invasive aquatic vegetation. To evaluate whether major changes have also occurred in the littoral fish community, we analyzed a beach seine survey dataset collected from 1995 to 2015 from 26 sites within the Delta. We examined changes in the Delta fish community at three different ecological scales (species, community, and biomass), using clustering analyses, trend tests, and change-point analyses. We found that the annual catch per effort for many introduced species and some native species have increased since 1995, while few experienced a decline. We also observed a steady pattern of change over time in annual fish community composition, driven primarily by a steady increase in non-native Centrarchid species. Lastly, we found that littoral fish biomass has essentially doubled over the 21-year study period, with Mississippi Silverside Menidia audens and fishes in the Centrarchidae family driving most of this increase. The changes in the catch per effort, fish community composition, and biomass per volume indicate that a shift has occurred in the Delta littoral fish community and that the same factors affecting the Delta’s pelagic food web may have been a key driver of change. PMID:28118393

  10. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Christopher E.; Franklin, Erik C.; Smith, Celia M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as ‘intertidal’, whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional “intertidal zone”. We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic. PMID:24109544

  11. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  12. Trophic niche partitioning of littoral fish species from the rocky intertidal of Helgoland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hielscher, N. N.; Malzahn, A. M.; Diekmann, R.; Aberle, N.

    2015-12-01

    During a 3-year field study, interspecific and interannual differences in the trophic ecology of littoral fish species were investigated in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland island (North Sea). We investigated trophic niche partitioning of common coexisting littoral fish species based on a multi-tracer approach using stable isotope and fatty acids in order to show differences and similarities in resource use and feeding modes. The results of the dual-tracer approach showed clear trophic niche partitioning of the five target fish species, the goldsinny wrasse Ctenolabrus rupestris, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus, the short-spined sea scorpion Myoxocephalus scorpius and the long-spined sea scorpion Taurulus bubalis. Both stable isotopes and fatty acids showed distinct differences in the trophic ecology of the studied fish species. However, the combined use of the two techniques added an additional resolution on the interannual scale. The sand goby P. minutus showed the largest trophic plasticity with a pronounced variability between years. The present data analysis provides valuable information on trophic niche partitioning of fish species in the littoral zones of Helgoland and on complex benthic food webs in general.

  13. Between tide and wave marks: a unifying model of physical zonation on littoral shores.

    PubMed

    Bird, Christopher E; Franklin, Erik C; Smith, Celia M; Toonen, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The effects of tides on littoral marine habitats are so ubiquitous that shorelines are commonly described as 'intertidal', whereas waves are considered a secondary factor that simply modifies the intertidal habitat. However mean significant wave height exceeds tidal range at many locations worldwide. Here we construct a simple sinusoidal model of coastal water level based on both tidal range and wave height. From the patterns of emergence and submergence predicted by the model, we derive four vertical shoreline benchmarks which bracket up to three novel, spatially distinct, and physically defined zones. The (1) emergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven emergence in air; the (2) wave zone is characterized by constant (not periodic) wave wash; and the (3) submergent tidal zone is characterized by tidally driven submergence. The decoupling of tidally driven emergence and submergence made possible by wave action is a critical prediction of the model. On wave-dominated shores (wave height ≫ tidal range), all three zones are predicted to exist separately, but on tide-dominated shores (tidal range ≫ wave height) the wave zone is absent and the emergent and submergent tidal zones overlap substantially, forming the traditional "intertidal zone". We conclude by incorporating time and space in the model to illustrate variability in the physical conditions and zonation on littoral shores. The wave:tide physical zonation model is a unifying framework that can facilitate our understanding of physical conditions on littoral shores whether tropical or temperate, marine or lentic.

  14. Water Level Effects on Growth of Melaleuca Seedlings from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA) Littoral Zone.

    PubMed

    LOCKHART; AUSTIN; AUMEN

    1999-05-01

    / The invasive exotic wetland tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, is expanding rapidly throughout seasonally wet areas of southern Florida (USA), including the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee. Natural resource managers are concerned that a lower lake level regulation schedule under consideration for Lake Okeechobee, while potentially beneficial to overall ecosystem health, might increase the rate of Melaleuca expansion. To investigate this possibility, Melaleuca saplings (harvested from the littoral zone) and 7-week-old seedlings (grown from harvested seeds) were subjected to various hydroperiod treatments in replicated mesocosms. Hydroperiod treatments were selected based on a simulation of historical water level variations. Saplings grew taller under longer hydroperiods with fluctuating water levels, including periods of submersion. Time since germination affected the response of seedlings to inundation. Submersed 7-week-old seedlings grew slower and had less biomass than submersed 12-week-old seedlings, yet mortality was low at both ages. Melaleuca's plasticity allows it to adapt to hypoxic, aquatic conditions by means of aquatic heterophylly and adventitious roots. Algae and drought also increased mortality. Based on faster growth of Melaleuca under longer hydroperiods and its adaptability to seasonal flooding, a lower lake regulation schedule may not stimulate its expansion. Therefore, water levels should not be manipulated only to control Melaleuca. Control of Melaleuca should continue using current practices such as manual removal or chemical treatment. KEY WORDS: Melaleuca; Lake Okeechobee; Littoral zone; Water level; Regulation schedule

  15. Impacts to Dungeness Crab from the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.

    2005-11-09

    The Benson Beach littoral drift restoration project is a demonstration project that will replenish sand on Benson Beach, the public beach north of the North Jetty at the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR), using material dredged from the river during normal maintenance dredging of the navigational channel. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) proposal involves pumping the material from a sump area on the south side of the jetty to Benson Beach using a cutter suction dredge, also known as a pipeline dredge. If this one-time demonstration project proves feasible and successful, up to a million cubic yards of sediment could be used to replenish the outer coast littoral drift system in successive years by the same process. The primary goal of this study was to assess the potential risk of impacts to Dungeness crab from the proposed Benson Beach littoral drift restoration process of using the cutter suction dredge to move sediment from the proposed sump area on one side of the North Jetty to the beach on the other side of the jetty. Because there are no direct measurements of crab entrainment by pipeline dredge operating outside of the lower Columbia River navigation channel, dredge impacts for the proposed demonstration project were estimated using a modification of the dredge impact model (DIM) of Armstrong et al. (1987). The model estimates adult equivalent loss (AEL) of crabs using crab population density from trawl surveys, dredge project information (gear type, season, location, volume), and an entrainment function relating crab population density to entrainment by the dredge. The input used in applying the DIM to the Benson Beach littoral drift restoration included the specific dredging scenario provided by the Corps, existing data on crab density in previously proposed sump areas, and a series of entrainment functions. A total of fourteen scenarios were modeled and the outcomes compared with six reference scenarios intended to represent realistic to worst cases

  16. An approximation to short-term evolution and sediment transport pathways along the littoral of Cadiz Bay (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfuso, G.; Benavente, J.; Del Río, L.; Gracia, F. J.

    2008-11-01

    This work presents the results of a beach-monitoring program carried out in the Bay of Cadiz (SW Spain), which consists of urban, natural and nourished beaches. In the present study, 24 topographic profiles have been monthly monitored during the 1996 1998 period, in order to draw the morphodynamic behavior of this coast and the general characterization of short-term coastal trends. This way, total volumetric budgets have been calculated for each beach profile in order to group beaches in different erosive/accreting sectors. Studied beaches recorded both erosion and accretion: the greatest accretionary trends have been observed at Aguadulce, La Costilla and Rota beaches, with values ranging from 30 to 70 m3/m. The largest erosion episodes have been recorded in the southernmost end of Valdelagrana spit, with values over 50 m3/m, and in Rota and Vistahermosa, after nourishment works. Main erosion and accretion pathways have been related to the existence of natural and human structures, which blocked the longshore drift suggesting the existence of littoral cells.

  17. Occurrence of Clinical and Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Gianneechini, R; Concha, C; Rivero, R; Delucci, I; López, J Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-nine dairy farms were selected to determine the incidence of clinical mastitis, prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis and bacterial aetiology in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay. In samples taken by the owner and frozen at -20°C during a week the incidence rate of clinical mastitis was determined as 1.2 cases per 100 cow-months at risk. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolated pathogen in 37.5% of 40 milk samples from clinical cases obtained in 1 month. No bacteria grew in the 32.5% of the total samples. A sub-sample including 1077 dairy cows from randomly selected farms was used to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. These samples were taken on one visit to each farm. The prevalence was 52.4% on a cow basis and 26.7% on an udder quarter basis. In 55.1% of the quarters of the selected animals with more than 300 000 cells/ml there was no growth. The isolated pathogens from sub-clinical cases and their relative frequencies were: Staphylococcus aureus 62.8%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.3%, Enterococcus sp. 8%, coagulase-negative staphylococci 7.4%, Streptococus uberis 6.4%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 1.8%, Escherichia coli 1.5% and Staphylococcus hyicus coagulase-positive 0.6%. PMID:12831175

  18. [Microbial sulfate reduction in sediments of the coastal zone and littoral of the Kandalaksha bay of the White sea].

    PubMed

    Savvichev, A S; Rusanov, I I; Iusupov, S K; Baĭramov, I T; Pimenov, N V; Lein, A Iu; Ivanov, M V

    2003-01-01

    Microbiological and biogeochemical investigations of the coastal zone and the littoral of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea were carried out. The material for investigations was obtained in the series of expeditions of the Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, in August 1999, 2000, 2001, and in March 2003. The studies were conducted on the littoral and in the water area of the Kandalaksha Preserve, the Moscow University Belomorsk Biological Station, and the Zoological Institute Biological Station, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sediment sampling on the littoral was carried out in the typical microlandscapes differing in the sediment properties and macrobenthos distribution. The maximal sulfate reduction rate (SRR) was shown for the shallow part of the Chemorechenskaya Bay (up to 2550 micrograms S/(dm3 day)) and in the Bab'ye More Bay (up to 3191 micrograms S/(dm3 day)). During the winter season, at a temperature of -0.5-0.5 degrees C, the SRR in the sediments of the Kartesh Bay was 7.9-13 micrograms S/(dm3 day). In the widest limits, the SRR values varied in the sediment cores sampled on the littoral. The minimal values (11 mu]g S/(dm3 day)) were obtained in the core samples on the silt-sandy littoral. The littoral finely dispersed sediments rich in organic matter were characterized by high SRR values (524-1413 micrograms S/(dm3 day)). The maximal SRR values were shown for the sediments present within the stretch of decomposing macrophytes, in local pits at the lower littoral waterline, and in the mouth of a freshwater stream (51-159 mg S/(dm3 day)). A sharp difference in the level of H2S production in the type microlandscapes was shown. The average hydrogen sulfide production in finely dispersed sediments constituted 125 mg S/(m2 day); in stormy discharge deposits, 1950 mg S/(m2 day); in depressions under stones and in silted pits, 4300 mg S/(m2 day). A calculation made with regard to the area of microlandscapes with increased productivity shows

  19. Zonation and spatial distribution of littoral fish communities from the southwestern Finnish coast (Archipelago and Bothnian Sea, Northern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahteri, Petri; O'Brien, Kevin; Vuorinen, Ilppo

    2009-03-01

    The aim of our study was to test whether the distribution of littoral fish assemblages would reflect both their immediate environment with reference to local underwater vegetation, including larger scale geographic archipelagial zonation. A total of 62 locations were sampled using beach seine and underwater video along the southwestern Finnish coastline in summer 2001. At all locations, water temperature, water transparency and benthic vegetation patterns (depth ranges of plant species or taxa) were recorded. Using correspondence analysis, our results showed a clear division of the Archipelago Sea into three separate zones based on littoral fish species assemblages. Overall, fish assemblages formed three distinct site groups, being dominated by pike and cyprinids, by percids and gobies, or by gasterosteids, and showed clear inner, middle and outer archipelago zones respectively, within the study area. Our results suggest that while vegetation in the study sites was diverse, it failed to express the zonation reflected by the littoral fish assemblages, which showed a definite zonation pattern which broadly reflected previous reports using both physical and biological parameters. We interpret our results to show that littoral vegetation is better in expressing small-scale differences between study sites, while littoral fish communities are more robust in detecting changes over a larger geographical scale.

  20. The fate of the herbicide propanil in plants of the littoral zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongli; Schäffer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    The anti-seasonal hydrology with 30m water fluctuations in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China attracts growing environmental and ecological concerns. We investigated the biotransformation of the herbicide propanil in plants dominating in the littoral zone of the TGR by applying the (14)C-ring-labeled herbicide into non-aseptic hydroponic plant systems (Cynodon dactylon, Nelumbo nucifera and Bidens pilosa), aseptic plants (Lemna minor and Lemna gibba) and cell suspension cultures (C. dactylon and L. minor). (1) Propanil absorbed in plants of the hydroponic systems was (12.46±1.63)% of applied radioactivity (AR) (C. dactylon), (52.36±6.38)% (N. nucifera) and (76.55±6.07)% (B. pilosa), respectively. The (14)C-residues in the plant extractable fractions and the corresponding media were confirmed by radio-Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), radio-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Chromatography-Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry (GC-EIMS) as propanil, 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-β-d-glucopyranosylamine (Glu-DCA). (2) About 8% of AR was taken up by both aseptic plants, from which 7.0% of AR was extracted and identified also as propanil, DCA and Glu-DCA. (3) Concerning cell suspension cultures, (39.22±9.39)% of AR was absorbed by C. dactylon after 72hr, whereas the accumulated (14)C-propanil by L. minor cell suspension culture amounted to (65.04±1.72)% after 7days. The identified compounds in cell cultures are consistent with those in the tested plants. Most of the pesticide residues in the intact plants were un-extractable, which are recognized as the end of the detoxification process. We therefore consider these plants as suitable for the phytoremediation of the herbicide propanil in the TGR region.

  1. The Littoral Combat Ship: How We Got Here, and Why

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Giraffe 3D air and surface search radar and an eleven-cell SeaRAM anti-missile system.144 Both variants also received electronic warfare systems...The Sea Giraffe radar uses agile multi-beam technology to detect air and surface targets. It can simultaneously handle multiple threats approaching...from different directions and altitudes, including diving anti-ship missiles. Like the TRS-3D radar, the Sea Giraffe is specialized for rapidly

  2. Using catenas for GIS-based mapping of NW Mediterranean littoral habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Simone; Cefalì, Maria Elena; Terradas, Marc; Chappuis, Eglantine; Ballesteros, Enric

    2014-06-01

    Studies aimed at describing habitats and mapping their distributions are pivotal to implementing management plans and to effectively guide conservation measures. We developed a novel approach of data collection and entry (CAT-LIT) to establish a detailed cartography of the littoral habitats found along the Catalan coast (Spain). Field data were recorded using coded, two-digit hierarchical lists (e.g. Aa, Ab, etc.) of horizons found at each point along the coast, called catenas. The horizons were either dominated by species (on the rocky bottoms) or sediment types (on the beaches) and corresponded to LPRE, EUNIS and CORINE habitats. Catenas were transferred into a database and calculations about the extent of bottom types, habitats, and catenas themselves along the coast were carried out with GIS tools. In addition, habitat link richness was calculated and represented using network analysis programs. The application of CAT-LIT to the Catalan coast showed that the habitats dominated by the lichen Verrucaria amphibia and the flattened barnacle Euraphia depressa and those dominated by the barnacle Chthamalus spp. were almost ubiquitous. Those dominated by the red alga Corallina elongata, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the red alga Rissoella verruculosa were also common. Because of the frequency of their connections, those habitats formed a huge hub of links in the networks. By using catenas, the habitats can be viewed using GIS based programs keeping the catena as the main informational and ecological unit. The catenas allow maximum compactness when vertically distributed habitats are to be shown on a 2D map. The complete cartography and dataset on the spatial distribution of the littoral habitats from Catalonia is valuable for coastal management and conservation to study changes in the habitat distribution and relate such changes to anthropogenic pressures. Furthermore, the CAT-LIT can be easily adapted to shores of other seas and oceans to obtain accurate

  3. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  4. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  5. Benthic suspension feeders: their paramount role in littoral marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Gili, J M; Coma, R

    1998-08-01

    In recent years, particular attention has been paid to coupling and energy transfer between benthos and plankton. Because of their abundance, certain benthic suspension feeders have been shown to have a major impact in marine ecosystems. They capture large quantities of particles and might directly regulate primary production and indirectly regulate secondary production in littoral food chains. Suspension feeders develop dense, three-dimensional communities whose structural complexity depends on flow speed. It has been postulated that these communities can self-organize to enhance food capture and thus establish boundary systems capable of successfully exploiting a less structured system, namely, the plankton.

  6. Seasonal changes of littoral transport and beach width and resulting effect on protective structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaughter, T. H.

    1973-01-01

    The shorelines of Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay exhibit seasonal changes in direction of littoral transport and resulting beach width. Observation and study of this process at selected locations emphasizes the necessity of study for a complete year's seasonal cycle before stating erosion rates of an area to be protected by structures and the cyclincal presence or absence of beaches. Seasonal beach conditions at four selected sites are described along with resulting physical changes to protective structures. Through the use of ERTS-1 multi-spectral photography, it will be possible to make widespread predictions elsewhere in the Bay as a direct aid in protective structure design.

  7. Methyl mercury dynamics in littoral sediments of a temperate seepage lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Gilmour, C.C.; Benoit, J.M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Andren, A.W.; Hurley, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    The sites and rates of methyl mercury (MeHg) production and transport in littoral zone sediments were investigated at Pallette Lake in northern Wisconsin. In littoral areas where groundwater inflow occurs, sulfate supply from groundwater creates profiles of electron acceptors (sulfate) and donors (methane, sulfide) that are reversed from those found in sediments whose sulfate supply is delivered from overlying water. The highest MeHg concentrations in porewaters and the maximal advective MeHg flux rates (4.5-61.7 ng??m-2??day-1) were observed in the spring, while highest bulk phase concentrations occur later in the summer. These estimated MeHg fluxes are greater than the mean areal production rates estimated previously for the water column and are similar to the atmospheric flux. Gross MeHg production was measured using the addition of 203Hg as a tracer to sediments. The depth at which maximal 203Hg methylation occurred coincided with the observed maximums m solid-phase and porewater MeHg concentrations. Because input, advection, and accumulation of MeHg in these sediments were measured directly, an independent estimate of MeHg production could be made and compared with 203Hg-derived rates. This comparison suggests that the 203Hg tracer method provides reasonable estimates of gross methylation rates and that a substantial fraction of solid-phase Hg is available for methylation.

  8. Spatial variation in the littoral vertebrate community of a reservoir relative to physical and biological gradients

    PubMed Central

    Soski, Jessica J.; Roosenburg, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs possess gradients in conditions and resources along their long (deep-shallow) axis, but the response of littoral vertebrates (fish and turtles) to these gradients is poorly understood. We have quantified the littoral vertebrate communities throughout a small reservoir in Southeastern Ohio during July and August using traps, and related community composition to environmental variables using NMDS ordination. Ordination revealed that fish and turtles were broadly separated in ordination space, and three distinctly different environmental gradients were significantly associated with the underlying observed species abundances. Observed turtle abundance was explained by measurements of bathymetry, turbidity, and benthic resources, but none of these environmental variables were a reliable predictor of observed fish abundance. Temperature was a poor predictor of observed abundance for both fish and turtles independently, but when fish and turtles were considered together, it became apparent that there were cold areas of the reservoir where observed fish and turtle abundances were different than in other areas of the reservoir. These results suggest that the predictor (environmental) variables we used were appropriate for investigating turtle ecology in reservoirs, but that observed fish abundance is mediated by factors that were not modeled. The efficacy of using traps, the ecological implications of considering fish and turtles together as sympatric and potentially competing species, and directions for future study are discussed. PMID:25538870

  9. Littoral microcrustacean (Cladocera and Copepoda) indicators of acidification in Canadian Shield lakes.

    PubMed

    Walseng, Bjørn; Yan, Norman D; Schartau, Ann Kristin

    2003-04-01

    We identify littoral microcrustacean indicators of acidification in 2 surveys of Canadian Shield lakes conducted 10 years apart. We found a total of 90 cladoceran and copepod species with richness increasing severalfold from acidic to nonacidic lakes. The fauna of the nonacidic lakes differed between the surveys. The 1987 survey employed activity traps, and caught more littoral taxa than the more recent, net-haul-based survey. Similar faunas were identified in the acidified lakes in both surveys, and several good indicator species were identified. For example, Acanthocycops vernalis was restricted to lakes with pH < 6. Sinobosmina sp. was very common but only in lakes with pH > 4.8. Tropocyclops extensus, Mesocyclops edax, and Sida crystallina were commonly found but only at pH > 5, and Chydorus faviformis only at pH > 5.9. These indicators showed promise in gauging the early stages of recovery from acidification in 3 lakes that were included in both surveys.

  10. Littoral hydrovolcanic explosions: A case study of lava-seawater interaction at Kilauea Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattox, T.N.; Mangan, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of hydrovolcanic explosions may occur as basaltic lava flows into the ocean. Observations and measurements were made during a two-year span of unusually explosive littoral activity as tube-fed pahoehoe from Kilauea Volcano inundated the southeast coastline of the island of Hawai'i. Our observations suggest that explosive interactions require high entrance fluxes (??? 4 m3/s) and are most often initiated by collapse of a developing lava delta. Two types of interactions were observed. "Open mixing" of lava and seawater occurred when delta collapse exposed the mouth of a severed lava tube or incandescent fault scarp to wave action. The ensuing explosions produced unconsolidated deposits of glassy lava fragments or lithic debris. Interactions under "confined mixing" conditions occurred when a lava tube situated at or below sea level fractured. Explosions ruptured the roof of the tube and produced circular mounds of welded spatter. We estimate a water/rock mass ratio of 0.15 for the most common type of littoral explosion and a kinetic energy release of 0.07-1.3 kJ/kg for the range of events witnessed.

  11. Population dynamics of shrimps in littoral marine waters of the Mekong Delta, south of Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Dinh, T D; Moreau, J; Van, M V; Phuong, N T; Toan, V T

    2010-07-15

    The population dynamics of eight commercial species of shrimp (Haliporoides sibogae, Harpiosquilla harpax, Metapenaeus affinis, Metapenaeus brevicornis, Metapenaeus tenuipes, Parapenaeopsis cultrirostris, Parapenaeopsis gracillima and Parapenaeus maxilipedo) distributed in littoral marine zone of the Mekong Delta were investigated. Length-based stock assessment using FiSAT II software package was used to assess the growth and mortality parameters: Asymptotic size (L8), growth coefficient (K), total (Z) and natural (M) mortality, exploitation rate (E), recruitment pattern, current probability of capture and selectivity of fishing gears. Yield-per-recruit analyses were carried out showing different levels of the exploitation. Results showed that the maximum sustainable yield would be reached for an exploitation rate higher than the current one for each population. However, the size of first capture should be increased for every population. The findings indicated that the current exploitations of shrimp populations distributed in littoral marine zone of the Mekong Delta are under exploitation level for maximum sustainable yield; however, all the shrimp populations are subject to growth over-exploitation.

  12. Post-tsunami changes in the littoral environment along the southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumar, S; Naik, K A; Ramanamurthy, M V; Ilangovan, D; Gowthaman, R; Jena, B K

    2008-10-01

    The 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami devastated coastal regions of the Indian subcontinent. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, coastal stretches of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala were the most affected regions of India. Changes in the beach profiles, long shore currents, breaking wave characteristics in the surf zone at selected locations along the Tamil Nadu coast were studied during January, April, October 2005 and January 2006. Long shore sediment transport rates were estimated from the observed parameters. Studies were carried out earlier (1995-1996 and 1998) to understand the coastal environment over a one-year cycle in the study region. The post-tsunami observations were compared with the earlier studies to establish the variations in the littoral environment and to ascertain the normalcy of the littoral environment in the post-tsunami scenario. From the changes in the beach profiles, the shoreline was observed to recede by about 20 m and built-up of backshore by about 0.5 m at most locations. Observations from the field investigations and comparisons with earlier studies along this stretch of the coastline indicate that the coastline is yet to return completely to normalcy.

  13. Use and occupation of Olinda littoral (NE, Brazil): guidelines for an integrated coastal management.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez, José A; Medeiros, Carmen; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2007-08-01

    Located on the northeast Brazilian coast, Olinda is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, which is economically dependent on tourism, commerce, industry, and the informal economy. Despite its environmental and socioeconomic importance, the city of Olinda (understanding the coast as part of it) has suffered several environmental and human disturbances over the last decades. This work describes the environmental and social status of Olinda's beaches and makes recommendations concerning the development of an Integrated Coastal Management Plan for this coastal zone of the Brazilian littoral. The methodology adopted in this study is based on field campaigns (social, physical, chemical, and biological data collection), local observations, and the collection of sea contention building project data from city hall. The results showed that along the seven studied beaches, the main problems were related to the: (i) building of coastal protections, (ii) inefficient sewage disposal systems, (iii) inefficient urban management, and (iv) natural events (equinoctial spring tides and precipitation/evaporation rates). Casa Caiada beach showed the best hydrologic conditions as a consequence of its morphology and it presents facilities that attract housing and recreation investments (by private and public sectors) valuing and improving local use conditions. The obtained data showed that the studied beaches need an urgent action plan to minimize the environmental degradation of Olinda's littoral and to promote sustainable development of the local coastal environments.

  14. Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brotosusilo, Agus; Wayan Agus Apriana, I.; Agung Satria, Afrizal; Jokopitoyo, Trisasono

    2016-02-01

    The Indonesian under President Joko Widodo has new goal to make Indonesia as the world maritime axis. This is supported by the geographic of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic country where the sea is two-thirds wide among the whole spacious. Indonesia is the world largest archipelagic state. More than two-third of its territory consist of seas. The ecosystem of littoral and coastal has correlative relationship with country development. There is no doubt of physically facts that Indonesian littoral and coastal with total wide of 5.8 million km2 is rich with various natural resources. Therefore, the condition of Indonesia with its world second longest coastline has several comparative advantages. Not only the country has an abundant natural resources, but it also blessed by demographic bonus advantage. The population of Indonesian is the fifth largest in the world which approximately 220 million people and approximately 60 percent among them live at coastal areas. The people in coastal area relies their live from its surrounding natural resource. Hence, most of their life and daily activity is related with the presence of natural resources. The dealing of conflict potential and attention to maritime security are important to be studied as a reference in preparing and facing the government policies that will lead to the development of maritime.

  15. Influence of nutrient additions on cadmium bioaccumulation by aquatic invertebrates in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Muir, D.C.G.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Hecky, R.E.

    1998-12-01

    Cadmium distribution and bioaccumulation were examined over a 2-year period (1991--1992) in two nutrient-enriched and two control littoral enclosures and in the littoral zone in Lake 382 (L382). Lake 382, a small oligotrophic lake, is located within the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, and received experimental Cd additions from 1987 to 1992. In the second year of this study, chlorophyll a and suspended C concentrations in the nutrient-enriched enclosures increased by 6.6 and 3.4 times, respectively, compared to the controls. As a result of increased particulate produced by the nutrient additions, Cd concentrations in water from the nutrient-enriched enclosures were higher compared to the controls. Estimated Cd/C concentrations in water were lower in the nutrient-enriched enclosures relative to the controls because of higher particle concentrations. Effects on Cd bioaccumulation were limited even though mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions were reached in the nutrient-enriched enclosures had consistently higher Cd concentrations compared to the controls, but significant differences were not detected. Enhanced accumulation of Cd-rich particulate matter by these organisms may account for this trend. Mussels and crayfish accumulated significantly more Cd when exposed in the lake compared to the enclosures. This observation is due to elevated Cd water concentrations in the lake compared to the enclosures because of continued Cd additions to the lake. These results suggest that the water route of exposure is an important pathway for Cd accumulation by these organisms.

  16. Revisiting Measures of Effectiveness in Support of Low-Frequency, Multistatic Sonar Search in the Littoral Battlespaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-20

    measures of performance; MOPS; Multistatic Interaction Calculator; MUSICAL 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report...Limitations IV. An Alternative Approach for Assessing Littoral, Multistatic ASW Performance Multistatic Interaction Calculator ( MUSICAL ) MUSICAL ...Inputs MUSICAL MOPs Bayesian Integration Methods MUSICAL Example V. Summary I. Introduction Since the end of the Cold War, the Anti-Submarine

  17. Littoral Environmental Sensing Architecture (LESA) Report - The Current State of Sensing Capability for Naval Special Warfare METOC Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    10-9214 Littoral Environmental Sensing Architecture Report 5 Parameter Details Rationale Light and Illumination Daily solar and lunar ...traditional meteorological forecasts for NSW. Correctly forecasting the formation, intensity, and longevity of dust storms is an important goal for...desert operations. An upwind network of surface sensors is required for monitoring potential dust storm formation and verifying them once they have

  18. Phytoplankton communities in the littoral zone of lakes: Observations on structure and dynamics in oligotrophic and eutrophic systems.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A Dennis; Dimmick, John F

    1982-09-01

    The structure and seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in the littoral zone were compared between oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes in the southeastern United States. Differences in diversity and species composition between lakes could be ascribed to long-term variation in nutrients corresponding to trophic status. However, significant within-lake variation could not be accounted for by microstratification of nutrients or other abiotic variables. Local biotic factors, perhaps dominated by the spawning activities of centrarchid fishes, resuspend periphyton and generate tychoplankton which becomes a persistent and integral part of the phytoplankton community in eutrophic systems. The patchy distribution of these biotic factors and resultant tychoplankton may lead to the observed variation. Grazing by herbivorous zooplankton was considered to be the major factor affecting the relative abundance of phytoplankton in the littoral zone, completely overriding the effects of nutrient concentration and biotic interactions between phytoplankton species during spring and summer.The relative importance of tychoplankton and grazing as regulatory factors operates independently of the trophic status or geographical location of a lake, making comparisons of different studies difficult and perhaps meaningless if traditional analyses based only on nutrients and interactions between species of phytoplankton are used. Limnetic as well as littoral components must be considered in future studies of phytoplankton communities in the littoral zone.

  19. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes.

    PubMed

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  20. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Factors Shape Littoral Invertebrate Community Structure in Coal-Mining End-Pit Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luek, Andreas; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Aquatic invertebrates form the base of the consumer food web in lakes. In coal-mining end-pit lakes, invertebrates are exposed to an environment with potentially challenging physical and chemical features. We hypothesized that the physical and chemical features of end-pit lakes reduce critical littoral habitat and thus reduce invertebrate diversity, thereby limiting the potential for these lakes to be naturalized. We used a multivariate approach using principle component analysis and redundancy analysis to study relationships between invertebrate community structure, habitat features, and water quality in five end-pit lakes and five natural lakes in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west-central Alberta, Canada. Results show a significantly different invertebrate community structure was present in end-pit lakes as compared with reference lakes in the same region, which could be accounted for by water hardness, conductivity, slope of the littoral zone, and phosphorus concentrations. Habitat diversity in end-pit lakes was also limited, cover provided by macrophytes was scarce, and basin slopes were significantly steeper in pit lakes. Although water chemistry is currently the strongest influencing factor on the invertebrate community, physical challenges of habitat homogeneity and steep slopes in the littoral zones were identified as major drivers of invertebrate community structure. The addition of floating wetlands to the littoral zone of existing pit lakes can add habitat complexity without the need for large-scale alterations to basing morphology, while impermeable capping of waste-rock and the inclusion of littoral habitat in the planning process of new pit lakes can improve the success of integrating new pit lakes into the landscape.

  1. The littoral zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xing-zhong; Zhang, Yue-wei; Liu, Hong; Xiong, Sen; Li, Bo; Deng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    For flood control purpose, the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) varies significantly. The annual reservoir surface elevation amplitude is about 30 m behind the dam. Filling of the reservoir has created about 349 km(2) of newly flooded riparian zone. The average flooding period lasts for more than 6 months, from mid-October to late April. The dam and its associated reservoir provide flood control, power generation, and navigation, but there are also many environmental challenges. The littoral zone is the important part of the TGR, once its eco-health and stability are damaged,which will directly endanger the ecological safety of the whole reservoir area and even the Yangtze River Basin. So, understanding the great ecological opportunities which are hidden in littoral zone of TGR (LZTGR) and putting forward approaches to solve the environmental problems are very important. LZTGR involves a wide field of problems, such as the landslides, potential water pollution, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, land cover changes, and other issues. The Three Gorges dam (TGD) is a major trigger of environmental change in the Yangtze River. The landslides, water quality, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, dam operation, and challenge for land use are closely interrelated across spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, the ecological and environmental impacts caused by TGD are necessarily complex and uncertain. LZTGR is not only a great environmental challenge but also an ecological opportunity for us. In fact, LZTGR is an important structural unit of TGR ecosystem and has special ecosystem services function. Vegetation growing in LZTGR is therefore a valuable resource due to accumulation of carbon and nutrients. Everyone thinks that the ecological approach to the problem is needed. If properly designed, dike-pond systems, littoral woods systems, and re-created waterfowl habitats will have the capacity to capture nutrients from uplands and obstruct soil erosion

  2. Pilot survey of avahi population (woolly lemurs) in littoral forest fragments of southeast Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Norscia, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a pilot survey of the avahis (pair-living, nocturnal prosimians) living in threatened littoral forest fragments of southeastern Madagascar. In the period of October-December 2004, I evaluated the density of adult and newborn avahis (carried by the mothers) by counting the individuals encountered during 58 night walks in seven fragments of Sainte Luce and Mandena forests, along one trail/fragment. Along each trail, I used random plots (5 m2) for a preliminary characterization of the vegetation. The density of the population was not correlated with fragment size and number of plant morphospecies, while it was correlated with large tree availability. Possibly due to a low energy diet based on leaves and to specialized and energetically expensive vertical leaping, the loss of large trees by selective logging seems to affect avahi populations more than other variables.

  3. Littoral zones as sources of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stets, E.G.; Cotner, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 12 lakes in Minnesota, USA, was conducted to examine the factors controlling variability in biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentration. The principal question addressed was whether BDOC concentration was more strongly related to lake trophic status or morphometric parameters. BDOC concentration was determined by incubating filtered lake water for a period of 15 months and fitting an exponential decay curve to measured DOC concentrations. BDOC concentrations varied from 73 to 427 mmol C.L-1 and composed 15%-63% of the total DOC pool. There were no significant correlations between BDOC and measures of lake trophic status. Instead, BDOC was most closely associated with the percentage of lake area covered by littoral zone, suggesting a significant source of BDOC from aquatic macrophytes and lake surface sediments. ?? 2008 NRC.

  4. The FRALIT teledetection program, using the ERTS-A satellite, for the oceanic littoral of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Cazabat, C.; Demathieu, P.; Dupuis, J.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The French Atlantic Littoral program, utilizing data from the ERTS-1 satellite, is considered. It involves teledetection of the French shoreline along the Atlantic Ocean and English Channel. A description is given of the ERTS-1 orbit and the satellite itself, including the attitude control system, and the data acquisition and transmission equipment. The geographic extent of the area covered by the program is delineated and the subjects studied are enumerated. These include the geomorphology, pedology, hydrology, and vegetation of the maritime marshes; sedimentology, morphology, and hydrology of the intertidal zones; and transport of material in suspension to the mouths of the Seine, the Loire, and the Gironde as a part of the coastal waters study.

  5. A quantitative evaluation of the effects of Ascophyllum harvesting on the littoral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boaden, P. J. S.; Dring, M. T.

    1980-03-01

    Little is known of the ecological effects of harvesting littoral algae although this is a worldwide commercial activity. In 1976 an attempt to establish harvesting in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, was opposed on mainly theoretical conservation grounds. The attempt began and stopped within a single small bay leaving a sharp boundary between cut and uncut areas. A subjective survey apparently confirmed the predicted loss of cryptic fauna, decline through predation and the resorting of interboulder sediment. In April 1979 the cut and uncut areas were examined in detail to determine whether any of these effects had persisted and were demonstrable scientifically. Beach and boulder transects and various other studies showed some increases in the cut area. There was significantly more Fucus, Enteromorpha and Ulva; Cirratulus (inhabiting Rhodochorton-bound sediment on boulder surfaces) had a greater biomass. Some changes in Littorina colour morphs were apparent. Sediment in the cut area was coarser and had significantly more crustacean meiofauna. Ascophyllum internodal length and lateral branching were increased but it still provided 20% less shore cover than in the uncut area. There were significant decreases in the cover of Cladophora on the sides of boulders and of Halichondria, Hymeniacodon and Balanus on undersurfaces. Indeed on the habitable underside of boulders total animal cover had been reduced by nearly two-thirds and the average number of species per boulder by one-third. It is concluded that Ascophyllum harvesting has a significant and persistent effect on shore ecology. Littoral algae are a valuable commercial asset but it is important that some fairly large intertidal areas should be left unharvested for general conservation purposes.

  6. Predictability of littoral-zone fish communities through ontogeny in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleton, M.A.; Ramirez, R.; Hargrave, C.W.; Gido, K.B.; Masoner, J.R.; Schnell, G.D.; Matthews, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    We sampled larval, juvenile and adult fishes from littoral-zone areas of a large reservoir (Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas) (1) to characterize environmental factors that influenced fish community structure, (2) to examine how consistent fish-environment relationships were through ontogeny (i.e., larval vs. juvenile and adult), and (3) to measure the concordance of larval communities sampled during spring to juvenile and adult communities sampled at the same sites later in the year. Larval, juvenile and adult fish communities were dominated by Atherinidae (mainly inland silverside, Menidia beryllina) and Moronidae (mainly juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis) and were consistently structured along a gradient of site exposure to prevailing winds and waves. Larval, juvenile and adult communities along this gradient varied from atherinids and moronids at highly exposed sites to mostly centrarchids (primarily Lepomis and Micropterus spp.) at protected sites. Secondarily, zooplankton densities, water clarity, and land-use characteristics were related to fish community structure. Rank correlation analyses and Mantel tests indicated that the spatial consistency and predictability of fish communities was high as larval fishes sampled during spring were concordant with juvenile and adult fishes sampled at the same sites during summer and fall in terms of abundance, richness, and community structure. We propose that the high predictability and spatial consistency of littoral-zone fishes in Lake Texoma was a function of relatively simple communities (dominated by 1-2 species) that were structured by factors, such as site exposure to winds and waves, that varied little through time. ?? Springer 2005.

  7. Guide to the littoral zone vascular flora of Carolina bay lakes (U.S.A.)

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Nathan; Braham, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Carolina bays are elliptic, directionally aligned basins of disputed origin that occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Georgia. In southeastern North Carolina, several large, natural, lacustrine systems (i.e., Carolina bay lakes) exist within the geomorphological features known as Carolina bays. Within the current distribution of Carolina bays, Bladen and Columbus counties (North Carolina) contain the only known examples of Carolina bay lakes. The Carolina bay lakes can be split into two major divisions, the “Bladen Lakes Group” which is characterized as being relatively unproductive (dystrophic – oligotrophic), and Lake Waccamaw, which stands alone in Columbus County and is known for its high productivity and species richness. Although there have been several studies conducted on these unique lentic systems, none have documented the flora comprehensively. New information Over the 2013−2014 growing seasons, the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes was surveyed and vouchered. Literature reviews and herbarium crawls complemented this fieldwork to produce an inventory of the vascular plant species. This survey detected 205 taxa (species/subspecies and varieties) in 136 genera and 80 vascular plant families. Thirty-one species (15.2%) are of conservation concern. Lake Waccamaw exhibited the highest species richness with 145 catalogued taxa and 26 species of conservation concern. Across all sites, the Cyperaceae (25 spp.), Poaceae (21 spp.), Asteraceae (13 spp.), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Juncaceae (8 spp.), and Lentibulariaceae (6 spp.) were the six most species-rich vascular plant families encountered. A guide to the littoral zone flora of Carolina bay lakes is presented herein, including dichotomous keys, species accounts (including abundance, habitat, phenology, and exsiccatae), as well as images of living species and vouchered specimens. PMID:27350764

  8. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  9. A field proof-of-concept of tomographic slug tests in an anisotropic littoral aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Daniel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Lefebvre, René; Giroux, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic tomography is increasingly recognized as a characterization approach that can image pathways or barriers to flow as well as their connectivity. In this study, we assess the performance of a transient analysis of tomographic slug test head data in estimating heterogeneity in horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kh), hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (the ratio between vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity - Kv/Kh) and specific storage (Ss) under actual field conditions. The tomographic experiment was carried out between two wells in a moderately heterogeneous and highly anisotropic silt and sand littoral aquifer. In this field proof-of-concept, the inversion of the two-dimensional (2D) head dataset was computed with a 2D radial flow algorithm that considers Kh, Kv/Kh, Ss and wellbore storage effects. This study demonstrated that a transient analysis of tomographic slug tests is able to capture the key features of the littoral environment of the test: the vertical profiles of Kh and Kv are indeed in agreement with those from other field and laboratory tests, and Ss values exhibit physically plausible profiles. Furthermore, the simulation of independent inter-well hydraulic tests (slug and pumping tests screened over the entire aquifer) using resolved Kh, Kv/Kh and Ss tomograms produce responses very close to field observations. This study demonstrates that the effects of fine scale heterogeneity that induces K-anisotropy at larger scales can be captured through a transient analysis of tomographic slug tests, which are very difficult to quantify otherwise with conventional hydraulic tests, thus allowing a better representation of properties controlling flow and transport in aquifer systems.

  10. Treatment of angiomas and telangiectasias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Junichiro

    2003-12-01

    Background Vascular lesions still present a major problem, and the search for a good treatment continues. The use of inappropriate treatment methods, can occasionally cause unwanted side effects. Even when the method used is appropriate, the result can be disappointing. It is important to choose an appropriate laser, and where laser treatment is not effective, we must select the most appropriate conventional treatment or combination of treatments. My treatment program is as follows; a 532 nm diode laser is the first choice for telangiectasias; the flashlamp-pumped dye laser for port wine stains and strawberry marks; and the Nd:YAG laser with a cooling device for 1 - 3 mm leg veins of the reticular and web type. For leg veins over 3 mm, surgery is required. The diode pumped 532 nm laser is excellent for superficial telangiectasias. Good effects with the pulsed dye laser are limited to vessels in the upper layers of the dermis, thus the penetration depth of the laser must thus be optimized combined with epidermal cooling. We must always avoid side effects in laser treatment of vascular lesions. Development of new wavelengths and adaptation of existing wavelengths are currently being investigated.

  11. A Scientific Study to Develop a Practical Method for Assessing the Cleanup of ’Sour’ (High Sulfur) Crude Oil Spills in Littoral Sands using Benthic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Stabilized crude oil in littoral sands and gravels by using microorganisms as indicators. Crude oil was spilled on beaches at three localities along the...sediments, the crude oil was not detected approximately three months after it was spilled. (Author)

  12. Invasive mussels alter the littoral food web of a large lake: stable isotopes reveal drastic shifts in sources and flow of energy.

    PubMed

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O; Barton, David R

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production.

  13. Invasive Mussels Alter the Littoral Food Web of a Large Lake: Stable Isotopes Reveal Drastic Shifts in Sources and Flow of Energy

    PubMed Central

    Ozersky, Ted; Evans, David O.; Barton, David R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid) and recent (postdreissenid) samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production. PMID:23284673

  14. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption.

  15. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  16. Proposed Force Structure for the Australian Army to Perform Maneuver Operations in the Littoral Environment within the Region of Interest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-18

    2001, 143). Like Indonesia , Philippine society is dominated by a political and military structure that does not favor absolute democracy. Rather...PROPOSED FORCE STRUCTURE FOR THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY TO PERFORM MANEUVER OPERATIONS IN THE LITTORAL ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE REGION OF INTEREST...ii MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: Major Anthony J. Egan Thesis Title: The Recommended Force Structure

  17. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on U.S. Navy Watchstander Performance Onboard the Independence Class Littoral Combat Ship (LCS 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Shipboard Operations: A Guide for Commanders Yokeley 2012 Effects of Sleep Deprivation on U.S. Navy Surface Ship Watchstander Performance using... Effects of sleep deprivation on U.S. Navy surface ship watchstander performance using alternative watch schedules (master’s thesis). Naval Postgraduate... SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON U.S. NAVY WATCHSTANDER PERFORMANCE ONBOARD THE INDEPENDENCE CLASS LITTORAL COMBAT SHIP (LCS 2) James D. Davey Lieutenant

  18. Pb isotopic study on soils from Domizio-Flegreo Littoral area, Napoli, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grezzi, G.; Ayuso, R. A.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; de Vivo, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Domizio - Flegreo Littoral area, together with the Agro Aversano area, are part of a Site of National Interest for pollution assessment. This area is located along the north coastal zone of the Campania region (Italy) and has an extension of about 855 Km2. We analyzed soils for heavy metal content in order to study and discriminate the impact of natural and anthropogenic sources. We collected 292 soil surface samples (5-15 cm depth) and produced maps showing the distribution of heavy metals in the soils. On the basis of the geographic distribution of heavy metals, 9 soil profiles were also collected for detailed examination (1 meter from surface). From each soil profile, we collected 10 soil samples (1/10 cm) in the urban and suburban areas of the littoral area. Also, we collected 8 groundwater samples likely associated with the soils. Pb isotope compositions of these soils and waters help to constrain the impact of anthropogenic and natural components on the soil profiles. Possible anthropogenic end-members include pesticides used in the area. Lead isotope compositions of soils known to contain anomalously high values of heavy metals were measured in order to determine the sources of the Pb and, by inference, sources of other metals that are likely to share similar geochemical behaviour in the surface environment (e.g., As). Acid-leach compositions of the soils represent Pb that is adsorbed to mineral surfaces, whereas residue compositions may reflect bedrock. Labile Pb (acid-leach fractions) from the soils shows a range in compositions of 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8275 to 0.8486, and 208Pb/206Pb = 2.0488 to 2.0873. The isotope values vary and decrease with depth. The Pb isotope ratios obtained on groundwater samples range from about 207Pb/206Pb = 0.8516 to 0.8636, 208Pb/206Pb = 2.0706 to 2.1064. The Pb isotope ratios in the soil profiles and groundwater are generally consistent with multiple sources that include anthropogenic Pb. Surface soil samples from Giugliano

  19. The influence of productivity and width of littoral zone on the trophic position of a large-bodied omnivore.

    PubMed

    Stenroth, Patrik; Holmqvist, Niklas; Nyström, Per; Berglund, Olof; Larsson, Per; Granéli, Wilhelm

    2008-06-01

    Omnivory is common in many food webs. Omnivores in different habitats can potentially change their feeding behaviour and alter their trophic position and role according to habitat conditions. Here we examine the trophic level and diet of the omnivorous signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in gradients of trophic status and lake size, both of which have been previously suggested to affect trophic position of predators separately or combined as productive space. We found the trophic position of omnivorous crayfish to be positively correlated with lake trophic status, but found no evidence for any influence of lake size or productive space on crayfish trophic position. The higher trophic position of crayfish in eutrophic lakes was largely caused by a shift in crayfish diet and not by an increase in trophic links in basal parts of the food web. Hence, our results support the "productivity hypothesis," suggesting that food chains can be longer in more productive systems. Furthermore, stable isotope data indicated that larger crayfish are more predatory than smaller crayfish in lakes with wider littoral zones. Wider littoral zones promoted the development of intrapopulation differences in trophic position whereas narrow littoral zones did not. Hence, differences in habitat quality between and within lakes seem to influence the trophic positions of omnivorous crayfish.

  20. An integrated evaluation of the persistence and effects of 4-nonylphenol in an experimental littoral ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Liber, K.; Knuth, M.L.; Stay, F.S.

    1999-03-01

    A comprehensive littoral enclosure study was conducted to assess the persistence and distribution of 4-nonylphenol (NP) in a littoral ecosystem, and to evaluate the compound`s effects on resident aquatic biota. Enclosures with a mean ({+-} SD) surface area and volume of 31.4 {+-} 3.3 m{sup 2} and 32.0 {+-} 6.4 m{sup 3}, respectively, received eleven applications at 48-h intervals with one of four different rates of NP. This created a 20-d application period which was followed by a three to fourteen month observation period, depending on the endpoint measured. Mean {+-} SD NP concentrations in the water column measured 2 h after each application averaged 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L at nominal treatments of 3, 30, 100, and 300 {micro}g/L, respectively. Persistence in the water column was relatively short, with a dissipation half-life estimated at {le} 1.2 d. Persistence of NP in sediment and on macrophytes was substantially longer, with estimated half-lives of 28 to 104 d and 8 to 13 d, respectively. Zooplankton was the most sensitive group of organisms evaluated, with significant reductions in population abundances of some copepod taxa observed at the 23 {+-} 11-{micro}g/L treatment. Fish survival was affected at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. The most sensitive benthic macroinvertebrate taxon, Pisidium (Bivalvia) was affected at 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L, but most taxa were only affected at the 243 {+-} 41-{micro}g/L treatment. None of the assessed populations were affected at the 5 {+-} 4-{micro}g/L treatment. Macrophytes and periphyton were not adversely affected by any of the treatments. Overall community composition, assessed at the family level or higher, was not affected at or below the 23 {+-} 11-{micro}g/L treatment, but did exhibit substantial changes at the 243 {+-} 41-{micro}g/L treatment. Some minor changes were observed at the 76 {+-} 21-{micro}g/L treatment. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration in the water column, based

  1. Impact of pesticide contamination on aquatic microorganism populations in the littoral zone.

    PubMed

    Lew, S; Lew, M; Biedunkiewicz, A; Szarek, J

    2013-04-01

    The effect of pesticide contamination of the littoral zone on the population of bacteria and fungi was analyzed using the example of a eutrophic water reservoir exposed for >30 years to the influence of expired crop-protection chemicals, mainly DDT. For three consecutive years, quantity analyses of bacteria and fungi were conducted and the composition of the microorganism population analyzed against seasonal dynamics. Mold and yeast-like fungi were also isolated and identified. Within the Bacteria domain, in addition to the large groups of microorganisms (Alphaprotobacteria, Betaprobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium), the analysis also involved the presence of bacteria predisposed to degraded pesticides in natural environments: Pseudomonas spp. and Alcaligenes spp. The quantity dynamics of aquatic microorganisms indicated that bacteria and fungi under the influence of long-term exposure to DDT can adapt to the presence of this pesticide in water. No modifying effect of DDT was observed on the quantity of microorganisms or the pattern of seasonal relationships in the eutrophic lake. Changes were shown in the percentage share of large groups of bacteria in the community of microorganisms as was an effect of contamination on the species diversity of fungi. The data show the effectiveness of aquatic microorganism-community analyses as a tool for indicating changes in the water environment caused by pesticide contamination.

  2. [Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Neira, Raúl; Cantera, Jaime R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines published information and gray literature about taxonomy and ecology of echinoderm species of the Colombian Pacific Coast. Unpublished collection data of specimens kept in the Marine Sciences Museum of the University of Valle are also considered. Sixty-six species are found in coastal ecosystems and shallow bottoms of ten geographical, coastal and insular localities of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Main habitats having echinoderms are: rocky cliffs and shores, coral reefs, sand beaches, mud substrates, mangroves, and shallow bottoms of mud, sand, gravel and rocks. Regular Echinoidea and Asteroidea are the most diverse and abundant groups, mainly in subtidal rocky shallow bottoms and coral reefs. Ophiuroidea are abundant below rocky boulders. Irregular Echinoidea are abundant on sand beaches. The relatively high number of species shows that this geographical area presents a high diversity of echinoderms compared with other tropical shallow and littoral zones of the world. Rocky substrates and coral reefs are the ecosystems with the highest numbers of echinoderm species and individuals. A conservation status assessment is difficult because the lack of periodical sampling and few data about deep zones. In general, the species reported in the last 25 years, have not experimented important changes in their populations, although in some specific places, populations may decrease because human activities in coastal areas increase sedimentation rates change some rocky substrates to mud or sand.

  3. Spectral identification of sperm whales from Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center passive acoustic recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorovskaia, Natalia A.; Richard, Blake; Ioup, George E.; Ioup, Juliette W.

    2005-09-01

    The Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) made a series of passive broadband acoustic recordings in the Gulf of Mexico and Ligurian Sea to study noise and marine mammal phonations. The collected data contain a large amount of various types of sperm whale phonations, such as isolated clicks and communication codas. It was previously reported that the spectrograms of the extracted clicks and codas contain well-defined null patterns that seem to be unique for individuals. The null pattern is formed due to individual features of the sound production organs of an animal. These observations motivated the present studies of adapting human speech identification techniques for deep-diving marine mammal phonations. A three-state trained hidden Markov model (HMM) was used with the phonation spectra of sperm whales. The HHM-algorithm gave 75% accuracy in identifying individuals when it had been initially tested for the acoustic data set correlated with visual observations of sperm whales. A comparison of the identification accuracy based on null-pattern similarity analysis and the HMM-algorithm is presented. The results can establish the foundation for developing an acoustic identification database for sperm whales and possibly other deep-diving marine mammals that would be difficult to observe visually. [Research supported by ONR.

  4. Restoring ecosystem services to littoral zones of rivers in the urban core of Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xian, Xu-Dong; Feng, Yi-Long; Willison, J H Martin; Ai, Li-Jiao; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhi-Neng

    2015-08-01

    Two examples of the creation of naturalized areas in the littoral zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the urban core of Chongqing City, China, are described. The areas were created for the purpose of restoring ecological functions and services. Plants were selected based on surveys of natural wetland vegetation in the region, and experiments were conducted to discover the capacity of species of interest to survive the sometimes extreme hydrological regimes at the sites. Novel methods were developed to stabilize the plants against the rigors of extreme summer floods and constant swash, notably zigzag berms of rocks wrapped in iron mesh. The areas include native reeds, grasses, shrubs, and trees. Plant communities in the areas are zoned according to flooding stress, and their structure is less stable at lower elevations that are subjected to greater stress. The tall grass Saccharum spontaneum (widespread in Southern Asia) and the tree Pterocarya stenoptera (native to Southwest China) are notable for their utility at these sites in the center of a large city. Communities of tall reeds and grasses have become so dense and stable that they now provide the ecosystem services of capturing river sediments and resisting erosion of the river banks. It is recommended that extensive greening of the riparian zones in urban areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir be conducted for the purpose of providing ecosystem services, based in part on the experiences described here.

  5. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on the biota in a littoral pond ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Liber, K.; Schmude, K.; O`Halloran, S.; Corry, T.; Gangl, J.; Stay, F.

    1994-12-31

    National water quality criteria for 4-nonylphenol, a surfactant precursor and metabolite, are currently being developed by the US EPA. Preliminary data from laboratory tests indicate that the criterion maximum concentration may be as low as 3--10 {mu}g/L; field data on biological effects are rare. The study presented here was designed to assess the effects of 4-nonylphenol on a natural aquatic community using a set of 18 littoral enclosures (average volume 33 m{sup 3}). The common occurrence of 4-nonylphenol in municipal and industrial discharges dictated the use of a ``chronic`` exposure scenario for this study. Test concentrations ranged from 3 to 300 {mu}g/L, with applications every 48 hours for a 20 day period. This ensured a 21-day ``chronic`` exposure period and allowed sediment concentration of 4-nonylphenol to steadily increase. Survival of juvenile bluegill sunfish was reduced at 300 {mu}g/L, but not at 100, {mu}g/L; no effects on growth were noted over the 68-day assessment period. Abundance of Cladocera and Copepoda were also reduced at 300 {mu}g/L, with recovery observed within 2--4 weeks after the last nonylphenol application. Benthic macroinvertebrates, including Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, and Mollusca, were affected at 100--300 {mu}g/L, with impacts persisting for several months. The slow recovery of benthic macroinvertebrates was partially attributed to their prolonged exposure to sediment associated nonylphenol residues.

  6. Promutagen activation by fish liver as a biomarker of littoral pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Ariza, A.; Dorado, G.; Navas, J.I.; Pueyo, C.; Lopex-Barea, J.

    1994-12-31

    Metabolic activation of known promutagens by liver S9 fractions of Mugil sp. (grey mullet) from two zones of the South Atlantic Spanish littoral was determined and related to their pollution levels. Sediments from the putative contaminated area contained high concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and pesticides, and animals from the polluted site exhibited higher concentrations of metals than those from the reference area. Hepatic S9 fractions of mullets from the polluted site showed 5.1-, 19.6-, and 42.8-fold higher capability to activate benzo(a)pyrene, 2-acetyl-aminofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene, respectively, than those from reference animals. Cadmium, a highly toxic metal, was one of the pollutants detected in the contaminated area. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were exposed under controlled conditions to different Cd concentrations in order to investigate the effects of Cd on fish promutagen activation capability. A clear dose-response relationship was observed between Cd concentration, EROD activity and metabolic activation of 2-aminoanthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. Our data indicate that the enhanced promutagen activation by fish S9 fractions accompanying induction of EROD activity is a sensitive and reliable index of pollution in aquatic environments. 39 refs., 6 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Miyuki; Kusumi, Junko; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Sato, Tetsu; Terai, Yohey; Okada, Norihiro; Tachida, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  8. Taxonomy of the Cryptopygus complex. I. Pauropygus - a new worldwide littoral genus (Collembola, Isotomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, Mikhail; Gao, Yan; Deharveng, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we describe the new genus Pauropygus gen. n. which includes three minute species, blind and unpigmented, living in interstitial littoral habitats in tropical or subtropical countries. Two of these species are new to science (type species Pauropygus projectus sp. n. from New Caledonia and Pauropygus pacificus sp. n. from China); the third one, originally described in the genus Cryptopygus (Cryptopygus caussaneli Thibaud, 1996), has a larger pantropical distribution. We synonymize here Cryptopygus riebi Barra, 1997 from South Africa with Pauropygus caussaneli. Two paratypes of the Mexican species Cryptopygus axayacatl Palacios & Thibaud, 2001 turned also to be Pauropygus caussaneli, while the holotype and remaining paratypes of this species support its placement in Proisotomodes. Among the Cryptopygus complex, Pauropygus gen. n. is easily recognized by characters of mouthparts (presence of two large projections on pleural fold, basolateral field with 6 chaetae, modified mouthparts) and reduced sensillar chaetotaxy (tergal sensilla 2-3,0-1/0-1,0-1,1-2,1-2,1-3, microsensilla reduced in number: 00/0-100, with sensilla situated in p-row on the abdomen). Small size, absence of eyes and pigment are also shared by all its species. The three species belonging to the genus differ by sensillar chaetotaxy. PMID:23794906

  9. Case Based Measles Surveillance Performance in 2010, Littoral Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kobela, Marie; Delissaint, Dieula; Kazambu, Ditu; Emah, Irène

    2014-01-01

    The Littoral region of Cameroon met most of its routine immunization and surveillance objectives in 2010 but has not reiterated such a performance since then. We describe the case-based measles surveillance performance of 2010 by person, place, time and determine measles surveillance system delays. Descriptive statistics were performed using Epi Info 3.5.3. There were 130 suspected measles cases investigated by 17 (89.5%) health districts, 83 (64%) males and 99 (76%) ≤5 years. At least 4 cases were investigated per month with a peak of 23 cases in June. About 67 (51.5%) patients visited a hospital more than 48 h after disease onset, 34 (26.2%) health facilities informed the district service late after receiving a suspected case and 65 (50%) samples got to the reference laboratory more than 24 hours after reception by the specimen collection centre. More than 2 discarded measles/100,000 population were investigated but with health facilities, specimen collection centre and patients’ ability to seek healthcare delays. All specimens got to the reference laboratory within 72 h. Patients’ health seeking behavior need to be improved and personnel involved in surveillance sensitized on timeliness. PMID:28299126

  10. Nutrient availability modifies species abundance and community structure of Fucus-associated littoral benthic fauna.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Samuli; Jormalainen, Veijo; Pettay, Esko

    2010-01-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus is a foundation species in the Baltic Sea littoral, hosting a rich faunal community. We compared the species composition and diversity of invertebrate macrofauna living on F. vesiculosus between sites differing in their eutrophication status and exposure to waves at three different times during a season. We determined the size, nitrogen and phlorotannin content of the alga. The invertebrate community differed substantially between sites near fish farms and those in more pristine environment. Snails and bivalves were more abundant on the Fucus stands near fish farms than on control stands, where crustaceans were more abundant. The abundance of molluscs decreased with the increasing shore exposure, while gammaridean amphipods dominated on the exposed shores. Abundance of several taxa increased during the proceeding growing season. The density of the most important herbivore of F. vesiculosus, Idotea balthica, varied 100-fold during the season being the lowest in June and the highest in August when the generation born in the summer started to feed on Fucus. Thus, the diversity and composition of Fucus-associated invertebrate fauna varies both with environmental conditions of the stand and seasonally. Although the negative effects of eutrophication on distribution and abundance of Fucus stands are well documented, a moderate increase of nutrients was found to increase the species richness of Fucus-associated fauna in early summer.

  11. Comparative diversity analysis in sandy littoral ecosystems of the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, I.; Fallaci, M.; Milanesi, F.; Scapini, F.; Chelazzi, L.

    2003-10-01

    A comparative faunal analysis was carried out in sandy littoral localities differing both morphologically and in human impact. The study sites were located in the western Mediterranean basin along the coasts of Morocco, Tunisia, the Maltese Islands and Italy. These were typical beach-dune ecosystems more (Smir, Morocco; Zouara, Tunisia; Burano, Italy) or less (Ir-Ramla tat-Torri, Malta and Ir-Ramla l-Hamra, Gozo) structurally developed accordingly. Species richness was evaluated using standard trapping techniques with pitfall traps along the transects perpendicular to the shoreline. Only isopods and coleopterans were used in the analysis. In each locality, an analysis was conducted on both the beach and the dune separately, and on the entire ecosystem in the two seasons (spring and autumn). Species were studied both quantitatively and qualitatively using ecological coefficients (relative abundance) and Fisher's diversity index. To evaluate the evenness of the community, Shannon-Weaver index was calculated and compared with Brillouin index. For both indices, the maximum values were computed and were used to obtain the evenness of the community through Pielou index. In addition, Simpson's dominance index was considered. Percentages of similarities between localities were analysed in the two seasons and in total using the Renkonen index. The overall analysis showed that general trends could be found for both orders that were studied and gave indications on habitat quality. The study showed that when monitoring was carried out systematically both in space and time, arthropods could be used as important tool to assess beach health.

  12. Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project: Beach and Nearshore Morphological Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Stevens, A. W.; Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Shoreline change along the southwest Washington and northwest Oregon coast responds to both natural and anthropogenic drivers at a range of temporal and spatial scales. Within the last century, human interventions, primarily the construction of large jetties at the entrance to the Columbia River, have been the dominant driver of nearshore morphology and shoreline change in this area. These jetties caused the inlet to narrow and deepen, the ebb-tidal delta to migrate offshore into deeper water, and adjacent shorelines to first accrete then erode over distances of tens of kilometers and time scales of decades. Shoreline change modeling suggests that reduced local sediment supply owing to these morphological changes is causing a deficit of sand feeding the shoreline, especially in the region of Benson Beach, just north of the mouth of the Columbia River. One of the goals of the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration (SW LDR) project is to assess the long-term viability of placing dredged material from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) directly on Benson Beach to supplement the littoral sediment budget. The SW LDR will be one of the largest beach nourishment projects in the Pacific Northwest, with approximately 200,000 - 400,000 m3 of dredged material being placed on Benson Beach during the summer of 2010. Extensive monitoring and modeling efforts are underway to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and to develop morphodynamic modeling tools to inform future Regional Sediment Management decisions. Overall project components include Argus beach monitoring, measurements of nearshore waves and currents, deployment of a sand tracer, morphodynamic modeling, and a morphological monitoring program. The primary purpose of the morphological monitoring program, and the focus for this presentation, is to track the response of beach and nearshore areas during and after the sand placement. Bathymetric data, collected using Personal Watercraft (PWCs) equipped with

  13. Discontinuous ammonia excretion and glutamine storage in littoral Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda): testing tidal and circadian models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maya; Wright, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    A key evolutionary development facilitating land colonization in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is the intermittent liberation of waste nitrogen as volatile ammonia. Intermittent ammonia release exploits glutamine (Gln) as an intermediary nitrogen store. Here, we explore the relationship between temporal patterns of ammonia release and Gln accumulation in three littoral oniscideans from Southern California. Results are interpreted in terms of water availability, habitat, activity patterns, and ancestry. A two-way experimental design was used to test whether ammonia excretion and Gln accumulation follow a tidal or diel periodicity. Ammonia excretion was studied in the laboratory using chambers with or without available seawater and using an acid trap to collect volatile ammonia. Ligia occidentalis releases ammonia directly into seawater and accumulates Gln during low tide (48.9 ± 6.5 μmol g⁻¹ at low tide, 24.1 ± 3.0 μmol g⁻¹ at high tide), indicating that excretion is tidally constrained. Alloniscus perconvexus and Tylos punctatus can excrete ammonia directly into seawater or utilize volatilization. Both species burrow in sand by day and show a diel excretory pattern, accumulating Gln nocturnally (31.8 ± 2.7 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 21.8 ± 2.3 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for A. perconvexus; 85.7 ± 15.1 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 25.4 ± 2.9 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for T. punctatus) and liberating ammonia diurnally. Glutaminase shows higher activity in terrestrial (0.54-0.86 U g⁻¹) compared to intertidal (0.25-0.31 U g⁻¹) species, consistent with the need to generate high PNH₃ for volatilization. The predominant isoform in Armadillidium vulgare is phosphate dependent and maleate independent; phosphate is a plausible regulator in vivo.

  14. Survey of pesticide application on vegetables in the Littoral area of Togo.

    PubMed

    Adjrah, Yao; Dovlo, Agbéko; Karou, Simplice D; Eklu-Gadegbeku, Kwashie; Agbonon, Amégnona; de Souza, Comlan; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable production in Togo is seriously affected by pests attack. To reduce damage, farmers indiscriminately use pesticides. Various studies have reported high concentrations of pesticide residues more than acceptable limits in vegetables and other edible food. The aim of the presented study is to study the attitudes and practices developed by vegetable growers about pesticides applications. A standardized questionnaires which included socio-professional factors, provisions and operations concerning the use of varieties of pesticides were addressed to 150 growers in vegetable farms along the Littoral of Togo. In order to complete data concerning pesticides, seven runoff private companies and agents of the 'Direction de la Protection des Végétaux' were interviewed. Data were statistical treated using Sphinx Plus. The survey showed that vegetable growers have an acceptable educational level (36% have more than 7 years of formal education) to exploit instructions concerning pesticide use, but more than 97% do not use recommended tools. Only 21% of them received training for pesticide use. Moreover, 84% of them did not usually wear gloves, and less than 30% used oro-nasal masks. Failure to observe minimum intervals between pesticide application and sale is worrying because extremely hazardous (Carbofuran and Cadusaphos) or moderately toxic (Cypermethrin, Dimethoate, Endosulfan, Chlorpyrifos-ethyl, Fipronil) are the products currently used. The presented study indicates that pesticides application in the survey area represents a potential risk for the environment, farmers and consumers. More investigations are needed to quantify pesticides residues on the vegetables currently con,umed and moreover, to determine the potential effect of those products on human and animals health.

  15. Strategies of zooplanktivory shape the dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Laura K; Aymà Padrós, Anna; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community in high-nutrient conditions, as well as a large-bodied summer community in low-nutrient conditions. Effects were highly dependent on the initial zooplankton community structure and hence seasonal variation. In a small-bodied community with high predation pressure and no dispersal or migration, the selective particulate-feeding stickleback depleted the zooplankton community and decreased its diversity more radically than the cruising filter-feeding roach. Cladocerans rather than copepods were efficiently removed by predation, and their removal caused altered patterns in rotifer abundance. In a large-bodied summer community with initial high taxonomic and functional diversity, predation pressure was lower and resource availability was high for omnivorous crustaceans preying on other zooplankton. In this community, predation maintained diversity, regardless of predator species. During both experimental periods, predation influenced the competitive relationship between the dominant calanoid copepods, and altered species composition and size structure of the zooplankton community. Changes also occurred to an extent at the level of nontarget prey, such as microzooplankton and rotifers, emphasizing the importance of subtle predation effects. We discuss our results in the context of the adaptive foraging mechanism and relate them to the natural littoral community. PMID:26045953

  16. Effects of repeated exposure to 4-nonylphenol on the zooplankton community in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    O`Halloran, S.L.; Liber, K.; Gangl, J.A.; Knuth, M.L.

    1999-03-01

    The effects of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on freshwater zooplankton were evaluated in 18 littoral enclosure mesocosms in northeastern Minnesota. The 18 enclosures were allocated to three blocks of six units with each block including two untreated control enclosures and one enclosure for each of four NP treatments. Treated enclosures received 11 applications of NP over a 20-d period between July 8 and 28, 1993. Maximum NP concentrations measured in the water column 2 h after each application averaged ({+-} SD) 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L over the 11 applications. Nonylphenol dissipated rapidly from the water column but was more persistent in sediments and in/on macrophytes. All cladoceran and copepod taxa were significantly reduced in abundance at 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L; some sensitive taxa were also affected by 76 {+-} 21 and 23 {+-} 11 {micro}g/L. While many rotifer taxa were unaffected at any of the test concentrations, several were affected at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L. Ostracods were only affected at 2,243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L. No zooplankton taxon was affected at 5 {+-} 4 {micro}g/L. The period of maximum impact usually occurred within 1 to 7 d of the last NP application, and recovery to control abundance levels generally occurred within 7 to 28 d of the last NP application. Two sensitive taxa, Acroperus and Calanoida, did not recover at {ge} 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L by the end of the study. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for protection of all zooplankton taxa was estimated at {approximately} 10 {micro}g/L, although overall community diversity was unaffected at 23 {+-} 11. The water was the most probable route of NP exposure, but the greater persistence of NP residues in/on macrophytes may have contributed to the lack of recovery of some macrophyte-associated taxa.

  17. Geochemical and isotopic study of the aquifers of the littoral plain of Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Alasanne, Abdoukarim; Boukari, Moussa; Mama, Daouda; Lavastre, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The study area is located in the Southern part of the coastal sedimentary basin of Benin. This basin contains four aquifers among which the aquifers of the Quaternary and of the Continental Terminal which are concerned by the present study. These aquifers are intensely used for the drinking water supply of about two million inhabitants in the cities of Cotonou, Porto Novo, Ouidah and their surroundings. At present, a degradation of the quality of groundwaters coming from the aquifers of the Quaternary and of Continental Terminal is observed that is connected to ground occupation and to the intensive pumping, having for consequence the progression of the marine intrusion in these aquifers. The present work aims at studying the hydrogeochemical and isotopic behaviour of these two aquifers. The methodological approach consists in the measurements of the physico-chemical parameters, as well as the stable isotope signature of the groundwater in order to appreciate groundwater quality and origin. Results show that groundwaters of the aquifers of the Quaternary and of the Continental Terminal are highly mineralized and show Na-Cl or Ca-HCO3 water types. The main processes affecting the mineralization of waters are, among others, the mixture with salty and brackish waters from the Atlantic Ocean or from the littoral lagoons, dissolution of carbonate minerals and cationic exchanges. The isotopic study indicates that groundwater is recharged by local rainfalls; some samples of the Quaternary aquifer show a mixture with the sea water, which is in good agreement with the geochemical results. Both aquifers tend to show the same isotopic signature suggesting a relatively good hydraulic continuity within the reservoir and confirming geological investigations made through drillings.

  18. Strong influence of the littoral zone on sedimentary lipid biomarkers in a meromictic lake.

    PubMed

    Bovee, R J; Pearson, A

    2014-11-01

    Planktonic sulfur bacteria growing in zones of photic zone euxinia (PZE) are important primary producers in stratified, sulfur-rich environments. The potential for export and burial of microbial biomass from anoxic photic zones remains relatively understudied, despite being of fundamental importance to interpreting the geologic record of bulk total organic carbon (TOC) and individual lipid biomarkers. Here we report the relative concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of lipid biomarkers from the water column and sediments of meromictic Mahoney Lake. The data show that organic matter in the central basin sediments is indistinguishable from material at the lake shoreline in both its lipid and carbon isotopic compositions. However, this material is not consistent with either the lipid profile or carbon isotope composition of biomass obtained directly from the region of PZE. Due to the strong density stratification and the intensive carbon and sulfur recycling pathways in the water column, there appears to be minimal direct export of the sulfur-oxidizing planktonic community to depth. The results instead suggest that basinal sediments are sourced via the littoral environment, a system that integrates an indigenous shoreline microbial community, the degraded remains of laterally rafted biomass from the PZE community, and detrital remains of terrigenous higher plants. Material from the lake margins appears to travel downslope, traverse the strong density gradient, and become deposited in the deep basin; its final composition may be largely heterotrophic in origin. This suggests an important role for clastic and/or authigenic minerals in aiding the burial of terrigenous and mat-derived organic matter in euxinic systems. Downslope or mineral-aided transport of anoxygenic, photoautotrophic microbial mats may have been a significant sedimentation process in early Earth history.

  19. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on benthic macroinvertebrates and insect emergence in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Schmude, K.L.; Liber, K.; Corry, T.D.; Stay, F.S.

    1999-03-01

    The effect of 4-nonylphenol (NP) on benthic, freshwater macroinvertebrates in littoral enclosures was evaluated over a 2-year period. Enclosures received 11 NP applications, 48 h apart, with nominal rates of 3, 30, 100, and 300 {micro}g/L. Mean measured peak concentrations in integrated water column samples over the 20-d application period were 5 {+-} 4, 23 {+-} 11, 76 {+-} 21, and 243 {+-} 41 {micro}g/L NP. Concentrations of NP in the water column decreased rapidly after the last application. Maximum NP concentrations measured in sediments, pore water, and macrophytes of a 300-{micro}g/L enclosure were 27.4 mg/kg, 29.9 {micro}g/L, and 89.6 mg/kg, respectively. The most abundant macroinvertebrate groups, Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, and Mollusca, decreased in abundance after application. Effects on Mollusca were the most severe. Their numbers were significantly reduced at the highest treatment throughout most of the study. Oligochaetes and chironomids were also significantly reduced at the highest treatment, but populations recovered within 6 weeks. Snails and naidid oligochaetes were slightly affected at the second highest treatment (76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L NP). Insect emergence was reduced during and immediately post-application, but the effects were likely caused or compounded by a surfactant sheen on the surface of the water that interfered with emergence and/or oviposition. The observed effects on the benthic community were most likely due to exposure from the water, although more persistent macrophyte-associated residues may have contributed to effects on Gastropoda, Naididae, and Tanytarsini. Macrophyte-associated NP residues may pose a small risk to benthic organisms, but it is probably minor compared to water exposures. The no-observed and lowest-observed-effect concentration for the benthic community was 23 {+-} 11 and 76 {+-} 21 {micro}g/L NP, respectively.

  20. Effects of littoral habitat complexity and sunfish composition on fish production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, M.P.; Maloney, K.O.; Chipps, S.R.; Wahl, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat complexity is a key driver of food web dynamics because physical structure dictates resource availability to a community. Changes in fish diversity can also alter trophic interactions and energy pathways in food webs. Few studies have examined the direct, indirect, and interactive effects of biodiversity and habitat complexity on fish production. We explored the effects of habitat complexity (simulated vegetation), sunfish diversity (intra- vs. inter-specific sunfish), and their interaction using a mesocosm experiment. Total fish production was examined across two levels of habitat complexity (low: 161 strands m-2 and high: 714 strands m-2) and two sunfish diversity treatments: bluegill only (Lepomis macrochirus) and bluegill, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) combination. We also measured changes in total phosphorus, phytoplankton, periphyton, and invertebrates to explain patterns in fish production. Bluegill and total fish production were unaffected by the sunfish treatments. Habitat complexity had a large influence on food web structure by shifting primary productivity from pelagic to a more littoral pathway in the high habitat treatments. Periphyton was higher with dense vegetation, leading to reductions in total phosphorus, phytoplankton, cladoceran abundance and fish biomass. In tanks with low vegetation, bluegill exhibited increased growth. Habitat complexity can alter energy flow through food webs ultimately influencing higher trophic levels. The lack of an effect of sunfish diversity on fish production does not imply that conserving biodiversity is unimportant; rather, we suggest that understanding the context in which biodiversity is important to food web dynamics is critical to conservation planning. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Strategies of zooplanktivory shape the dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Laura K; Aymà Padrós, Anna; Leskinen, Elina; Lehtonen, Hannu; Nurminen, Leena

    2015-05-01

    Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community in high-nutrient conditions, as well as a large-bodied summer community in low-nutrient conditions. Effects were highly dependent on the initial zooplankton community structure and hence seasonal variation. In a small-bodied community with high predation pressure and no dispersal or migration, the selective particulate-feeding stickleback depleted the zooplankton community and decreased its diversity more radically than the cruising filter-feeding roach. Cladocerans rather than copepods were efficiently removed by predation, and their removal caused altered patterns in rotifer abundance. In a large-bodied summer community with initial high taxonomic and functional diversity, predation pressure was lower and resource availability was high for omnivorous crustaceans preying on other zooplankton. In this community, predation maintained diversity, regardless of predator species. During both experimental periods, predation influenced the competitive relationship between the dominant calanoid copepods, and altered species composition and size structure of the zooplankton community. Changes also occurred to an extent at the level of nontarget prey, such as microzooplankton and rotifers, emphasizing the importance of subtle predation effects. We discuss our results in the context of the adaptive foraging mechanism and relate them to the natural littoral community.

  2. Exposure of juvenile green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) in littoral enclosures to a glyphosate-based herbicide.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher B; Gahl, Megan K; Pauli, Bruce D; Thompson, Dean G; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2011-07-01

    The majority of studies on the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides to amphibians have focused on larval life stages exposed in aqueous media. However, adult and juvenile amphibians may also be exposed directly or indirectly to herbicides. The potential for such exposures is of particular interest in the littoral zone surrounding wetlands as this is preferred habitat for many amphibian species. Moreover, it may be argued that potential herbicide effects on juvenile or adult amphibians could have comparatively greater influence on overall recruitment, reproductive potential and thus stability of local populations than effects on larvae. In this experiment, juvenile green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were exposed to two concentrations (2.16 and 4.27 kg a.e./ha) of a glyphosate-based herbicide formulation (VisionMax®), which were based on typical application scenarios in Canadian forestry. The experimental design employed frogs inhabiting in situ enclosures established at the edge of small naturalized wetlands that were split in half using an impermeable plastic barrier. When analyzed using nominal target application rates, exposure to the glyphosate-based herbicide had no significant effect on survival, body condition, liver somatic index or the observed rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection. However, there were marginal trends in both ANOVA analysis and post-hoc regressions regarding B. dendrobatidis infection rates and liver somatic index in relation to measured exposure estimates. Results from this study highlight the importance of field research and the need to include multiple endpoints when examining potential effects of a contaminant on non-target organisms.

  3. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM) and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90) of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) had different values for penicillin (4) and ampicillin (2), while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6%) were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27%) presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7%) of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:12071114

  5. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Venditti, David A.; Robinson, T. Craig; Beeman, John W.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed fish assemblages in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir of the upper Columbia River to aid in understanding this ecosystem. Fish distributions and abundances were examined during April-July 1999 in relation to environmental conditions in the reservoir. We also compared the fish assemblages in Chief Joseph reservoir in 1999 to a past study conducted during 1974-1975, and to assemblages in other areas of the Columbia River. During 67 hr of electrofishing and 78 beach seine hauls in Chief Joseph Reservoir, 7460 fishes representing 8 families were collected. The majority of the catch was native – northern pikeminnow; redside shiners; longnose, bridgelip, and largescale suckers; and sculpins. The most abundant introduced species was walleye, and one species, rainbow trout, was mostly of net-pen origin. Larger sizes of suckers and northern pikeminnow were most abundant in the upper reservoir, likely due to upstream spawning migrations. The lower reservoir contained greater abundances of smaller fishes, and this area had lower flows, smaller substrates, and more complex shorelines that offered these fishes refugia. Only adult suckers displayed significant differences in abundances related to substrate. The relative abundances of species appeared to have changed since the 1970s, when the dominant fishes were northern pikeminnow, peamouth, largescale suckers, and walleye. Fish assemblage differences between Chief Joseph Reservoir and lower Columbia River reservoirs were also evident due to the morphology of the reservoir, its more northerly location, and the lack of fish passage facilities at Chief Joseph Dam. Our study is one of the few descriptions of fishes in the upper Columbia Rivers.

  6. Late Holocene morphodynamics in the littoral zone of the Iwik Peninsula area (Banc d'Arguin — Mauritania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Certain, R.; Vernet, R.; Saliège, J. F.

    2010-09-01

    In the littoral zone of the Banc d'Arguin both littoral sedimentary units and man-made deposits (shell-middens) abound. They were formed during the Late Holocene after the final onset of the post-glacial transgression. Here, a geo-archaeological approach is used to study them. The geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics of the coastal features define two distinct coastal sedimentary units in the Iwik-Aouatil zone between an ancient shoreline which formed on the Tafaritian substratum ca 6.7-5.7 cal. ka BP and the present one: (i) very extensive sand flats and (ii) linear relief features, both covered by a thin veneer of anthropogenic Anadara senilis shell-middens. They developed under a stable sea-level regime. The sand flats expanded at variable rates throughout the period. The linear relief features represent beach barriers and coastal dunes which can be dated archaeologically thanks to the superimposed shell-middens, supplemented by 14C dating. Two series of linear sedimentary units are identified. First, a complex north-south system of dunes and hook-ended sand barriers developed from 4.8 to 4.1 cal. ka BP and, secondly, two regular and linear beach barriers developed between 3.7 and 3.3 cal. ka BP. Their morphological characteristics suggest that they were generated through littoral drift processes. Directional changes observed between the first and the second groups demonstrate that the wave refraction pattern was dramatically modified after the closure of the strait between the former Iwik Island and the land. A comparison with the nearby Jerf el Oustani coastal area in the Late Holocene shows that both sites shared similarities in depositional patterns but also differences in the chronology of the sedimentary units. Processes involved in the development of the linear units are indicative of the enhancement of both sand influx and longshore drift due to climatic change.

  7. The U.S. Navy Littoral Combat Ship: Current Issues and How to Employ It in the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-07

    Ship: NIA Curr-ent Issues and How to Deploy It in the Future 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHORCSl 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...increase in power projection and dominance of the littoral environment. Sea Power 21, being a post-9/11 era document, called for the “transformation...transport ship capable of high speed and shallow water operations. Made at the same Astral Shipyards that builds the Independence class LCS, it is a

  8. [Abundance and diversity of littoral invertebrates in the Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Mille-Pagaza, Silvia; Carrillo-Laguna, J; Pérez-Chi, A; Sánchez-Salazar, M E

    2002-03-01

    Composition, abundance, diversity and distribution of the littoral benthic invertebrates of Socorro Island with transects (parallel to the coast and with 1 m2 quadrats) were analyzed. During the spring of 1991 and 1992 samples were taken from the upper and middle levels of the intertidal zone in Vargas Lozano, Braithwaite, Blanca SW, Blanca NE, Binners, Grayson, Academia and Norte bays. The 161 species found belong to Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelmintha, Nemertina, Sipunculida, Annelida, Mollusca, Anthropoda and Echinodermata. Crustaceans and mollusks were the richest groups in both years, as in other rocky shores. Highest total density was found in Blanca NE bay in both samplings, with 281 orgs./m2 in the first and 172 orgs./m2 in the second. Most frequently found species were Isognomon janus (Mollusca, Pelecypoda), Littorina pullata (Mollusca, Gastropoda), Hipponix panamensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda), Pachygrapsus transversus (Crustacea, Grapsoidea) and Turbo funiculosus (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Because of the complexity of the habitat structure, Vargas Lozano was the bay with the highest specific richness (83 species), greatest diversity (4.7 bits/individual) and lowest dominance (0.065). Most species were classified as accidentals with the Dajoz's frequency classification, while the dominant species were accessories and only I. janus, in the spring 1991, was a constant species. Two kinds of bays were distinguished: those with some dominant species (density) and those in which there was no evident dominance by a particular species. Consequently, the diversity and evenness values were set apart: homogeneous communities (Vargas Lozano and Binners) and heterogeneous communities (Grayson bay and others), characterized by intermediate evenness values. The Jaccard similarity index identified two regions: one formed by bays found mainly in the southwest part of the island (Binners, Vargas Lozano, Braithwaite, Grayson and Blanca SW) and the other found in the northern

  9. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  10. Short-term variability and long-term change in the composition of the littoral zone fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, C.L.; Sexton, M.D.; Pelham, M.E.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed short-term variability and long-term change in the composition of the littoral fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Fish were sampled in several locations at night with large beach seines during spring, summer and fall of 1995-1998. Long-term changes were inferred from comparison with a similar study conducted over 70 y earlier in Spirit Lake. We found 26 species in the littoral zone. The number of species per sample ranged from 4 to 18, averaging 11.8. The average number of species per sample was higher at stations with greater vegetation density. A distinct seasonal pattern was evident in the number of species collected per sample in most years, increasing steadily from spring to fall. Patterns of variability within our 1995-1998 study period suggest that: (1) numerous samples are necessary to adequately characterize a littoral fish community, (2) sampling should be done when vegetation and young-of-year densities are highest and (3) sampling during a single year is inadequate to reveal the full community. The number of native species has declined by approximately 25% over the last 70 y. A coincident decline in littoral vegetation and associated habitat changes during the same period are likely causes of the long-term community change.

  11. Determining littoral sediment transport paths adjacent to an eroding carbonate beach through net sediment grain-size trend analysis: Lanikai Beach, Hawaii.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochicchio, C. J.; Fletcher, C.; Vitousek, S.; Romine, B.; Smith, T.

    2007-12-01

    Identifying long-term trends of sediment transport in coastal environments is a fundamental goal shared by coastal scientists, engineers, and resource managers. Historical photographic analysis and predictive computer models have served as the primary approaches to charactering long-term trends in sediment flux. Net sediment grain-size trend analysis is an empirical, sedimentologically based technique that uses physical sediment samples to identify long-term sediment transport pathways. Originally developed by McLaren and Bowles (1985), net sediment grain-size trend analysis identifies progressive trends in grain-size parameters (mean size, sorting, and skewness) in sediment samples. Ultimately, the results give an indication of long-shore sediment transport, a visualization of individual littoral cells, and a better understanding of sediment processes in the near- shore region. We applied two methodologies put forth by Gao and Collins (1992) and Roux (1994) to 214 samples collected off Lanikai Beach, Hawaii; an excellent example of a coastal environment with chronic beach erosion. The Gao methodology searches point-to-point search for the two trend types used by McLaren. The Roux methodology simultaneously searches between five adjacent points for four trend types. Despite significant differences, similar trends dominate in both sets of results. The Gao methodology produces generalized trends while the Roux methodology shows finer details of sediment transport. Long-shore transport direction is shown to be northward for the majority of the study area, implying a sediment supply to the south. Therefore erosion is instigated if the sediment supply south of Lanikai Beach is cut off. A strong onshore sediment transport trend fails to accrete a beach in an armored section of the southern Lanikai coastline, demonstrating the erosive effect of increased wave refraction from coastal armoring. Results of the sediment trend analyses agree well with tidal current models

  12. Littoral sedimentation of rift lakes: an illustrated overview from the modern to Pliocene Lake Turkana (East African Rift System, Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Nutz, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Existing depositional models for rift lakes can be summarized as clastics transported by axial and lateral rivers, then distributed by fan-deltas and/or deltas into a standing water body which is dominated by settling of fine particles, and experiencing occasional coarser underflows. Even if known from paleolakes and modern lakes, reworking of clastics by alongshore drift, waves and storms are rarely considered in depositional models. However, if we consider the lake Turkana Basin (East African Rift System, Kenya) it is obvious that this vision is incomplete. Three representative time slices are considered here: the modern Lake Turkana, the Megalake Turkana which developed thanks to the African Humid Period (Holocene), and the Plio-Pleistocene highstand episodes of paleolake Turkana (Nachukui, Shungura and Koobi Fora Formations, Omo Group). First, remarkable clastic morphosedimentary structures such as beach ridges, spits, washover fans, lagoons, or wave-dominated deltas are very well developed along the shoreline of modern lake Turkana, suggesting strong hydrodynamics responsible for a major reworking of the fluvial-derived clastics all along the littoral zone (longshore and cross-shore transport) of the lake. Similarly, past hydrodynamics are recorded from prominent raised beach ridges and spits, well-preserved all around the lake, above its present water-level (~360 m asl) and up to ~455 m. These large-scale clastic morphosedimentary structures also record the maximum extent of Megalake Turkana during the African Humid Period, as well as its subsequent regression forced by the end of the Holocene climatic optimum. Several hundreds of meters of fluvial-deltaic-lacustrine deposits spanning the Pliocene-Pleistocene are exposed in the Turkana basin thanks to tectonic faulting. These deposits are world famous for their paleontological and archeological content that documents the very early story of Mankind. They also preserve several paleolake highstand episodes with

  13. A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Enric; Torras, Xavier; Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Mangialajo, Luisa; de Torres, Mariona

    2007-01-01

    Macroalgae is a biological key element for the assessment of the ecological status in coastal waters in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000/60/EC). Here we propose a methodology for monitoring water quality based on the cartography of littoral and upper-sublittoral rocky-shore communities (CARLIT, in short). With the use of spatial databases, GIS, and available information about the value of rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality, it is possible to obtain an environmental quality index representative of the ecological status of rocky coasts. This index, which completely fulfils the requirements of the WFD, is expressed as a ratio between the observed values in the sector of shore that is being assessed and the expected value in a reference condition zone with the same substrate and coastal morphology (Ecological Quality Ratio, EQR). The application of this index to the coast of Catalonia (North-Western Mediterranean) is presented.

  14. Distribution and Ecology of Cyanobacteria in the Rocky Littoral of an English Lake District Water Body, Devoke Water

    PubMed Central

    Pentecost, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria were sampled along two vertical and two horizontal transects in the littoral of Devoke Water, English Lake District. Profiles of cyanobacterium diversity and abundance showed that both attained a maximum close to the water line, but declined rapidly 20–40 cm above it. The distribution of individual species with height together with species and site ordinations showed that several taxa occurred in well-defined zones. A narrow “black zone” in the supralittoral was colonised mainly by species of Calothrix, Dichothrix and Gloeocapsa with pigmented sheaths. There was no evidence of lateral variation of species around the lake, but the height of the black zone correlated positively with wind exposure. The flora of Devoke Water is that of a base-poor mountain lake with some elements of a lowland, more alkaline water-body. PMID:25522253

  15. Influence of abiotic factors on cathemeral activity: the case of Eulemur fulvus collaris in the littoral forest of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Donati, Giuseppe; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M

    2006-01-01

    The role environmental factors play in influencing circadian rhythms in natural habitats is still poorly described in primates, especially for those taxa with an activity cycle extended over the 24-hour cycle. In this paper, we elucidate the importance of abiotic factors in entraining the activity of cathemeral primates, focussing on results from a long-term study of Eulemur fulvus collaris (collared brown lemur) in south-eastern Malagasy littoral forest. Two groups of lemurs were followed for 60 whole-day and 59 whole-night observation periods over 14 months. Diurnal and nocturnal observations were equally distributed among moon phases and seasons. Temperature and humidity were recorded hourly by automatic data loggers. The littoral forest has a climatic environment where rainfall and humidity are uncorrelated with temperature and photoperiod. Diurnal and nocturnal activity varied seasonally, with the former increasing significantly with extended day length and the latter increasing significantly with shortened day length. Dusk seemed to act as a primary zeitgeber for these lemurs, coordinating the onset of evening activity throughout the entire year. Lunar phase and the nocturnal luminosity index correlated positively with the duration of nocturnal activity and negatively with the length of diurnal activity. Temperature was positively associated with diurnal activity but did not seem to influence lemur rhythms at night. Finally, lemur nocturnal activity significantly decreased when levels of humidity and rainfall were high. Cathemeral biorhythm is triggered by zeitgebers and influenced by masking factors. The activity of collared brown lemurs appears to be seasonally influenced by photoperiod and directly modulated by nocturnal ambient luminosity. These results are discussed by comparing data from other cathemeral species living in various climatic situations.

  16. Multiple antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in the littoral zone of Lake Shira as an indicator of human impact on the ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Barkhatov, Yuri V; Salamatina, Ol'ga V; Popova, Lyudmila Yu

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to Ampicillin and Kanamycin displayed by heterotrophic bacteria isolated in Summer and in Spring from the littoral and the central parts of Lake Shira (a therapeutic lake in the Khakasia Republic, Russia) has been investigated. It has been found that in Summer, human and animal microflora featuring multiple antibiotic resistance (to Ampicillin and Kanamycin) predominates in all the studied stations of the littoral zone of the lake. In Spring, concentrations of bacteria featuring multiple antibiotic resistance decrease significantly and bacteria sensitive to antibiotics predominate in the lake. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria of Lake Shira is caused by the input of allochthonous bacteria into the lake; this feature of heterotrophic bacteria of Lake Shira can be used to monitor the impact on the ecosystem made by health resorts.

  17. Spatial and Seasonal CH4 Flux in the Littoral Zone of Miyun Reservoir near Beijing: The Effects of Water Level and Its Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Geng, Xuemeng; Grace, John; Lu, Cai; Zhu, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands, and especially their littoral zones, are considered to be CH4 emissions hotspots. The recent creation of reservoirs has caused a rapid increase in the area of the world’s littoral zones. To investigate the effects of water depth and water level fluctuation on CH4 fluxes, and how these are coupled with vegetation and nutrients, we used static closed chamber and gas chromatography techniques to measure CH4 fluxes in the littoral zone of a large reservoir near Beijing, China, from November 2011 to October 2012. We found that CH4 flux decreased significantly along a transect from open water to dry land, from 3.1 mg m−2 h−1 at the deep water site to approximately 1.3 mg m−2 h−1 at the shallow water site, and less than 0.01 mg m−2 h−1 in the non-flooded area. Water level influenced CH4 flux by affecting soil properties including soil redox potential, soil carbon and nitrogen, and bulk density. The largest emission of all was from the seasonally flooded site after a flooding event (up to 21.1 mg m−2 h−1), which may have been caused by vegetation decomposition. Submerged sites had greater emissions, while the driest site had lower emissions. Immediately after the monthly measurements had been made, we removed the aboveground vegetation to enable an assessment of the gas transportation per unit of biomass. Removal of biomass decreased emissions by up to 53%. These results indicated the dominant effect of water depth on CH4 flux through effects of soil conditions, plant species composition and distribution. This study suggests that temporally flooded wetlands, including littoral zones, contribute significantly to the global CH4 burden. However, the current challenge is to capture their spatial extent and temporal variation in the fluxes. PMID:24710279

  18. Evidence for the zircon origin of cadmium anomalies in bottom sediments from the littoral zone of the northern part of Lake Ladoga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanter, E. V.; Slukovskii, Z. I.; Dudakova, D. S.; Medvedev, A. S.; Svetov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The minor-element composition of bottom sediments from the littoral zone of the northern part of Lake Ladoga was studied. Close relationships between the anomalous Cd concentrations in lake sediments and Quaternary glacial formations on the territory of Karelia were shown. A negative correlation of Cd with other heavy metals and a positive correlation with Zr were observed. Most likely, Cd is an impurity in zircons from sandy and sandy loam sedimentary formations on the northern coastal area of Lake Ladoga.

  19. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-02-01

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones.

  20. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters

    PubMed Central

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-01-01

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones. PMID:28205543

  1. Validation of a side-scan sonar method for quantifying walleye spawning habitat availability in the littoral zone of northern Wisconsin Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Jacob T.; Sloss, Brian L.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has generally ignored the potential effects of spawning habitat availability and quality on recruitment of Walleye Sander vitreus, largely because information on spawning habitat is lacking for many lakes. Furthermore, traditional transect-based methods used to describe habitat are time and labor intensive. Our objectives were to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to accurately classify Walleye spawning habitat in the nearshore littoral zone and provide lakewide estimates of spawning habitat availability similar to estimates obtained from a transect–quadrat-based method. Based on assessments completed on 16 northern Wisconsin lakes, interpretation of side-scan sonar images resulted in correct identification of substrate size-class for 93% (177 of 191) of selected locations and all incorrect classifications were within ± 1 class of the correct substrate size-class. Gravel, cobble, and rubble substrates were incorrectly identified from side-scan images in only two instances (1% misclassification), suggesting that side-scan sonar can be used to accurately identify preferred Walleye spawning substrates. Additionally, we detected no significant differences in estimates of lakewide littoral zone substrate compositions estimated using side-scan sonar and a traditional transect–quadrat-based method. Our results indicate that side-scan sonar offers a practical, accurate, and efficient technique for assessing substrate composition and quantifying potential Walleye spawning habitat in the nearshore littoral zone of north temperate lakes.

  2. Ontogenetic loops in habitat use highlight the importance of littoral habitats for early life-stages of oceanic fishes in temperate waters.

    PubMed

    Polte, Patrick; Kotterba, Paul; Moll, Dorothee; von Nordheim, Lena

    2017-02-16

    General concepts of larval fish ecology in temperate oceans predominantly associate dispersal and survival to exogenous mechanisms such as passive drift along ocean currents. However, for tropical reef fish larvae and species in inland freshwater systems behavioural aspects of habitat selection are evidently important components of dispersal. This study is focused on larval Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) distribution in a Baltic Sea retention area, free of lunar tides and directed current regimes, considered as a natural mesocosm. A Lorenz curve originally applied in socio-economics to describe demographic income distribution was adapted to a 20 year time-series of weekly larval herring distribution, revealing size-dependent spatial homogeneity. Additional quantitative sampling of distinct larval development stages across pelagic and littoral areas uncovered a loop in habitat use during larval ontogeny, revealing a key role of shallow littoral waters. With increasing rates of coastal change, our findings emphasize the importance of the littoral zone when considering reproduction of pelagic, ocean-going fish species; highlighting a need for more sensitive management of regional coastal zones.

  3. Effect of wave exposure dynamics on gut content mass and growth of young-of-the-year fishes in the littoral zone of lakes.

    PubMed

    Stoll, S; Hofmann, H; Fischer, P

    2010-05-01

    Total length, body mass and gut content mass of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch Perca fluviatilis, dace Leuciscus leuciscus and bleak Alburnus alburnus were recorded over the summer of 2006 at three littoral sites at Upper Lake Constance. In P. fluviatilis and L. leuciscus, gut content mass correlated positively with wave-induced energy flux (E(F)) of the respective site and sampling day, while no correlation of gut content mass with E(F) was found in A. alburnus. It was assumed that benthivorous P. fluviatilis and L. leuciscus profited from suspended or uncovered benthic food items generated by wave action at sites and periods with high E(F). Alburnus alburnus, in contrast, feeding mainly on zooplankton in upper parts of the water column, could not profit from increased E(F). In P. fluviatilis, increased gut content mass during periods of high E(F) resulted in higher growth rates. For L. leuciscus, no real growth rates in local fish populations could be determined, as individuals were less sedentary, and when increased growth occurred at sites during the periods of high E(F), migration of fish levelled out the resulting size differences within few days. The results of this study show that dynamic habitat variables affect site profitability in the littoral zone of lakes, especially in benthivorous fishes. Therefore, dynamic habitat variables should be considered in addition to fixed habitat properties in analyses of habitat choice of fishes in the littoral zone of lakes.

  4. Integrated Observations From Fixed and AUV Platforms in the Littoral Zone at the SFOMC Coastal Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanak, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    A 12-hour survey of the coastal waters off the east coast of Florida at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center (SFOMC) coastal ocean observatory, during summer 1999, is described to illustrate the observatory's capabilities for ocean observation. The facility is located close to the Gulf Stream, the continental shelf break being only 3 miles from shore and is therefore influenced by the Gulf Stream meanders and the instability of the horizontal shear layer at its edge. As a result, both cross-shelf and along-shelf components of currents in the littoral zone can undergo dramatic +/- 0.5 m/s oscillations. Observations of surface currents from an OSCR, and of subsurface structure from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platform, a bottom-mounted ADCP and CT-chain arrays during the survey will be described and compared. The AUV on-board sensors included upward and downward looking 1200kHz ADCP, a CTD package and a small-scale turbulence package, consisting of two shear probes and a fast-response thermistor. Prevailing atmospheric conditions were recorded at an on-site buoy. The combined observations depict flows over a range of scales. Acknowledgements: The observations from the OSCR are due to Nick Shay and Tom Cook (University of Miami), and from the bottom-mounted ADCP, CT chain arrays and the surface buoy are due to Alex Soloviev (Nova Southeastern University) and Mark Luther and Bob Weisberg (University of South Florida).

  5. Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone: Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Tan, Zhi; Gao, Yifan; Zhan, Zhiwei; Chen, Qiuqiang; Cai, Liqi

    2017-03-01

    While large quantities of studies on microplastics in the marine environment have been widely carried out, few were available in the freshwater environment. The occurrence and characteristics, including composition, abundance, surface texture and interaction with heavy metals, of microplastics in the surface sediments from Beijiang River littoral zone were investigated. The concentrations of microplastics ranged from 178 ± 69 to 544 ± 107 items/kg sediment. SEM images illustrated that pits, fractures, flakes and adhering particles were the common patterns of degradation. Chemical weathering of microplastics was also observed and confirmed by μ-FTIR. EDS spectra displayed difference in the elemental types of metals on the different surface sites of individual microplastic, indicating that some metals carried by microplastics were not inherent but were derived from the environment. The content of metals (Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ti) in microplastics after ultrasonic cleaning has been analyzed by ICP-MS. Based on data from the long-term sorption of metals by microplastics and a comparison of metal burden between microplastics, macroplastics and fresh plastic products, we suggested that the majority of heavy metals carried by microplastics were derived from inherent load.

  6. Estimation of canine Leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the Algerian littoral zone using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard.

  7. The influence of oceanographic fronts and early-life-history traits on connectivity among littoral fish species

    PubMed Central

    Galarza, Juan A.; Carreras-Carbonell, Josep; Macpherson, Enrique; Pascual, Marta; Roques, Severine; Turner, George F.; Rico, Ciro

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of neutral genetic diversity is mainly influenced by barriers to dispersal. The nature of such barriers varies according to the dispersal means and capabilities of the organisms concerned. Although these barriers are often obvious on land, in the ocean they can be more difficult to identify. Determining the relative influence of physical and biotic factors on genetic connectivity remains a major challenge for marine ecologists. Here, we compare gene flow patterns of 7 littoral fish species from 6 families with a range of early-life-history traits sampled at the same geographic locations across common environmental discontinuities in the form of oceanic fronts in the Western Mediterranean. We show that these fronts represent major barriers to gene flow and have a strong influence on the population genetic structure of some fish species. We also found no significant relation between the early-life-history traits most commonly investigated (egg type, pelagic larval duration, and inshore-offshore spawning) and gene flow patterns, suggesting that other life-history factors should deserve attention. The fronts analyzed and the underlying physical mechanisms are not site-specific but common among the oceans, suggesting the generality of our findings. PMID:19164518

  8. Estimation of Canine Leishmania Infection Prevalence in Six Cities of the Algerian Littoral Zone Using a Bayesian Approach

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  9. [The determinants of the low case fatality rate of the cholera epidemic in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

    PubMed

    Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Sossou, Roch Aristide; Dossou, Jean-Paul; Mongbo, Virginie; Massougbodji, Achille

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 cholera outbreak in Benin was characterized by a low case fatality rate (0.39 p.100) in the Littoral department, where 502 cases were recorded between July and December. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors associated with the low case fatality rate within the department. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted as part of this research used 404 patient records, focus group discussions with ten former patients, in-depth interviews with 8 health authorities involved in the response and structured face-to-face interviews with 12 health personnel involved in the treatment of patients. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis based on EPIINFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007 software. The results from several sources were cross-checked through triangulation. The mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 14.8 years. 39.35% patients were admitted with severe dehydration. Oral rehydration, intravenous rehydration and antibiotic therapy were given to 99.5%, 85% and 97.77% of patients, respectively. Only one hospital death was noted. The low case fatality rate was mainly due to the following factors: the high quality of care provided in a center with qualified personnel and available and free of charge treatment kits, protocols based on massive rehydration and appropriate hygiene measures, and patient compliance with the treatment plan. The response was also characterized by good coordination, wide mass and local health promotion, and selective antibiotic prophylaxis, which contributed significantly to reducing the spread of the infection.

  10. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

  11. Lead isotopes in soils and groundwaters as tracers of the impact of human activities on the surface environment: The Domizio-Flegreo Littoral (Italy) case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grezzi, G.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.

    2011-01-01

    The isotopic signature of geogenic and anthropogenic materials, in combination with concentration data for pollutants, can help trace the origin and the extent of contamination in the environment. This approach is particularly effective if naturally occurring and anthropogenically introduced metals have different isotopic ratios. Lead isotope analysis on soils from 7 profiles (1. m depth) and on groundwaters from 8 wells have been used to determine the impact of human activities on the surface environment of Domizio-Flegreo Littoral. Result obtained show that in sub-rural areas the isotopic composition of the samples collected along the soil profiles of Domizio-Flegreo Littoral is likely mostly controlled by the nature of the parent geologic material (natural) while in more urbanized areas (Giugliano) Pb isotopic composition in superficial soils is mostly influenced by anthropic sources such as motor vehicles. Lead isotopic ratios in groundwaters also show that the use of pesticides and, probably, the influence of aerosols and the presence of illegal waste disposal can influence water quality. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Numerical analysis of the combined action of littoral current, tide and waves on the suspended mud transport and on turbid plumes around French Guiana mudbanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Cristèle; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Devenon, Jean-Luc

    2008-03-01

    Large mudbanks migrate westwards in the nearshore zone from the Cabo Cassipore in the Amapa state (Brazil) to the Waini River in Guiana. These mudbanks are noticeable by their size (about 4×10 9 m 3 of sediment) and by the sediment dynamics they induce. Notably, visible remote sensing pictures present high turbid mud plume associated to mudbank erosion. The sediment transport is directly linked to the ambient forcing—littoral current, waves, and tide. In this paper, the turbid plume and the suspended mud transport around Guiana mudbanks are studied through a three-dimensional numerical study, under the three main different forcings. The study aims at describing the plume and the action of various physical processes in the suspended mud transport. The model results qualitatively agree with known observations issued from the literature. It is found that, the erosion—at the back of the bank—and the deposition—in front of the bank—could partly explain the migration process of these mudbanks. Waves are fundamental to create the erosion/deposition process, but littoral current and tide modulate it. Bottom flux and plume location vary with tide and these oscillations are accentuated during spring tide. In the same way, the wave incidence angle can explain the variability of erosion and deposition rate velocity along the Guiana coast.

  13. Influence of the very polluted inputs of the Tinto-Odiel system on the adjacent littoral sediments of southwestern Spain: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Sainz, A; Ruiz, F

    2006-03-01

    A spatial and temporal analysis (period 1990-2003) of 15 sampling points distributed along the southwestern Spanish coast permits to delimitate the influence area of the extremely polluted discharges coming from the Tinto-Odiel system in the bottom sediments of the adjacent littoral area. As, Cu, Pb and Zn are the main heavy metals transported by the freshwater runoffs toward the shallow shelf and present very high negative (r < -0.7) and significant (p < 0.001) correlations with the distance to the estuarine mouth. The statistical analysis (index of geoaccumulation, Pearson correlation matrix, cluster analysis) of their concentrations in the littoral sediments located between the Guadiana and Guadalquivir mouths delimitates three zones: (a) Zone 1 (from the estuarine mouth to 6 km to the east), characterized by moderate to strongly polluted bottom sediments and main responsible of the mean annual variations of the former heavy metals in the area studied; (b) Zone 2 (from 21.2 km to the west to 29 km to the east), characterized by moderate pollution levels; and (c) Zone 3, located near the Guadiana and Guadalquivir mouths, with very low As-Cu-Pb contents and unpolluted to moderately levels of Zn due to urban sewages or the presence of local low mobility areas for this element.

  14. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and

  15. [Distribution and abundance of fish community in the littoral area of "Los Petenes" Biosphere Reserve, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Rojas, Sandra; Ayala-Pérez, Luis Amado; Sosa-López, Atahualpa; Villalobos-Zapata, Guillermo Jorge

    2013-03-01

    "Los Petenes" Biosphere Reserve (RBLP) is a critical habitat for many aquatic and terrestrial species. It has the biggest and better conserved seagrass beds, and it represents an important habitat for food, protection and breeding of aquatic organisms, and a temporal refuge for migratory species. The objective of this study was to describe the ichthyofauna diversity in the littoral coastal area of the RBLP, to identify the ecological dominant species, and to analyze the abundance of the fish community and its temporal and spatial changes, and their relationship with some environmental variables. Monthly fish samples were obtained with the aid of trawl nets, from 24 samplings sites distributed along the reserve, between May 2009 and April 2010. The trawl net was operated 288 times and 21 795 individuals with 279.5kg of weight were collected. A total of 46 fish species grouped in 34 genera and 23 families were identified. In a spatial scale, the abundance showed the next ranges: 0.018-0.094ind./m2; 0.249-1.072 g/m2 and 9.75-19.32g/ind.; the diversity indexes obtained were: H'n=1.46-2.15, J'=0.45-0.71 and D'=2.08-3.92. In a temporal scale, the abundance and diversity ranged between: 0.026-0.066ind./m2; 0.342-0.764g/m2 and 6.49-22.98g/ind.; H'n=1.76-2.08; J'=0.52-0.64 and D'=3.07-4.18. Eleven dominant species were identified with a representation of the 94.39% in number of individuals, and 89.66% in weight of the total catch. From the total, eight species had economic or commercial importance, especially Lagodon rhomboides and Haemulon plumierii. The cluster analyses identified four fish associations; these results are discussed in order to identify relationships between habitat-species. Finally, the canonical correspondence analysis evidenced an association between H. plumierii with salinity and dissolved solids. The RBLP has high habitat diversity and its fish community has developed strategies to use all the spatial and temporal conditions and to satisfy the needs

  16. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  17. Littoral Reconnaissance Ship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    launch these boats, an overhead gantry crane will be utilized to transfer the USVs from their cradles to the lift. The lift then lowers the USVs into...torpedo” storage racks. From these racks, the UUVs will be launched by being moved through the same gantry crane as the USVs and transferred to the lift...system to lower the UUV into the water. They will be recovered by the lift and put back into the racks using the gantry crane . The UUVs’ missions

  18. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng... IOT &E), forcing USS INDEPENDENCE (LCS 2) IOT &E and IOC current estimates beyond the APB Threshold. Twenty-four LCS have been awarded to date: four...completed PSA #2 on January 18, 2014, completed Rough Water Trial in January 2014 and is conducting Seaframe DT events in route to MCM IOT &E in 2015. USS

  19. Littoral landforms and pedosedimentary sequences indicating late Holocene lake-level changes in northern central Europe - a case study from northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Knut; Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Theuerkauf, Martin; Dietze, Elisabeth; Graventein, Hagen; Koch, Paul J.; Bens, Oliver; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    A multidisciplinary study was carried out at Lake Großer Fürstenseer See (LFS) in order to explore the potential of littoral sediments, palaeosols and landforms as indicators of historical lake-level changes. This research was initiated to investigate the extent to which lakes in northern central Europe responded hydrologically to climatic and land-use changes in the last millennium. The c. 2.5 km2 large lake is located in a glacial outwash plain and fed predominantly by precipitation and groundwater. Specific landforms investigated comprise lake terraces, beach ridges, local basins/peatlands and dunes, revealing a local wealth of sedimentary sub-environments at the lakeshore. Eleven sections were recorded with subsequent sedimentological-pedological, geochronological (OSL, 14C) and palaeobotanical (pollen, macro remains) analyses. Most of the pedosedimentary littoral sequences show a succession of basal glacial sand, intermediate palaeosols and lacustrine sand on top. A broader number of (semi-) terrestrial buried palaeosols along the lakeshore were systematically identified and analysed, providing evidence for changing hydrological site conditions during the late Holocene. Additional historical data from the last centuries (e.g. maps, aerial photos, public records) allow the lake-levels reconstructed from geoarchives to be connected with modern gauging data. All local data sources available enable a tracing of lake-level changes of the LFS during the last millennium, comprising periods of relatively low (c. 1200 AD, 2000s AD) and relatively high water levels (c. 1250-1450 AD, c. 1780 AD, 1980s AD). The amplitude of lake-level changes during the last c. 1000 years amounts to c. 3 m, so that the fluctuations of the last 30 years recorded by lake-level monitoring only reflect a small amount of the potential variability. Regional climate and local land-use history suggest that the Medieval lake-level dynamics of LFS were primarily governed by climate and

  20. Littoral landforms and pedosedimentary sequences indicating late Holocene lake-level changes in northern central Europe - A case study from northeastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Knut; Küster, Mathias; Fülling, Alexander; Theuerkauf, Martin; Dietze, Elisabeth; Graventein, Hagen; Koch, Paul Jörg; Bens, Oliver; Brauer, Achim

    2014-07-01

    A multidisciplinary study was carried out at Lake Großer Fürstenseer See (LFS) in order to explore the potential of littoral sediments, palaeosols and landforms as indicators of historical lake-level changes. This research was initiated to investigate the extent to which lakes in northern central Europe responded hydrologically to climatic and land-use changes in the last millennium. Specific landforms investigated comprise lake terraces, beach ridges, local basins/peatlands and dunes, revealing a wealth of sedimentary sub-environments at the lakeshore. Eleven sections were recorded with subsequent sedimentological-pedological, geochronological (OSL, 14C) and palaeobotanical (pollen, macro remains) analyses. Most of the pedosedimentary littoral sequences show a succession of basal glacial sand, intermediate palaeosols and lacustrine sand on top. A broader number of (semi-)terrestrial buried palaeosols along the lakeshore were systematically identified and analysed, providing evidence for changing hydrological conditions during the late Holocene. Additional historical data from the last centuries (e.g. maps, aerial photos, public records) allow the lake-levels reconstructed from geoarchives to be connected with modern gauging data. All local data sources available enable a tracing of lake level changes of the LFS during the last millennium, comprising periods of relatively low (c. 1200 AD, 2000s AD) and relatively high water levels (c. 1250-1450 AD, c. 1780 AD, 1980s AD). The amplitude of lake-level changes during the last c. 1000 years amounts to c. 3 m, so that the fluctuations of the last 30 years recorded by lake-level monitoring only reflect a small amount of the potential variability. Regional climate and local land-use history suggest that the Medieval lake-level dynamics of LFS were primarily governed by climate and secondarily influenced by human impact on the drainage system. At present the lake level is additionally influenced by the impact of highly

  1. Characterization of lake water and ground water movement in the littoral zone of Williams Lake, a closed-basin lake in North central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Parkhurst, R.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.; Antweiler, R.C.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Williams Lake, Minnesota is a closed-basin lake that is a flow-through system with respect to ground water. Ground-water input represents half of the annual water input and most of the chemical input to the lake. Chemical budgets indicate that the lake is a sink for calcium, yet surficial sediments contain little calcium carbonate. Sediment pore-water samplers (peepers) were used to characterize solute fluxes at the lake-water-ground-water interface in the littoral zone and resolve the apparent disparity between the chemical budget and sediment data. Pore-water depth profiles of the stable isotopes ??18O and ??2H were non-linear where ground water seeped into the lake, with a sharp transition from lake-water values to ground-water values in the top 10 cm of sediment. These data indicate that advective inflow to the lake is the primary mechanism for solute flux from ground water. Linear interstitial velocities determined from ??2H profiles (316 to 528 cm/yr) were consistent with velocities determined independently from water budget data and sediment porosity (366 cm/yr). Stable isotope profiles were generally linear where water flowed out of the lake into ground water. However, calcium profiles were not linear in the same area and varied in response to input of calcium carbonate from the littoral zone and subsequent dissolution. The comparison of pore-water calcium profiles to pore-water stable isotope profiles indicate calcium is not conservative. Based on the previous understanding that 40-50 % of the calcium in Williams Lake is retained, the pore-water profiles indicate aquatic plants in the littoral zone are recycling the retained portion of calcium. The difference between the pore-water depth profiles of calcium and ??18O and ??2H demonstrate the importance of using stable isotopes to evaluate flow direction and source through the lake-water-ground-water interface and evaluate mechanisms controlling the chemical balance of lakes. Published in 2003 by John Wiley

  2. Effects of anthropogenic activities in a Mediterranean coastland: the case study of the Falerno-Domitio littoral in Campania, Tyrrhenian Sea (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Balassone, Giuseppina; Aiello, Giuseppe; Barra, Diana; Cappelletti, Piergiulio; De Bonis, Alberto; Donadio, Carlo; Guida, Marco; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Parisi, Roberta; Pennetta, Micla; Siciliano, Antonietta

    2016-11-15

    The environmental status of the Falerno-Domitio littoral, a sector of the Italian south coast (Campania region) locally affected by an extensive anthropic pressure and pollution, was assessed by a multi-disciplinary approach, consisting of geological vs. biological studies. Geochemical abundance of potentially hazardous trace metals in beach sands is mainly constrained by the nature of the source rocks. Geochemical data of marine sediment quality with regards to possible heavy metal pollution and the enrichment factors of selected potentially toxic metals show that Cr and V values are higher in marine samples than in natural sources, suggesting that they are, at least in part, of anthropic derivation. A relationship between meiobenthos and heavy metals (Cr, Co, and V) has been also observed, providing a valuable biological marker to human-deriving chemical pollution. Ecotoxicological analyses confirm a relationship between enrichment in selected metals and moderate toxicity of some sea-bottom sediments closer to the coastline.

  3. Littoral fish assemblages of the alien-dominated Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 1980-1983 and 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Michniuk, D.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed monthly boat electrofishing data to characterize the littoral fish assemblages of five regions of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (northern, southern, eastern, western, and central), California, during two sampling periods, 1980-1983 (1980s) and 2001-2003 (2000s), to provide information pertinent to the restoration of fish populations in this highly altered estuary. During the 1980s, almost 11,000 fish were captured, including 13 native species and 24 alien species. During the 2000s, just over 39,000 fish were captured, including 15 native species and 24 alien species. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of total fish, alien fish, and centrarchid fish were greater in the 2000s compared with the 1980s, largely because of increased centrarchid fish CPUE. These differences in CPUE were associated with the spread of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), particularly an alien aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa. Native fish CPUE declined from the 1980s to the 2000s, but there was no single factor that could explain the decline. Native fish were most abundant in the northern region during both sampling periods. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated similar patterns of fish assemblage composition during the two sampling periods, with the northern and western regions characterized by the presence of native species. The separation of the northern and western regions from the other regions was most distinct in the 2000s. Our results suggest that native fish restoration efforts will be most successful in the northern portion of the Delta. Management decisions on the Delta should include consideration of possible effects on SAV in littoral habitats and the associated fish assemblages and ecological processes. ?? 2007 Estuarine Research Federation.

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on the activity and diversity of methane oxidising bacteria in the littoral zone of a boreal lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, A.; Siljanen, H. M. P.; Hämäläinen, S.; Bodrossy, L.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    Freshwater lakes are generally net sources of CH4 and in boreal lakes a major part of the CH4 emissions originates from the littoral zone during the ice-free season. Aerobic CH4 oxidising bacteria, methanotrophs, significantly limit the flux of CH4 to the atmosphere from sediments. Increased N load causes eutrophication and subsequent anoxia, which probably enhances CH4 production. In addition, inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) can inhibit CH4 oxidation. Our study belongs to the research consortium METHECO (Eurodiversity programme of European Science Foundation), where the activity and diversity of methane oxidising bacteria are studied in various European ecosystems. We studied with in situ manipulation the effects of eutrophication (added nitrogen) on the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in a littoral wetland of a small and shallow hyper-eutrophic lake in east-central Finland. We established in the area growing sedges (7-10 m from the shore line) three sampling plots (1.2 m x 1.2 m), which were irrigated four times (from 4th July to 9th August) with ammonium nitrate solution giving 10 g N m-2for the total additional nitrogen load during the growing season. Three control plots were irrigated with equivalent amount of distilled water. The amount of added ammonium nitrate solution or water did not exceed 10% of the long-term (30 years) average rainfall in the area during the growing season. Sediment samples were taken from the depths of 0-2 cm, 2-10cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm before, during and after the N treatment. Methane oxidation potential was studied in 550-ml flasks with sediment slurries and initial headspace CH4 concentration of 0.1%. The diversity of methanotrophs was studied with pmoA-microarray. Methane oxidation was most active in the organic surface sediment layer of 0-10 cm and the activity decreased with depth. Nitrogen addition in situ did not affect significantly the potential CH4 oxidation rates, although nitrate inhibited CH4

  5. Aspects histo-épidémiologiques des cancers génitaux de la femme dans la région du Littoral, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Engbang, Jean Paul Ndamba; Koh, Valère Mve; Tchente, Charlotte Nguefack; Fewou, Amadou

    2015-01-01

    Décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques et histopathologiques des tumeurs malignes génitales de la femme dans la région du littoral du Cameroun. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique portant sur les cancers des organes génitaux de la femme, histologiquement prouvés pendant une période de 10 ans (2004-2013), répertoriés dans les registres des trois laboratoires d'anatomopathologie de la région (Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala, Hôpital Général de Douala, laboratoire Anapathos) et des services d'oncologie de ces hôpitaux. Les variables étudiées étaient: la fréquence, l’âge, le sexe, la localisation de la tumeur et le type histopathologique. Au total, 802 cas de cancers génitaux de la femme ont été recensés, soit une fréquence annuelle de 80,2 cas en moyenne. Le col utérin avec 580 cas (72,32%) a été la localisation la plus fréquente; suivi de l'endomètre (corps utérin) avec 93 cas (11,60%), puis des ovaires 91 cas (11,35%). L’âge moyen des patientes était de 50, 30±12,67 ans, avec les extrêmes allant de 14 à 85 ans. Selon le type histologique, les tumeurs épithéliales ont été les plus fréquemment rencontrées, soit 758 patientes (94,51%), les lymphomes venaient en seconde position avec 29 cas (3, 62%), les autres variétés histologiques (sarcomes, tumeurs germinales, tumeurs du mésenchyme et du cordon) représentant moins chacune de 1%. Les tumeurs malignes des organes génitaux féminins sont fréquentes dans la région du littoral du Cameroun, elles sont dominées essentiellement par le cancer du col utérin. Les tumeurs épithéliales sont le type histologique le plus fréquent. PMID:26327953

  6. [Infection of the mollusc Littorina saxatilis with parthenites of trematodes and their impact on a shell form: analysis of populations inhabiting the littoral coast of the White Sea].

    PubMed

    Kaliberdina, M V; Granovich, A I

    2003-01-01

    12 rocky shore populations of Littorina saxatilis from three islands of Chupa Inlet (Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea) were examined for infection with trematodes. Morphometric characters (6 indexes of the shell and aperture shape) of molluscs were investigated for all these populations. Exposed and sheltered sites were considered at every island and high and low littoral samples were fulfilled at every site. Seven species of trematodes, Podocotyle atomon, Cryptocotyle lingua, Renicola sp., Himasthla sp., Microphallus piriformes, M. pygmaeus, M. pseudopygmaeus, were found. Uneven distribution of trematodes was confirmed by log-linear analysis. Sheltered populations of L. saxatilis have the greater infection prevalence than exposed ones. This is due to the heavy infection with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus. The prevalences by these trematodes are up to 52.97% and 27.16% respectively in sheltered populations of the host. The prevalence of M. piriformes tend to be higher at the upper shore level of sheltered sites. In a contrast, the prevalence of M. pygmaeus is significantly higher at the low part of such sites. Factor analysis shows a significant association of the indices of L. saxatilis shell shape with three factors. The first one is associated with the "elongation" of a shell and reveals L. saxatilis from the exposed rocky shore to be more elongated than the molluscs from sheltered sites. The second one is connected with the "aperture shape" index. There is an association of this factor with the shore level position of samples. The third factor reflects the affect of trematodes on the shell shape. The molluscs infected with M. piriformes show "elongated" shell shape and relatively smaller aperture. Shall peculiarities of the hosts infected with M. piriformes and M. pygmaeus are somewhat different. The results of the factor analysis is justified by the series of analysis of variances on the values of shell indices (MANOVA) according to the factors "exposure", "shore

  7. Geochemical distribution of harmful elements in top soils of an Italian National Interest Area (S.I.N.): the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, M.; Grezzi, G.; Albanese, S.; de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano area has been classified by the Italian Ministry of Environment (Italian Ministero dell'Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare) as a S.I.N. (Sito di Interesse Nazionale, L. 426/98 - Decreto 10 Gennaio 2000 - G.U. 29/5/01). In this category have been included all those contaminated lands that, both for their extension and their historical and present land use, are considered to be particularly harmful for human health. In Italy have been selected a total of 54 S.I.N.; among all of these, the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano S.I.N. is one of the widest (1564 Km2). The study area is located in north-western Campania region, from the Avella Mountain to the coastline, and from the Campi Flegrei area to the northern boundaries between Campania and Latium Regions. It includes a total of 77 towns from both Naples and Caserta provinces. The Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano S.I.N. is characterized by a strongly urbanization in its internal portions, and by intensive agricultural activities in its northern and coastal portions. During past years this wide area has been the set of an unknown number of illegal activities controlled by the organized crime, including toxic waste disposal of unknown sources from different Regions of Italy, unauthorized building, intensive uncontrolled agricultural practices and so on. Part of these environmental crimes have been and are under investigations by Italian Authorities. For a geochemical characterization of this contaminated land, between May 2006 and January 2008, a total of 292 (179 in the Litorale Domizio-Flegreo and 113 in the Agro Aversano) top soils (5-15 cm depth) have been collected, with a sampling density of about 1 sample/5 Km2. The <100 mesh soil fraction has been analyzed with ICP-MS to determine the concentration of the 39 elements: Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn

  8. Neural organization of first optic neuropils in the littoral crab Hemigrapsus oregonensis and the semiterrestrial species Chasmagnathus granulatus

    PubMed Central

    Sztarker, Julieta; Strausfeld, Nicholas; Andrew, David; Tomsic, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans are among the most extensively distributed arthropods, occupying many ecologies and manifesting a great variety of compound eye optics; but in comparison with insects, relatively little is known about the organization and neuronal morphologies of their underlying optic neuropils. Most studies, which have been limited to descriptions of the first neuropil - the lamina - suggest that different species have approximately comparable cell types. However, such studies have been limited with regard to the types of neurons they identify and most omit their topographic relationships. It is also uncertain whether similarities, such as they are, are independent of visual ecologies. The present account describes and compares the morphologies and dispositions of monopolar and other efferent neurons as well as the organization of tangential and smaller centrifugal neurons in two grapsoid crabs, one from the S. Atlantic, the other from the N. Pacific. Because these species occupy significantly disparate ecologies we ask whether this might be reflected in differences of cell arrangements within the most peripheral levels of the visual system. The present study identifies such differences with respect to the organization of centrifugal neurons to the lamina. We also identify in both species neurons in the lamina that have hitherto not been identified in crustaceans and we draw specific comparisons between the layered organization of the grapsoid lamina and layered laminas of insects. PMID:19123235

  9. A Description of Biremis panamae sp. nov., a New Diatom Species from the Marine Littoral, with an Account of the Phylogenetic Position of Biremis D.G. Mann et E.J. Cox (Bacillariophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Barka, Frederik; Mann, David G.; Li, Chunlian; Weisenborn, Jascha L. F.; Ashworth, Matt P.; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.; Zgłobicka, Izabela; Dobosz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a formal description of Biremis panamae Barka, Witkowski et Weisenborn sp. nov., which was isolated from the marine littoral environment of the Pacific Ocean coast of Panama. The description is based on morphology (light and electron microscopy) and the rbcL, psbC and SSU sequences of one clone of this species. The new species is included in Biremis due to its morphological features; i.e. two marginal rows of foramina, chambered striae, and girdle composed of numerous punctate copulae. The new species also possesses a striated valve face which is not seen in most known representatives of marine littoral Biremis species. In this study we also present the relationship of Biremis to other taxa using morphology, DNA sequence data and observations of auxosporulation. Our results based on these three sources point to an evolutionary relationship between Biremis, Neidium and Scoliopleura. The unusual silicified incunabular caps present in them are known otherwise only in Muelleria, which is probably related to the Neidiaceae and Scoliotropidaceae. We also discuss the relationship between Biremis and the recently described Labellicula and Olifantiella. PMID:25494095

  10. Optic chiasmal cavernous angioma: A rare suprasellar vascular malformation

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Bahatheq, Ayman; Takroni, Radwan; Al-Thubaiti, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suprasellar cavernous malformation in the optic pathway is not commonly encountered. To date, there are only few reports present in the literature. Case Description: The authors report a rare case of suprasellar optic pathway cavernous malformation in a 33-year-old female who presented with progressive visual loss. Her imaging revealed a large heterogeneous, hyperintense, hemorrhagic right suprasellar extra-axial complex cystic structure, causing mass effect on the adjacent hypothalamus and third ventricle displacing these structures. Gross total resection of the lesion was achieved utilizing a right frontal craniotomy approach. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of suprasellar chiasmal cavernous malformation. Conclusion: Although visual pathway cavernous malformation is a rare event, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions occurring suprasellarly in the visual pathway and hypothalamus. PMID:27583178

  11. Testing compound-specific δ13C of amino acids in mussels as a new approach to determine the average 13C values of primary production in littoral ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhshoori, N. L.; Larsen, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSI-AA) is a technique used to decouple trophic enrichment patterns from source changes at the base of the food web. With this new emerging tool, it is possible to precisely determine both trophic position and δ15N or δ13C source values in higher feeding organisms. While most work to date has focused on nitrogen (N) isotopic values, early work has suggested that δ13C CSI-AA has great potential as a new tracer both to a record δ13C values of primary production (unaltered by trophic transfers), and also to "fingerprint" specific carbon source organisms. Since essential amino acids (EAA) cannot be made de novo in metazoans but must be obtained from diet, the δ13C value of the primary producer is preserved through the food web. Therefore, the δ13C values of EAAs act as a unique signature of different primary producers and can be used to fingerprint the dominant carbon (C) source driving primary production at the base of the food web. In littoral ecosystems, such as the California Upwelling System (CUS), the likely dominant C sources of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) pool are kelp, upwelling phytoplankton or estuarine phytoplankton. While bulk isotopes of C and N are used extensively to resolve relative consumer hierarchy or shifting diet in a food web, we found that the δ13C bulk values in mussels cannot distinguish exact source in littoral ecosystems. Here we show 15 sites within the CUS, between Cape Blanco, OR and La Jolla, CA where mussels were sampled and analyzed for both bulk δ13C and CSI-AA. We found no latitudinal trends, but rather average bulk δ13C values for the entire coastal record were highly consistent (-15.7 ± 0.9‰). The bulk record would suggest either nutrient provisioning from kelp or upwelled phytoplankton, but 13C-AA fingerprinting confines these two sources to upwelling. This suggests that mussels are recording integrated coastal phytoplankton values, with the enriched

  12. Sources et impacts potentiels des micropolluants chimiques sur un écosystème littoral exploité: l'exemple des côtes des Charente-Maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramand, P.; Guyot, T.; Pigeot, J.

    2003-06-01

    Le littoral picto-charentais est une zone à fortes activités économiques liées à l'aquaculture, à la pêche et au tourisme. Toutes ces activités demandent une très bonne qualité des eaux et de l'environnement en général. Or, cette zone littorale est soumise à de nombreux apports de micropolluants: métaux lourds, phytosanitaires, hydrocarbures, organochlorés.... Les sources en sont nombreuses: apports fluviatiles et atmosphériques, rejets diffus et rejets directs. Les risques dus à cette pollution sont multiples que ce soit au niveau dcs organismes, au niveau des écosystèmes ou des consommateurs. De ce fait, les contaminants majeurs (métaux lourds, organochlorés. hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques) et leurs impacts éventuels sur les écosystèmes font l'objet de veille environnementale (réseaux de surveillance ou d'observatoires de l'environnement) et de mesures de prévention se traduisant par la définition de normes de rejets ou de contamination décidées à l'échelle européenne.

  13. Myoid Angioendothelioma of the Spleen: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Anbardar, Mohammadhossein; Malekhosseini, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-01

    Most common tumors of the spleen are hematologic and lymphoid malignancies. Non-lymphoid and non-hematologic tumors of the spleen are very rare, the most common of which are vascular tumors. This group of tumors in the spleen is composed of heterogeneous tumors such as hemangioma, angioendothelioma (AE), littoral cell angioma, and angiosarcoma. There are several histologic forms of AE such as epithelioid AE, Kaposiform AE, and myoid AE. Among these splenic vascular tumors, myoid angioendothelioma (MAE) seems to be the least common type. It is a distinct tumor; composed of endothelium-derived tumor cells and a special type of stromal tumor cells that seems to have borderline low-grade malignant potential. Herein, we report our experience with a young woman presented with chronic abdominal pain and splenic mass that turned out to be myoid AE of spleen with an uneventful surgery and excellent recovery period. To the best of our knowledge, such an occurrence is very rare in the spleen. PMID:28293056

  14. Marine molluscs and fish as biomarkers of pollution stress in littoral regions of the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Bissinger, Vera; Abelson, Avigdor; Dizer, Halim; Sturm, Armin; Kratke, Renate; Fishelson, Lev; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich

    1999-12-01

    The intensive development of industry and urban structures along the seashores of the world, as well as the immense increase in marine transportation and other activities, has resulted in the deposition of thousands of new chemicals and organic compounds, endangering the existence of organisms and ecosystems. The conventional single biomarker methods used in ecological assessment studies cannot provide an adequate base for environmental health assessment, management and sustainability planning. The present study uses a set of novel biochemical, physiological, cytogenetic and morphological methods to characterize the state of health of selected molluscs and fish along the shores of the German North Sea, as well as the Israeli Mediterranean and Red Sea. The methods include measurement of activity of multixenobiotic resistance-mediated transporter (MXRtr) and the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) as indicators of antixenobiotic defence; glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity as an indicator of biotransformation of xenobiotics; DNA unwinding as a marker of genotoxicity; micronucleus test for clastogenicity; levels of phagocytosis for immunotoxicity; cholinesterase (ChE) activity and level of catecholamines as indicators of neurotoxicity; permeability of external epithelia to anionic hydrophilic probe, intralysosomal accumulation of cationic amphiphilic probe and activity of non-specific esterases as indicators of cell/tissue viability. Complete histopathological examination was used for diagnostics of environmental pathology. The obtained data show that the activity of the defensive pumps, MXRtr and SATOA in the studied organisms was significantly higher in the surface epithelia of molluscs from a polluted site than that of the same species from control, unpolluted stations, providing clear evidence of response to stress. Enhanced frequency of DNA lesions (alkaline and acidic DNA unwinding) and micronucleus-containing cells was significantly higher

  15. Spatio-temporal distribution of cell-bound and dissolved geosmin in Wahnbach Reservoir: Causes and potential odour nuisances in raw water.

    PubMed

    Jähnichen, Sabine; Jäschke, Kathrin; Wieland, Falk; Packroff, Gabriele; Benndorf, Jürgen

    2011-10-15

    In many lakes and reservoirs, problems caused by off-flavours are known to be particularly associated with the occurrence of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria. Frequently observed objectionable taste and odorous products of cyanobacteria are geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. Investigations focused on the littoral zone of Wahnbach Reservoir (Germany) revealed that benthic cyanobacteria were present in this oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. Benthic cyanobacteria were found in the depth horizon between 1.75 m and 11 m, particularly on south-exposed slopes. This spatial distribution indicates a possible key role of the underwater light climate. Moreover, cell-bound and dissolved geosmin were detected in corresponding littoral samples. Both fractions were subjected to spatial and primarily temporal variations with maximum concentrations at the end of summer. However, a substantial lowering of the water level caused a diminution of cyanobacterial growth. Due to the drawdown of the water level concentrations of cell-bound geosmin and pigments (as a proxy of cyanobacterial biomass) were remarkably reduced, and dissolved geosmin was never detected during this phase. Except for the influence of water level fluctuation no other abiotic variables had a significant influence on pigment and geosmin concentrations. From geosmin concentrations detected in the littoral zone, the probability of serious episodes of odour events in the raw water of the Wahnbach Reservoir was estimated. Hence, the probability that the raw water was affected by geosmin was minor, which was supported by routine flavour profiles. Nevertheless, the study shows that odorous episodes caused by benthic cyanobacteria are likely to develop even in an oligotrophic lake or reservoir when these cyanobacteria, and consequently odorous production, proliferate. In principle, such a proliferation cannot be excluded as nutrients are available from the sediment pore water, and underwater light at the sediment

  16. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Manpower Requirements Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    solving, decision-making, and communication skills. Reduced manning experiments like the “Smart Ship” program on USS Yorktown (CG-48) and USS Rushmore ...will be manned and ready. Each mount will require one operator and one ammo loader. These personnel will also act as decoy loaders in support of the...CIC watchstanders who are controlling the decoy launchers. The other two mounts will be augmented by standing down other watchstanders, and the

  17. Conducting Expeditionary Operations in the Contested Littorals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-21

    versus Attrition .................................................................112 2. Use of Smart Sensor Field to Detect Enemy Intrusion ...about 60 sailors.  In early 2012, China and the Philippines engaged in a lengthy maritime stand-off, accusing each other of intrusions in the...Quadcopter 5) REM US 600/ 6000 F2 Water, Food, Fuel, C3 Package Engineering 02 02 02 Rifle company Medical suppl ies, 1) AN/TPS-80 Avenger

  18. Mummified saints of the Northern Croatian Littoral.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Skrobonja, Ante; Bosnar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Istrian town of Vodnjan hosts a collection of mummified bodies and relics. Three mummies are completely preserved and belong to Blessed Leon Bembo, St Giovanni Olini, and St Nicolosa Bursa, while the other three are mummified remains of St Barbara, St Sebastian, and St Mary of Egypt. This article gives an overview of the three completely preserved bodies, including their external condition, hagiographic data, statements and hypotheses that need verification by future targeted scientific research. Although local populations attribute divine properties to the remains and treat their continued preservation as a mystery, their origin is probably similar to that of other mummified saints. A scientific study performed on the mummies will probably help to reveal the true origin and type of mummification of the bodies. Additional paleopathological research could also determine the cause of death, if the saints died by natural causes, or attest to any mutilation or sign of torture suffered in life and confirm them as the cause of death. Proper bioarchaeological research could bring useful osteobiographical updates to the existing records about these saints.

  19. Phycoerythrin Signatures in the Littoral Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    discovered picocyanobacterial strains reveals a phylogenetically informative variable region of β-phycoerytrhin. J. Phycology . 42:1300-11...evolution of newly discovered picocyanobacterial strains reveals a phylogenetically informative variable region of β-phycoerytrhin. J. Phycology . 42

  20. Phycoerythrin Signatures in the Littoral Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    of newly discovered picocyanobacterial strains reveals a phylogenetically informative variable region of β-phycoerytrhin. J. Phycology . 42:1300... Phycology . 42:1300-11. [Published, refereed] Everroad, R. C. 2007, Diversification of marine picocyanobacteria: the ecology and evolution of

  1. Phycoerythrin Signatures in the Littoral Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    provided by Helmut Maske (CICESE, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico ). 2. Optical...environments. Specific research sites include the Sea of Cortez (Gulf of California), the Oregon Coast, and the Gulf of Mexico . Sampling locations range...optical and biological data were collected. In the Sea of Cortez, we were able to sample extensively along the continental shelf of mainland Mexico and

  2. Why is the Littoral Combat Ship Required?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    WWII, 3) Patrol-Combatant-Missile ( Hydrofoil ) or PHM’s of the 1980’s, and 4) Patrol Coastal (PC) boats of the 1990’s. These examples provide...vessels attacked a larger warship, they were heavily outgunned. Most gunboats only carried one to two small caliber guns of which the largest size was...ocean warfare against the Soviet threat made them expendable. Patrol-Combatant-Missile ( Hydrofoil ) or PHM. In the 1970’s, the United States and her

  3. Phycoerythrin Signatures in the Littoral Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-29

    TITLE. Enter title and subtitle with volume Enter report number as assigned by the sponsoring/ number and part number, if applicable . On classified...forms of chromatic adaptation known in some freshwater cyanobacteria that differentially regulate the synthesis of PE and phycocyanin (a blue green

  4. Phycoerythrin Signatures in the Littoral Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    grey-green pigment allophycocyanin alsways present in the core of the PBS and the blue-green pigment phycocyanin (PC) always present in the proximal...and different spectral forms of Synechococcus can be obtained from optical data, particularly hyperspectral data. IMPACT/ APPLICATION It is commonly...projects, “Spectral Signatures of Optical Processes” (NRL 6.1 core funding) and “ Applications of the SeaWiFS for coastal monitoring of harmful algal

  5. Phycoerythrin Signatures In The Littoral Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    approximately 73 W longitude. 3 A surprising finding was the presence of high concentrations of phycocyanin -dominant Synechococcus on the mid...shelf regions of the HYCODE study area (Fig. 1). Phycocyanin is a water-soluble pigment closely related to phycoerythrin. It is a blue pigment...Prochlorococcus are common and reach fairly high densities (>100,000 ml-1), PE-containing Synechococcus are present at 104 ml-1, and phycocyanin (PC

  6. Cell-Cell Interactions, Extracellular Matrix Formation in Biofilms and Marine Fouling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    mannose moieties, but not those of fucose . Our results are significant in terms of the use of bioassays to test the efficacy of candidate antifouling surfaces and studies of littoral sediment stabililization.

  7. Germ-line mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene are similar to somatic von Hippel-Lindau aberrations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley, J.M.; Naglich, J.; Gelbert, L.; Laidlaw, J.; Seizinger, B.R.; Kley, N.; Hsia, Y.E.; Lamiell, J.M.; Green, J.S.; Collins, D.

    1994-12-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary tumor syndrome predisposing to multifocal bilateral renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), pheochromocytomas, and pancreatic tumors, as well as angiomas and hemangioblastomas of the CNS. A candidate gene for VHL was recently identified, which led to the isolation of a partial cDNA clone with extended open reading frame, without significant homology to known genes or obvious functional motifs, except for an acidic pentamer repeat domain. To further characterize the functional domains of the VHL gene and assess its involvement in hereditary and nonhereditary tumors, we performed mutation analyses and studied its expression in normal and tumor tissue. The authors identified germline mutations in 39% of VHL disease families. Moreover, 33% of sporadic RCCs and all (6/6) sporadic RCC cell lines analyzed showed mutations within the VHL gene. Both germ-line and somatic mutations included deletions, insertions, splice-site mutations, and missense and nonsense mutations, all of which clustered at the 3{prime} end of the corresponding partial VHL cDNA open reading frame, including an alternatively spliced exon 123 nt in length, suggesting functionally important domains encoded by the VHL gene in this region. Over 180 sporadic tumors of other types have shown no detectable base changes within the presumed coding sequence of the VHL gene to date. We conclude that the gene causing VHL has an important and specific role in the etiology of sporadic RCCs, acts as a recessive tumor-suppressor gene, and appears to encode important functional domains within the 3{prime} end of the known open reading frame.

  8. Three novel germ-line VHL mutations in Hungarian von Hippel-Lindau patients, including a nonsense mutation in a fifteen-year-old boy with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Von Hippel-Lindau disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited highly penetrant tumor syndrome predisposing to retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma among other less frequent complications. Methods Molecular genetic testing of the VHL gene was performed in five unrelated families affetced with type I VHL disease, including seven patients and their available family members. Results Molecular genetic investigations detected three novel (c.163 G > T, c.232A > T and c.555C > A causing p.Glu55X, p.Asn78Tyr and p.Tyr185X protein changes, respectively) and two previously described (c.340 + 1 G > A and c.583C > T, resulting in p.Gly114AspfsX6 and p.195GlnX protein changes, respectively) germline point mutations in the VHL gene. Molecular modeling of the VHL-ElonginC-HIF-1alpha complex predicted that the p.Asn78Tyr amino acid exchange remarkably alters the 77-83 loop structure of VHL protein and destabilizes the VHL-HIF-1alpha complex suggesting that the mutation causes type I phenotype and has high risk to associate to renal cell carcinoma. The novel p.55X nonsense mutation associated to bilateral RCC and retinal angioma in a 15-year-old male patient. Conclusion We describe the earliest onset renal cell carcinoma in VHL disease reported so far in a 15-year-old boy with a nonsense VHL mutation. Individual tailoring of screening schedule based on molecular genetic status should be considered in order to diagnose serious complications as early as possible. Our observations add to the understanding of genotype-phenotype correlation in VHL disease and can be useful for genetic counseling and follow-up of VHL patients. PMID:23298237

  9. Angiosarcoma of the penis with hepatic angiomas in a patient with low vinyl chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L; Gonzalez, M S

    1981-03-15

    A case of angiosarcoma of the penis associated with two hepatic angiomata in a 61-year-old man is presented. The patient had worked in a polyvinyl chloride factory as an accountant for ten years. The relationship of this low vinyl chloride exposure to the development of the vascular lesions is discussed with a review of the experimental and epidemiologic data on this subject.

  10. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Quantitative Perfusion in Cerebral Cavernous Angiomas

    PubMed Central

    Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Tan, Huan; Shenkar, Robert; Li, Luying; Zhang, Lingjiao; Guo, Xiaodong; Shi, Changbin; Liu, Tian; Wang, Yi; Shah, Akash; Edelman, Robert; Christoforidis, Gregory; Awad, Issam

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperpermeability and iron deposition are two central pathophysiological phenomena in human cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) disease. Here we used two novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to establish a relationship between these phenomena. Methods Subjects with CCM disease (4 sporadic and 18 familial) underwent MRI imaging using the Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Quantitative Perfusion (DCEQP) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) techniques that measure hemodynamic factors of vessel leak and iron deposition respectively, previously demonstrated in CCM disease. Regions of interest encompassing the CCM lesions were analyzed using these techniques Results Susceptibility measured by QSM was positively correlated with permeability of lesions measured using DCEQP (r=0.49, p=<0.0001). The correlation was not affected by factors including familial predisposition, lesion volume, the contrast agent and the use of statin medication. Susceptibility was correlated with lesional blood volume (r=0.4, p=0.0001), but not with lesional blood flow. Conclusion The correlation between QSM and DCEQP suggests that the phenomena of permeability and iron deposition are related in CCM; hence “more leaky lesions” also manifest a more cumulative iron burden. These techniques might be used as biomarkers to monitor the course of this disease and the effect of therapy. PMID:24302484

  11. Angiosarcoma associated with a Kasabach-Merritt syndrome: report of two cases treated with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Grellety, Thomas; Italiano, Antoine

    2013-09-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare, aggressive vascular malignancies of endothelial cell differentiation. Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is a rare condition defined by the association of thrombocytopenia and consumption coagulopathy with specific vascular tumors, such as tufted angioma or kaposiform hemangioendothelioma. We report here two cases of angiosarcomas complicated by a Kasabach-Merritt syndrome and their outcome after treatment with paclitaxel.

  12. Removal of cholesteryl ester from hepatic reticuloendothelial cells in vivo is not enhanced by plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Stein, O; Dabach, Y; Hollander, G; Stein, Y

    1991-01-28

    The putative role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the removal of cholesteryl ester from hepatic reticuloendothelial cells in vivo was studied in hamsters. The parameter tested was retention of [3H]cholesteryl linoleyl ether ([3H]CLE), a nonhydrolysable analog of cholesteryl ester, in the liver after injection of [3H]CLE labeled acetylated LDL, which is targetted to nonparenchymatous littoral cells. In hamsters fed laboratory chow, plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) was 10.6 +/- 0.9 units and the retention of [3H]CLE in the liver 28 days after injection was 86% of the 4 h value. It was about 55% in rats fed the same diet, in which CETA was not detectable. When the diet was supplemented with 2% cholesterol and 15% margarine, CETA activity in hamsters increased 2-fold, yet no change in retention of [3H]CLE in liver was seen after 28 days. In rats, the retention of [3H]CLE in the liver was also not changed by the dietary fat supplementation. These results do not support the role of CETP in vivo in removal of cholesteryl ester from intact reticuloendothelial cells.

  13. Investigation of Shallow Undex in Littoral Ocean Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Various Paths of Detonating Shockwave , after [5] ...10  Figure 7.  Arbitrary Interface Geometry, from [1...Energy Partition of Shockwave Bubble, after [8] ............................................19  Figure 17.  Pressure 60ft from 300lbs TNT Charge Detonated...2.1) which states that the added fluid pressure (P) from propagating shockwaves is a function of water’s mass density (ρo), acoustic wave

  14. Littoral Combat Ship Open Ocean Anti-Submarine Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    importance of the number of LCS used during the scenarios. Modeling and simulation outputs in a sound systems engineering process were utilized to conclude... modeling and simulation through a clearly defined prime directive and concept of operations, measures of effectiveness, and measures of performance...requirements development, architecture, capability, functional decomposition, modeling and simulation 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE CODE 17

  15. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the relationship between the socio-economic systems and the other components of the hierarchy of ecological systems also existed, without exception, in the Romanian coastal part of the Black Sea causing manifest ecological effects on various types of para-marine lacustrine ecosystems. Generally, we consider that the following set of effects is typical of the ecological impact resulted from the dynamics of the socio-economic systems at different time and space scales: · Erosion of diversity as a result of the loss of species or reduction in the species abundance in the local ecosystems and complex of ecosystems or because of the habitat fragmentation, isolation of valuable natural systems, to which other causes may be added such as desertification and salinization or water freshening; · Erosion of biological diversity caused by: extinction of higher species and taxa, loss of genetic resources, increase in the number of rare species threatened with extinction and significant reduction in the ethno-cultural diversity; · Depletion or reduction in the stocks of renewable and non-renewable natural resources; · Changes in the biogeochemical cycles and in the climatic system, caused by the overloading of the surface waters and soils with nutrients, heavy metals, radio-nuclides, greenhouse gases, particulate or dissolved organic matter and by deterioration of other factors. These changes cause, in their turn, a series of processes similar to chain reactions, which lead to an increasing risk of natural disasters; · Decrease in the productive and supportive capacity of components which form the foundation of the socio-economic system in the reference zone. · An alarming increase in the „environmental debt" which endangers the chances of short-term and, especially, long-term development. The author recommends some solutions in solving the conflict of interest, which consist in a set of measures and actions, as follows: · identifying synergies or contradictions between actions resulting from various policies; · improving coordination, cooperation and consultation between all concerned as the basis for sustainable development; · applying locally the principles of subsidiarity and integration, which underlie European environment and regional planning activities; · approaching the concept of "ecosystem management", that is 1. input from all levels; 2. decentralized, with feedbacks; 3. risk-taking; 4. willingness to revisit, revise and admit error; 5. shared vision; 6. across administrative boundary, and 7. partnerships). · Adopting demonstration projects to ensure good cooperation between the various planning authorities, from local to community level.

  16. The French Atlantic Littoral and the Massif Armoricain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Monget, J. M.; Scanvic, J. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Diachronic use of LANDSAT data time series will in time allow statistical study of submersion frequencies in tidal areas. This is an essential element of coastal geomorphology and of coastal zone management being particularly useful in siting shellfish farms. Maps are being obtained at useable scales and simple, user oriented legends which can be used for coastal planning.

  17. Littoral Sediment Budget for the Mississippi Sound Barrier Islands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    geometric rule is that a closed material balance exists between the beach and nearshore bottom profile (Figure 3.13). Assuming an equili- brium profile ...Figure 3.13.Translation of a beach profile under rising sea level in a two-dimensional closed material balance system (after Bruun, 1962). The...transport, and develop an operational sediment budget spanning a 90-year period. Beach erosion along the east side of each island and sand spit

  18. The French Atlantic littoral and the Massif Armoricain, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Scanvic, J. Y.; Monget, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results: (1) An original map of lineaments of the Armorican Massif and the Vendean platform was prepared. (2) Validity of spatial information through comparison with maps of various kinds, such as geological, geophysical, morphological, etc., was verified. (3) It was confirmed that LANDSAT images, in many cases, reflect data on deep phenomena which were only accessible geophysically and by means of borings. Tectonic domains were outlined, and known lineaments were extended.

  19. Robust Littoral Characterization using Electro-Optical Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    into numerical models ( Guedes et al., in press; Power et al., in review; Senechal et al., 2011). A data-driven paper describing the physics of wave...wave breaking in the surf zone. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing (2011) 49. Guedes RM, Bryan KR, Coco G, Holman RA. The effects of...detection of wave breaking in the surf zone. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing (2011) 49. Guedes RM, Bryan KR, Coco G, Holman RA. The

  20. Phylogeographical disjunction in abundant high-dispersal littoral gastropods.

    PubMed

    Waters, J M; King, T M; O'Loughlin, P M; Spencer, H G

    2005-08-01

    Abstract Phylogeographical disjunctions in high-dispersal marine taxa are variously ascribed to palaeogeographical conditions or contemporary ecological factors. Associated biogeographical studies, however, seldom incorporate the sampling design required to confidently discriminate among such competing hypotheses. In the current study, over 7800 gastropod specimens were examined for operculum colour, and 129 specimens genetically, to test ecological and historical biogeographical hypotheses relating to biogeographical disjunction in the Southern Hemisphere, and to southern Australia in particular. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the high-dispersal intertidal gastropod Nerita atramentosa in southern Australia (88 specimens; 18 localities) revealed an east-west phylogeographical split involving two highly divergent clades (26.0 +/- 1.9%) exhibiting minimal geographical overlap in the southeast. The eastern clade of Nerita atramentosa is also widespread in northern New Zealand (43 specimens, 10 localities), but no significant genetic differentiation is explained by the Tasman Sea, a 2000-km-wide oceanic barrier. Spatial genetic structure was not detected within either clade, consistent with the species' dispersive planktotrophic phase lasting for 5-6 months. Digital analysis of operculum colouration revealed substantial differences between eastern (tan) and western (black) specimens. Genetic analysis and visual inspection of 88 Australian specimens revealed a completely nonrandom association between mtDNA data and operculum colouration. Independent examination of a further 7822 specimens from 14 sites in southern Australia revealed both colour morphs at all localities, but reinforced the phylogeographical data by indicating a marked turnover in colour morph abundance associated with a palaeogeographical barrier: Wilsons Promontory. This sharp biogeographical disjunction is in marked contrast to the species' high dispersal abilities. The genetic similarity of Nerita morio (Easter Island) and the eastern Australian + New Zealand lineage (1.1 +/- 0.3%) provides further evidence of long-distance dispersal in southern Nerita. Phylogenetic relationships of nine species (four genera) of Neritidae, an almost exclusively tropical gastropod family, are consistent with the hypothesis that southern temperate black nerites comprise a monophyletic radiation.

  1. Littoral Combat Ship: Is it a Blue-Green Asset?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-02

    I I DISCLAIMER - -~- ·-· · · ·· THEOPINIONSANDCONCbUSIONS-~ XPRESSED HEREIN-ARE THOSE-OF-THE· INDIVIDUAL STUDENT AUTHOR AND DO NOT NECESSARILY...States world image. Globalization and technological advancements have put MOOTW operations under immediate scrutiny. LCS has the potential to improve U.S

  2. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Mission Packages: Determining the Best Mix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    a pair. With one RMV towing an active source and the second towing a passive towed array, the pair provides a bistatic sonar capability. (Naval...Warfare Development Command, 2007) Unlike the SUW LCS which can fire or launch several SUW weapons, the ASW LCS does not have an anti-submarine...will independently patrol this position until they detect an enemy or take fire . Submarines will pursue a detected friendly agent and will evade if

  3. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  4. "Sea Lance" Littoral Warfare Small Combatant System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    system that uses biotreatment in conjunction with microfiltration to treat the liquid waste. The effluent will meet the following standards: iv...detailed description of the treatment system. SEA LANCE will process oily waste with a Combined Oily Waste Membrane System. The Navy Integrate... Membrane System (NIMS) will produce an effluent less than 15-PPM oil. All bilge water will be processed through the oily waste system. Appendix I

  5. Hydrodynamic Agents in the Littoral Environment. Phase 1 Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-06

    the Virginia Coast Reserve, which is near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Mangrove trees are generally found on coastlines between 25...very high salinity and very anoxic conditions. White mangrove trees have an affinity for lower salinity areas. All species need gentle wave/tidal...features (morphology) for the study sites. This effort focuses on the sediment dynamics ring of the morphodynamical corridor. NGA is responsible

  6. US Navy’s Engagement in the African Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    Ronald O’Rourke, R. Chuck Mason, Rawle O. King. Piracy off the Horn of Africa. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, April 2009. http......Gudmundsson, William S. Lind, Douglas Macgregor, Chet Richards, Col. John Sayen, Pierre Sprey, James P. Stevenson, Donald E. Vandergriff, G.I

  7. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Applications Andrew T. Jessup Chris Chickadel, Gordon Farquharson, Jim Thomson Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington Seattle...WA 98105 phone: ((206) 685-2609 fax: (206) 543-6785 email: jessup @apl.washington.edu Robert A. Holman Merrick Haller, Alexander Kuropov, Tuba...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  8. Marshes and turbid waters in the French Atlantic littoral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The multispectral information provided by ERTS-1 is very rich for the coastal regions but the cloud cover, even when only partial, often cuts up the data, and lessens its practical value. The research by densitometric methods has thus far been the most fruitful. It consists of measuring densities along preferential axes. This method has enabled the investigators to perfect a system of computer cartography for the best image. Comparative study of microdensitometric transects in four MSS bands for carefully dilimited profiles on the ground, makes it possible to isolate and recognize various types of countryside: (1) countryside of coastal plains; (2) countryside of coastal sand dunes and beaches; and (3) forms and processes of offshore domains. This study shows the usefulness of the ERTS program in establishing a rapid cartography of the physiographic units of the coastal plains in the interest of a rational program of exploitation and development.

  9. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  10. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma in Croatia: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Ledić-Drvar, Daniela; Marasović, Dujomir; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Cabrijan, Leo; Bradamante, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants according to the latest population census in Croatia from 2001. In the study period, there were 7,244 BCC cases (3,519 men and 3,725 women) in Croatia. The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 54.9 for men and 53.9 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 33.6 for men and 24.5 for women. The head and neck were almost exclusive localizations of BCC. The highest BCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. The incidence of BCC was high in both littoral and inland counties of Croatia. Study results will serve as reference figures on studying the trend of BCC incidence in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  11. Sturge-Weber-Syndrome with extreme ocular manifestation and rare association of upper airway angioma with anticipated difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hon Seng; Abdul Rahman, Ropilah; Choo, Swee Ying; Yahya, Nurlia

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of an 18 year old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome, she had extensive facial port wine stains, right bupthalmos and advanced glaucoma involving both eyes. She underwent right eye glaucoma drainage device surgery under general anaesthesia, and had a difficult intubation due to extensive angiomatous like soft tissue swelling at her upper airway. This report highlights the importance of being aware of the need for continuous follow-up in Sturge-Weber syndrome patients as this syndrome can lead to blindness due to advance glaucoma and the awareness of possible difficult intubation for this group of patients.

  12. Cell division

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the first 12 hours after conception, the fertilized egg cell remains a single cell. After approximately 30 ... at the end of 3 days, the fertilized egg cell has become a berry-like structure made ...

  13. Stem cells.

    PubMed

    Behr, Björn; Ko, Sae Hee; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2010-10-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines and are classified according to their origin and their ability to differentiate. Enormous potential exists in use of stem cells for regenerative medicine. To produce effective stem cell-based treatments for a range of diseases, an improved understanding of stem cell biology and better control over stem cell fate are necessary. In addition, the barriers to clinical translation, such as potential oncologic properties of stem cells, need to be addressed. With renewed government support and continued refinement of current stem cell methodologies, the future of stem cell research is exciting and promises to provide novel reconstructive options for patients and surgeons limited by traditional paradigms.

  14. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells (skeletal stem cells) Cell-based therapies Cell culture Cell division Chromosome Clone Cloning Cord blood stem cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed differentiation DNA Ectoderm Embryo Embryoid ...

  15. Engineering Cell-Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Daniel F.; Natividad, Robert J.; Asthagiri, Anand R.

    2014-01-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling based on quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilizing synthetic cells, advanced ‘chassis’ and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues. PMID:23856592

  16. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  17. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  18. Photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozik, A. J.

    1980-02-01

    The application of photoelectrochemical systems based on photoactive semiconducting electrodes to the problem of solar energy conversion and chemical synthesis is discussed. Three types of cells are described: electrochemical photovoltaic cells (wherein optical energy is converted into electrical energy); photoelectrolysis cells (wherein optical energy is converted into chemical free energy); and photocatalytic cells (wherein optical energy provides the activation energy for exoergic chemical reactions). The critical semiconductor electrode properties for these cells are the band gap, the flat-band potential, and the photoelectrochemical stability. No semiconductor electrode material is yet known for which all three parameters are simultaneously optimized. An interesting configurational variation of photoelectrolysis cells, labelled 'photochemical diodes', is described. These diodes comprise cells that have been collapsed into monolithic particles containing no external wires. Recent advances in several areas of photoelectrochemical systems are also described.

  19. Staining for factor VIII related antigen and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) in 230 tumours. An assessment of their specificity for angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Leader, M; Collins, M; Patel, J; Henry, K

    1986-11-01

    In this study we examined the staining reactivity of commercially available antisera to factor VIII related antigen (F VIII RAg) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) on sections from 230 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumours. These included 196 sarcomas, 20 carcinomas and 14 angiomas. All angiomas showed positive staining for F VIII RAg; all carcinomas showed negative staining; the vasoformative areas of all angiosarcomas stained positively but only four of six angiosarcomas showed positive staining of their solid areas; of seven Kaposi's sarcomas, all showed positive staining of vessels and six showed positive staining of the spindle cell component. In the remaining 181 non-vascular sarcomas there was a false positive result in four tumours (2.2%), three of which had a history of irradiation. Pre-radiotherapy biopsies of these three tumours stained negatively with anti-F VIII RAg. UEA-I was demonstrated in all the angiomas studied, in all angiosarcomas (including the solid components) and in well-formed vessels of all Kaposi's sarcomas, but only in the spindle cell component of 3/6. However, there was an unacceptably high rate of false positive staining amongst the carcinomas and non-vascular sarcomas. In conclusion, F VIII RAg is a specific but not a sensitive marker of angiosarcomas; UEA-I is a sensitive but not a specific marker of angiosarcomas.

  20. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  1. Electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. S.; Hale, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end is located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  2. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  3. Cell Chauvinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Dolores Elaine

    1972-01-01

    Indicates that biological terminology, such as mother cell'' and labels of sex factors in bacteria, reflect discrimination against females by reinforcing perpetuation of stereotyped gender roles. (AL)

  4. Unit Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Robert C.; Tobiason, Fred L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of unit cells using clear plastic cubes which can be disassembled, and one inch cork balls of various colors, which can be cut in halves, quarters, or eighths, and glued on the inside face of the cube, thus simulating a unit cell. (MLH)

  5. T Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Definition of MS Myelin Immune-Mediated Disease T Cells d What Causes MS? Disproved Theories Viruses Clusters d Who Gets MS? Pediatric MS ... the progression of MS, without harming any immune cells that are not involved in the process of myelin destruction. Share Smaller ... More Immune-Mediated Disease Learn More Myelin ...

  6. Fuel Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  7. Cell Phones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emitting Products Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Cell Phones Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Under the law, FDA does not review the safety of radiation- ...

  8. Cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Romereim, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive genetic analysis of the dynamic multi-phase process that transforms a small population of lateral plate mesoderm into the mature limb skeleton, the mechanisms by which signaling pathways regulate cellular behaviors to generate morphogenetic forces are not known. Recently, a series of papers have offered the intriguing possibility that regulated cell polarity fine-tunes the morphogenetic process via orienting cell axes, division planes and cell movements. Wnt5a-mediated non-canonical signaling, which may include planar cell polarity, has emerged as a common thread in the otherwise distinct signaling networks that regulate morphogenesis in each phase of limb development. These findings position the limb as a key model to elucidate how global tissue patterning pathways direct local differences in cell behavior that, in turn, generate growth and form. PMID:22064549

  9. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  10. 9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CELL ACCESS ELEVATOR, CELLS 2 AND 4, BASEMENT LEVEL. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  11. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  12. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  14. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  16. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, D.E.

    1984-04-24

    A process and cell for electrolysis of alkali metal halides, especially sodium chloride, are described, wherein the anolyte and catholyte compartments are separated by a fluorinated ion-exchange membrane whose surface facing the catholyte compartment is of a polymer having carboxylic functionality and which has a roughness which does not exceed 1.5 microns. Such a cell and process operate at high current efficiency, low voltage and low power consumption.

  17. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  18. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  19. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  20. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  1. Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Heat Exchanger Method (HEM) produces high efficiency crystal ingots in an automated well-insulated furnace offering low equipment, labor and energy costs. The "grown" silicon crystals are used to make solar cells, or photovoltaic cells which convert sunlight directly into electricity. The HEM method is used by Crystal Systems, Inc. and was developed under a NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory contract. The square wafers which are the result of the process are sold to companies manufacturing solar panels.

  2. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  3. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  4. Air cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Okiyoshi; Wakasa, Masayuki; Tamanoi, Yoshihito

    1991-04-01

    The present invention relates to an air cell. This air cell provides a compact light-weight power source for model aircraft permitting them to fly for an extended period so that they may be used for such practical purposes as crop dusting, surveying, and photographing. The cell is comprised of a current collector so disposed between a magnesium, zinc, or aluminum alloy cathode and a petroleum graphite anode that it is in contact with the anode. The anode is formed by adding polytetrafluoroethylene dispersion liquid in a mixture of active carbon and graphite powder, pouring the mixture into a mold and heating it to form the anode. It is fabricated by a plurality of anode sections and is formed with at least one hole so that it can provide a cell which is compact in size and light in weight yet is capable of generating a high output. The anode, the cathode, and a separator are wetted by an electrolytic liquid. The electrolyte is continuously supplied through the life of the cell.

  5. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  6. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Zoltan; Yonco, Robert M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90.degree. in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

  7. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  8. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1 to 10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  10. Electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  11. Cell Libraries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA contract led to the development of faster and more energy efficient semiconductor materials for digital integrated circuits. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) conducts electrons 4-6 times faster than silicon and uses less power at frequencies above 100-150 megahertz. However, the material is expensive, brittle, fragile and has lacked computer automated engineering tools to solve this problem. Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) developed a series of GaAs cell libraries for cell layout, design rule checking, logic synthesis, placement and routing, simulation and chip assembly. The system is marketed by Compare Design Automation.

  12. Sickle Cell Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like ... normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also get stuck in blood ...

  13. Nonaqueous cell

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.E.; Chi, I.; Granstaff, S.M. Jr.; Vyas, B.

    1988-06-28

    A nonaqueous cell is described comprising lithium negative electrode, positive electrode comprising active material and electrolyte comprising solvent and current carrying species characterized in that the solvent comprises at least 15 mole percent ethylene carbonate, at least 15 mole percent propylene carbonate and at least 15 mole percent polyethylene glycol dialkyl ether.

  14. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, G.W.

    1983-09-13

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment. 3 figs.

  15. Potent Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  16. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  17. 19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Oblique, typical cell (south cells) from rear of cell; view to north, 65mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  18. Cell Proliferation, Cell Death, and Size Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Cell Death , and Size Regulation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nicholas E. Baker, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cell Proliferation, Cell Death , and Size Regulation DAMD17-97-1-7034 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas E. Baker, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...Contains unpublished data 5 CELL PROLIFERATION, CELL DEATH , AND SIZE REGULATION INTRODUCTION Cell proliferation and cell death come to attention through

  19. Coronal Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    have recently noticed cellular features in Fe xii 193 Å images of the 1.2 MK corona . They occur in regions bounded by a coronal hole and a filament...Sun. As these regions are carried toward the limb by solar rotation, the cells disappear and are replaced by linear plumes projecting toward the limb...In simultaneous views from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, these plumes project in opposite

  20. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell having a metal anode wherein the metal is selected from zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal bromide having the same metal as the metal of the anode. The improvement described here comprises: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte, the complexing agent consisting solely of a quaternary ammonium salt of an N-organo substituted alpha amino acid, ester, or betaine.

  1. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  2. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  3. Littoral Combat Ship Manpower, an Overview of Officer Characteristics and Placement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Takeoff Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV); ASW Escort Module with towed Variable Depth Sonar (VDS) active source, a Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA...the subspecialty Major Area.  The 2nd digit indicates Concentration Area.  The 3rd and 4th digits provide specificity  The suffix (5th character...Increment 2: Bi-static capability using Continuous Active Sonar Variable Depth Sonar (CAS VDS) and separate Multi-Function Towed Array (MFTA), Light

  4. Mussels as ecosystem engineers: Their contribution to species richness in a rocky littoral community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthagaray, Ana Inés; Carranza, Alvar

    Mussels are important ecosystem engineers in marine benthic systems because they aggregate into beds, thus modifying the nature and complexity of the substrate. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of mussels ( Brachidontes rodriguezii, Mytilus edulis platensis, and Perna perna) to the benthic species richness of intertidal and shallow subtidal communities at Cerro Verde (Uruguay). We compared the richness of macro-benthic species between mussel-engineered patches and patches without mussels but dominated by algae or barnacles at a landscape scale (all samples), between tidal levels, and between sites distributed along a wave exposition gradient. Overall, we found a net increase in species richness in samples with mussels (35 species), in contrast to samples where mussels were naturally absent or scarce (27 species). The positive trend of the effect did not depend upon tidal level or wave exposition, but its magnitude varied between sites. Within sites, a significant positive effect was detected only at the protected site. Within the mussel-engineered patches, the richness of all macro-faunal groups (total, sessile and mobile) was positively correlated with mussel abundance. This evidence indicates that the mussel beds studied here were important in maintaining species richness at the landscape-level, and highlights that beds of shelled bivalves should not be neglected as conservation targets in marine benthic environments.

  5. Littoral Combat Ship: Additional Testing and Improved Weight Management Needed Prior to Further Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    to Singapore, the Navy added 20 extra beds—called berths —to the ship to accommodate extra people, and has also made a similar change to LCS 2 and...no more than 180 metric tons when installed aboard a seaframe. Of this 180-metric-ton allocation , 105 metric tons are allotted to the actual mission

  6. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS)/Frigate Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-23

    recoverability of the ships. The Navy continues to review manning to determine appropriate levels, and is adding 20 berths to all seaframes. The increased... berthing supports small increases in the size of the core crew, mission package detachments, and the aviation detachment. • Freedom Class Variant (LCS...the FY2009 ships and the FY2010 ships would determine the allocation of the three FY2010 ships, with the winning team getting two of the FY2010 ships

  7. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Civilian Aviation Alternative Support Study: Report of Findings and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-30

    with Navy aviation civilian contractors and US Coast Guard helicopter personnel indicates that significantly fewer active duty personnel might be...required to operate and support embarked aircraft within the LCS aviation operations & maintenance profiles using NAVAIR’s preliminary assumptions and "Sea Base" concept as delineated in the LCS concept of operations.

  8. A Littoral Combat Ship Manpower Analysis Using The Fleet Response Training Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    DESIGN MCM MINE COUNTERMEASURES MOB-D MOBILITY -DAMAGE CONTROL MOB-E MOBILITY -ENGINEERING MOB-N MOBILITY -NAVIGATION MOB-S MOBILITY -SEAMANSHIP NCO NON...laid on Jan 19, 2006 in Austal USA Shipyard, Mobile , Alabama. Figure 1. Lockheed Martin’s LCS Seaframe 3 This modular approach to multi-mission...included in the LCS ROC/POE are Surface Warfare (SUW), Command, Control and Communication (CCC), Mine Warfare (MIW) and Mobility (MOB) while

  9. Littoral Combat Ship: Knowledge of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    its business case for LCS and conduct a number of operational test events on both variants prior to making a decision to contract for more ships...of Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions Why GAO Did This Study GAO has reported extensively on...Survivability and Lethality Capabilities Needed Prior to Making Major Funding Decisions , GAO-15-361C (Washington, D.C.: July 7, 2015) (S//NF). 5H.R. Rep

  10. Effects of METOC Factors on EW Systems Against Low Detectable Targets in a Tropical Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    among others. 10 There is a wide variety of low cost EO/IR surveillance and/or fire control systems available on the market , such as the Radamec EOS...National Weather Service Automated 30 Weather Stations Networks in Cozumel, Cancun, and Sian Kaan, and from the Mexican Navy (in Isla Mujeres ), which

  11. "Sea Swat": A Littoral Combat Ship for Sea Base Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    68 FIGURE 33. LM6000 GAS TURBINE...power turbine is ideally suited for marine applications. Figure 32. LM 1600 Gas Turbine f) LM 6000 The LM6000 , Figure 33, is the most fuel...efficient, simple-cycle Gas Turbine in the world with an SFC at 0.200 kg/(kW-hr). The LM6000 has a higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas

  12. [The distribution of the macrobenthos of the White Sea littoral in different spatial scales].

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, M V; Azovskiĭ, A I

    2000-01-01

    Spatial distribution of macrobenthos of middle intertidal zone was studied in scale from centimetres to 30 kilometres along the coastline. The community structure and distribution of the 5 most abundant species (Hydrobia ulvae, Mya arenaria, Macoma baltica. Peloscolex benedeni, Arenicola marina) were considered. Spatial heterogeneity of macrobenthos, estimated as mean dissimilarity between samples, kept constant in scale of centimetres--meters, but increased significantly when enlarged area is considered. Patterns of many species changed with scale from random mosaic to more or less pronounced patchiness, whereas the density of H. ulvae and the structure of the whole community demonstrated fractal (self-similar) patch pattern in wide range of scale from dozens of meters to several kilometres. Spatial correlations between species (the composition of assemblages) and between species and environmental factors were also scale dependent. Some possible effects of scale on the observed spatial distribution of benthos are discussed, and multiscaled analysis of biotic heterogeneity is concluded to be very fruitful.

  13. Effectiveness of Naval Surface Fire Support to the Army Brigade Commander in a Littoral Campaign

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    MultiAttribute Utility Theory MOE Measure of Effectiveness NAS Number of Available Shooters NPS Naval Postgraduate School NSFS Naval...importance of each MOE, multi-attribute utility theory was used to combine the data for a COA into a single measure of its effectiveness. Since each... utility theory or MAUT, was used. This method provides a simple, relatively intuitive way to weight and quantify the value of very different

  14. The French Atlantic Littoral and the Massif Armoricain. [Bay of Biscay, France and Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Monget, J. M.; Scanvic, J. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Diachronic use of LANDSAT data time series will in time allow study of statistically submerged frequencies in tidal areas. This is an essential element of coastal geomorphology and of coastal zone management, being particularly useful in siting shellfish farms. Maps at useable scales and simple user oriented legends should become an essential document for coastal planning agencies.

  15. Littoral Transport Modeling for Ocean Beach and San Francisco Bight, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    nourishment for shore and beach protection. The model result can support and improve decision making for regional and local sediment management...Development Center (ERDC) Regional Sediment Management Program (RSM) and Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), and the US Geological Survey (USGS...useful for improving decision making for regional and local sediment management, enhancing cross-mission benefits, and ultimately reducing project life

  16. Vitamin D Status among Older Adults Residing in the Littoral and Andes Mountains in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and its determinants among older adults in Ecuador. Methods. 25(OH)D deficiency and insufficiency prevalence rates were examined among participants in the National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate demographic characteristics associated with 25(OH)D deficiency. Results. Of 2,374 participants with a mean age of 71.0 (8.3) years, 25(OH)D insufficiency and deficiency were present in 67.8% (95% CI, 65.3–70.2) and 21.6% (95% CI, 19.5–23.7) of older adults in Ecuador, respectively. Women (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 3.15–3.22), self-reported race as Indigenous (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.70–2.80), and residents in rural (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 4.40–4.58) and urban (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.69–2.80) areas of the Andes Mountains region were variables significantly associated with 25(OH)D deficiency among older adults. Conclusions. Despite abundant sunlight throughout the year in Ecuador, 25(OH)D deficiency was significantly prevalent among older women, Indigenous subjects, and subjects residing in the Andes Mountains region of the country. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement policies of vitamin D supplementation among older adults at risk for this condition. PMID:26301259

  17. Fiber-optic hydrophone array for acoustic surveillance in the littoral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, David; Nash, Phillip

    2005-05-01

    We describe a fibre-optic hydrophone array system architecture that can be tailored to meet the underwater acoustic surveillance requirements of the military, counter terrorist and customs authorities in protecting ports and harbours, offshore production facilities or coastal approaches. Physically the fibre-optic hydrophone array is in the form of a lightweight cable, enabling rapid deployment from a small vessel. Based upon an optical architecture of time and wavelength multiplexed interferometric hydrophones, the array is comprised of a series of hydrophone sub-arrays. Using multiple sub-arrays, extended perimeters many tens of kilometres in length can be monitored. Interrogated via a long (~50km) optical fibre data link, the acoustic date is processed using the latest open architecture sonar processing platform, ensuring that acoustic targets below, on and above the surface are detected, tracked and classified. Results obtained from an at sea trial of a 96-channel hydrophone array are given, showing the passive detection and tracking of a diver, small surface craft and big ocean going ships beyond the horizon. Furthermore, we describe how the OptaMarine fibre-optic hydrophone array fits into an integrated multi-layered approach to port and harbour security consisting of active sonar for diver detection and hull imaging, as well as thermal imaging and CCTV for surface monitoring. Finally, we briefly describe a complimentary land perimeter intruder detection system consisting of an array of fibre optic accelerometers.

  18. Synoptic patterns of meiofaunal and macrofaunal abundances and specific composition in littoral sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, Werner; Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1987-03-01

    During recent years, many investigations on small zoobenthos have been performed at the island of Sylt. As these studies were carried out sporadically over many years and as different extraction methods were used, comparisons of the results have been hampered. Therefore, in August/September 1986, 24 sites were sampled and evaluated using one quantitative method throughout. Sites range from mud to exposed sand and from the sublittoral to the supralittoral. Macrofauna and the taxa Plathelminthes, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta are determined to species level. Macrofaunal (>0.5 mm) abundance is highest in mud and continuously decreases with increasing exposure to wave action. Meiofaunal (<0.5 mm) abundance is less variable. Nematoda dominate in mud and muddy sand, Copepoda in sheltered and exposed sand, other taxa only intermittently. Related to surface area, no correlation between macro-and meiofaunal abundance is apparent. Plathelminthes and Copepoda reach highest abundance per surface area in sand but their per volume density is higher in mud and muddy sand. Related to sediment volume instead of surface area, the meiofaunal abundance pattern is very similar to the macrofaunal pattern. The faunal composition changes gradually along the tidal gradient without general faunal boundaries. On an averange, the faunal similarity of neighbouring sites is highest in Oligochaeta and lowest in Plathelminthes. Presumably, Oligochaeta tolerate wider ranges of environmental factors. This may explain the low number of oligochaete species. On the other hand, Plathelminthes seem to adapt to relatively narrow ranges of factors and their species richness is highest. Because of macrofaunameiofauna interaction it is suggested that the meiofaunal assemblage will be least stable in mud and muddy sand, and most stable in exposed sand.

  19. Stability of the Black Sea Littoral Region: Focus on the Montreux Convention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    the countries of the BSLR and their immediate neighbors are home to immense amounts of crude oil, natural gas, wheat, corn, and barley ; with large...regional countries and Ukrainian combined grain exports (20% of world’s grains shipped from the Black Sea) ranked first and third in global barley and

  20. Role of riparian shade on the fish assemblage of a reservoir littoral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, C. D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the effects of shade on reservoir fish assemblages is lacking, with most investigations focused on streams. Unlike many streams, the canopy in a reservoir shades only a narrow fringe of water adjacent to the shoreline, and may not have the influential effect on the aquatic environment reported in streams. We compared fish assemblages between shaded and unshaded sites in a shallow reservoir. Overall species richness (gamma diversity) was higher in shaded sites, and fish assemblage composition differed between shaded and unshaded sites. Average light intensity was 66 % lower in shaded sites, and differences in average temperature and dissolved oxygen were small. Unlike streams where shade can have large effects on water physicochemistry, in reservoirs shade-related differences in fish assemblages seemed to be linked principally to differences in light intensity. Diversity in light intensity in shaded and unshaded sites in reservoirs can create various mosaics of light-based habitats that enable diversity of species assemblages. Managing to promote the habitat diversity provided by shade may require coping with the artificial nature of reservoir riparian zones and water level fluctuations.

  1. Effects of beach cast cleaning on beach quality, microbial food web, and littoral macrofaunal biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Torleif; Råberg, Sonja; Fell, Sabine; Carlsson, Per

    2004-06-01

    At the end of the summer, drifting filamentous red algae cover shallow bottoms and accumulate in huge cast walls on the open shores of the non-tidal central Baltic Sea. The hypotheses that beach cleaning increases water clarity, decreases the organic content of the sand, and increases the species diversity in the shallow zone closest to the shore, were tested through field investigations and experiments. Cleaned shorelines were compared with un-cleaned shorelines at two sites with different intensity of beach cleaning in a rural area of SE Sweden. The results show that water clarity was significantly increased off the intensively cleaned beach but not off the moderately cleaned one. Similarly, the total leakage of nitrogenous compounds decreased off the intensively cleaned beach, but not off the moderately cleaned. The organic content of the sand was lower on both cleaned beaches compared with nearby un-cleaned beaches. The total animal biomass was significantly lower on the intensively cleaned beach compared with the un-cleaned beach, but the moderately cleaned beach gave no such effect. The difference in biodiversity and community structure between cleaned and un-cleaned beaches was insignificant. The most obvious difference in species composition was a much higher number of planktivore opossum shrimps of the genus Mysis and Praunus on the un-cleaned beaches. The bacterial production and the amount of ciliates larger than 20 mm were also higher on un-cleaned beaches, indicating that the microbial food web off the un-cleaned beaches is stimulated by the discharge of decomposing algal material. The conclusion of the study is that mechanical cleaning reduces the organic content of the beach sand and may change the water quality and microbial production, but the effect on the macrofaunal biodiversity is insignificant.

  2. The Brown Water Navy in the Mekong Delta: COIN in the Littorals and Inland Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Apocalypse Insurgency & Terrorism, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc, 2005) 164-187 4 Mark Moyar, Phoenix and the Birds of Prey...Mark. Phoenix and the Birds of Prey, Lincoln, NE: University of(:J Nebraska Press. 1997. 27 The Brown Water Navy in the Mekong Delta: COIN in the...Advisors in Vietnam, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2000. \\ Moyar , Mark. Phoenix and the Birds of Prey, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska

  3. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-18

    Detachment. Freedom successfully conducted four drug seizures, netting more than five tons of cocaine , detained nine suspected drug smugglers, and...don’t see any appetite in the Navy for changing those.”… Lewis admitted that the business case could change after the two 10-ship contracts have run...Development, and Acquisition. 75 Cid Standifer, “Rear Adm. Lewis: Navy Has ‘No Appetite ’ To Change LCS Combat System,” Inside the Navy, January 17, 2011

  4. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-20

    and a U.S. Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment. Freedom successfully conducted four drug seizures, netting more than five tons of cocaine , detained...plans on changing the combat system on the ships. They’re effective. At this point, they meet the requirements, and so I don’t see any appetite in the...Cid Standifer, “Rear Adm. Lewis: Navy Has ‘No Appetite ’ To Change LCS Combat System,” Inside the Navy, January 17, 2011. 73 Government

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for Advanced Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) Project at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-28

    404 of the CWA established a program to regulate the discharge of dredged and fill material into waters of the United States , including wetlands...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United States Air Force ,Eglin Air Force Base...Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1500-1508 and the United States Air Force Environmental Impact Analysis Process as effectuated by 32 CFR Part 989

  6. Security Enhancement of Littoral Combat Ship Class Utilizing an Autonomous Mustering and Pier Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    of-Concept System utilized and their function. Software Name Function MATLAB Performed Facial Detection, Recognition Golden FTP Server (Freeware...proposed solution is an autonomous system utilizing facial recognition software to maintain a muster of the ship’s crew, while in parallel monitoring the...generic solution are proposed. The proposed solution is an autonomous system utilizing facial recognition software to maintain a muster of the ship’s

  7. Advanced Physics-Based Modeling of Discrete Clutter and Diffuse Reverberation in the Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Peter Neumann (PSI), Charles Holland (ARL/PSU), Kevin LePage (NRL-DC), Greg Muncill (PSI) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...monostatic or bistatic configurations, in range-varying ocean environments. The core propagation loss model with ASPM is ASTRAL , which is also an OAML...noted in the Software Design Document (Levin, SAIC-00/1032, 2000), the ASTRAL propagation loss model was selected to satisfy requirements 3.1-1, 3.1-4

  8. An Evaluation of Boundary Condition Specification for a Littoral Hydrodynamic Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    from NCOM (blue) for 3 locations in the M2D model case. II. APPROACH Several comparisons of Delft3D model results were completed for a number...boundary conditions from OSU Tides (red) and time series boundary conditions from NCOM (blue) for 3 locations in the M2D model case. /; M2D and M3D...The M2D and M3D Delft3D applications cover approximately 33 square kilometers at a resolution of approximately 500 meters. The M2D model case is depth

  9. Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral.

    PubMed

    Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Kaic, Bernard; Babić-Erceg, Andrea; Kucinar, Jasmina; Klobucar, Ana; Medic, Alan; Pahor, Djana; Barac-Juretic, Katija; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2015-06-01

    During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from randomly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) and only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

  10. An Analysis of the Historical Effectiveness of Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles in Littoral Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    DDG-16),USS O’Brien (DD-975) and USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) and an Iranian Saam-class frigate, the Sahand . The Sahand was first hit by an air launched...Harpoon from an A-6E aircraft. Two more Harpoons were fired at the Sahand , one air launched and one surface launched. They achieved a near...simultaneous time of impact. The three Harpoon hits caused the Sahand to sink. This incident is classified as a defendable target, because the Sahand made no

  11. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-06

    January 17, 2011; David Wichner, “New Navy Ships May Use Small Raytheon Missile,” Arizona Daily Star ( Tucson ), January 18, 2011. 24 Government...occurred Feb. 1 when Freedom “suffered a failure of the port shaft mechanical seal,” the Navy told the publication Defense News. Some flooding

  12. Littoral Combat Ships. Relating Performance to Mission Package Inventories, Homeports, and Installation Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    the numerous hours she spent in collecting, entering, and formatting important data for our analytical models. We thank Joan Myers for her tireless...mately $50.0 million in FY 2004 dollars. Table B.6 Bachelor Enlisted Quarters Construction Data Location Number of Rooms Construction Costa Arizona

  13. Evaluation of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and SPARTAN SCOUT as Information Operations (IO) Assets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    capability, that being Electronic Support Measures (ESM), to assist in contact identification. The LCS will be equipped with an electro-optical infrared...operational enviornment. To illustrate this limitation created by 10 doctrine this chapter will provide a historical account for a technology and...commissioned in 1868, she measured 355 feet on the waterline; her beam was 45.2 feet; she displaced 4200 tons and was able to maintain a speed of almost 18

  14. Littoral Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport Around a Semi-Permeable Breakwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    coastal wave, hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model was developed to investigate the circulation and sedimentation patterns around the...side of the breakwater was comparable to the sediment accumulation rate available from historical dredging records. Keywords: numerical modelling...study, an integrated coastal wave, hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model was developed to investigate the circulation and sedimentation

  15. Modeling Studies of the Coastal/Littoral Current System off Southern Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    color-shaded sea surface temperature for day 20 for the flat-bottom model run.........................................................................144...x Figure 3.1b. Surface velocity vectors and color-shaded sea surface temperature for day 40 for the flat-bottom model run...145 Figure 3.1c. Surface velocity vectors and color-shaded sea surface temperature for day 60 for

  16. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-11

    occur until after the ship’s shakedown cruise. For LCS 2, factory testing of the twin boom extensible crane revealed performance and reliability...completed a required endurance test, in part due to corrosion in each engine’s intake valves. As an interim solution, the Navy has installed new intake...valves, which enabled the ship to complete acceptance trials. LCS 2 has also experienced pitting and corrosion in its waterjet tunnels. The Navy has

  17. Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Project: Consideration of an ASVAB Requirement for JOOD Screening

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    bridge watch duties Render “honors and ceremonies” in accordance with national observance and foreign customs Send and receive visual messages Manage ...operation of the Voyage Management System (VMS); (3) lookout duties; and (4) Boatswain’s Mate of the Watch (BMOW) duties. Conceptually, the...either case, there is no relationship between ASVAB scores and training performance scores so that no matter how far to the right the ASVAB cutscore

  18. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-22

    Issues and Options for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke, out of print and available directly from the author. (In 2004, CRS Report RL32109 covered both the DD...engineers in the early 1800s. Robert Fulton shut them up by proving the power of steam over wind ; Commander John Dahlgren did it with a revolutionary...and correct deficiencies in 30 mm gun performance. • Freedom Variant: Performance deficiencies with COMBATSS-21 [combat system] and TRS- 3D [radar

  19. Experimental Comparison of High Duty Cycle and Pulsed Active Sonars in a Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    objectives of TREX. Please refer to Ref. [1] for an overview of the experimental goals. 3 target) but at the cost of higher technical risk. A...environmental knowledge to identify the best window of opportunity to execute military operations and provide tactical guidance for optimal deployment of...in the comments column implies HDC-PAS runs on the same track, the same direction ( inbound or outbound), and the same ER mode and gain settings

  20. Lake shore and littoral habitat structure: a field survey method and its precision

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, lake physical habitat assessment has been and underemployed tool for assessing lake and reservoir ecological condition. Herein, we outline and evaluate a rapid (2 persons: 1.5-3.5 h) field sampling and analytical approach for quantifying near-shore physical habit...

  1. Littoral Combat Ship: Deployment of USS Freedom Revealed Risks in Implementing Operational Concepts and Uncertain Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    obtained from single or serial interviews. Our design included multiple groups with varying characteristics but some homogeneity—such as rank and...hunter- killers capable of finding, classifying and destroying moored and bottom mines. Length: 224 feet Displacement: 1 ,333 metric tons Speed: 14

  2. Lake Shore and Littoral Habitat Structure: Precision and biological Relevance of a Field Survey Method.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, lake physical habitat assessment has been an underemployed tool for assessing lake and reservoir ecological condition. We outline and evaluate a rapid field sampling and analytical approach for quantifying near-shore physical habitat. We quantified the repeatabil...

  3. Calcite-impregnated defluidization structures in littoral sands of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Associated locally with well-known tufa mounds and towers of Mono Lake, California, are subvertical, concretionary sand structures through which fresh calcium-containing artesian waters moved up to sites of calcium carbonate precipitation beneath and adjacent to the lake. The structures include closely spaced calcite-impregnated columns, tubes, and other configurations with subcylindrical to bizarre cross sections and predominantly vertical orientation in coarse, barely coherent pumice sands along the south shore of the lake. Many structures terminate upward in extensive calcareous layers of caliche and tufa. Locally they enter the bases of tufa mounds and towers. A common form superficially resembles root casts and animal burrows except that branching is mostly up instead of down. Similar defluidization structures in ancient sedimentary rocks have been mistakenly interpreted as fossil burrows.

  4. Stabilized Gimbal for Airborne Water Surface Velocity Measurements in Riverine and Littoral Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    model gimbal that contains a cooled midwave IR camera (FLIR Neutrino ), COTS visible camera and onboard INS/GPS stabilization. The most significant...FLIR Neutrino 640x480 array, NETD < 25 mK 35 FOV, remote focus GigE data output visible camera Point Grey Flea 3 2MP resolution, 35 FOV

  5. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-27

    anti-mine, anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare. 38 Nathan Phelps , “US Navy Secretary Says He’s...reserve for change orders that we included in our budget, but frankly, we have 40 Michael Fabey, “LCS...14, 2012. See also Christopher P. Cavas, “Maintenance Hurdles Mount for New USN Ship,” DefenseNews.com, July 23, 2012; Michael Fabey, “U.S. Navy

  6. The Integration of the Fire Scout Tactical Unmanned Aerial System into Littoral Combat Ship Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Jackson 2006, 881). In 2002, the U.S. Navy began remanufacturing the SH -60B, SH - 60F , and HH-60H helicopters into the MH-60R. When complete, this upgrade...ships for over 59 years (US DoN 1998, 1). The current airframe, based on the UH-60 Blackhawk, was fielded in 1983 and designated SH -60B. The SH -60B...new production models, the ASW, SUW, and EW capabilities were derived from the SH -60B LAMPS III program which enjoyed several decades of success

  7. Southwest Washington littoral drift restoration—Beach and nearshore morphological monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Ruggiero, Peter; Kaminsky, George M.

    2012-01-01

    A morphological monitoring program has documented the placement and initial dispersal of beach nourishment material (280,000 m3) placed between the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) North Jetty and North Head, at the southern end of the Long Beach Peninsula in southwestern Washington State. A total of 21 topographic surveys and 8 nearshore bathymetric surveys were performed between July 11, 2010, and November 4, 2011. During placement, southerly alongshore transport resulted in movement of nourishment material to the south towards the MCR North Jetty. Moderate wave conditions (significant wave height around 4 m) following the completion of the nourishment resulted in cross-shore sediment transport, with most of the nourishment material transported into the nearshore bars. The nourishment acted as a buffer to the more severe erosion, including dune overtopping and retreat, that was observed at the northern end of the study area throughout the winter. One year after placement of the nourishment, onshore transport and beach recovery were most pronounced within the permit area and to the south toward the MCR North Jetty. This suggests that there is some long-term benefit of the nourishment for reducing erosion rates locally, although the enhanced recovery also could be due to natural gradients in alongshore transport causing net movement of the sediment from north to south. Measurements made during the morphological monitoring program documented the seasonal movement and decay of nearshore sand bars. Low-energy conditions in late summer resulted in onshore bar migration early in the monitoring program. Moderate wave conditions in the autumn resulted in offshore movement of the middle bar and continued onshore migration of the outer bar. High-energy wave conditions early in the winter resulted in strong cross-shore transport and creation of a 3-bar system along portions of the coast. More southerly wave events occurred later in the winter and early spring and coincided with the complete loss of the outer bar and net loss of sediment from the study area. These data suggest that bar decay may be an important mechanism for exporting sediment from Benson Beach north to the Long Beach Peninsula. The measurements presented in this report represent one component of a broader monitoring program designed to track the movement of nourishment material on the beach and shoreface at this location, including continuous video monitoring (Argus), in situu measurements of hydrodynamics, and a physical tracer experiment. Field data from the monitoring program will be used to test numerical models of hydrodynamics and sediment transport and to improve the capability of numerical models to support regional sediment management.

  8. WaveQ3D: Fast and accurate acoustic transmission loss (TL) eigenrays, in littoral environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Sean M.

    This study defines a new 3D Gaussian ray bundling acoustic transmission loss model in geodetic coordinates: latitude, longitude, and altitude. This approach is designed to lower the computation burden of computing accurate environmental effects in sonar training application by eliminating the need to transform the ocean environment into a collection of Nx2D Cartesian radials. This approach also improves model accuracy by incorporating real world 3D effects, like horizontal refraction, into the model. This study starts with derivations for a 3D variant of Gaussian ray bundles in this coordinate system. To verify the accuracy of this approach, acoustic propagation predictions of transmission loss, time of arrival, and propagation direction are compared to analytic solutions and other models. To validate the model's ability to predict real world phenomena, predictions of transmission loss and propagation direction are compared to at-sea measurements, in an environment where strong horizontal refraction effect have been observed. This model has been integrated into U.S. Navy active sonar training system applications, where testing has demonstrated its ability to improve transmission loss calculation speed without sacrificing accuracy.

  9. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-22

    unproven. To itigate risk, the Navy is conducting launch and recovery modeling and simulation , model basin testing, and experimentation and is...Influence Sweep is being redesigned to address corrosion issues and the Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System requires design changes to perform in all...to program officials, in September 2008, the Navy conducted a shore based integration exercise using simulated seaframe mission bays. Officials note

  10. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-22

    recovery designs are unproven. To itigate risk, the Navy is conducting launch and recovery modeling and simulation , model basin testing, and...Airborne and Surface Influence Sweep is being redesigned to address corrosion issues and the Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System requires design changes...June 2010. According to program officials, in September 2008, the Navy conducted a shore based integration exercise using simulated seaframe mission

  11. Advanced Physics-Based Modeling of Discrete Clutter and Diffuse Reverberation in the Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    2 9 0 V I L L A G E P A R K D R V I E • L E B A N O N , O H • 4 5 0 3 6 - 7 8 8 5 P H O N E : ( 5 1 3 ) 2 2 8 - 0 0 7 3 December 8...DEC 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physics- Based Modeling of Discrete Clutter and Diffuse...2400 and 3600 Hz using path a (see Figure 3) shown by the solid blue line, using path e shown by the solid red line and path d shown by the dashed

  12. Advanced Physics-Based Modeling of Discrete Clutter and Diffuse Reverberation in the Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...3) shown by the solid blue line, using path e shown by the solid red line and path d shown by the dashed green line. 11 Figure 8: The beam time...solid blue line), path e (solid red line) and path d (dashed green line). These are target strength measurements from a single mud volcano and they

  13. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-17

    to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The Navy proposed to begin work on the common...that the cost overrun on LCSs 1 and 2 was somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government ...mitigate this risk and intends to conduct pierside testing and CRS-27 36 Government Accountability Office, Defense Acquisitions[:] Assessments of

  14. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-23

    123 million, which the repot states would “Fully fund two ships to [the LCS program] cost cap in FY[20]09, reflecting government furnished material...the LCS program, the Navy testified in July 2007 that it wants to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and...somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified in

  15. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    the repot states would “Fully fund two ships to [the LCS program] cost cap in FY[20]09, reflecting government furnished material (GFM) from cancelled...purposes of government management and oversight of the program. Section 112 would require the Navy to submit a report to the congressional defense...testified in July 2007 that it wanted to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The Navy now

  16. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-19

    The Navy testified in July 2007 that it wanted to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The...on LCSs 1 and 2 was somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government Accountability...the comparative costs and benefits of maintaining the current contractor-furnished LCS combat systems vs. shifting to a common, government - furnished

  17. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    which the repot states would “Fully fund two ships to [the LCS program] cost cap in FY[20]09, reflecting government furnished material (GFM) from...its restructuring of the LCS program, the Navy testified in July 2007 that it wanted to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs...was somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified

  18. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-05

    shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The Navy now states that it is reviewing the question...overrun. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) testified in July 2007 that according to its own analysis of Navy data, the combined cost of LCSs 1...33 Government Accountability Office, Defense Acquisitions[:] Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-09- 326SP, March 2009, p. 106

  19. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-05

    The Navy testified in July 2007 that it wanted to shift to a common, government -furnished combat system for LCSs procured in FY2010 and beyond.12 The...on LCSs 1 and 2 was somewhere between 50% and 75%, depending on the baseline that is used to measure the overrun. The Government Accountability...lower costs.... The cost cap for the LCS is written differently than those for other ships, and includes dollar amounts—including government

  20. Logistical Analysis of the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Operating Independently in the Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    missions such as Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR), Maritime Interdiction Operations ( MIO ) in support of the Global War on Terrorism...of the secondary missions that today’s legacy platforms are being used for. Such operations will include Maritime Interception Operations ( MIO ) and...Enhanced MIO in support of Maritime Security Operations (MSO) or other operations (when equipped with an adequate Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB

  1. Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    budget requests funding to procure four more (LCSs 9 through 12). Navy plans call for procuring an additional 15 LCSs in FY2013- FY2016 in annual ...period FY2012- FY2016 , in annual quantities of 4-4-4-4-3. These 19 ships account for more than one-third of the 55 battle force ships in the Navy’s FY2012...29 Department of Defense, Director, Operation Test and Evaluation, FY 2010 Annual Report , December 2010, pp. 144- 145. 30 Source: Transcript of

  2. Littoral Geoacoustic Surveys Using an Adaptive Network of Gliders (Phase 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    functionality "* Necessary shallow water glider control to support proposed geoacoustic measurements was demonstrated at AUVFEST2005 "* Modeling of...capturing the sctern and loss as a function of freqitc). For classification purposes it isth last that gives wideband processing the ability to distinguis...40 years (Rfihaczek, 1969), but the implemnttin into the sonar world has been a function of the advances in tehoogy to atan h requisite badidh and

  3. Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Florian, Christian; Langmann, Thomas; Weber, Bernhard H.F.; Morsczeck, Christian

    2008-09-19

    Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture.

  4. Sickle cell anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease ... Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells ...

  5. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  7. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Basal cell cancer is a malignant skin tumor involving cancerous changes of basal skin cells. Basal cell skin cancers ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and ...

  8. CORONAL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheeley, N. R. Jr.; Warren, H. P. E-mail: harry.warren@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-04-10

    We have recently noticed cellular features in Fe XII 193 A images of the 1.2 MK corona. They occur in regions bounded by a coronal hole and a filament channel, and are centered on flux elements of the photospheric magnetic network. Like their neighboring coronal holes, these regions have minority-polarity flux that is {approx}0.1-0.3 times their flux of majority polarity. Consequently, the minority-polarity flux is 'grabbed' by the majority-polarity flux to form low-lying loops, and the remainder of the network flux escapes to connect with its opposite-polarity counterpart in distant active regions of the Sun. As these regions are carried toward the limb by solar rotation, the cells disappear and are replaced by linear plumes projecting toward the limb. In simultaneous views from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, these plumes project in opposite directions, extending away from the coronal hole in one view and toward the hole in the other view, suggesting that they are sky-plane projections of the same radial structures. We conclude that these regions are composed of closely spaced radial plumes, extending upward like candles on a birthday cake and visible as cells when seen from above. We suppose that a coronal hole has this same discrete, cellular magnetic structure, but that it is not seen until the encroachment of opposite-polarity flux closes part or all of the hole.

  9. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  10. Indium phosphide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving

    1991-01-01

    The direction for InP solar cell research; reduction of cell cost; increase of cell efficiency; measurements needed to better understand cell performance; n/p versus p/n; radiation effects; major problems in cell contacting; and whether the present level of InP solar cell research in the USA should be maintained, decreased, or increased were considered.

  11. DNA-cell conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  12. Relating Forage-Fish use With Spatial and Temporal Variability of Particle-Size Distributions of Mixed Grain-Size Beaches in the Elwha and Dungeness Drift Cells , Central Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington State.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, D. S.; Shaffer, A.; Warrick, J.; Nabors, T.; Ritchie, T.; Penttila, D.; Barry, D.

    2008-12-01

    The removal of two dams on the Elwha River of Washington State is expected to release 1.38 x107 m3 of gravel, sand and silt into the Elwha River and nearshore marine environment of the Strait of Juan de Fuca (Randle et al., 1996). Waves and tides are expected to distribute these sediments widely upon beaches within the Elwha littoral cell with implications for many biotic organisms including forage fish such as surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus) and sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus)(Shaffer et al., 2008). Forage fish spawning surveys (Moulton and Penttila, 2000), consisting of beach foreshore surface photographs and bulk sediment samples allow correlation between sediment particle-size distributions and forage-fish egg frequencies. Seasonal and spatial variability of mean grain-sizes of mixed sand-gravel beaches is characterized with traditional sieve (Church et al. 1987) and photographic methods (Adams, 1979). Sample sites are categorized by geomorphic setting (e.g. embayments, bluffs, and spits) and sampling frequency reflects expected annual seasonal variation in sediment transport processes . Mean sediment grain-sizes measured from photographs are correlated with mean grain-sizes from sieved bulk sediment samples. Comparison of mean grain-sizes from surface and 10-centimeter depth photographs where the surface lag has been removed, suggest an improved relationship between bulk sieve sample data and data obtained from photographic analysis. This finding demonstrates that photographic analysis of grain-sizes on mixed grain-size beaches from surface samples only, may skew mean grain-size due to the presence of a surface lag layer. Observed particle-size distributions are strongly polymodal. Geomorphic setting of beaches is an important factor in the observed range of mean grain-sizes based on proximity to sediment sources such as feeder bluffs. These results will be used to compare forage fish habitat form and function response to future sediment inputs from dam

  13. Fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Struthers, R.C.

    1983-06-28

    An improved fuel cell comprising an anode section including an anode terminal, an anode fuel, and an anolyte electrolyte, a cathode section including a cathode terminal, an electron distributor and a catholyte electrolyte, an ion exchange section between the anode and cathode sections and including an ionolyte electrolyte, ion transfer membranes separating the ionolyte from the anolyte and the catholyte and an electric circuit connected with and between the terminals conducting free electrons from the anode section and delivering free electrons to the cathode section, said ionolyte receives ions of one polarity moving from the anolyte through the membrane related thereto preventing chemical equilibrium in the anode section and sustaining chemical reaction and the generating of free electrons therein, said ions received by the ionolyte from the anolyte release different ions from the ionolyte which move through the membrane between the ionolyte and catholyte and which add to the catholyte.

  14. Photoelectrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Rauh, R. David; Boudreau, Robert A.

    1983-06-14

    A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

  15. NKT Cell Responses to B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junxin; Sun, Wenji; Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B.; Page, Carly; Younger, Kenisha M.; Tiper, Irina V.; Frieman, Matthew; Kimball, Amy S.; Webb, Tonya J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally impaired. In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. These data demonstrate an important role for NKT cells in the immune response to an aggressive hematologic malignancy like mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:24955247

  16. Integrated circuit cell library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  17. Tumor cell "dead or alive": caspase and survivin regulate cell death, cell cycle and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Shiraki, K

    2001-04-01

    Cell death and cell cycle progression are two sides of the same coin, and these two different phenomenons are regulated moderately to maintain the cellular homeostasis. Tumor is one of the disease states produced as a result of the disintegrated regulation and is characterized as cells showing an irreversible progression of cell cycle and a resistance to cell death signaling. Several investigations have been performed for the understanding of cell death or cell cycle, and cell death research has remarkably progressed in these 10 years. Caspase is a nomenclature referring to ICE/CED-3 cysteine proteinase family and plays a central role during cell death. Recently, several investigations raised some possible hypotheses that caspase is also involved in cell cycle regulation. In this issue, therefore, we review the molecular basis of cell death and cell cycle regulated by caspase in tumor, especially hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  18. Nanostructured Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-08-09

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue "Nanostructured Solar Cells", published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  19. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

  20. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-05-12

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

  1. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... develops and ages, the number and type of stem cells changes. Totipotent cells are no longer present after dividing into the cells that generate the placenta and umbilical cord. Pluripotent cells ... organs and tissues. The stem cells that stay in your body throughout your ...

  2. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G.; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  3. Making new beta cells from stem cells.

    PubMed

    Colman, Alan

    2004-06-01

    In 2000, Shapiro et al. provided compelling "proof of principle" data showing that the transplantation of human islets, purified from cadaveric material, could restore severely diabetic, Type 1 patients to insulin independence. This demonstration prompted renewed efforts to find an alternative and sustainable source of surrogate islet cells for cell therapy. Experiments involving adult ductal and liver "stem" cells, or embryonic stem cells, are prominent amongst these endeavors and are reviewed in this article. Whilst there are many published claims to success in converting ES cells into insulin secreting, glucose responsive cells, all require careful reinterpretation in the light of findings that cells can adsorb insulin present in growth media. It is likely that work with adult cells is less prone to this potential artifact and significant progress has been made in producing insulin-secreting cells. Assessment of in vivo function in the surrogate cells is most frequently made using cell transplantation into toxin-induced, diabetic mice, but this model is rarely used to maximal advantage. In many cases, it remains unclear whether reductions in the hyperglycemia result from insulin secretion from the transplanted cells or are due to recovery of endogenous islet function. In this latter context, experiments are reviewed where endogenous stimulation of recovery is engendered even by irradiated donor cells.

  4. Deformability of Tumor Cells versus Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaw Bagnall, Josephine; Byun, Sangwon; Begum, Shahinoor; Miyamoto, David T.; Hecht, Vivian C.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet; Hynes, Richard O.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to elucidate the process of cancer metastasis and inform clinical decision-making has made their isolation of great importance. However, CTCs are rare in the blood, and universal properties with which to identify them remain elusive. As technological advancements have made single-cell deformability measurements increasingly routine, the assessment of physical distinctions between tumor cells and blood cells may provide insight into the feasibility of deformability-based methods for identifying CTCs in patient blood. To this end, we present an initial study assessing deformability differences between tumor cells and blood cells, indicated by the length of time required for them to pass through a microfluidic constriction. Here, we demonstrate that deformability changes in tumor cells that have undergone phenotypic shifts are small compared to differences between tumor cell lines and blood cells. Additionally, in a syngeneic mouse tumor model, cells that are able to exit a tumor and enter circulation are not required to be more deformable than the cells that were first injected into the mouse. However, a limited study of metastatic prostate cancer patients provides evidence that some CTCs may be more mechanically similar to blood cells than to typical tumor cell lines. PMID:26679988

  5. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  6. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  7. Mammary stem cells have myoepithelial cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Prater, Michael D.; Petit, Valérie; Russell, I. Alasdair; Giraddi, Rajshekhar; Shehata, Mona; Menon, Suraj; Schulte, Reiner; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rath, Nicola; Olson, Michael F.; Metzger, Daniel; Faraldo, Marisa M.; Deugnier, Marie-Ange; Glukhova, Marina A.; Stingl, John

    2014-01-01

    Contractile myoepithelial cells dominate the basal layer of the mammary epithelium and are considered to be differentiated cells. However, we observe that up to 54% of single basal cells can form colonies when seeded into adherent culture in the presence of agents that disrupt acin-myosin interactions, and on average, 65% of the single-cell-derived basal colonies can repopulate a mammary gland when transplanted in vivo. This indicates that a high proportion of basal myoepithelial cells can give rise to a mammary repopulating unit (MRU). We demonstrate that myoepithelial cells, flow-sorted using 2 independent myoepithelial-specific reporter strategies, have MRU capacity. Using an inducible lineage tracing approach we follow the progeny of α-smooth muscle actin-expressing myoepithelial cells and show that they function as long-lived lineage-restricted stem cells in the virgin state and during pregnancy. PMID:25173976

  8. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  9. The offshore export of sand during exceptional discharge from California rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    Littoral cells along active tectonic margins receive large inputs of sand and gravel from coastal watersheds and commonly lose this sediment to submarine canyons. One hypothesis is that the majority of coarse (sand and gravel) river sediment discharge will be emplaced within and immediately “resupply” local littoral cells. A competing hypothesis is that the infrequent, large floods that supply the majority of littoral sediment may discharge water-sediment mixtures within negatively buoyant hyperpycnal plumes that transport sediment offshore of the littoral cell. Here we summarize pre- and post-flood surveys of two wave-dominated California (United States) river deltas during record to near-record floods to help evaluate these hypotheses: the 1982–1983 delta at the San Lorenzo River mouth and the 2005 delta at the Santa Clara River mouth. Flood sedimentation at both deltas resulted in several meters of aggradation and hundreds of meters of offshore displacement of isobaths. One substantial difference between these deltas was the thick (>2 m) aggradation of sand on the inner shelf of the Santa Clara River delta that contained substantial amounts (∼50%) of littoral-grade sediment. Once deposited on the inner shelf, only a fraction (∼20%) of this river sand was observed to migrate toward the beach over the following 5 yr. Furthermore, simple hypopycnal plume behavior could not explain deposition of this sand on the inner shelf. Thus, during an exceptional flood a substantial amount of littoral-grade sand was exported offshore of the littoral system at the Santa Clara River mouth—likely from hyperpycnal plume processes—and was deposited on the inner shelf.

  10. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  11. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  12. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  13. Plasma Cell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... resulting group of genetically identical cells (called a clone) produces a large quantity of a single type ... Every plasma cell divides repeatedly to form a clone. The cells of a clone produce only one ...

  14. Fuel cells: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of fuel cell technology and applications is presented. The operating principles, performance capabilities, and limitations of fuel cells are discussed. Diagrams of fuel cell construction and operating characteristics are provided. Photographs of typical installations are included.

  15. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  16. Reprogramming of somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Rajasingh, Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Reprogramming of adult somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells may provide an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. It has emerged as an invaluable method for generating patient-specific stem cells of any cell lineage without the use of embryonic stem cells. A revolutionary study in 2006 showed that it is possible to convert adult somatic cells directly into pluripotent stem cells by using a limited number of pluripotent transcription factors and is called as iPS cells. Currently, both genomic integrating viral and nonintegrating nonviral methods are used to generate iPS cells. However, the viral-based technology poses increased risk of safety, and more studies are now focused on nonviral-based technology to obtain autologous stem cells for clinical therapy. In this review, the pros and cons of the present iPS cell technology and the future direction for the successful translation of this technology into the clinic are discussed.

  17. Inside the Cell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Business Basics Describes functions shared by virtually all cells: making fuel and proteins, transporting materials and disposing of wastes. » more Chapter 3: On the Job: Cellular Specialties Explains how cells specialize. Features a number of cell types: nerves, ...

  18. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  19. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  20. [Pancreatic cancer stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-05-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains dismal due to the resistance against conventional therapies. Metastasis and massive invasion toward surrounding organs hamper radical resection. Small part of entire cancer cells reveal resistance against chemotherapy or radiotherapy, increased tumorigenicity and migratory phenotype. These cells are called as cancer stem cells, as a counter part of normal stem cells. In pancreatic cancer, several cancer stem cell markers have been identified, which enabled detailed characterization of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Recent researches clarified that conventional chemotherapy itself could increase cancer cells with stem cell-phenotype, suggesting the necessity of cancer stem cell-targeting therapy. Based on these observations, pancreatic cancer stem cell-targeting therapies have been tested, which effectively eliminated cancer stem cell fraction and attenuated cancer progression in experimental models. Clinical efficacy of these therapies need to be evaluated, and cancer stem cell-targeting therapy will contribute to improve the prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Sickle cell anemia - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - sickle cell anemia ... The following organizations are good resources for information on sickle cell anemia : American Sickle Cell Anemia Association -- www.ascaa.org National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute -- www. ...

  2. Glial cells: Old cells with new twists

    PubMed Central

    Ndubaku, Ugo; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    Summary Based on their characteristics and function – migration, neural protection, proliferation, axonal guidance and trophic effects – glial cells may be regarded as probably the most versatile cells in our body. For many years, these cells were considered as simply support cells for neurons. Recently, it has been shown that they are more versatile than previously believed – as true stem cells in the nervous system – and are important players in neural function and development. There are several glial cell types in the nervous system: the two most abundant are oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Although both of these cells are responsible for myelination, their developmental origins are quite different. Oligodendrocytes originate from small niche populations from different regions of the central nervous system, while Schwann cells develop from a stem cell population (the neural crest) that gives rise to many cell derivatives besides glia and which is a highly migratory group of cells. PMID:18068219

  3. CellFinder: a cell data repository.

    PubMed

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder's data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder's web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians.

  4. CellFinder: a cell data repository

    PubMed Central

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Seltmann, Stefanie; Lekschas, Fritz; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Mah, Nancy; Neves, Mariana; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Leser, Ulf; Kurtz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    CellFinder (http://www.cellfinder.org) is a comprehensive one-stop resource for molecular data characterizing mammalian cells in different tissues and in different development stages. It is built from carefully selected data sets stemming from other curated databases and the biomedical literature. To date, CellFinder describes 3394 cell types and 50 951 cell lines. The database currently contains 3055 microscopic and anatomical images, 205 whole-genome expression profiles of 194 cell/tissue types from RNA-seq and microarrays and 553 905 protein expressions for 535 cells/tissues. Text mining of a corpus of >2000 publications followed by manual curation confirmed expression information on ∼900 proteins and genes. CellFinder’s data model is capable to seamlessly represent entities from single cells to the organ level, to incorporate mappings between homologous entities in different species and to describe processes of cell development and differentiation. Its ontological backbone currently consists of 204 741 ontology terms incorporated from 10 different ontologies unified under the novel CELDA ontology. CellFinder’s web portal allows searching, browsing and comparing the stored data, interactive construction of developmental trees and navigating the partonomic hierarchy of cells and tissues through a unique body browser designed for life scientists and clinicians. PMID:24304896

  5. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  6. Sertoli cells as biochambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Don F. (Inventor); Sanberg, Paul R. (Inventor); Saporta, Samuel (Inventor); Hushen, Joelle J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    According to the present invention, there is provided a biological chamber system having a biochamber defined by outer walls of Sertoli cells. Also provided is a transplantation facilitator including a biochamber. A method of making biochambers by co-culturing facilitator cells and therapeutic cells and then aggregating the facilitator celes is also provided. Also provided is a method of transplanting cells by incorporating transplant cells into a biochamber and transplanting the biochamber containing the transplant cells.

  7. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  8. Heterostructure solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, K. I.; Yeh, Y. C. M.; Iles, P. A.; Morris, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of gallium arsenide solar cells grown on Ge substrates is discussed. In some cases the substrate was thinned to reduce overall cell weight with good ruggedness. The conversion efficiency of 2 by 2 cm cells under AMO reached 17.1 percent with a cell thickness of 6 mils. The work described forms the basis for future cascade cell structures, where similar interconnecting problems between the top cell and the bottom cell must be solved. Applications of the GaAs/Ge solar cell in space and the expected payoffs are discussed.

  9. Stem Cell Research

    SciTech Connect

    Verfaillie, Catherine

    2009-01-23

    We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.

  10. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  11. The plastic liver: differentiated cells, stem cells, every cell?

    PubMed Central

    Hindley, Christopher J.; Mastrogiovanni, Gianmarco; Huch, Meritxell

    2014-01-01

    The liver is capable of full regeneration following several types and rounds of injury, ranging from hepatectomy to toxin-mediated damage. The source of this regenerative capacity has long been a hotly debated topic. The damage response that occurs when hepatocyte proliferation is impaired is thought to be mediated by oval/dedifferentiated progenitor cells, which replenish the hepatocyte and ductal compartments of the liver. Recently, reports have questioned whether these oval/progenitor cells truly serve as the facultative stem cell of the liver following toxin-mediated damage. In this issue of the JCI, Kordes and colleagues use lineage tracing to follow transplanted rat hepatic stellate cells, a resident liver mesenchymal cell population, in hosts that have suffered liver damage. Transplanted stellate cells repopulated the damaged rat liver by contributing to the oval cell response. These data establish yet another cell type of mesenchymal origin as the progenitor for the oval/ductular response in the rat. The lack of uniformity between different damage models, the extent of the injury to the liver parenchyma, and potential species-specific differences might be at the core of the discrepancy between different studies. Taken together, these data imply a considerable degree of plasticity in the liver, whereby several cell types can contribute to regeneration. PMID:25401467

  12. Accessory cells for β-cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staels, W; De Groef, S; Heremans, Y; Coppens, V; Van Gassen, N; Leuckx, G; Van de Casteele, M; Van Riet, I; Luttun, A; Heimberg, H; De Leu, N

    2016-02-01

    Despite recent advances, insulin therapy remains a treatment, not a cure, for diabetes mellitus with persistent risk of glycaemic alterations and life-threatening complications. Restoration of the endogenous β-cell mass through regeneration or transplantation offers an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, signals that drive β-cell regeneration remain enigmatic and β-cell replacement therapy still faces major hurdles that prevent its widespread application. Co-transplantation of accessory non-islet cells with islet cells has been shown to improve the outcome of experimental islet transplantation. This review will highlight current travails in β-cell therapy and focuses on the potential benefits of accessory cells for islet transplantation in diabetes.

  13. Cell mechanics: a dialogue.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K; Sun, Sean X

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  14. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  15. Resident vascular progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Torsney, Evelyn; Xu, Qingbo

    2011-02-01

    Homeostasis of the vessel wall is essential for maintaining its function, including blood pressure and patency of the lumen. In physiological conditions, the turnover rate of vascular cells, i.e. endothelial and smooth muscle cells, is low, but markedly increased in diseased situations, e.g. vascular injury after angioplasty. It is believed that mature vascular cells have an ability to proliferate to replace lost cells normally. On the other hand, recent evidence indicates stem/progenitor cells may participate in vascular repair and the formation of neointimal lesions in severely damaged vessels. It was found that all three layers of the vessels, the intima, media and adventitia, contain resident progenitor cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, Sca-1+ and CD34+ cells. Data also demonstrated that these resident progenitor cells could differentiate into a variety of cell types in response to different culture conditions. However, collective data were obtained mostly from in vitro culture assays and phenotypic marker studies. There are many unanswered questions concerning the mechanism of cell differentiation and the functional role of these cells in vascular repair and the pathogenesis of vascular disease. In the present review, we aim to summarize the data showing the presence of the resident progenitor cells, to highlight possible signal pathways orchestrating cell differentiation toward endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and to discuss the data limitations, challenges and controversial issues related to the role of progenitors. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  16. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Felthaus, O.; Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O.; Brockhoff, G.; Reck, A.; Zeitler, K.; Hautmann, M.; Reichert, T.E.; Schmalz, G.; Morsczeck, C.

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  17. Stem cell therapy without the cells

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Greg

    2013-01-01

    As an example of the burgeoning importance of stem cell therapy, this past month the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) has approved $70 million to create a new network of stem cell clinical trial centers. Much work in the last decade has been devoted to developing the use of autologous and allogeneic adult stem cell transplants to treat a number of conditions, including heart attack, dementia, wounds, and immune system-related diseases. The standard model teaches us that adult stem cells exists throughout most of the body and provide a means to regenerate and repair most tissues through replication and differentiation. Although we have often witnessed the medical cart placed in front of the scientific horse in the development of stem cell therapies outside of academic circles, great strides have been made, such as the use of purified stem cells1 instead of whole bone marrow transplants in cancer patients, where physicians avoid re-injecting the patients with their own cancer cells.2 We most often think of stem cell therapy acting to regenerate tissue through replication and then differentiation, but recent studies point to the dramatic effects adult stem cells exert in the repair of various tissues through the release of paracrine and autocrine substances, and not simply through differentiation. Indeed, up to 80% of the therapeutic effect of adult stem cells has been shown to be through paracrine mediated actions.3 That is, the collected types of molecules released by the stem cells, called the secretome, or stem cell released molecules (SRM), number in the 100s, including proteins, microRNA, growth factors, antioxidants, proteasomes, and exosomes, and target a multitude of biological pathways through paracrine actions. The composition of the different molecule types in SRM is state dependent, and varies with cell type and conditions such as age and environment. PMID:24567776

  18. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable for many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. To explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells, we investigated the property of the cell cyc...

  19. Dummy Cell Would Improve Performance Of Fuel-Cell Stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suljak, G. T.

    1993-01-01

    Interposition of dummy cell between stack of alkaline fuel cells and accessory section of fuel-cell powerplant proposed to overcome operational deficiencies plaguing end-most active cell. Cell in combination with additional hydrogen/coolant separator plate keeps end cell warmer and drier. End cell 96th in stack of fuel cells.

  20. Dictyostelium cell death

    PubMed Central

    Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L.; Golstein, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Cell death in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell death, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell death, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of “paddle” cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell death process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent death indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell death pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells. PMID:12654899

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Varga, Nora; Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva; Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs; Apati, Agota

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  2. Chromosomal differentiation of cells

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 16, discusses the chromosomal differentiation of cells. The chromosomes of differentiated cells have been much less studies than those of meristematic or germline cells, probably because such cells do not usually divide spontaneously. However, in many cases they can be induced to undergo mitosis. 26 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Nanocomposite Photoelectrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Kindler, Andrew; Whitacre, Jay F.

    2007-01-01

    Improved, solid-state photoelectrochemical cells for converting solar radiation to electricity have been proposed. (In general, photoelectrochemical cells convert incident light to electricity through electrochemical reactions.) It is predicted that in comparison with state-of-the-art photoelectrochemical cells, these cells will be found to operate with greater solar-to-electric energy-conversion efficiencies.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  5. Fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hulett, H. R.; Sweet, R. G.; Herzenberg, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument has been developed for sorting biological cells. The cells are rendered differentially fluorescent and incorporated into a small liquid stream illuminated by a laser beam. The cells pass sequentially through the beam, and fluorescent light from the cells gives rise to electrical signals. The stream is broken into a series of uniform size drops downstream of the laser. The cell signals are used to give appropriate electrostatic charges to drops containing the cells. The drops then pass between two charged plates and are deflected to appropriate containers. The system has proved capable of providing fractions containing large numbers of viable cells highly enriched in a particular functional type.

  6. Stem Cell Organoid Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E.; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies. PMID:26748754

  7. Cytokinesis in animal cells.

    PubMed

    D'Avino, Pier Paolo; Giansanti, Maria Grazia; Petronczki, Mark

    2015-02-13

    Cell division ends with the physical separation of the two daughter cells, a process known as cytokinesis. This final event ensures that nuclear and cytoplasmic contents are accurately partitioned between the two nascent cells. Cytokinesis is one of the most dramatic changes in cell shape and requires an extensive reorganization of the cell's cytoskeleton. Here, we describe the cytoskeletal structures, factors, and signaling pathways that orchestrate this robust and yet highly dynamic process in animal cells. Finally, we discuss possible future directions in this growing area of cell division research and its implications in human diseases, including cancer.

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smith, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  9. Engineering Stem Cell Organoids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaolei; Mead, Benjamin E; Safaee, Helia; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M; Levy, Oren

    2016-01-07

    Organoid systems leverage the self-organizing properties of stem cells to create diverse multi-cellular tissue proxies. Most organoid models only represent single or partial components of a tissue, and it is often difficult to control the cell type, organization, and cell-cell/cell-matrix interactions within these systems. Herein, we discuss basic approaches to generate stem cell-based organoids, their advantages and limitations, and how bioengineering strategies can be used to steer the cell composition and their 3D organization within organoids to further enhance their utility in research and therapies.

  10. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  11. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.

  12. Innate Memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  13. Fuel cells seminar

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  14. Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Hairy Cell Leukemia: Introduction Request Permissions Leukemia - B-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia: Introduction ... t k e P Types of Cancer Leukemia - B-cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia Guide ...

  15. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  16. Space solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the scope of the NASA space solar cell research and development program. Silicon cells, gallium arsenide cells, indium phosphide cells, and superlattice solar cells are addressed, indicating the state of the art of each type in outer space and their advantages and drawbacks for use in outer space. Contrasts between efficiency in space and on earth are pointed out.

  17. Technology Status: Fuel Cells and Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbryar, H.

    1978-01-01

    The status of the baselined shuttle fuel cell as well as the acid membrane fuel cell and space-oriented water electrolysis technologies are presented. The more recent advances in the alkaline fuel cell technology area are the subject of a companion paper. A preliminary plan for the focusing of these technologies towards regenerative energy storage applications in the multi-hundred kilowatt range is also discussed.

  18. B cell helper assays.

    PubMed

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  19. Screening of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Chait, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Because solar cells in a production batch are not identical, screening is performed to obtain similar cells for aggregation into arrays. A common technique for screening is based on a single operating point of the I-V characteristic of the cell, usually the maximum power point. As a result, inferior cell matching may occur at the actual operating points. Screening solar cells based on the entire I-V characteristic will inherently result in more similar cells in the array. An array consisting of more similar cells is likely to have better overall characteristics and more predictable performance. Solar cell screening methods and cell ranking are discussed. The concept of a mean cell is defined as a cell 'best' representing all the cells in the production batch. The screening and ranking of all cells are performed with respect to the mean cell. The comparative results of different screening methods are illustrated on a batch of 50 silicon cells of the Space Station Freedom.

  20. Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmes, Ludger

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis have emerged as new clinical entities in hepato-logical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives and increased imaging of the liver. On review of published series there is evidence that 10% of liver cell adenomas progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, diagnosis is best made by open or laparoscopic excision biopsy, and the preferred treatment modality is resection of the liver cell adenoma to prevent bleeding and malignant transformation. In liver cell adenomatosis, the association with oral contraceptive use is not as high as in solitary liver cell adenomas. The risk of malignant transformation is not increased compared with solitary liver cell adenomas. Treatment consists of close monitoring and imaging, resection of superficially located, large (>4 cm) or growing liver cell adenomas. Liver transplantation is the last resort in case of substantive concern about malignant transformation or for large, painful adenomas in liver cell adenomatosis after treatment attempts by liver resection. PMID:18333188

  1. Analytical pyrolysis of cells and cell fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Faix, O.; Bertelt, E.

    1995-12-01

    Wood of spruce, beech and birch was disintegrated without chemical pretreatment after 10 minutes of steaming at 110{degrees}C in a laboratory defibrator. Fibers, vessels, and fragments of secondary wall were separated by wet screening. A hydrocylon was used for separation of middle lamellae. By using analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS, parenchymatic cells were found to be richer in lignin than the other cells. The lignin content of middle lamellae was 35% (beech, spruce) and 39% (birch). In agreement with the literature, the S/G ratios of the vessels and middle lamellae was lower than those of the other cells and cell fragments.

  2. Mast cells enhance T cell activation: Importance of mast cell-derived TNF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Susumu; Suto, Hajime; Kakurai, Maki; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-05-01

    Mast cells are not only important effector cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions and immune responses to pathogens but also can contribute to T cell-mediated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which mast cells might influence T cells in such settings are not fully understood. We find that mast cells can enhance proliferation and cytokine production in multiple T cell subsets. Mast cell-dependent enhancement of T cell activation can be promoted by FcRI-dependent mast cell activation, TNF production by both mast cells and T cells, and mast cell-T cell contact. However, at high concentrations of cells, mast cells can promote T cell activation independent of IgE or TNF. Finally, mast cells also can promote T cell activation by means of soluble factors. These findings identify multiple mechanisms by which mast cells can influence T cell proliferation and cytokine production. allergy | asthma | autoimmunity | cytokines | immune response

  3. Bioelectrochemistry of cell surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolowy, Krzysztof

    This paper deals with processes and phenomena of cell surface bioelectrochemistry in which charges do not move across the cell membrane. First, electrochemical properties of the cell membrane and the cell medium interface are described, and different electric potentials present in biological systems are defined. Methods of cell electrophoresis are then discussed. It is shown that none of the simple electrochemical models of the cell membrane can explain the dependence of cell electrophoretic mobility upon ionic strength and other electrochemical properties of the cell membrane, such as the difference in cell membrane charge as determined electrochemically and biochemically, or the effect of neuraminidase, pH, or membrane potential change on cell electrophoretic mobility. Thus, it is apparent that conclusions drawn from electrophoretic mobility data on the basis of simple models are false. The more complex multilayer-electrochemical model of the cell membrane is then described and shown to explain most electrochemical properties of the cell membrane. Next, different electrochemical techniques that were applied to study cell surfaces are described. It is shown that colloid titration, isoelectric focusing, and partition of cells between two immiscible phases is dependent not only on electrical properties of the cell membrane, but also on the energy of adsorption at cell surfaces of organic molecules used in these methods. Powder electrodes, cell polarography, conductometric titration, and Donnan potential methods are described and it is shown that these methods also produce results of doubtful value and are also often misinterpreted. The contact potential difference method produces results difficult to interpret and only electro-osmotic measurements and potential sensitive molecules are valuable methods. The colloid particle interaction theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) as applied to cell interactions is discussed. It is shown that the

  4. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Sertoli-stromal cell tumor; Arrhenoblastoma; Androblastoma; Ovarian cancer - Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor ... The Sertoli cells are normally located in the male reproductive glands (the testes). They feed sperm cells. The Leydig cells, also ...

  5. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis.

  6. Microscale Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Jamie D.; Viswanathan, Vish V.

    2005-11-03

    Perhaprs some of the most innovative work on fuel cells has been the research dedicated to applying silicon fabrication techniques to fuel cells technology creating low power microscale fuel cells applicable to microelectro mechanical systems (MEMS), microsensors, cell phones, PDA’s, and other low power (0.001 to 5 We) applications. In this small power range, fuel cells offer the decoupling of the energy converter from the energy storage which may enable longer operating times and instant or near instant charging. To date, most of the microscale fuel cells being developed have been based on proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology (PEMFC) or direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. This section will discuss requirements and considerations that need to be addressed in the development of microscale fuel cells, as well as some proposed designs and fabrication strategies.

  7. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  8. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  9. Mechanical guidance through cell-cell and cell-surface contact during multicellular streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenlu; Driscoll, Meghan; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    During collective cell migration, mechanical forces arise from the extracellular matrix (ECM) through cell-surface contact and from other cells through cell-cell contact. These forces regulate the motion of migrating cell groups. To determine how these mechanical interactions balance during cell migration, we measured the shape dynamics of Dictyostelium discoideum cells at the multicellular streaming stage. We found that cells can coordinate their motion by synchronizing protrusion waves that travel along their membranes when they form proper cell-cell adhesion and cell-surface adhesion. In addition, our experiments on live actin labeled cells show that intracellular actin polymerization actively responds to the change of cell-cell/surface adhesion and helps to stabilize multicellular migration streams. Our finding suggests that the coordination of motion between neighboring cells in collective migration requires a balance between cell-cell adhesion and cell-surface adhesion, and that the cell cytoskeleton plays an important role in this balance.

  10. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanwen; Shen, Yi; Chen, Jiarong; Ding, Jie; Tang, Zihua; Zhang, Cui; Chen, Jianling; Li, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment. PMID:27057177

  11. Microfluidics for manipulating cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xuan; Zheng, Wenfu; Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-14

    Microfluidics, a toolbox comprising methods for precise manipulation of fluids at small length scales (micrometers to millimeters), has become useful for manipulating cells. Its uses range from dynamic management of cellular interactions to high-throughput screening of cells, and to precise analysis of chemical contents in single cells. Microfluidics demonstrates a completely new perspective and an excellent practical way to manipulate cells for solving various needs in biology and medicine. This review introduces and comments on recent achievements and challenges of using microfluidics to manipulate and analyze cells. It is believed that microfluidics will assume an even greater role in the mechanistic understanding of cell biology and, eventually, in clinical applications.

  12. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  13. Alloreactive T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Fitch, F W

    1984-01-01

    T cell clones are useful models for studying lymphocyte function both at the level of the individual cell and in interacting systems. Murine cytolytic and non- cytolyic T cell clones have been obtained with relative ease, and the particular procedure used to derive and maintain T cell clones may influence profoundly the characteristics of the resulting cells. The method of choice depends on the specific question to be asked. Although some clones have characteristics that would have been expected on the basis of results observed with bulk cell populations, other clones have rather unexpected properties. Although most T cell clones appear to be either cytolytic or non-cytolytic, this distinction is not always absolute. A high proportion of both cytolytic and non-cytolytic T cell clones have dual reactivity. This is true for cells which by other criteria appear to be true clones. The frequency of such cells is high enough to suggest that most if not all T cells may have reactivity for more than one antigenic determinant or that antigenic determinants recognized by T cells are shared widely and unexpectedly. It is not clear whether one or two different antigen receptors account for such dual reactivity. The nature of the T cell receptor for antigen remains obscure. T cell clones, because of their homogeneous nature, should make it easier to answer these important immunological questions. Although it remains to be determined how many distinct molecules account for the numerous biological activities found in the culture supernatants from antigen-stimulated T cell clones, it is clear that these factors influence several different types of cells that are involved directly and indirectly in immune responses. IL-2 stimulates both cytolytic and non-cytolytic T cells to proliferate. BCSF causes polyclonal activation of B cells, and there may be other factors which influence B cell responses to antigenic stimulation. IL-3 apparently stimulates maturation of immature T cells

  14. Thin cells for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storti, G.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Wrigley, C.

    1979-01-01

    Research and pilot line production efforts directed towards the fabrication of high efficiency ultrathin silicon solar cells (50 micrometers) are reported. Conventional ultrathin cells with air-mass-zero (AM0) efficiencies exceeding 14% and coplanar back contact cells with AM0 efficiencies up to 11.7% were developed. The primary mechanisms limiting efficiency were determined in both types of cells, and they are discussed within the context of further improving efficiency. Results of pilot line production of conventional ultrathin cells are also presented. Average AM0 efficiencies of 12% were readily achieved for 2000 cell production runs.

  15. Assessment of pancreas cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Pancreatic islets were obtained from guinea pig pancreas by the collagenase method and kept alive in tissue culture prior to further studies. Pancreas cell morphology was studied by standard histochemical techniques using light microscopy. Preparative vertical electrophoresis-levitation of dispersed fetal guinea pig pancreas cells was conducted in phosphate buffer containing a heavy water (D20) gradient which does not cause clumping of cells or alter the osmolarity of the buffers. The faster migrating fractions tended to be enriched in beta-cell content. Alpha and delta cells were found to some degree in most fractions. A histogram showing the cell count distribution is included.

  16. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes.

  17. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases. PMID:23401689

  18. T helper cell cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Penna, A.; Glasebrook, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has recently been shown that helper T cells (Lyt2/sup -/, L3T4/sup +/) can express cytolytic activity when activated by antigen (Ag). The authors have studied the phenomenon of T helper cell cytotoxicity using cloned lines of Ag-reactive T cells and T hybrids. Cytotoxicity was determined by coculture of T cells with /sup 51/Cr-labelled Ag presenting cells (APC) and/or non-APC (bystander cells). A high frequency of Ag-specific L3T4/sup +/ T cell clones (> 90%) and hybrids (> 50%) were found to be cytotoxic. Cytotoxicity as determined by /sup 51/Cr release was maximal at 20 hr with little or no cytotoxicity detectable at 6 hr. Target cells, either APC or bystander cells, were killed provided the T cells were stimulated by Ag. Not all of the B cells used as APC were susceptible targets even if able to promote bystander killing. Monoclonal antibodies directed against L3T4, LFA-1 and T cell receptor molecules were able to block the cytotoxicity indicating a requirement for specific activation of the T cells. Cyclosporin A (CsA) reduced the cytotoxic activity of helper T hybrids and clones, while it did not affect the cytotoxic activity of Lyt2/sup +/, L3T4/sup -/ cytolytic T cell (CTL) clones. The delayed expression of cytotoxic activity, the lysis of bystander cells and inhibition by CsA suggest that the cytolytic mechanism is mediated by a soluble factor and different from the cytolytic mechanism of CTL. The phenomenon of cytotoxic T helper cells may be relevant to suppression of B cell immune responses in vivo.

  19. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Salama, Paul; Platell, Cameron

    2009-10-01

    Somatic stem cells reside at the base of the crypts throughout the colonic mucosa. These cells are essential for the normal regeneration of the colonic epithelium. The stem cells reside within a special 'niche' comprised of intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts that tightly control their function. It has been postulated that mutations within these adult colonic stem cells may induce neoplastic changes. Such cells can then dissociate from the epithelium and travel into the mesenchyme and thus form invasive cancers. This theory is based on the observation that within a colon cancer, less than 1% of the neoplastic cells have the ability to regenerate the tumour. It is this group of cells that exhibits characteristics of colonic stem cells. Although anti-neoplastic agents can induce remissions by inhibiting cell division, the stem cells appear to be remarkably resistant to both standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These stem cells may therefore persist after treatment and form the nucleus for cancer recurrence. Hence, future treatment modalities should focus specifically on controlling the cancer stem cells. In this review, we discuss the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells.

  20. The cell cycle as a brake for β-cell regeneration from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    El-Badawy, Ahmed; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2016-01-13

    The generation of insulin-producing β cells from stem cells in vitro provides a promising source of cells for cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. However, insulin-producing cells generated from human stem cells show deficiency in many functional characteristics compared with pancreatic β cells. Recent reports have shown molecular ties between the cell cycle and the differentiation mechanism of embryonic stem (ES) cells, assuming that cell fate decisions are controlled by the cell cycle machinery. Both β cells and ES cells possess unique cell cycle machinery yet with significant contrasts. In this review, we compare the cell cycle control mechanisms in both ES cells and β cells, and highlight the fundamental differences between pluripotent cells of embryonic origin and differentiated β cells. Through critical analysis of the differences of the cell cycle between these two cell types, we propose that the cell cycle of ES cells may act as a brake for β-cell regeneration. Based on these differences, we discuss the potential of modulating the cell cycle of ES cells for the large-scale generation of functionally mature β cells in vitro. Further understanding of the factors that modulate the ES cell cycle will lead to new approaches to enhance the production of functional mature insulin-producing cells, and yield a reliable system to generate bona fide β cells in vitro.

  1. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  2. Sickle Cell Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure for stem cell transplantation from healthy, ... NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Sickle ... summarizing medical research on sickle-cell anemia. NYT, Nature, Wash Post, SciAm, CNN - Google Custom Search Genetic ...

  3. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red ...

  4. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  5. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  6. Single-cell nanosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Maxwell B; Chiu, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explains the steps necessary to perform laser surgery upon single adherent mammalian cells, where individual organelles are extracted from the cells by optical tweezers and the cells are monitored post-surgery to check their viability. Single-cell laser nanosurgery is used in an increasing range of methodologies because it offers great flexibility. Its main advantages are (a) there is not any physical contact with the cells so they remain in a sterile environment, (b) high spatial selectivity so that single organelles can be extracted from specific areas of individual cells, (c) the method can be conducted in the cell's native media, and (d) in comparison to other techniques that target single cells, such as micromanipulators, laser nanosurgery has a comparatively high throughput.

  7. Cell phone explosion.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  8. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ... may use this test to help diagnose pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood ...

  9. Stem Cell Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  10. Sickle Cell Trait

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  11. Sickle Cell Disease Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Disease Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... True or False: Only African Americans get sickle cell disease. A True B False 2. True or ...

  12. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  13. Regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Claire; Powrie, Fiona

    2004-08-01

    Regulatory T (TR) cells are a subset of T cells that function to control immune responses. Different populations of TR cells have been described, including thymically derived CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells and Tr1 cells induced in the periphery through exposure to antigen. A transcription factor, Foxp3, has been identified that is essential for CD4(+)CD25+ TR cell development and function. There is now evidence that transforming growth factor-beta might play a role in this pathway. CD4(+)CD25+ TR cells proliferate extensively in vivo in an antigen-specific manner, and can respond to both self and foreign peptides. By suppressing excessive immune responses, TR cells play a key role in the maintenance of self-tolerance, thus preventing autoimmune disease, as well as inhibiting harmful inflammatory diseases such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It is more likely than basal cell cancer to spread (metastasize) to other locations, including internal ...

  15. Cell encapsulation via microtechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kang, AhRan; Park, JiSoo; Ju, Jongil; Jeong, Gi Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    The encapsulation of living cells in a variety of soft polymers or hydrogels is important, particularly, for the rehabilitation of functional tissues capable of repairing or replacing damaged organs. Cellular encapsulation segregates cells from the surrounding tissue to protect the implanted cell from the recipient's immune system after transplantation. Diverse hydrogel membranes have been popularly used as encapsulating materials and permit the diffusion of gas, nutrients, wastes and therapeutic products smoothly. This review describes a variety of methods that have been developed to achieve cellular encapsulation using microscale platform. Microtechnologies have been adopted to precisely control the encapsulated cell number, size and shape of a cell-laden polymer structure. We provide a brief overview of recent microtechnology-based cell encapsulation methods, with a detailed description of the relevant processes. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future directions likely to be taken by cell microencapsulation approaches toward tissue engineering and cell therapy applications.

  16. Sickle Cell Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Advancements in Sickle Cell Disease New supplement from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine describes the state of sickle cell disease related care in the United States. Read Supplement ...

  17. Invertebrate communities associated with Bangia atropurpurea and Cladophora glomerata in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chilton, E.W.; Lowe, R.L.; Schurr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of the marine alga Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta) in Lake Erie has been followed by its rapid dispersal throughout the eulittoral zone of the lake. Bangia was extensively sampled to determine its suitability as a habitat for littoral organisms. Present data indicate that the only organisms capable of maintaining populations on Bangia filaments are larval Chironomidae. Cladophora supports a larger and more diverse community. It is concluded that the mucilaginous cell wall of Bangia provides a less stable substrate for attached or clinging organisms than does the cellulose cell wall of Cladophora. The presence of Bangia in the littoral zone of Lake Erie results in a reduction of the quantity and diversity of algal epiphytes and may negatively impact the littoral food web.

  18. Germ Cell Differentiation from Pluripotent Cells

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, Jose V.; Pera, Renee A. Reijo; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a medical condition with an increasing impact in Western societies with causes linked to toxins, genetics, and aging (primarily delay of motherhood). Within the different pathologies that can lead to infertility, poor quality or reduced quantity of gametes plays an important role. Gamete donation and therefore demand on donated sperm and eggs in fertility clinics is increasing. It is hoped that a better understanding of the conditions related to poor gamete quality may allow scientists to design rational treatments. However, to date, relatively little is known about human germ cell development in large part due to the inaccessibility of human development to molecular genetic analysis. It is hoped that pluripotent human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells may provide an accessible in vitro model to study germline development; these cells are able to differentiate to cells of all three primary embryonic germ layers, as well as to germ cells in vitro. We review the state of the art in germline differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23329632

  19. Cell-cell connectivity: desmosomes and disease.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Matthew A; Nitoiu, Daniela; Kelsell, David P

    2012-01-01

    Cell-cell connectivity is an absolute requirement for the correct functioning of cells, tissues and entire organisms. At the level of the individual cell, direct cell-cell adherence and communication is mediated by the intercellular junction complexes: desmosomes, adherens, tight and gap junctions. A broad spectrum of inherited, infectious and auto-immune diseases can affect the proper function of intercellular junctions and result in either diseases affecting specific individual tissues or widespread syndromic conditions. A particularly diverse group of diseases result from direct or indirect disruption of desmosomes--a consequence of their importance in tissue integrity, their extensive distribution, complex structure, and the wide variety of functions their components accomplish. As a consequence, disruption of desmosomal assembly, structure or integrity disrupts not only their intercellular adhesive function but also their functions in cell communication and regulation, leading to such diverse pathologies as cardiomyopathy, epidermal and mucosal blistering, palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair, keratosis, epidermolysis bullosa, ectodermal dysplasia and alopecia. Here, as well as describing the importance of the other intercellular junctions, we focus primarily on the desmosome, its structure and its role in disease. We will examine the various pathologies that result from impairment of desmosome function and thereby demonstrate the importance of desmosomes to tissues and to the organism as a whole.

  20. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.