Science.gov

Sample records for live loads

  1. Control load envelope shaping by live twist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Mirick, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    Rotor control systems experience a rapid load growth resulting from retreating blade stall during flight conditions of high blade loading or airspeeds. An investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of changing blade torsional properties over the rotor flight envelope. The results of this study show that reducing the blade stiffness to introduce more blade live twist significantly reduces the large retreating blade control loads, while expanding the flight envelope and reducing retreating blade stall loads.

  2. Truck loading positions for maximum live load girder moment in skewed integral bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, O. Fatih

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of the longitudinal and transverse truck positions on the distribution of live load moment among the girders of skewed integral abutment bridges (SIBs) is investigated. For this purpose, three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of several single-span SIBs are built and analyzed. In the analyses, bridges with various skew angles under all possible single and double truck loading positions both in longitudinal and transverse directions are considered. An automated analysis procedure managed by a visual basic program is developed to obtain the structural models and apply the wheel loads of trucks. The finite element analyses (FEA) results are then used to find the most critical loading cases of single truck and adjacent two trucks for the live load moment in the girders of SIBs. The results revealed that, the trucks should be placed nearby the midline of the bridge deck in a diagonal manner.

  3. EXPO '02, Piazza Pinocchio: monitoring visitor live loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerulli, Marco; Posenato, Daniele; Inaudi, Daniele; Glisic, Branko; Vurpillot, Samuel

    2003-08-01

    Once every generation, Switzerland treats itself to a National Exhibition commissioned by the Swiss Confederation. Expo 02 was spread out in five "Arteplage" over a whole region: the land of the three lakes, on the shores of the lakes of Biel, Murten and Neuchatel, which are located in the northwest of Switzerland. Each "Arteplage" relates to a theme, which is reflected in its architectures and exhibitions. The "Arteplage" of Neuchatel was related to "Nature and Artificiality" A big steel-wood whale eating a village represents the fairy tale named "Pinocchio" from the Italian writer Collodi. The "Piazza Pinocchio" was built together with other exposition buildings on one large artificial peninsula. The belly of the whale holds the exposition dedicated to robotic and artificial intelligence, while the rest of the village was developed on two floors with steel piles/beams and wood walls and floors. A fiber optic sensor system was commissioned to monitor the visitor's loads over the whole "Piazza Pinocchio." The main requirements were: real-time computer-screen figure-form results of the live loads during 18 hours a day, automatic thermal-induced strain compensation, real-time warnings and pre-warnings for each single pile, automatic phone call advises when reaching warning thresholds and remote monitoring for complete management of the monitoring sytem. The SOFO system based on low coherence fiber optic deformation sensors was selected to carry out the requirements. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the project, the installation solution, the results, and data analysis of the installed monitoring system.

  4. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  5. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful. PMID:24348165

  6. Towards multiple hazard resilient bridges: a methodology for modeling frequent and infrequent time-varying loads Part II, Examples for live and earthquake load effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zach; Lee, George C.

    2012-09-01

    The current AASHTO load and resistance factor design (LRFD) guidelines are formulated based on bridge reliability, which interprets traditional design safety factors into more rigorously deduced factors based on the theory of probability. This is a major advancement in bridge design specifications. However, LRFD is only calibrated for dead and live loads. In cases when extreme loads are significant, they need to be individually assessed. Combining regular loads with extreme loads has been a major challenge, mainly because the extreme loads are time variable and cannot be directly combined with time invariant loads to formulate the probability of structural failure. To overcome these difficulties, this paper suggests a methodology of comprehensive reliability, by introducing the concept of partial failure probability to separate the loads so that each individual load combination under a certain condition can be approximated as time invariant. Based on these conditions, the extreme loads (also referred to as multiple hazard or MH loads) can be broken down into single effects. In this paper, a further breakdown of these conditional occurrence probabilities into pure conditions is discussed by using a live truck and earthquake loads on a bridge as an example.

  7. Position paper: Live load design criteria for Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A.

    1995-06-09

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the live loads applied to the underground storage tanks of the Multi Function Waste Tank Facility, and to provide the basis for Project W-236A live load criteria. Project 236A provides encompasses building a Weather Enclosure over the two underground storage tanks at the 200-West area. According to the Material Handling Study, the Groves AT 1100 crane used within the Weather Enclosure will have a gross vehicle weight of 66.5 tons. Therefore, a 100-ton concentrated live load is being used for the planning of the construction of the Weather Enclosure.

  8. Characterization of aggregate load and pattern in living yeast cells by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Itahisa Hernández; Fleming, Thomas; Eckstein, Volker; Herzig, Stephan; Nawroth, Peter P; Tyedmers, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is both a hallmark of and a driving force for a number of diseases. It is therefore important to identify the nature of these aggregates and the mechanism(s) by which the cell counteracts their detrimental properties. Currently, the study of aggregation in vivo is performed primarily using fluorescently tagged versions of proteins and analyzing the aggregates by fluorescence microscopy. While this strategy is considered the gold standard, it has several limitations, particularly with respect to its suitability for high-throughput screening (HTS). Here, using a GFP fusion of the well-characterized yeast prion amyloid protein [PSI+], we demonstrate that flow cytometry, which utilizes the same physical principles as fluorescence microscopy, can be used to determine the aggregate load and pattern in live and fixed yeast cells. Furthermore, our approach can easily be applied to high-throughput analyses such as screenings with a yeast deletion library. PMID:27625208

  9. Numerical Simulation of Hysteretic Live Load Effect in a Soil-Steel Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobótka, Maciej

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation of hysteretic live load effect in a soil-steel bridge. The effect was originally identified experimentally by Machelski [1], [2]. The truck was crossing the bridge one way and the other in the full-scale test performed. At the same time, displacements and stress in the shell were measured. The major conclusion from the research was that the measured quantities formed hysteretic loops. A numerical simulation of that effect is addressed in the present work. The analysis was performed using Flac finite difference code. The methodology of solving the mechanical problems implemented in Flac enables us to solve the problem concerning a sequence of load and non-linear mechanical behaviour of the structure. The numerical model incorporates linear elastic constitutive relations for the soil backfill, for the steel shell and the sheet piles, being a flexible substructure for the shell. Contact zone between the shell and the soil backfill is assumed to reflect elastic-plastic constitutive model. Maximum shear stress in contact zone is limited by the Coulomb condition. The plastic flow rule is described by dilation angle ψ = 0. The obtained results of numerical analysis are in fair agreement with the experimental evidence. The primary finding from the performed simulation is that the slip in the interface can be considered an explanation of the hysteresis occurrence in the charts of displacement and stress in the shell.

  10. Wear testing of moderate activities of daily living using in vivo measured knee joint loading.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities.

  11. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  12. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  13. Living with a large reduction in permited loading by using a hydrograph-controlled release scheme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, P.A.; Martello, W.P.; Sullins, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for ammonia and biochemical oxygen demand for the Pee Dee, Waccamaw, and Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway system near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, mandated a 60-percent reduction in point-source loading. For waters with a naturally low background dissolved-oxygen concentrations, South Carolina anti-degradation rules in the water-quality regulations allows a permitted discharger a reduction of dissolved oxygen of 0.1 milligrams per liter (mg/L). This is known as the "0.1 rule." Permitted dischargers within this region of the State operate under the "0.1 rule" and cannot cause a cumulative impact greater than 0.1 mg/L on dissolved-oxygen concentrations. For municipal water-reclamation facilities to serve the rapidly growing resort and retirement community near Myrtle Beach, a variable loading scheme was developed to allow dischargers to utilize increased assimilative capacity during higher streamflow conditions while still meeting the requirements of a recently established TMDL. As part of the TMDL development, an extensive real-time data-collection network was established in the lower Waccamaw and Pee Dee River watershed where continuous measurements of streamflow, water level, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and specific conductance are collected. In addition, the dynamic BRANCH/BLTM models were calibrated and validated to simulate the water quality and tidal dynamics of the system. The assimilative capacities for various streamflows were also analyzed. The variable-loading scheme established total loadings for three streamflow levels. Model simulations show the results from the additional loading to be less than a 0.1 mg/L reduction in dissolved oxygen. As part of the loading scheme, the real-time network was redesigned to monitor streamflow entering the study area and water-quality conditions in the location of dissolved-oxygen "sags." The study reveals how one group of permit holders used a variable-loading scheme to implement

  14. Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers' individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient's undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver's limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater number of current drug users in their network, and poorer perceptions of the care recipient's mental health. Results further understandings of interpersonal relationship factors important to PLHIV's health outcomes, and the need for caregiving relationship-focused intervention to promote viral suppression among PLHIV. PMID:25969180

  15. Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Robinson, Allysha C; Nguyen, Trang Q; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers' individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient's undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver's limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater number of current drug users in their network, and poorer perceptions of the care recipient's mental health. Results further understandings of interpersonal relationship factors important to PLHIV's health outcomes, and the need for caregiving relationship-focused intervention to promote viral suppression among PLHIV.

  16. A Reevaluation of the Contribution of Very Short Lived Bromocarbons to Stratospheric Bromine Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Mount, G. H.; Spinei, E.; Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Choi, S.; Joiner, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has provided global measurements of total column BrO over the past decade. Interpreting the distribution of total column BrO between the stratosphere and troposphere depends strongly on the contribution of very short lived (VSL) bromocarbons to stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry). Salawitch et al. (2010) suggested 7 to 12 ppt of Bry must be supplied to the lower stratosphere from the decomposition of VSL bromocarbons to accurately represent the variation of total column OMI BrO with total column O3. Here we will re-evaluate this recommendation in light of ground-based total column BrO measurements obtained over Fairbanks, Alaska using a multifunction differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument during the spring of 2011. Additionally, we will assess how modifications to kinetics regulating the partitioning between BrO and BrONO2 proposed by Kreycy et al. (2013) affect the VSL Bry estimate as well as the modeled diurnal variation in BrO. ReferencesKreycy, S. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 6263-6274, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6263-2013. Salawitch, R.J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2010, 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798.

  17. The effect of embryo catheter loading technique on the live birth rate

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Marjan; Halvaei, Iman; Mangoli, Esmat; Razi, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objective Embryo loading (EL) is a major step in embryo transfer (ET) and affect on the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study aimed to compare the effect of two different EL techniques on the rates of pregnancy and delivery in IVF/ET cycles. Methods 207 fresh ET and 194 Frozen-thawed ET (FET) cycles were included in this retrospective study. Two groups (A and B) were defined based on the EL technique used. In group A, the entire catheter was flushed with Ham's F-10 medium. The embryos were then drawn into the catheter using one air bracket. In group B, 70 µL of air was aspirated into the syringe and the catheter was flushed using Ham's F10 medium. The medium, air, embryos, air, and finally another layer of medium were then sequentially drawn into the catheter. The main outcome measures were the pregnancy and delivery rates. Results The groups did not differ with respect to the etiology of infertility, the source of spermatozoa, the quality of the embryos, the type of EL catheter, and the ease of transfer. The pregnancy rate was similar between two groups. In fresh ET cycles, a higher delivery rate was observed in group B than it group A (78.1% vs. 60%, p=0.1). In FET cycles, the rate of delivery was significantly higher in group B than in group A to a nonsignificant extent (88.9% vs. 58.8%, p=0.06). Conclusion EL techniques did not have a significant impact on the delivery rate in either fresh or FET cycles. PMID:26815646

  18. On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and Short-Lived Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1997-01-01

    Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these short-lived source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the

  19. Relationship between viral load and behavioral measures of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children living with HIV in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Horacio A.; Harris, D. Robert; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Leister, Erin; Negrini, Silvia Fabiana Biason de Moura; Ferreira, Flavia Faleiro; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Pinto, Jorge; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined antiretroviral therapy adherence in Latin American children. Standardized behavioral measures were applied to a large cohort of HIV-infected children in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru to assess adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy doses during the three days prior to study visits, assess timing of last missed dose, and evaluate the ability of the adherence measures to predict viral suppression. Time trends in adherence were modeled using a generalized estimating equations approach to account for possible correlations in outcomes measured repeatedly in the same participants. Associations of adherence with HIV viral load were examined using linear regression. Mean enrollment age of the 380 participants was 5 years; 57.6% had undetectable' viral load (<400 copies/mL). At enrollment, 90.8% of participants were perfectly (100%) adherent, compared to 87.6% at the 6-month and 92.0% at the 12-month visit; the proportion with perfect adherence did not differ over time (p=0.1). Perfect adherence was associated with a higher probability of undetectable viral load at the 12-month visit (odds ratio=4.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.8–9.1; p<0.001), but not at enrollment or the 6-month visit (p>0.3). Last time missed any antiretroviral therapy dose was reported as "never" for 52.0% at enrollment, increasing to 60.7% and 65.9% at the 6- and 12-month visits, respectively (p<0.001 for test of trend). The proportion with undetectable viral load was higher among those who never missed a dose at enrollment and the 12-month visit (p≤0.005), but not at the 6-month visit (p=0.2). While antiretroviral therapy adherence measures utilized in this study showed some association with viral load for these Latin American children, they may not be adequate for reliably identifying non-adherence and consequently children at risk for viral resistance. Other strategies are needed to improve the evaluation of adherence in this population. PMID:25743569

  20. X-ray imaging of tumor growth in live mice by detecting gold-nanoparticle-loaded cells

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Lai, Sheng-Feng; Hwu, Y.; Petibois, Cyril; Yang, C. S.; Chu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2012-01-01

    We show that sufficient concentrations of gold nanoparticles produced by an original synthesis method in EMT-6 and CT-26 cancer cells make it possible to detect the presence, necrosis and proliferation of such cells after inoculation in live mice. We first demonstrated that the nanoparticles do not interfere with the proliferation process. Then, we observed significant differences in the tumor evolution and the angiogenesis process after shallow and deep inoculation. A direct comparison with pathology optical images illustrates the effectiveness of this approach. PMID:22934133

  1. Three-dimensional printed sample load/inject valves enabling online monitoring of extracellular calcium and zinc ions in living rat brains.

    PubMed

    Su, Cheng-Kuan; Hsia, Sheng-Chieh; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a simple and low-cost flow injection system coupled to a quadruple ICP-MS for the direct and continuous determination of multi-element in microdialysates. To interface microdialysis sampling to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), we employed 3D printing to manufacture an as-designed sample load/inject valve featuring an in-valve sample loop for precise handling of microliter samples with a dissolved solids content of 0.9% NaCl (w/v). To demonstrate the practicality of our developed on-line system, we applied the 3D printed valve equipped a 5-μL sample loop to minimize the occurrence of salt matrix effects and facilitate an online dynamic monitoring of extracellular calcium and zinc ions in living rat brains. Under the practical condition (temporal resolution: 10h(-1)), dynamic profiling of these two metal ions in living rat brain extracellular fluid after probe implantation (the basal values for Ca and Zn were 12.11±0.10mg L(-1) and 1.87±0.05μg L(-1), respectively) and real-time monitoring of the physiological response to excitotoxic stress elicited upon perfusing a solution of 2.5mM N-methyl-d-aspartate were performed. PMID:25064244

  2. High loading MnO2 nanowires on graphene paper: facile electrochemical synthesis and use as flexible electrode for tracking hydrogen peroxide secretion in live cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuang; Xi, Jiangbo; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Hongwei; Fu, Chaoyang; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in flexible and lightweight electrochemical sensor systems requires the development of paper-like electrode materials. Here, we report a facile and green synthesis of a new type of MnO2 nanowires-graphene nanohybrid paper by one-step electrochemical method. This strategy demonstrates a collection of unique features including the effective electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) paper and the high loading of MnO2 nanowires on electrochemical reduced GO (ERGO) paper. When used as flexible electrode for nonenzymatic detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), MnO2-ERGO paper exhibits high electrocatalytic activity toward the redox of H2O2 as well as excellent stability, selectivity and reproducibility. The amperometric responses are linearly proportional to H2O2 concentration in the range 0.1-45.4 mM, with a detection limit of 10 μM (S/N=3) and detection sensitivity of 59.0 μA cm(-2) mM(-1). These outstanding sensing performances enable the practical application of MnO2-ERGO paper electrode for the real-time tracking H2O2 secretion by live cells macrophages. Therefore, the proposed graphene-based nanohybrid paper electrode with intrinsic flexibility, tailorable shapes and adjustable properties can contribute to the full realization of high-performance flexible electrode material used in point-of-care testing devices and portable instruments for in-vivo clinical diagnostics and on-site environmental monitoring.

  3. Relationship between viral load and behavioral measures of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Horacio A; Harris, Donald Robert; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Leister, Erin; Negrini, Silvia Fabiana Biason de Moura; Ferreira, Flávia Faleiro; Cruz, Maria Letícia Santos; Pinto, Jorge; Allison, Susannah; Hazra, Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined antiretroviral therapy adherence in Latin American children. Standardized behavioral measures were applied to a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru to assess adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy doses during the three days prior to study visits, assess timing of last missed dose, and evaluate the ability of the adherence measures to predict viral suppression. Time trends in adherence were modeled using a generalized estimating equations approach to account for possible correlations in outcomes measured repeatedly in the same participants. Associations of adherence with human immunodeficiency virus viral load were examined using linear regression. Mean enrollment age of the 380 participants was 5 years; 57.6% had undetectable' viral load (<400 copies/mL). At enrollment, 90.8% of participants were perfectly (100%) adherent, compared to 87.6% at the 6-month and 92.0% at the 12-month visit; the proportion with perfect adherence did not differ over time (p=0.1). Perfect adherence was associated with a higher probability of undetectable viral load at the 12-month visit (odds ratio=4.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.8-9.1; p<0.001), but not at enrollment or the 6-month visit (p>0.3). Last time missed any antiretroviral therapy dose was reported as "never" for 52.0% at enrollment, increasing to 60.7% and 65.9% at the 6- and 12-month visits, respectively (p<0.001 for test of trend). The proportion with undetectable viral load was higher among those who never missed a dose at enrollment and the 12-month visit (p≤0.005), but not at the 6-month visit (p=0.2). While antiretroviral therapy adherence measures utilized in this study showed some association with viral load for these Latin American children, they may not be adequate for reliably identifying non-adherence and consequently children at risk for viral resistance. Other strategies are needed to improve the evaluation of adherence in

  4. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  5. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  6. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  7. 24 CFR 3280.401 - Structural load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. Design live load deflection criteria... live load deflection greater than the limits set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.401 - Structural load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. Design live load deflection criteria... live load deflection greater than the limits set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.401 - Structural load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. Design live load deflection criteria... live load deflection greater than the limits set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.401 - Structural load tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. Design live load deflection criteria... live load deflection greater than the limits set in § 3280.305(d), rupture, fracture, or...

  11. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... but they don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement ... change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or ...

  12. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home care, it is still ... of services an older person chooses, the price costs can range from less than $25,000 a ...

  13. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  14. Bachelor Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  15. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  16. Living Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mules, B. R.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a review of various methods of keeping live animals, including scorpions, spiders, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, ants, fish, mice, and birds, as well as plants as a school science project/display. (SL)

  17. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... premises. Adult foster care has the advantages of maintaining frail older adults in a more home-like ... pay to live in these communities, though some facilities have beds for skilled care that are funded ...

  18. Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "OSERS" addresses the subject of independent living of individuals with disabilities. The issue includes a message from Judith E. Heumann, the Assistant Secretary of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), and 10 papers. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Changes in the Rehabilitation Act of…

  19. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Some you cannot control, such as your genetic makeup or your age. But you can make changes to your lifestyle. By taking steps toward healthy living, you can help reduce your risk of heart disease, cancer, stroke and other serious diseases: Get ...

  20. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  1. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  2. Living History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2005-01-01

    John Tinker and Mary Beth Tinker are back in a classroom in their hometown, once again wearing black armbands and drawing attention to a war. Now in their 50s, the siblings are living symbols of constitutional rights for secondary school students. In 1965, they and a handful of others were suspended for wearing black armbands to their public…

  3. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  4. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  5. Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.

  6. Fatigue life estimates for helicopter loading spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Dowling, N. E.; Berens, A. P.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Helicopter loading histories applied to notch metal samples are used as examples, and their fatigue lives are calculated by using a simplified version of the local strain approach. This simplified method has the advantage that it requires knowing the loading history in only the reduced form of ranges and means and number of cycles from the rain-flow cycle counting method. The calculated lives compare favorably with test data.

  7. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  8. ISS Live!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer; Harris, Philip; Hochstetler, Bruce; Guerra, Mark; Mendez, Israel; Healy, Matthew; Khan, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    International Space Station Live! (ISSLive!) is a Web application that uses a proprietary commercial technology called Lightstreamer to push data across the Internet using the standard http port (port 80). ISSLive! uses the push technology to display real-time telemetry and mission timeline data from the space station in any common Web browser or Internet- enabled mobile device. ISSLive! is designed to fill a unique niche in the education and outreach areas by providing access to real-time space station data without a physical presence in the mission control center. The technology conforms to Internet standards, supports the throughput needed for real-time space station data, and is flexible enough to work on a large number of Internet-enabled devices. ISSLive! consists of two custom components: (1) a series of data adapters that resides server-side in the mission control center at Johnson Space Center, and (2) a set of public html that renders the data pushed from the data adapters. A third component, the Lightstreamer server, is commercially available from a third party and acts as an intermediary between custom components (1) and (2). Lightstreamer also provides proprietary software libraries that are required to use the custom components. At the time of this reporting, this is the first usage of Web-based, push streaming technology in the aerospace industry.

  9. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  10. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  11. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.315 - Special snow load conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special snow load conditions. 3285... Special snow load conditions. (a) General. Foundations for homes designed for and located in areas with roof live loads greater than 40 psf must be designed by the manufacturer for the special snow...

  16. Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A

    2013-10-15

    The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin

  17. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Baehr, Donald G.

    1990-01-01

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means.

  18. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, D.G.

    1989-10-12

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means. 9 figs.

  19. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Baehr, D.G.

    1990-11-13

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means. 9 figs.

  20. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  1. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information for Current Grantees About ACL Organization Why Community Living? Authorizing Statutes Budget Mandatory Grant Allocations Strategic ... Final Rule Get ACL Updates OAA Reauthorization Why Community Living? FEATURES #InclusionWorks IL Final Rule Get ACL ...

  2. Visualizing influenza virus infection in living mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Weiqi; Dong, Zhenyuan; Li, Feng; Meng, Weixu; Feng, Liqiang; Niu, Xuefeng; Li, Chufang; Luo, Qinfang; Li, Zhengfeng; Sun, Caijun; Chen, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Preventing and treating influenza virus infection remain a challenge because of incomplete understanding of the host–pathogen interactions, limited therapeutics and lack of a universal vaccine. So far, methods for monitoring the course of infection with influenza virus in real time in living animals are lacking. Here we report the visualization of influenza viral infection in living mice using an engineered replication-competent influenza A virus carrying luciferase reporter gene. After intranasal inoculation, bioluminescence can be detected in the chest and nasopharyngeal passage of living mice. The intensity of bioluminescence in the chest correlates with the dosage of infection and the viral load in the lung. Bioluminescence in the chest of infected mice diminishes on antiviral treatment. This work provides a novel approach that enables real-time study of influenza virus infection and effects of antiviral therapeutics in living animals. PMID:24022374

  3. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  4. Load forecasting by ANN

    SciTech Connect

    Highley, D.D.; Hilmes, T.J. )

    1993-07-01

    This article discusses the use and training of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for load forecasting. The topics of the article include a brief overview of neural networks, interest in ANNs, training of neural networks, a case study in load forecasting, and the potential for using an artificial neural network to perform short-term load forecasting.

  5. Discharge circuits and loads

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-10-15

    This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

  6. [Support in living].

    PubMed

    Krebs, H

    1993-06-01

    "Lebenshilfe" (help in living) is of crucial importance for the organization of live of persons with a handicap. This help in living, training and social integration, however, requires an image of the handicapped person that unrestrictedly recognizes her right to live and to be a human being with a handicap. But todays hedonistic and preference-utilitarian social trends make other, selecting value judgements. This article comments on these dubious ethical positions critically and develops a paradigmatic, positive point of view. This statement is partly based on the principles of 2 self-help organizations of the same name ("Lebenshilfe für geistig Behinderte") in Germany and in Austria.

  7. Live fire testing requirements - Assessing the impact

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bryon, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    Full-up live-fire testing (LFT) of aircraft configured for combat is evaluated in terms of the practical implications of the technique. LFT legislation requires the testing of tactical fighters, helicopters, and other aircraft when they are loaded with the flammables and explosives associated with combat. LFT permits the study of damage mechanisms and battle-damage repair techniques during the design phase, and probability-of-kill estimates and novel systems designs can be developed based on LFT data.

  8. Load Model Data Tool

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to bemore » provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.« less

  9. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  10. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  11. Is It Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    The word "living" is commonly used throughout elementary science lessons that focus on the biological world. It is a word teachers often take for granted when teaching life science concepts. How similar the constructed meaning of a common word like "living" is to the meaning intended by the teacher or instructional materials depends on how a…

  12. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  13. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  14. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  15. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading,...

  16. Fatigue life prediction under service load considering strengthening effect of loads below fatigue limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lihui; Zheng, Songlin; Feng, Jinzhi

    2014-11-01

    Lightweight design requires an accurate life prediction for structures and components under service loading histories. However, predicted life with the existing methods seems too conservative in some cases, leading to a heavy structure. Because these methods are established on the basis that load cycles would only cause fatigue damage, ignore the strengthening effect of loads. Based on Palmgren-Miner Rule (PMR), this paper introduces a new method for fatigue life prediction under service loadings by taking into account the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit. In this method, the service loadings are classified into three categories: damaging load, strengthening load and none-effect load, and the process for fatigue life prediction is divided into two stages: stage I and stage II, according to the best strengthening number of cycles. During stage I, fatigue damage is calculated considering both the strengthening and damaging effect of load cycles. While during stage II, only the damaging effect is considered. To validate this method, fatigue lives of automobile half shaft and torsion beam rear axle are calculated based on the new method and traditional methods, such as PMR and Modified Miner Rule (MMR), and fatigue tests of the two components are conducted under service loading histories. The tests results show that the percentage errors of the predicted life with the new method to mean life of tests for the two components are -3.78% and -1.76% separately, much lesser than that with PMR and MMR. By considering the strengthening effect of loads below the fatigue limit, the new method can significantly improve the accuracy for fatigue life prediction. Thus lightweight design can be fully realized in the design stage.

  17. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  18. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  19. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  20. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  1. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  2. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  3. Live Your Life Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... about reasonable steps that if used consistently can increase your comfort and boost your ability to build a rewarding life. About the Live Your Life Well Campaign Mental Health America is the country's leading non-profit ...

  4. Living with Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Anemia Often, you can treat and control anemia. If ... by an inherited or chronic disease or trauma. Anemia and Children/Teens Infants and young children have ...

  5. Fluorescence Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of live cells has become an integral part of modern cell biology. Fluorescent protein tags, live cell dyes, and other methods to fluorescently label proteins of interest provide a range of tools to investigate virtually any cellular process under the microscope. The two main experimental challenges in collecting meaningful live cell microscopy data are to minimize photodamage while retaining a useful signal-to-noise ratio, and to provide a suitable environment for cells or tissues to replicate physiological cell dynamics. This chapter aims to give a general overview on microscope design choices critical for fluorescence live cell imaging that apply to most fluorescence microscopy modalities, and on environmental control with a focus on mammalian tissue culture cells. In addition, we provide guidance on how to design and evaluate fluorescent protein constructs by spinning disk confocal microscopy. PMID:24974023

  6. Living with Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Living with Hearing Loss Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... family, including dad Bob, have adapted to her hearing impairment. Photo courtesy of Stefan Radtke, www.stefanradtke. ...

  7. Living with Alopecia Areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... you wear a wig Sadness and depression Hopelessness Anger Embarrassment Guilt or self-blame that you somehow ... For siblings and other family members, shame and anger because the disease has also affected their lives ...

  8. Assisted Living Community Profile

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Media News Releases Media Resources AHCA/NCAL Gazette Publications Social Media Resources & Publications Currently selected Assisted ... News & Media News Releases Media Resources AHCA/NCAL Gazette Publications Social Media Resources & Publications Assisted Living Studies ...

  9. Living with Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Support Living with PH may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. You may worry about your ... and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel ...

  10. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT ... to your doctor or pharmacist about the best flu vaccine option for you or your family.

  11. Living with Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... live longer and enjoy a good quality of life. Many people who have Marfan syndrome and are ... tears and leaks blood. Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition. The main symptom of aortic dissection ...

  12. Living with Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available to answer your questions. Call toll-free 1-800-539-7309 Mon-Fri, 9am-5pm ... are people living with or impacted by paralysis. Free services and downloads > Paralysis Resource Guide Our free ...

  13. Live biometric authenticity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.; Szu, Clifford; Wang, Shoujue

    2003-04-01

    This research defined the underpinning concepts of a system that was highly secure, yet was efficient and non-invasive enough for everyday use. The live biometric authenticity check augmented invariant fingerprints with variable live features offered superior security by combining physical characteristics of the user"s with a passcode (numerical PIN) or passphrase (a string of words), and might also easily be augmented with other biometric video imaging devices for the utmost security.

  14. Gender-Specific Effects of Cognitive Load on Social Discounting

    PubMed Central

    Strombach, Tina; Margittai, Zsofia; Gorczyca, Barbara; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We live busy, social lives, and meeting the challenges of our complex environments puts strain on our cognitive systems. However, cognitive resources are limited. It is unclear how cognitive load affects social decision making. Previous findings on the effects of cognitive load on other-regarding preferences have been ambiguous, allowing no coherent opinion whether cognitive load increases, decreases or does not affect prosocial considerations. Here, we suggest that social distance between individuals modulates whether generosity towards a recipient increases or decreases under cognitive load conditions. Participants played a financial social discounting task with several recipients at variable social distance levels. In this task, they could choose between generous alternatives, yielding medium financial rewards for the participant and recipient at variable social distances, or between a selfish alternative, yielding larger rewards for the participant alone. We show that the social discount function of male participants was significantly flattened under high cognitive load conditions, suggesting they distinguished less between socially close and socially distant recipients. Unexpectedly, the cognitive-load effect on social discounting was gender-specific: while social discounting was strongly dependent on cognitive load in men, women were nearly unaffected by cognitive load manipulations. We suggest that cognitive load leads men, but not women to simplify the decision problem by neglecting the social distance information. We consider our study a good starting point for further experiments exploring the role of gender in prosocial choice. PMID:27788192

  15. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  16. Combined Load Test Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    A test fixture has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center that has the capability of applying compression load and shear load simultaneously to a test specimen. The test specimen size is 24-inches by 28-inches. This report describes the test specimen design, test specimen preparation, fixture assembly in the test machine, and a test operation plan.

  17. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  18. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  19. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  20. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  1. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  2. Living-Cell Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Yarmush, Martin L.; King, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Living cells are remarkably complex. To unravel this complexity, living-cell assays have been developed that allow delivery of experimental stimuli and measurement of the resulting cellular responses. High-throughput adaptations of these assays, known as living-cell microarrays, which are based on microtiter plates, high-density spotting, microfabrication, and microfluidics technologies, are being developed for two general applications: (a) to screen large-scale chemical and genomic libraries and (b) to systematically investigate the local cellular microenvironment. These emerging experimental platforms offer exciting opportunities to rapidly identify genetic determinants of disease, to discover modulators of cellular function, and to probe the complex and dynamic relationships between cells and their local environment. PMID:19413510

  3. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally.

  4. Intestinal transplantation: living related.

    PubMed

    Pollard, S G

    1997-01-01

    The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent risk to the donor and the compromise of using a shorter graft. Although only a handful of such cases have been performed, the success rate has been high and this is a therapeutic modality which should be explored further. PMID:9536535

  5. Cryopreservation of Living Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro

    Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.

  6. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  7. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  8. Dementia and Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Forester, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents an overview of what is known about dementia services in assisted living settings and suggests areas for future research. Design and Methods: We undertook a search of Medline, the "Journals of Gerontology," and "The Gerontologist." We then organized publications dealing with the target subject into 10 topic areas and…

  9. Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Cystic Fibrosis If you or your child has cystic fibrosis (CF), you should learn as much as you ... about CF Care Centers, go to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's Care Center Network Web page. It's standard ...

  10. Microholography of Living Organisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Johndale C.; Baldwin, George C.

    1982-01-01

    By using intense pulsed coherent x-ray sources it will be possible to obtain magnified three-dimensional images of living elementary biological structures at precisely defined instants. Discussed are sources/geometrics for x-ray holography, x-radiation interactions, factors affecting resolution, recording the hologram, high-intensity holography,…

  11. Test Pattern For Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nicholas

    The lives of Americans today are ruled by interlocking corporations. These corporations together present only one kind of life as viable: the consumer's life. Television is their main means of presenting this view. One cannot choose something he does not know about, and many Americans are not sufficiently informed of the alternatives to make an…

  12. Living or Nonliving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legaspi, Britt; Straits, William

    2011-01-01

    Categorizing organisms as living or nonliving things may seem to be intuitive by nature. Yet, it is regulated by scientific criteria. Students come to school with rules already in place. Their categorizing criteria have already been influenced by their personal experiences, also known as observations and inferences. They believe that all things…

  13. Living Systems Energy Module

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  14. You Live, You Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The Learning Lives project, a four-year study into the learning biographies and trajectories of adults, was conducted by a team of researchers from the universities of Stirling, Exeter, Brighton and Leeds as part of the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) of the Economic and Social Research Council, and has just been completed. Whereas…

  15. Design for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  16. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  17. Moab's Living Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Grand County Public Library (GCPL) which was awarded the 2007 Best Small Library in America, an award sponsored by "Library Journal" and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Some 4800 of Grand County, Utah's 8,826 people live in Moab and the rest in the adjacent Spanish Valley and environs. The locals are a sizable group…

  18. Live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard

    2014-01-01

    It would be hard to argue that live-cell imaging has not changed our view of biology. The past 10 years have seen an explosion of interest in imaging cellular processes, down to the molecular level. There are now many advanced techniques being applied to live cell imaging. However, cellular health is often under appreciated. For many researchers, if the cell at the end of the experiment has not gone into apoptosis or is blebbed beyond recognition, than all is well. This is simply incorrect. There are many factors that need to be considered when performing live-cell imaging in order to maintain cellular health such as: imaging modality, media, temperature, humidity, PH, osmolality, and photon dose. The wavelength of illuminating light, and the total photon dose that the cells are exposed to, comprise two of the most important and controllable parameters of live-cell imaging. The lowest photon dose that achieves a measureable metric for the experimental question should be used, not the dose that produces cover photo quality images. This is paramount to ensure that the cellular processes being investigated are in their in vitro state and not shifted to an alternate pathway due to environmental stress. The timing of the mitosis is an ideal canary in the gold mine, in that any stress induced from the imaging will result in the increased length of mitosis, thus providing a control model for the current imagining conditions. PMID:25482523

  19. Living with Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips from the Health Care Team Finding Resources Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want ... resources & more. Order Free Materials Today Living with Parkinson’s “Parkinson’s is a part of my life, but ...

  20. Loneliness and Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Lakin, K. Charlie; Doljanac, Robert; Byun, Soo-Yong; Taub, Sarah; Chiri, Giuseppina

    2007-01-01

    Adults with ID/DD live in increasingly small community settings, where the risk of loneliness may be greater. We examined self-reported loneliness among 1,002 individuals with ID/DD from 5 states in relation to community residence size, personal characteristics, social contact, and social climate. One third reported being lonely sometimes and one…

  1. Sheltered Living Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netherland's Central Society for Rehabilitation, The Hague.

    Resulting from a study conducted by the Advisory Housing Committee of the Dutch Society for Rehabilitation, the report describes housing conditions and possibilities for the physically handicapped in the Netherlands. Four categories of sheltered living conditions are described and analyzed: residential centers, supervised residential centers,…

  2. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  3. Learning from Live Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Hitt, Collin; Kraybill, Anne; Bogulski, Cari A.

    2015-01-01

    Culturally enriching field trips matter. They produce significant benefits for students on a variety of educational outcomes that schools and communities care about. This experiment on the effects of field trips to see live theater demonstrates that seeing plays is an effective way to teach academic content; increases student tolerance by…

  4. Living related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, M; Kawarazaki, H; Iwanaka, T; Kamada, N; Takayama, T; Kumon, M

    1992-01-01

    Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver transplantations had already been performed in Japan, mainly for children with biliary atresia. Five of these patients subsequently died, however, our patient has survived more than 1 year, and she is presently leading a normal school life. The most important issue regarding living related liver transplantation is to ensure the donor's safety. For this purpose, we conducted a preoperative banking of the donor's own blood and plasma. In addition, a selective vascular occlusion was carried out to reduce blood loss during the resection of the liver. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was introduced for evaluating the circulation of the graft. By using this modality, the following three points were able to be accurately estimated in order to obtain optimal graft perfusion: 1) The most suitable position for the graft to be fixed to the abdominal wall, 2) whether or not the abdominal wall could be closed and 3) the indication for a ligation of the collateral veins to form a porto-systemic shunt. Thanks to these procedures, living related liver transplantations have now become an acceptable transplant method, however, a transplantation from a cadaver that is brain dead but still has a beating heart is still absolutely necessary for adult recipients. Therefore, in the future, both methods should be performed.

  5. Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Test Environment Characterization Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Jim; Kim, Sam K.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents message latencies observed over various Live, Virtual, Constructive, (LVC) simulation environment configurations designed to emulate possible system architectures for the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project integrated tests. For each configuration, four scenarios with progressively increasing air traffic loads were used to determine system throughput and bandwidth impacts on message latency.

  6. Watersheds: where we live

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We all live in a watershed. Animals and plants all live there with us. Everyone affects what happens in a watershed by how we treat the natural resources. So what is a watershed? It is the land area that drains water to a stream, river, lake, or ocean. Water travels over the Earth's surface across forest land, farm fields, pastures, suburban lawns, and city streets, or it seeps into the soil and makes its way to a stream as local ground water. Watersheds come in many different shapes and sizes. Some contain mountains and hills, and others are nearly flat. A watershed can be affected by many different activities and events. Construction of cities and towns, farming, logging, and the application and disposal of many garden and household chemicals can affect the quantity and quality of water flowing from a watershed.

  7. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  8. Living history biography

    SciTech Connect

    Puck, T.T.

    1994-11-15

    A living history biography is presented of Theodore T. Puck. This history is intimately involved with the progress towards mapping of the human genome through research at the forefront of molecular cytogenetics. A review of historical research aims such as human genetics studies based on somatic cells, isolation of mutants as genetic markers, complementation analysis, gene mapping and the measurement of mutation is presented. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Improving assisted living care.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  10. E-2C Loads Calibration in DFRC Flight Loads Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Lawrence S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: a) Safely and efficiently perform structural load tests on NAVAIR E-2C aircraft to calibrate strain gage instrumentation installed by NAVAIR; b) Collect load test data and derive loads equations for use in NAVAIR flight tests; and c) Assist flight test team with use of loads equations measurements at PAX River.

  11. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  12. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts are made to provide a total design of a Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) system flight engineering model. Activities include assembly and testing of Sample Receiving and Card Loading Devices (SRCLDs), operator related software, and testing of biological samples in the MLM. Progress was made in assembling SRCLDs with minimal leaks and which operate reliably in the Sample Loading System. Seven operator commands are used to control various aspects of the MLM such as calibrating and reading the incubating reading head, setting the clock and reading time, and status of Card. Testing of the instrument, both in hardware and biologically, was performed. Hardware testing concentrated on SRCLDs. Biological testing covered 66 clinical and seeded samples. Tentative thresholds were set and media performance listed.

  13. Estimating turbine limit load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.

  14. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  15. Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of former living porch, now living area extension, facing east. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  16. Standardized Loads Acting in Hip Implants.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Dymke, Jörn; Duda, Georg; Damm, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing success of hip joint replacements, the average age of patients has decreased, patients have become more active and their expectations of the implant durability have risen. Thus, pre-clinical endurance tests on hip implants require defining realistic in vivo loads from younger and more active patients. These loads require simplifications to be applicable for simulator tests and numerical analyses. Here, the contact forces in the joint were measured with instrumented hip implants in ten subjects during nine of the most physically demanding and frequent activities of daily living. Typical levels and directions of average and high joint loads were extracted from the intra- and inter-individually widely varying individual data. These data can also be used to analyse bone remodelling at the implant-bone interface, evaluate tissue straining in finite element studies or validate analytical loading predictions, among other uses. The current ISO standards for endurance tests of implant stems and necks are based on historic analytical data from the 1970s. Comparisons of these test forces with in vivo loads unveiled that their unidirectional orientations deviate from the time-dependent in vivo directions during walking and most other activities. The ISO force for testing the stem is substantially too low while the ISO force for the neck better matches typical in vivo magnitudes. Because the magnitudes and orientations of peak forces substantially vary among the activities, load scenarios that reflect a collection of time-dependent high forces should be applied rather than using unidirectional forces. Based on data from ten patients, proposals for the most demanding activities, the time courses of the contact forces and the required cycle numbers for testing are given here. Friction moments in the joint were measured in addition to the contact forces. The moment data were also standardized and can be applied to wear tests of the implant. It was shown that

  17. Standardized Loads Acting in Hip Implants.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Dymke, Jörn; Duda, Georg; Damm, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing success of hip joint replacements, the average age of patients has decreased, patients have become more active and their expectations of the implant durability have risen. Thus, pre-clinical endurance tests on hip implants require defining realistic in vivo loads from younger and more active patients. These loads require simplifications to be applicable for simulator tests and numerical analyses. Here, the contact forces in the joint were measured with instrumented hip implants in ten subjects during nine of the most physically demanding and frequent activities of daily living. Typical levels and directions of average and high joint loads were extracted from the intra- and inter-individually widely varying individual data. These data can also be used to analyse bone remodelling at the implant-bone interface, evaluate tissue straining in finite element studies or validate analytical loading predictions, among other uses. The current ISO standards for endurance tests of implant stems and necks are based on historic analytical data from the 1970s. Comparisons of these test forces with in vivo loads unveiled that their unidirectional orientations deviate from the time-dependent in vivo directions during walking and most other activities. The ISO force for testing the stem is substantially too low while the ISO force for the neck better matches typical in vivo magnitudes. Because the magnitudes and orientations of peak forces substantially vary among the activities, load scenarios that reflect a collection of time-dependent high forces should be applied rather than using unidirectional forces. Based on data from ten patients, proposals for the most demanding activities, the time courses of the contact forces and the required cycle numbers for testing are given here. Friction moments in the joint were measured in addition to the contact forces. The moment data were also standardized and can be applied to wear tests of the implant. It was shown that

  18. Standardized Loads Acting in Hip Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Georg; Bender, Alwina; Dymke, Jörn; Duda, Georg; Damm, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing success of hip joint replacements, the average age of patients has decreased, patients have become more active and their expectations of the implant durability have risen. Thus, pre-clinical endurance tests on hip implants require defining realistic in vivo loads from younger and more active patients. These loads require simplifications to be applicable for simulator tests and numerical analyses. Here, the contact forces in the joint were measured with instrumented hip implants in ten subjects during nine of the most physically demanding and frequent activities of daily living. Typical levels and directions of average and high joint loads were extracted from the intra- and inter-individually widely varying individual data. These data can also be used to analyse bone remodelling at the implant-bone interface, evaluate tissue straining in finite element studies or validate analytical loading predictions, among other uses. The current ISO standards for endurance tests of implant stems and necks are based on historic analytical data from the 1970s. Comparisons of these test forces with in vivo loads unveiled that their unidirectional orientations deviate from the time-dependent in vivo directions during walking and most other activities. The ISO force for testing the stem is substantially too low while the ISO force for the neck better matches typical in vivo magnitudes. Because the magnitudes and orientations of peak forces substantially vary among the activities, load scenarios that reflect a collection of time-dependent high forces should be applied rather than using unidirectional forces. Based on data from ten patients, proposals for the most demanding activities, the time courses of the contact forces and the required cycle numbers for testing are given here. Friction moments in the joint were measured in addition to the contact forces. The moment data were also standardized and can be applied to wear tests of the implant. It was shown that

  19. Pesticide loadings of select organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in urban public housing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the magnitude and distribution of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticide loadings within public housing dwellings in Boston, Massachusetts and compared the results using various sampling methods. We collected dust matrices from living room and kitchen in 42 apar...

  20. Live from the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  1. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  2. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOEpatents

    Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Leland, Robert W.

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  3. Assisted living in 1489.

    PubMed

    Warren, Carol A B

    2012-10-01

    Much has been written about theories of aging in premodern times, but much less is known about theories of residential care. This article describes a handbook prescribing the building, staffing, and running of residences for seniors: The Gerontocomos, published in Italy in 1489 by Gabrielle Zerbi. The handbook describes in detail the physical environment and architecture, the qualifications of the administrator, and the hiring and training of assistants for what is essentially an Assisted Living Facility. Although ancient-to-Renaissance theories of aging differ widely from contemporary theories, some of the practical suggestions are not so different.

  4. Living with lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1994-01-01

    As many as 100 lightning flashes occur around the world each second. Electric utilities know well the impact of lightning in terms of dollars, lost productivity, and lives. EPRI research, which began with a study of lightning`s natural characteristics, has resulted in tools utilities can use to better track and prepare for thunderstorms. Recently the institute completed a series of tests using small rockets to trigger and direct lightning strikes. Now EPRI-sponsored researchers are developing a laser-based technology they believe will be able to guide thunderbolts safely to the ground and ultimately even to discharge thunderclouds.

  5. Living in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ray (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    In this educational video from the 'Liftoff to Learning' series, astronauts from the STS-56 Mission (Ken Cockrell, Mike Foale, Ellen Ochoa, Steve Oswald, and Ken Cameron) explain and show through demonstrations how microgravity affects the way astronauts live onboard the Space Shuttle, and how these same daily habits or processes differ on Earth. A tour of the Space Shuttle is given, including the sleeping compartments, the kitchen area, the storage compartments, and the Waste Collection System (or WCS, as they call it). Daily habits (brushing teeth, shampooing hair and bathing, eating,...) are explained and actively illustrated, along with reasons of how these applications differ from their employment on Earth.

  6. Living donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S C; Flowers, J L; Dunkin, B; Sklar, G N; Cho, E

    1999-03-01

    The need for more organs for kidney transplantation is increasing. Cadaver sources for these organs are stable, therefore living donation must increase if the need is to be met. Less perfect kidneys are now being transplanted. The pool of potential donors is being expanded. The process of kidney donation is being made easier in an effort to increase the number of donors. The donor work-up is being streamlined. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been introduced, and appears to be promising as a technique of lessening donor pain and suffering, while maintaining excellent graft results.

  7. "Living versus Dead":

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Semple antirabies vaccine was developed by David Semple in India in 1911. Semple introduced a peculiarly British approach within the Pasteurian tradition by using carbolized dead virus. This article studies this unique phase of vaccine research between 1910 and 1935 to show that in the debates and laboratory experiments around the potency and safety of vaccines, categories like "living" and "dead" were often used as ideological and moral denominations. These abstract and ideological debates were crucial in defining the final configuration of the Semple vaccine, the most popular antirabies vaccine used globally, and also in shaping international vaccination policies. PMID:21037397

  8. Communication in Assisted Living*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine N.; Warren, Carol A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study of communication in an Assisted Living Facility (ALF) focuses on staff’s interpretive frameworks and situational tactics for managing elderly residents. It is based on interviews with staff and residents in an ALF together with ethnographic fieldwork. As in other quasi-total institutions, staff members engage in control as well as care, monitoring residents for compliance with rules and directives. Residents, aware of the threat of being moved to a nursing home, also monitor their own behavior and cognition in comparison to other residents. Other communication issues include the infantilization of the elderly by staff, and the race, class, and ethnic prejudices of residents. PMID:20107612

  9. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  10. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  11. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  12. Microencapsulation Of Living Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium; Kendall, James M.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental technique, living cells and other biological materials encapsulated within submillimeter-diameter liquid-filled spheres. Sphere material biocompatible, tough, and compliant. Semipermeable, permitting relatively small molecules to move into and out of sphere core but preventing passage of large molecules. New technique promises to make such spherical capsules at high rates and in uniform, controllable sizes. Capsules injected into patient through ordinary hypodermic needle. Promising application for technique in treatment of diabetes. Also used to encapsulate pituitary cells and thyroid hormone adrenocortical cells for treatment of other hormonal disorders, to encapsulate other secreting cells for transplantation, and to package variety of pharmaceutical products and agricultural chemicals for controlled release.

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. National Center for Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicators to help providers stay ahead of the curve. Key Dates NOV 11 Live! Q & A Session ... Assisted Living Studies Clinical Practice Guidelines Health Information Technology In-Service Training Tools Periodicals State Regulatory Review ...

  15. Living with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    MedlinePlus

    ... living and employment while others may deal with dating issues and reproductive concerns. Throughout their lives, those ... Overview Outreach Toolkit Government Action Team TS Alliance Online Support Community Facebook Twitter YouTube How to Make ...

  16. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  17. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOEpatents

    Scavone, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  18. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  19. Load measurement system with load cell lock-out mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty; Liu, Jonathan

    1995-05-01

    In the frame work of the project Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), a Load Measurement System was developed and fabricated to measure the impingement force of Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) jets. The Load Measurement System is a force sensing system that measures any combination of normal and shear forces up to 40 N (9 lbf) in the normal direction and 22 N (5 lbf) in the shear direction with an accuracy of +/- 0.04 N (+/- 0.01 lbf) Since high resolution is required for the force measurement, the Load Measurement System is built with highly sensitive load cells. To protect these fragile load cells in the non-operational mode from being damaged due to flight loads such as launch and landing loads of the Shuttle vehicle, a motor driven device known as the Load Cell Lock-Out Mechanism was built. This Lock-Out Mechanism isolates the load cells from flight loads and re-engages the load cells for the force measurement experiment once in space. With this highly effective protection system, the SPIFEX load measurement experiment was successfully conducted on STS-44 in September 1994 with all load cells operating properly and reading impingement forces as expected.

  20. Live From the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Kent, J.; Lippsett, L.

    2006-12-01

    International Polar Year presents an extraordinary opportunity to educate students and the public about science at the icy ends of the Earth. The goal of our proposal is to apply collaborative multimedia approaches to bring the story of four polar research expeditions to the general public and the classroom. The four expeditions (measurement of ice sheet dynamics in Greenland, a study of the McMurdo ecosystem over austral winter, installation of a buoy array in the Beaufort Gyre, and exploration of the Gakkel Ridge) were chosen based on their broad range of disciplines and relevance to the three primary IPY research emphasis areas defined by NSF. A science writer and a professional photographer will join each expedition and file dispatches for a daily Webcast. The posting will feature science updates, logistical challenges, team member profiles, and life at sea (or on the ice). The writer will also coordinate real-time phone patches from PIs in the field to audiences at the Museum of Science, Boston, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, The Field Museum, Chicago, the Houston Museum of Natural Science, the Birch Aquarium, San Diego, the Pacific Science Center, Seattle, National Public Radio "Talk of the Nation: Science Friday," CBS News, and to student "reporters" writing for Scholastic Online. At the museums, the "Live from the Ice" interactive phone calls will be preceded by a background presentation by a scientist, who will also moderate the live discussion between the public and researchers in the field. A 20-30 minute satellite phone call will allow the public to ask the researchers questions about their research while it's happening. In addition to building and promoting an online experience, a museum exhibit featuring models of Arctic instruments and informative kiosks will be developed at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Exhibit Center. Each of our partner museums will also provide a "leave-behind" component to continue to educate

  1. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  2. Country living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kletecka, C

    1998-12-01

    The number of people with HIV in rural areas is small, but it is growing. In rural areas, AIDS organizations must deal with a fragmented client base that is spread out over a large geographic area. The logistics and costs of maintaining these services are higher per person than in urban areas. A description of what it is like to live with HIV in rural Vermont is provided. Although most people in rural Vermont seem to accept the concept of AIDS, few have known someone with the disease. Specialized medical care is difficult to obtain because only one specialty clinic and three part-time sites exist in the state of Vermont. Many who require more complex care, with better treatment options, go out of state to receive it.

  3. Living With Semantic Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Karen; Wilkinson, Ray; Keady, John

    2014-01-01

    Semantic dementia is a variant of frontotemporal dementia and is a recently recognized diagnostic condition. There has been some research quantitatively examining care partner stress and burden in frontotemporal dementia. There are, however, few studies exploring the subjective experiences of family members caring for those with frontotemporal dementia. Increased knowledge of such experiences would allow service providers to tailor intervention, support, and information better. We used a case study design, with thematic narrative analysis applied to interview data, to describe the experiences of a wife and son caring for a husband/father with semantic dementia. Using this approach, we identified four themes: (a) living with routines, (b) policing and protecting, (c) making connections, and (d) being adaptive and flexible. Each of these themes were shared and extended, with the importance of routines in everyday life highlighted. The implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed. PMID:24532121

  4. Freezing of living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Live cell NMR.

    PubMed

    Freedberg, Darón I; Selenko, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Ever since scientists realized that cells are the basic building blocks of all life, they have been developing tools to look inside them to reveal the architectures and mechanisms that define their biological functions. Whereas "looking into cells" is typically said in reference to optical microscopy, high-resolution in-cell and on-cell nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful method that offers exciting new possibilities for structural and functional studies in and on live cells. In contrast to conventional imaging techniques, in- and on-cell NMR methods do not provide spatial information on cellular biomolecules. Instead, they enable atomic-resolution insights into the native cell states of proteins, nucleic acids, glycans, and lipids. Here we review recent advances and developments in both fields and discuss emerging concepts that have been delineated with these methods.

  6. Living with uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, N.; Fong, C.C.; Grigg, C.H.; Silverstein, B.

    1994-11-01

    In the electric utility industry, only one thing can be guaranteed with absolute certainty: one lives and works with many unknowns. Thus, the industry has embraced probability methods to varying degrees over the last 25 years. These techniques aid decision makers in planning, operations, and maintenance by quantifying uncertainty. Examples include power system reliability, production costing simulation, and assessment of environmental factors. A series of brainstorming sessions was conducted by the Application of Probability Methods (APM) Subcommittee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society to identify research and development needs and to ask the question, ''where should we go from here '' The subcommittee examined areas of need in data development, applications, and methods for decision making. The purpose of this article is to share the thoughts of APM members with a broader audience to the findings and to invite comments and participation.

  7. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  8. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  9. Load regulating latch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A load regulating mechanical latch is described that has a pivotally mounted latch element having a hook-shaped end with a strike roller-engaging laterally open hook for engaging a stationary strike roller. The latch element or hook is pivotally mounted in a clevis end of an elongated latch stem that is adapted for axial movement through an opening in a support plate or bracket mounted to a structural member. A coil spring is disposed over and around the extending latch stem and the lower end of the coil spring engages the support bracket. A thrust washer is removably attached to the other end of the latch stem and engages the other end of the coil spring and compresses the coil spring thereby preloading the spring and the latch element carried by the latch stem. The hook-shaped latch element has a limited degree of axial travel for loading caused by structural distortion which may change the relative positions of the latch element hook and the strike roller. Means are also provided to permit limited tilt of the latch element due to loading of the hook.

  10. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  11. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  12. 32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VAL, DETAIL SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM, PROJECTILE LOADING CAR, LAUNCHER SLAB AND UNDERSIDE OF LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. An Efficient Approach to Obtain Optimal Load Factors for Structural Design

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    An efficient optimization approach is described to calibrate load factors used for designing of structures. The load factors are calibrated so that the structural reliability index is as close as possible to a target reliability value. The optimization procedure is applied to find optimal load factors for designing of structures in accordance with the new version of the Mexico City Building Code (RCDF). For this aim, the combination of factors corresponding to dead load plus live load is considered. The optimal combination is based on a parametric numerical analysis of several reinforced concrete elements, which are designed using different load factor values. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used. The formulation is applied to different failure modes: flexure, shear, torsion, and compression plus bending of short and slender reinforced concrete elements. Finally, the structural reliability corresponding to the optimal load combination proposed here is compared with that corresponding to the load combination recommended by the current Mexico City Building Code. PMID:25133232

  14. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  15. Microbial Load Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. F.; Royer, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    The Microbial Load Monitor (MLM) is an automated and computerized system for detection and identification of microorganisms. Additionally, the system is designed to enumerate and provide antimicrobic susceptibility profiles for medically significant bacteria. The system is designed to accomplish these tasks in a time of 13 hours or less versus the traditional time of 24 hours for negatives and 72 hours or more for positives usually required for standard microbiological analysis. The MLM concept differs from other methods of microbial detection in that the system is designed to accept raw untreated clinical samples and to selectively identify each group or species that may be present in a polymicrobic sample.

  16. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  17. Variable loading roller

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  18. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  19. RNAi: RISC gets loaded.

    PubMed

    Preall, Jonathan B; Sontheimer, Erik J

    2005-11-18

    When an siRNA or miRNA proceeds through the RNA-induced silencing complex assembly pathway, only one of the two approximately 21-nucleotide RNA strands survives in the final, active complex. In this issue of Cell, Matranga et al. (2005) and Rand et al. (2005) reveal the fate of the rejected passenger siRNA strand. Additionally, Gregory et al. (2005) define a heterotrimeric complex from humans that appears to execute dsRNA loading, strand selection, and target mRNA cleavage activities.

  20. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  1. Modeling AFM Induced Mechanical Deformation of Living Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M; Balhorn, R; Allen, M J; Belak, J

    2002-11-15

    Finite element modeling has been applied to study deformation of living cells in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and particularly Recognition Force Microscopy (RFM). The abstract mechanical problem of interest is the response to RFM point loads of an incompressible medium enclosed in a fluid membrane. Cells are soft systems, susceptible to large deformations in the course of an RFM measurement. Often the local properties such as receptor anchoring forces, the reason for the measurement, are obscured by the response of the cell as a whole. Modeling can deconvolute these effects. This facilitates experimental efforts to have reproducible measurements of mechanical and chemical properties at specific kinds of receptor sites on the membrane of a living cell. In this article we briefly review the RFM technique for cells and the problems it poses, and then report on recent progress in modeling the deformation of cells by a point load.

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology of Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmannsberger, Philip; Fabry, Ben

    2011-08-01

    Living cells are an active soft material with fascinating mechanical properties. Under mechanical loading, cells exhibit creep and stress relaxation behavior that follows a power-law response rather than a classical exponential response. Such a response puts cells in the context of soft colloidal glasses and other disordered metastable materials that share the same properties. In cells, however, both the power-law exponent and stiffness are related to the contractile prestress in the cytoskeleton. In addition, cells are made of a highly nonlinear material that stiffens and fluidizes under mechanical stress. They show active and adaptive mechanical behavior such as contraction and remodeling that sets them apart from any other nonliving material. Strikingly, all these observations can be linked by simple relationships with the power-law exponent as the only organizing parameter. Current theoretical models capture specific facets of cell mechanical behavior, but a comprehensive understanding is still emerging.

  3. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  4. Lives Worth Living: Religious Education and Social Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    When people of faith participate in movements for social change, how are their religious and moral identities formed, challenged, and transformed? Although they have explicit and tangible goals as they participate in advocacy, protest, and boycotts, religious social activists also, James Jasper argues, craft "lives worth living" (1997).…

  5. In Vivo Axial Loading of the Mouse Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Katherine M.; Robling, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Non-invasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as an anabolic agent to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days. PMID:25331046

  6. In vivo axial loading of the mouse tibia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Katherine M; Robling, Alexander G; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive methods to apply controlled, cyclic loads to the living skeleton are used as anabolic procedures to stimulate new bone formation in adults and enhance bone mass accrual in growing animals. These methods are also invaluable for understanding bone signaling pathways. Our focus here is on a particular loading model: in vivo axial compression of the mouse tibia. An advantage of loading the tibia is that changes are present in both the cancellous envelope of the proximal tibia and the cortical bone of the tibial diaphysis. To load the tibia of the mouse axially in vivo, a cyclic compressive load is applied up to five times a week to a single tibia per mouse for a duration lasting from 1 day to 6 weeks. With the contralateral limb as an internal control, the anabolic response of the skeleton to mechanical stimuli can be studied in a pairwise experimental design. Here, we describe the key parameters that must be considered before beginning an in vivo mouse tibial loading experiment, including methods for in vivo strain gauging of the tibial midshaft, and then we describe general methods for loading the mouse tibia for an experiment lasting multiple days. PMID:25331046

  7. The living publication

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2012-06-04

    Within the ICSTI Insights Series we offer three articles on the 'living publication' that is already available to practitioners in the important field of crystal structure determination and analysis. While the specific examples are drawn from this particular field, we invite readers to draw parallels in their own fields of interest. The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers) Award for Publishing Innovation in 2006. The second article describes the potential impact on the record of science as greater post-publication analysis becomes more common within currently accepted data deposition practices, using processed diffraction data as the starting point. The third article outlines a vision for the further improvement of crystallographic structure reports within potentially achievable enhanced data deposition practices, based upon raw (unprocessed) diffraction data. The IUCr in its Commissions and Journals has for many years emphasized the importance of publications being accompanied by data and the interpretation of the data in terms of atomic models. This has been followed as policy by numerous other journals in the field and its cognate disciplines. This practice has been well served by databases and archiving institutions such as the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), and the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD). Normally the models that are archived are interpretations of the data, consisting of atomic coordinates with their displacement parameters, along with processed diffraction data from X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction studies. In our current online age, a reader can not only consult the printed word, but can display and explore the results with molecular graphics software of exceptional quality. Furthermore, the routine availability of processed diffraction data allows

  8. Neighborhood features and physiological risk: An examination of allostatic load.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Almeida, David M; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2016-09-01

    Poor neighborhoods may represent a situation of chronic stress, and may therefore be associated with health-related correlates of stress. We examined whether lower neighborhood income would relate to higher allostatic load, or physiological well-being, through psychological, affective, and behavioral pathways. Using data from the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and the 2000 Census, we demonstrated that people living in lower income neighborhoods have higher allostatic load net of individual income. Moreover, findings indicate that this relation is partially accounted for by anxious arousal symptoms, fast food consumption, smoking, and exercise habits. PMID:27583527

  9. Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  10. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease » Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Explore Diabetic Heart Disease What Is... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiomyopathy Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Failure Send ...

  11. Framework for Healthful Living Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The Healthful Living Education program promotes behaviors that contribute to a healthful lifestyle and improved quality of life for all students. The Framework for Healthy Living Education supports and reinforces the goals and objectives of its three major components: health education, physical education, and alcohol and other drugs. When the…

  12. Learning Lives and Alumni Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Andrea; Leach, Camilla; Spencer, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Changes in governmental financial support are causing many would-be students to question the value of higher education or to consider attending a local university. Oral history testimonies provide a source for understanding the role that living, as well as working, within an academic community plays in the learning lives of its alumni. An…

  13. Community Living Skills Guide: Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Kathy

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Sexuality. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  14. Cable load transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Scott E.; Abdow, David A.

    1994-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the loads, moments and torque at a constrained end of a cable created by the action of the cable in a fluid medium in which the cable is suspended. The cable is suspended in the medium by means of a strut. The apparatus connects the cable to the strut. The apparatus includes two flexure members, one rigidly connected to the strut, the other to the cable. A universal joint couples the two flexure members so that the flexure member connected to the strut can be fitted with strain gages to measure bending while the other flexure member has strain gages to measure axial force and torque. The universal joint enables the isolation of axial and torsional strains at the flexure member connected to the cable.

  15. Offshore tanker loading system

    SciTech Connect

    Baan, J. de; Heijst, W.J. van.

    1994-01-04

    The present invention relates to an improved flexible loading system which provides fluid communication between a subsea pipeline and a surface vessel including a hose extending from the subsea pipeline to a first buoyancy tank, a second hose extending from the first buoyancy tank to a central buoyancy tank, a second buoyancy tank, means connecting said second buoyancy tank to the sea floor and to the central buoyancy tank whereby the forces exerted on said central buoyant tank by said second hose and said connecting means are balanced to cause said central buoyancy tank to maintain a preselected position, a riser section extending upwardly from said central buoyancy tank and means on the upper termination for engagement by a vessel on the surface to raise said upper termination onto the vessel to complete the communication for moving fluids between the subsea pipeline and the vessel. In one form the means for connecting between the sea floor to the second buoyancy tank includes an anchor on the sea floor and lines extending from the anchor to the second buoyancy tank and from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. In another form of the invention the means for connecting is a third hose extending from a second subsea pipeline to the second buoyancy tank and a fourth hose extending from the second buoyancy tank to the central buoyancy tank. The central buoyancy tank is preferred to be maintained at a level below the water surface which allows full movement of the vessel while connected to the riser section. A swivel may be positioned in the riser section and a pressure relief system may be included in the loading system to protect it from sudden excess pressures. 17 figs.

  16. Robinson instability and beam loading

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, B.C. III

    1985-01-01

    The Robinson instability problem is developed in three stages. The first step is to derive the synchrotron oscillation equations in the absence of beam loading (unloaded case). Next, the equations are evaluated in the presence of beam loading at the fundamental rf frequency (statically loaded case). Finally, the system is redeveloped taking into account beam loading at the synchrotron sidebands (dynamically loaded case). Following the theoretical development, the results are applied to calculate the synchrotron frequency in the presence of beam-loading, automatic-gain-control, and automatic-tune-control. The results of this calculation are compared with data from the NSLS vuv-ring, a 750 MeV electron storage ring. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  17. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, Stephen R.

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  18. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOEpatents

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  19. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for the prediction of loads on large space structures are discussed. Existing approaches to the problem of loads calculation are surveyed. A full scale version of an alternate numerical integration technique to solve the response part of a load cycle is presented, and a set of short cut versions of the algorithm developed. The implementation of these techniques using the software package developed is discussed.

  20. ALFA: Automated load forecasting assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbour, K.; Riveros, J.F.V.; Landsbergen, D.; Meyer, W.

    1988-08-01

    ALFA, an expert system for forecasting short term demand for electricity is presented. ALFA is in operation at the new Energy Management System center at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation in Upstate New York, generating the real time hourly load forecasts up to 48 hours in advance. ALFA uses an extensive 10 year historical data base of hourly observations of 12 weather variables and load, and a rule base that takes into account daily, weekly, and seasonal variations of load, as well as holidays, special events, and load growth. A satellite interface for the real-time acquisition of weather data, and the machine-operator interface are also discussed.

  1. Residential-appliance load characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, J.

    1982-04-01

    The performance of residential photovoltaic systems in combination with energy efficient appliances is examined. The load characteristics are presented for several types of major residential appliances. Load characteristics consist of the average energy use of each appliance, the power demand while the appliance is operating, and a typical use schedule. Potential energy conserving features are investigated for each appliance and used to identify a best available model and maximum feasible energy efficient appliance. Load characteristics of these energy conserving designs are then compared with the load characteristics of a standard model. The feasibility of converting appliances to dc power for use with photovoltaic systems is also discussed.

  2. Postural load and the development of musculo-skeletal illness.

    PubMed

    Aarås, A

    1987-01-01

    Early in the 1970s, high rates of sick-leave due to musculo-skeletal complaints were frequently recorded among workers at Standard Telefon and Kabelfabrik's (STK's) factory in Norway. Workstations were redesigned according to ergonomics principles that allowed workers a wider choice of working postures and following their introduction in 1975, there was a marked reduction in sickness absence. Postural load was studied in groups of female workers in well defined assembly tasks. Trapezius load was recorded by electromyography (EMG). Simultaneously, postural angles of the upper arm in the shoulder joint and flexion/extension of head/neck and back were measured by using pendulum potentiometers. A quantitative relationship was found for the group between its median value of static trapezius load and the development of musculo-skeletal sick-leave, as a function of length of employment. Further support for a relationship between musculo-skeletal injury and trapezius load was found for the same subjects who suffered less musculo-skeletal sick-leave, consistent with the reduced trapezius load when working at the redesigned work stands. The relationship between postural load and musculo-skeletal injury was studied in comparable groups of the female workers with respect to age, working hours per day and time of employment. Psychosocial problems, spare time activities and living habits of workers did not show any significant difference across the groups. Postural load, both in terms of the magnitude of the flexion angle of the upper arm in the shoulder joint and the distribution of the work load between flexors and extensors, appeared to influence the incidence of load-related musculo-skeletal illness in the upper part of the body. The incidence of musculo-skeletal sick-leave in a group of workers with a median static trapezius load of about 1 to 2% MVC (Maximum Voluntary Contraction) for most of the work day, was approximately the same as for a group of comparable female

  3. Towards multiple hazard resilient bridges: a methodology for modeling frequent and infrequent time-varying loads Part I, Comprehensive reliability and partial failure probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zach; Lee, George C.

    2012-09-01

    The current AASHTO load and resistance factor design (LRFD) guidelines are formulated based on bridge reliability, which interprets traditional design safety factors into more rigorously deduced factors based on the theory of probability. This is a major advancement in bridge design specifications. However, LRFD is only calibrated for dead and live loads. In cases when extreme loads are significant, they need to be individually assessed. Combining regular loads with extreme loads has been a major challenge, mainly because the extreme loads are time variables and cannot be directly combined with time invariant loads to formulate the probability of structural failure. To overcome these difficulties, this paper suggests a methodology of comprehensive reliability, by introducing the concept of partial failure probability to separate the loads so that each individual load combination under a certain condition can be approximated as time invariant. Based on these conditions, the extreme loads (also referred to as multiple hazard or MH loads) can be broken down into single effects. In Part II of this paper, a further breakdown of these conditional occurrence probabilities into pure conditions is discussed by using a live truck and earthquake loads on a bridge as an example. There are three major steps in establishing load factors from MH load distributions: (1) formulate the failure probabilities; (2) normalize various load distributions; and (3) establish design limit state equations. This paper describes the formulation of the failure probabilities of single and combined loads.

  4. Estimating Nitrogen Loads, BMPs, and Target Loads Exceedance Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wabash River (WR) watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state’s 92 counties and has primarily agricultural land use. The nutrient and sediment loads of the WR significantly increase loads of the Ohio River ultimately polluting the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study...

  5. Crane-Load Contact Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  6. Role of the Acetabular Labrum in Load Support Across the Hip Joint

    PubMed Central

    Henak, Corinne R.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Harris, Michael D.; Anderson, Andrew E.; Peters, Christopher L.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high incidence of labral tears among patients presenting with hip pain suggests that the acetabular labrum is often subjected to injurious loading in vivo. However, it is unclear whether the labrum participates in load transfer across the joint during activities of daily living. This study examined the role of the acetabular labrum in load transfer for hips with normal acetabular geometry and acetabular dysplasia using subject-specific finite element analysis. Models were generated from volumetric CT data and analyzed with and without the labrum during activities of daily living. The labrum in the dysplastic model supported 4-11% of the total load transferred across the joint, while the labrum in the normal model supported only 1-2% of the total load. Despite the increased load transferred to the acetabular cartilage in simulations without the labrum, there were minimal differences in cartilage contact stresses. This was because the load supported by the cartilage correlated to the cartilage contact area. A higher percentage of load was transferred to the labrum in the dysplastic model because the femoral head achieved equilibrium near the lateral edge of the acetabulum. The results of this study suggest that the labrum plays a larger role in load transfer and joint stability in hips with acetabular dysplasia than in hips with normal acetabular geometry. PMID:21757198

  7. Optimal load shedding and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ding

    Load shedding is an emergency control action in power systems that can save systems from a wide-area blackout. Underfrequency load shedding, steady state load shedding, and voltage load shedding are widely used in power systems. These methods utilize either the steady state model or a simplified dynamic model to represent a power systems. In this dissertation, a general optimal load shedding method that considers both the dynamic process and load distribution is proposed. The unfavorable load shedding is then formulated as an optimization problem with the objective function of cost minimization. This objective function is subjected to system, security, and operation constraints. The entire problem becomes a question of optimization with differential and nonlinear equations as constraints. To solve this problem, discretization is used to change the differential equations into algebraic equations. The original problem is thus reformulated as an optimization problem and can be solved by a standard mathematical program. The general idea is then applied to traditional power systems, deregulated power systems, power systems with distributed generation, and load restoration. In the traditional power system, the method shows that governor action, generation dynamic, disturbance location, and economic factors can be taken into consideration. In the deregulated power system, two power market models are developed and incorporated into the load shedding scheme. In power systems with multiple distributed generations, the different cases of disturbances are analyzed and models of different distributed generation developed. The general idea is then applied. Finally, the load restoration problem is studied, and it is proposed that an optimization method be applied to it. This dissertation provides a comprehensive solution for load shedding problem in power systems. The models developed in this research can also be used to study other power system problems.

  8. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), butmore » dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.« less

  9. Insecticide Transfer Efficiency and Lethal Load in Argentine Ants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E S.C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-07-03

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. The bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  10. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  11. Technology for Independent Living: Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Alexandra, Ed.

    This sourcebook provides information for the practical implementation of independent living technology in the everyday rehabilitation process. "Information Services and Resources" lists databases, clearinghouses, networks, research and development programs, toll-free telephone numbers, consumer protection caveats, selected publications, and…

  12. Living with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Support Living with IPF may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel ... and friends also can help relieve stress and anxiety. Let your loved ones know how you feel ...

  13. [Passive euthanasia and living will].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the intentional distinction between murder of first degree and passive euthanasia. In Hungary, active euthanasia is considered to be a murder of first degree, whilst the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland have legalized the active form of mercy killing in Europe. The palliative terminal care, when e.g. giving pain-killer morphine to the patient, might result in decreasing the patient's life-span, and thus causing indirect euthanasia. However, the legal institution of living will exists in several counter-euthanasia countries. The living will allows future patients to express their decision in advance to refuse a life-sustaining treatment, e.g. in case of irreversible coma. The institution of living will exists in Germany and in Hungary too. Nevertheless, the formal criteria of living will make it hardly applicable. The patient ought to express his/her will before a notary public in advance, and he/she should hand it over when being hospitalized. If the patient is not able to present his/her living will to his/her doctor in the hospital, then his/her only hope remains that he/she has given a copy of the living will to the family doctor previously, and the family doctor will notify the hospital.

  14. Spinal loads during cycling on an ergometer.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Graichen, Friedmar; Schmidt, Hendrik; Bergmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Cycling on an ergometer is an effective exercise for improving fitness. However, people with back problems or previous spinal surgery are often not aware of whether cycling could be harmful for them. To date, little information exists about spinal loads during cycling. A telemeterized vertebral body replacement allows in vivo measurement of implant loads during the activities of daily living. Five patients with a severe compression fracture of a lumbar vertebral body received these implants. During one measurement session, four of the participants exercised on a bicycle ergometer at various power levels. As the power level increased, the maximum resultant force and the difference between the maximum and minimum force (force range) during each pedal revolution increased. The average maximum-force increases between the two power levels 25 and 85 W were 73, 84, 225 and 75 N for the four patients. The corresponding increases in the force range during a pedal revolution were 84, 98, 166 and 101 N. There were large variations in the measured forces between the patients and also within the same patient, especially for high power levels. In two patients, the maximum forces during high-power cycling were higher than the forces during walking measured on the same day. Therefore, the authors conclude that patients with back problems should not cycle at high power levels shortly after surgery as a precaution.

  15. Inexpensive Bolt-Load Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    "Built-in" gage determines whether large bolt or stud has been torqued to desired load and provides for continuous inspection to ensure proper load is being maintained. Gage detects longitudinal stress/strain bolt; requires no electronic or sonic test equipment.

  16. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  17. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  18. Perceptual Load Alters Visual Excitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, David; Thorne, Jeremy D.; Rees, Geraint; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    Increasing perceptual load reduces the processing of visual stimuli outside the focus of attention, but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Here we tested an account attributing the effects of perceptual load to modulations of visual cortex excitability. In contrast to stimulus competition accounts, which propose that load…

  19. Immediate loading of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Henry, P J; Liddelow, G J

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the concept of immediate loading as it pertains to dental implants and the indications for clinical practice. The definition of immediate loading will be considered together with a review of the relevant literature in an attempt to provide evidence-based guidelines for successful implementation into practice. A search of electronic databases including Medline, PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was undertaken using the terms "immediate loading'', "dental implants'', "immediate function'', "early loading'', "oral implants'', "immediate restoration'' and "systematic review''. This was supplemented by handsearching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Emphasis was given to systematic reviews and controlled clinical trials. A definition of immediate loading was suggested pertinent to the realities of logistics in clinical practice with respect to application and time frame. The literature was evaluated and shown to be limited with significant shortcomings. Guidelines and recommendations for clinical protocols were suggested and illustrated by examples of case types with a minimum of 1-3 years follow-up. A list of additional references for further reading was provided. Within the limitations of this review, there is evidence to suggest that immediate loading protocols have demonstrated high implant survival rates and may be cautiously recommended for certain clinical situations. However, more high level evidence studies, preferably randomized controlled trials (RCTs), over a long time frame are required to show a clear benefit over more conventional loading protocols.

  20. Video fingerprinting for live events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Mehmet; Haitsma, Jaap; Barvinko, Pavlo; Langelaar, Gerhard; Maas, Martijn

    2009-02-01

    Multimedia fingerprinting (robust hashing) as a content identification technology is emerging as an effective tool for preventing unauthorized distribution of commercial content through user generated content (UGC) sites. Research in the field has mainly considered content types with slow distribution cycles, e.g. feature films, for which reference fingerprint ingestion and database indexing can be performed offline. As a result, research focus has been on improving the robustness and search speed. Live events, such as live sports broadcasts, impose new challenges on a fingerprinting system. For instance, highlights from a soccer match are often available-and viewed-on UGC sites well before the end of the match. In this scenario, the fingerprinting system should be able to ingest and index live content online and offer continuous search capability, where new material is identifiable within minutes of broadcast. In this paper, we concentrate on algorithmic and architectural challenges we faced when developing a video fingerprinting solution for live events. In particular, we discuss how to effectively utilize fast sorting algorithms and a master-slave architecture for fast and continuous ingestion of live broadcasts.

  1. Space Shuttle fatigue loads spectra for prelaunch and liftoff loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldish, Judith; Ortasse, Raphael

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue loads spectra for the prelaunch and liftoff flight segments of the Space Shuttle were developed. A variety o methods were used to determine the distributions of several important parameters, such as time of exposure on the launch, pad, month of launch, and wind speed. Also, some lessons learned that would be applicable to development of fatigue loads spectra for other reusable space vehicles are presented.

  2. A root-mean-square approach for predicting fatigue crack growth under random loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A method for predicting fatigue crack growth under random loading which employs the concept of Barsom (1976) is presented. In accordance with this method, the loading history for each specimen is analyzed to determine the root-mean-square maximum and minimum stresses, and the predictions are made by assuming the tests have been conducted under constant-amplitude loading at the root-mean-square maximum and minimum levels. The procedure requires a simple computer program and a desk-top computer. For the eleven predictions made, the ratios of the predicted lives to the test lives ranged from 2.13 to 0.82, which is a good result, considering that the normal scatter in the fatigue-crack-growth rates may range from a factor of two to four under identical loading conditions.

  3. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  4. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  5. Information use in colonial living.

    PubMed

    Evans, Julian C; Votier, Stephen C; Dall, Sasha R X

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that many animals live in groups, there is still no clear consensus about the ecological or evolutionary mechanisms underlying colonial living. Recently, research has suggested that colonies may be important as sources of social information. The ready availability of information from conspecifics allows animals to make better decisions about avoiding predators, reducing brood parasitism, migratory phenology, mate choice, habitat choice and foraging. These choices can play a large part in the development and maintenance of colonies. Here we review the types of information provided by colonial animals and examine the different ways in which decision-making in colonies can be enhanced by social information. We discuss what roles information might take in the evolution, formation and maintenance of colonies. In the process, we illustrate that information use permeates all aspects of colonial living.

  6. Live Imaging of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2015-01-01

    Live lung imaging has spanned the discovery of capillaries in the frog lung by Malpighi to the current use of single and multiphoton imaging of intravital and isolated perfused lung preparations incorporating fluorescent molecular probes and transgenic reporter mice. Along the way, much has been learned about the unique microcirculation of the lung, including immune cell migration and the mechanisms by which cells at the alveolar-capillary interface communicate with each other. In this review, we highlight live lung imaging techniques as applied to the role of mitochondria in lung immunity, mechanisms of signal transduction in lung compartments, studies on the composition of alveolar wall liquid, and neutrophil and platelet trafficking in the lung under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. New applications of live lung imaging and the limitations of current techniques are discussed. PMID:24245941

  7. How to increase living donation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Connie L

    2011-04-01

    Living donation is the key to increasing access to successful solid organ transplantation worldwide. However, the means to expanding the number of living donors on a global scale are not known. Although there have been many suggestions for the best approach, cultural issues may limit the effectiveness of some strategies. Only a few ideas have been studied, and one in particular- outright payment to donors - may raise ethical issues that are difficult to surmount and might negatively alter altruistic behavior. With respect to the present environment, this article will describe some of the approaches that are being discussed to increase the number of living donors, with a particular focus on kidney transplantation. PMID:21210867

  8. Microencapsulation of live probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2010-10-01

    Scientific research regarding the use of live bacterial cells for therapeutic purposes has been rapidly growing over the years and has generated considerable interest to scientists and health professionals. Probiotics are defined as essential live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Due to considerable beneficial health effects, these microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into the dairy products; however, many reports demonstrated their poor survival and stability. Their survival in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is also questionable. To overcome these problems, microencapsulation techniques are currently receiving considerable attention. This review describes the importance of live probiotic bacterial microencapsulation using an alginate microparticulate system and presents the potentiality of various coating polymers such as chitosan and polylysine for improving the stability of this microencapsulation. PMID:21030820

  9. A crack-closure model for predicting fatigue-crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The development and application of an analytical model of cycle crack growth is presented that includes the effects of crack closure. The model was used to correlate crack growth rates under constant amplitude loading and to predict crack growth under aircraft spectrum loading on 2219-T851 aluminum alloy sheet material. The predicted crack growth lives agreed well with experimental data. The ratio of predicted to experimental lives ranged from 0.66 to 1.48. These predictions were made using data from an ASTM E24.06.01 Round Robin.

  10. Refuge sharing network predicts ectoparasite load in a lizard.

    PubMed

    Leu, Stephan T; Kappeler, Peter M; Bull, C Michael

    2010-09-01

    Living in social groups facilitates cross-infection by parasites. However, empirical studies on indirect transmission within wildlife populations are scarce. We investigated whether asynchronous overnight refuge sharing among neighboring sleepy lizards, Tiliqua rugosa, facilitates indirect transmission of its ectoparasitic tick, Amblyomma limbatum. We fitted 18 neighboring lizards with GPS recorders, observed their overnight refuge use each night over 3 months, and counted their ticks every fortnight. We constructed a transmission network to estimate the cross-infection risk based on asynchronous refuge sharing frequencies among all lizards and the life history traits of the tick. Although self-infection was possible, the network provided a powerful predictor of measured tick loads. Highly connected lizards that frequently used their neighbors' refuges were characterized by higher tick loads. Thus, indirect contact had a major influence on transmission pathways and parasite loads. Furthermore, lizards that used many different refuges had lower cross- and self-infection risks and lower tick loads than individuals that used relatively fewer refuges. Increasing the number of refuges used by a lizard may be an important defense mechanism against ectoparasite transmission in this species. Our study provides important empirical data to further understand how indirectly transmitted parasites move through host populations and influence individual parasite loads.

  11. [Health effects of living habits].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Ilkka

    2015-01-01

    Single healthy living habits such as non-smoking and regular physical activity decrease the risk of common non-communicable diseases, unsuccessful aging and premature death to a small to moderate degree. Their cumulative effects are, however, large. Only a small minority of people adhere well to all healthy living habits or even the healthiest ones. Consequently, the population attributable fractions of major public health problems due to unhealthy lifestyles are large. Substantial improvement of public health calls for policies and programs to influence the root causes of the lifestyles in the multiple environments and systems where they are developed, maintained, and changed.

  12. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  13. 14 CFR 23.425 - Gust loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.425 Gust loads. (a) Each horizontal surface, other than a main wing, must be... for the conditions specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the initial balancing loads for steady... load resulting from the gusts must be added to the initial balancing load to obtain the total load....

  14. 14 CFR 23.421 - Balancing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Balancing loads. 23.421 Section 23.421... Balancing Surfaces § 23.421 Balancing loads. (a) A horizontal surface balancing load is a load necessary to... balancing surfaces must be designed for the balancing loads occurring at any point on the limit...

  15. Astronomy Cast Live: Live Blogging Today's Science to the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemrose-Fetter, Rebecca; Gay, P. L.; Astronomy Cast LIVE Team

    2008-05-01

    In today's digital, on-demand society, consumers of information both want to know exactly what is happening as it is happening, and to be able to subscribe to content of their choosing. Meeting the needs of these tech savvy individuals are bloggers, podcasters and vodcasters. Using text, audio, and video to reach their respective audiences, these communicators are the new face of public outreach and journalism, but even their communications means are starting to become passé in the face of live blogging. The idea behind live blogging is simple: Take any person - even an undergraduate - with an Internet connected device, put them someplace interesting, and have them report on what they are seeing and experiencing online in real-time. This new tool is bringing astronomy enthusiasts around the world the thrill of live astronomy announcements, attending talks in real, and being "in the room" with astronomers via an Internet connection. These audiences can be anyone, from any nation, with any age. Beyond the public communications benefits of this program, it is also a program that allows the participation of early undergraduate students in science conferences. To date, two undergraduate students and five E/PO professionals have live blogged text, audio, and video content from three science conferences and a shuttle launch. Together, they have produced over 200 hundred stories that have reached tens of thousands of people around the world. In this poster we describe how we have made astronomy live blogging a reality from both the technical and personal standpoint. This project is funded through NSF grant # 0744944.

  16. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  17. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  18. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  19. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  20. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  1. NASA Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the Dryden Flight Loads Laboratory. The capabilities and research interests of the lab are: Structural, thermal, & dynamic analysis; Structural, thermal, & dynamic ground-test techniques; Advanced structural instrumentation; and Flight test support.

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.; Ward, C.; Stokes, M.; Randall, B.; Steed, J.; Jones, R.; Hamilton, L.; Rogers, L.; Fiscus, J.; Dyches, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with glass for permanent storage. This report discusses five can loading conceptual designs and the lists the advantages and disadvantages for each concept. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas. The can loading welder and cutter are very similar to the existing Savannah River Site (SRS) FB-Line bagless transfer welder and cutter and thus they are a low priority development item.

  3. Maximizing TDRS Command Load Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2002-01-01

    The GNC software onboard ISS utilizes TORS command loads, and a simplistic model of TORS orbital motion to generate onboard TORS state vectors. Each TORS command load contains five "invariant" orbital elements which serve as inputs to the onboard propagation algorithm. These elements include semi-major axis, inclination, time of last ascending node crossing, right ascension of ascending node, and mean motion. Running parallel to the onboard software is the TORS Command Builder Tool application, located in the JSC Mission Control Center. The TORS Command Builder Tool is responsible for building the TORS command loads using a ground TORS state vector, mirroring the onboard propagation algorithm, and assessing the fidelity of current TORS command loads onboard ISS. The tool works by extracting a ground state vector at a given time from a current TORS ephemeris, and then calculating the corresponding "onboard" TORS state vector at the same time using the current onboard TORS command load. The tool then performs a comparison between these two vectors and displays the relative differences in the command builder tool GUI. If the RSS position difference between these two vectors exceeds the tolerable lim its, a new command load is built using the ground state vector and uplinked to ISS. A command load's lifetime is therefore defined as the time from when a command load is built to the time the RSS position difference exceeds the tolerable limit. From the outset of TORS command load operations (STS-98), command load lifetime was limited to approximately one week due to the simplicity of both the onboard propagation algorithm, and the algorithm used by the command builder tool to generate the invariant orbital elements. It was soon desired to extend command load lifetime in order to minimize potential risk due to frequent ISS commanding. Initial studies indicated that command load lifetime was most sensitive to changes in mean motion. Finding a suitable value for mean motion

  4. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  5. Drug Loading of Mesoporous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Anne; Coffer, Jeff; Wang, Mengjia

    2011-03-01

    The nanostructuring of crystalline solids with low aqueous solubilities by their incorporation into mesoporous host materials is one route to improve the bioavailability of such solids. Earlier studies suggest that mesoporous Si (PSi), with pore widths in the range of 5-50 nm, is a candidate for such an approach. In this presentation, we describe efforts to load curcumin into free-standing microparticles of PSi. Curcumin is a compound extracted from turmeric root, which is an ingredient of curry. Curucmin has shown activity against selected cancer cell lines, bacteria, and other medical conditions. However, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its extremely low water solubility (0.6 μ g/mL). Incorporation of curcumin was achieved by straightforward loading of the molten solid at 185circ; C. Loading experiments were performed using PSi particles of two different size ranges, 45-75 μ m and 150-250 μ m. Longer loading times and ratio of curcumin to PSi leads to a higher percentage of loaded curcumin in both PSi particle sizes (as determined by weight difference). The extent of curcumin crystallinity was assessed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The solubility and release kinetics of loaded curcumin from the PSi was determined by extraction into water at 37circ; C, with analysis using UV-VIS spectrometry. NSF-REU and TCU.

  6. Project in Apartment Group Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehman, Lynne; O'Brien, Carolyn F.

    1973-01-01

    After discharge from the hospital, many mental patients go back to the kind of environment that contributed to their breakdown. In the belief that new options should be available to mental patients when discharged, a hospital in New York City developed--with marked success--a plan for group living. (Author)

  7. Living Assessment Passes the Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Dorothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher at an independent boys' school, gives a first-person account of how her constant assessments and requirement that her students be active participants in their own learning gainsays the need for high-stakes, standardized testing. She posits a "living assessment" that is intertwined, interactive and…

  8. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  9. Senior to Senior: Living Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Senior to Senior: Living Lessons is a program created to provide meaningful horticulture therapy activities for community minority elders (60 years of age and older) and senior college students (20 years of age and older) from an Historically Black University. The program's objectives were to promote positive intergenerational relationships and to…

  10. College for Living Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Robert G., Jr.; And Others

    This five-part manual was designed to help volunteer instructors in Northern Virginia Community College's College for Living Program to conduct survival and socialization courses for handicapped adults. After introductory material summarizing general principles and specific suggestions, Robert Templin provides information on the skills and…

  11. Living Arrangements in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on living arrangements in later life. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children,…

  12. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  13. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  14. Investigating Evolution with Living Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes two investigative labs that use live plants to illustrate important biological principles, include quantitative analysis, and require very little equipment. Each lab is adaptable to a variety of class sizes, course contents, and student backgrounds. Topics include the evolution of flower size in Mimulus and pollination of Brassicas. (DDR)

  15. Chicanas: Their Voices, Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockert, Lucia Fox, Ed.

    This book is an oral history of ten Chicana women ranging in ages from 84 to 24. The collection of interviews reflects how their hard work and determination have significantly changed their lives for the better. The backgrounds of the women vary; some were born in Mexico and moved to the United States. Others were born in the Southwest and later…

  16. Assisted Living Services and Amenities

    MedlinePlus

    ... good Alzheimer’s care. Safety and Security Peace of mind drives many decisions to seek senior housing for yourself or a loved one. Having a secure building where you know you or your loved one is protected from wandering or emergencies is very important. Senior living residences ...

  17. Supramolecular polymerization: Living it up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würthner, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Protein fibril formation is involved in many human diseases and thus has been mechanistically elucidated in the context of understanding -- and in turn treating -- them. This biological phenomenon has now also inspired the design of a supramolecular system that undergoes living polymerization.

  18. Finding a Place to Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on bird habitats, how birds have adapted to living in these habitats, and bird migration. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy student materials (puzzles and worksheets) are included. (JN)

  19. I Know Where They Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Ed, Ed.

    This science-oriented reading readiness text is provided in two versions: English and Navajo. It consists of large black-and-white drawings of animals, birds, and insects familiar to the Southwestern U.S. One picture is provided on each page, labeled with the following simple sentences: "This is a [name of the animal]. He lives in [name of…

  20. Living with High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  1. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  2. Living in the Gifted Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Arlene R.

    2010-01-01

    Raising gifted children is both a joy and a challenge. How does one survive and thrive living in a gifted family? Parents play an essential role in helping children develop appreciation and respect for the world and their place in it. Intellectual development and emotional reactions begin at an early age, and many major behavioral patterns are set…

  3. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  4. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  5. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  6. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  7. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  8. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  9. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  10. 14 CFR 23.537 - Seawing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.537 Seawing loads. Seawing design loads must be based on applicable test data. Emergency Landing Conditions...

  11. 14 CFR 23.507 - Jacking loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Vertical-load factor of 1.35 times the static reactions. (2) Fore, aft, and lateral load factors of 0.4 times the vertical static reactions. (b) The horizontal loads at the jack points must be reacted...

  12. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-06

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  13. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Marusich, R.M.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  14. Guidelines for transmission line structural loading

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This guide provides methods for the selection of design loads and load factors. This is accomplished by the presentation of a Load Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) procedure. The basic formula for wind force is discussed. This include basic wind speed, terrain and height coefficients, gust response factors, and pressure coefficients. Information is also provided on ice loads, tornadoes, hurricanes, longitudinal loads, construction, and maintenance loads.

  15. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets.

  16. [Structure of allostatic load in railway workers].

    PubMed

    Gorokhova, S G; Pfaf, V F; Muraseyeva, E V; Akhsanova, E R; Prigorovskaya, T S; At'kov, O Yu

    2016-01-01

    The authors studied allostatic load in railway workers, as an indicator of stress effect. Analysis covered biomarkers that form allostatic load index, and their ratio for variable allostatic load index levels. Moderate allostatic load appeared to prevail in the examinees group. Findings are that systolic and diastolic blood pressure, general cholesterol and hemoglobin make major contribution into allostatic load index. Comparison covered models of allostatic load index calculation for variable biomarkers sets. PMID:27396144

  17. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  18. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  19. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  20. Load-Bearing Capacity of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Abutments and One-Piece Implants.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Marina; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Escuin, Tomas; Vinas, Miguel; Lassila, Lippo V J; Närhi, Timo O

    2015-06-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) can potentially help in a physiologic stress transmission due to its excellent biomechanical matching with living tissues. Novel one-piece FRC implants and abutments with two different fiber orientations were loaded until failure to assess the load-bearing capacity, fracture patterns, and precision of fit. The one-piece FRC implants showed significantly higher load-bearing capacity compared to FRC abutments regardless of the fiber orientation (p < 0.001). For FRC abutments, bidirectional abutments showed significantly higher loads compared to unidirectional abutments (p < 0.001). The type of structure and fiber orientation are strong determinant factors of the load-bearing capacity of FRC implants and abutments. PMID:26373199

  1. Predicted effect of dynamic load on pitting fatigue life for low-contact-ratio spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.

    1986-01-01

    How dynamic load affects the surface pitting fatigue life of external spur gears was predicted by using the NASA computer program TELSGE. Parametric studies were performed over a range of various gear parameters modeling low-contact-ratio involute spur gears. In general, gear life predictions based on dynamic loads differed significantly from those based on static loads, with the predictions being strongly influenced by the maximum dynamic load during contact. Gear mesh operating speed strongly affected predicted dynamic load and life. Meshes operating at a resonant speed or one-half the resonant speed had significantly shorter lives. Dynamic life factors for gear surface pitting fatigue were developed on the basis of the parametric studies. In general, meshes with higher contact ratios had higher dynamic life factors than meshes with lower contact ratios. A design chart was developed for hand calculations of dynamic life factors.

  2. Analyzing lysosomes in live cells.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Lysosomes are an important cellular organelle that receive and degrade macromolecules from the secretory, endocytic, autophagic, and phagocytic membrane-trafficking pathways. Defects in lysosome function lead to the development of disease with often-severe consequences to the individual. Since the discovery of lysosomes by Christian de Duve over 50 years ago, research into endocytic and lysosomal biology has allowed for the development of tools to understand further the role of lysosomes in cells. There are now several fluorescent probes that can be used to visualize and assess membrane traffic to the lysosome as well as probes to assess the activity of lysosomal hydrolases in live cells. This chapter describes the current methods used to measure lysosome function in live cells.

  3. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    PubMed

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications.

  4. [Living donor transplantation. Surgical complications].

    PubMed

    Karam, Georges

    2008-02-01

    Although nephrectomy by open surgery is the most used technique for the extraction of kidney transplants in the living donor, nephrectomy under laparaoscopy is increasingly practiced. Laparoscopic nephrectomy is less invasive and performed under videoscopy control, after insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. Three to four incisions are done in order to enter the surgical instruments. The kidney is extracted through a horizontal sus-pubic incision. The exposition is either exclusively transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted. The advantages of laparoscopy are esthetical, financial due to a shorter hospitalisation and a quicker recovery, as well a confort for the donor. The disadvantages are a longer warm ischemia time and possibly a higher risk of delayed graft function. Randomised studies having compared laparoscopy and open surgery in the living donor have not find any significant difference regarding the per- and perioperative in the complications. PMID:18160357

  5. Transcription Dynamics in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Lenstra, Tineke L; Rodriguez, Joseph; Chen, Huimin; Larson, Daniel R

    2016-07-01

    The transcription cycle can be roughly divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Understanding the molecular events that regulate all these stages requires a dynamic view of the underlying processes. The development of techniques to visualize and quantify transcription in single living cells has been essential in revealing the transcription kinetics. They have revealed that (a) transcription is heterogeneous between cells and (b) transcription can be discontinuous within a cell. In this review, we discuss the progress in our quantitative understanding of transcription dynamics in living cells, focusing on all parts of the transcription cycle. We present the techniques allowing for single-cell transcription measurements, review evidence from different organisms, and discuss how these experiments have broadened our mechanistic understanding of transcription regulation.

  6. A Heart Set on Living.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is a highly subjective element on which to base health care decision making. This narrative reflection after the death of a family member uses poetry as a prompt to explore themes related to quality of life-including symptom burden, interpersonal relationships in the face of illness, and the will to live. Through penetrating inquiry and reflection, physicians and other care providers can gain insight into the underlying motivations, loyalties, and abilities that lend meaning to patients' lives and shape attitudes toward death and dying. By better recognizing and appreciating these factors, clinicians can develop patient-centered quality-of-life constructs that empower them to honor patient goals and preferences at the end of life. Physicians are encouraged to explore poetry and other artistic media to help foster the reflective capacity required to deeply understand and faithfully serve patients in this regard.

  7. Focusing light through living tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellekoop, I. M.; Aegerter, C. M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissues such as skin, fat or cuticle are non-transparent because inhomogeneities in the tissue scatter light. We demonstrate experimentally that light can be focused through turbid layers of living tissue, in spite of scattering. Our method is based on the fact that coherent light forms an interference pattern, even after hundreds of scattering events. By spatially shaping the wavefront of the incident laser beam, this interference pattern was modified to make the scattered light converge to a focus. In contrast to earlier experiments, where light was focused through solid objects, we focused light through living pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. We discuss a dynamic wavefront shaping algorithm that follows changes due to microscopic movements of scattering particles in real time. We relate the performance of the algorithm to the measured timescale of the changes in the speckle pattern and analyze our experiment in the light of Laser Doppler flowmetry. Applications in particle tracking, imaging, and optical manipulation are discussed.

  8. Scientific ballooning payload termination loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, E.

    1993-02-01

    NASA's high altitude balloon borne scientific payloads are typically suspended from a deployed flat circular parachute. At flight termination, the recovery train is pyrotechnically separated at the parachute apex and balloon nadir interface. The release of elastic energy stored in the parachute at zero initial virtical velocity in the rarefied atmosphere produces high canopy opening forces that subject the gondola to potentially damaging shock loads. Data from terminations occuring at altitudes to 40 km with payloads up to 2500 kg on parachutes up to 40 m in diameter are presented. Measured loads are markedly larger than encountered via packed parachute deployment for similar canopy loadings. Canopy inflation is significantly surpressed in the early stages and then accelerated during final blossoming. Data interpretation and behavioral phenomena are discussed along with proposed shock attenuation techniques.

  9. Load Diffusion in Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Cornelius O.; Simmonds, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    This research has been concerned with load diffusion in composite structures. Fundamental solid mechanics studies were carried out to provide a basis for assessing the complicated modeling necessary for large scale structures used by NASA. An understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of load diffusion in composite subcomponents is essential in developing primary composite structures. Analytical models of load diffusion behavior are extremely valuable in building an intuitive base for developing refined modeling strategies and assessing results from finite element analyses. The decay behavior of stresses and other field quantities provides a significant aid towards this process. The results are also amendable to parameter study with a large parameter space and should be useful in structural tailoring studies.

  10. Fifty years of genetic load

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate.

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Can loading

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP scope includes unloading transportation containers, preparing the feed streams, converting the metal feed to an oxide, adding the ceramic precursors, pressing the pucks, inspecting pucks, and sintering pucks. The PIP scope also includes loading the pucks into metal cans, sealing the cans, inspecting the cans, loading the cans into magazines, loading magazines into Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters, and transporting the canisters to the DWPF. The DWPF fills the canister with a mixture of high level radioactive waste and glass for permanent storage. Due to the radiation, remote equipment must perform PIP operations in a contained environment.

  12. Steps to Independent Living Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    This set of six activity books and a teacher's guide is designed to help students from eighth grade to adulthood with special needs to learn independent living skills. The activity books have a reading level of 2.5 and address: (1) "How to Get Well When You're Sick or Hurt," including how to take a temperature, see a doctor, and use medicines…

  13. Viruses: are they living entities?

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The essence (living or nonliving entities) of viruses has today become an aporia, i.e. a difficulty inherent in reasoning because they shared four fundamental characteristics with livings (multiplication, genetic information, mutation and evolution) without having the capacity to have an independent life. For much time, however, they were considered minuscule pathogenetic micro-organisms in observance of Koch and Pasteur's 'germ theory' albeit no microbiologist could show their existence except their filterability and pathogenetic action. Only some voices based on experimental results raised against this dogmatic view, in particular those of Beijerinck, Baur and Mrowka, without dipping effectively into the dominant theory. The discovery relative to their nucleoprotein nature made between 1934 and 1936 (Schlesinger as for the phage, and Bawden and co-operators as for Tobacco mosaic virus; TMV), together with the first demonstrations of their structures thanks to electron microscopy (from 1939 onwards) started on casting a new light on their true identity, which could be more clearly identified when, from 1955 onwards, phage and TMV proved to be decisive factors to understand the strategies of replication of the genetic material. Following the new knowledge, the theoretical view relative to viruses changed rather radically and the current view looks on these pathogenetic agents as nonliving aggregates of macromolecules provided with biological properties. There is, however, a current of thought, made explicitly by Lwoff that places viruses as compromise between living and non living and, perhaps, as primitive forms of life which have had great importance for the evolution of cellular life. At any rate, viruses are peculiar entities whose importance cannot be unacknowledged. PMID:22220354

  14. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  15. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  16. Material behavior under complex loading

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, H.J.; Raule, G.; Rodig, M.

    1984-09-01

    Studies of material behavior under complex loading form a bridge between standard material testing methods and the stress analysis calculations for reactor components at high temperatures. The aim of these studies is to determine the influence of typical load change sequences on material properties, to derive the equations required for stress analyses, to carry out tests under multiaxial conditions, and to investigate the structural deformation mechanisms of creep buckling and ratcheting. The present state of the investigations within the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor materials program is described, with emphasis on the experimental apparatus, the scope of the program, and the initial results obtained.

  17. Analysis of high load dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, S. T.; Buono, D. F.; Hibner, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    High load damping requirements for modern jet engines are discussed. The design of damping systems which could satisfy these requirements is also discusseed. In order to evaluate high load damping requirements, engines in three major classes were studied; large transport engines, small general aviation engines, and military engines. Four damper concepts applicable to these engines were evaluated; multi-ring, cartridge, curved beam, and viscous/friction. The most promising damper concept was selected for each engine and performance was assessed relative to conventional dampers and in light of projected damping requirements for advanced jet engines.

  18. Purpose in Life Predicts Allostatic Load Ten Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B.; Ong, Anthony D.; Gruenewald, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Objective Living a purposeful life is associated with better mental and physical health, including longevity. Accumulating evidence shows that these associations might be explained by the association between life purpose and regulation of physiological systems involved in the stress response. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospective associations between life purpose and allostatic load over a 10-year period. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Assessment of life purpose, psychological covariates and demographics were obtained at baseline, while biomarkers of allostatic load were assessed at the 10-year follow-up. Results We found that greater life purpose predicted lower levels of allostatic load at follow-up, even when controlling for other aspects of psychological well-being potentially associated with allostatic load. Further, life purpose was also a strong predictor of individual differences in self-health locus of control—i.e., beliefs about how much influence individuals can exert on their own health—which, in turn, partially mediated the association between purpose and allostatic load. Although life purpose was also negatively linked to other-health locus of control —i.e., the extent to which individuals believe their health is controlled by others/chance —this association did not mediate the impact of life purpose on allostatic load. Conclusion The current study provides the first empirical evidence for the long-term physiological correlates of life purpose and supports the hypothesis that self-health locus of control acts as one proximal psychological mechanism through which life purpose may be linked to positive biological outcomes. PMID:26526322

  19. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2013-05-22

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  20. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Combes, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  1. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on the landing gear but near the plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load... drag and side tow load components specified for the main gear apply. Where the specified angle of... applied. (2) The towing loads at the auxiliary gear and the drag components of the towing loads at...

  2. 14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... on the landing gear but near the plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load... drag and side tow load components specified for the main gear apply. Where the specified angle of... applied. (2) The towing loads at the auxiliary gear and the drag components of the towing loads at...

  3. Behavior of soil anchors under dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Picornell, M.; Olague, B.

    1997-07-01

    Helical anchors placed in a cohesionless soil in a laboratory setting were tested under static and dynamic loads. The dynamic tests were performed after subjecting the anchors to a seating load. The dynamic load had an intensity that changed in sinusoidal fashion and was superimposed to the static seating loads. Although, the anchors have a static pull-out capacity, when the dynamic loads are applied the anchor experiences additional deformations for each load cycle. The deformations per cycle are initially high but then decrease to a nearly constant rate. Eventually, the constant rate increases suddenly accelerating until failure. This failure can take place even at small fractions of the static pull-out capacity. The rate of deformation per load cycle is found to increase for larger seating loads and for larger dynamic pulsating loads. The results of this study shows that the designer can only adjust loads to decrease the deformation rate to suit the design life of the structure.

  4. Factor reliability into load management

    SciTech Connect

    Feight, G.R.

    1983-07-01

    Hardware reliability is a major factor to consider when selecting a direct-load-control system. The author outlines a method of estimating present-value costs associated with system reliability. He points out that small differences in receiver reliability make a significant difference in owning cost. 4 figures.

  5. Concentrations and mass loadings of hormones, alkylphenols, and alkylphenol ethoxylates in healthcare facility wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Nagarnaik, P M; Mills, M A; Boulanger, B

    2010-02-01

    Healthcare facility wastewaters are an anticipated source of known endocrine disrupting chemicals to the environment. In this study, the composition and magnitude of eight steroid hormones, octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), 16 nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and 10 octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in wastewater from a(n) hospital, nursing facility, assisted living facility, and independent living facility are presented. Steroid hormone concentrations were variable for each sampling location, ranging from a non-detectable concentration of 17beta-ethynylestradiol in all samples to 127ngL(-1) androstenedione in the hospital's wastewater composite. OP and NP were not detected in any site's samples. However, NPEOs were found at each sampling location with a maximum combined concentration of 260microgL(-1) for NPEOs with a chain length between 3 and 18 units in the assisted living facility composite sample. OPEOs were only found in the hospital and nursing facilities samples with a maximum combined OPEO concentration of 13microgL(-1) for OPEOs with a chain length between 2 and 12 units in hospital wastewater. The total mass loading of hormones to the municipal sewer system from each facility ranged from 2.5mgd(-1) at the assisted living facility to 138mgd(-1) at the hospital. The total mass loading of the alklyphenol ethoxylates (NPEO+OPEO) is considerably higher than the estimated hormone mass loadings, ranging from 1.8gd(-1) at the independent living facility to 54gd(-1) at the hospital facility. PMID:20079514

  6. Verification of rain-flow reconstructions of a variable amplitude load history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothiaux, John D.; Dowling, Norman E.

    1992-10-01

    The suitability of using rain-flow reconstructions as an alternative to an original loading spectrum for component fatigue life testing is investigated. A modified helicopter maneuver history is used for the rain-flow cycle counting and history regenerations. Experimental testing on a notched test specimen over a wide range of loads produces similar lives for the original history and the reconstructions. The test lives also agree with a simplified local strain analysis performed on the specimen utilizing the rain-flow cycle count. The rain-flow reconstruction technique is shown to be a viable test spectrum alternative to storing the complete original load history, especially in saving computer storage space and processing time. A description of the regeneration method, the simplified life prediction analysis, and the experimental methods are included in the investigation.

  7. [Liver transplants from living donors].

    PubMed

    Rogiers, X; Danninger, F; Malagó, M; Knoefel, W T; Gundlach, M; Bassas, A; Burdelski, M; Broelsch, C E

    1996-03-01

    In this article the authors discuss the advantages of Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT), criteria for the selection of donors and the standard operation technique. Among a total of 241 liver transplantation (LTx), 42 LRLT were performed at the University of Hamburg between October 1, 1991 and December 19, 1994. The body weight of recipients for LRLT ranged from 4,6 to 39 kg, with 64,2% having less than 10 kg. The volume of the donor left lateral liver lobe ranged from 100 cc to 350 cc. The average one year survival rate among electively operated patients-status 3-4 (UNOS 1995 classification) was 86.7%, two year survival rate 83.3%. The main advantages of LRLT are consired the following: 1. Absence of mortality on the waiting list, 2. Optimal timing of the transplantation (elective procedure, patient in a good condition), 3. Excellent organ (no primary non function), 4. A possible immunologic advantage, 5. Relief of the waiting list for cadaveric organs, 6. Psychological benefit for the family, 7. Cost effectiveness. Potential candidates for living donation with more than one cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Social and psychological reasons leading to rejection of candidates were as follows: unstable family structure, expected professional or financial difficulties after living donation or withdrawal from consent. LRLT gives parents of a child with TLD a chance to avoid the risk of death on the waiting list or primary non function of the graft. LRLT has therefore established an important place in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:8768973

  8. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  9. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  10. Live from the Moon - Impact!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On March 24, 1965, a nationwide TV audience watched live video from Ranger 9 as it purposefully crashed into the Moon within the crater Alphonsus. Ranger's six cameras sent back more than 5800 video images during the last 18 minutes of its 3-day journey, the last of the Ranger Project. The last few images show the lunar surface in detail from a few hundred meters above.

    This sequence of images from Camera A was converted from video to film to laser disc to digital files.

  11. Blood Banking in Living Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Lei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Song, YoungSeok; Keles, Hasan Onur; Matloff, Laura; Markel, Jordan; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-01-01

    Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional cryopreservation techniques, it has not been incorporated into transfusion medicine mainly due to throughput challenges. Here, we present a scalable method that can vitrify red blood cells in microdroplets. This approach enables the vitrification of large volumes of blood in a short amount of time, and makes it a viable and scalable biotechnology tool for blood cryopreservation. PMID:21412411

  12. Living and Working in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a presentation about some of the challenges of living and working in space. The presentation shows slides of the Apollo 11 liftoff, Skylab in orbit, a Space Shuttle launch, and a slide of the International Space Station. It reviews the needs and effluents of the astronauts per day, and the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems. It shows a flow diagram of the Space Station Regenerative ECLS, which shows the various systems, and how they interact to control the environment and recycle the air, and water. There are other slides some of which show astronauts eating, brushing teeth, shaving, and sipping from a sip bottle while exercising.

  13. Monitoring of live and woody elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with surveys operated on crib walls in Casentino and Versilia (Tuscany), where Salix alba cuttings did not develop as expected from literature data. After more then 10 years since realization and and an initial very high survival rate, a few plants are yet alive among those put in place and the root strengthening is localized in the first 0.30 m just below the structure front face, while at further depth the detected root area ratio (R.A.R.) does not determine a noticeable increase in soil cohesion (Guastini et al., 2012). Mortality curve in willow cuttings is comparable with growing curve in Alnus nigra plants born in front of the structure, due to shading as failing cause. Assessing quantitatively the residual strength of the timber elements and estimating their possible duration allow comparison with the time needed for a complete stabilisation of the para-natural succession. The two spans of time must be almost similar to avoid unexpected collapse of the frame or unacceptable costs for oversized structures. Since the realization of a new live crib-wall in Casentino we sampled Alnus and Salix cuttings to compare rooting, survivability and evolution in randomized block design. Tests with Resistograph carried out on timber elements gives a good relationship between test results and density; through the non-destructive test it is possible to differentiate portions of wood with a noticeable residual strength from the decayed parts without any more load bearing capacity. MOR value (flexural strength) of timber elements has been estimated on the basis of the effective section verified by the Resistograph (Guastini et al., 2012), and then confirmed through rupture in bending of the same elements (Wood Technology DEISTAF lab), by proving the non-destructive test utility.

  14. Live a Full Life with Fibro

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live a Full Life with Fibro Page Content Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition that affects 10 ... family, you can live an active life with fibromyalgia. Talking with Your Physician Take the first step ...

  15. Teasing Out Where the Tokers Live

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160089.html Teasing Out Where the Tokers Live Marijuana use more common in western U.S., report finds To ... States you live in, a new survey suggests. Marijuana use by Americans is highest in the West and ...

  16. Use of Flexible Body Coupled Loads in Assessment of Day of Launch Flight Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Yunis, Isam; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    A Day of Launch flight loads assessment technique that determines running loads calculated from flexible body coupled loads was developed for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The technique was developed to quantify DOL flight loads in terms of structural load components rather than the typically used q-alpha metric to provide more insight into the DOL loads. In this technique, running loads in the primary structure are determined from the combination of quasi-static aerodynamic loads and dynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads are calculated as a function of time using trajectory parameters passed from the DOL trajectory simulation and are combined with precalculated dynamic loads using a load combination equation. The potential change in aerodynamic load due to wind variability during the countdown is included in the load combination. In the event of a load limit exceedance, the technique allows the identification of what load component is exceeded, a quantification of how much the load limit is exceeded, and where on the vehicle the exceedance occurs. This technique was used to clear the Ares I-X FTV for launch on October 28, 2009. This paper describes the use of coupled loads in the Ares I-X flight loads assessment and summarizes the Ares I-X load assessment results.

  17. 14 CFR 29.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. 29.511 Section 29.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Requirements Ground Loads § 29.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) In...

  18. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1730 - Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. 154.1730... Operating Requirements § 154.1730 Ethylene oxide: Loading and off loading. (a) The master shall ensure that before ethylene oxide is loaded into a cargo tank: (1) The tank is thoroughly clean, dry, and free...

  2. Optical trapping inside living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Poul M.; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2005-08-01

    We use optical tweezers to investigate processes happening inside ving cells. In a previous study, we trapped naturally occurring lipid granules inside living yeast cells, and used them to probe the viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm. However, we prefer to use probes which can be specifically attached to various organelles within the living cells in order to optically quantify the forces acting on these organelles. Therefore, we have chosen to use nanometer sized gold beads as probes. These gold beads can be conjugated and attached chemically to the organelles of interest. Only Rayleigh metallic particles can be optically trapped and for these it is the case that the larger the beads, the larger the forces which can be exerted and thus measured using optical tweezers. The gold nanoparticles are injected into the cytoplasm using micropipettes. The very rigid cell wall of the S. pombe yeast cells poses a serious obstacle to this injection. In order to be able to punch a hole in the cell, first, the cells have to be turned into protoplasts, where only a lipid bilayer separates the cytoplasm from the surrounding media. We show how to perform micropipette delivery into the protoplasts and also how the protoplasts can be ablated using the trapping laserlight. Finally, we demonstrate that we can transform the protoplasts back to normal yeast cells.

  3. Audio watermarking for live performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Ryuki

    2003-06-01

    Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digitally stored content. Using real-time watermark embedding, its coverage can be extended to live broadcasts and live performances. In general, a conventional embedding algorithm receives a host signal (HS) and outputs the summation of the HS and a watermark signal (WS). However, when applied to real-time embedding, there are two problems: (1) delay of the HS, and (2) possible interruption of the broadcast. To solve these problems, we propose a watermark generation algorithm that outputs only a WS, and a system composition method in which a mixer outside the computer mixes the WS generated by the algorithm and the HS. In addition, we propose a new composition method "sonic watermarking." In this composition method, the sound of the HS and the sound of the WS are played separately by two speakers, and the sounds are mixed in the air. Using this composition method, it would be possible to generate a watermarking sound in a concerto hall so that the watermark could be detected from content recorded by audience members who have recording devices at their seats. We report on the results of experiments and discuss the merits and flaws of various real-time watermarking composition methods.

  4. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Living well in the Neuropolis

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Des; Rose, Nikolas; Singh, Ilina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper is about the relationship between cities and brains: it charts the back‐and‐forth between the hectic, stressful lives of urban citizens, and a psychological and neurobiological literature that claims to make such stress both visible and knowable. But beyond such genealogical labour, the paper also asks: what can a sociology concerned with the effects of ‘biosocial’ agencies take from a scientific literature on the urban brain? What might sociology even contribute to that literature, in its turn? To investigate these possibilities, the paper centres on the emergence and description of what it calls ‘the Neuropolis’ – a term it deploys to hold together both an intellectual and scientific figure and a real, physical enclosure. The Neuropolis is an image of the city embedded in neuropsychological concepts and histories, but it also describes an embodied set of (sometimes pathological) relations and effects that take places between cities and the people who live in them. At the heart of the paper is an argument that finding a way to thread these phenomena together might open up new paths for thinking about ‘good’ life in the contemporary city. Pushing at this claim, the paper argues that mapping the relations, histories, spaces, and people held together by this term is a vital task for the future of urban sociology. PMID:27397945

  6. Living Free: A Teacher Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Robin

    This workbook helps adolescents learn how to take charge of their own lives and happiness. The underlying idea is to teach them how to live responsibly. By learning to live responsibly, adolescents have the best chance of avoiding drugs, alcohol, and other addictive behaviors such as overeating and overspending. The workbook explains the steps to…

  7. Magnetic Levitational Assembly for Living Material Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Tasoglu, Savas; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Liaudanskaya, Volha; Guven, Sinan; Migliaresi, Claudio; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-15

    Functional living materials with microscale compositional topographies are prevalent in nature. However, the creation of biomaterials composed of living micro building blocks, each programmed by composition, functionality, and shape, is still a challenge. A powerful yet simple approach to create living materials using a levitation-based magnetic method is presented. PMID:25872008

  8. Living Arrangement Preferences among Elderly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Francois

    1987-01-01

    Compared older adults living alone or with only a spouse to those living with children, relatives, or friends. Found that those living alone or with a spouse were more likely to prefer to move into alternate setting (senior housing or nursing home). Findings revealed limited evidence to support view that residency with others is substitute for…

  9. Magnetic Levitational Assembly for Living Material Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Tasoglu, Savas; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Liaudanskaya, Volha; Guven, Sinan; Migliaresi, Claudio; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-07-15

    Functional living materials with microscale compositional topographies are prevalent in nature. However, the creation of biomaterials composed of living micro building blocks, each programmed by composition, functionality, and shape, is still a challenge. A powerful yet simple approach to create living materials using a levitation-based magnetic method is presented.

  10. Use of Live Supervision in Counselor Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubenzer, Donald L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated live supervision in counselor preparation programs by surveying 307 counselor preparation programs. Live supervision was used at 157 institutions and was used in preparing individual, group, and marriage and family counselors. At least 75 percent of programs provided live supervision weekly. Techniques of cotherapy and remote viewing…

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease. PMID:20843364

  12. Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequencing Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 was investigated at 538 C under various single-step sequences of axial and torsional loading conditions. Initially, fully-reversed, axial and torsional fatigue tests were conducted under strain control at 538 C on thin-walled tubular specimens to establish baseline fatigue life relationships. Subsequently, four sequences (axial/axial, torsional/torsional, axial/torsional, and torsional/axial) of two load-level fatigue tests were conducted to characterize both the load-order (high/low) and load-type sequencing effects. For the two load-level tests, summations of life fractions and the remaining fatigue lives at the second load-level were computed by the Miner's Linear Damage Rule (LDR) and a nonlinear Damage Curve Approach (DCA). In general, for all four cases predictions by LDR were unconservative. Predictions by the DCA were within a factor of two of the experimentally observed fatigue lives for a majority of the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue tests.

  13. A performance study of live VM migration technologies: VMotion vs XenMotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiujie; Tang, Jianxiong; Luo, Xuan; Jin, Yaohui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the growing demand of flexible resource management for cloud computing services, researches on live virtual machine migration have attained more and more attention. Live migration of virtual machine across different hosts has been a powerful tool to facilitate system maintenance, load balancing, fault tolerance and so on. In this paper, we use a measurement-based approach to compare the performance of two major live migration technologies under certain network conditions, i.e., VMotion and XenMotion. The results show that VMotion generates much less data transferred than XenMotion when migrating identical VMs. However, in network with moderate packet loss and delay, which are typical in a VPN (virtual private network) scenario used to connect the data centers, XenMotion outperforms VMotion in total migration time. We hope that this study can be helpful in choosing suitable virtualization environments for data center administrators and optimizing existing live migration mechanisms.

  14. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Jonathan L; Christie, R James; Pollard, Emily J; Olsen, Steven C; Grainger, David W

    2016-02-10

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles to protect and deliver a viable bacterial vaccine, Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51), ballistically using commercial thermoplastic cellulosic degradable biobullets. Degradable PEG hydrogel rods loaded with ∼10(10) live RB51 bacteria (CFUs) were fabricated using three different polymerization methods, cut into fixed-sized payload segments, and lyophilized. Resulting dense, glassy RB51 vaccine-loaded monoliths were inserted into thermoplastic biobullet 100-μL payload chambers. Viability studies of lyophilized formulations assessed as a function of time and storage temperature supported the abilities of several conditions to produce acceptable vaccine shelf-lives. Fired from specifically designed air rifles, gel-loaded biobullets exhibit down-range ballistic properties (i.e., kinetic energy, trajectory, accuracy) similar to unloaded biobullets. Delivered to bovine tissue, these hydrogels rehydrate rapidly by swelling in tissue fluids, with complete hydration observed after 5h in serum. Live RB51 vaccine exhibited excellent viability following carrier polymerization, lyophilization, and storage, at levels sufficient for vaccine dosing to wild range bison, the intended target. These data validate lyophilized degradable PEG hydrogel rods as useful drug carriers for remote delivery of both live vaccines and other therapeutics to livestock, wildlife, or other free-range targets using ballistic technologies. PMID:26705151

  15. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial

  16. Marine loading vapor control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babet, F.H.

    1996-09-01

    The EPA and State air quality control boards have mandated the collection and destruction or recovery of vapors generated by the loading of some hydrocarbons and chemicals into marine vessels. This is a brief overview of the main US Coast Guard requirements for marine vapor control systems. As with most regulations, they are open to interpretation. In an attempt to more clearly define the intent of the regulations, the US Coast Guard has issued guidelines to assist the certifying entities in ensuring compliance with intended regulations. If a company is contemplating the installation of a marine loading vapor control system, the authors strongly recommend that one engage the services of a certifying entity, either as the designer, or an advisor and ultimately the certifier of the system. This should be done well up front in the design of the system to avoid costly mistakes which can occur as a result of lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of the regulations and guidelines.

  17. Thermal loading of natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Understanding HIV-1 viral load.

    PubMed

    Paxton, W B

    1995-01-01

    HIV viral markers, such as p24 antigen and viral RNA, measure how much virus is present. Studies are showing a relationship between RNA levels and clinical outcomes, which can help doctors evaluate the efficacy of drug therapy. Eventually, it is believed, RNA will replace T-cell counts as the marker of choice. The challenge is to interpret what the results of a viral load test mean for a specific patient. Currently, the two main viral load tests commercially available do not have a one-to-one linear relationship, so tests should not be switched. Doctors are advised not to over-interpret minor changes because of the ten to thirty percent variation in individual test results. These tests are not FDA-approved but are available at commercial reference labs. PMID:11362660

  19. [Effect of hydraulic load distribution on sewage treatment efficiency of earthworm bio-filter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Yang, Jian; Yang, Ju-Chuan; Chen, Qiao-Yan; Lou, Shan-Jie

    2008-07-01

    Effect of hydraulic load distribution on sewage treatment efficiency of earthworm bio-filter was studied by analyzing influent and effluent of earthworm bio-filter and earthworm behaviors. The results show that when hydraulic load varying from 2.0 m3/(m2 x d) to 6.0 m3/(m2 x d), the concentration of each pollutant in earthworm bio-filter effluent increases slowly and is little effected by hydraulic load. When hydraulic load reaches 6.7 m3/(m2 x d), the concentration of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4(+) -N and TP in earthworm bio-filter effluent increases obviously, but the TN concentration in effluent presents descending tendency. The earthworms become rather inadaptable to the living conditions at this operating mode. As hydraulic load increasing, the earthworms' relative ingestive ability is improved at first, and then decreases. The earthworms' relative ingestive ability comes to the maximum at hydraulic load of 4.8 m3/(m2 x d), with good organic removal efficiency. The relation ships between hydraulic load and average weight, average density, unit-area biomass of the earthworms are significant negative correlation. The hydraulic load of 4.8 m3/(m2 x d) is recommended, but not over 6.7 m3/(m2 x d).

  20. Passive detection of vehicle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Troy R.; Salvaggio, Carl; Faulring, Jason W.; Salvaggio, Philip S.; McKeown, Donald M.; Garrett, Alfred J.; Coleman, David H.; Koffman, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  1. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  2. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  3. The Cassini Live Update Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandermey, Nancy; Ray, Trina; Wallis, Brad; Roumeliotis, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter is an international science mission to the Saturnian system with 12 science instruments onboard. The Cassini spacecraft lacks a scan platform, which means the entire spacecraft must be rotated to control pointing of any one instrument's boresight. The resulting complex sequences of commands are built beginning many months before execution onboard. Late ephemeris updates from improved navigation data (i.e. after an orbital trim maneuver) often result in pointing commands in the sequence no longer being accurate enough to obtain the desired science observation. This paper will provide an overview of how Cassini uses live updates to address this potential loss of data, including the software developed for this process.

  4. Molecular Spectroscopy of Living Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-06-01

    Molecular spectroscopy has been a powerful tool in the study of molecules in gas phase, condensed phase, and at interfaces. The transition from in vitro spectroscopy to spectroscopic imaging of living systems is opening new opportunities to reveal cellular machinery and to enable molecule-based diagnosis (Science 2015, 350: 1054). Such a transition involves more than a simple combination of spectrometry and microscopy. In this presentation, I will discuss the most recent efforts that have pushed the physical limits of spectroscopic imaging in terms of spectral acquisition speed, detection sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging depth. I will further highlight significant applications in functional analysis of single cells and in label-free detection of diseases.

  5. ATLAS Live: Collaborative Information Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Steven; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.

  6. Towards a living earth simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, M.; Kossman, D.; Conte, R.; Lukowicz, P.; Argyrakis, P.; Blandford, A.; Bonelli, G.; Anderson, S.; de Freitas, S.; Edmonds, B.; Gilbert, N.; Gross, M.; Kohlhammer, J.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Krause, A.; Linnér, B.-O.; Slusallek, P.; Sorkine, O.; Sumner, R. W.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    The Living Earth Simulator (LES) is one of the core components of the FuturICT architecture. It will work as a federation of methods, tools, techniques and facilities supporting all of the FuturICT simulation-related activities to allow and encourage interactive exploration and understanding of societal issues. Society-relevant problems will be targeted by leaning on approaches based on complex systems theories and data science in tight interaction with the other components of FuturICT. The LES will evaluate and provide answers to real-world questions by taking into account multiple scenarios. It will build on present approaches such as agent-based simulation and modeling, multiscale modelling, statistical inference, and data mining, moving beyond disciplinary borders to achieve a new perspective on complex social systems.

  7. Adolescents' lived experience of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Pernilla Garmy; Sivberg, Bengt

    2003-02-01

    To improve the well-being of adolescents with epilepsy, research is needed on how adolescents cope. In this study, Lazarus' model of stress and coping and Antonovsky's Theory of Sense of Coherence were used as the theoretical framework. The aim was to describe the lived experience of adolescents with epilepsy and their coping skills. The participants were 13-19 years old with an epilepsy diagnosis but without mental retardation or cerebral palsy. The study was performed in southern Sweden at the pediatric department of a university hospital. Semistructured and open-ended interviews were conducted with 13 adolescents. The transcripts were analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis. All the adolescents had developed strategies to cope with the emotional strains caused by epilepsy. They experienced strains from the seizures, limitation of leisure activities, side effects of medication, and feelings of being different. The coping strategies described were finding support, being in control, and experimenting.

  8. The experience of living with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Carson, M G; Mitchell, G J

    1998-12-01

    This article reports themes from a descriptive exploratory study conducted with 17 persons who live with persistent pain. The purpose of the research was to enhance understanding of what it is like to live with persistent pain from the perspectives of those who live the experience. Participant narratives of living with persistent pain included descriptions of physical pain as well as the pain of loss and restriction. The theory of human becoming provided the framework for guiding researcher-participant discussions and interpretation of findings. Three themes arose from the analysis: forbearance surfaces with the drain of persistent anguish; isolating retreats coexist with comforting engagements; and hope for relief clarifies priorities for daily living. The findings expand understanding about quality of life for persons who live with persistent pain. They also challenge nurses to begin focusing on the person who lives with pain as the messenger of how to endure. Recommendations, based on new understanding, are offered for practice and additional research.

  9. Effects of cyclic loading on the tensile properties of human patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Naveen; Slauterbeck, James; Hashemi, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft is a popular choice for ACL reconstruction. These grafts are subjected to cyclic loading during the activities of daily living. Significant knee laxity is observed in reconstructed knee shortly after reconstruction. The source of this laxity is not clear. The change in the tensile properties of the graft due to cyclic loading can be one of the reasons for the change in knee laxity. Twenty patellar tendons from fresh frozen cadaver knees were cyclically loaded at a stress amplitude equivalent to 33% of the failure strength of the contralateral patellar tendon for 5000 cycles at 1.4Hz. They were then tested in tension to failure. Failure properties and the low load properties such as toe-region modulus were calculated. The results were compared with those of contralateral patellar tendons that were not subjected to cyclic loading before testing to failure. Fatigue loading did not alter the failure and low load properties with the exception of failure strain which decreased by about 10% (P<.05). Cyclically loaded patellar tendons with higher tissue mass density possess higher strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and transition stress (P<.05). The results indicate that there is no significant change in graft properties because of cyclic loading with the above load magnitude. The change in knee laxity observed after reconstruction, hence, is not because of change in graft properties due to moderate cyclic loading. Other factors, such as plastic deformation (yielding) of the graft, might play a role in increased knee laxity after reconstruction.

  10. Load-dependent extracellular matrix organization in atrioventricular heart valves: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Alavi, S Hamed; Sinha, Aditi; Steward, Earl; Milliken, Jeffrey C; Kheradvar, Arash

    2015-07-15

    The extracellular matrix of the atrioventricular (AV) valves' leaflets has a key role in the ability of these valves to properly remodel in response to constantly varying physiological loads. While the loading on mitral and tricuspid valves is significantly different, no information is available on how collagen fibers change their orientation in response to these loads. This study delineates the effect of physiological loading on AV valves' leaflets microstructures using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. Fresh natural porcine tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets (n = 12/valve type) were cut and prepared for the experiments. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the microstructural differences between the valves. The specimens were imaged live during the relaxed, loading, and unloading phases using SHG microscopy. The images were analyzed with Fourier decomposition to mathematically seek changes in collagen fiber orientation. Despite the similarities in both AV valves as seen in the histology and immunohistochemistry data, the microstructural arrangement, especially the collagen fiber distribution and orientation in the stress-free condition, were found to be different. Uniaxial loading was dependent on the arrangement of the fibers in their relaxed mode, which led the fibers to reorient in-line with the load throughout the depth of the mitral leaflet but only to reorient in-line with the load in deeper layers of the tricuspid leaflet. Biaxial loading arranged the fibers in between the two principal axes of the stresses independently from their relaxed states. Unlike previous findings, this study concludes that the AV valves' three-dimensional extracellular fiber arrangement is significantly different in their stress-free and uniaxially loaded states; however, fiber rearrangement in response to the biaxial loading remains similar.

  11. The concept of target and critical loads

    SciTech Connect

    Grigal, D.F.

    1991-09-01

    Target and critical loads were initially developed for assessment and control of acidic deposition, but are being considered for other air pollutants such as ozone and air-borne toxic compounds. These loads are based on thresholds, with damage assumed to occur above some defined level of deposition. Many of the historically proposed targets for acidic deposition were based on arbitrary interpretations of data. The concept of critical loads has recently separated from that of target loads. A critical load is the amount of pollutant deposition, determined by technical analysis, above which there is a specific deleterious ecological effect. A target load is the deposition, determined by political agreement, above which unacceptable ecological damage occurs; it may be greater than the critical load because of political or economic considerations, or less to conservatively account for uncertainty in the estimation of the critical load. Recent definitions of critical loads include recognition that each kind of ecosystem and effect may require a different load. Geographic regions contain a mosaic of aquatic and terrestrial resources. If precise knowledge leads to different critical loads for each system, then how is the regional target load established For better or worse, target and critical loads are likely to be used to regulate air pollutants. The philosophy of their establishment as thresholds, their quantitative validity, and their application in regulation all require careful examination. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  12. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6600 - Loading practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electricity § 56.6600 Loading practices. If extraneous electricity is suspected in an area where electric... levels of extraneous electricity are found, the source shall be determined and no loading shall...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  17. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  18. METHODS OF ANALYSIS FOR WASTE LOAD ALLOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research has addressed several unresolved questions concerning the allocation of allowable waste loads among multiple wastewater dischargers within a water quality limited stream segment. First, the traditional assumptions about critical design conditions for waste load allo...

  19. Acid loading test (pH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  20. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  1. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem.

  2. Spinning reserve from hotel load response

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan; Kueck, John; Laughner, Theo; Morris, Keith

    2008-12-15

    Even though preliminary tests were not conducted during times of highest system or hotel loading during the summer, they showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22 to 37 percent depending on the outdoor temperature and time of day. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator's command to shed load was issued and the load drop was very rapid. (author)

  3. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  4. Time-dependent fiber bundles with local load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, W. I.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2001-02-01

    Fiber bundle models, where fibers have random lifetimes depending on their load histories, are useful tools in explaining time-dependent failure in heterogeneous materials. Such models shed light on diverse phenomena such as fatigue in structural materials and earthquakes in geophysical settings. Various asymptotic and approximate theories have been developed for bundles with various geometries and fiber load-sharing mechanisms, but numerical verification has been hampered by severe computational demands in larger bundles. To gain insight at large size scales, interest has returned to idealized fiber bundle models in 1D. Such simplified models typically assume either equal load sharing (ELS) among survivors, or local load sharing (LLS) where a failed fiber redistributes its load onto its two nearest flanking survivors. Such models can often be solved exactly or asymptotically in increasing bundle size, N, yet still capture the essence of failure in real materials. The present work focuses on 1D bundles under LLS. As in previous works, a fiber has failure rate following a power law in its load level with breakdown exponent ρ. Surviving fibers under fixed loads have remaining lifetimes that are independent and exponentially distributed. We develop both new asymptotic theories and new computational algorithms that greatly increase the bundle sizes that can be treated in large replications (e.g., one million fibers in thousands of realizations). In particular we develop an algorithm that adapts several concepts and methods that are well-known among computer scientists, but relatively unknown among physicists, to dramatically increase the computational speed with no attendant loss of accuracy. We consider various regimes of ρ that yield drastically different behavior as N increases. For 1/2<=ρ<=1, ELS and LLS have remarkably similar behavior (they have identical lifetime distributions at ρ=1) with approximate Gaussian bundle lifetime statistics and a finite limiting

  5. Allostatic load and work conditions.

    PubMed

    Schnorpfeil, Pia; Noll, Alexander; Schulze, Renate; Ehlert, Ulrike; Frey, Karl; Fischer, Joachim E

    2003-08-01

    Adverse work characteristics and poor social support have been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and other adverse health outcomes in otherwise apparently healthy adults. We undertook a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationship between objective health status and work characteristics in industrial workers in Germany. Volunteers (n=324) were recruited from a representative random sample (n=537) of employees of an airplane manufacturing plant. Psychosocial work characteristics were assessed by the 52-item, 13-subscale salutogenetic subjective work analysis (SALSA) questionnaire, which assesses potentially salutogenic and pathogenic conditions. Factor analysis revealed three factors: decision latitude, job demands and social support. Biological health status was determined by the revised allostatic load score with 14 components: body-mass index, waist-to-hip ratio; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, HDL, cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate; glycosylated hemoglobin; urinary cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and albumin. Score points were given for values in the high-risk quartile (maximum=14). General linear models revealed that older individuals and men had significantly higher allostatic load scores than younger participants or women. Of the SALSA factors, only job demands related significantly to allostatic load. The effect of demands was stronger in older individuals. Post-hoc analysis showed possible positive associations between high job demands and blood pressure or CRP, and between low social support and nocturnal excretion of cortisol or plasma levels of CRP. We conclude that this cross-sectional study on industrial employees found a weak association between a health summary score based on objective medical data and self-reported adverse work characteristics. PMID:12821013

  6. 14 CFR 27.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and rotor wake effects in combination with the prescribed flight... data, both of the following must be met: (1) One hundred percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions acts on the surface on one side of the plane of symmetry, and no loading acts...

  7. 14 CFR 29.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and rotor wake effects in combination with the prescribed flight... data, both of the following must be met: (1) One hundred percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions acts on the surface on one side of the plane of symmetry, and no loading acts...

  8. 14 CFR 27.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and rotor wake effects in combination with the prescribed flight... data, both of the following must be met: (1) One hundred percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions acts on the surface on one side of the plane of symmetry, and no loading acts...

  9. 14 CFR 29.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and rotor wake effects in combination with the prescribed flight... data, both of the following must be met: (1) One hundred percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical flight conditions acts on the surface on one side of the plane of symmetry, and no loading acts...

  10. Baby Carriage: Infants Walking with Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garciaguirre, Jessie S.; Adolph, Karen E.; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining balance is a central problem for new walkers. To examine how infants cope with the additional balance control problems induced by load carriage, 14-month-olds were loaded with 15% of their body weight in shoulder-packs. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical loads disrupted alternating gait patterns and caused less mature footfall patterns.…

  11. 46 CFR 114.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines. 114.122 Section 114.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 114.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24... line assignment, certification, and marking in subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter....

  12. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter...

  13. 46 CFR 175.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Load lines. 175.122 Section 175.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 175.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24 meters (79 feet) in length or more, the keel of which was laid or... than a domestic voyage is subject to load line assignment, certification, and marking under suchapter...

  14. 46 CFR 114.122 - Load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Load lines. 114.122 Section 114.122 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 114.122 Load lines. A vessel of 24... line assignment, certification, and marking in subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter....

  15. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  16. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  17. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  18. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  19. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  20. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  1. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  2. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  3. 14 CFR 296.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 296.4 Section 296.4... REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and their delivery to a direct air carrier...

  4. 14 CFR 297.4 - Joint loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Joint loading. 297.4 Section 297.4... REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.4 Joint loading. Nothing in this part shall preclude joint loading, meaning the pooling of shipments and...

  5. 49 CFR 238.417 - Side loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Side loads. 238.417 Section 238.417 Transportation... load of 80,000 pounds of force applied to the side sill and 10,000 pounds of force applied to the belt rail (horizontal members at the bottom of the window opening in the side frame). (b) These loads...

  6. Neuroimaging of Cognitive Load in Instructional Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research literature on cognitive load measurement in learning and neuroimaging, and describes a mapping between the main elements of cognitive load theory and findings in functional neuroanatomy. It is argued that these findings may lead to the improved measurement of cognitive load using neuroimaging. The paper describes how…

  7. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information. (c) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material must have a means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms....

  8. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information. (c) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material must have a means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms....

  9. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information. (c) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material must have a means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms....

  10. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information. (c) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material must have a means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms....

  11. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information. (c) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material must have a means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms....

  12. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load components specified for the auxiliary gear apply. For towing points located outboard of the main gear, the drag and side tow load components... auxiliary gear and the drag components of the towing loads at the main gear must be reacted as follows:...

  13. 14 CFR 25.509 - Towing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load components specified for the auxiliary gear apply. For towing points located outboard of the main gear, the drag and side tow load components... auxiliary gear and the drag components of the towing loads at the main gear must be reacted as follows:...

  14. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and the...-down pitching conditions is the sum of the balancing loads at V and the specified value of the normal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maneuvering loads. 23.423 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads. (a) Horizontal surfaces other than main wing and their supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unsymmetrical loads. 23.427 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 23.427 - Unsymmetrical loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.427 Unsymmetrical loads. (a) Horizontal surfaces other than main wing and their supporting structure must be designed for unsymmetrical loads arising from yawing and slipstream effects, in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unsymmetrical loads. 23.427 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 23.423 - Maneuvering loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Balancing Surfaces § 23.423 Maneuvering loads. Each horizontal surface and its supporting structure, and the...-down pitching conditions is the sum of the balancing loads at V and the specified value of the normal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maneuvering loads. 23.423 Section...

  18. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  19. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  20. Structural dynamics payload loads estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Present analytical techniques by which design loads are predicted are very costly and time consuming. Chapter I presents the standard techniques used to analyze payload/booster systems. They are full scale methods in the sense that they all require the solution of the coupled equations of motion of the payload/booster system. Chapter II identifies several short cut methodologies. These already existing techniques do not require the solution of the coupled system equations. The potentials and shortcomings of each of these methods are discussed. Chapter III covers the favored methods accompanied by recommendations for further development, refinement, and demonstrations. An outline of a new approach is also included.

  1. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  2. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  3. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  4. Automated Loads Analysis System (ATLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Stephen; Frere, Scot; O’Reilly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS is a generalized solution that can be used for launch vehicles. ATLAS is used to produce modal transient analysis and quasi-static analysis results (i.e., accelerations, displacements, and forces) for the payload math models on a specific Shuttle Transport System (STS) flight using the shuttle math model and associated forcing functions. This innovation solves the problem of coupling of payload math models into a shuttle math model. It performs a transient loads analysis simulating liftoff, landing, and all flight events between liftoff and landing. ATLAS utilizes efficient and numerically stable algorithms available in MSC/NASTRAN.

  5. Dynamical Signatures of Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main challenges in modeling living systems is to distinguish a random walk of physical origin (for instance, Brownian motions) from those of biological origin and that will constitute the starting point of the proposed approach. As conjectured, the biological random walk must be nonlinear. Indeed, any stochastic Markov process can be described by linear Fokker-Planck equation (or its discretized version), only that type of process has been observed in the inanimate world. However, all such processes always converge to a stable (ergodic or periodic) state, i.e., to the states of a lower complexity and high entropy. At the same time, the evolution of living systems directed toward a higher level of complexity if complexity is associated with a number of structural variations. The simplest way to mimic such a tendency is to incorporate a nonlinearity into the random walk; then the probability evolution will attain the features of diffusion equation: the formation and dissipation of shock waves initiated by small shallow wave disturbances. As a result, the evolution never "dies:" it produces new different configurations which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of entropy (the decrease takes place during formation of shock waves, the increase-during their dissipation). In other words, the evolution can be directed "against the second law of thermodynamics" by forming patterns outside of equilibrium in the probability space. Due to that, a specie is not locked up in a certain pattern of behavior: it still can perform a variety of motions, and only the statistics of these motions is constrained by this pattern. It should be emphasized that such a "twist" is based upon the concept of reflection, i.e., the existence of the self-image (adopted from psychology). The model consists of a generator of stochastic processes which represents the motor dynamics in the form of nonlinear random walks, and a simulator of the nonlinear version of the diffusion

  6. Access to care save lives.

    PubMed

    Blaney, C L

    1994-02-01

    Emergency treatment of such major complications of pregnancy as obstructed labor, hemorrhage, infection, hypertension disorders, and the effects of unsafe abortion, helps ameliorate morbidity and prevent mortality. Access to life-saving treatment (e.g., antibiotics, Cesarean sections, and blood transfusions) in developing countries is limited. Maternal mortality in one area of The Gambia, for example, is 2200 per 100,000 births. Improving access to care depends upon the availability of these services in communities, trained health personnel, service improvements, transportation provision, and community education. Detection of complications and early referral to an appropriate facility with a supportive and professional environment is key to saving lives. Political will and public pressure are needed before improvement in services can be successfully accomplished; politicians may ignore women with low status. Barriers to care are physical, cultural, technical, and economic. Cost or distance from home may prevent women from seeking care. Infection, hemorrhage, and uterine injury are frequently related to unsafe abortions, particularly among teenage women. Hospitals must be equipped with a reliable management system, surgical facilities, and clinical services. The WHO recommends upgrading community health centers with trained personnel, adequate supervision, and equipment. In Uganda, midwives are specially trained in advanced skills for use in remote areas: administration of oxytocin to evacuate the uterus and reduce bleeding, use of antibiotics for infections, and surgical repair of vaginal tears. Nurses in Zaire are trained to do Cesarean sections. In Sierra Leone and Nigeria, doctors are encouraged to receive training in obstetrics and to be posted in rural areas. In Sierra Leone, young men are trained to bring pregnant women in to care on stretchers. Maternity waiting homes near hospitals are another means to save lives. Lack of permission from a male relative may

  7. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  8. Combined load test apparatus for flat panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWithey, Robert R.; Martin, Carl J., Jr.; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    1992-04-01

    Future hypersonic aircraft such as the National Aero-Space Plane and a high speed civil transport will require the design and use of efficient, highly-loaded, flat structural panels to achieve mission requirements. These panels will be subjected to severe combinations of in-plane mechanical distributed loads (i.e., normal loads in two perpendicular directions plus a shear load), in addition to pressure and thermal loads. A testing apparatus is provided for applying uniform combined in-plane stresses to a flat panel containing an interior test area. Actuators cause two sets of load rods to apply loads to the edge of the flat panel. The first set applies loads which are perpendicular to and independent of the loads applied by the second set. The loads are applied according to a cosine load distribution to obtain a uniform stress field within the test area. The flat panel may be rotated with respect to the applied loads to obtain a wide range of combined stresses in the test area. Movement outside the plane of the flat panel may be selectively prevented by connecting the flat panel to a restraining disk by support rods. The support rods then define the test area. A thermal load may be applied to one side of the flat panel and a pressure load may be applied to the other side. The novelty of this method is found in providing a testing apparatus which allows mechanical, thermal and pressure loads to be applied simultaneously to a flat panel for testing purposes.

  9. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  10. Face liveness detection using defocus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. PMID:25594594

  11. Live your life out loud.

    PubMed

    Gatrell, Nanette; Rothblum, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Susan Love, MD, MBA, has dedicated her professional life to the eradication of breast cancer. Author of the bestselling Dr. Susan Love's Breast Book, Dr. Susan Love's Menopause and Hormone Book, and Live a Little, Susan is Chief Visionary Officer of the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation where she oversees an active research program centered on breast cancer cause and prevention. Susan co-founded the National Breast Cancer Coalition in the early 1990s, and she served on President Clinton's National Cancer Advisory Board from 1998-2004. Her recent projects include recruiting 377,000 women for the Love Army of Women, an Internet program that partners women and scientists to accelerate breast cancer research; and the online Health of Women Study designed to identify the cause of breast cancer. A recipient of six honorary doctorate degrees, Susan is Clinical Professor of Surgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. In June of 2012, Susan was diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia and was treated with an allogenic stem cell transplant.

  12. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. PMID:25594594

  13. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  14. Living "anyway:" stories of access.

    PubMed

    Dykewomon, Elana

    2014-01-01

    Elana Dykewomon's 1974 novel, Riverfinger Women, was among the first lesbian books with a "happy ending." Her seven books of fiction and poetry include the Lambda Award winner Beyond the Pale (now an audio and e-book) and Lambda nominee, Risk. She was an editor of the lesbian-feminist journal, Sinister Wisdom, for eight years. Her literary work foregrounds the lesbian heroic as integral to women's communities. As a social justice activist, she has organized and participated in anti-war, anti-racist, anti-classist, fat and disability rights work since the 1970s. She is now working with Old Lesbians Organizing for Change. She is happy to live embedded in dyke community as a lesbian radical committed to a loving justice. While she suffered psychiatric abuse at 13 (and acknowledges long-term adaptive behavior on that account), she has not experienced disabling mental illness since. Her primary disabilities are mobility impairment through severe, progressive arthritis and constant low-to-powerful pain, sometimes diagnosed as fibromyalgia. Her acute illnesses include pancreatitis and a rare-in-adults kidney disease currently in remission. PMID:24400626

  15. Three dimensional living neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnenberger, Anna; McLeod, Robert R.; Basta, Tamara; Stowell, Michael H. B.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate holographic optical tweezing combined with step-and-repeat maskless projection micro-stereolithography for fine control of 3D positioning of living cells within a 3D microstructured hydrogel grid. Samples were fabricated using three different cell lines; PC12, NT2/D1 and iPSC. PC12 cells are a rat cell line capable of differentiation into neuron-like cells NT2/D1 cells are a human cell line that exhibit biochemical and developmental properties similar to that of an early embryo and when exposed to retinoic acid the cells differentiate into human neurons useful for studies of human neurological disease. Finally induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were utilized with the goal of future studies of neural networks fabricated from human iPSC derived neurons. Cells are positioned in the monomer solution with holographic optical tweezers at 1064 nm and then are encapsulated by photopolymerization of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click chemistry via projection of a 512x512 spatial light modulator (SLM) illuminated at 405 nm. Fabricated samples are incubated in differentiation media such that cells cease to divide and begin to form axons or axon-like structures. By controlling the position of the cells within the encapsulating hydrogel structure the formation of the neural circuits is controlled. The samples fabricated with this system are a useful model for future studies of neural circuit formation, neurological disease, cellular communication, plasticity, and repair mechanisms.

  16. Perspective on live varicella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anne A; Katz, Samuel L

    2008-03-01

    The attenuation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) by Takahashi in 1974 was a remarkable achievement. It swiftly led to development of a live vaccine against chickenpox, which was initially tested in Japan. With its successful employment in immunocompromised children to prevent morbidity and mortality due to varicella, the vaccine began to be tested in healthy children in Japan and elsewhere. In the United States, vaccine use progressed from extensive clinical trials that demonstrated safety and efficacy to universal immunization of healthy infants and children. In the past 10 years, >30 million healthy American individuals, mostly children, have been vaccinated. With increasing use of vaccine, there has been a concomitant decrease in the incidence of disease, along with decreases in hospitalizations and deaths due to VZV. To improve protection, however, a 2-dose schedule of immunization was recommended for routine use in all children by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in June 2006. At roughly the same time, licensure of the combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine was completed, which allowed harmonization of immunization against these 4 viruses with 1 injection given twice in childhood. Concomitantly, a version of the varicella vaccine with 10 times the titer was developed for immunization of healthy individuals >60 years of age against herpes zoster (HZ). Although elimination of VZV from human populations may not yet be possible, the combined approach of immunization against both varicella in childhood and HZ in adulthood in the developed world are predicted to dramatically increase our control of this troublesome virus.

  17. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  18. "Living theatre, theatre of life".

    PubMed

    Wenzel, E

    1987-09-01

    Young people love to play theatre--in one way or another. They like to play with behaviours, costumes, words, communication patterns, etc.; they like to disguise themselves, to create certain spheres and scenes of drama and tragedy, excitement and extacy, satire and irony, morals and decadence. Due to the particular uncertainties of the adolescent passage, youth oscillates between taking life both, too seriously and easy. Searching for identity and integration, they tend to experiment with styles of behaviour and culturally defined patterns of lifestyles conductive to well-being. Sometimes, life is perceived as pure entertainment, and sometimes as pure drama. It's living theatre and theatre of life. On the one hand it is "acting out", on the other hand it is playing precisely defined roles. And, in-between, it is always the question: Who am I? They tend to slip into roles in order to check out whether they are willing to accept their implications with regard to the priorities they have set so far.

  19. Nanocapsules: coating for living cells.

    PubMed

    Krol, Silke; Diaspro, Alberto; Magrassi, Raffaella; Ballario, Paola; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Filetici, Patrizia; Ornaghi, Prisca; Ramoino, Paola; Gliozzi, Alessandra

    2004-03-01

    One of the most promising tools for future applications in science and medicine is the use of nanotechnologies. Especially self-assembly systems, e.g., polyelectrolyte (PE) capsules prepared by means of the layer-by-layer technique with tailored properties, fulfill the requirements for nano-organized systems in a satisfactory manner. The nano-organized shells are suitable as coating for living cells or artificial tissue to prevent immune response. With these shells, material can be delivered to predefined organs. In this paper, some preliminary results are presented, giving a broad overview over the possibilities to use nano-organized capsules. Based on the observations that the cells while duplicating break the capsule a mutant yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which express GFP-tubulin under galactose promotion, was investigated by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. The measurements reveal an increased surface charge in the region of buds developed prior encapsulation. In order to test the used PE pair for cytotoxicity, germinating conidia of the fungi Neurospora crassa were coated. The investigation with fluorescence microscopy shows a variation in the surface charge for the growing region and the conidium poles. The capsules exhibit interesting properties as valuable tool in science and a promising candidate for application in the field of medicine.

  20. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  1. Loading of wellbores with explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Loving, F.A.; Simmons, W.J.

    1983-04-26

    Bags of explosive are loaded rapidly into deep wellbores by suspending a rigid positioning tube partway into the wellbore, and loading the bags into the tube, the bags being prevented from dropping through the open bottom end of the tube by a cord attached to the lowermost bag and secured at the upper end of the tube when the tube-suspending cable is in tension by a cordsecuring/releasing means, E.G., a pivotable bar having a hook on one end. When the bag-laden tube is lowered to the bottom of the wellbore, or to a column of bags previously placed therein, the tension on the cable is relaxed and the cord is released, allowing the positioning tube thereafter to be raised to the surface for re-use, leaving the cord and bags in the wellbore. Freedom of the bag-supporting cord to move with respect to the positioning tube when the latter is raised to the surface is assured by threading the cord through plastic tubing mounted to the wall of the positioning tube and releasable therefrom for reuse.

  2. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Olson, David M.; Severson, Emily M.; Verstraeten, Barbara S. E.; Ng, Jane W. Y.; McCreary, J. Keiko; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk. PMID:26694355

  3. Phloem loading: an integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.

    1986-01-01

    This study focuses on the regulation of sucrose transport across the plasmalemma. Initially, we re-examined the use of leaf discs to study the kinetics of phloem loading using Allium cepa leaves. All tissues exhibited the same linear plus saturable profile as Beta vulgaris, except fructose uptake into the inner parenchyma and bundle-sheath cells; in this case the response was linear. These results indicate that all tissues of the leaf retrieve exogenous sucrose such that kinetics from leaf discs cannot be taken to represent phloem loading per se. We continued our study by investigating the influence of internal sugars on sugar transport across the plasmalemma. We found that if internal sugars were manipulated by heat-girdling techniques or DCMU treatment there was no appreciable change in sucrose influx. However, longer term heat-girdling decreased sucrose uptake. These data indicate that carbohydrate partitioning among the chloroplast, cytosol, and vacuole modulates cytosolic sugar levels. One interesting discovery was that leaves excised from the plant and allowed to undergo their normal day/night cycle do not transfer (/sup 14/C) sucrose to their minor veins.

  4. Liposome-Loaded Cell Backpacks.

    PubMed

    Polak, Roberta; Lim, Rosanna M; Beppu, Marisa M; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

    2015-12-30

    Cell backpacks, or micron-scale patches of a few hundred nanometers in thickness fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, are potentially useful vehicles for targeted drug delivery on the cellular level. In this work, echogenic liposomes (ELIPs) containing the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) are embedded into backpacks through electrostatic interactions and LbL assembly. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA)n , and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PDAC/SPS)n film systems show the greatest ELIP incorporation of the films studied while maintaining the structural integrity of the vesicles. The use of ELIPs for drug encapsulation into backpacks facilitates up to three times greater DOX loading compared to backpacks without ELIPs. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that monocyte backpack conjugates remain viable even after 72 h, demonstrating promise as drug delivery vehicles. Because artificial vesicles can load many different types of drugs, ELIP containing backpacks offer a unique versatility for broadening the range of possible applications for cell backpacks. PMID:26616471

  5. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  6. Electric load management and energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kheir, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric load management and energy conservation relate heavily to the major problems facing power industry at present. The three basic modes of energy conservation are identified as demand reduction, increased efficiency and substitution for scarce fuels. Direct and indirect load management objectives are to reduce peak loads and have future growth in electricity requirements in such a manner to cause more of it to fall off the system's peak. In this paper, an overview of proposed and implemented load management options is presented. Research opportunities exist for the evaluation of socio-economic impacts of energy conservation and load management schemes specially on the electric power industry itself.

  7. FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO ESTIMATE FATIGUE LIVES OF WELDED LAP-SHEAR SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.; Michigan, J.

    2014-04-25

    A full range of stress intensity factor solutions for a kinked crack is developed as a function of weld width and the sheet thickness. When used with the associated main crack solutions (global stress intensity factors) in terms of the applied load and specimen geometry, the fatigue lives can be estimated for the laser-welded lap-shear specimens. The estimations are in good agreement with the experimental data. A classical solution for an infinitesimal kink is also employed in the approach. However, the life predictions tend to overestimate the actual fatigue lives. The traditional life estimations with the structural stress along with the experimental stress-fatigue life data (S-N curve) are also provided. In this case, the estimations only agree with the experimental data under higher load conditions.

  8. Living musical instruments and inanimate body parts?

    PubMed

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    2001-01-01

    In the literature about category effects in semantic memory, body parts and musical instruments are often considered atypical, because in cases with a disproportionate impairment of living categories body parts are relatively spared, while musical instruments are often severely defective. In this study the performance of 57 subjects affected by diseases generally associated with lexical-semantic impairment, for the most part Alzheimer's disease and other forms of cortical degeneration, but also herpetic encephalitis and traumatic brain damage are analyzed. The subjects were given a picture naming task tapping eight categories: three living categories (animals, fruits and vegetables) and three non-living categories (tools, furniture and vehicles), plus body parts and musical instruments. On a preliminary analysis at the group level, body parts were the least impaired category and musical instruments the most severely impaired, the six living and non-living categories being intermediate. However, these differences disappeared after covariance for lexical frequency, name agreement and age of acquisition. The relationship between living categories, non-living categories, musical instruments and body parts was investigated by means of a Lisrel model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Two latent variables related to living and non-living categories respectively were defined, and it was found that both body parts and musical instruments were significantly related only with non-living categories. The results showed that the definition of the latent variable expressing the substrate of non-living categories was less satisfactory than that expressing the living categories. On this basis, the conclusions of this study appear statistically definite but their psychological interpretation is less straightforward.

  9. Live Blogging Science News: The Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S.

    2016-03-01

    When one of the world's most popular online news websites decides to cover a space science event live, you know that something big is brewing. Stuart Clark reports on how live blogging can be used for science reporting and how an idea that was triggered by his observations during the Rosetta flyby of the asteroid Lutetia and the landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars led to him live blogging two of Rosetta's most memorable occasions for The Guardian newspaper.

  10. Muscular loading of joints triggers cellular secretion of PRG4 into the joint fluid.

    PubMed

    Abusara, Z; Krawetz, R; Steele, B; DuVall, M; Schmidt, T; Herzog, W

    2013-04-26

    We developed a novel testing system that allows quantification of joint loading and permits analysis of changes in total protein and PRG4 contents in joint fluid of intact knees in live mice. A sequence of 15 repeat, isometric muscular contractions of "low" intensity (less than 50% of the maximal isometric muscular force), and "high" intensity (greater than 55% of maximal) were applied repeatedly (up to five times with a 15 min rest between contractions) to the mouse knee. Increases in knee joint loading were accompanied with significant increases in total protein (p<0.0001) and PRG4 concentrations in the synovial fluid. Total protein and PRG4 concentrations decreased with repeated "high" intensity loading. However, the addition of cell secretion inhibitors to the knee prior to muscular loading resulted in PRG4 levels that remained below the detection limit for all loading conditions. These results suggest that changes in synovial fluid proteins and PRG4 concentrations upon joint loading are mediated by cells within the joint, and that these changes may be used as quantitative indicators for the intensity and duration of acute joint loading, and might serve as a powerful clinical tool to assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation and prevention exercise programs.

  11. Detection of Unexpected High Correlations between Balance Calibration Loads and Load Residuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for the assessment of strain-gage balance calibration data that makes it possible to systematically investigate potential sources of unexpected high correlations between calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads. The algorithm investigates correlations on a load series by load series basis. The linear correlation coefficient is used to quantify the correlations. It is computed for all possible pairs of calibration load residuals and applied calibration loads that can be constructed for the given balance calibration data set. An unexpected high correlation between a load residual and a load is detected if three conditions are met: (i) the absolute value of the correlation coefficient of a residual/load pair exceeds 0.95; (ii) the maximum of the absolute values of the residuals of a load series exceeds 0.25 % of the load capacity; (iii) the load component of the load series is intentionally applied. Data from a baseline calibration of a six-component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the detection algorithm to a real-world data set. This analysis also showed that the detection algorithm can identify load alignment errors as long as repeat load series are contained in the balance calibration data set that do not suffer from load alignment problems.

  12. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  13. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  14. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  15. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads....

  16. Identifying Symptom Patterns in People Living With HIV Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Natalie L; Azuero, Andres; Vance, David E; Richman, Joshua S; Moneyham, Linda D; Raper, James L; Heath, Sonya L; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms guide disease management, and patients frequently report HIV-related symptoms, but HIV symptom patterns reported by patients have not been described in the era of improved antiretroviral treatment. The objectives of our study were to investigate the prevalence and burden of symptoms in people living with HIV and attending an outpatient clinic. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2011 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters and relationships between groups using appropriate statistic techniques. Two main clusters were identified. The most prevalent and bothersome symptoms were muscle aches/joint pain, fatigue, and poor sleep. A third of patients had seven or more symptoms, including the most burdensome symptoms. Even with improved antiretroviral drug side-effect profiles, symptom prevalence and burden, independent of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell count, are high.

  17. Identifying Symptom Patterns in People Living With HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Natalie L.; Azuero, Andres; Vance, David E.; Richman, Joshua S.; Moneyham, Linda D.; Raper, James L.; Heath, Sonya L.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms guide disease management, and patients frequently report HIV-related symptoms, but HIV symptom patterns reported by patients have not been described in the era of improved antiretroviral treatment. The objectives of our study were to investigate the prevalence and burden of symptoms in people living with HIV and attending an outpatient clinic. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2011 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters and relationships between groups using appropriate statistic techniques. Two main clusters were identified. The most prevalent and bothersome symptoms were muscle aches/joint pain, fatigue, and poor sleep. A third of patients had seven or more symptoms, including the most burdensome symptoms. Even with improved antiretroviral drug side-effect profiles, symptom prevalence and burden, independent of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell count, are high. PMID:26790340

  18. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jansen, John F.; Lind, Randall F.

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  19. Common source-multiple load vs. separate source-individual load photovoltaic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of system performance is made for two possible system setups: (1) individual loads powered by separate solar cell sources; and (2) multiple loads powered by a common solar cell source. A proof for resistive loads is given that shows the advantage of a common source over a separate source photovoltaic system for a large range of loads. For identical loads, both systems perform the same.

  20. Artificial neural network based hourly load forecasting for decentralized load management

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, J.K.; Sinha, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Decentralized load management is an essential part of the power system operation. Forecasting load demand at the substation level is generally more difficult and less accurate compared to forecasting total system load demand. In this paper, Multi-Layered Feed Forward (MLFF) neural network is used to predict the bus-load demand at the substation level. The MLFF network is trained using Back-Propagation (BP) algorithm with adaptive learning technique. The algorithm is tested for two systems having different load patterns.

  1. High heat load synchrotron optics

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density these high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development.

  2. Load limiting parachute inflation control

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.

  3. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow. PMID:17806883

  4. High voltage load resistor array

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  5. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  6. Load distribution in native cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hinterstoisser, Barbara; Akerholm, Margaretha; Salmén, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The properties of cellulose materials are dependent on interactions between and within the cellulose chains. To investigate the deformation behavior of cellulose and its relation to molecular straining, sheets with fibers oriented preferably in one direction were studied by dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy. Celluloses with different origins (spruce pulp, Cladophora cellulose, cotton linters) were used. The sheets were stretched sinusoidally at low strains and small amplitudes while being irradiated with polarized infrared radiation. The cellulose fibers showed mainly an elastic response. The cellulose fibers showed mainly an elastic response. The glucose rings and the C-O-C bridges connecting adjacent rings, as well as the O(3)H.O(5) intramolecular hydrogen bonds are the components mainly deformed under stress, whereas the O(2)H.O(6) intramolecular hydrogen bonds play a minor role. The load distribution was also found to be different in the different allomorphic forms of cellulose I, namely, I(alpha) and I(beta).

  7. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    PubMed

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  8. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; Pierce, K.L.; Obradovich, J.D.; Long, W.D.

    1973-01-01

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming . The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  9. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  10. Self loading wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, E.; Spector, G.

    1987-08-25

    A self loading wood burning stove is described which comprises: (a) a fire box having an air intake vent for supplying a flow of combustible air therin an an exhaust conduit in flow communication with the fire box for exhausting combustion gases therefrom: (b) a storage bin for retaining a plurality of logs, the storage bin having a generally zig-zag vertically arranged compartment for holding a zig-zag row of the logs, the storage bin having a log entry opening at upper portion and a pair of pivotable doors at lower portion for dispensing the logs individually therefrom; and (c) means for delivering the logs from the doors of the storage bin to the fire box of the stove, wherein the delivering means comprises: (d) a conveyor for receiving the logs from the doors of the storage bin and conducting the logs upwardly in a substantially angular fashion; and (e) means for placing the logs from the conveyor into upper portion of the fire box; wherein the conveyor comprises: (f) a plurality of rollers; (g) an endless belt formed around the rollers, the belt having a plurality of push lugs; and (h) a motor to driven one of the rollers to operate the belt so that the push lug will drive the log upwardly; wherein the placing means comprises: (i) a housing having a plurality of legs mounted to the upper portion of the fire box, the housing having a log guide roller in rotatable contact with the belt of the conveyor and a pair of spring loaded trap doors that are opened by weight of the log so that log will far therethrough; and (j) the first box having an inclined top and a pivotable top door that is opened by weight of the log so that the log will roll therein.

  11. Active load control using microtabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun

    2001-11-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  12. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty. PMID:27277563

  13. Impedance matching between ventricle and load.

    PubMed

    Piene, H

    1984-01-01

    Impedance matching in the cardiovascular system is discussed in light of two models of ventricle and load: a Thevenin equivalent consisting of a hydromotive pressure source and an internal, source resistance and compliance in parallel; and a time-varying compliance filled from a constant pressure source and ejecting into a load of three components, a central resistor, a compliance, and a peripheral resistance. According to the Thevenin analog, the energy source and the load are matched when the load resistance is T/t times the internal source resistance (T is total cycle length, t is systolic time interval). Both from this model and from the variable compliance model it appears that optimum matching between source and load depends on the compliance of the Windkessel, as low compliance shifts the matching load resistance to a low value. Animal experiments (isolated cat hearts) indicated that both left and right ventricles at normal loads work close to their maxima of output hydraulic power, and, according to experiments in the right ventricle, maximum power output is related to load resistance and compliance as predicted by the above models. From an experimentally determined relationship among instantaneous ventricular pressure and volume (right ventricle of isolated cat hearts), an optimum load impedance was calculated on the basis of the assumption that the ratio between stroke work and static, potential energy developed in the ventricular cavity is maximum. The optimum load impedance found by this procedure closely resembles the normal input impedance of the cat lung vessel bed. PMID:6507966

  14. Tendon fatigue in response to mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Andarawis-Puri, N.; Flatow, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathies are commonly attributable to accumulation of sub-rupture fatigue damage from repetitive use. Data is limited to late stage disease from patients undergoing surgery, motivating development of animal models, such as ones utilizing treadmill running or repetitive reaching, to investigate the progression of tendinopathies. We developed an in vivo model using the rat patellar tendon that allows control of the loading directly applied to the tendon. This manuscript discusses the response of tendons to fatigue loading and applications of our model. Briefly, the fatigue life of the tendon was used to define low, moderate and high levels of fatigue loading. Morphological assessment showed a progression from mild kinks to fiber disruption, for low to high level fatigue loading. Collagen expression, 1 and 3 days post loading, showed more modest changes for low and moderate than high level fatigue loading. Protein and mRNA expression of Ineterleukin-1β and MMP-13 were upregulated for moderate but not low level fatigue loading. Moderate level (7200 cycles) and 100 cycles of fatigue loading resulted in a catabolic and anabolic molecular profile respectively, at both 1 and 7 days post loading. Results suggest unique mechanisms for different levels of fatigue loading that are distinct from laceration. PMID:21625047

  15. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  16. Only One Earth: Living for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Lloyd

    Depicting how people in nine countries can improve their lives while living within their environmental means is the primary aim of this book. Chapter 1 highlights the division of earth's people into the haves and the have nots and describes the inequity of so few having so much of the available resources. Chapter 2 examines the problem of how…

  17. Living with Learning Difficulties: Emma's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manners, Paula Jean; Carruthers, Emma

    2006-01-01

    This article is about Emma's experience of living with learning difficulties. Emma expresses a lot of anger, and talks about feelings of loss. This article is interesting to people with learning disabilities because they can see if their experience is like Emma's in any way. This paper presents Emma's story: her experience of living with learning…

  18. [Cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae].

    PubMed

    Peng, Heng; Zhu, Huai-Min

    2009-08-01

    The isolation and culture of pathogenic free-living amoebae are useful in the diagnosis and research. This review focuses on the methods of isolation and cultivation of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including sample treatment, culture conditions, passage culture, pathogen detection, and maintenance.

  19. Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes a single word changes everything. In his groundbreaking book "Choice Words", Peter Johnston demonstrated how the things teachers say (and don't say) have surprising consequences for the literate lives of students. Now, in "Opening Minds: Using Language to Change Lives", Peter shows how the words teachers choose affect the worlds students…

  20. 38 CFR 21.76 - Independent living.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.76 Independent living. (a) General. A program of independent living services may be authorized to enable the veteran to: (1) Reach the goals of the program, and...

  1. NASA LIVE Creating a Global Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes-Young, Katrina L.; Ewing, Virginia R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes NASA LIVE (Learning through Interactive Videoconferencing Experiences), a free series of videoconferencing programs produced by NASA's Langley Center for Distance Learning in Hampton, Virginia. NASA LIVE is designed for K-12 educators and students, allowing teachers and students to interact with NASA experts in a virtual…

  2. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  3. Inquiry and Living History, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coatney, Sharon; Smalley, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the authors introduced the living history program. This yearly, weeklong program features living portrayals of famous people, which becomes a catalyst for teaching curricular standards, as well as providing the spark for inquiry. Successful implementation of this program requires providing teachers with…

  4. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  5. The Family: A School for Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1976-01-01

    In the face of so many trends toward fragmentation, overspecialization, and instrumentally impersonal relationships in the day-to-day lives of families, the cause of social habitability is best served when we are able to see clearly the ecology of human development: families as schools for living and schools as families. (Author)

  6. Living Skills as a Core Curriculum Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufty, David

    Schools should help students develop daily living skills in addition to basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and figuring. Living skills are interpreted to include those skills which help students cope with rapid social change. Skills need to be taught on health and nutrition, safety and first aid, interpersonal relationships, family…

  7. An Interstate Cost-of-Living Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, F. Howard

    An interstate cost-of-living index from SMSA-level market basket data is generated in this research. Models are developed for each of the four regions--Northwest, North Central, South, and West--to explain differences in the cost of living among more than 180 SMSAs. Weighted regression coefficients were combined with comparable state-level data to…

  8. Environmental Living Program, Book 1: What's Happening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldi, Mary Lou

    This booklet documents, in words and pictures, the Environmental Living Program. This program, which has been in operation since 1969, provides overnight living experiences for elementary and secondary school students at cultural, historic, or prehistoric sites. The sites are National and State parks and private sites in California and Arizona.…

  9. Beauty in the Context of Particular Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rautio, Pauliina

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on empirical research by the author into the everyday lives of people living in a small village. Everyday life is approached as a subjective process in time and space, experienced by particular people in a particular environmental and social context. The data of this research has been collected through correspondence in which…

  10. Bush Blitz TeachLive 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In July 2015, the Bush Blitz TeachLive expedition took place on the Olkola people's traditional lands on Cape York Peninsula in Queensland. Five teachers joined more than a dozen scientists and the Olkola Indigenous rangers to act as research assistants, as part of the eight-day Bush Blitz TeachLive experience. As a team, they discovered new…

  11. Community Living Skills Guide: Looking Good: Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Looking Good: Hygiene. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  12. Living Citizenship: Transcending the Cultural Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Steven; Potts, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Living citizenship emerging from reflection on an international educational partnership makes a unique contribution to the field and importantly fulfils the British Educational Research Association aim of improving educational practice for the public benefit. This paper explores the conceptual framework of 'living citizenship' as a means…

  13. GIS Live and Web Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.

    2007-01-01

    GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…

  14. Community Living Skills Guide: Beginning Woodworking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steve; Smith, Don

    This is one of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series which provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Beginning Woodworking, Use of Basic Hand Tools and Shop Safety. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to…

  15. Women's Guide to Overseas Living. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piet-Pelon, Nancy J.; Hornby, Barbara

    This book examines issues critical to women and their families who go abroad to live. In advising how to cope effectively with the problems that arise, the book illuminates the advantages of living overseas and offers practical suggestions and guidelines that help women take advantage of the opportunity to share in another culture. Divided into 13…

  16. Reflection on Lived Experience in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnacle, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    While debate about the meaning of hermeneutics and phenomenology for educational research continues, the notion of lived experience, and its application to reflective practice, has become a feature of much that goes by the name of phenomenological within this area. The prevalence of the lived experience model can be attributed in large part to the…

  17. The Independent Living Behavior Checklist: Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    The document describes independent living skills, and provides information on how they can be measured. It is explained in an introductory chapter that the checklist is an extensive list of 343 independent living skill objectives specified in terms of conditions (antecedents or givens), behaviors, and standards. Objectives are classified and…

  18. Bringing Art to Life through Living Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillwagon, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she and other art teachers developed a "living painting" lesson, an art lesson that incorporates art history and painting. The lesson was developed also in part to help new student-teachers plan a memorable lesson. With the living painting lesson, students will have to choose and recreate famous paintings…

  19. Worldview and route planning using live public cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaseb, Ahmed S.; Chen, Wenyi; Gingade, Ganesh; Lu, Yung-Hsiang

    2015-03-01

    Planning a trip needs to consider many unpredictable factors along the route such as traffic, weather, accidents, etc. People are interested viewing the places they plan to visit and the routes they plan to take. This paper presents a system with an Android mobile application that allows users to: (i) Watch the live feeds (videos or snapshots) from more than 65,000 geotagged public cameras around the world. The user can select the cameras using an interactive world map. (ii) Search for and watch the live feeds from the cameras along the route between a starting point and a destination. The system consists of a server which maintains a database with the cameras' information, and a mobile application that shows the camera map and communicates with the cameras. In order to evaluate the system, we compare it with existing systems in terms of the total number of cameras, the cameras' coverage, and the number of cameras on various routes. We also discuss the response time of loading the camera map, finding the cameras on a route, and communicating with the cameras.

  20. Dynamic Myofibrillar Remodeling in Live Cardiomyocytes under Static Stretch

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huaxiao; Schmidt, Lucas P.; Wang, Zhonghai; Yang, Xiaoqi; Shao, Yonghong; Borg, Thomas K.; Markwald, Roger; Runyan, Raymond; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2016-01-01

    An increase in mechanical load in the heart causes cardiac hypertrophy, either physiologically (heart development, exercise and pregnancy) or pathologically (high blood pressure and heart-valve regurgitation). Understanding cardiac hypertrophy is critical to comprehending the mechanisms of heart development and treatment of heart disease. However, the major molecular event that occurs during physiological or pathological hypertrophy is the dynamic process of sarcomeric addition, and it has not been observed. In this study, a custom-built second harmonic generation (SHG) confocal microscope was used to study dynamic sarcomeric addition in single neonatal CMs in a 3D culture system under acute, uniaxial, static, sustained stretch. Here we report, for the first time, live-cell observations of various modes of dynamic sarcomeric addition (and how these real-time images compare to static images from hypertrophic hearts reported in the literature): 1) Insertion in the mid-region or addition at the end of a myofibril; 2) Sequential addition with an existing myofibril as a template; and 3) Longitudinal splitting of an existing myofibril. The 3D cell culture system developed on a deformable substrate affixed to a stretcher and the SHG live-cell imaging technique are unique tools for real-time analysis of cultured models of hypertrophy. PMID:26861590

  1. Dynamic Myofibrillar Remodeling in Live Cardiomyocytes under Static Stretch.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huaxiao; Schmidt, Lucas P; Wang, Zhonghai; Yang, Xiaoqi; Shao, Yonghong; Borg, Thomas K; Markwald, Roger; Runyan, Raymond; Gao, Bruce Z

    2016-01-01

    An increase in mechanical load in the heart causes cardiac hypertrophy, either physiologically (heart development, exercise and pregnancy) or pathologically (high blood pressure and heart-valve regurgitation). Understanding cardiac hypertrophy is critical to comprehending the mechanisms of heart development and treatment of heart disease. However, the major molecular event that occurs during physiological or pathological hypertrophy is the dynamic process of sarcomeric addition, and it has not been observed. In this study, a custom-built second harmonic generation (SHG) confocal microscope was used to study dynamic sarcomeric addition in single neonatal CMs in a 3D culture system under acute, uniaxial, static, sustained stretch. Here we report, for the first time, live-cell observations of various modes of dynamic sarcomeric addition (and how these real-time images compare to static images from hypertrophic hearts reported in the literature): 1) Insertion in the mid-region or addition at the end of a myofibril; 2) Sequential addition with an existing myofibril as a template; and 3) Longitudinal splitting of an existing myofibril. The 3D cell culture system developed on a deformable substrate affixed to a stretcher and the SHG live-cell imaging technique are unique tools for real-time analysis of cultured models of hypertrophy. PMID:26861590

  2. Nanobiomechanics of living cells: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinju

    2014-01-01

    Nanobiomechanics of living cells is very important to understand cell–materials interactions. This would potentially help to optimize the surface design of the implanted materials and scaffold materials for tissue engineering. The nanoindentation techniques enable quantifying nanobiomechanics of living cells, with flexibility of using indenters of different geometries. However, the data interpretation for nanoindentation of living cells is often difficult. Despite abundant experimental data reported on nanobiomechanics of living cells, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion on testing with different tip geometries, and the associated mechanical models that enable extracting the mechanical properties of living cells. Therefore, this paper discusses the strategy of selecting the right type of indenter tips and the corresponding mechanical models at given test conditions. PMID:24748952

  3. Financial considerations in living organ donation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Cheryl; Thomas, Charlie

    2003-06-01

    The shortage of cadaveric organs and increased success of living donor transplantation support the use of living organ donors. Clinical social workers have the opportunity to explore a variety of donor-specific issues when performing psychosocial evaluations of living donors, including motivation, psychological stability, and personal and family consequences of donation, as well as the direct and indirect financial consequences faced by living donors. Although most donor-related medical costs are covered, other associated expenses are not reimbursable and may put donors at risk for financial hardship. Out-of-pocket expenses also serve as a disincentive to donate for some volunteers. During the evaluation process, healthcare professionals should openly discuss how surgery, recovery, and any potential complications might impact prospective donors' financial situation. Donors can then decide whether they are able to realistically handle the costs of donation. We present the financial dilemmas experienced by many living donors and highlight efforts that have been made to deal with them.

  4. Living will status and desire for living will help among rural Alabama veterans.

    PubMed

    Mahaney-Price, Ann F; Hilgeman, Michelle M; Davis, Lori L; McNeal, Sandre F; Conner, Charles M; Allen, Rebecca S

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from an earlier intervention study to increase Veterans Administration health care enrollment in rural Alabama veterans was to determine the veterans' living will status, desire for help completing a living will, and relationships between these and demographic, health insurance, health self-report, cumulative illness, disability, and trust characteristics. Baseline data for 201 rural Alabama veterans were extracted from the larger study. Chi-square and t tests were used to analyze group differences in categorical and continuous variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine multivariate associations of variables with living will status and desire for help. Only 13% of participants had living wills. Of those without living wills, 40% expressed a desire for help completing a living will. African Americans were less likely to have living wills than were Caucasians. Participants with more than high school education were more likely to desire help completing living wills than were those with less education. With the exception of moderate-severe respiratory illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with having a living will. With the exception of moderate-severe vascular illness, moderate-severe illness was not associated with desire for help completing a living will. The racial and educational disparities in living will status and desire for help and the number of participants who desired help completing a living will suggests a need for action to increase advance care planning among rural veterans.

  5. A Study on a Centralized Under-Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Considering the Load Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiyu; Liu, Junyong

    Under-voltage load shedding is an important measure for maintaining voltage stability.Aiming at the optimal load shedding problem considering the load characteristics,firstly,the traditional under-voltage load shedding scheme based on a static load model may cause the analysis inaccurate is pointed out on the equivalent Thevenin circuit.Then,the dynamic voltage stability margin indicator is derived through local measurement.The derived indicator can reflect the voltage change of the key area in a myopia linear way.Dimensions of the optimal problem will be greatly simplified using this indicator.In the end,mathematical model of the centralized load shedding scheme is built with the indicator considering load characteristics.HSPPSO is introduced to slove the optimal problem.Simulation results on IEEE-39 system show that the proposed scheme display a good adaptability in solving the under-voltage load shedding considering dynamic load characteristics.

  6. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  7. A novel dual-frequency loading system for studying mechanobiology of load-bearing tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunqiu; Qiu, Lulu; Gao, Lilan; Guan, Yinjie; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Xizheng; Chen, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In mechanobiological research, an appropriate loading system is an essential tool to mimic mechanical signals in a native environment. To achieve this goal, we have developed a novel loading system capable of applying dual-frequency loading including both a low-frequency high-amplitude loading and a high-frequency low-amplitude loading, according to the mechanical conditions experienced by bone and articular cartilage tissues. The low-frequency high-amplitude loading embodies the main force from muscular contractions and/or reaction forces while the high-frequency low-amplitude loading represents an assistant force from small muscles, ligaments and/or other tissue in order to maintain body posture during human activities. Therefore, such dual frequency loading system may reflect the natural characteristics of complex mechanical load on bone or articular cartilage than the single frequency loading often applied during current mechanobiological experiments. The dual-frequency loading system is validated by experimental tests using precision miniature plane-mirror interferometers. The dual-frequency loading results in significantly more solute transport in articular cartilage than that of the low-frequency high-amplitude loading regiment alone, as determined by quantitative fluorescence microscopy of tracer distribution in articular cartilage. Thus, the loading system can provide a new method to mimic mechanical environment in bone and cartilage, thereby revealing the in vivo mechanisms of mechanosensation, mechanotransduction and mass-transport, and improving mechanical conditioning of cartilage and/or bone constructs for tissue engineering. PMID:27612712

  8. A novel dual-frequency loading system for studying mechanobiology of load-bearing tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunqiu; Qiu, Lulu; Gao, Lilan; Guan, Yinjie; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Xizheng; Chen, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In mechanobiological research, an appropriate loading system is an essential tool to mimic mechanical signals in a native environment. To achieve this goal, we have developed a novel loading system capable of applying dual-frequency loading including both a low-frequency high-amplitude loading and a high-frequency low-amplitude loading, according to the mechanical conditions experienced by bone and articular cartilage tissues. The low-frequency high-amplitude loading embodies the main force from muscular contractions and/or reaction forces while the high-frequency low-amplitude loading represents an assistant force from small muscles, ligaments and/or other tissue in order to maintain body posture during human activities. Therefore, such dual frequency loading system may reflect the natural characteristics of complex mechanical load on bone or articular cartilage than the single frequency loading often applied during current mechanobiological experiments. The dual-frequency loading system is validated by experimental tests using precision miniature plane-mirror interferometers. The dual-frequency loading results in significantly more solute transport in articular cartilage than that of the low-frequency high-amplitude loading regiment alone, as determined by quantitative fluorescence microscopy of tracer distribution in articular cartilage. Thus, the loading system can provide a new method to mimic mechanical environment in bone and cartilage, thereby revealing the in vivo mechanisms of mechanosensation, mechanotransduction and mass-transport, and improving mechanical conditioning of cartilage and/or bone constructs for tissue engineering.

  9. Physical work load in physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Sandmark, H; Wiktorin, C; Hogstedt, C; Klenell-Hatschek, E K; Vingard, E

    1999-10-01

    The main objective was to measure and quantify exposure to physical work load in physical education teachers. A further aim was to establish the reproducibility of a three-week test-retest interval of self-reported physical load and to evaluate the agreement between registered and self-rated physical load. Thirty teachers, both female and male, volunteered to participate in the study. The physical load on the lower extremities, as well as the back and the cardio-vascular strain was recorded during one working day. The results indicate that the physical work load in this occupational group is considerable due to the load on the lower extremities. The demands of the cardio-vascular system are also relatively high in comparison to other occupational groups. The teachers could assess their activity quite well regarding heavy lifting and time spent sitting.

  10. Combined loading criterial influence on structural performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchta, B. J.; Sealey, D. M.; Howell, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the influence of combined loading criteria on the space shuttle structural performance. The study consisted of four primary phases: Phase (1) The determination of the sensitivity of structural weight to various loading parameters associated with the space shuttle. Phase (2) The determination of the sensitivity of structural weight to various levels of loading parameter variability and probability. Phase (3) The determination of shuttle mission loading parameters variability and probability as a function of design evolution and the identification of those loading parameters where inadequate data exists. Phase (4) The determination of rational methods of combining both deterministic time varying and probabilistic loading parameters to provide realistic design criteria. The study results are presented.

  11. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  12. Grid scheduling divisible loads from two sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moges, M.A.; Yu, D.; Robertazzi, T.

    2009-07-10

    To date closed form solutions for optimal finish time and job allocation are largely obtained only for network topologies with a single load originating (root) processor. However in large-scale data intensive problems with geographically distributed resources, load is generated from multiple sources. This paper introduces a new divisible load scheduling strategy for single level tree networks with two load originating processors. Solutions for an optimal allocation of fractions of load to nodes in single level tree networks are obtained via linear programming. A unique scheduling strategy that allows one to obtain closed form solutions for the optimal finish time and load allocation for each processor in the network is also presented. The tradeoff between linear programming and closed form solutions in terms of underlying assumptions is examined. Finally, a performance evaluation of a two source homogeneous single level tree network with concurrent communication strategy is presented.

  13. NASA Dryden Flight Loads Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sefic, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Loads Research Facility (NASA) and the associated equipment for simulating the loading and heating of aircraft or their components are described. Particular emphasis is placed on various fail-safe devices which are built into the equipment to minimize the possibility of damage to flight vehicles. The equipment described includes the ground vibration and moment of inertia equipment, the data acquisition system, and the instrumentation available in the facility for measuring load, position, strain, temperature, and acceleration.

  14. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    This study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates our 1990 study. BPS's long-range planning incorporates resource availability with a range of forecasted electrical consumption. The forecasted future electrical demands-firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, then additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. This study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for 1992- 2012.

  15. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  16. Dual-band reactively loaded microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. F.; Long, S. A.; Davidson, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    A previously derived theory is applied to a microstrip antenna with a reactive load to produce a dual-band radiator. A model consisting of a rectangular patch radiator loaded with a variable length short-circuited coaxial stub was investigated experimentally. Comparisons of theoretical predictions and experimental data are made for the impedance and resonant frequencies as a function of the position of the load, the length of the stub, and the characteristic impedance of the stub.

  17. The Evidence for Symplastic Phloem Loading 1

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert; Beebe, Dwight U.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental protocols used to study the route(s) of phloem loading in source leaves are evaluated; they include the analysis of plasmodesmatal ultrastructure and distribution, mobile compounds in the free space, loading patterns of exogenous sugars, the site of sugar synthesis, and dye coupling. All these methods have drawbacks. There are indications that some plants, especially those that translocate the raffinose series of sugars, load by a symplastic (through plasmodesmata) pathway, but the evidence is weak. PMID:16668192

  18. Mapping Fuel Load and Its Dynamics in Shrubland and Grassland Using eMODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Zhang, X.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Reeves, M. C.; Li, Z.

    2014-12-01

    A challenge for mapping live fuels and their dynamics in rangeland ecosystems is separating fuel conditions and changes from background variation. Rangelands are characterized by seasonal and inter-annual spectral variation associated with phenology and other factors. Remote sensing systems for assessing these ecosystems, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), enable characterization of intra- and inter-annual spectral conditions across all seasons. Fuel conditions in rangelands are influenced by major disturbances such as fires, and phenological changes are strongly influenced by weather and climate. Fuel load data are key components to simulating areas that are more likely to burn and burn severity, and to provide regional estimates biomass burning emissions. We developed an approach for mapping live fuel load, biomass density, dynamics using enhanced MODIS (eMODIS) data at a spatial resolution of 250m. Generalized allometric models were developed to estimate branch biomass and aboveground biomass based on independent variables of maximum foliage biomass. Temporal leaf area index (LAI) data were converted from weekly eMODIS Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) data for various vegetation types and fitted to a vegetation growing model to reduce uncertainty. Results from the study area (Owyhee and Twin Falls) will be examined and validated by using high-resolution aerial photography (WorldView) and field data. Additionally, we analyzed and summarized the correlations among fire occurrence (frequency), burn severity, live fuel load, and climatic conditions. Our results demonstrate that mapping fuel load and its dynamics in shrubland and grassland with remotely sensed time series data can capture spatiotemporal heterogeneity in nonforest live fuel types relevant to fire disturbances and climate/weather variation. This work provides a useful and powerful mapping approach that can improve and augment existing LANDFIRE fuels data in

  19. Prediction of cyclic delamination lives of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates with considering wear and dissolutions.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kojima, Daisuke; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at developing the prediction model of cyclic delamination lives of plasma-sprayed HAp coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by considering wear by interface contacts and dissolution effect by Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). Delamination of HAp coating can lead to loosening of implants stem and final failure in vivo. In the fracture mechanism of interfaces between HAp coating with Ti substrates, only adhesive strength (interracial tensile strength) or fatigue behavior by longitudinal cracking have been observed. Cyclic delamination mechanism by considering various loading modes and corrosion effect has not been revealed yet. The interface delamination rates by cyclic loading were much higher than those by static loading tests. The result clearly demonstrated that the interface demalination behaviors are dominated not by maximum stress, but by stress range. Surface profile measurement and SEM observation also demonstrated damages by interface contact or third body wear at delamination tips of HAp coating only in the cases of compressions. The mechanisms of acceleration on the delaminations are third-body wear or wedge effect by worn particles which increased mean stress level during cyclic loading. Cyclic loading tests under SBF also revealed that cyclic delamination lives were shortened probably due to crevice corrosion at interfaces. Dissolutions at the tips of delaminations were observed by SEM images under tensile loading condition in SBF. Linearly adding the effects of wear and dissolutions into Paris law could successfully predict the delamination lives of HAp coating for various loading ratios in SBF. PMID:27498422

  20. Prediction of cyclic delamination lives of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates with considering wear and dissolutions.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kojima, Daisuke; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at developing the prediction model of cyclic delamination lives of plasma-sprayed HAp coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by considering wear by interface contacts and dissolution effect by Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). Delamination of HAp coating can lead to loosening of implants stem and final failure in vivo. In the fracture mechanism of interfaces between HAp coating with Ti substrates, only adhesive strength (interracial tensile strength) or fatigue behavior by longitudinal cracking have been observed. Cyclic delamination mechanism by considering various loading modes and corrosion effect has not been revealed yet. The interface delamination rates by cyclic loading were much higher than those by static loading tests. The result clearly demonstrated that the interface demalination behaviors are dominated not by maximum stress, but by stress range. Surface profile measurement and SEM observation also demonstrated damages by interface contact or third body wear at delamination tips of HAp coating only in the cases of compressions. The mechanisms of acceleration on the delaminations are third-body wear or wedge effect by worn particles which increased mean stress level during cyclic loading. Cyclic loading tests under SBF also revealed that cyclic delamination lives were shortened probably due to crevice corrosion at interfaces. Dissolutions at the tips of delaminations were observed by SEM images under tensile loading condition in SBF. Linearly adding the effects of wear and dissolutions into Paris law could successfully predict the delamination lives of HAp coating for various loading ratios in SBF.