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Sample records for live-attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency

  1. A genetically engineered live-attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus that co-expresses the RANTES gene improves the magnitude of cellular immunity in rhesus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Yuya; Inaba, Katsuhisa; Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Ibuki, Kentaro; Himeno, Ai; Okoba, Masashi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hayami, Masanori; Miura, Tomoyuki; Haga, Takeshi . E-mail: a0d518u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-25

    Regulated-on-activation-normal-T-cell-expressed-and-secreted (RANTES), a CC-chemokine, enhances antigen-specific T helper (Th) type-1 responses against HIV-1. To evaluate the adjuvant effects of RANTES against HIV vaccine candidate in SHIV-macaque models, we genetically engineered a live-attenuated SHIV to express the RANTES gene (SHIV-RANTES) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the vaccination, the plasma viral loads were same in the SHIV-RANTES-inoculated monkeys and the parental nef-deleted SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-RANTES provided some immunity in monkeys by remarkably increasing the antigen-specific CD4{sup +} Th cell-proliferative response and by inducing an antigen-specific IFN-{gamma} ELISpot response. The magnitude of the immunity in SHIV-RANTES-immunized animals, however, failed to afford greater protection against a heterologous pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge compared to control SHIV-NI-immunized animals. SHIV-RANTES immunized monkeys, elicited robust cellular CD4{sup +} Th responses and IFN-{gamma} ELISpot responses after SHIV-C2/1 challenge. These findings suggest that the chemokine RANTES can augment vaccine-elicited, HIV-specific CD4{sup +} T cell responses.

  2. Limited Protection from a Pathogenic Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge following Immunization with Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Mark G.; Yalley-Ogunro, Jake; Greenhouse, Jack J.; Brennan, Terry P.; Jiang, Jennifer Bo; VanCott, Thomas C.; Lu, Yichen; Eddy, Gerald A.; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    Two live attenuated single-deletion mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) constructs, SIV239Δnef and SIVPBj6.6Δnef, were tested for their abilities to stimulate protective immunity in macaques. During the immunization period the animals were examined for specific immune responses and virus growth. Each construct generated high levels of specific immunity in all of the immunized animals. The SIV239Δnef construct was found to grow to high levels in all immunized animals, with some animals remaining positive for virus isolation and plasma RNA throughout the immunization period. The SIVPBj6.6Δnef was effectively controlled by all of the immunized animals, with virus mostly isolated only during the first few months following immunization and plasma RNA never detected. Following an extended period of immunization of over 80 weeks, the animals were challenged with a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) isolate, SIV89.6PD, by intravenous injection. All of the SIV239Δnef-immunized animals became infected with the SHIV isolate; two of five animals eventually controlled the challenge and three of five animals, which failed to check the immunizing virus, progressed to disease state before the unvaccinated controls. One of five animals immunized with SIVPBj6.6Δnef totally resisted infection by the challenge virus, while three others limited its growth and the remaining animal became persistently infected and eventually died of a pulmonary thrombus. These data indicate that vaccination with attenuated SIV can protect macaques from disease and in some cases from infection by a divergent SHIV. However, if animals are unable to control the immunizing virus, potential damage that can accelerate the disease course of a pathogenic challenge virus may occur. PMID:9882330

  3. C5A Protects Macaques from Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2015-01-01

    A safe and effective vaginal microbicide could decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in women. Here, we evaluated the safety and microbicidal efficacy of a short amphipathic peptide, C5A, in a rhesus macaque model. We found that a vaginal application of C5A protects 89% of the macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) challenge. We observed no signs of lesions or inflammation in animals vaginally treated with repeated C5A applications. With its noncellular cytotoxic activity and rare mechanism of action, C5A represents an attractive microbicidal candidate. PMID:26552985

  4. Vaginal transmission of chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y; Brosio, P; Lafaile, M; Li, J; Collman, R G; Sodroski, J; Miller, C J

    1996-01-01

    Chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that express the env genes derived from distinct HIV type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for the ability to infect rhesus macaques following intravaginal inoculation. SHIVs containing either the HIV-1 HXBc2 or the HIV-1 89.6 envelope glycoproteins were capable of replicating in intravenously inoculated rhesus macaques. However, intravaginal inoculation of animals with these two SHIVs resulted in infection only with the SHIV containing the HIV-1 89.6 glycoprotein. Thus, properties conferred by the envelope glycoproteins in the chimeric virus affect the ability of particular SHIVs to initiate a systemic infection following vaginal inoculation. These results provide indirect support for the hypothesis that the selection of specific viral variants occurs in the genital tracts of individuals exposed to HIV by sexual contact. PMID:8627782

  5. Generation and Evaluation of Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-Wen; Tartaglia, Lawrence J.; Whitney, James B.; Lim, So-Yon; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Lavine, Christy L.; Seaman, Michael S.; Rademeyer, Cecelia; Williamson, Carolyn; Ellingson-Strouss, Katharine; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Kublin, James

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of a panel of mucosally transmissible simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge stocks from multiple virus clades would facilitate preclinical evaluation of candidate HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutics. The majority of SHIV stocks that have been generated to date have been derived from clade B HIV-1 env sequences from viruses isolated during chronic infection and typically required serial animal-to-animal adaptation for establishing mucosal transmissibility and pathogenicity. To capture essential features of mucosal transmission of clade C viruses, we produced a series of SHIVs with early clade C HIV-1 env sequences from acutely HIV-1-infected individuals from South Africa. SHIV-327c and SHIV-327cRM expressed env sequences that were 99.7 to 100% identical to the original HIV-1 isolate and did not require in vivo passaging for mucosal infectivity. These challenge stocks infected rhesus monkeys efficiently by both intrarectal and intravaginal routes, replicated to high levels during acute infection, and established chronic setpoint viremia in 13 of 17 (76%) infected animals. The SHIV-327cRM challenge stock was also titrated for both single, high-dose intrarectal challenges and repetitive, low-dose intrarectal challenges in rhesus monkeys. These SHIV challenge stocks should facilitate the preclinical evaluation of vaccines and other interventions aimed at preventing clade C HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE We describe the development of two related clade C SHIV challenge stocks. These challenge stocks should prove useful for preclinical testing of vaccines and other interventions aimed at preventing clade C HIV-1 infection. PMID:25473043

  6. Association of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-B Chain with Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Potula, Raghava; Dhillion, Navneet; Sui, Yongjun; Zien, Christopher A.; Funa, Keiko; Pinson, David; Mayo, Matthew S.; Singh, Dinesh K.; Narayan, Opendra; Buch, Shilpa

    2004-01-01

    Chemokines and cytokines play a critical role in HIV infection, serving both to modulate virus replication and to recruit target cells to the site of infection. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a mitogen and chemoattractant for a wide variety of cells, is secreted by macrophages. Since macrophages are the target cells for lentiviral infection in the brain and PDGF is a known inducer of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP)-1, a potent chemokine closely associated with HIV encephalitis, we investigated the association of PDGF-B chain (PDGF-B) with encephalitis in macaques caused by simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), a chimera of HIV and SIV. Northern blot analysis confirmed elevated expression of PDGF-B chain mRNA in the brains from encephalitic macaques. Validation of these in vivo studies was confirmed in rhesus macrophage cultures infected with SHIVKU2 in which we demonstrated heightened expression of PDGF-B chain mRNA. Nuclear run-off analysis established transcriptional up-regulation of PDGF-B chain in virus-inoculated macrophage cultures. Reciprocally, addition of exogenous PDGF enhanced virus replication and MCP-1 expression in these cells. Inhibition of virus replication by tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI-571, and by PDGF-B antisense oligonucleotides confirmed the specificity of the PDGF effect. Relevance of these findings was confirmed by analysis of archival brain tissue from SHIV encephalitic and non-encephalitic macaques for PDGF-B chain expression. PDGF-B chain protein expression was observed in the virus-infected cells in microglial nodules in the brains of SHIV-encephalitic macaques. PMID:15331406

  7. Characterization of Primary Isolate-Like Variants of Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, John M.; Earl, Patricia L.; Moss, Bernard; Reimann, Keith A.; Wyand, Michael S.; Manson, Kelledy H.; Bilska, Miroslawa; Zhou, Jin Tao; Pauza, C. David; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Burton, Dennis R.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Letvin, Norman L.; Montefiori, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Several different strains of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) that contain the envelope glycoproteins of either T-cell-line-adapted (TCLA) strains or primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are now available. One of the advantages of these chimeric viruses is their application to studies of HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies in preclinical AIDS vaccine studies in nonhuman primates. In this regard, an important consideration is the spectrum of antigenic properties exhibited by the different envelope glycoproteins used for SHIV construction. The antigenic properties of six SHIV variants were characterized here in neutralization assays with recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4), monoclonal antibodies, and serum samples from SHIV-infected macaques and HIV-1-infected individuals. Neutralization of SHIV variants HXBc2, KU2, 89.6, and 89.6P by autologous and heterologous sera from SHIV-infected macaques was restricted to an extent that these viruses may be considered heterologous to one another in their major neutralization determinants. Little or no variation was seen in the neutralization determinants on SHIV variants 89.6P, 89.6PD, and SHIV-KB9. Neutralization of SHIV HXBc2 by sera from HXBc2-infected macaques could be blocked with autologous V3-loop peptide; this was less true in the case of SHIV 89.6 and sera from SHIV 89.6-infected macaques. The poorly immunogenic but highly conserved epitope for monoclonal antibody IgG1b12 was a target for neutralization on SHIV variants HXBc2, KU2, and 89.6 but not on 89.6P and KB9. The 2G12 epitope was a target for neutralization on all five SHIV variants. SHIV variants KU2, 89.6, 89.6P, 89.6PD, and KB9 exhibited antigenic properties characteristic of primary isolates by being relatively insensitive to neutralization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells with serum samples from HIV-1-infected individuals and 12-fold to 38-fold less sensitive to inhibition with recombinant soluble CD4 than TCLA

  8. Emergence of CD4 Independence Envelopes and Astrocyte Infection in R5 Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Model of Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Ke; Leda, Ana Rachel; Tsai, Lily; Knight, Heather; Harbison, Carole; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Westmoreland, Susan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by replication in macrophages or brain microglia that express low levels of the CD4 receptor and is the cause of HIV-associated dementia and related cognitive and motor disorders that affect 20 to 30% of treatment-naive patients with AIDS. Independent viral envelope evolution in the brain has been reported, with the need for robust replication in resident CD4low cells, as well as CD4-negative cells, such as astrocytes, proposed as a major selective pressure. We previously reported giant-cell encephalitis in subtype B and C R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques (SHIV-induced encephalitis [SHIVE]) that experienced very high chronic viral loads and progressed rapidly to AIDS, with varying degrees of macrophage or microglia infection and activation of these immune cells, as well as astrocytes, in the CNS. In this study, we characterized envelopes (Env) amplified from the brains of subtype B and C R5 SHIVE macaques. We obtained data in support of an association between severe neuropathological changes, robust macrophage and microglia infection, and evolution to CD4 independence. Moreover, the degree of Env CD4 independence appeared to correlate with the extent of astrocyte infection in vivo. These findings further our knowledge of the CNS viral population phenotypes that are associated with the severity of HIV/SHIV-induced neurological injury and improve our understanding of the mechanism of HIV-1 cellular tropism and persistence in the brain. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of astrocytes in the brain has been suggested to be important in HIV persistence and neuropathogenesis but has not been definitively demonstrated in an animal model of HIV-induced encephalitis (HIVE). Here, we describe a new nonhuman primate (NHP) model of R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced encephalitis

  9. Viral outcome of simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-89.6P adapted to cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Borsetti, A; Baroncelli, S; Maggiorella, M T; Bellino, S; Moretti, S; Sernicola, L; Belli, R; Ridolfi, B; Farcomeni, S; Negri, D R M; Cafaro, A; Ensoli, B; Titti, F

    2008-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6P is considered to be one of the most pathogenic chimeric viruses in rhesus macaques. However, when crossing from one to another species of monkeys the pathogenicity of this virus may be affected. By using SHIV-89.6P(cy243), a virus obtained by passaging SHIV-89.6P in cynomolgus macaques, we investigated the dynamics of viral replication and the impact of the inoculum size (from 10 up to 50 monkey infectious dose) on the progression of the infection in 22 cynomolgus macaques. SHIV-89.6P(cy243 )caused massive depletion of CD4+ T-cells within 4 weeks of the inoculum, followed by an irreversible immune deficiency in a high proportion of the infected monkeys. This study demonstrates that SHIV-89.6P(cy243) is pathogenic in cynomolgus macaques and that the dynamics of the viral replication and the rate of clinical progression depend on the size of the inoculum. Our findings provide unique and relevant data, particularly with regard to the value of the in vivo titration used to select the most appropriate infectious dose to study the "virus-host" interplay.

  10. Protection of Macaques against Pathogenic Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus 89.6PD by Passive Transfer of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mascola, John R.; Lewis, Mark G.; Stiegler, Gabriela; Harris, Dawn; VanCott, Thomas C.; Hayes, Deborah; Louder, Mark K.; Brown, Charles R.; Sapan, Christine V.; Frankel, Sarah S.; Lu, Yichen; Robb, Merlin L.; Katinger, Hermann; Birx, Deborah L.

    1999-01-01

    The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4+-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4+-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4+ T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease. PMID:10196297

  11. Lymphocyte Activation during Acute Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6PD Infection in Macaques†

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Marianne; Waterman, Paul M.; Mitchen, Jacque L.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Brown, Charles; Trivedi, Parul; Horejsh, Douglas; Dykhuizen, Marta; Kitabwalla, Moiz; Pauza, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Host-virus interactions control disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human beings and in nonhuman primates infected with simian or simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV). These interactions evolve rapidly during acute infection and are key to the mechanisms of viral persistence and AIDS. SHIV89.6PD infection in rhesus macaques can deplete CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes within 2 weeks after exposure and is a model for virulent, acute infection. Lymphocytes isolated from blood and tissues during the interval of acute SHIV89.6PD infection have lost the capacity to proliferate in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). T-cell unresponsiveness to mitogen occurred within 1 week after mucosal inoculation yet prior to massive CD4+ T-cell depletion and extensive virus dissemination. The lack of mitogen response was due to apoptosis in vitro, and increased activation marker expression on circulating T cells in vivo coincided with the appearance of PHA-induced apoptosis in vitro. Inappropriately high immune stimulation associated with rapid loss of mature CD4+ T cells suggested that activation-induced cell death is a mechanism for helper T-cell depletion in the brief period before widespread virus dissemination. Elevated levels of lymphocyte activation likely enhance SHIV89.6PD replication, thus increasing the loss of CD4+ T cells and diminishing the levels of virus-specific immunity that remain after acute infection. The level of surviving immunity may dictate the capacity to control virus replication and disease progression. We describe this level of immune competence as the host set point to show its pivotal role in AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:10559340

  12. Neutralizing IgG at the Portal of Infection Mediates Protection against Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Katja; Veazey, Ronald S.; Warrier, Ranjit; Hraber, Peter; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Buffa, Viviana; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies may have critical importance in immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the amount of protective antibody needed at mucosal surfaces has not been fully established. Here, we evaluated systemic and mucosal pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of 2F5 IgG and 2F5 Fab fragments with respect to protection against vaginal challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus-BaL in macaques. Antibody assessment demonstrated that 2F5 IgG was more potent than polymeric forms (IgM and IgA) across a range of cellular and tissue models. Vaginal challenge studies demonstrated a dose-dependent protection for 2F5 IgG and no protection with 2F5 Fab despite higher vaginal Fab levels at the time of challenge. Animals receiving 50 or 25 mg/kg of body weight 2F5 IgG were completely protected, while 3/5 animals receiving 5 mg/kg were protected. In the control animals, infection was established by a minimum of 1 to 4 transmitted/founder (T/F) variants, similar to natural human infection by this mucosal route; in the two infected animals that had received 5 mg 2F5 IgG, infection was established by a single T/F variant. Serum levels of 2F5 IgG were more predictive of sterilizing protection than measured vaginal levels. Fc-mediated antiviral activity did not appear to influence infection of primary target cells in cervical explants. However, PK studies highlighted the importance of the Fc portion in tissue biodistribution. Data presented in this study may be important in modeling serum levels of neutralizing antibodies that need to be achieved by either vaccination or passive infusion to prevent mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection in humans. PMID:23966410

  13. Rhesus macaques previously infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus are protected from vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C J; McChesney, M B; Lü, X; Dailey, P J; Chutkowski, C; Lu, D; Brosio, P; Roberts, B; Lu, Y

    1997-01-01

    Nontraumatic vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) chimera containing the envelope gene from HIV-1 89.6 (SHIV 89.6) results in systemic infection (Y. Lu, B. Brosio, M. Lafaile, J. Li, R. G. Collman, J. Sodroski, and C. J. Miller, J. Virol. 70:3045-3050, 1996). A total of five rhesus macaques have each been infected by exposure to at least three intravaginal inoculations of SHIV 89.6. The SHIV 89.6 infection is characterized by a transient viremia that evokes humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV and SIV antigens, but disease does not develop in animals infected with SHIV 89.6. To determine if a previous infection with SHIV 89.6 by vaginal inoculation could protect animals from vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIV, all five animals were intravaginally inoculated twice with pathogenic SIV-mac239. After challenge, all of the SHIV-immunized animals had low or undetectable viral RNA levels in plasma compared to control animals. Three of the five of the SHIV-immunized animals remained virus isolation negative for more than 8 months, while two became virus isolation positive. The presence of SIV Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and SIV-specific antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions at the time of challenge was associated with resistance to pathogenic SIV infection after vaginal challenge. These results suggest that protection from sexual transmission of HIV may be possible by effectively stimulating both humoral and cellular antiviral immunity in the systemic and genital mucosal immune compartments. PMID:9032322

  14. Infectious Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C from an African Isolate: Rhesus Macaque Model

    PubMed Central

    Ndung'u, Thumbi; Lu, Yichen; Renjifo, Boris; Touzjian, Neal; Kushner, Nicholas; Pena-Cruz, Victor; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Lee, Tun-Hou; Essex, Max

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is responsible for more than 56% of all infections in the HIV and AIDS pandemic. It is the predominant subtype in the rapidly expanding epidemic in southern Africa. To develop a relevant model that would facilitate studies of transmission, pathogenesis, and vaccine development for this subtype, we generated SHIVMJ4, a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimera based on HIV-1 subtype C. SHIVMJ4 contains the majority of env, the entire second exon of tat, and a partial sequence of the second exon of rev, all derived from a CCR5-tropic, primary isolate envelope clone from southern Africa. SHIVMJ4 replicated efficiently in human, rhesus, and pig-tailed macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro but not in CEMx174 cells. To assess in vivo infectivity, SHIVMJ4 was intravenously inoculated into four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). All four animals became infected as determined through virus isolation, PCR analysis, and viral loads of 107 to 108 copies of viral RNA per ml of plasma during the primary infection phase. We have established a CCR5-tropic SHIVMJ4/rhesus macaque model that may be useful in the studies of HIV-1 subtype C immunology and biology and may also facilitate the evaluation of vaccines to control the spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa and elsewhere. PMID:11689623

  15. In Vivo Replication Capacity Rather Than In Vitro Macrophage Tropism Predicts Efficiency of Vaginal Transmission of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher J.; Marthas, Marta; Greenier, Jennifer; Lu, Ding; Dailey, Peter J.; Lu, Yichen

    1998-01-01

    We used the rhesus macaque model of heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission to test the hypothesis that in vitro measures of macrophage tropism predict the ability of a primate lentivirus to initiate a systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation. A single atraumatic intravaginal inoculation with a T-cell-tropic molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVmac239, or a dualtropic recombinant molecular clone of SIV, SIVmac239/1A11/239, or uncloned dualtropic SIVmac251 or uncloned dualtropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6-PD produced systemic infection in all rhesus macaques tested. However, vaginal inoculation with a dualtropic molecular clone of SIV, SIVmac1A11, resulted in transient viremia in one of two rhesus macaques. It has previously been shown that 12 intravaginal inoculations with SIVmac1A11 resulted in infection of one of five rhesus macaques (M. L. Marthas, C. J. Miller, S. Sutjipto, J. Higgins, J. Torten, B. L. Lohman, R. E. Unger, H. Kiyono, J. R. McGhee, P. A. Marx, and N. C. Pedersen, J. Med. Primatol. 21:99–107, 1992). In addition, SHIV HXBc2, which replicates in monkey macrophages, does not infect rhesus macaques following multiple vaginal inoculations, while T-cell-tropic SHIV 89.6 does (Y. Lu, P. B. Brosio, M. Lafaile, J. Li, R. G. Collman, J. Sodroski, and C. J. Miller, J. Virol. 70:3045–3050, 1996). These results demonstrate that in vitro measures of macrophage tropism do not predict if a SIV or SHIV will produce systemic infection after intravaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques. However, we did find that the level to which these viruses replicate in vivo after intravenous inoculation predicts the outcome of intravaginal inoculation with each virus. PMID:9525652

  16. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T.; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 μg/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled. IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled. PMID:26041300

  17. Acute Effects of Pathogenic Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge on Vaccine-Induced Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses to Gag in Rhesus Macaques†

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Krista K.; Waterman, Paul M.; Pauza, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in macaques provides a convenient model for testing vaccine efficacy and for understanding viral pathogenesis in AIDS. We immunized macaques with recombinant, Salmonella typhimurium (expressing Gag) or soluble Gag in adjuvant to generate T-cell-dependent lymphoproliferative or serum antibody responses. Immunized animals were challenged by intrarectal inoculation with SHIV89.6PD. Virus infection was accompanied by rapid losses of lymphoproliferative responses to Gag or phytohemagglutinin. By 8 weeks, mitogen responses recovered to near normal levels but antigen-specific immunity remained at low or undetectable levels. Serum antibody levels were elevated initially by virus exposure but soon dropped well below levels achieved by immunization. Our studies show a rapid depletion of preexisting Gag-specific CD4+ T cells that prevent or limit subsequent antiviral cellular and humoral immune responses during acute SHIV infection. PMID:9971763

  18. Short communication: a repeated simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase/herpes simplex virus type 2 cochallenge macaque model for the evaluation of microbicides.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Frank, Ines; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, underscoring the need to develop coinfection models to evaluate promising prevention strategies. We previously established a single high-dose vaginal coinfection model of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/HSV-2 in Depo-Provera (DP)-treated macaques. However, this model does not appropriately mimic women's exposure. Repeated limiting dose SHIV challenge models are now used routinely to test prevention strategies, yet, at present, there are no reports of a repeated limiting dose cochallenge model in which to evaluate products targeting HIV and HSV-2. Herein, we show that 20 weekly cochallenges with 2-50 TCID50 simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) and 10(7) pfu HSV-2 results in infection with both viruses (4/6 SHIV-RT, 6/6 HSV-2). The frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding were significantly greater in the repeated exposure model compared to the single high-dose model (p<0.0001). We used this new model to test the Council's on-demand microbicide gel, MZC, which is active against SHIV-RT in DP-treated macaques and HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in mice. While MZC reduced SHIV and HSV-2 infections in our repeated limiting dose model when cochallenging 8 h after each gel application, a barrier effect of carrageenan (CG) that was not seen in DP-treated animals precluded evaluation of the significance of the antiviral activity of MZC. Both MZC and CG significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding compared to no gel treatment. This validates the use of this repeated limiting dose cochallenge model for testing products targeting HIV and HSV-2.

  19. Short Communication: A Repeated Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase/Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Cochallenge Macaque Model for the Evaluation of Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Frank, Ines; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, underscoring the need to develop coinfection models to evaluate promising prevention strategies. We previously established a single high-dose vaginal coinfection model of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/HSV-2 in Depo-Provera (DP)-treated macaques. However, this model does not appropriately mimic women's exposure. Repeated limiting dose SHIV challenge models are now used routinely to test prevention strategies, yet, at present, there are no reports of a repeated limiting dose cochallenge model in which to evaluate products targeting HIV and HSV-2. Herein, we show that 20 weekly cochallenges with 2–50 TCID50 simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) and 107 pfu HSV-2 results in infection with both viruses (4/6 SHIV-RT, 6/6 HSV-2). The frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding were significantly greater in the repeated exposure model compared to the single high-dose model (p<0.0001). We used this new model to test the Council's on-demand microbicide gel, MZC, which is active against SHIV-RT in DP-treated macaques and HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in mice. While MZC reduced SHIV and HSV-2 infections in our repeated limiting dose model when cochallenging 8 h after each gel application, a barrier effect of carrageenan (CG) that was not seen in DP-treated animals precluded evaluation of the significance of the antiviral activity of MZC. Both MZC and CG significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding compared to no gel treatment. This validates the use of this repeated limiting dose cochallenge model for testing products targeting HIV and HSV-2. PMID:25354024

  20. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Prime and Intramuscular Protein Boost Provides Protection against Intrarectal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Thippeshappa, Rajesh; Tian, Baoping; Cleveland, Brad; Guo, Wenjin; Polacino, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition occurs predominantly through mucosal transmission. We hypothesized that greater mucosal immune responses and protective efficacy against mucosal HIV-1 infection may be achieved by prime-boost immunization at mucosal sites. We used a macaque model to determine the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of orally delivered, replication-competent but attenuated recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length HIV-1 SF162 envelope (Env) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol proteins. We examined the dose and route that are suitable for oral immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses. We showed that sublingual inoculation of two vaccinia virus-naive pigtailed macaques with 5 × 108 PFU of recombinant vaccinia viruses was safe. However, sublingual inoculation with a higher dose or tonsillar inoculation resulted in secondary oral lesions, indicating the need to optimize the dose and route for oral immunization with replication-competent vaccinia virus vectors. Oral priming alone elicited antibody responses to vaccinia virus and to the SF162 Env protein. Intramuscular immunization with the SF162 gp120 protein at either 20 or 21 weeks postpriming resulted in a significant boost in antibody responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. Furthermore, we showed that immune responses induced by recombinant vaccinia virus priming and intramuscular protein boosting provided protection against intrarectal challenge with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162-P4. PMID:26718849

  1. Chemoprophylaxis with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provided partial protection against infection with simian human immunodeficiency virus in macaques given multiple virus challenges.

    PubMed

    Subbarao, Shambavi; Otten, Ronald A; Ramos, Artur; Kim, Caryn; Jackson, Eddie; Monsour, Michael; Adams, Debra R; Bashirian, Sheila; Johnson, Jeffrey; Soriano, Vincent; Rendon, Ana; Hudgens, Michael G; Butera, Salvatore; Janssen, Robert; Paxton, Lynn; Greenberg, Alan E; Folks, Thomas M

    2006-10-01

    We examined the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in blocking simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in Chinese rhesus macaques. Once weekly for 14 weeks or until a macaque became infected, 12 male macaques were inoculated intrarectally with amounts of SHIV(SF162P3) (10 median tissue culture infective doses; 3.8 x 10(5) virus particles) that were approximately 5-fold higher than the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels noted in human semen during an acute infection. Of the 12 macaques, 4 received oral TDF daily, 4 received oral TDF once weekly, and 4 (control animals) received no TDF. The control animals became infected after receiving a median of 1.5 virus inoculations; macaques receiving TDF daily (1 macaque remained uninfected after 14 inoculations) and those receiving TDF weekly became infected after a median duration of 6.0 and 7.0 weeks, respectively. Although infection was delayed in treated macaques, compared with control macaques, the differences were not statistically significant (P=.315); however, the study was limited by the small numbers of animals evaluated and the variability in blood levels of TDF that resulted from oral dosing. These data demonstrate that treatment with oral TDF provided partial protection against SHIV infection but ultimately did not protect all TDF treated animals against multiple virus challenges.

  2. Complete protection from repeated vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus exposures in macaques by a topical gel containing tenofovir alone or with emtricitabine.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Urvi M; Dobard, Charles; Sharma, Sunita; Cong, Mian-er; Jia, Hongwei; Martin, Amy; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hanson, Debra L; Guenthner, Patricia; Smith, James; Kersh, Ellen; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Novembre, Francis J; Otten, Ron; Folks, Thomas; Heneine, Walid

    2009-10-01

    New-generation gels that deliver potent antiretroviral drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 have renewed hopes for topical prophylaxis as a prevention strategy. Previous preclinical research with monkey models suggested that high concentrations and drug combinations are needed for high efficacy. We evaluated two long-acting reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir (TFV) and emtricitabine (FTC), by using a twice-weekly repeat challenge macaque model and showed that a preexposure vaginal application of gel with 1% TFV alone or in combination with 5% FTC fully protected macaques from a total of 20 exposures to simian-human immunodeficiency virus SF162p3. FTC and TFV were detected in plasma 30 min after vaginal application, suggesting rapid absorption. FTC was detected more frequently than TFV and showed higher levels, reflecting the fivefold-higher concentration of this drug than of TFV. Two of 12 repeatedly exposed but protected macaques showed limited T-cell priming, which did not induce resistance to infection when macaques were rechallenged. Thus, single drugs with durable antiviral activity can provide highly effective topical prophylaxis and overcome the need for noncoital use or for drug combinations which are more complex and costly to formulate and approve.

  3. Multiple vaginal exposures to low doses of R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus: strategy to study HIV preclinical interventions in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Otten, Ron A; Adams, Debra R; Kim, Caryn N; Jackson, Eddie; Pullium, Jennifer K; Lee, Kemba; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Monsour, Michael; Butera, Sal; Folks, Thomas M

    2005-01-15

    A nonhuman-primate model of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection that more closely emulates human heterosexual transmission by use of multiple exposures to low doses of virus is critical to better evaluate intervention strategies that include microbicides or vaccines. In this report, we describe such a system that uses female pig-tailed macaques exposed vaginally to a CCR5-using simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV(SF162P3)) at weekly intervals. Results of dose-titration experiments indicated that 3 once-weekly exposures to 10 tissue culture infectious doses of SHIV(SF162P3) resulted in consistent transmission of virus and establishment of systemic infection. The efficacy of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) as a vaginal microbicide was evaluated by applying it to the vaginal vault of macaques (n = 4) 15 min before each weekly exposure to SHIV(SF162P3). One conclusion that can be drawn from the data derived from multiple exposures to virus is that CAP prevented infection in 12 of 13 possible chances for infection, over the course of 39 total exposures. Our findings provide a basis to refine monkey models for transmission of HIV-1, which may be relevant to preclinical evaluation for therapeutic interventions.

  4. Neutralizing Polyclonal IgG Present during Acute Infection Prevents Rapid Disease Onset in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P3-Infected Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, J. Pablo; Kobie, James; Brower, Zachary; Malherbe, Delphine C.; Landucci, Gary; Sutton, William F.; Guo, Biwei; Reed, Jason S.; Leon, Enrique J.; Engelmann, Flora; Zheng, Bo; Legasse, Al; Park, Byung; Dickerson, Mary; Lewis, Anne D.; Colgin, Lois M. A.; Axthelm, Michael; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Sacha, Jonah B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Forthal, Donald N.; Hessell, Ann J.

    2013-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been widely used in passive studies with HIV neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to test for protection against infection. However, because SHIV-infected adult macaques often rapidly control plasma viremia and any resulting pathogenesis is minor, the model has been unsuitable for studying the impact of antibodies on pathogenesis in infected animals. We found that SHIVSF162P3 infection in 1-month-old rhesus macaques not only results in high persistent plasma viremia but also leads to very rapid disease progression within 12 to 16 weeks. In this model, passive transfer of high doses of neutralizing IgG (SHIVIG) prevents infection. Here, we show that at lower doses, SHIVIG reduces both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated viremia and mitigates pathogenesis in infected animals. Moreover, production of endogenous NAbs correlated with lower set-point viremia and 100% survival of infected animals. New SHIV models are needed to investigate whether passively transferred antibodies or antibodies elicited by vaccination that fall short of providing sterilizing immunity impact disease progression or influence immune responses. The 1-month-old rhesus macaque SHIV model of infection provides a new tool to investigate the effects of antibodies on viral replication and clearance, mechanisms of B cell maintenance, and the induction of adaptive immunity in disease progression. PMID:23885083

  5. Evidence for Persistent, Occult Infection in Neonatal Macaques following Perinatal Transmission of Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SF162P3▿

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Pushpa; Zhu, Tuofu; Misher, Lynda; Mohan, Deepika; Kuller, LaRene; Polacino, Patricia; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Anderson, David; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    To model human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) perinatal transmission, we studied infection of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) SF162P3 in 10 pregnant Macaca nemestrina females and their offspring. Four of nine infants born to and suckled by these dams had evidence of infection, a transmission rate of 44.4% (95% confidence interval, 13.7% to 78.8%). We quantified transplacentally acquired and de novo Env-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and neutralizing antibodies in newborns. Transmission of escape variants was confirmed. In utero infection (n = 1) resulted in high viremia, depletion of peripheral CD4+ T cells, and rapid evolution of env in blood and tissues. Peripartum or postpartum SHIV infection (n = 3) resulted in postacute viral control that was undetectable by very sensitive multiplex PCR, despite increasing antibodies. Seropositive infants with highly controlled viremia had homogeneous peripheral blood env sequences, and their tissues had <3 copies per million cells. A high incidence of seropositive virus-low or -negative SHIV infection in infant macaques has implications for HIV type 1 perinatal transmission and detection. PMID:17079310

  6. Evidence for Early Local Viral Replication and Local Production of Antiviral Immunity upon Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6 Infection in Macaca nemestrina

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Zandrea; Larsen, Kay; Thompson, Jannelle; Stevens, Yvonne; Finn, Eric; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Bosch, Marnix L.

    2001-01-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is largely a result of heterosexual exposure, leading many investigators to evaluate mucosal vaccines for protection against intravaginal (i.vag.) transmission in macaque models of AIDS. Relatively little is known, however, about the dynamics of viral replication and the ensuing immune response following mucosal infection. We have utilized a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) to study the differences in viremia, CD4 T-cell percentages, and mucosal and systemic anti-SHIV humoral and cellular immune responses during primary infection of animals infected either intravenously (i.v.) or i.vag. Positive viral cocultures, peripheral blood mononuclear cell viral load peaks, and CD4 cell declines were delayed by 1 week in the i.vag. inoculated animals compared to the animals infected i.v., demonstrating delayed viral spreading to the periphery. In contrast, mucosal anti-SHIV antibody levels were greater in magnitude and arose more rapidly and mucosal CD8+ T-cell responses were enhanced in the i.vag. group animals, whereas both the magnitudes and times of onset of systemic immune responses for the animals in the two groups did not differ. These observations demonstrate that compartmentalization of viral replication and induction of local antiviral immunity occur in the genital tract early after i.vag. but not i.v. inoculation. Induction of mucosal immunity to target this local, contained replication should be a goal in HIV vaccine development. PMID:11507204

  7. Live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccination confers superinfection resistance against macrophage-tropic and neurovirulent wild-type SIV challenge.

    PubMed

    Berry, Neil; Ham, Claire; Alden, Jack; Clarke, Sean; Stebbings, Richard; Stott, Jim; Ferguson, Deborah; Almond, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Vaccination with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in non-human primate species provides a means of characterizing the protective processes of retroviral superinfection and may lead to novel advances of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS vaccine design. The minimally attenuated SIVmacC8 vaccine has been demonstrated to elicit early potent protection against pathogenic rechallenge with genetically diverse viral isolates in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). In this study, we have characterized further the biological breadth of this vaccine protection by assessing the ability of both the nef-disrupted SIVmacC8 and its nef-intact counterpart SIVmacJ5 viruses to prevent superinfection with the macrophage/neurotropic SIVmac239/17E-Fr (SIVmac17E-Fr) isolate. Inoculation with either SIVmacC8 or SIVmacJ5 and subsequent detailed characterization of the viral replication kinetics revealed a wide range of virus-host outcomes. Both nef-disrupted and nef-intact immunizing viruses were able to prevent establishment of SIVmac17E-Fr in peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid tissues. Differences in virus kinetics, indicative of an active process, identified uncontrolled replication in one macaque which although able to prevent SIVmac17E-Fr superinfection led to extensive neuropathological complications. The ability to prevent a biologically heterologous, CD4-independent/CCR5+ viral isolate and the macrophage-tropic SIVmac316 strain from establishing infection supports the hypothesis that direct target cell blocking is unlikely to be a central feature of live lentivirus vaccination. These data provide further evidence to demonstrate that inoculation of a live retroviral vaccine can deliver broad spectrum protection against both macrophage-tropic as well as lymphocytotropic viruses. These data add to our knowledge of live attenuated SIV vaccines but further highlight potential safety concerns of vaccinating with a live retrovirus.

  8. Protection against rectal transmission of an emtricitabine-resistant simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV162p3M184V mutant by intermittent prophylaxis with Truvada.

    PubMed

    Cong, Mian-Er; Youngpairoj, Ae S; Zheng, Qi; Aung, Wutyi; Mitchell, James; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Hanson, Debra L; Hendry, R Michael; Dobard, Charles; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2011-08-01

    Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with Truvada (emtricitabine [FTC] and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [TDF]) is a novel HIV prevention strategy recently found to reduce HIV incidence among men who have sex with men. We used a macaque model of HIV transmission to investigate if Truvada maintains prophylactic efficacy against an FTC-resistant isolate containing the M184V mutation. Five macaques received a dose of Truvada 3 days before exposing them rectally to the simian/human immunodeficiency virus mutant SHIV162p3(M184V), followed by a second dose 2 h after exposure. Five untreated animals were used as controls. Virus exposures were done weekly for up to 14 weeks. Despite the high (>100-fold) level of FTC resistance conferred by M184V, all five treated animals were protected from infection, while the five untreated macaques were infected (P = 0.0008). Our results show that Truvada maintains high prophylactic efficacy against an FTC-resistant isolate. Increased susceptibility to tenofovir due to M184V and other factors, including residual antiviral activity by FTC and/or reduced virus fitness due to M184V, may all have contributed to the observed protection.

  9. CD4+-T-Cell and CD20+-B-Cell Changes Predict Rapid Disease Progression after Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Macaques†

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Krista K.; Dykhuizen, Marta; Mitchen, Jacque L.; Hinds, Paul W.; Preuninger, Brenda L.; Wallace, Marianne; Thomson, James; Montefiori, David C.; Lu, Yichen; Pauza, C. David

    1998-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD (SHIV89.6PD) was pathogenic after intrarectal inoculation of rhesus macaques. Infection was achieved with a minimum of 2,500 tissue culture infectious doses of cell-free virus stock, and there was no evidence for transient viremia in animals receiving subinfectious doses by the intrarectal route. Some animals experienced rapid progression of disease characterized by loss of greater than 90% of circulating CD4+ T cells, sustained decreases in CD20+ B cells, failure to elicit virus-binding antibodies in plasma, and high levels of antigenemia. Slower-progressing animals had moderate but varying losses of CD4+ T cells; showed increases in circulating CD20+ B cells; mounted vigorous responses to antibodies in plasma, including neutralizing antibodies; and had low or undetectable levels of antigenemia. Rapid progression led to death within 30 weeks after intrarectal inoculation. Plasma antigenemia at 2 weeks after inoculation (P ≤ 0.002), B- and T-cell losses (P ≤ 0.013), and failure to seroconvert (P ≤ 0.005) were correlated statistically with rapid progression. Correlations were evident by 2 to 4 weeks after intrarectal SHIV inoculation, indicating that early events in the host-pathogen interaction determined the clinical outcome. PMID:9445063

  10. Generation of a neutralization-resistant CCR5 tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MK38) molecular clone, a derivative of SHIV-89.6.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuki; Yoneda, Mai; Otsuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yuji; Kato, Fumihiro; Matsuura, Kanako; Kikukawa, Minako; Matsushita, Shuzo; Hishiki, Takayuki; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we reported that a new genetically diverse CCR5 (R5) tropic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MK38) adapted to rhesus monkeys became more neutralization resistant to SHIV-infected plasma than did the parental SHIV-KS661 clone. Here, to clarify the significance of the neutralization-resistant phenotype of SHIV in a macaque model, we initially investigated the precise neutralization phenotype of the SHIVs, including SHIV-MK38 molecular clones, using SHIV-MK38-infected plasma, a pooled plasma of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, soluble CD4 and anti-HIV-1 neutralizing mAbs, the epitopes of which were known. The results show that SHIV-KS661 had tier 1 neutralization sensitivity, but monkey-adapted R5 tropic SHIV-MK38 acquired neutralization resistance similar to that of tier 2 or 3 as a clone virus. Sequence analysis of the env gene suggested that the neutralization-resistant phenotype of SHIV-MK38 was acquired by conformational changes in Env associated with the net charge and potential N-linked glycosylation sites. To examine the relationship between neutralization phenotype and stably persistent infection in monkeys, we performed in vivo rectal inoculation experiments using a SHIV-MK38 molecular clone. The results showed that one of three rhesus monkeys exhibited durable infection with a plasma viral load of 105 copies ml- 1 despite the high antibody responses that occurred in the host. Whilst further improvements are required in the development of a challenge virus, it will be useful to generate a neutralization-resistant R5 tropic molecular clone of the SHIV-89.6 lineage commonly used for vaccine development - a result that can be used to explore the foundation of AIDS pathogenesis.

  11. A modified zinc acetate gel, a potential nonantiretroviral microbicide, is safe and effective against simian-human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus 2 infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Jessica; Rodríguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Seidor, Samantha; Menon, Radhika; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Pugach, Pavel; Levendosky, Keith; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Paglini, Gabriela; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa; Fernández Romero, José A

    2013-08-01

    We previously showed that a prototype gel comprising zinc acetate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) protected mice against vaginal and rectal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge as well as macaques against vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) challenge. In this work, we modified buffers and cosolvents to obtain a stable, nearly iso-osmolal formulation and evaluated its safety and efficacy against SHIV-RT and HSV-2. In vitro toxicity to lactobacilli and Candida albicans was determined. Macaques were given daily doses of ZA and CG (ZA/CG) or CG alone vaginally for 14 days and challenged with SHIV-RT 24 h later. Mice were challenged vaginally or rectally with HSV-2 immediately after a single gel treatment to measure efficacy or vaginally 12 h after daily gel treatment for 7 days to evaluate the gel's impact on susceptibility to HSV-2 infection. The modified ZA/CG neither affected the viability of lactobacilli or C. albicans nor enhanced vaginal HSV-2 infection after daily ZA/CG treatment. Vaginal SHIV-RT infection of macaques was reduced by 66% (P = 0.006) when macaques were challenged 24 h after the last dose of gel. We observed 60% to 80% uninfected mice after vaginal (P < 0.0001) and rectal (P = 0.008) high-dose HSV-2 challenge. The modified ZA/CG gel is safe and effective in animal models and represents a potential candidate to limit the transmission of HIV and HSV-2. PMID:23752515

  12. Vaccine-Elicited V3 Loop-Specific Antibodies in Rhesus Monkeys and Control of a Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Expressing a Primary Patient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolate Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Letvin, Norman L.; Robinson, Suzanne; Rohne, Daniela; Axthelm, Michael K.; Fanton, John W.; Bilska, Miroslawa; Palker, Thomas J.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Montefiori, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Vaccine-elicited antibodies specific for the third hypervariable domain of the surface gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (V3 loop) were assessed for their contribution to protection against infection in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/rhesus monkey model. Peptide vaccine-elicited anti-V3 loop antibody responses were examined for their ability to contain replication of SHIV-89.6, a nonpathogenic SHIV expressing a primary patient isolate HIV-1 envelope, as well as SHIV-89.6P, a pathogenic variant of that virus. Low-titer neutralizing antibodies to SHIV-89.6 that provided partial protection against viremia following SHIV-89.6 infection were generated. A similarly low-titer neutralizing antibody response to SHIV-89.6P that did not contain viremia after infection with SHIV-89.6P was generated, but a trend toward protection against CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss was seen in these infected monkeys. These observations suggest that the V3 loop on some primary patient HIV-1 isolates may be a partially effective target for neutralizing antibodies induced by peptide immunogens. PMID:11287566

  13. Neutralizing Antibodies in Sera from Macaques Infected with Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing the Envelope Glycoproteins of either a Laboratory-Adapted Variant or a Primary Isolate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.; Wyand, Michael S.; Manson, Kelledy; Lewis, Mark G.; Collman, Ronald G.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Bolognesi, Dani P.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude and breadth of neutralizing antibodies raised in response to infection with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in rhesus macaques were evaluated. Infection with either SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, or SHIV-89.6PD raised high-titer neutralizing antibodies to the homologous SHIV (SHIV-89.6P in the case of SHIV-89.6PD-infected animals) and significant titers of neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains MN and SF-2. With few exceptions, however, titers of neutralizing antibodies to heterologous SHIV were low or undetectable. The antibodies occasionally neutralized heterologous primary isolates of HIV-1; these antibodies required >40 weeks of infection to reach detectable levels. Notable was the potent neutralization of the HIV-1 89.6 primary isolate by serum samples from SHIV-89.6-infected macaques. These results demonstrate that SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, and SHIV-89.6P possess highly divergent, strain-specific neutralization epitopes. The results also provide insights into the requirements for raising neutralizing antibodies to primary isolates of HIV-1. PMID:9525675

  14. Prophylactic efficacy of oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate combination therapy against a tenofovir-resistant simian/human immunodeficiency virus containing the K65R mutation in macaques.

    PubMed

    Cong, Mian-er; Mitchell, James; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Bachman, Shanon; Hanson, Debra L; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) is a novel strategy for preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection. We investigated in macaques whether FTC/TDF prevents transmission of a tenofovir-resistant simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) containing the K65R mutation. Six macaques received weekly a dose of FTC/TDF 3 days before rectal SHIV exposures and a second dose 2 hours after. Six untreated animals were controls. Animals were exposed rectally to escalating virus doses weekly for up to 28 weeks. PrEP significantly delayed infection with SHIVK65R (P = .028), although 4 of 6 FTC/TDF-treated macaques were infected at the end of the challenges. These findings highlight the need to closely monitor PrEP efficacy in areas with prevalent K65R.

  15. An env gene derived from a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate confers high in vivo replicative capacity to a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, K A; Li, J T; Voss, G; Lekutis, C; Tenner-Racz, K; Racz, P; Lin, W; Montefiori, D C; Lee-Parritz, D E; Lu, Y; Collman, R G; Sodroski, J; Letvin, N L

    1996-01-01

    To explore the roles played by specific human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genes in determining the in vivo replicative capacity of AIDS viruses, we have examined the replication kinetics and virus-specific immune responses in rhesus monkeys following infection with two chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs). These viruses were composed of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 expressing HIV-1 env and the associated auxiliary HIV-1 genes tat, vpu, and rep. Virus replication was assessed during primary infection of rhesus monkeys by measuring plasma SIVmac p27 levels and by quantifying virus replication in lymph nodes using in situ hybridization. SHIV-HXBc2, which expresses the HIV-1 env of a T-cell-tropic, laboratory-adapted strain of HIV-1 (HXBc2), replicated well in rhesus monkey peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) in vitro but replicated only to low levels when inoculated in rhesus monkeys. In contrast, SHIV-89.6 was constructed with the HIV-1 env gene of a T-cell- and macrophage-tropic clone of a patient isolate of HIV-1 (89.6). This virus replicated to a lower level in monkey PBL in vitro but replicated to a higher degree in monkeys during primary infection. Moreover, monkeys infected with SHIV-89.6 developed an inversion in the PBL CD4/CD8 ratio coincident with the clearance of primary viremia. The differences in the in vivo consequences of infection by these two SHIVs could not be explained by differences in the immune responses elicited by these viruses, since infected animals had comparable type-specific neutralizing antibody titers, proliferative responses to recombinant HIV-1 gp120, and virus-specific cytolytic effector T-cell responses. With the demonstration that a chimeric SHIV can replicate to high levels during primary infection in rhesus monkeys, this model can now be used to define genetic determinants of HIV-1 pathogenicity. PMID:8627800

  16. Superior Efficacy of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Combined with Antiretroviral Prevention in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Challenged Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Dispinseri, Stefania; Gosse, Leslie; Desjardins, Delphine; Shen, Xiaoying; Tolazzi, Monica; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Saidi, Hela; Tomaras, Georgia; Prague, Mélanie; Barnett, Susan W.; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although vaccines and antiretroviral (ARV) prevention have demonstrated partial success against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in clinical trials, their combined introduction could provide more potent protection. Furthermore, combination approaches could ameliorate the potential increased risk of infection following vaccination in the absence of protective immunity. We used a nonhuman primate model to determine potential interactions of combining a partially effective ARV microbicide with an envelope-based vaccine. The vaccine alone provided no protection from infection following 12 consecutive low-dose intravaginal challenges with simian-HIV strain SF162P3, with more animals infected compared to naive controls. The microbicide alone provided a 68% reduction in the risk of infection relative to that of the vaccine group and a 45% reduction relative to that of naive controls. The vaccine-microbicide combination provided an 88% reduction in the per-exposure risk of infection relative to the vaccine alone and a 79% reduction relative to that of the controls. Protected animals in the vaccine-microbicide group were challenged a further 12 times in the absence of microbicide and demonstrated a 98% reduction in the risk of infection. A total risk reduction of 91% was observed in this group over 24 exposures (P = 0.004). These important findings suggest that combined implementation of new biomedical prevention strategies may provide significant gains in HIV prevention. IMPORTANCE There is a pressing need to maximize the impact of new biomedical prevention tools in the face of the 2 million HIV infections that occur each year. Combined implementation of complementary biomedical approaches could create additive or synergistic effects that drive improved reduction of HIV incidence. Therefore, we assessed a combination of an untested vaccine with an ARV-based microbicide in a nonhuman primate vaginal challenge model. The vaccine alone provided no

  17. A single amino acid substitution within the transmembrane domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein renders simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}) susceptible to rimantadine

    SciTech Connect

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Lisa M.; Pacyniak, Erik; Miller, Jean-Marie; Hill, M. Sarah; Stephens, Edward B. . E-mail: estephen@kumc.edu

    2006-05-10

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the transmembrane domain (TM) of the Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} in macaques and that the TM domain of Vpu could be replaced with the M2 protein viroporin from influenza A virus. Recently, we showed that the replacement of the TM domain of Vpu with that of the M2 protein of influenza A virus resulted in a virus (SHIV{sub M2}) that was sensitive to rimantadine [Hout, D.R., Gomez, M.L., Pacyniak, E., Gomez, L.M., Inbody, S.H., Mulcahy, E.R., Culley, N., Pinson, D.M., Powers, M.F., Wong, S.W., Stephens, E.B., 2006. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques. Virology 344, 541-558]. Based on previous studies of the M2 protein which have shown that the His-X-X-X-Trp motif within the M2 is essential to the function of the M2 proton channel, we have constructed a novel SHIV in which the alanine at position 19 of the TM domain was replaced with a histidine residue resulting in the motif His-Ile-Leu-Val-Trp. The SHIV{sub VpuA19H} replicated with similar kinetics as the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} and pulse-chase analysis revealed that the processing of viral proteins was similar to SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. This SHIV{sub VpuA19H} virus was found to be more sensitive to the M2 ion channel blocker rimantadine than SHIV{sub M2}. Electron microscopic examination of SHIV{sub VpuA19H}-infected cells treated with rimantadine revealed an accumulation of viral particles at the cell surface and within intracellular vesicles, which was similar to that previously observed to SHIV{sub M2}-infected cells treated with rimantadine. These data indicate that the Vpu protein of HIV-1 can be converted into a rimantadine-sensitive ion channel with the

  18. Induction of Simian AIDS in Infant Rhesus Macaques Infected with CCR5- or CXCR4-Utilizing Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Is Associated with Distinct Lesions of the Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, R. A.; Canfield, Don R.; Esser, Ursula; Adamson, Lourdes A.; Brown, Charles R.; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Gardner, Murray B.; Harouse, Janet M.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Newborn rhesus macaques were infected with two chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains which contain unique human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) env genes and exhibit distinct phenotypes. Infection with either the CCR5-specific SHIVSF162P3 or the CXCR4-utilizing SHIVSF33A resulted in clinical manifestations consistent with simian AIDS. Most prominent in this study was the detection of severe thymic involution in all SHIVSF33A-infected infants, which is very similar to HIV-1-induced thymic dysfunction in children who exhibit a rapid pattern of disease progression. In contrast, SHIVSF162P3 induced only a minor disruption in thymic morphology. Consistent with the distribution of the coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 within the thymus, the expression of SHIVSF162P3 was restricted to the thymic medulla, whereas SHIVSF33A was preferentially detected in the cortex. This dichotomy of tissue tropism is similar to the differential tropism of HIV-1 isolates observed in the reconstituted human thymus in SCID-hu mice. Accordingly, our results show that the SHIV-monkey model can be used for the molecular dissection of cell and tissue tropisms controlled by the HIV-1 env gene and for the analysis of mechanisms of viral immunopathogenesis in AIDS. Furthermore, these findings could help explain the rapid progression of disease observed in some HIV-1-infected children. PMID:14747577

  19. Acute-Phase CD8 T Cell Responses That Select for Escape Variants Are Needed to Control Live Attenuated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Max; Burns, Charles M.; Becker, Ericka A.; Braasch, Andrew T.; Gostick, Emma; Johnson, Randall C.; Broman, Karl W.; Price, David A.; Friedrich, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall CD8 T cell response to human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) targets a collection of discrete epitope specificities. Some of these epitope-specific CD8 T cells emerge in the weeks and months following infection and rapidly select for sequence variants, whereas other CD8 T cell responses develop during the chronic infection phase and rarely select for sequence variants. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acute-phase CD8 T cell responses that do not rapidly select for escape variants are unable to control viral replication in vivo as well as those that do rapidly select for escape variants. We created a derivative of live attenuated SIV (SIVmac239Δnef) in which we ablated five epitopes that elicit early CD8 T cell responses and rapidly accumulate sequence variants in SIVmac239-infected Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) that are homozygous for the M3 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype. This live attenuated SIV variant was called m3KOΔnef. Viremia was significantly higher in M3 homozygous MCMs infected with m3KOΔnef than in either MHC-mismatched MCMs infected with m3KOΔnef or MCMs infected with SIVmac239Δnef. Three CD8 T cell responses, including two that do not rapidly select for escape variants, predominated during early m3KOΔnef infection in the M3 homozygous MCMs, but these animals were unable to control viral replication. These results provide evidence that acute-phase CD8 T cell responses that have the potential to rapidly select for escape variants in the early phase of infection are needed to establish viral control in vivo. PMID:23785211

  20. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Mapping by Monomeric gp120 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Humans and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIVSF162P3N-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Manxue; Lu, Hong; Markowitz, Martin; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve our understanding of the similarities and differences between neutralizing antibodies elicited by simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans, we examined the plasma of 13 viremic macaques infected with SHIVSF162P3N and 85 HIV-1-infected humans with known times of infection. We identified 5 macaques (38%) from 1 to 2 years postinfection (p.i.) with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against tier 2 HIV-1. In comparison, only 2 out of 42 (5%) human plasma samples collected in a similar time frame of 1 to 3 years p.i. exhibited comparable neutralizing breadths and potencies, with the number increasing to 7 out of 21 (30%) after 3 years p.i. Plasma mapping with monomeric gp120 identified only 2 out of 9 humans and 2 out of 4 macaques that contained gp120-reactive neutralizing antibodies, indicating distinct specificities in these plasma samples, with most of them recognizing the envelope trimer (including gp41) rather than the gp120 monomer. Indeed, a total of 20 gp120-directed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) isolated from a human subject (AD358) and a Chinese rhesus macaque (GB40) displayed no or limited neutralizing activity against tier 2 strains. These isolated MAbs, mapped to the CD4-binding site, the V3 loop, the inner domain, and the C5 region of gp120, revealed genetic similarity between the human and macaque immunoglobulin genes used to encode some V3-directed MAbs. These results also support the use of envelope trimer probes for efficient isolation of HIV-1 bnAbs. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 vaccine research can benefit from understanding the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in rhesus macaques, commonly used to assess vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Here, we examined 85 HIV-1-infected humans and 13 SHIVSF162P3N-infected macaques for bnAbs and found that, similar to HIV-1-infected humans, bnAbs in SHIV-infected macaques are also rare

  1. Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques with Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Env V3 Elicits Neutralizing Antibody-Mediated Protection against Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus with a Homologous but Not a Heterologous V3 Motif

    PubMed Central

    Someya, Kenji; Cecilia, Dayaraj; Ami, Yasushi; Nakasone, Tadashi; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Burda, Sherri; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshino, Naoto; Kaizu, Masahiko; Ando, Shuji; Okuda, Kenji; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Yamazaki, Shudo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    Although the correlates of vaccine-induced protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are not fully known, it is presumed that neutralizing antibodies (NAb) play a role in controlling virus infection. In this study, we examined immune responses elicited in rhesus macaques following vaccination with recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin expressing an HIV-1 Env V3 antigen (rBCG Env V3). We also determined the effect of vaccination on protection against challenge with either a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-MN) or a highly pathogenic SHIV strain (SHIV-89.6PD). Immunization with rBCG Env V3 elicited significant levels of NAb for the 24 weeks tested that were predominantly HIV-1 type specific. Sera from the immunized macaques neutralized primary HIV-1 isolates in vitro, including HIV-1BZ167/X4, HIV-1SF2/X4, HIV-1CI2/X4, and, to a lesser extent, HIV-1MNp/X4, all of which contain a V3 sequence homologous to that of rBCG Env V3. In contrast, neutralization was not observed against HIV-1SF33/X4, which has a heterologous V3 sequence, nor was it found against primary HIV-1 R5 isolates from either clade A or B. Furthermore, the viral load in the vaccinated macaques was significantly reduced following low-dose challenge with SHIV-MN, and early plasma viremia was markedly decreased after high-dose SHIV-MN challenge. In contrast, replication of pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD was not affected by vaccination in any of the macaques. Thus, we have shown that immunization with an rBCG Env V3 vaccine elicits a strong, type-specific V3 NAb response in rhesus macaques. While this response was not sufficient to provide protection against a pathogenic SHIV challenge, it was able to significantly reduce the viral load in macaques following challenge with a nonpathogenic SHIV. These observations suggest that rBCG vectors have the potential to deliver an appropriate virus immunogen for desirable immune elicitations. PMID:15650171

  2. Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype-E Envelope Gene: Persistent Infection, CD4+ T-Cell Depletion, and Mucosal Membrane Transmission in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Himathongkham, Sunee; Halpin, Nancy S.; Li, Jinling; Stout, Michael W.; Miller, Christopher J.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    The envelope (env) glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) determines several viral properties (e.g., coreceptor usage, cell tropism, and cytopathicity) and is a major target of antiviral immune responses. Most investigations on env have been conducted on subtype-B viral strains, prevalent in North America and Europe. Our study aimed to analyze env genes of subtype-E viral strains, prevalent in Asia and Africa, with a nonhuman primate model for lentivirus infection and AIDS. To this end, we constructed a simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 subtype-E (SHIV) recombinant clone by replacing the env ectodomain of the SHIV-33 clone with the env ectodomain from the subtype-E strain HIV-1CAR402, which was isolated from an individual in the Central African Republic. Virus from this recombinant clone, designated SHIV-E-CAR, replicated efficiently in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Accordingly, juvenile macaques were inoculated with cell-free SHIV-E-CAR by the intravenous or intravaginal route; virus replicated in these animals but did not produce hematological abnormalities. In an attempt to elicit the pathogenic potential of the recombinant clone, we serially passaged this viral clone via transfusion of blood and bone marrow through juvenile macaques to produce SHIV-E-P4 (fourth-passage virus). The serially passaged virus established productive infection and CD4+ T-cell depletion in juvenile macaques inoculated by either the intravenous or the intravaginal route. Determination of the coreceptor usage of SHIV-E-CAR and serially passaged SHIV-E-P4 indicated that both of these viruses utilized CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In summary, the serially passaged SHIV subtype-E chimeric virus will be important for studies aimed at developing a nonhuman primate model for analyzing the functions of subtype-E env genes in viral transmission and pathogenesis and for vaccine challenge experiments with macaques immunized with HIV-1 env antigens. PMID:10933692

  3. Abrogation of attenuated lentivirus-induced protection in rhesus macaques by administration of depo-provera before intravaginal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus mac239.

    PubMed

    Abel, Kristina; Rourke, Tracy; Lu, Ding; Bost, Kristen; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J

    2004-11-01

    In nonhuman primate models of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, live attenuated lentiviruses provide the most reliable protection from systemic and mucosal challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Although live attenuated lentiviruses may never be used in humans because of safety concerns, understanding the nature of the protective immune mechanisms induced by live attenuated vaccines in primate models will be useful for developing other vaccine approaches. Approximately 60% of rhesus macaques immunized with nonpathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain 89.6 are protected from infection or clinical disease after intravaginal (IVAG) challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239. The goal of the present study was to determine whether administration of Depo-Provera before IVAG challenge with SIV decreases the protective efficacy of infection with SHIV89.6. The rate of protection after IVAG challenge with SIVmac239 was significantly lower (P<.05), and the acute postchallenge plasma viral RNA levels were significantly higher (P<.006), in Depo-Provera-treated, SHIV89.6-immunized macaques than in Depo-Provera-naive, SHIV89.6-immunized macaques. In the primate model of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, treatment with progesterone before IVAG challenge with a pathogenic virus can decrease the efficacy of a model "vaccine."

  4. A simian-human immunodeficiency virus carrying the rt gene from Chinese CRF01_AE strain of HIV is sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and has a highly genetic stability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Nan; Ju, Bin; Dong, Zhihui; Cong, Zhe; Jiang, Hong; Qin, Chuan; Wei, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtype CRF01_AE is one of the major HIV-1 subtypes that dominate the global epidemic. However, its drug resistance, associated mutations, and viral fitness have not been systemically studied, because available chimeric simian-HIVs (SHIVs) usually express the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (rt) gene of subtype B HIV-1, which is different from subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1. In this study, a recombinant plasmid, pRT-SHIV/AE, was constructed to generate a chimeric RT-SHIV/AE by replacing the rt gene of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239) with the counterpart of Chinese HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE. The infectivity, replication capacity, co-receptor tropism, drug sensitivity, and genetic stability of RT-SHIV/AE were characterized. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE effectively infected and replicated in human T cell line and rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (rhPBMC). The rt gene of RT-SHIV/AE lacked the common mutation (T215I) associated with drug resistance. RT-SHIV-AE retained infectivity and immunogenicity, similar to that of its counterpart RT-SHIV/TC virus following intravenous inoculation in Chinese rhesus macaque. RT-SHIV-AE was more sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) than the RT-SHIV/TC. RT-SHIV/AE was genetically stable in Chinese rhesus macaque. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE may be a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of the rt-based antiviral drugs against the subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1.

  5. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of Vpu in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV{sub KU1bMC33}) with that of M2 of influenza A results in a virus that is sensitive to inhibitors of the M2 ion channel and is pathogenic for pig-tailed macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Hout, David R.; Gomez, Melissa L.; Pacyniak, Erik; Gomez, Lisa M.; Fegley, Barbara; Mulcahy, Ellyn R.; Hill, M. Sarah; Culley, Nathan; Pinson, David M.; Nothnick, Warren; Powers, Michael F.; Wong, Scott W.; Stephens, Edward B. . E-mail: estephen@kumc.edu

    2006-01-20

    The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has been shown to shunt the CD4 receptor molecule to the proteasome for degradation and to enhance virus release from infected cells. The exact mechanism by which the Vpu protein enhances virus release is currently unknown but some investigators have shown that this function is associated with the transmembrane domain and potential ion channel properties. In this study, we determined if the transmembrane domain of Vpu could be functionally substituted with that of the prototypical viroporin, the M2 protein of influenza A virus. We constructed chimeric vpu gene in which the transmembrane domain of Vpu was replaced with that of the M2 protein of influenza. This chimeric vpu gene was substituted for the vpu gene in the genome of a pathogenic simian human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. The resulting virus, SHIV{sub M2}, synthesized a Vpu protein that had a slightly different M{sub r} compared to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}, reflecting the different sizes of the two Vpu proteins. The SHIV{sub M2} was shown to replicate with slightly reduced kinetics when compared to the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33} but electron microscopy revealed that the site of maturation was similar to the parental virus SHIV{sub KU1bMC33}. We show that the replication and spread of SHIV{sub M2} could be blocked with the antiviral drug rimantadine, which is known to target the M2 ion channel. Our results indicate a dose dependent inhibition of SHIV{sub M2} with 100 {mu}M rimantadine resulting in a >95% decrease in p27 released into the culture medium. Rimantadine did not affect the replication of the parental SHIV{sub KU-1bMC33}. Examination of SHIV{sub M2}-infected cells treated with 50 {mu}M rimantadine revealed numerous viral particles associated with the cell plasma membrane and within intracytoplasmic vesicles, which is similar to HIV-1 mutants lacking a functional vpu. To determine if SHIV{sub M2} was as pathogenic as

  6. Live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Montinaro, Valentina; Groppali, Elena; Tenconi, Rossana; Semino, Margherita; Principi, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling influenza epidemics, and the traditional trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) is by far the most widely used. Unfortunately, it has a number of limitations, the most important of which is its poor immunogenicity in younger children and the elderly, the populations at greatest risk of severe influenza. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has characteristics that can overcome some of these limitations. It does not have to be injected because it is administered intranasally. It is very effective in children and adolescents, among whom it prevents significantly more cases of influenza than the traditional TIV. However, its efficacy in adults has not been adequately documented, which is why it has not been licensed for use by adults by the European health authorities. LAIV is safe and well tolerated by children aged > 2 y and adults, but some concerns arisen regarding its safety in younger children and subjects with previous asthma or with recurrent wheezing. Further studies are needed to solve these problems and to evaluate the possible role of LAIV in the annual vaccination of the general population.

  7. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines.

  8. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Sharon M.; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed S. Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. PMID:25902362

  9. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus proviral DNA vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Sparger, Ellen E. Dubie, Robert A.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Cole, Kelly S.; Chang, W.L.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2008-05-10

    Studies in non-human primates, with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) have demonstrated that live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly effective; however these vaccine viruses maintain a low level of pathogenicity. Lentivirus attenuation associated with deletion of the viral vif gene carries a significantly reduced risk for pathogenicity, while retaining the potential for virus replication of low magnitude in the host. This report describes a vif-deleted simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 provirus that was tested as an attenuated proviral DNA vaccine by inoculation of female rhesus macaques. SIV-specific interferon-{gamma} enzyme-linked immunospot responses of low magnitude were observed after immunization with plasmid containing the vif-deleted SIV provirus. However, vaccinated animals displayed strong sustained virus-specific T cell proliferative responses and increasing antiviral antibody titers. These immune responses suggested either persistent vaccine plasmid expression or low level replication of vif-deleted SIV in the host. Immunized and unvaccinated macaques received a single high dose vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. A transient suppression of challenge virus load and a greater median survival time was observed for vaccinated animals. However, virus loads for vaccinated and unvaccinated macaques were comparable by twenty weeks after challenge and overall survival curves for the two groups were not significantly different. Thus, a vif-deleted SIVmac239 proviral DNA vaccine is immunogenic and capable of inducing a transient suppression of pathogenic challenge virus, despite severe attenuation of the vaccine virus.

  10. Immunologic interference from sequential administration of live attenuated alphavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    McClain, D J; Pittman, P R; Ramsburg, H H; Nelson, G O; Rossi, C A; Mangiafico, J A; Schmaljohn, A L; Malinoski, F J

    1998-03-01

    Two different human vaccine trials examined interference arising from sequential administration of vaccines against heterologous alphaviruses. The first trial indicated that persons previously vaccinated against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) exhibited poor neutralizing antibody responses to a live attenuated chikungunya virus (CHIKV) vaccine (46% response rate). The second trial prospectively examined neutralizing antibody responses to live attenuated VEEV vaccine in persons previously inoculated with either CHIKV vaccine or placebo. Following seroconversion to CHIKV, CHIKV vaccine recipients' geometric mean titers (GMTs) to VEEV by 80% plaque-reduction neutralization titration never exceeded 10, compared with a peak GMT of 95 after VEEV vaccination for alphavirus-naive volunteers who initially received placebo (P < .003). ELISA antibody responses demonstrated cross-reactive IgG to VEEV after primary CHIKV immunization and then an anamnestic response upon subsequent VEEV vaccination. These data indicate that preexisting alphavirus immunity in humans interferes with subsequent neutralizing antibody response to a live attenuated, heterologous vaccine.

  11. Long-acting integrase inhibitor protects macaques from intrarectal simian/human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Chasity D; Spreen, William R; Mohri, Hiroshi; Moss, Lee; Ford, Susan; Gettie, Agegnehu; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi; Bohm, Rudolf P; Cheng-Mayer, Cecilia; Hong, Zhi; Markowitz, Martin; Ho, David D

    2014-03-01

    GSK1265744 (GSK744) is an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that has been formulated as a long-acting (LA) injectable suitable for monthly to quarterly clinical administration. GSK744 LA was administered at two time points 4 weeks apart beginning 1 week before virus administration, and macaques were challenged weekly for 8 weeks. GSK744 LA, at plasma concentrations achievable with quarterly injections in humans, protected all animals against repeated low-dose challenges. In a second experiment, macaques were given GSK744 LA 1 week before virus administration and challenged repeatedly until infection occurred. Protection decreased over time and correlated with the plasma drug levels. With a quarterly dosing schedule in humans, our results suggest that GSK744 LA could potentially decrease adherence problems associated with daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

  12. Molecular Basis of Live-Attenuated Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    He, Wen; Wang, Wei; Han, Huamin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Ge; Gao, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most effective means for controlling infection and thereby reducing morbidity and mortality is vaccination with a three inactivated influenza virus strains mixture, or by intranasal administration of a group of three different live attenuated influenza vaccine strains. Comparing to the inactivated vaccine, the attenuated live viruses allow better elicitation of a long-lasting and broader immune (humoral and cellular) response that represents a naturally occurring transient infection. The cold-adapted (ca) influenza A/AA/6/60 (H2N2) (AA ca) virus is the backbone for the live attenuated trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine licensed in the United States. Similarly, the influenza A components of live-attenuated vaccines used in Russia have been prepared as reassortants of the cold-adapted (ca) H2N2 viruses, A/Leningrad/134/17/57-ca (Len/17) and A/Leningrad/134/47/57-ca (Len/47) along with virulent epidemic strains. However, the mechanism of temperature-sensitive attenuation is largely elusive. To understand how modification at genetic level of influenza virus would result in attenuation of human influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1,A/PR8), we investigated the involvement of key mutations in the PB1 and/or PB2 genes in attenuation of influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated that a few of residues in PB1 and PB2 are critical for the phenotypes of live attenuated, temperature sensitive influenza viruses by minigenome assay and real-time PCR. The information of these mutation loci could be used for elucidation of mechanism of temperature-sensitive attenuation and as a new strategy for influenza vaccine development. PMID:23555969

  13. Live attenuated varicella vaccine in children with leukemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S; Galasso, G; Borkowsky, W; Larussa, P; Ferrara, A; Gelb, L

    1984-09-01

    One-hundred-ninety-one children with acute leukemia in remission for at least one year were immunized with 1 or more doses of live attenuated varicella vaccine. All were susceptible to varicella prior to vaccination. The only significant side effect was mild to moderate rash, seen especially in children with maintenance chemotherapy temporarily suspended for one week before and one week after vaccination. Children with rash were at some risk (10%) to transmit vaccine virus to varicella susceptibles with whom they had close contact.

  14. Safety of a live attenuated Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccine for swine.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eric J; Grinberg, Alex; Bonistalli, Kathryn N; Mack, Hamish J; Lehrbach, Philip R; Gibson, Nicole

    2009-03-30

    Infection with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae has a significant economic impact on pig production systems worldwide. Both inactivated and attenuated vaccines are available to prevent development of clinical signs of swine erysipelas. The ability of a live attenuated E. rhusiopathiae strain to become persistently established in pigs after intranasal exposure and its potential to cause clinical signs consistent with swine erysipelas after being administered directly into the nasopharynx of healthy pigs was evaluated. Five, E. rhusiopathiae-negative pigs were vaccinated by deep intranasal inoculation then followed for 14 days. Nasal swabs were collected daily for 5 days and clinical observations were made daily for 14 days post-vaccination. Nasal swabs were cultured for E. rhusiopathiae with the intent of back-passaging any recovered organisms into subsequent replicates. No organism was recovered from nasal swabs in the first vaccination replicate. A second replicate including 10 pigs was initiated and followed in an identical manner to that described above. Again, no E. rhusiopathiae was recovered from any pigs. No pigs in either replicate showed any signs of clinical swine erysipelas. The live attenuated E. rhusiopathiae strain evaluated in this study did not appear to become persistently established in pigs post-vaccination, did not cause any local or systemic signs consistent with swine erysipelas, and was therefore unlikely to revert to a virulent state when used in a field setting.

  15. Clinical evaluation strategies for a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Precioso, Alexander Roberto; Palacios, Ricardo; Thomé, Beatriz; Mondini, Gabriella; Braga, Patrícia; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-12-10

    Butantan Institute is a public Brazilian biomedical research-manufacturer center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretary of Health. Currently, Butantan is one of the main public producers of vaccines, antivenoms, and antitoxins in Latin America. The partnership between Butantan and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United Sates has been one of the longest and most successful partnerships in the development and manufacturing of new vaccines. Recently, Butantan Institute has developed and manufactured a lyophilized tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine with the four dengue viruses attenuated and licensed from the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (LID/NIAID/NIH). The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical evaluation strategies of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (Butantan-DV) developed and manufactured by Butantan Institute. These clinical strategies will be used to evaluate the Butantan-DV Phase III trial to support the Butantan-DV licensure for protection against any symptomatic dengue caused by any serotype in people aged 2 to 59 years.

  16. Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults.

    PubMed

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L

    1986-10-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine has been administered to 307 children with leukemia in remission and to 86 healthy adults. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. The major side effect in leukemic children receiving maintenance chemotherapy was development of a vaccine-associated rash. Vaccinees in whom a rash developed were potentially somewhat infectious to others about 1 month after immunization. Vaccination was not associated with an increase in the incidence of herpes zoster or in relapse of leukemia. Vaccination provided excellent protection against severe varicella. It was associated with a significant decrease in the attack rate of chickenpox following an intimate exposure to varicella-zoster virus, conferring about 80% protection in leukemic children. The cases of breakthrough varicella that occurred were mild. Thus, the vaccine may either prevent or modify varicella in high-risk individuals. It may also have use for prevention of nosocomial varicella.

  17. Quadrivalent Ann Arbor strain live-attenuated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Toback, Seth L; Levin, Myron J; Block, Stan L; Belshe, Robert B; Ambrose, Christopher S; Falloon, Judith

    2012-11-01

    Influenza B is responsible for significant morbidity in children and adults worldwide. For more than 25 years, two antigenically distinct lineages of influenza B viruses, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, have cocirculated globally. Current influenza vaccine formulations are trivalent and contain two influenza subtype A strains (A/H1N1 and A/H3N2) but only one B strain. In a half of recent influenza seasons, the predominant circulating influenza B lineage was different from that contained in trivalent influenza vaccines. A quadrivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (Q/LAIV) that contains two B strains, one from each lineage, has been developed to help provide broad protection against influenza B. Q/LAIV was recently approved for use in the USA in eligible individuals 2-49 years of age. This review summarizes clinical trial data in support of Q/LAIV.

  18. Live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines developed in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Two live, attenuated hepatitis A vaccines, H 2 and LA-1 virus strains, were developed through serial passages of the viruses in cell cultures at 32 °C and 35 °C respectively. Both vaccines were safe and immunogenic, providing protection against clinical hepatitis A in 95% of the vaccinees, with a single dose by subcutaneous injection. The vaccine recipients were not protected from asymptomatic, subclinical hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, which induced a similar antibody response as for unvaccinated subjects. A second dose caused anamnestic response and can be used for boosting. Oral immunization of human with H 2 vaccine or of marmoset with LA-1 vaccine failed, and no evidence was found for person-to-person transmission of the H 2 strain or for marmoset-to-marmoset transmission of LA-1 strain, by close contact. H 2 strain was genetically stable when passaged in marmosets, humans or cell cultures at 37 °C; 3 consecutive passages of the virus in marmosets did not cause virulence mutation. The live vaccines offer the benefits of low cost, single dose injection, long- term protection, and increased duration of immunity through subclinical infection. Improved sanitation and administration of 150 million doses of the live vaccines to children had led to a 90% reduction in the annual national incidence rate of hepatitis A in China during the 16-year period, from 1991 to 2006. Hepatitis A immunization with both live and inactivated HA vaccines was implemented in the national routine childhood immunization program in 2008 and around 92% of the 16 million annual births received the affordable live, attenuated vaccines at 18 months of age. Near elimination of the disease was achieved in China for 14 years following introduction of the H 2 live vaccine into the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) in 1992.

  19. Improving live attenuated bacterial carriers for vaccination and therapy.

    PubMed

    Loessner, Holger; Endmann, Anne; Leschner, Sara; Bauer, Heike; Zelmer, Andrea; zur Lage, Susanne; Westphal, Kathrin; Weiss, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Live attenuated bacteria are well established as vaccines. Thus, their use as carriers for prophylactic and therapeutic macromolecules is a logical consequence. Here we describe several experimental applications of bacteria to carry heterologous macromolecules into the murine host. First, Listeria monocytogenes are described that are able to transfer eukaryotic expression plasmids into host cells for gene therapy. High multiplicities of infection are still required for efficient gene transfer and we point out some of the bottlenecks that counteract a more efficient transfer and application in vivo. Then, we describe Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) as an expression plasmid transfer vehicle for oral DNA vaccination of mice. We demonstrate that the stabilization of the plasmid transformants results in an improved immune response. Stabilization was achieved by replacing the origin of replication of the original high-copy-number plasmid by a low-copy-number origin. Finally, we describe Salmonella carriers for the improved expression of heterologous proteins. We introduce a system in which the plasmid is carried as a single copy during cultivation but is amplified several fold upon infection of the host. Using the same in vivo inducible promoter for both protein expression and plasmid amplification, a substantial increase in antigen expression in vivo can be achieved. A modification of this approach is the introduction of inducible gene expression in vivo with a low-molecular-weight compound. Using P(BAD) promoter and L-arabinose as inducer we were able to deliberately activate genes in the bacterial carrier. No background activity could be observed with P(BAD) such that an inducible suicide gene could be introduced. This is adding an important safety feature to such live attenuated carrier bacteria.

  20. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  1. Live-attenuated strains of improved genetic stability.

    PubMed

    Macadam, A J; Ferguson, G; Stone, D M; Meredith, J; Almond, J W; Minor, P D

    2001-01-01

    The current live-attenuated vaccine strains of poliovirus are genetically unstable and capable of rapid evolution in human hosts, resulting in reversion to neurovirulence and, occasionally, disease. They can also be shed by recipients for a considerable time after vaccination. This raises questions about how and when to stop vaccination after wild-type viruses have been eliminated. Persistence of vaccine revertant viruses in the population would present a risk to new cohorts of unvaccinated children and threaten the success of the eradication programme. A number of Sabin vaccine strain derivatives have been described that are, in theory, genetically more stable than the present vaccines and therefore less likely to revert to virulence. The approaches used in their derivation are outlined here and data presented for two strains showing a significant improvement in genetic stability. These strains were designed according to our understanding of the molecular basis of attenuation and incorporate changes in the sequence of an RNA structural domain that plays a key role in attenuation. They may also be less transmissible than the current type 3 vaccine strain and are potentially useful in the strategically difficult final stages of poliomyelitis eradication.

  2. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, Philip D.

    2015-05-15

    Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.

  3. Neurovirulence of varicella and the live attenuated varicella vaccine virus.

    PubMed

    Horien, Corey; Grose, Charles

    2012-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic herpesvirus, which can cause a variety of complications during varicella infections. These range from meningoencephalitis to polyneuritis to retinitis. After primary VZV infection, VZV enters the dorsal root ganglia in a latent state. Reactivation from latency leads to zoster. The velocity of VZV is 13 cm per day, as the virus travels from ganglion to skin. The live attenuated varicella vaccine virus is markedly less neurovirulent than the wild-type virus. Nevertheless, a few cases of herpes zoster due to the vaccine virus have been documented. Usually, herpes zoster occurs in the same arm as the vaccination, often 3 or more years after vaccination. Thus, herpes zoster in a vaccinee often represents a reactivation of vaccine virus that was carried to the cervical dorsal root ganglia from a site of local replication in the arm. Finally, the role of autophagy during VZV infection is discussed. Autophagosome formation is a prominent feature in the skin vesicles during both varicella and herpes zoster. Therefore, autophagy is one of the innate immune mechanisms associated with VZV infection in humans.

  4. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Capripoxvirus Strain KSGP 0240 from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Frank; Mathijs, Elisabeth; Haegeman, Andy; Al-Majali, Ahmad; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Capripoxviruses cause economically important diseases in domestic ruminants in regions endemic for these viruses. We report here the complete genome sequence of the KSGP 0240 vaccine strain from the live attenuated vaccine Kenyavac (JOVAC). PMID:27795268

  6. Genetic Imprint of Vaccination on Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmitted Viral Genomes in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Mariana; Verschoor, Ernst; Lai, Rachel P. J.; Hughes, Joseph; Mooj, Petra; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Fitzmaurice, Timothy J.; Landskron, Lisa; Willett, Brian J.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Bogers, Willy M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the genetic, antigenic and structural changes that occur during HIV-1 infection in response to pre-existing immunity will facilitate current efforts to develop an HIV-1 vaccine. Much is known about HIV-1 variation at the population level but little with regard to specific changes occurring in the envelope glycoprotein within a host in response to immune pressure elicited by antibodies. The aim of this study was to track and map specific early genetic changes occurring in the viral envelope gene following vaccination using a highly controlled viral challenge setting in the SHIV macaque model. We generated 449 full-length env sequences from vaccinees, and 63 from the virus inoculum. Analysis revealed a different pattern in the distribution and frequency of mutations in the regions of the envelope gene targeted by the vaccine as well as different patterns of diversification between animals in the naïve control group and vaccinees. Given the high stringency of the model it is remarkable that we were able to identify genetic changes associated with the vaccination. This work provides insight into the characterization of breakthrough viral populations in less than fully efficacious vaccines and illustrates the value of HIV-1 Env SHIV challenge model in macaques to unravel the mechanisms driving HIV-1 envelope genetic diversity in the presence of vaccine induced-responses. PMID:23967111

  7. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation.

  8. Experimental evaluation of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines against Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron

    2016-01-01

    The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation. PMID:26827840

  9. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A.; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  10. The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aseem; Cabello, Ana; Akoolo, Lavoisier; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Arenas-Gamboa, Angela; McMurray, David; Ficht, Thomas A; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination of humans and animals with live attenuated organisms has proven to be an effective means of combatting some important infectious diseases. In fact, the 20th century witnessed tremendous improvements in human and animal health worldwide as a consequence of large-scale vaccination programs with live attenuated vaccines (LAVs). Here, we use the neglected zoonotic diseases brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis (BTb) caused by Brucella spp. and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), respectively, as comparative models to outline the merits of LAV platforms with emphasis on molecular strategies that have been pursued to generate LAVs with enhanced vaccine safety and efficacy profiles. Finally, we discuss the prospects of LAV platforms in the fight against brucellosis and BTb and outline new avenues for future research towards developing effective vaccines using LAV platforms. PMID:27537413

  11. Comparative genomics of the Mycobacterium signaling architecture and implications for a novel live attenuated Tuberculosis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peifu; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), remains a major threat to global public health. A new TB vaccine affording superior immune protection to M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is imperative. The advantage of a live attenuated vaccine is that it can mimic the bona fide pathogen, elicit immune responses similar to natural infection, and potentially provide more protection than other vaccines. BCG, the only vaccine and a live attenuated vaccine that is the result of cumulative mutations by serial passage of M. bovis, has provided clues for the construction of novel improved vaccines. A strategy is put forward for identifying a new live attenuated TB vaccine generated by cumulative mutation based on M.tb. Given the important role of the M.tb signaling network consisting of a two-component system, eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinase system and sigma factor system based on comparisons among M.tb H37Rv, M. bovis, and BCG, we have put a premium on this signaling circuit as the starting point for the generation of an attenuated TB vaccine.

  12. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  13. Current status of live attenuated influenza virus vaccine in the US.

    PubMed

    Belshe, Robert B

    2004-07-01

    The efficacy and effectiveness of cold adapted live attenuated (CAIV-T, FluMist intranasal influenza vaccine is reviewed. CAIV-T consists of approximately 10(7) TCID50 per dose of each influenza A/H1N1, influenza A/H3N2, and influenza B vaccine strain. The exact strains are updated each year to antigenically match the antigens recommended by national health authorities for inclusion in the vaccine. In one year in which the vaccine strain did not well match the epidemic strain, the live attenuated vaccine induced a broad immune response that cross-reacted significantly with the drifted strain. The efficacy of CAIV-T in adults was demonstrated with challenge studies and the effectiveness of the vaccine for reducing febrile upper respiratory illness, days of missed work, and days of antibiotic use was demonstrated in a large field trial. In young children, protective efficacy against culture confirmed influenza was demonstrated in a field trial with overall protective efficacy of 92% during a two year study. Vaccine was also highly protective against a strain not contained in the vaccine, with 86% protective efficacy demonstrated against this significantly drifted virus. Effectiveness measures, including protection against febrile otitis media and visits to the doctor were demonstrated. Live attenuated vaccine provides a significant new tool to help prevent influenza.

  14. Investigations towards an efficacious and safe strangles vaccine: submucosal vaccination with a live attenuated Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, A A; Goovaerts, D; Nuijten, P J; Theelen, R P; Hartford, O M; Foster, T J

    2000-11-11

    As part of a search for a safe and efficacious strangles vaccine, several different vaccines and different vaccination routes were tested in foals. The degree of protection was evaluated after an intranasal challenge with virulent Streptococcus equi by clinical, postmortem and bacteriological examinations. Inactivated vaccines containing either native purified M-protein (500 microg per dose) or whole S equi cells (10(10) cells per dose) administered at least twice intramuscularly at intervals of four weeks, did not protect against challenge. Different live attenuated S equi mutants administered at least twice at intervals of four weeks by the intranasal route were either safe but not protective or caused strangles. In contrast, a live attenuated deletion mutant administered intramuscularly, induced complete protection but also induced unacceptable local reactions at the site of vaccination. Submucosal vaccination in the inner side of the upper lip with the live attenuated mutant at > or =10(8) colony-forming units per dose, appeared to be safe and efficacious in foals as young as four months of age. The submucosal vaccinations caused small transient swellings that resolved completely within two weeks, and postmortem no vaccine remnants or other abnormalities were found at the site of vaccination.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Goatpox Virus Strain Gorgan Obtained Directly from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mathijs, Elisabeth; Vandenbussche, Frank; Haegeman, Andy; Al-Majali, Ahmad; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of the complete genome sequence of the goatpox virus strain Gorgan, which was obtained directly from a commercial live attenuated vaccine (Caprivac, Jordan Bio-Industries Centre). PMID:27738031

  16. An avian live attenuated master backbone for potential use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Danielle; Hossain, Md Jaber; Song, Haichen; Araya, Yonas; Solórzano, Alicia; Perez, Daniel R

    2008-11-01

    The unprecedented emergence in Asia of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes with a broad host range poses a major challenge in the design of vaccination strategies that are both effective and available in a timely manner. The present study focused on the protective effects of a genetically modified AIV as a source for the preparation of vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. It has previously been demonstrated that a live attenuated AIV based on the internal backbone of influenza A/Guinea fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2), called WF10att, is effective at protecting poultry species against low- and high-pathogenicity influenza strains. More importantly, this live attenuated virus provided effective protection when administered in ovo. In order to characterize the WF10att backbone further for use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines, this study evaluated its protective effects in mice. Intranasal inoculation of modified attenuated viruses in mice provided adequate protective immunity against homologous lethal challenges with both the wild-type influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) viruses. Adequate heterotypic immunity was also observed in mice vaccinated with modified attenuated viruses carrying H7N2 surface proteins. The results presented in this report suggest that the internal genes of a genetically modified AIV confer similar protection in a mouse model and thus could be used as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza.

  17. Immunization with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae-live attenuated oocysts protect goat kids from clinical coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonio; Muñoz, María Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Hermosilla, Carlos; Andrada, Marisa; Lara, Pedro; Bordón, Elisa; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Matos, Lorena; Guedes, Aránzazu Carmen; Falcón, Soraya; Falcón, Yaiza; Martín, Sergio; Taubert, Anja

    2014-01-17

    Caprine coccidiosis, affecting mainly young goat kids around the weaning period, is worldwide the most important disease in the goat industry. Control of caprine coccidiosis is increasingly hampered by resistances developed against coccidiostatic drugs leading to an enhanced need for anticoccidial vaccines. In the current study we conducted an oral immunization trial with live attenuated sporulated Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae oocysts. Sporulated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts were attenuated by X-irradiation technique. The experimental design included a total of 18 goat kids divided into the following groups: (i) animals immunized with attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 5 weeks of age and challenged 3 weeks later with non-irradiated homologous oocysts (group 1); (ii) animals infected with non-attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 5 weeks of age and challenged 3 weeks later with non-attenuated homologous oocysts (group 2); (iii) animals primary-infected with untreated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts at 8 weeks of age (control of the challenge infection, group 3); (iv) non-infected control animals (group 4). Goat kids immunized with live attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts (group 1) excreted significantly less oocysts in the faeces (95.3% reduction) than kids infected with non-attenuated ones (group 2). Furthermore, immunization with live but attenuated oocysts resulted in ameliorated clinical coccidiosis compared to goat kids infected with untreated oocysts (group 2) and resulted in equally reduced signs of coccidiosis after challenge infection compared to acquired immunity driven by non-attenuated oocysts. Overall, the present study demonstrates for the first time that live attenuated E. ninakohlyakimovae oocysts orally administered showed almost no pathogenicity but enough immunogenicity in terms of immunoprotection. Importantly, vaccinated animals still shed low amounts of oocysts, guaranteeing environmental contamination and consecutive booster

  18. Intranasal live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine: does not challenge current practice.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Influenza vaccination of children is only justified when there is a risk of serious influenza complications. In 2012, a live attenuated vaccine for intranasal administration was authorised in the European Union for influenza prevention in individuals aged from 2 to less than 18 years. This type of vaccine has been available in the United States since 2003. Clinical evaluation of this live vaccine is based on three non-inferiority trials versus an injected inactivated vaccine. There are no specific trials in children at risk of serious influenza complications. Only one of these trials was double-blinded. Two trials involved children with a history of respiratory problems. Symptomatic influenza confirmed by viral culture was less frequent in these three trials after intranasal vaccination than after injection of the conventional vaccine (about 3 to 5% and 6 to 10%, respectively). There was no difference between the vaccines in terms of clinical complications of influenza, especially asthma exacerbations. Adverse effects attributed to the intranasal vaccine mainly consisted of local reactions such as rhinorrhoea and nasal congestion, as well as flu-like syndromes. Wheezing, respiratory tract infections and hospitalisation were more frequent with the intranasal vaccine than with the injected vaccine in children aged less than 1 year and in children with a history of severe respiratory illness. The intranasal vaccine is contraindicated in these children. The intranasal vaccine contains live attenuated virus strains and is therefore contraindicated in immunocompromised patients. US pharmacovigilance data suggest that severe allergic reactions to the intranasal vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transmission of vaccine viruses to contacts are very rare. Intranasal administration seems to be more practical, especially for children. In practice, there is no firm evidence that this live attenuated influenza vaccine has any clinical advantages over injected vaccines

  19. Live-Attenuated Measles Virus Vaccine Targets Dendritic Cells and Macrophages in Muscle of Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Rennick, Linda J.; de Vries, Rory D.; Carsillo, Thomas J.; Lemon, Ken; van Amerongen, Geert; Ludlow, Martin; Nguyen, D. Tien; Yüksel, Selma; Verburgh, R. Joyce; Haddock, Paula; McQuaid, Stephen; de Swart, Rik L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have been used successfully for over 50 years, the target cells that sustain virus replication in vivo are still unknown. We generated a reverse genetics system for the live-attenuated MV vaccine strain Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ), allowing recovery of recombinant (r)MVEZ. Three recombinant viruses were generated that contained the open reading frame encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) within an additional transcriptional unit (ATU) at various positions within the genome. rMVEZEGFP(1), rMVEZEGFP(3), and rMVEZEGFP(6) contained the ATU upstream of the N gene, following the P gene, and following the H gene, respectively. The viruses were compared in vitro by growth curves, which indicated that rMVEZEGFP(1) was overattenuated. Intratracheal infection of cynomolgus macaques with these recombinant viruses revealed differences in immunogenicity. rMVEZEGFP(1) and rMVEZEGFP(6) did not induce satisfactory serum antibody responses, whereas both in vitro and in vivo rMVEZEGFP(3) was functionally equivalent to the commercial MVEZ-containing vaccine. Intramuscular vaccination of macaques with rMVEZEGFP(3) resulted in the identification of EGFP+ cells in the muscle at days 3, 5, and 7 postvaccination. Phenotypic characterization of these cells demonstrated that muscle cells were not infected and that dendritic cells and macrophages were the predominant target cells of live-attenuated MV. IMPORTANCE Even though MV strain Edmonston-Zagreb has long been used as a live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) to protect against measles, nothing is known about the primary cells in which the virus replicates in vivo. This is vital information given the push to move toward needle-free routes of vaccination, since vaccine virus replication is essential for vaccination efficacy. We have generated a number of recombinant MV strains expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein. The virus that best mimicked the nonrecombinant vaccine

  20. Development of a stable liquid formulation of live attenuated influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    White, Jessica A; Estrada, Marcus; Flood, E Alexander; Mahmood, Kutub; Dhere, Rajeev; Chen, Dexiang

    2016-07-12

    Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing influenza. However, the cost of producing annual seasonal influenza vaccines puts them out of reach for most developing countries. While live attenuated influenza vaccines are among the most efficacious and can be manufactured at low cost, they may require lyophilization to be stable enough for developing-country use, which adds a significant cost burden. The development of a liquid live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine that is stable for around a year-the duration of an annual influenza season-would significantly improve not only the production output but also the use and accessibility of influenza vaccines in low-resource settings. In this study, potential stabilizing excipients were screened and optimized using the least stable influenza vaccine strain presently known, H1N1 (A/California/07/2009), as a model. The stability-conferring properties of the lead formulations were also tested with a Type B strain of influenza virus (B/Brisbane/60/2008). Stability was also evaluated with higher titers of influenza virus and exposure to agitation and freeze-thaw stresses to further confirm the stability of the lead formulations. Through this process, we identified a liquid formulation consisting of sucrose phosphate glutamate buffer with 1% arginine and 0.5% recombinant human serum albumin that provided storage stability of one year at 2-8°C for the influenza A and B strains tested. PMID:27155495

  1. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter F; Hoen, Anne G; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C; Luke, Catherine J; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J

    2016-04-01

    Background.  The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods.  Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results.  Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions.  The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge. PMID:27419180

  2. Live-Attenuated Bacterial Vectors: Tools for Vaccine and Therapeutic Agent Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ivan Y. C.; Van, Thi Thu Hao; Smooker, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically attenuated microorganisms, including pathogenic and commensal bacteria, can be engineered to carry and deliver heterologous antigens to elicit host immunity against both the vector as well as the pathogen from which the donor gene is derived. These live attenuated bacterial vectors have been given much attention due to their capacity to induce a broad range of immune responses including localized mucosal, as well as systemic humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity. In addition, the unique tumor-homing characteristics of these bacterial vectors has also been exploited for alternative anti-tumor vaccines and therapies. In such approach, tumor-associated antigen, immunostimulatory molecules, anti-tumor drugs, or nucleotides (DNA or RNA) are delivered. Different potential vectors are appropriate for specific applications, depending on their pathogenic routes. In this review, we survey and summarize the main features of the different types of live bacterial vectors and discussed the clinical applications in the field of vaccinology. In addition, different approaches for using live attenuated bacterial vectors for anti-cancer therapy is discussed, and some promising pre-clinical and clinical studies in this field are outlined. PMID:26569321

  3. Stabilizing formulations for inhalable powders of live-attenuated measles virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Burger, Jessica L; Cape, Stephen P; Braun, Chad S; McAdams, David H; Best, Jessica A; Bhagwat, Pradnya; Pathak, Pankaj; Rebits, Lia G; Sievers, Robert E

    2008-03-01

    Carbon dioxide Assisted Nebulization with a Bubble Dryer((R)) (CAN-BD) processing allows particles to be made in the 3-5 mum size range, which is desirable for lung delivery, without destroying biological activity. In response to the Grand Challenge in Global Health Initiative #3, we have been developing an inhalable needle-free live-attenuated measles virus vaccine for use in developing countries. Measles was chosen because it is the number one vaccine preventable killer of children worldwide. Powders were processed by CAN-BD, where a solution containing excipients and live-attenuated measles virus in water was mixed intimately with supercritical or near superctitical carbon dioxide to form an emulsion. The emulsion was expanded to atmospheric pressure through a flow restrictor. The resulting plume was dried by heated nitrogen and the powders collected on a filter at the bottom of the drying chamber. Powders were analyzed using varying techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Andersen cascade impaction, differential scanning calorimetery, Karl Fischer titration, and viral plaque assay. CAN-BD has been used to produce powders of live-attenuated measles virus vaccine with characteristics desirable for lung delivery. The powders retain viral activity through forming and drying the microparticles by CAN-BD, and have passed the WHO stability test for 1 week at 37 degrees C. The powders have an amorphous character and a glass transition temperature of around 60 degrees C. Lyophilization, the present standard commercial method of processing measles vaccine makes solids with a water content of less than 1%. By substituting myo-inositol for sorbitol and using the CAN-BD drying technique the water content can be lowered to 0.5%. The most successful formulations to date have been based conceptually on the current lyophilized formulation, but with modifications to the type and amounts of sugar. Of current interest are formulations containing myo

  4. Acceptability of live attenuated influenza vaccine by vaccine providers in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Kiely, Marilou; Boulianne, Nicole; Landry, Monique

    2015-01-01

    A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was offered during the 2012-13 influenza season in Quebec, Canada, to children aged between 2 and 17 years with chronic medical conditions. Despite the offer, uptake of the vaccine was low. We assessed the perceptions and opinions about seasonal influenza vaccination and LAIV use among vaccine providers who participated in the 2012-13 campaign. More than 70% of them thought that LAIV was safe and effective and more than 90% considered that the vaccine was well-received by parents and healthcare professionals. According to respondents, the most frequent concerns of parents about LAIV were linked to vaccine efficacy. LAIV is well-accepted by vaccine providers involved in influenza vaccination clinics, but more information about the vaccine and the recommendations for its use are needed to increase vaccine uptake.

  5. Standardization of large scale production of homologous live attenuated PPR vaccine in India.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Raveendra; Gomes, Amitha R; Byregowda, S M; Hugar, Paramananda; Giridhar, P; Renukaprasad, C

    2008-01-01

    Live attenuated homologous vaccine against peste des petits ruminants of sheep and goats was produced on a large scale basis in roller culture bottles using seed virus developed at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Muktheswar, India. Vero cells between 130-150 passages with six percent foetal calf serum were used for the production of vaccine. The cells were infected with 0.01 multiplicity of infection and harvested when the cytopathic effect was 80%. The vaccine was freezedried in order to maintain the stability of the vaccine. Identity test and titration was performed and the vaccine titre was monitored to be minimum of 10(5)/100 doses. In-house sterility tests and quality control tests using experimental animals and small ruminants were performed. The vacuum and moisture content of the vaccine were also regulated to be within the normal limits.

  6. Dose titration study of live attenuated varicella vaccine in healthy children. Pennridge Pediatric Associates.

    PubMed

    Rothstein, E P; Bernstein, H H; Ngai, A L; Cho, I; White, C J

    1997-02-01

    To approximate the effect of prolonged storage on safety and immunogenicity, healthy children were given a single dose of the currently marketed live attenuated varicella vaccine (3625 pfu) or of a partially heat-inactivated vaccine (1125 or 439 pfu). The 3 doses had similar antigen content (attenuated plus inactive virus particles). The vaccine was well tolerated. No significant differences in adverse reactions were observed. Although the seroconversion rates were excellent at each dose (> or = 98%), the higher doses resulted in significantly greater geometric mean antibody titers at 6 weeks (10.5 and 10.6 ELISA U/mL) compared with the 439 pfu dose (5.7 ELISA U/mL), P < or = .01. One year after immunization, differences in antibodies were similar to the 6-week postimmunization results. Results indicate that until the date of expiry, the vaccine's immunogenicity will be preserved and there will be no clinically important changes in type or frequency of adverse events.

  7. The yellow fever 17D virus as a platform for new live attenuated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bonaldo, Myrna C; Sequeira, Patrícia C; Galler, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The live-attenuated yellow fever 17D virus is one of the most outstanding human vaccines ever developed. It induces efficacious immune responses at a low production cost with a well-established manufacture process. These advantages make the YF17D virus attractive as a vector for the development of new vaccines. At the beginning of vector development studies, YF17D was genetically manipulated to express other flavivirus prM and E proteins, components of the viral envelope. While these 17D recombinants are based on the substitution of equivalent YF17D genes, other antigens from unrelated pathogens have also been successfully expressed and delivered by recombinant YF17D viruses employing alternative strategies for genetic manipulation of the YF17D genome. Herein, we discuss these strategies in terms of possibilities of single epitope or larger sequence expression and the main properties of these replication-competent viral platforms.

  8. Increasing uptake of live attenuated influenza vaccine among children in the United States, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Loren; Pabst, Laura J; Chaves, Sandra S

    2015-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends annual influenza vaccination for all persons in the United States aged ≥6 months. On June 25, 2014, ACIP preferentially recommended live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children aged 2-8 years. Little is known about national LAIV uptake. To determine uptake of LAIV relative to inactivated influenza vaccine, we analyzed vaccination records from six immunization information system sentinel sites (approximately 10% of US population). LAIV usage increased over time in all sites. Among children 2-8 years of age vaccinated for influenza, exclusive LAIV usage in the collective sentinel site area increased from 20.1% (2008-09 season) to 38.0% (2013-14). During 2013-14, at least half of vaccinated children received LAIV in Minnesota (50.0%) and North Dakota (55.5%). Increasing LAIV usage suggests formulation acceptability, and this preexisting trend offers a favorable context for implementation of ACIP's preferential recommendation.

  9. Live attenuated HIV vaccines: predicting the tradeoff between efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Blower, S M; Koelle, K; Kirschner, D E; Mills, J

    2001-03-13

    The utility of live attenuated vaccines for controlling HIV epidemics is being debated. Live attenuated HIV vaccines (LAHVs) could be extremely effective in protecting against infection with wild-type strains, but may not be completely safe as the attenuated strain could cause AIDS in some vaccinated individuals. We present a theoretical framework for evaluating the consequences of the tradeoff between vaccine efficacy (in terms of preventing new infections with wild-type strains) and safety (in terms of vaccine-induced AIDS deaths). We use our framework to predict, for Zimbabwe and Thailand, the epidemiological impact of 1,000 different (specified by efficacy and safety characteristics) LAHVs. We predict that paradoxically: (i) in Zimbabwe (where transmission is high) LAHVs would significantly decrease the AIDS death rate, but (ii) in Thailand (where transmission is low) exactly the same vaccines (in terms of efficacy and safety characteristics) would increase the AIDS death rate. Our results imply that a threshold transmission rate exists that determines whether any given LAHV has a beneficial or a detrimental impact. We also determine the vaccine perversity point, which is defined in terms of the fraction of vaccinated individuals who progress to AIDS as a result of the vaccine strain. Vaccination with any LAHV that causes more than 5% of vaccinated individuals to progress to AIDS in 25 years would, even 50 years later, lead to perversity (i.e., increase the annual AIDS death rate) in Thailand; these same vaccines would lead to decreases in the annual AIDS death rate in Zimbabwe.

  10. Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant, genetically engineered, live-attenuated vaccine against canine blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Krajaejun, Theerapong; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Bass, Chris; Filutowicz, Hanna I; Legendre, Alfred M; Klein, Bruce S

    2011-05-01

    Blastomycosis is a severe, commonly fatal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis in dogs that live in the United States, Canada, and parts of Africa. The cost of treating an infection can be expensive, and no vaccine against this infection is commercially available. A genetically engineered live-attenuated strain of B. dermatitidis lacking the major virulence factor BAD-1 successfully vaccinates against lethal experimental infection in mice. Here we studied the safety, toxicity, and immunogenicity of this strain as a vaccine in dogs, using 25 beagles at a teaching laboratory and 78 foxhounds in a field trial. In the beagles, escalating doses of live vaccine ranging from 2 × 10⁴ to 2 × 10⁷ yeast cells given subcutaneously were safe and did not disseminate to the lung or induce systemic illness, but a dose of < 2 × 10⁶ yeast cells induced less fever and local inflammation. A vaccine dose of 10⁵ yeast cells was also well tolerated in vaccinated foxhounds who had never had blastomycosis; however, vaccinated dogs with prior infection had more local reactions at the vaccine site. The draining lymph node cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated dogs demonstrated gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) specifically in response to stimulation with Blastomyces antigens. Thus, the live-attenuated vaccine against blastomycosis studied here proved safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic in dogs and merits further studies of vaccine efficacy.

  11. FTIR spectroscopy for the detection and evaluation of live attenuated viruses in freeze dried vaccine formulations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laurent; De Beer, Thomas; Pierre, Karin; Pastoret, Soumya; Bonnegarde-Bernard, Astrid; Daoussi, Rim; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the applicability of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to detect the applied virus medium volume (i.e., during sample filling), to evaluate the virus state and to distinguish between different vaccine doses in a freeze dried live, attenuated vaccine formulation. Therefore, different formulations were freeze dried after preparing them with different virus medium volumes (i.e., 30, 100, and 400 µl) or after applying different pre-freeze-drying sample treatments (resulting in different virus states); i.e., (i) as done for the commercial formulation; (ii) samples without virus medium (placebo); (iii) samples with virus medium but free from antigen; (iv) concentrated samples obtained via a centrifugal filter device; and (v) samples stressed by 96h exposure to room temperature; or by using different doses (placebo, 25-dose vials, 50-dose-vials and 125-dose vials). Each freeze-dried product was measured directly after freeze-drying with FTIR spectroscopy. The collected spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and evaluated at three spectral regions, which might provide information on the coated proteins of freeze dried live, attenuated viruses: (i) 1700-1600 cm(-1) (amide I band), 1600-1500 cm(-1) (amide II band) and 1200-1350 cm(-1) (amide III band). The latter spectral band does not overlap with water signals and is hence not influenced by residual moisture in the samples. It was proven that FTIR could distinguish between the freeze-dried samples prepared using different virus medium volumes, containing different doses and using different pre-freeze-drying sample treatments in the amide III region. PMID:25960257

  12. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection.

  13. Induction of immunogenicity by live attenuated Leishmania donovani centrin deleted parasites in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Santiago, Helton da Costa; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nakhasi, Hira Lal; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2013-04-01

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is a neglected tropical disease that is often fatal when untreated. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of L. infantum in zoonotic VL as the presence of infected dogs may increase the risk for human infection. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a major veterinary and public health problem in Southern Europe, Middle East and South America. Control of animal reservoirs relies on elimination of seropositive dogs in endemic areas. However, treatment of infected dogs is not considered a favorable approach as this can lead to emergence of drug resistance since the same drugs are used to treat human infections. Therefore, vaccination against CVL remains the best alternative in control of the animal reservoirs. In this study, we present data on the immunogenicity profile of a live attenuated parasite LdCen(-/-) in a canine infection model and compared it to that of Leishmune(®), a commercially available recombinant vaccine. The immunogenicity of the LdCen(-/-) parasites was evaluated by antibody secretion, production of intracytoplasmic and secreted cytokines, activation and proliferation of T cells. Vaccination with LdCen(-/-) resulted in high immunogenicity as revealed by the higher IgGTotal, IgG1, and IgG2 production and higher lymphoproliferative response. Further, LdCen(-/-) vaccinated dogs showed higher frequencies of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, IFN-γ production by CD8+ T cells, increased secretion of TNF-α and IL-12/IL-23p40 and decreased secretion of IL-4. These results contribute to the understanding of immunogenicity elicited by live attenuated L. donovani parasites and, consequently, to the development of effective vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:23398933

  14. Methods to Evaluate the Preclinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Live-Attenuated Leishmania Parasite Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Ismail, Nevien; Avishek, Kumar; Salotra, Poonam; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Satoskar, Abhay; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated parasite vaccines are being explored as potential vaccine candidates since other approaches of vaccination have not produced an effective vaccine so far. In order for live-attenuated parasite vaccines to be tested in preclinical studies and possibly in clinical studies, the safety and immunogenicity of these organisms must be rigorously evaluated. Here we describe methods to test persistence in the immunized host and immunogenicity, and to identify biomarkers of vaccine safety and efficacy with particular reference to genetically attenuated Leishmania parasites.

  15. Methods to Evaluate the Preclinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Genetically Modified Live-Attenuated Leishmania Parasite Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Ismail, Nevien; Avishek, Kumar; Salotra, Poonam; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Satoskar, Abhay; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated parasite vaccines are being explored as potential vaccine candidates since other approaches of vaccination have not produced an effective vaccine so far. In order for live-attenuated parasite vaccines to be tested in preclinical studies and possibly in clinical studies, the safety and immunogenicity of these organisms must be rigorously evaluated. Here we describe methods to test persistence in the immunized host and immunogenicity, and to identify biomarkers of vaccine safety and efficacy with particular reference to genetically attenuated Leishmania parasites. PMID:27076157

  16. Induction of immune response in macaque monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus having the TNF-{alpha} gene at an early stage of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Yuya; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Ibuki, Kentaro; Suzuki, Hajime; Kaneyasu, Kentaro; Goto, Yoshitaka; Hayami, Masanori; Miura, Tomoyuki; Haga, Takeshi . E-mail: a0d518u@cc.miyazaki-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-20

    TNF-{alpha} has been implicated in the pathogenesis of, and the immune response against, HIV-1 infection. To clarify the roles of TNF-{alpha} against HIV-1-related virus infection in an SHIV-macaque model, we genetically engineered an SHIV to express the TNF-{alpha} gene (SHIV-TNF) and characterized the virus's properties in vivo. After the acute viremic stage, the plasma viral loads declined earlier in the SHIV-TNF-inoculated monkeys than in the parental SHIV (SHIV-NI)-inoculated monkeys. SHIV-TNF induced cell death in the lymph nodes without depletion of circulating CD4{sup +} T cells. SHIV-TNF provided some immunity in monkeys by increasing the production of the chemokine RANTES and by inducing an antigen-specific proliferation of lymphocytes. The monkeys immunized with SHIV-TNF were partly protected against a pathogenic SHIV (SHIV-C2/1) challenge. These findings suggest that TNF-{alpha} contributes to the induction of an effective immune response against HIV-1 rather than to the progression of disease at the early stage of infection.

  17. A reassortment-incompetent live attenuated influenza virus vaccine for use in protection against pandemic virus strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) are safe for use in protection against seasonal influenza strains, concerns over their potential to reassort with wild-type virus strains have been voiced. LAIVs have been demonstrated to induce enhanced mucosal and cell-mediated immunity over inac...

  18. Room Temperature Stabilization of Oral, Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi-Vectored Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, Satoshi; Martin, Russell; Saxena, Atul; Pham, Binh; Chiueh, Gary; Osorio, Manuel; Kopecko, Dennis; Xu, DeQi; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Truong-Le, Vu

    2011-01-01

    Foam drying, a modified freeze drying process, was utilized to produce a heat-stable, live attenuated Salmonella Typhi ‘Ty21a’ bacterial vaccine. Ty21a vaccine was formulated with pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, including sugars, plasticizers, amino acids, and proteins. Growth media and harvesting conditions of the bacteria were also studied to enhance resistance to desiccation stress encountered during processing as well as subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. The optimized Ty21a vaccine, formulated with trehalose, methionine, and gelatin, demonstrated stability for approximately 12 weeks at 37°C (i.e., time required for the vaccine to decrease in potency by 1log10 CFU) and no loss in titer at 4 and 25°C following storage for the same duration. Furthermore, the foam dried Ty21a elicited a similar immunogenic response in mice as well as protection in challenge studies compared to Vivotif™, the commercial Ty21a vaccine. The enhanced heat stability of the Ty21a oral vaccine, or Ty21a derivatives expressing foreign antigens (e.g. anthrax), could mitigate risks of vaccine potency loss during long term storage, shipping, delivery to geographical areas with warmer climates or during emergency distribution following a bioterrorist attack. Because the foam drying process is conducted using conventional freeze dryers and can be readily implemented at any freeze drying manufacturing facility, this technology appears ready and appropriate for large scale processing of foam dried vaccines. PMID:21300096

  19. A Low Gastric pH Mouse Model to Evaluate Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Brenneman, Karen E.; Willingham, Crystal; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn A.; 3rd, Roy Curtiss; Roland, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    The low pH of the stomach serves as a barrier to ingested microbes and must be overcome or bypassed when delivering live bacteria for vaccine or probiotic applications. Typically, the impact of stomach acidity on bacterial survival is evaluated in vitro, as there are no small animal models to evaluate these effects in vivo. To better understand the effect of this low pH barrier to live attenuated Salmonella vaccines, which are often very sensitive to low pH, we investigated the value of the histamine mouse model for this application. A low pH gastric compartment was transiently induced in mice by the injection of histamine. This resulted in a gastric compartment of approximately pH 1.5 that was capable of distinguishing between acid-sensitive and acid-resistant microbes. Survival of enteric microbes during gastric transit in this model directly correlated with their in vitro acid resistance. Because many Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi vaccine strains are sensitive to acid, we have been investigating systems to enhance the acid resistance of these bacteria. Using the histamine mouse model, we demonstrate that the in vivo survival of S. Typhi vaccine strains increased approximately 10-fold when they carried a sugar-inducible arginine decarboxylase system. We conclude that this model will be a useful for evaluating live bacterial preparations prior to clinical trials. PMID:24489912

  20. Influence of maternally-derived antibodies on live attenuated influenza vaccine efficacy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Hyun Mi; Hlasny, Magda; Zhou, Yan

    2015-07-17

    Vaccination during pregnancy is practiced in swine farms as one measure to control swine influenza virus (SIV) infection in piglets at an early age. Vaccine-induced maternal antibodies transfer to piglets through colostrum and stabilize the herd: however, maternally derived antibodies (MDA) interfere with immune response following influenza vaccination in piglets at the later stage of life. In addition, MDA is related to enhanced respiratory disease in SIV infection. Previously, we have developed a bivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) which harbors both H1 and H3 HAs. We demonstrated vaccination of this LAIV provided protection to homologous and heterologous SIV infection in pigs. In this study we aimed to investigate the influence of MDA on LAIV efficacy. To this end, SIV sero-negative sows were vaccinated with a commercial vaccine. After parturition, nursery piglets were vaccinated with LAIV intranasally or intramuscularly, and were then challenged with SIV. We report that MDA hampered serum antibody response induced by intramuscular vaccination but not by intranasal vaccination of the LAIV. Viral challenge in the presence of MDA caused exacerbated respiratory disease in unvaccinated piglets. In contrast, all LAIV vaccinated piglets were protected from homologous viral infection regardless of the route of vaccination and the presence of MDA. Our results demonstrated that LAIV conferred protection in the presence of MDA without inciting exacerbated respiratory disease.

  1. Live Attenuated Borrelia burgdorferi Targeted Mutants in an Infectious Strain Background Protect Mice from Challenge Infection.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Beth L; Padmore, Lavinia J; Ristow, Laura C; Curtis, Michael W; Coburn, Jenifer

    2016-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii are all agents of Lyme disease in different geographic locations. If left untreated, Lyme disease can cause significant and long-term morbidity, which may continue after appropriate antibiotic therapy has been administered and live bacteria are no longer detectable. The increasing incidence and geographic spread of Lyme disease are renewing interest in the vaccination of at-risk populations. We took the approach of vaccinating mice with two targeted mutant strains of B. burgdorferi that, unlike the parental strain, are avirulent in mice. Mice vaccinated with both strains were protected against a challenge with the parental strain and a heterologous B. burgdorferi strain by either needle inoculation or tick bite. In ticks, the homologous strain was eliminated but the heterologous strain was not, suggesting that the vaccines generated a response to antigens that are produced by the bacteria both early in mammalian infection and in the tick. Partial protection against B. garinii infection was also conferred. Protection was antibody mediated, and reactivity to a variety of proteins was observed. These experiments suggest that live attenuated B. burgdorferi strains may be informative regarding the identification of protective antigens produced by the bacteria and recognized by the mouse immune system in vivo Further work may illuminate new candidates that are effective and safe for the development of Lyme disease vaccines. PMID:27335385

  2. Cross-reactive antibodies enhance live attenuated virus infection for increased immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Wang, Xiaohui; Saron, Wilfried A A; Gan, Esther Shuyi; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Mok, Darren Z L; Zhang, Summer Li-Xin; Lee, Yie Hou; Liang, Cui; Wijaya, Limin; Ghosh, Sujoy; Cheung, Yin Bun; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Abraham, Soman N; St John, Ashley L; Low, Jenny G H; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination has achieved remarkable successes in the control of childhood viral diseases. To control emerging infections, however, vaccines will need to be delivered to older individuals who, unlike infants, probably have had prior infection or vaccination with related viruses and thus have cross-reactive antibodies against the vaccines. Whether and how these cross-reactive antibodies impact live attenuated vaccination efficacy is unclear. Using an open-label randomized trial design, we show that subjects with a specific range of cross-reactive antibody titres from a prior inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccination enhanced yellow fever (YF) immunogenicity upon YF vaccination. Enhancing titres of cross-reactive antibodies prolonged YF vaccine viraemia, provoked greater pro-inflammatory responses, and induced adhesion molecules intrinsic to the activating Fc-receptor signalling pathway, namely immune semaphorins, facilitating immune cell interactions and trafficking. Our findings clinically demonstrate antibody-enhanced infection and suggest that vaccine efficacy could be improved by exploiting cross-reactive antibodies. PMID:27642668

  3. Evaluation of YadC protein delivered by live attenuated Salmonella as a vaccine against plague.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Olinzock, Joseph; Wang, Shifeng; Sanapala, Shilpa; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia pestis YadB and YadC are two new outer membrane proteins related to its pathogenicity. Here, codon-optimized yadC, yadC810 (aa 32-551), or yadBC antigen genes delivered by live attenuated Salmonella strains are evaluated in mice for induction of protective immune responses against Y. pestis CO92 through subcutaneous or intranasal challenge. Our findings indicate that mice immunized with Salmonella synthesizing YadC, YadC810, or YadBC develop significant serum IgG responses to purified recombinant YadC protein. For subcutaneous challenge (approximately 230 LD50 of Y. pestis CO92), mice immunized with Salmonella synthesizing YadC or YadC810 are afforded 50% protection, but no protection by immunization with the Salmonella strain synthesizing YadBC. None of these antigens provided protection against intranasal challenge (approximately 31 LD50 of Y. pestis CO92). In addition, subcutaneous immunization with purified YadC810 protein emulsified with alum adjuvant does not elicit a protective response against Y. pestis administered by either challenge route.

  4. Live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vehicles are strong inducers of immunity toward influenza B virus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Victor C.; Kleimeyer, Loren H.; McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, vaccines developed toward influenza viruses of the B type using methodologies developed for influenza A viruses as a blueprint have not been equally efficacious or effective. Because most influenza research and public attention concerns influenza A viruses, these shortcomings have not been adequately addressed. In this manuscript, we utilized different influenza vaccine vehicles to compare immunogenicity and protection in mice and ferrets after vaccination against an influenza B virus. We report that plasmid DNA vaccines demonstrate low immunogenicity profiles and poor protection compared to either whole, inactivated influenza virus (IIV) or, live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines. When mixed prime:boost regimens using LAIV and IIV were studied, we observed a boosting effect in mice after priming with LAIV that was not seen when IIV was used as the prime. In ferrets LAIV induced high antibody titers after a single dose and provided a boost in IIV-primed animals. Regimens including LAIV as a prime demonstrated enhanced protection, and adjuvantation was required for efficacy using the IIV preparation. Our results differ from generally accepted influenza A virus vaccine models, and argue that strategies for control of influenza B virus should be considered separately from those for influenza A virus. PMID:18708106

  5. Immune responses of infants to infection with respiratory viruses and live attenuated respiratory virus candidate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Crowe, J E

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the parainfluenza viruses (PIV), and the influenza viruses cause severe lower respiratory tract diseases in infants and children throughout the world. Experimental live attenuated vaccines for each of these viruses are being developed for intranasal administration in the first weeks or months of life. A variety of promising RSV, PIV-3, and influenza virus vaccine strains have been developed by classical biological methods, evaluated extensively in preclinical and clinical studies, and shown to be attenuated and genetically stable. The ongoing clinical evaluation of these vaccine candidates, coupled with recent major advances in the ability to develop genetically engineered viruses with specified mutations, may allow the rapid development of respiratory virus strains that possess ideal levels of replicative capacity and genetic stability in vivo. A major remaining obstacle to successful immunization of infants against respiratory virus associated disease may be the relatively poor immune response of very young infants to primary virus infection. This paper reviews the immune correlates of protection against disease caused by these viruses, immune responses of infants to naturally-acquired infection, and immune responses of infants to experimental infection with candidate vaccine viruses. PMID:9711783

  6. A multicentre trial of live attenuated varicella vaccine in children with leukaemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S; Gelb, L; Galasso, G; Borkowsky, W; LaRussa, P; Ferrara, A

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred forty children with acute leukaemia in remission for at least 1 year were immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. All were susceptible to varicella before immunization. There was a seroconversion to varicella-zoster virus in approximately 85% after 1 dose, and in 97% after 2 doses. The major side effect was mild to moderate rash, seen mainly in children with maintenance chemotherapy suspended for 1 week before and 1 week after vaccination. Vaccinees with rash were at some risk (10%) to transmit vaccine virus to varicella susceptibles with whom they had close contact. Twenty-nine vaccinees were subsequently exposed to varicella in their households. The attack rate of clinical varicella in these vaccinees was 21%, which is significantly lower than the 80%-90% attack rate occurring in varicella susceptibles after household exposure. All these breakthrough cases of varicella were mild, even in leukaemics receiving chemotherapy. Varicella vaccine was approximately 80% effective in preventing clinical varicella in children with leukaemia and completely effective in preventing severe varicella in this high-risk group.

  7. Live attenuated varicella vaccine. Efficacy for children with leukemia in remission.

    PubMed

    Gershon, A A; Steinberg, S P; Gelb, L; Galasso, G; Borkowsky, W; LaRussa, P; Farrara, A

    1984-07-20

    One hundred ninety-one varicella-susceptible children with leukemia in remission were immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. There was serological evidence of an immune response in approximately 80% after one dose and in more than 90% after two doses. The major side effect was mild to moderate rash, seen especially in children with maintenance chemotherapy suspended for one week before and one week after vaccination. Children with rash had higher antibody titers than those without rash, but those with rash were also at risk (10%) to transmit vaccine virus to others. Twenty-two vaccinees subsequently had household exposures to varicella or zoster. The attack rate of clinical varicella in these vaccinees was 18%, significantly lower than the attack rate of approximately 90% in varicella-susceptible persons with household exposures. All cases of clinical illness were extremely mild, with an average of about 50 vesicles. The mild character of the illness was clearly different than varicella in unimmunized children receiving chemotherapy for leukemia. Varicella vaccine was approximately 80% effective in preventing clinical varicella in children with leukemia and completely effective in preventing severe varicella in this high-risk group.

  8. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-07-09

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.

  9. Physiology, pathogenicity and immunogenicity of live, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis mutants in chicks.

    PubMed

    Si, Wei; Wang, Xiumei; Liu, Huifang; Yu, Shenye; Li, Zhaoli; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Wanjiang; Liu, Siguo

    2015-01-01

    To construct a novel live, attenuated Salmonella vaccine, the lon, cpxR and cpdB genes were deleted from a wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-6 (SM-6) strain using the phage λ Red homologous recombination system, resulting in SM-△CpxR, SM-△C/Lon and SM-△C/L/CpdB. The growth curves of strain SM-△C/Lon grew more rapidly than the other strains and had OD 600 values higher than the other strains starting at the 4 h time point. The growth curves of strain SM-△C/L/CpdB were relatively flat. The colonization time of SM-△C/L/CpdB is about 8-10 days. Deleting the lon/cpxR/cpdB (SM-6) genes resulted in an approximate 10(3)-fold attenuation in virulence assessed by the analysis of the LD50 of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks. This result indicated that the deletion of the lon, cpxR and cpdB genes induced significant virulence attenuation. The protective effects of SM-△C/L/CpdB vaccination in SPF chicks against 5 × 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) of S. Enteritidis were resulted from the induction of an effective immune response. These findings demonstrate the potential of mutant SM-△C/L/CpdB to be used as an effective vaccine.

  10. African horse sickness in The Gambia: circulation of a live-attenuated vaccine-derived strain.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; Ivens, P A S; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Bin-Tarif, A; Jallow, D B; Sailleau, C; Maan, S; Mertens, P C; Batten, C A

    2012-03-01

    African horse sickness virus serotype 9 (AHSV-9) has been known for some time to be circulating amongst equids in West Africa without causing any clinical disease in indigenous horse populations. Whether this is due to local breeds of horses being resistant to disease or whether the AHSV-9 strains circulating are avirulent is currently unknown. This study shows that the majority (96%) of horses and donkeys sampled across The Gambia were seropositive for AHS, despite most being unvaccinated and having no previous history of showing clinical signs of AHS. Most young horses (<3 years) were seropositive with neutralizing antibodies specific to AHSV-9. Eight young equids (<3 years) were positive for AHSV-9 by serotype-specific RT-PCR and live AHSV-9 was isolated from two of these horses. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an AHSV-9 strain showing 100% identity to Seg-2 of the AHSV-9 reference strain, indicating that the virus circulating in The Gambia was highly likely to have been derived from a live-attenuated AHSV-9 vaccine strain.

  11. Successful respiratory immunization with dry powder live-attenuated measles virus vaccine in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan; Griffin, Diane E; Rota, Paul A; Papania, Mark; Cape, Stephen P; Bennett, David; Quinn, Brian; Sievers, Robert E; Shermer, Charles; Powell, Kenneth; Adams, Robert J; Godin, Steven; Winston, Scott

    2011-02-15

    Measles remains an important cause of childhood mortality worldwide. Sustained high vaccination coverage is the key to preventing measles deaths. Because measles vaccine is delivered by injection, hurdles to high coverage include the need for trained medical personnel and a cold chain, waste of vaccine in multidose vials and risks associated with needle use and disposal. Respiratory vaccine delivery could lower these barriers and facilitate sustained high coverage. We developed a novel single unit dose, dry powder live-attenuated measles vaccine (MVDP) for respiratory delivery without reconstitution. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy in rhesus macaques of one dose of MVDP delivered either with a mask or directly intranasal with two dry powder inhalers, PuffHaler and BD Solovent. MVDP induced robust measles virus (MeV)-specific humoral and T-cell responses, without adverse effects, which completely protected the macaques from infection with wild-type MeV more than one year later. Respiratory delivery of MVDP was safe and effective and could aid in measles control.

  12. Dual mechanism of protection by live attenuated Bordetella pertussis BPZE1 against Bordetella bronchiseptica in mice.

    PubMed

    Kammoun, Hana; Feunou, Pascal Feunou; Foligne, Benoit; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Raze, Dominique; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Locht, Camille

    2012-08-31

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative bacterium, causes chronic respiratory tract infections in a wide variety of mammalian hosts, including man, and no human vaccine is currently available. Acellular pertussis vaccines protect poorly against B. bronchiseptica, although they contain cross-reactive antigens. We have recently developed Bordetella pertussis BPZE1, a novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine, currently completing phase I clinical trials in humans, and found that it protects against both B. pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in mice. Here, we show that a single nasal administration of BPZE1 protects mice against lethal infection with B. bronchiseptica. After challenge, the vaccinated animals displayed markedly reduced lung inflammation and tissue damage, decreased neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells in the lungs compared to non-immunized mice. Depletion of these cells abolished BPZE1-induced protection, indicating that BPZE1 protects against lethal inflammation through the recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, the B. bronchiseptica load was significantly decreased in the vaccinated animals. Using passive transfer experiments, protection was found to be essentially cell mediated, and BPZE1-induced Th1 and Th17 T cells recognize whole B. bronchiseptica extracts, although the participation of antibodies in protection cannot be discounted. Thus, a single administration of BPZE1 can confer protection against B. bronchiseptica in mice by a dual mechanism.

  13. Biomarkers of safety and immune protection for genetically modified live attenuated leishmania vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis - discovery and implications.

    PubMed

    Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Avishek, Kumar; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Salotra, Poonam; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2014-01-01

    Despite intense efforts there is no safe and efficacious vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis, which is fatal and endemic in many tropical countries. A major shortcoming in the vaccine development against blood-borne parasitic agents such as Leishmania is the inadequate predictive power of the early immune responses mounted in the host against the experimental vaccines. Often immune correlates derived from in-bred animal models do not yield immune markers of protection that can be readily extrapolated to humans. The limited efficacy of vaccines based on DNA, subunit, heat killed parasites has led to the realization that acquisition of durable immunity against the protozoan parasites requires a controlled infection with a live attenuated organism. Recent success of irradiated malaria parasites as a vaccine candidate further strengthens this approach to vaccination. We developed several gene deletion mutants in Leishmania donovani as potential live attenuated vaccines and reported extensively on the immunogenicity of LdCentrin1 deleted mutant in mice, hamsters, and dogs. Additional limited studies using genetically modified live attenuated Leishmania parasites as vaccine candidates have been reported. However, for the live attenuated parasite vaccines, the primary barrier against widespread use remains the absence of clear biomarkers associated with protection and safety. Recent studies in evaluation of vaccines, e.g., influenza and yellow fever vaccines, using systems biology tools demonstrated the power of such strategies in understanding the immunological mechanisms that underpin a protective phenotype. Applying similar tools in isolated human tissues such as PBMCs from healthy individuals infected with live attenuated parasites such as LdCen(-/-) in vitro followed by human microarray hybridization experiments will enable us to understand how early vaccine-induced gene expression profiles and the associated immune responses are coordinately regulated in normal

  14. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats.

  15. Extended Preclinical Safety, Efficacy and Stability Testing of a Live-attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate.

    PubMed

    Plante, Kenneth S; Rossi, Shannan L; Bergren, Nicholas A; Seymour, Robert L; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK) fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV) challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV), both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from <10% to >30%) and mortality (from 0 to 100%), CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality). These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing.

  16. Clinical and molecular aspects of the live attenuated Oka varicella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Mark; Breuer, Judy

    2014-07-01

    VZV is a ubiquitous member of the Herpesviridae family that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Both manifestations can cause great morbidity and mortality and are therefore of significant economic burden. The introduction of varicella vaccination as part of childhood immunization programs has resulted in a remarkable decline in varicella incidence, and associated hospitalizations and deaths, particularly in the USA. The vaccine preparation, vOka, is a live attenuated virus produced by serial passage of a wild-type clinical isolate termed pOka in human and guinea pig cell lines. Although vOka is clinically attenuated, it can cause mild varicella, establish latency, and reactivate to cause herpes zoster. Sequence analysis has shown that vOka differs from pOka by at least 42 loci; however, not all genomes possess the novel vOka change at all positions, creating a heterogeneous population of genetically distinct haplotypes. This, together with the extreme cell-associated nature of VZV replication in cell culture and the lack of an animal model, in which the complete VZV life cycle can be replicated, has limited studies into the molecular basis for vOka attenuation. Comparative studies of vOka with pOka replication in T cells, dorsal root ganglia, and skin indicate that attenuation likely involves multiple mutations within ORF 62 and several other genes. This article presents an overview of the clinical aspects of the vaccine and current progress on understanding the molecular mechanisms that account for the clinical phenotype of reduced virulence.

  17. Extended Preclinical Safety, Efficacy and Stability Testing of a Live-attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate.

    PubMed

    Plante, Kenneth S; Rossi, Shannan L; Bergren, Nicholas A; Seymour, Robert L; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK) fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV) challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV), both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from <10% to >30%) and mortality (from 0 to 100%), CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality). These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing. PMID:26340754

  18. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhou, Haibo; Monaco, Jane; Horvath, Katie; Herbst, Margaret; Jaspers, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective We developed a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoke alters nasal inflammatory and antiviral responses to live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). Methods This was an observational cohort study comparing nasal mucosal responses to LAIV among young adult active smokers (n = 17), nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS; n = 20), and unexposed controls (n = 23). Virus RNA and inflammatory factors were measured in nasal lavage fluids (NLF) serially after LAIV inoculation. For key end points, peak and total (area under curve) responses were compared among groups. Results Compared with controls, NLF interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses to LAIV (peak and total) were suppressed in smokers. Virus RNA in NLF cells was significantly increased in smokers, as were interferon-inducible protein 10:virus ratios. Responses in SHS-exposed subjects were generally intermediate between controls and smokers. We observed significant associations between urine cotinine and NLF IL-6 responses (negative correlation) or virus RNA in NLF cells (positive correlation) for all subjects combined. Conclusions Nasal inoculation with LAIV results in measurable inflammatory and antiviral responses in human volunteers, thus providing a model for investigating environmental effects on influenza infections in humans. Exposure to cigarette smoke was associated with suppression of specific nasal inflammatory and antiviral responses, as well as increased virus quantity, after nasal inoculation with LAIV. These data suggest mechanisms for increased susceptibility to influenza infection among persons exposed to tobacco smoke. PMID:20920950

  19. Extended Preclinical Safety, Efficacy and Stability Testing of a Live-attenuated Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Kenneth S; Rossi, Shannan L.; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Seymour, Robert L.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    We recently described a new, live-attenuated vaccine candidate for chikungunya (CHIK) fever, CHIKV/IRES. This vaccine was shown to be well attenuated, immunogenic and efficacious in protecting against CHIK virus (CHIKV) challenge of mice and nonhuman primates. To further evaluate its preclinical safety, we compared CHIKV/IRES distribution and viral loads in interferon-α/β receptor-incompetent A129 mice to another CHIK vaccine candidate, 181/clone25, which proved highly immunogenic but mildly reactive in human Phase I/II clinical trials. Compared to wild-type CHIK virus, (wt-CHIKV), both vaccines generated lower viral loads in a wide variety of tissues and organs, including the brain and leg muscle, but CHIKV/IRES exhibited marked restrictions in dissemination and viral loads compared to 181/clone25, and was never found outside the blood, spleen and muscle. Unlike wt-CHIKV, which caused disrupted splenic architecture and hepatic lesions, histopathological lesions were not observed in animals infected with either vaccine strain. To examine the stability of attenuation, both vaccines were passaged 5 times intracranially in infant A129 mice, then assessed for changes in virulence by comparing parental and passaged viruses for footpad swelling, weight stability and survival after subcutaneous infection. Whereas strain 181/clone25 p5 underwent a significant increase in virulence as measured by weight loss (from <10% to >30%) and mortality (from 0 to 100%), CHIKV/IRES underwent no detectible change in any measure of virulence (no significant weight loss and no mortality). These data indicate greater nonclinical safety of the CHIKV/IRES vaccine candidate compared to 181/clone25, further supporting its eligibility for human testing. PMID:26340754

  20. Unique immunogenicity of hepatitis B virus DNA vaccine presented by live-attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Woo, P C; Wong, L P; Zheng, B J; Yuen, K Y

    2001-04-01

    A novel vaccine for hepatitis B virus (HBV) was designed by putting a naked DNA vaccine carrying hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) into live-attenuated Salmonella typhimurium. Mucosal immunization by the oral route in mice showed significantly stronger cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response than recombinant HBsAg vaccination (P < 0.01 at an effector:target ratio of 100:1), while comparable to intramuscular naked DNA immunization at all effector:target ratios. Contrary to previous reports on naked DNA vaccines given intramuscularly, the IgG antibody response induced by the mucosal DNA vaccine is relatively weak when compared to recombinant HBsAg vaccine (P < 0.001 at day 21). These findings are supported by a high interferon-gamma but a low interleukin-4 level detected in the supernatant of splenic cell cultures obtained from mucosally immunized mice. As distinct to recombinant HBsAg vaccine which is effective for protection, oral mucosal DNA vaccine should be considered as a candidate for therapeutic immunization in chronic HBV infection, donor immunization before adoptive transfer of HBV-specific CTL to HBsAg positive bone marrow transplant recipients, and immunization of non-responders to recombinant HBsAg vaccine. This strongly cellular and relatively absent humoral response may make this vaccine a better candidate as a therapeutic vaccine for chronic HBV carriers than naked DNA vaccines, as the humoral response is relatively less important for the clearance of HBV from hepatocytes, but its presence may lead to side effects such as serum sickness and immune complex deposition in chronic HBV carriers.

  1. Live Attenuated Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 Vaccine Strains Overexpressing Shiga Toxin B Subunit ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Grassel, Christen; Levine, Myron M.; Barry, Eileen M.

    2011-01-01

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S. dysenteriae 1) is unique among the Shigella species and serotypes in the expression of Shiga toxin which contributes to more severe disease sequelae and the ability to cause explosive outbreaks and pandemics. S. dysenteriae 1 shares characteristics with other Shigella species, including the capability of causing clinical illness with a very low inoculum (10 to 100 CFU) and resistance to multiple antibiotics, underscoring the need for efficacious vaccines and therapeutics. Following the demonstration of the successful attenuating capacity of deletion mutations in the guaBA operon in S. flexneri 2a vaccine strains in clinical studies, we developed a series of S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine candidates containing the fundamental attenuating mutation in guaBA. All strains are devoid of Shiga toxin activity by specific deletion of the gene encoding the StxA subunit, which encodes enzymatic activity. The StxB subunit was overexpressed in several derivatives by either plasmid-based constructs or chromosomal manipulation to include a strong promoter. All strains are attenuated for growth in vitro in the HeLa cell assay and for plaque formation and were safe in the Serény test and immunogenic in the guinea pigs. Each strain induced robust serum and mucosal anti-S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses and protected against wild-type challenge. Two strains engineered to overexpress StxB induced high titers of Shiga toxin neutralizing antibodies. These candidates demonstrate the potential for a live attenuated vaccine to protect against disease caused by S. dysenteriae 1 and potentially to protect against the toxic effects of other Shiga toxin 1-expressing pathogens. PMID:21969003

  2. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS ANTIBODY TITERS IN DOMESTIC CATS AFTER DELIVERY OF A LIVE ATTENUATED VIRUS VACCINE.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Edward; Sadler, Ryan; Rush, Robert; Seimon, Tracie; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Fleetwood, Ellen A; McAloose, Denise; Wilkes, Rebecca P

    2016-06-01

    Three methods for delivering a live attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine to domestic cats ( Felis catus ) were investigated, as models for developing vaccination protocols for tigers (Panthera tigris). Twenty domestic cats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: saline injection (negative controls); and oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous vaccinates. Cats were injected with saline or a CDV vaccine (Nobivac DP, Merck) at wk 0 and 4. Blood and nasal swabs were collected at wk 0 (prior to the initial vaccination) and weekly thereafter for 9 wk. Urine samples were collected on wk 1 to 9 after initial vaccination. Forty-nine weeks following the initial vaccination series, three cats from the subcutaneous group and three cats from the intranasal group were revaccinated. Blood was collected immediately prior, and 7 and 21 days subsequent to revaccination. Nasal swabs and urine samples were collected from each cat prior to wk 49 revaccination and daily for 7 days thereafter. Nasal swabs and urine were analyzed by quantitative PCR for vaccine virus presence. Sera were tested for CDV antibodies by virus neutralization. All cats were sero-negative for CDV antibodies at the beginning of the study, and saline-injected cats remained sero-negative throughout the study. A dramatic anamnestic response was seen following wk 4 subcutaneous vaccinations, with titers peaking at wk 6 (geometric mean = 2,435.5). Following wk 49 revaccination, subcutaneous vaccinates again mounted impressive titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 2,048). Revaccination of the intranasal group cats at wk 49 produced a small increase in titers (wk 52 geometric mean = 203). CDV viral RNA was detected in six nasal swabs but no urine samples, demonstrating low viral shedding postvaccination. The strong antibody response to subcutaneous vaccination and the lack of adverse effects suggest this vaccine is safe and potentially protective against CDV infection in domestic cats. PMID:27468028

  3. Safety of Japanese encephalitis live attenuated vaccination in post-marketing surveillance in Guangdong, China, 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Hualiang; Zhu, Qi; Wu, Chenggang; Zhao, Zhanjie; Zheng, Huizhen

    2014-03-26

    We reviewed the adverse events following immunization of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Guangdong Province, China. During the period of 2005-2012, 23 million doses of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine were used and 1426 adverse events were reported (61.24 per million doses); of which, 570 (40%) were classified as allergic reactions (24.48 per million doses), 31 (2%) were neurologic events (1.33 per million doses), and 36 (2.5%) were diagnosed as serious adverse events (1.55 per million doses). This study suggests that the JEV-L has a reasonable safety profile, most adverse events are relatively mild, with relatively rare neurologic events being observed. PMID:24503272

  4. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine for tilapia via continuous passage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, L P; Wang, R; Liang, W W; Huang, T; Huang, Y; Luo, F G; Lei, A Y; Chen, M; Gan, X

    2015-08-01

    Fish Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) seriously harms the world's aquaculture industry and causes huge economic losses. This study aimed to develop a potential live attenuated vaccine of S. agalactiae. Pre-screened vaccine candidate strain S. agalactiae HN016 was used as starting material to generate an attenuated strain S. agalactiae YM001 by continuous passage in vitro. The biological characteristics, virulence, and stability of YM001 were detected, and the protective efficacy of YM001 immunization in tilapia was also determined. Our results indicated that the growth, staining, characteristics of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotype, and virulence of YM001 were changed significantly as compared to the parental strain HN016. High doses of YM001 by intraperitoneal (IP) injection (1.0 × 10(9) CFU/fish) and oral gavage (1.0 × 10(10) CFU/fish) respectively did not cause any mortality and morbidity in tilapia. The relative percent survivals (RPSs) of fishes immunized with YM001 (1.0 × 10(8) CFU/fish, one time) via injection, immersion, and oral administration were 96.88, 67.22, and 71.81%, respectively, at 15 days, and 93.61, 60.56, and 53.16%, respectively, at 30 days. In all tests with 1-3 times of immunization in tilapia, the dosages at 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) CFU/fish displayed the similar best results, whereas the immunoprotection of the dosages at 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(7) CFU/fish declined significantly (P < 0.01), and 1 × 10(5) CFU/fish hardly displayed any protective effect. In addition, the efficacy of 2-3 times of immunization was significantly higher than that of single immunization (P < 0.01) while no significant difference in the efficacy between twice and thrice of immunization was seen (P > 0.05). The level of protective antibody elicited by oral immunization was significantly higher compared to that of the control group (P < 0.01), and the antibody reached their maximum levels 14-21 days after the immunization but decreased

  5. Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in young people with egg allergy: multicentre prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick J; Miller, Elizabeth; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Study question How safe is live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), which contains egg protein, in young people with egg allergy? Methods In this open label, phase IV intervention study, 779 young people (2-18 years) with egg allergy were recruited from 30 UK allergy centres and immunised with LAIV. The cohort included 270 (34.7%) young people with previous anaphylaxis to egg, of whom 157 (20.1%) had experienced respiratory and/or cardiovascular symptoms. 445 (57.1%) had doctor diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheeze. Participants were observed for at least 30 minutes after vaccination and followed-up by telephone 72 hours later. Participants with a history of recurrent wheeze or asthma underwent further follow-up four weeks later. The main outcome measure was incidence of an adverse event within two hours of vaccination in young people with egg allergy. Study answer and limitations No systemic allergic reactions occurred (upper 95% confidence interval for population 0.47% and in participants with anaphylaxis to egg 1.36%). Nine participants (1.2%, 95% CI 0.5% to 2.2%) experienced mild symptoms, potentially consistent with a local, IgE mediated allergic reaction. Delayed events potentially related to the vaccine were reported in 221 participants. 62 participants (8.1%, 95% CI for population 6.3% to 10.3%) experienced lower respiratory tract symptoms within 72 hours, including 29 with parent reported wheeze. No participants were admitted to hospital. No increase in lower respiratory tract symptoms occurred in the four weeks after vaccination (assessed with asthma control test). The study cohort may represent young people with more severe allergy requiring specialist input, since they were recruited from secondary and tertiary allergy centres. What this study adds LAIV is associated with a low risk of systemic allergic reactions in young people with egg allergy. The vaccine seems to be well tolerated in those with well controlled asthma or recurrent wheeze. Funding

  6. Stability of live attenuated rotavirus vaccine with selected preservatives and primary containers.

    PubMed

    Lal, Manjari; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zhu, Changcheng; Hosken, Nancy A; McClurkan, Chris L; Koelle, David M; Saxon, Eugene; Roehrig, Andrew; Zehrung, Darin; Chen, Dexiang

    2016-05-11

    Rotavirus infection, which can be prevented by vaccination, is responsible for a high burden of acute gastroenteritis disease in children, especially in low-income countries. An appropriate formulation, packaging, and delivery device for oral rotavirus vaccine has the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of the vaccine and the logistical impact associated with introduction of a new vaccine, simplify the vaccination procedure, and ensure that the vaccine is safely and accurately delivered to children. Single-dose prefilled presentations can be easy to use; however, they are typically more expensive, can be a bottleneck during production, and occupy a greater volume per dose vis-à-vis supply chain storage and medical waste disposal, which is a challenge in low-resource settings. Multi-dose presentations used thus far have other issues, including increased wastage of vaccine and the need for separate delivery devices. In this study, the goals were to evaluate both the technical feasibility of using preservatives to develop a liquid multi-dose formulation and the primary packaging alternatives for orally delivered, liquid rotavirus vaccines. The feasibility evaluation included evaluation of commonly used preservatives for compatibility with rotavirus vaccines and stability testing of rotavirus vaccine in various primary containers, including Lameplast's plastic tubes, BD's oral dispenser version of Uniject™ (Uniject DP), rommelag's blow-fill-seal containers, and MEDInstill's multi-dose vial and pouch. These presentations were compared to a standard glass vial. The results showed that none of the preservatives tested were compatible with a live attenuated rotavirus vaccine because they had a detrimental effect on the viability of the virus. In the presence of preservatives, vaccine virus titers declined to undetectable levels within 1 month. The vaccine formulation without preservatives maintained a stability profile over 12 months in all primary containers

  7. Immune effects of the vaccine of live attenuated Aeromonas hydrophila screened by rifampicin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yanjing; Kong, Xianghui; Pei, Chao; Li, Li; Nie, Guoxing; Li, Xuejun

    2016-06-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, as a strong Gram-negative bacterium, can infect a wide range of freshwater fish, including common carp Cyprinus carpio, and cause the huge economic loss. To create the effective vaccine is the best way to control the outbreak of the disease caused by A. hydrophila. In this study, a live attenuated A. hydrophila strain, XX1LA, was screened from the pathogenic A. hydrophila strain XX1 cultured on medium containing the antibiotic rifampicin, which was used as a live attenuated vaccine candidate. The immune protection of XX1LA against the pathogen A. hydrophila in common carp was evaluated by the relative percent survival (RPS), the specific IgM antibody titers, serum lysozyme activity and the expression profiles of multiple immune-related genes at the different time points following immunization. The results showed that the variable up-regulations of the immune-related genes, such as the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, the chemokine IL-10 and IgM, were observed in spleen and liver of common carp injected in the vaccines with the formalin-killed A. hydrophila (FKA) and the live attenuated XX1LA. Specific antibody to A. hydrophila was found to gradually increase during 28 days post-vaccination (dpv), and the RPS (83.7%) in fish vaccinated with XX1LA, was significant higher than that (37.2%) in fish vaccinated with FKA (P<0.05) on Day 28 after challenged by pathogen. It was demonstrated that the remarkable immune protection presented in the group vaccinated with XX1LA. During the late stage of 4-week immunization phase, compared with FKA and the control, specific IgM antibody titers significantly increased (P<0.05) in the XX1LA group. The activity of the lysozyme in serum indicated no significant change among three groups. In summary, the live attenuated bacterial vaccine XX1LA, screened in this study, indicates the better protect effect on common carp against A. hydrophila, which can be applied in aquaculture of common carp to prevent from the

  8. A Bioinformatics Method for the Design of Live Attenuated Virus Vaccine Utilizing Host MicroRNA Response Elements.

    PubMed

    Wichadakul, Duangdao

    2016-01-01

    The host microRNA machinery has been employed to control viral replication. To improve safety for live attenuated virus vaccines, the binding sites of the host microRNAs, so-called microRNA response elements (MREs), were incorporated into the virus sequences. These MREs were typically designed for a specific host microRNA and virus sequence with the effectiveness evaluated by experimental trials. Here, we describe a computational flow that can be used to simultaneously design and prioritize the effective MREs in large-scale.

  9. [DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUADRIVALENT LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE INCLUDING TWO INFLUENZA B LINEAGES--VICTORIA AND YAMAGATA].

    PubMed

    Desheva, Yu A; Smolonogina, T A; Doroshenko, E M; Rudenko, L G

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the research of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) comprising two reassortant B/USSR/60/69-based vaccine influenza viruses Victoria and Yamagata. The intranasal immunization of the CBA mice with both Victoria and Yamagata strains induced 100% lung protection against the subsequent infection with the wild-type influenza B viruses of any antigen lineage. The quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV) comprising both reassortant influenza B viruses Victoria and Yamagata were safe and areactogenic in adult volunteers. Following qLAIV administration the immune response was achieved to both Victoria and Yamagata lineages. PMID:27145595

  10. Influenza vaccination for the pediatric patient: a focus on the new intranasal, cold-adapted, live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jennifer M; Reilly, Joan C; Salazar, Juan C

    2004-04-01

    FluMist is the first live attenuated, cold-adapted intranasal influenza vaccine (LAIV) approved for the prevention of influenza A and B. Clinical trials have shown that annual vaccination with LAIV is effective for the prevention of influenza. LAIV appears well tolerated in healthy patients 5-49 years of age. The most common adverse events are abdominal pain, chills, cough, diarrhea, headache, irritability, lethargy, muscle aches, otitis media, rhinitis, sinusitis, sore throat, and vomiting. FluMist has a novel intranasal route of administration that allows for influenza prevention without a painful intramuscular injection. Barriers preventing acceptance of LAIV include defining the appropriate patient population, cost, and insurance coverage.

  11. [DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUADRIVALENT LIVE ATTENUATED INFLUENZA VACCINE INCLUDING TWO INFLUENZA B LINEAGES--VICTORIA AND YAMAGATA].

    PubMed

    Desheva, Yu A; Smolonogina, T A; Doroshenko, E M; Rudenko, L G

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the research of the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) comprising two reassortant B/USSR/60/69-based vaccine influenza viruses Victoria and Yamagata. The intranasal immunization of the CBA mice with both Victoria and Yamagata strains induced 100% lung protection against the subsequent infection with the wild-type influenza B viruses of any antigen lineage. The quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV) comprising both reassortant influenza B viruses Victoria and Yamagata were safe and areactogenic in adult volunteers. Following qLAIV administration the immune response was achieved to both Victoria and Yamagata lineages.

  12. Live Attenuated Francisella novicida Vaccine Protects against Francisella tularensis Pulmonary Challenge in Rats and Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ping; Cunningham, Aimee L.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Nguyen, Jesse Q.; Barker, Jeffrey R.; Lyons, C. Rick; Wilder, Julie; Valderas, Michelle; Sherwood, Robert L.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Klose, Karl E.

    2014-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt), leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD) protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP). The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform. PMID:25340543

  13. Evaluation of Streptococcus iniae killed bacterin and live attenuated vaccines in hybrid striped bass through injection and bath immersion.

    PubMed

    Locke, Jeffrey B; Vicknair, Mike R; Ostland, Vaughn E; Nizet, Victor; Buchanan, John T

    2010-03-01

    Streptococcus iniae poses a serious threat to finfish aquaculture operations worldwide. Stringent regulatory standards limit the use of antibiotics to treat S. iniae infections; improved vaccination strategies are thus of great interest. We investigated the potential for efficient, non-injectable batch vaccination via the use of live attenuated vaccines. Three attenuated S. iniae strains with genetic mutations eliminating the production of virulence factors--capsular polysaccharide (delta cpsD), M-like protein (delta simA), and phosphoglucomutase (delta pgmA)--were evaluated in parallel with an adjuvanted, formalin-killed, whole-cell S. iniae bacterin. Juvenile hybrid striped bass (HSB; Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) were vaccinated through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or bath immersion and held for 800 degree-days prior to challenge with a lethal dose of the virulent wild-type (WT) S. iniae parent strain. The delta cpsD, delta pgmA, and bacterin vaccines provided the highest level of vaccination safety (0% mortality), whereas the delta simA mutant, although it caused 12 to 16% vaccination-related mortality, was the only vaccine candidate to provide 100% protection in both i.p. and immersion delivery models. Our studies demonstrate the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines for prevention of S. iniae infection, and identify immersion delivery of live vaccines as an attractive option for use in commercial aquaculture settings.

  14. Temperature-sensitive mutations for live-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccines: implications from other RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Shoko; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae). Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the U.S. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype and does not replicate at 41°C. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF. PMID:26322023

  15. Immunodeficiency disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... destroy bacteria and other foreign substances. Proteins called complement help with this process. Immunodeficiency disorders may affect any part of the immune system. Most often, these conditions occur when special white ...

  16. A Live Attenuated Equine H3N8 Influenza Vaccine Is Highly Immunogenic and Efficacious in Mice and Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Baz, Mariana; Paskel, Myeisha; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Zengel, James; Cheng, Xing; Treanor, John J.; Jin, Hong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Equine influenza viruses (EIV) are responsible for rapidly spreading outbreaks of respiratory disease in horses. Although natural infections of humans with EIV have not been reported, experimental inoculation of humans with these viruses can lead to a productive infection and elicit a neutralizing antibody response. Moreover, EIV have crossed the species barrier to infect dogs, pigs, and camels and therefore may also pose a threat to humans. Based on serologic cross-reactivity of H3N8 EIV from different lineages and sublineages, A/equine/Georgia/1/1981 (eq/GA/81) was selected to produce a live attenuated candidate vaccine by reverse genetics with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the eq/GA/81 wild-type (wt) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) vaccine donor virus, which is the backbone of the licensed seasonal live attenuated influenza vaccine. In both mice and ferrets, intranasal administration of a single dose of the eq/GA/81 ca vaccine virus induced neutralizing antibodies and conferred complete protection from homologous wt virus challenge in the upper respiratory tract. One dose of the eq/GA/81 ca vaccine also induced neutralizing antibodies and conferred complete protection in mice and nearly complete protection in ferrets upon heterologous challenge with the H3N8 (eq/Newmarket/03) wt virus. These data support further evaluation of the eq/GA/81 ca vaccine in humans for use in the event of transmission of an equine H3N8 influenza virus to humans. IMPORTANCE Equine influenza viruses have crossed the species barrier to infect other mammals such as dogs, pigs, and camels and therefore may also pose a threat to humans. We believe that it is important to develop vaccines against equine influenza viruses in the event that an EIV evolves, adapts, and spreads in humans, causing disease. We generated a live attenuated H3N8 vaccine candidate and demonstrated that the vaccine was immunogenic and

  17. Pandemic preparedness with live attenuated influenza vaccines based on A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Larisa; Isakova-Sivak, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Continuously evolving avian influenza viruses pose a constant threat to the human public health. In response to this threat, a number of pandemic vaccine candidates have been prepared and evaluated in animal models and clinical trials. This review summarizes the data from the development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) based on Russian master donor virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57. LAIV candidates of H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H1N1 and H2N2 subtypes were safe, immunogenic and protected animals from challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses. Clinical trials of the pandemic LAIVs demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity for healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine viruses were infectious, genetically stable and did not transmit to unvaccinated contacts. In addition, here we discuss criteria for the assessment of pandemic LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy necessary for their licensure.

  18. WHO working group on the quality, safety and efficacy of japanese encephalitis vaccines (live attenuated) for human use, Bangkok, Thailand, 21-23 February 2012.

    PubMed

    Trent, Dennis W; Minor, Philip; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Shin, Jinho

    2013-11-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important viral encephalitides in Asia. Two live-attenuated vaccines have been developed and licensed for use in countries in the region. Given the advancement of immunization of humans with increasing use of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent JE, there is increased interest to define quality standards for their manufacture, testing, nonclinical studies, and clinical studies to assess their efficacy and safety in humans. To this end, WHO convened a meeting with a group of international experts in February 2012 to develop guidelines for evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy of live-attenuated JE virus vaccines for prevention of human disease. This report summarizes collective views of the participants on scientific and technical issues that need to be considered in the guidelines.

  19. Systematic annotation and analysis of "virmugens"-virulence factors whose mutants can be used as live attenuated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Racz, Rebecca; Chung, Monica; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2013-01-21

    Live attenuated vaccines are usually generated by mutation of genes encoding virulence factors. "Virmugen" is coined here to represent a gene that encodes for a virulent factor of a pathogen and has been proven feasible in animal models to make a live attenuated vaccine by knocking out this gene. Not all virulence factors are virmugens. VirmugenDB is a web-based virmugen database (http://www.violinet.org/virmugendb). Currently, VirmugenDB includes 225 virmugens that have been verified to be valuable for vaccine development against 57 bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens. Bioinformatics analysis has revealed significant patterns in virmugens. For example, 10 Gram-negative and 1 Gram-positive bacterial aroA genes are virmugens. A sequence analysis has revealed at least 50% of identities in the protein sequences of the 10 Gram-negative bacterial aroA virmugens. As a pathogen case study, Brucella virmugens were analyzed. Out of 15 verified Brucella virmugens, 6 are related to carbohydrate or nucleotide transport and metabolism, and 2 involving cell membrane biogenesis. In addition, 54 virmugens from 24 viruses and 12 virmugens from 4 parasites are also stored in VirmugenDB. Virmugens tend to involve metabolism of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides) and cell membrane formation. Host genes whose expressions were regulated by virmugen mutation vaccines or wild type virulent pathogens have also been annotated and systematically compared. The bioinformatics annotation and analysis of virmugens helps to elucidate enriched virmugen profiles and the mechanisms of protective immunity, and further supports rational vaccine design.

  20. Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, T; Isolauri, E; Delem, A; d'Hondt, E; André, F E; Beards, G M; Flewett, T H

    1985-08-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 331 infants aged 6 to 12 months received orally, at an interval of 1 month, either two doses of live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine strain RIT 4237 or equivalent placebo. The vaccinations were carried out during September to November, a non-rotavirus season; only three cases of rotavirus diarrhea occurred in the study group before the vaccinations were completed. During the epidemic season from December to May, 31 patients with clinically significant rotavirus diarrhea required therapy. Five of these were among the 168 vaccine recipients, and 26 among the 160 placebo recipients (P less than 0.001), giving a vaccine protection rate of 82%. The incidence of clinically significant diarrhea from all causes was reduced by 76% in the vaccinees. As determined by an enzyme immunoassay antibody test with homologous virus antigen, seroconversion after vaccination was obtained in 53% of the initially seronegative infants. Clinical protection correlated well with seroconversion, but the vaccinees who failed to seroconvert also had less rotavirus diarrhea than the placebo recipients, suggesting that immunity may be mediated by factors other than serum EIA antibody. Seventeen of the 23 rotavirus isolates in the epidemic season that were typed were of serotype 1, two were of serotype 2, and four were of serotype 3. The protection rates against clinically significant diarrhea were 72%, 100%, and 100% for serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We conclude that epidemic infantile winter diarrhea associated with human rotaviruses can be significantly reduced by vaccination with the live attenuated RIT 4237 bovine rotavirus vaccine before the epidemic season.

  1. Rational Design of Human Metapneumovirus Live Attenuated Vaccine Candidates by Inhibiting Viral mRNA Cap Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cai, Hui; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paramyxoviruses human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) are responsible for the majority of pediatric respiratory diseases and inflict significant economic loss, health care costs, and emotional burdens. Despite major efforts, there are no vaccines available for these viruses. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at positions guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2′-O. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant hMPVs carrying mutations in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2′-O methylation but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cotton rats. Importantly, vaccination of cotton rats with these recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) with defective MTases triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody, and the rats were completely protected from challenge with wild-type rhMPV. Collectively, our results indicate that (i) amino acid residues in the SAM binding site in the hMPV L protein are essential for 2′-O methylation and (ii) inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for hMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses, such as hRSV and hPIV3. IMPORTANCE Human paramyxoviruses, including hRSV, hMPV, and hPIV3, cause the majority of acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans, particularly in infants, children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available. A formalin-inactivated vaccine is not suitable for these viruses because it causes enhanced lung damage upon reinfection with the same virus. A live attenuated vaccine

  2. A live attenuated cold adapted influenza A H7N3 virus vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 viruses in mice and ferrets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The appearance of human infections caused by avian influenza A H7 subtype viruses underscore their pandemic potential and the need to develop vaccines to protect humans from viruses of this subtype. A live attenuated H7N3 virus vaccine was generated by reverse genetics using the HA and NA genes of ...

  3. Heightened adaptive immune responses following vaccination with a temperature-sensitive, live-attenuated influenza virus compared to adjuvanted, whole-inactivated virus in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States there are currently two influenza vaccine platforms approved for use in humans - conventional inactivated virus and live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). One of the major challenges for influenza A virus (IAV) vaccination is designing a platform that provides protection across...

  4. The Matrix Gene Segment Destabilizes the Acid and Thermal Stability of the Hemagglutinin of Pandemic Live Attenuated Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Jin, Hong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The threat of future influenza pandemics and their potential for rapid spread, morbidity, and mortality has led to the development of pandemic vaccines. We generated seven reassortant pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (pLAIVs) with the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from animal influenza viruses on the backbone of the six internal protein gene segments of the temperature sensitive, cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/60 (H2N2) virus (AA/60 ca) of the licensed seasonal LAIV. The pLAIV viruses were moderately to highly restricted in replication in seronegative adults; we sought to determine the biological basis for this restriction. Avian influenza viruses generally replicate at higher temperatures than human influenza viruses and, although they shared the same backbone, the pLAIV viruses had a lower shutoff temperature than seasonal LAIV viruses, suggesting that the HA and NA influence the degree of temperature sensitivity. The pH of HA activation of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses was greater than human and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses, as reported by others. However, pLAIV viruses had a consistently higher pH of HA activation and reduced HA thermostability compared to the corresponding wild-type parental viruses. From studies with single-gene reassortant viruses bearing one gene segment from the AA/60 ca virus in recombinant H5N1 or pH1N1 viruses, we found that the lower HA thermal stability and increased pH of HA activation were associated with the AA/60 M gene. Together, the impaired HA acid and thermal stability and temperature sensitivity likely contributed to the restricted replication of the pLAIV viruses we observed in seronegative adults. IMPORTANCE There is increasing evidence that the HA stability of influenza viruses depends on the virus strain and host species and that HA stability can influence replication, virulence, and transmission of influenza A viruses in different species. We

  5. Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Virus Host Range Vaccine Is Immunogenic in African Green Monkeys following a Single Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine M.; Piper, Amanda; Huitt, Emerson; Spears, Carla J.; Quiles, Michelle; Ribeiro, Mariana; Thomas, Malcolm E.; Brown, Dennis T.; Hernandez, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The causative agent of dengue fever, dengue virus (DENV), is transmitted by mosquitoes, and as distribution of these insects has expanded, so has dengue-related disease. DENV is a member of the Flaviviridae family and has 4 distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). No lasting cross protection is afforded to heterologous serotypes following infection by any one of the individual serotypes. The presence of nonneutralizing antibodies to one serotype can facilitate the occurrence of more-severe dengue hemorrhagic fever through immune enhancement upon infection with a second serotype. For this reason, the development of a safe, tetravalent vaccine to produce a balanced immune response to all four serotypes is critical. We have developed a novel approach to produce safe and effective live-attenuated vaccines for DENV and other insect-borne viruses. Host range (HR) mutants of each DENV serotype were created by truncating transmembrane domain 1 of the E protein and selecting for strains of DENV that replicated well in insect cells but not mammalian cells. These vaccine strains were tested for immunogenicity in African green monkeys (AGMs). No vaccine-related adverse events occurred. The vaccine strains were confirmed to be attenuated in vivo by infectious center assay (ICA). Analysis by 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) established that by day 62 postvaccination, 100% of animals seroconverted to DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4. Additionally, the DENV HR tetravalent vaccine (HR-Tet) showed a tetravalent anamnestic immune response in 100% (16/16) of AGMs after challenge with wild-type (WT) DENV strains. IMPORTANCE We have generated a live attenuated viral (LAV) vaccine capable of eliciting a strong immune response in African green monkeys (AGMs) in a single dose. This vaccine is delivered by injecting one of four attenuated serotypes into each limb of the animal. 100% of animals given the vaccine generated antibodies against all 4 serotypes, and this

  6. Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

    PubMed

    Eto, Akiko; Saito, Tomoya; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models have shown that LC16m8 protects the host against viral challenge. The World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended LC16m8, together with ACAM2000, as a stockpile vaccine in 2013. In addition, LC16m8 is expected to be a viable alternative to first-generation smallpox vaccines to prevent human monkeypox. PMID:26319072

  7. Rational design of genetically stable, live-attenuated poliovirus vaccines of all three serotypes: relevance to poliomyelitis eradication.

    PubMed

    Macadam, Andrew J; Ferguson, Geraldine; Stone, David M; Meredith, Janet; Knowlson, Sarah; Auda, Ghazi; Almond, Jeffrey W; Minor, Philip D

    2006-09-01

    The global eradication of poliomyelitis caused by wild-type virus is likely to be completed within the next few years, despite immense logistic and political difficulties, and may ultimately be followed by the cessation of vaccination. However, the existing live-attenuated vaccines have the potential to revert to virulence, causing occasional disease, and viruses can be shed by immunocompromised individuals for prolonged periods of time. Moreover, several outbreaks of poliomyelitis have been shown to be caused by viruses derived from the Sabin vaccine strains. The appearance of such strains depends on the prevailing circumstances but poses a severe obstacle to strategies for stopping vaccination. Vaccine strains that are incapable of reversion at a measurable rate would provide a possible solution. Here, we describe the constructions of strains of type 3 poliovirus that are stabilized by the introduction of four mutations in the 5' noncoding region compared to the present vaccine. The strains are genetically and phenotypically stable under conditions where the present vaccine loses the attenuating mutation in the 5' noncoding region completely. Type 1 and type 2 strains in which the entire 5' noncoding regions of Sabin 1 and Sabin 2 were replaced exactly with that of one of the type 3 strains were also constructed. The genetic stability of 5' noncoding regions of these viruses matched that of the type 3 strains, but significant phenotypic reversion occurred, illustrating the potential limitations of a rational approach to the genetic stabilization of live RNA virus vaccines.

  8. Gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis elicit pro-inflammatory cytokines response in human PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Avishek, Kumar; Kaushal, Himanshu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Ramesh, V; Negi, Narender Singh; Dubey, Uma S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Salotra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-)) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects. Both parasites infected human macrophages, as effectively as the wild type parasites. Further, LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) strongly stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17 in the PBMCs obtained from individuals with a prior exposure to Leishmania (HVL and PKDL). There was no significant stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Induction of Th1 biased immune responses was supported by a remarkable increase in IFN-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and IL-17 secreting CD4(+) cells in PBMCs from HVL cases with no increase in IL-10 secreting T cells. Hence, LdCen1(-/-) and Ldp27(-/-) are promising as live vaccine candidates against VL since they elicit strong protective immune response in human PBMCs from HVL, similar to the wild type parasite infection, mimicking a naturally acquired protection following cure. PMID:27624408

  9. Development of one-step real-time PCR assay for titrating trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Du, Dongchuan; Ge, Peng; Xu, Yongqing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yan; Su, Weiheng; Kiseleva, Irina; Rudenko, Larisa; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, infectivity of a trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) is titrated by determining the 50% egg infectious dose assay (EID50) or plaque forming units (PFU), which requires specific monoclonal antibodies to neutralize 2 strains while estimating the titer of the non-neutralized strain. Compared to this time-consuming, laborious, subjective and variable process, reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) technology has advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, reproducibility and reduced contamination, thus has been applied widely for detecting pathogens and measuring viral titers. In this study, the critical harvest time was determined to be 18 h post-infection (hpi) for type A influenza and 12 hpi for type B influenza, but no significant difference between titers at 12 hpi and 18 hpi for the type B strain was observed. In conclusion, trivalent LAIVs can be titrated simultaneously within 24 h by this one-step RT-qPCR assay, which yielded titers comparable to those obtained by the traditional EID50 assay. Therefore, the RT-qPCR assay may be used as a highly specific, sensitive, precise and rapid alternative to the EID50 assay for titering LAIVs.

  10. The use of Toxorhynchites splendens for identification and quantitation of serotypes contained in the tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jirakanjanakit, N; Khin, M M; Yoksan, S; Bhamarapravati, N

    1999-02-12

    Assurance of identity and quantity is an indispensable part of quality control in the manufacture of vaccines. Dengue-1 PDK13, dengue-2 PDK53, dengue-3 PGMK30F3 and dengue-4 PDK48 in the live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine were assayed by identification and quantitation in a mosquito system (Toxorhynchites splendens). Each serotype of dengue virus was identified by dengue specific monoclonal antibodies in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Virus content was estimated by calculating the 50% mosquito infectious dose (MID50). Differences from 0 to +/-0.5 log10 were observed between the original monovalent titer and that from the blend which showed no significant difference at 95% confidence limit (P < 0.05). This result indicates that there is no interference between dengue serotypes in mosquitoes infected by intrathoracic inoculation with the virus mixture. It can be also concluded that this mosquito system can be used as an effective measure for infectivity titration of each component in the tetravalent dengue vaccine.

  11. Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

    PubMed

    Eto, Akiko; Saito, Tomoya; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models have shown that LC16m8 protects the host against viral challenge. The World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended LC16m8, together with ACAM2000, as a stockpile vaccine in 2013. In addition, LC16m8 is expected to be a viable alternative to first-generation smallpox vaccines to prevent human monkeypox.

  12. Implementation of new approaches for generating conventional reassortants for live attenuated influenza vaccine based on Russian master donor viruses.

    PubMed

    Shcherbik, Svetlana; Pearce, Nicholas; Kiseleva, Irina; Larionova, Natalie; Rudenko, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Wentworth, David E; Bousse, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Cold-adapted influenza strains A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) and B/USSR/60/69, originally developed in Russia, have been reliable master donors of attenuation for preparing live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). The classical strategy for generating LAIV reassortants is robust, but has some disadvantages. The generation of reassortants requires at least 3 passages under selective conditions after co-infection; each of these selective passages takes six days. Screening the reassortants for a genomic composition traditionally starts after a second limiting dilution cloning procedure, and the number of suitable reassortants is limited. We developed a new approach to shorten process of preparing LAIV seed viruses. Introducing the genotyping of reassortants by pyrosequencing and monitoring sequence integrity of surface antigens starting at the first selective passage allowed specific selection of suitable reassortants for the next cloning procedure and also eliminate one of the group selective passage in vaccine candidate generation. Homogeneity analysis confirmed that reducing the number of selective passages didn't affect the quality of LAIV seed viruses. Finally, the two-way hemagglutination inhibition test, implemented for all the final seed viruses, confirmed that any amino acid substitutions acquired by reassortants during egg propagation didn't affect antigenicity of the vaccine. Our new strategy reduces the time required to generate a vaccine and was used to generate seasonal LAIVs candidates for the 2012/2013, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016 seasons more rapidly. PMID:26519883

  13. Use of RapidChek® SELECT™ Salmonella to detect shedding of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains.

    PubMed

    Brenneman, Karen E; McDonald, Caitlin; Kelly-Aehle, Sandra M; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-05-01

    Identification of individuals shedding Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in stool is imperative during clinical trial safety evaluations. Recovery of live attenuated S. Typhi vaccine strains can be difficult because the mutations necessary for safety in humans often compromise survival in stringent selective enrichment media. RapidChek® SELECT™ Salmonella is a highly sensitive detection method for S. enterica species which utilizes a bacteriophage cocktail designed to reduce the growth of competitor microbes in mildly selective enrichment medium. Detection of Salmonella is enhanced by means of a Salmonella-specific antibody strip targeted to lipopolysaccharide. The RapidChek® SELECT™ Salmonella method was compared to conventional enrichment and plating methods to determine the most sensitive method for detecting attenuated S. Typhi strains in human stool samples. Although traditional enrichment strategies were more sensitive to the presence of wild-type S. Typhi, RapidChek® SELECT™ Salmonella was superior at detecting attenuated strains of S. Typhi. Strains containing a wide variety of attenuating mutations were detected with equal sensitivity as the wild type by RapidChek® SELECT™ Salmonella. The presence of Vi capsule or mutations which affected O-antigen synthesis (Δpmi, ΔgalE) did not decrease the sensitivity of the RapidChek® SELECT™ Salmonella assay. PMID:22425882

  14. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Haijema, Bert Jan; Volders, Haukeline; Rottier, Peter J M

    2004-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immunity-mediated disease caused by mutants of a ubiquitous coronavirus. Since previous attempts to protect cats under laboratory and field conditions have been largely unsuccessful, we used our recently developed system of reverse genetics (B. J. Haijema, H. Volders, and P. J. M. Rottier, J. Virol. 77:4528-4538, 2003) for the development of a modified live FIP vaccine. With this objective, we deleted the group-specific gene cluster open reading frame 3abc or 7ab and obtained deletion mutant viruses that not only multiplied well in cell culture but also showed an attenuated phenotype in the cat. At doses at which the wild-type virus would be fatal, the mutants with gene deletions did not cause any clinical symptoms. They still induced an immune response, however, as judged from the high levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The FIP virus (FIPV) mutant lacking the 3abc cluster and, to a lesser extent, the mutant missing the 7ab cluster, protected cats against a lethal homologous challenge; no protection was obtained with the mutant devoid of both gene clusters. Our studies show that the deletion of group-specific genes from the coronavirus genome results in live attenuated candidate vaccines against FIPV. More generally, our approach may allow the development of vaccines against infections with other pathogenic coronaviruses, including that causing severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans.

  15. Genetic variations of live attenuated plague vaccine strains (Yersinia pestis EV76 lineage) during laboratory passages in different countries.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujun; Yang, Xianwei; Xiao, Xiao; Anisimov, Andrey P; Li, Dongfang; Yan, Yanfeng; Zhou, Dongsheng; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Carniel, Elisabeth; Achtman, Mark; Yang, Ruifu; Song, Yajun

    2014-08-01

    Plague, one of the most devastating infectious diseases in human history, is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis. A live attenuated Y. pestis strain (EV76) has been widely used as a plague vaccine in various countries around the world. Here we compared the whole genome sequence of an EV76 strain used in China (EV76-CN) with the genomes of Y. pestis wild isolates to identify genetic variations specific to the EV76 lineage. We identified 6 SNPs and 6 Indels (insertions and deletions) differentiating EV76-CN from its counterparts. Then, we screened these polymorphic sites in 28 other strains of EV76 lineage that were stored in different countries. Based on the profiles of SNPs and Indels, we reconstructed the parsimonious dissemination history of EV76 lineage. This analysis revealed that there have been at least three independent imports of EV76 strains into China. Additionally, we observed that the pyrE gene is a mutation hotspot in EV76 lineages. The fine comparison results based on whole genome sequence in this study provide better understanding of the effects of laboratory passages on the accumulation of genetic polymorphisms in plague vaccine strains. These variations identified here will also be helpful in discriminating different EV76 derivatives.

  16. Generation of growth arrested Leishmania amastigotes: a tool to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Dey, Ranadhir; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Solanki, Sumit; Salotra, Poonam; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2014-06-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not treated and is prevalent widely in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of world. VL is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum. Although several second generation vaccines have been licensed to protect dogs against VL, there are no effective vaccines against human VL [1]. Since people cured of leishmaniasis develop lifelong protection, development of live attenuated Leishmania parasites as vaccines, which can have controlled infection, may be a close surrogate to leishmanization. This can be achieved by deletion of genes involved in the regulation of growth and/or virulence of the parasite. Such mutant parasites generally do not revert to virulence in animal models even under conditions of induced immune suppression due to complete deletion of the essential gene(s). In the Leishmania life cycle, the intracellular amastigote form is the virulent form and causes disease in the mammalian hosts. We developed centrin gene deleted L. donovani parasites that displayed attenuated growth only in the amastigote stage and were found safe and efficacious against virulent challenge in the experimental animal models. Thus, targeting genes differentially expressed in the amastigote stage would potentially attenuate only the amastigote stage and hence controlled infectivity may be effective in developing immunity. This review lays out the strategies for attenuation of the growth of the amastigote form of Leishmania for use as live vaccine against leishmaniasis, with a focus on visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:24837513

  17. Development and efficacy of a novel live-attenuated QX-like nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus vaccine in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Keyu; Xue, Yu; Wang, Jinglan; Chen, Weiguo; Chen, Feng; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-02-25

    In this study, we attenuated a Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain, YX10, by passaging through fertilized chicken eggs. The 90th passage strain (YX10p90) was selected as the live-attenuated vaccine candidate strain. YX10p90 was found to be safe in 7-day-old specific pathogen free chickens without induction of morbidity or mortality. YX10p90 provided nearly complete protection against QX-like (CH I genotype) strains and partial protection against other two major Chinese genotype strains. YX10p90 also showed no reversion to virulence after five back passages in chickens. An IBV polyvalent vaccine containing YX10p90 was developed and showed that it could provide better protection against major Chinese IBV virulent strains than commercial polyvalent vaccines. In addition, the complete genome sequence of YX10p90 was sequenced. Multiple-sequence alignments identified 38 nucleotide substitutions in the whole genome which resulted in 26 amino acid substitutions and a 110-bp deletion in the 3' untranslated region. In conclusion, the attenuated YX10p90 strain exhibited a fine balance between attenuation and immunogenicity, and should be considered as a candidate vaccine to prevent infection of Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic IBV.

  18. Presenting a foreign antigen on live attenuated Edwardsiella tarda using twin-arginine translocation signal peptide as a multivalent vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Yang, Weizheng; Wang, Qiyao; Qu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-12-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system is a major pathway for transmembrane translocation of fully folded proteins. In this study, a multivalent vaccine to present foreign antigens on live attenuated vaccine Edwardsiella tarda WED using screened Tat signal peptide was constructed. Because the Tat system increases the yields of folded antigens in periplasmic space or extracellular milieu, it is expected to contribute to the production of conformational epitope-derived specific antibodies. E. tarda Tat signal peptides fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed under the control of an in vivo inducible dps promoter. The resulting plasmids were electroporated into WED and the subcellular localizations of GFP were analyzed with Western blotting. Eight signal peptides with optimized GFP translocation efficiency were further fused to a protective antigen glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA) from a fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Signal peptides of DmsA, NapA, and SufI displayed high efficiency for GapA translocation. The relative percent survival (RPS) of turbot was measured with a co-infection of E. tarda and A. hydrophila, and the strain with DmsA signal peptide showed the maximal protection. This study demonstrated a new platform to construct multivalent vaccines using optimized Tat signal peptide in E. tarda. PMID:23994481

  19. Generation of growth arrested Leishmania amastigotes: a tool to develop live attenuated vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Dey, Ranadhir; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Solanki, Sumit; Salotra, Poonam; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2014-06-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not treated and is prevalent widely in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of world. VL is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani or Leishmania infantum. Although several second generation vaccines have been licensed to protect dogs against VL, there are no effective vaccines against human VL [1]. Since people cured of leishmaniasis develop lifelong protection, development of live attenuated Leishmania parasites as vaccines, which can have controlled infection, may be a close surrogate to leishmanization. This can be achieved by deletion of genes involved in the regulation of growth and/or virulence of the parasite. Such mutant parasites generally do not revert to virulence in animal models even under conditions of induced immune suppression due to complete deletion of the essential gene(s). In the Leishmania life cycle, the intracellular amastigote form is the virulent form and causes disease in the mammalian hosts. We developed centrin gene deleted L. donovani parasites that displayed attenuated growth only in the amastigote stage and were found safe and efficacious against virulent challenge in the experimental animal models. Thus, targeting genes differentially expressed in the amastigote stage would potentially attenuate only the amastigote stage and hence controlled infectivity may be effective in developing immunity. This review lays out the strategies for attenuation of the growth of the amastigote form of Leishmania for use as live vaccine against leishmaniasis, with a focus on visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

  1. Public health impact and cost-effectiveness of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccination of children in Germany.

    PubMed

    Damm, Oliver; Eichner, Martin; Rose, Markus Andreas; Knuf, Markus; Wutzler, Peter; Liese, Johannes Günter; Krüger, Hagen; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, intranasally administered live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was approved in the EU for prophylaxis of seasonal influenza in 2-17-year-old children. Our objective was to estimate the potential epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of an LAIV-based extension of the influenza vaccination programme to healthy children in Germany. An age-structured dynamic model of influenza transmission was developed and combined with a decision-tree to evaluate different vaccination strategies in the German health care system. Model inputs were based on published literature or were derived by expert consulting using the Delphi technique. Unit costs were drawn from German sources. Under base-case assumptions, annual routine vaccination of children aged 2-17 years with LAIV assuming an uptake of 50% would prevent, across all ages, 16 million cases of symptomatic influenza, over 600,000 cases of acute otitis media, nearly 130,000 cases of community-acquired pneumonia, nearly 1.7 million prescriptions of antibiotics and over 165,000 hospitalisations over 10 years. The discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 1,228 per quality-adjusted life year gained from a broad third-party payer perspective (including reimbursed direct costs and specific transfer payments), when compared with the current strategy of vaccinating primarily risk groups with the conventional trivalent inactivated vaccine. Inclusion of patient co-payments and indirect costs in terms of productivity losses resulted in discounted 10-year cost savings of 3.4 billion. In conclusion, adopting universal influenza immunisation of healthy children and adolescents would lead to a substantial reduction in influenza-associated disease at a reasonable cost to the German statutory health insurance system. On the basis of the epidemiological and health economic simulation results, a recommendation of introducing annual routine influenza vaccination of children 2-17 years of age might be

  2. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus vaccine administered intranasally in pigs.

    PubMed

    Masic, Aleksandar; Lu, Xinya; Li, Junwei; Mutwiri, George K; Babiuk, Lorne A; Brown, Earl G; Zhou, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Influenza A virus is an important respiratory pathogen of swine that causes significant morbidity and economic impact on the swine industry. Vaccination is the first choice for prevention and control of influenza infections. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) are approved for use in humans and horses and their application provides broad protective immunity, however no LAIV against swine influenza virus (SIV) exists in the market. Previously we reported that an elastase-dependent mutant SIV A/Sw/Sk-R345V (R345V) derived from A/Sw/Saskatchewan/18789/02 (H1N1) (SIV/Sk02) is highly attenuated in pigs. Two intratracheal administrations of R345V induced strong cell-mediated and humoral immune responses and provided a high degree of protection to antigenically different SIV infection in pigs. Here we evaluated the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of R345V against SIV infection by intranasal administration, the more practical route for vaccination of pigs in the field. Our data showed that intranasally administered R345V live vaccine is capable of inducing strong antigen-specific IFN-γ response from local tracheo-bronchial lymphocytes and antibody responses in serum and respiratory mucosa after two applications. Intranasal vaccination of R345V provided pigs with complete protection not only from parental wild type virus infection, but also from homologous antigenic variant A/Sw/Indiana/1726/88 (H1N1) infection. Moreover, intranasal administration of R345V conferred partial protection from heterologous subtypic H3N2 SIV infection in pigs. Thus, R345V elastase-dependent mutant SIV can serve as a live vaccine against antigenically different swine influenza viruses in pigs. PMID:20708697

  3. Live attenuated African swine fever viruses as ideal tools to dissect the mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and immune protection.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, Anna; Monteagudo, Paula L; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Accensi, Francesc; Ballester, María; Argilaguet, Jordi; Galindo-Cardiel, Iván; Segalés, Joaquim; Salas, María L; Domínguez, Javier; Moreno, Ángela; Garrido, Juan J; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2015-11-20

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causal agent of African swine fever, a hemorrhagic and often lethal porcine disease causing enormous economical losses in affected countries. Endemic for decades in most of the sub-Saharan countries and Sardinia, the risk of ASFV-endemicity in Europe has increased since its last introduction into Europe in 2007. Live attenuated viruses have been demonstrated to induce very efficient protective immune responses, albeit most of the time protection was circumscribed to homologous ASFV challenges. However, their use in the field is still far from a reality, mainly due to safety concerns. In this study we compared the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous ASFV strains: the virulent E75 and the cell cultured adapted strain E75CV1, obtained from adapting E75 to grow in the CV1 cell-line. Interestingly, the kinetics of both viruses not only differed on the clinical signs that they caused and in the virus loads found, but also in the immunological pathways activated throughout the infections. Furthermore, E75CV1 confirmed its protective potential against the homologous E75 virus challenge and allowed the demonstration of poor cross-protection against BA71, thus defining it as heterologous. The in vitro specificity of the CD8(+) T-cells present at the time of lethal challenge showed a clear activation against the homologous virus (E75) but not against BA71. These findings will be of utility for a better understanding of ASFV pathogenesis and for the rational designing of safe and efficient vaccines against this virus.

  4. Production of cell culture (MDCK) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process.

    PubMed

    George, Meena; Farooq, Masiha; Dang, Thi; Cortes, Bernadette; Liu, Jonathan; Maranga, Luis

    2010-08-15

    The majority of influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated hens' eggs. The potential occurrence of a pandemic outbreak of avian influenza might reduce or even eliminate the supply of eggs, leaving the human population at risk. Also, the egg-based production technology is intrinsically cumbersome and not easily scalable to provide a rapid worldwide supply of vaccine. In this communication, the production of a cell culture (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process using a novel Single Use Bioreactor (SUB) is presented. The cell culture and virus infection was maintained in a disposable stirred tank reactor with PID control of pH, DO, agitation, and temperature, similar to traditional glass or stainless steel bioreactors. The application of this technology was tested using MDCK cells grown on microcarriers in proprietary serum free medium and infection with 2006/2007 seasonal LAIV strains at 25-30 L scale. The MDCK cell growth was optimal at the agitation rate of 100 rpm. Optimization of this parameter allowed the cells to grow at a rate similar to that achieved in the conventional 3 L glass stirred tank bioreactors. Influenza vaccine virus strains, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 strain), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 strain), and B/Malaysia/2506/04 (B strain) were all successfully produced in SUB with peak virus titers > or =8.6 log(10) FFU/mL. This result demonstrated that more than 1 million doses of vaccine can be produced through one single run of a small bioreactor at the scale of 30 L and thus provided an alternative to the current vaccine production platform with fast turn-around and low upfront facility investment, features that are particularly useful for emerging and developing countries and clinical trial material production. PMID:20589670

  5. Live attenuated influenza viruses produced in a suspension process with avian AGE1.CR.pIX cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines. Results We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for infection and that maximum virus titers are obtained for 1 × 10-6 trypsin units per cell. 1 L bioreactor cultivations showed that 4 × 106 cells/mL can be infected without a cell density effect achieving titers of 1 × 108 virions/mL after 24 h. Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrates that AGE1.CR.pIX cells support replication of LAIV strains in a chemically-defined medium using a simple process without medium exchanges. Moreover, the process is fast with peak titers obtained 24 h post infection and easily scalable to industrial volumes as neither microcarriers nor medium replacements are required. PMID:23110398

  6. Comparative efficacy of various chemical stabilizers on the thermostability of a live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, J; Sreenivasa, B P; Singh, R P; Dhar, P; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2003-12-01

    Thermostability of a live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine recently developed at Indian Veterinary Research Institute was studied using conventional lyophilization conditions. A total of four stabilizers viz., lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose (LS), Weybridge medium (WBM), buffered gelatin-sorbitol (BUGS) and trehalose dihydrate (TD) were used to prepare the lyophilized vaccine. The study revealed that the PPR vaccine lyophilized with either LS or TD is more stable than rest of the stabilizers having an expiry period of at least 45 days (so far studied) at 4 degrees C, 15-19 days at 25 degrees C and 1-2 days at 37 degrees C. However, at a temperature of 45 degrees C, BUGS had a marginal superiority, although lasted for few hours, followed by TD and LS with respect to shelf-life, LS and TD with respect to half-life. On the basis of half-life also LS followed by TD appeared superior at a temperature of 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. Reconstitution of vaccine with distilled water or 1M MgSO(4) or 0.85% NaCl maintained the required virus titre (2.5log(10)TCID(50) per dose) up to 8h at 37 degrees C and 7h at 45 degrees C. Among the three diluents, 1M MgSO(4) appeared to be the better diluent for reconstitution of lyophilized PPR vaccine, as the loss on dilution was lowest and maintain the required virus titre for a longer period. Investigation suggests for using LS as stabilizer for lyophilization and 1M MgSO(4) as vaccine diluent for the newly developed PPR vaccine.

  7. Taxa of the Nasal Microbiome Are Associated with Influenza-Specific IgA Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Salk, Hannah M.; Simon, Whitney L.; Lambert, Nathaniel D.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Grill, Diane E.; Kabat, Brian F.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction, we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28. We performed next-generation sequencing on amplified 16s rRNA genes and measured mucosal influenza-specific IgA titers via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant increase in alpha diversity was identified (Observed, CHAO, and ACE) between Days 7 vs 0 (p-values = 0.017, 0.005, 0.005, respectively) and between Days 28 vs 0 (p-values = 0.054, 0.030, 0.050, respectively). Several significant associations between the presence of different microbial species, including Lactobacillus helveticus, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus infantis, Veillonella dispar, and Bacteroides ovatus, and influenza-specific H1 and H3 IgA antibody response were demonstrated. These data suggest that LAIV alters the nasal microbiome, allowing several less-abundant OTUs to establish a community niche. Additionally, specific alterations in the nasal microbiome are significantly associated with variations in influenza-specific IgA antibody production and could be clinically relevant. PMID:27643883

  8. An invasive and low virulent Edwardsiella tarda esrB mutant promising as live attenuated vaccine in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizheng; Wang, Lixia; Zhang, Lingzhi; Qu, Jiangbo; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-02-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a leading fish pathogen haunting worldwide aquaculture industry. In E. tarda, two-component system EsrA-EsrB positively regulates type III and VI secretion systems (T3SS and T6SS) and negatively regulates hemolysin EthA, which has been demonstrated to be essential for the invasion processes in fish. In order to develop a live attenuated vaccine (LAV) with high invasiveness to be practically and economically used as immersion-administered vaccine in aquaculture, here, we generated a random mutation library of esrB sequences by error-prone PCR and introduced them into the E. tarda esrB deletion mutant. The mutant YWZ47 with significantly increased hemolytic activity and low T3SS and T6SS secretion was screened. Phenotypes including extracellular protein profiles, invasion in macrophages, lethality toward fish, and infection kinetics were investigated in the wild-type strain EIB202 and the mutants ΔesrB, ΔT3SS, ΔT6SS, ΔT3SS/ΔT6SS, and YWZ47. Compared to the documented LAV strain ΔesrB, YWZ47 showed higher invasive capability and low in vivo virulence toward fish. Significantly higher relative percent survival (RPS) could be generated in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) against the challenge of the wild-type EIB202 when inoculated through immersion route, and the RPS was comparable with that of ΔesrB through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection inoculation. Two mutated points, K167M and H197L, were found by sequence analysis of EsrBYWZ47 variant. These structural modifications underpin the variations in the regulatory functions of the mutant and wild-type EsrB. This study promoted understanding of virulence regulation by EsrB in E. tarda and presented a promising candidate of invasive attenuated vaccine used in aquaculture industries. PMID:25431010

  9. Early Transcriptional Signatures of the Immune Response to a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate in Non-human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Strouts, Fiona R.; Popper, Stephen J.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Relman, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of a vaccine against dengue faces unique challenges, including the complexity of the immune responses to the four antigenically distinct serotypes. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling provides insight into the pathways and molecular features that underlie responses to immune system stimulation, and may facilitate predictions of immune protection. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we measured early transcriptional responses in the peripheral blood of cynomolgus macaques following vaccination with a live, attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate, TDV, which is based on a DENV-2 backbone. Different doses and routes of vaccine administration were used, and viral load and neutralizing antibody titers were measured at different time-points following vaccination. All 30 vaccinated animals developed a neutralizing antibody response to each of the four dengue serotypes, and only 3 of these animals had detectable serum viral RNA after challenge with wild-type dengue virus (DENV), suggesting protection of vaccinated animals to DENV infection. The vaccine induced statistically significant changes in 595 gene transcripts on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 as compared with baseline and placebo-treated animals. Genes involved in the type I interferon (IFN) response, including IFI44, DDX58, MX1 and OASL, exhibited the highest fold-change in transcript abundance, and this response was strongest following double dose and subcutaneous (versus intradermal) vaccine administration. In addition, modules of genes involved in antigen presentation, dendritic cell activation, and T cell activation and signaling were enriched following vaccination. Increased abundance of gene transcripts related to T cell activation on day 5, and the type I IFN response on day 7, were significantly correlated with the development of high neutralizing antibody titers on day 30. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that early transcriptional responses may be

  10. Taxa of the Nasal Microbiome Are Associated with Influenza-Specific IgA Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Salk, Hannah M; Simon, Whitney L; Lambert, Nathaniel D; Kennedy, Richard B; Grill, Diane E; Kabat, Brian F; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction, we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28. We performed next-generation sequencing on amplified 16s rRNA genes and measured mucosal influenza-specific IgA titers via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant increase in alpha diversity was identified (Observed, CHAO, and ACE) between Days 7 vs 0 (p-values = 0.017, 0.005, 0.005, respectively) and between Days 28 vs 0 (p-values = 0.054, 0.030, 0.050, respectively). Several significant associations between the presence of different microbial species, including Lactobacillus helveticus, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus infantis, Veillonella dispar, and Bacteroides ovatus, and influenza-specific H1 and H3 IgA antibody response were demonstrated. These data suggest that LAIV alters the nasal microbiome, allowing several less-abundant OTUs to establish a community niche. Additionally, specific alterations in the nasal microbiome are significantly associated with variations in influenza-specific IgA antibody production and could be clinically relevant. PMID:27643883

  11. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an elastase-dependent live attenuated swine influenza virus vaccine administered intranasally in pigs.

    PubMed

    Masic, Aleksandar; Lu, Xinya; Li, Junwei; Mutwiri, George K; Babiuk, Lorne A; Brown, Earl G; Zhou, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Influenza A virus is an important respiratory pathogen of swine that causes significant morbidity and economic impact on the swine industry. Vaccination is the first choice for prevention and control of influenza infections. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) are approved for use in humans and horses and their application provides broad protective immunity, however no LAIV against swine influenza virus (SIV) exists in the market. Previously we reported that an elastase-dependent mutant SIV A/Sw/Sk-R345V (R345V) derived from A/Sw/Saskatchewan/18789/02 (H1N1) (SIV/Sk02) is highly attenuated in pigs. Two intratracheal administrations of R345V induced strong cell-mediated and humoral immune responses and provided a high degree of protection to antigenically different SIV infection in pigs. Here we evaluated the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of R345V against SIV infection by intranasal administration, the more practical route for vaccination of pigs in the field. Our data showed that intranasally administered R345V live vaccine is capable of inducing strong antigen-specific IFN-γ response from local tracheo-bronchial lymphocytes and antibody responses in serum and respiratory mucosa after two applications. Intranasal vaccination of R345V provided pigs with complete protection not only from parental wild type virus infection, but also from homologous antigenic variant A/Sw/Indiana/1726/88 (H1N1) infection. Moreover, intranasal administration of R345V conferred partial protection from heterologous subtypic H3N2 SIV infection in pigs. Thus, R345V elastase-dependent mutant SIV can serve as a live vaccine against antigenically different swine influenza viruses in pigs.

  12. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Terry L.; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Haibo; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Müller, Loretta; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Meyer, Megan; Murphy, Paula C.; Jones, Shannon; Letang, Blanche; Robinette, Carole; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. Objectives Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. Results In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:24910991

  13. The live attenuated dengue vaccine TV003 elicits complete protection against dengue in a human challenge model.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Pierce, Kristen K; Tibery, Cecilia M; Grier, Palmtama L; Hynes, Noreen A; Larsson, Catherine J; Sabundayo, Beulah P; Talaat, Kawsar R; Janiak, Anna; Carmolli, Marya P; Luke, Catherine J; Diehl, Sean A; Durbin, Anna P

    2016-03-16

    A dengue human challenge model can be an important tool to identify candidate dengue vaccines that should be further evaluated in large efficacy trials in endemic areas. Dengue is responsible for about 390 million infections annually. Protective efficacy results for the most advanced dengue vaccine candidate (CYD) were disappointing despite its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. TV003 is a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine currently in phase 2 evaluation. To better assess the protective efficacy of TV003, a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which recipients of TV003 or placebo were challenged 6 months later with a DENV-2 strain, rDEN2Δ30, was conducted. The primary endpoint of the trial was protection against dengue infection, defined as rDEN2Δ30 viremia. Secondary endpoints were protection against rash and neutropenia. All 21 recipients of TV003 who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 were protected from infection with rDEN2Δ30. None developed viremia, rash, or neutropenia after challenge. In contrast, 100% of the 20 placebo recipients who were challenged with rDEN2Δ30 developed viremia, 80% developed rash, and 20% developed neutropenia. TV003 induced complete protection against challenge with rDEN2Δ30 administered 6 months after vaccination. TV003 will be further evaluated in dengue-endemic areas. The controlled dengue human challenge model can accelerate vaccine development by evaluating the protection afforded by the vaccine, thereby eliminating poor candidates from further consideration before the initiation of large efficacy trials. PMID:27089205

  14. Attempt to develop live attenuated bacterial vaccines by selecting resistance to gossypol, proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, or ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Yildirim-Aksoy, Mediha

    2013-04-26

    In an attempt to develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, four chemicals (gossypol, proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, and ciprofloxacin) were used to modify the following four genera of bacteria through chemical-resistance strategy: (1) Aeromonas hydrophila (9 isolates); (2) Edwardsiella tarda (9 isolates); (3) Streptococcus iniae (9 isolates); and (4) S. agalactiae (11 isolates). All bacteria used in this study were able to develop high resistance to gossypol. However, only some bacteria were able to develop resistance to proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, or ciprofloxacin. When the virulence of resistant bacteria was tested in tilapia or catfish, none of the gossypol-resistant isolate was attenuated, whereas majority of the proflavine hemisulfate-resistant isolates were attenuated. However, all proflavine hemisulfate-attenuated bacteria failed to provide significant protection to fish. Eight novobiocin- or ciprofloxacin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (S. agalactiae and S. inaie) were found to be attenuated. However, none of them offered protection higher than 70%. Of seven attenuated novobiocin- or ciprofloxacin-resistant Gram-negative isolates (A. hydrophila and E. tarda), only one (novobiocin-resistant E. tarda 30305) was found to safe and highly efficacious. When E. tarda 30305-novo vaccinated Nile tilapia were challenged by its virulent E. tarda 30305, relative percent of survival of vaccinated fish at 14- and 28-days post vaccination (dpv) was 100% and 92%, respectively. Similarly, E. tarda 30305-novo offered 100% protection to channel catfish against challenges with virulent parent isolate E. tarda 30305 at both 14- and 28-dpv. Our results suggest that the development of live attenuated bacterial vaccines that are safe and efficacious is challenging, although it is feasible.

  15. Recoding of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus L Gene by Computer-Aided Design Provides a Live, Attenuated Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingyin; Yang, Chen; Tekes, Gergely; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko; Whelan, Sean P. J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Codon pair bias (CPB), which has been observed in all organisms, is a neglected genomic phenomenon that affects gene expression. CPB results from synonymous codons that are paired more or less frequently in ORFeomes regardless of codon bias. The effect of an individual codon pair change is usually small, but when it is amplified by large-scale genome recoding, strikingly altered biological phenotypes are observed. The utility of codon pair bias in the development of live attenuated vaccines was recently demonstrated by recodings of poliovirus (a positive-strand RNA virus) and influenza virus (a negative-strand segmented RNA virus). Here, the L gene of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA virus, was partially recoded based on codon pair bias. Totals of 858 and 623 silent mutations were introduced into a 5′-terminal segment of the viral L gene (designated L1) to create sequences containing either overrepresented or underrepresented codon pairs, designated L1sdmax and L1min, respectively. Analysis revealed that recombinant VSV containing the L1min sequence could not be recovered, whereas the virus with the sdmax sequence showed a modest level of attenuation in cell culture. More strikingly, in mice the L1sdmax virus was almost as immunogenic as the parental strain but highly attenuated. Taken together, these results open a new road to attain a balance between VSV virulence and immunogenicity, which could serve as an example for the attenuation of other negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA viruses. PMID:25827413

  16. Evaluation of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum Pathogenicity Island 2 Mutant as a Candidate Live Attenuated Oral Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junlei; Cheng, Zhao; Wang, Xiaochun; Xu, Lijuan; Li, Qiuchun; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is a highly adapted pathogen that causes pullorum disease (PD), an important systemic disease of poultry that causes severe economic losses in developing countries. In the interests of developing a safe and immunogenic oral vaccine, the efficacy of a Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2)-deleted mutant of S. Pullorum (S06004ΔSPI2) was evaluated in chickens. S06004ΔSPI2 was severely less virulent than the parental wild-type strain S06004 as determined by the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for 3-day-old chickens when injected intramuscularly. Two-day-old chickens immunized with a single oral dose of S06004ΔSPI2 showed no differences in body weight or clinical symptoms compared with those in the negative-control group. S06004ΔSPI2 bacteria were not isolated from livers or spleens of immunized chickens after a short period of time, and specific humoral and cellular immune responses were significantly induced. Immunized chickens were challenged with S. Pullorum strain S06004 and Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) strain SG9 at 10 days postimmunization (dpi), and efficient protection against the challenges was observed. None of the immunized chickens died, the clinical symptoms were slight and temporary following challenge in immunized chickens compared with those in the control group, and these chickens recovered by 3 to 5 dpi. Overall, these results demonstrate that S06004ΔSPI2 can be used as a live attenuated oral vaccine.

  17. Haloarchaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles displaying Salmonella SopB antigen reduce bacterial burden when administered with live attenuated bacteria.

    PubMed

    DasSarma, Priya; Negi, Vidya Devi; Balakrishnan, Arjun; Karan, Ram; Barnes, Susan; Ekulona, Folasade; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2014-07-31

    Innovative vaccines against typhoid and other Salmonella diseases that are safe, effective, and inexpensive are urgently needed. In order to address this need, buoyant, self-adjuvating gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) from the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 were bioengineered to display the highly conserved Salmonella enterica antigen SopB, a secreted inosine phosphate effector protein injected by pathogenic bacteria during infection into the host cell. Two highly conserved sopB gene segments near the 3'-coding region, named sopB4 and B5, were each fused to the gvpC gene, and resulting GVNPs were purified by centrifugally accelerated flotation. Display of SopB4 and B5 antigenic epitopes on GVNPs was established by Western blotting analysis using antisera raised against short synthetic peptides of SopB. Immunostimulatory activities of the SopB4 and B5 nanoparticles were tested by intraperitoneal administration of recombinant GVNPs to BALB/c mice which had been immunized with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028 ΔpmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07), a live attenuated vaccine strain. Proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-9 were significantly induced in mice boosted with SopB5-GVNPs, consistent with a robust Th1 response. After challenge with virulent S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 14028, bacterial burden was found to be diminished in spleen of mice boosted with SopB4-GVNPs and absent or significantly diminished in liver, mesenteric lymph node, and spleen of mice boosted with SopB5-GVNPs, indicating that the C-terminal portions of SopB displayed on GVNPs elicit a protective response to Salmonella infection in mice. SopB antigen-GVNPs were found to be stable at elevated temperatures for extended periods without refrigeration in Halobacterium cells. The results all together show that bioengineered GVNPs are likely to represent a valuable platform for the development of improved vaccines against Salmonella diseases.

  18. An invasive and low virulent Edwardsiella tarda esrB mutant promising as live attenuated vaccine in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizheng; Wang, Lixia; Zhang, Lingzhi; Qu, Jiangbo; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-02-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a leading fish pathogen haunting worldwide aquaculture industry. In E. tarda, two-component system EsrA-EsrB positively regulates type III and VI secretion systems (T3SS and T6SS) and negatively regulates hemolysin EthA, which has been demonstrated to be essential for the invasion processes in fish. In order to develop a live attenuated vaccine (LAV) with high invasiveness to be practically and economically used as immersion-administered vaccine in aquaculture, here, we generated a random mutation library of esrB sequences by error-prone PCR and introduced them into the E. tarda esrB deletion mutant. The mutant YWZ47 with significantly increased hemolytic activity and low T3SS and T6SS secretion was screened. Phenotypes including extracellular protein profiles, invasion in macrophages, lethality toward fish, and infection kinetics were investigated in the wild-type strain EIB202 and the mutants ΔesrB, ΔT3SS, ΔT6SS, ΔT3SS/ΔT6SS, and YWZ47. Compared to the documented LAV strain ΔesrB, YWZ47 showed higher invasive capability and low in vivo virulence toward fish. Significantly higher relative percent survival (RPS) could be generated in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) against the challenge of the wild-type EIB202 when inoculated through immersion route, and the RPS was comparable with that of ΔesrB through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection inoculation. Two mutated points, K167M and H197L, were found by sequence analysis of EsrBYWZ47 variant. These structural modifications underpin the variations in the regulatory functions of the mutant and wild-type EsrB. This study promoted understanding of virulence regulation by EsrB in E. tarda and presented a promising candidate of invasive attenuated vaccine used in aquaculture industries.

  19. Evaluation of the Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum Pathogenicity Island 2 Mutant as a Candidate Live Attenuated Oral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junlei; Cheng, Zhao; Wang, Xiaochun; Xu, Lijuan; Li, Qiuchun; Geng, Shizhong

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is a highly adapted pathogen that causes pullorum disease (PD), an important systemic disease of poultry that causes severe economic losses in developing countries. In the interests of developing a safe and immunogenic oral vaccine, the efficacy of a Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2)-deleted mutant of S. Pullorum (S06004ΔSPI2) was evaluated in chickens. S06004ΔSPI2 was severely less virulent than the parental wild-type strain S06004 as determined by the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for 3-day-old chickens when injected intramuscularly. Two-day-old chickens immunized with a single oral dose of S06004ΔSPI2 showed no differences in body weight or clinical symptoms compared with those in the negative-control group. S06004ΔSPI2 bacteria were not isolated from livers or spleens of immunized chickens after a short period of time, and specific humoral and cellular immune responses were significantly induced. Immunized chickens were challenged with S. Pullorum strain S06004 and Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum) strain SG9 at 10 days postimmunization (dpi), and efficient protection against the challenges was observed. None of the immunized chickens died, the clinical symptoms were slight and temporary following challenge in immunized chickens compared with those in the control group, and these chickens recovered by 3 to 5 dpi. Overall, these results demonstrate that S06004ΔSPI2 can be used as a live attenuated oral vaccine. PMID:25924763

  20. Gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania vaccine candidates against visceral leishmaniasis elicit pro-inflammatory cytokines response in human PBMCs

    PubMed Central

    Avishek, Kumar; Kaushal, Himanshu; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dey, Ranadhir; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; Ramesh, V.; Negi, Narender Singh; Dubey, Uma S.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Salotra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Currently no effective vaccine is available for human visceral leishmaniasis(VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Previously, we showed that centrin1 and p27gene deleted live attenuated Leishmania parasites (LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/−) are safe, immunogenic and protective in animal models. Here, to assess the correlates of protection, we evaluated immune responses induced by LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/− in human blood samples obtained from healthy, healed VL (HVL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) and VL subjects. Both parasites infected human macrophages, as effectively as the wild type parasites. Further, LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/− strongly stimulated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17 in the PBMCs obtained from individuals with a prior exposure to Leishmania (HVL and PKDL). There was no significant stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Induction of Th1 biased immune responses was supported by a remarkable increase in IFN-γ secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and IL-17 secreting CD4+ cells in PBMCs from HVL cases with no increase in IL-10 secreting T cells. Hence, LdCen1−/− and Ldp27−/− are promising as live vaccine candidates against VL since they elicit strong protective immune response in human PBMCs from HVL, similar to the wild type parasite infection, mimicking a naturally acquired protection following cure. PMID:27624408

  1. Persistence of poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies 2-16 years after immunization with live attenuated vaccine. A seroepidemiologic survey in the mainland of Venice.

    PubMed Central

    Trivello, R.; Renzulli, G.; Farisano, G.; Bonello, C.; Moschen, M.; Gasparini, V.; Benussi, G.

    1988-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey was conducted on subjects who had received a full vaccination course with live attenuated poliovirus 2-16 years before. For strains 1 and 2 prevalence of seropositives and median values dropped gradually during the first 10 years; strain 3 showed a much earlier decline. Environmental displacement of wild poliovirus by the attenuated, less immunogenic strain might eventually induce a 'gap', should complacency hamper needed vaccination efforts. PMID:2850939

  2. A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus induces neutralizing antibody that confers protection from challenge in mice, ferrets and monkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus was generated by reverse genetics using the modified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of HP A/Netherlands/219/03 (NL/03) (H7N7) wild-type (wt) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (AA ca) (...

  3. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160DELTAV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Moris, Arnaud; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Ruffie, Claude; Fevrier, Michele; Cayet, Nadege; Brandler, Samantha; Schwartz, Olivier; Tangy, Frederic

    2009-05-25

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160DELTAV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  4. Live attenuated Salmonella displaying HIV-1 10E8 epitope on fimbriae: systemic and mucosal immune responses in BALB/c mice by mucosal administration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing-Hai; Jin, Gang; Wang, Jia-Ye; Li, Hai-Ning; Liu, Huidi; Chang, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Fu-Xiang; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 membrane proximal external region (MPER) that is targeted by several broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) has been considered a potential immunogen for vaccine development. However, to date the immunogenicity of these BNAb epitopes has not been made sufficiently adequate. In the present work, we used live attenuated Salmonella as a platform to present the HIV-1 MPER 10E8 epitope in the fimbriae. The insertion of the 10E8 epitope into the fimbriae had no significant influence on the expression and the absorption capacity of bacterial fimbriae, nor on the virulence and invasiveness of the attenuated Salmonella. After oral administration of the vaccine construct to mice followed by 10E8 epitope peptide boost, specific antibody responses in serum and mucosa as well as memory lymphocytes in spleen and plasma cells in bone marrow were induced. We also found that the live attenuated Salmonella vector directed the immunity toward Th1 bias, induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and stimulated significant B cell differentiation into GC B, memory B and plasma cells. Therefore, we propose that the live attenuated Salmonella constitutively expressing HIV-1 BNAb epitopes on the fimbriae will be an effective approach to improving immune microenvironment and enhancing the immunogenicity of HIV-1 epitope vaccines. PMID:27411313

  5. Safety of attenuated smallpox vaccine LC16m8 in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Hiroyuki; Shinmura, Yasuhiko; Kanehara, Tomomi; Maruno, Shinichi; Kuranaga, Masahiko; Matsui, Hajime; Hashizume, So

    2014-09-01

    Freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine LC16m8 prepared in cell culture has been the sole smallpox vaccine licensed in Japan since 1975 and was recently recommended as a WHO stockpile vaccine. We evaluated the safety of recently remanufactured lots of LC16m8 using a series of immunodeficient mouse models. These models included suckling mice, severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, and wild-type mice treated with cyclosporine. LC16m8 showed extremely low virulence in each of the three mouse models compared with that of its parental strains, Lister and LC16mO. These results provide further evidence that LC16m8 is one of the safest replication-competent smallpox vaccines in the world and may be considered for use in immunodeficient patients.

  6. Safety Overview of a Recombinant Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: Pooled Analysis of Data from 18 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gailhardou, Sophia; Skipetrova, Anna; Dayan, Gustavo H; Jezorwski, John; Saville, Melanie; Van der Vliet, Diane; Wartel, T Anh

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been shown to be efficacious in preventing virologically-confirmed dengue disease, severe dengue disease and dengue hospitalization in children aged 2-16 years in Asia and Latin America. We analyzed pooled safety data from 18 phase I, II and III clinical trials in which the dengue vaccine was administered to participants aged 2-60 years, including long-term safety follow-up in three efficacy trials. The participants were analyzed according to their age at enrollment. The percentage of participants aged 2-60 years reporting ≥1 solicited injection-site or systemic reactions was slightly higher in the CYD-TDV group than in the placebo group. The most common solicited injection-site reactions were pain. Headache and malaise were the most common solicited systemic reactions. In both groups 0.3% of participants discontinued for safety reasons. The most common unsolicited adverse events were injection-site reactions, gastrointestinal disorders, and infections. Reactogenicity did not increase with successive doses of CYD-TDV. The frequency and nature of SAEs occurring within 28 days of any dose were similar in the CYD-TDV and placebo groups and were common medical conditions that could be expected as a function of age. Baseline dengue virus serostatus did not appear to influence the safety profile. No vaccine-related anaphylactic reactions, neurotropic events or viscerotropic events were reported. In year 3 after dose 1, an imbalance for dengue hospitalization, including for severe dengue, observed in participants aged <9 years in the CYD-TDV group compared with the placebo group was not observed for participants aged ≥9 years. In Year 4, this imbalance in participants aged <9 years was less marked, giving an overall lower risk of dengue hospitalization or severe dengue from dose 1 to Year 4 in the CYD-TDV group. These results have contributed to the definition of the target population for

  7. Safety Overview of a Recombinant Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: Pooled Analysis of Data from 18 Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gailhardou, Sophia; Skipetrova, Anna; Dayan, Gustavo H; Jezorwski, John; Saville, Melanie; Van der Vliet, Diane; Wartel, T Anh

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been shown to be efficacious in preventing virologically-confirmed dengue disease, severe dengue disease and dengue hospitalization in children aged 2-16 years in Asia and Latin America. We analyzed pooled safety data from 18 phase I, II and III clinical trials in which the dengue vaccine was administered to participants aged 2-60 years, including long-term safety follow-up in three efficacy trials. The participants were analyzed according to their age at enrollment. The percentage of participants aged 2-60 years reporting ≥1 solicited injection-site or systemic reactions was slightly higher in the CYD-TDV group than in the placebo group. The most common solicited injection-site reactions were pain. Headache and malaise were the most common solicited systemic reactions. In both groups 0.3% of participants discontinued for safety reasons. The most common unsolicited adverse events were injection-site reactions, gastrointestinal disorders, and infections. Reactogenicity did not increase with successive doses of CYD-TDV. The frequency and nature of SAEs occurring within 28 days of any dose were similar in the CYD-TDV and placebo groups and were common medical conditions that could be expected as a function of age. Baseline dengue virus serostatus did not appear to influence the safety profile. No vaccine-related anaphylactic reactions, neurotropic events or viscerotropic events were reported. In year 3 after dose 1, an imbalance for dengue hospitalization, including for severe dengue, observed in participants aged <9 years in the CYD-TDV group compared with the placebo group was not observed for participants aged ≥9 years. In Year 4, this imbalance in participants aged <9 years was less marked, giving an overall lower risk of dengue hospitalization or severe dengue from dose 1 to Year 4 in the CYD-TDV group. These results have contributed to the definition of the target population for

  8. Safety Overview of a Recombinant Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: Pooled Analysis of Data from 18 Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gailhardou, Sophia; Skipetrova, Anna; Dayan, Gustavo H.; Jezorwski, John; Saville, Melanie; Van der Vliet, Diane; Wartel, T. Anh

    2016-01-01

    A recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been shown to be efficacious in preventing virologically-confirmed dengue disease, severe dengue disease and dengue hospitalization in children aged 2–16 years in Asia and Latin America. We analyzed pooled safety data from 18 phase I, II and III clinical trials in which the dengue vaccine was administered to participants aged 2–60 years, including long-term safety follow-up in three efficacy trials. The participants were analyzed according to their age at enrollment. The percentage of participants aged 2–60 years reporting ≥1 solicited injection-site or systemic reactions was slightly higher in the CYD-TDV group than in the placebo group. The most common solicited injection-site reactions were pain. Headache and malaise were the most common solicited systemic reactions. In both groups 0.3% of participants discontinued for safety reasons. The most common unsolicited adverse events were injection-site reactions, gastrointestinal disorders, and infections. Reactogenicity did not increase with successive doses of CYD-TDV. The frequency and nature of SAEs occurring within 28 days of any dose were similar in the CYD-TDV and placebo groups and were common medical conditions that could be expected as a function of age. Baseline dengue virus serostatus did not appear to influence the safety profile. No vaccine-related anaphylactic reactions, neurotropic events or viscerotropic events were reported. In year 3 after dose 1, an imbalance for dengue hospitalization, including for severe dengue, observed in participants aged <9 years in the CYD-TDV group compared with the placebo group was not observed for participants aged ≥9 years. In Year 4, this imbalance in participants aged <9 years was less marked, giving an overall lower risk of dengue hospitalization or severe dengue from dose 1 to Year 4 in the CYD-TDV group. These results have contributed to the definition of the target population for

  9. A polyvalent Clade B virus-like particle HIV vaccine combined with partially protective oral preexposure prophylaxis prevents simian-human immunodeficiency virus Infection in macaques and primes for virus-amplified immunity.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ted M; Pereira, Lara E; Luckay, Amara; McNicholl, Janet M; García-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Eugene, Hermancia S; Pierce-Paul, Brooke R; Zhang, Jining; Hendry, R Michael; Smith, James M

    2014-11-01

    Vaccination and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals have shown only partial protection from HIV-1 infection in human trials. Oral Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) is FDA approved as PrEP but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP), an HIV vaccine could protect when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. The efficacy of combining oral PrEP with an HIV vaccine has not been evaluated in humans. We determined the efficacy of combining a DNA/virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine with partially effective intermittent PrEP in Indian rhesus macaques (RM). Eight RM received intramuscular inoculations of five DNA plasmids encoding four HIV-1 Clade B primary isolate Envs and SIVmac239 Gag (at weeks 0 and 4), followed by intramuscular and intranasal inoculations of homologous Gag VLPs and four Env VLPs (at weeks 12, 16, and 53). At week 61, we initiated weekly rectal exposures with heterologous SHIV162p3 (10 TCID50) along with oral Truvada (TDF, 22 mg/kg; FTC 20 mg/kg) dosing 2 h before and 22 h after each exposure. This PrEP regimen previously demonstrated 50% efficacy. Five controls (no vaccine, no PrEP) received weekly SHIV162p3. All controls were infected after a median of four exposures; the mean peak plasma viral load (VL) was 3.9×10(7) vRNA copies/ml. CBP protected seven of eight (87.5%) RM. The one infected CBP RM had a reduced peak VL of 8.8×10(5) copies/ml. SHIV exposures during PrEP amplified Gag and Env antibody titers in protected RM. These results suggest that combining oral PrEP with HIV vaccines could enhance protection against HIV-1 infection.

  10. On birth single dose live attenuated OPV and BCG vaccination induces gut cathelicidin LL37 responses at 6 week of age: a natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Jahangir; Rashid, Md Mamunur; Kabir, Yearul; Raqib, Rubhana; Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin

    2015-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, we show that infants who received single dose of live attenuated OPV and BCG vaccines within 48h of birth, have higher excretion of human cathelicidin LL37 (p<0.05) in stool at 6wk of age. This response remained unchanged in multivariate analysis after adjusting for sex, mode of delivery, infant age, mother age birth weight and breast milk feeding pattern. This analysis also reveals that irrespective of vaccination, girl infants have higher human-beta-defencin2 (HBD2) and exclusively breastfed infants have higher total and anti-polio specific IgA to all three subtypes in stool (p<0.05). However, vaccination induces anti-polio IgA responses only to infants who are exclusively breastfed. Thus on-birth live attenuated vaccination may provide non-specific beneficial effect against infections while exclusive breastfeeding enhance protection by boosting vaccine induced IgA. The result also suggests that in polio endemic area, exclusive breastfeeding may be sufficient for mucosal anti-polio responses during early infancy. PMID:25444792

  11. Improved hatchability and efficient protection after in ovo vaccination with live-attenuated H7N2 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yibin; Song, Haichen; Ye, Jianqiang; Shao, Hongxia; Padmanabhan, Rangarajan; Sutton, Troy C; Perez, Daniel R

    2011-01-21

    Mass in ovo vaccination with live attenuated viruses is widely used in the poultry industry to protect against various infectious diseases. The worldwide outbreaks of low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza highlight the pressing need for the development of similar mass vaccination strategies against avian influenza viruses. We have previously shown that a genetically modified live attenuated avian influenza virus (LAIV) was amenable for in ovo vaccination and provided optimal protection against H5 HPAI viruses. However, in ovo vaccination against other subtypes resulted in poor hatchability and, therefore, seemed impractical. In this study, we modified the H7 and H9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins by substituting the amino acids at the cleavage site for those found in the H6 HA subtype. We found that with this modification, a single dose in ovo vaccination of 18-day old eggs provided complete protection against homologous challenge with low pathogenic virus in ≥ 70% of chickens at 2 or 6 weeks post-hatching. Further, inoculation of 19-day old egg embryos with 10⁶ EID₅₀ of LAIVs improved hatchability to ≥ 90% (equivalent to unvaccinated controls) with similar levels of protection. Our findings indicate that the strategy of modifying the HA cleavage site combined with the LAIV backbone could be used for in ovo vaccination against avian influenza. Importantly, with protection conferred as early as 2 weeks post-hatching, with this strategy birds would be protected prior to or at the time of delivery to a farm or commercial operation.

  12. Successful cross-protective efficacy induced by heat-adapted live attenuated nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus derived from a natural recombinant strain.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae-Hyun; Youn, Ha-Na; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Hong, Woo-Tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Jung-Ah; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2015-12-16

    A natural recombinant nephropathogenic K40/09 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was heat-adapted for possible future use as live attenuated vaccine. The K40/09 strain was selected during successive serial passages in specific-pathogen free (SPF) embryonated eggs at sub-optimal higher temperature (56°C). Unlike the parental strain, the attenuated strain, designated K40/09 HP50, was found to be safe in 1-day-old SPF chicks, which showed neither mortality nor signs of morbidity, and rarely induced ciliostasis or histological changes in the trachea and kidney after intraocular and fine-spray administration. K40/09 HP50 provided almost complete protection against two distinct subgroups of a nephropathogenic strain (KM91-like and QX-like subgroup) and elicited the production of high titers of neutralizing antibody (neutralization index of 3.6). We conclude that the K40/09 HP50 vaccine virus is rapidly attenuated by heat adaptation and exhibits the desired level of attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy required for a live attenuated vaccine. These results indicate that the K40/09 vaccine could be helpful for the reduction of economic losses caused by recently emergent nephropathogenic IBV infection in many countries.

  13. Vaccination of children with a live-attenuated, intranasal influenza vaccine – analysis and evaluation through a Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Andersohn, Frank; Bornemann, Reinhard; Damm, Oliver; Frank, Martin; Mittendorf, Thomas; Theidel, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease of the respiratory tract annually causing high morbidity and mortality in Germany. Influenza is preventable by vaccination and this vaccination is so far recommended by the The German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) as a standard vaccination for people from the age of 60 onwards. Up to date a parenterally administered trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) has been in use almost exclusively. Since 2011 however a live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) has been approved additionally. Consecutively, since 2013 the STIKO recommends LAIV (besides TIV) for children from 2 to 17 years of age, within the scope of vaccination by specified indications. LAIV should be preferred administered in children from 2 to 6 of age. The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is to address various research issues regarding the vaccination of children with LAIV. The analysis was performed from a medical, epidemiological and health economic perspective, as well as from an ethical, social and legal point of view. Method: An extensive systematic database research was performed to obtain relevant information. In addition a supplementary research by hand was done. Identified literature was screened in two passes by two independent reviewers using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included literature was evaluated in full-text using acknowledged standards. Studies were graded with the highest level of evidence (1++), if they met the criteria of European Medicines Agency (EMA)-Guidance: Points to consider on applications with 1. meta-analyses; 2. one pivotal study. Results: For the medical section, the age of the study participants ranges from 6 months to 17 years. Regarding study efficacy, in children aged 6 months to ≤7 years, LAIV is superior to placebo as well as to a vac-cination with TIV (Relative Risk Reduction – RRR – of laboratory confirmed influenza infection approx. 80% and 50

  14. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W Gregory; Trubey, Charles M; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Lifson, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4(+) T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. PMID:26711758

  15. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, Gregory Q.; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W. Gregory; Trubey, Charles M.; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F.; Estes, Jacob D.; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas

    2015-01-01

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4+ T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. PMID:26711758

  16. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W Gregory; Trubey, Charles M; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Lifson, Jeffrey D

    2015-12-28

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4(+) T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy.

  17. Risks associated with the use of live-attenuated vaccine poliovirus strains and the strategies for control and eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Pliaka, Vaia; Kyriakopoulou, Zaharoula; Markoulatos, Panayotis

    2012-05-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 with the aim to eliminate paralytic poliomyelitis. Two effective vaccines are available: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Since 1964, OPV has been used instead of IPV in most countries due to several economic and biological advantages. However, in rare cases, the live-attenuated Sabin strains of OPV revert to neurovirulence and cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in vaccinees or lead to emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus strains. Attenuating mutations and recombination events have been associated with the reversion of vaccine strains to neurovirulence. The substitution of OPV with an improved new-generation IPV and the availability of new specific drugs against polioviruses are considered as future strategies for outbreak control and the eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide.

  18. Construction, characterization and preclinical evaluation of MTBVAC, the first live-attenuated M. tuberculosis-based vaccine to enter clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Arbues, Ainhoa; Aguilo, Juan I; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesus; Marinova, Dessislava; Uranga, Santiago; Puentes, Eugenia; Fernandez, Conchita; Parra, Alberto; Cardona, Pere Joan; Vilaplana, Cristina; Ausina, Vicente; Williams, Ann; Clark, Simon; Malaga, Wladimir; Guilhot, Christophe; Gicquel, Brigitte; Martin, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The development of a new tuberculosis vaccine is an urgent need due to the failure of the current vaccine, BCG, to protect against the respiratory form of the disease. MTBVAC is an attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidate genetically engineered to fulfil the Geneva consensus requirements to enter human clinical trials. We selected a M. tuberculosis clinical isolate to generate two independent deletions without antibiotic-resistance markers in the genes phoP, coding for a transcription factor key for the regulation of M. tuberculosis virulence, and fadD26, essential for the synthesis of the complex lipids phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM), one of the major mycobacterial virulence factors. The resultant strain MTBVAC exhibits safety and biodistribution profiles similar to BCG and confers superior protection in preclinical studies. These features have enabled MTBVAC to be the first live attenuated M. tuberculosis vaccine to enter clinical evaluation.

  19. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  20. Construction, characterization and preclinical evaluation of MTBVAC, the first live-attenuated M. tuberculosis-based vaccine to enter clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Arbues, Ainhoa; Aguilo, Juan I; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesus; Marinova, Dessislava; Uranga, Santiago; Puentes, Eugenia; Fernandez, Conchita; Parra, Alberto; Cardona, Pere Joan; Vilaplana, Cristina; Ausina, Vicente; Williams, Ann; Clark, Simon; Malaga, Wladimir; Guilhot, Christophe; Gicquel, Brigitte; Martin, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The development of a new tuberculosis vaccine is an urgent need due to the failure of the current vaccine, BCG, to protect against the respiratory form of the disease. MTBVAC is an attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine candidate genetically engineered to fulfil the Geneva consensus requirements to enter human clinical trials. We selected a M. tuberculosis clinical isolate to generate two independent deletions without antibiotic-resistance markers in the genes phoP, coding for a transcription factor key for the regulation of M. tuberculosis virulence, and fadD26, essential for the synthesis of the complex lipids phthiocerol dimycocerosates (DIM), one of the major mycobacterial virulence factors. The resultant strain MTBVAC exhibits safety and biodistribution profiles similar to BCG and confers superior protection in preclinical studies. These features have enabled MTBVAC to be the first live attenuated M. tuberculosis vaccine to enter clinical evaluation. PMID:23965219

  1. Short report: immune response and occurrence of dengue infection in thai children three to eight years after vaccination with live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Luxemburger, Christine; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Lapphra, Keswadee; Pengsaa, Krisana; Yoksan, Sutee; Sabchareon, Arunee; Lang, Jean

    2006-07-01

    From 1992 to 1997, 140 Thai children 4-15 years of age received an investigational live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (LATDV). These children were contacted 3-8 years later in 2001 to assess humoral immunity and investigate whether they were subsequently at higher risk of developing severe dengue. One hundred thirteen were successfully contacted and participated in this retrospective cohort study with two age- and address-matched controls per vaccinee. The number of vaccinated subjects with neutralizing antibodies increased compared with 3-8 years earlier, which was probably due to subsequent wild-type dengue infections. There were no excess hospitalizations for clinically suspected dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in vaccinees (one with DF and three with DHF) compared with controls (14 with DHF). Results suggest that preexisting dengue antibodies induced by LATDV do not enhance dengue illness, and the use of the vaccine in a dengue-endemic area is safe.

  2. Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990--2003.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Armenak; Pool, Vitali; Chen, Robert T; Kohl, Katrin S; Davis, Robert L; Iskander, John K

    2008-02-26

    Hearing loss (HL) is a known complication of wild measles and mumps viral infections. As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps. Our objectives for this study were: to find and describe all cases of HL reported in the scientific literature and to the US Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for the period 1990--2003; and to determine reporting rate of HL after live attenuated measles and/or mumps viral strain-containing vaccines (MMCV) administration. We searched published reports for cases of HL identified after vaccination with MMCV. We also searched for reports of HL after MMCV administration submitted to VAERS from 1990 through 2003 and determined the dose-adjusted reporting rate of HL. Our main outcome measure was reported cases of HL after immunization with MMCV which were classified as idiopathic. We found 11 published case reports of HL following MMCV. The review of the VAERS reports identified 44 cases of likely idiopathic sensorineural HL after MMCV administration. The onset of HL in the majority of VAERS and published cases was consistent with the incubation periods of wild measles and mumps viruses. Based on the annual usage of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, we estimated the reporting rate of HL to be 1 case per 6-8 million doses. Thus, HL following MMCV has been reported in the literature and to the VAERS. Further studies are needed to better understand if there is a causal relationship between MMCV and HL.

  3. Generation of live attenuated novel influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) vaccines with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongying; Wang, Weijia; Zhou, Helen; Suguitan, Amorsolo L; Shambaugh, Cindy; Kim, Lomi; Zhao, Jackie; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Several live attenuated influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in eggs, reassortants expressing the HA and NA of CA09 were passaged in MDCK cells and variants exhibiting large-plaque morphology were isolated. These variants replicated at levels approximately 10-fold higher than the rate of replication of the parental strains in embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis indicated that single amino acid changes at positions 119, 153, 154, and 186 were responsible for the improved growth properties in MDCK cells and eggs. In addition, the introduction of a mutation at residue 155 that was previously shown to enhance the replication of a 1976 swine influenza virus also significantly improved the replication of the CA09 virus in eggs. Each variant was further evaluated for receptor binding preference, antigenicity, attenuation phenotype, and immunogenicity. Mutations at residues 153, 154, and 155 drastically reduced viral antigenicity, which made these mutants unsuitable as vaccine candidates. However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses.

  4. Generation of Live Attenuated Novel Influenza Virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) Vaccines with High Yield in Embryonated Chicken Eggs ▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongying; Wang, Weijia; Zhou, Helen; Suguitan, Amorsolo L.; Shambaugh, Cindy; Kim, Lomi; Zhao, Jackie; Kemble, George; Jin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Several live attenuated influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1) (CA09) candidate vaccine variants that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the CA09 virus and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) virus were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant viruses replicated relatively poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. To improve virus growth in eggs, reassortants expressing the HA and NA of CA09 were passaged in MDCK cells and variants exhibiting large-plaque morphology were isolated. These variants replicated at levels approximately 10-fold higher than the rate of replication of the parental strains in embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis indicated that single amino acid changes at positions 119, 153, 154, and 186 were responsible for the improved growth properties in MDCK cells and eggs. In addition, the introduction of a mutation at residue 155 that was previously shown to enhance the replication of a 1976 swine influenza virus also significantly improved the replication of the CA09 virus in eggs. Each variant was further evaluated for receptor binding preference, antigenicity, attenuation phenotype, and immunogenicity. Mutations at residues 153, 154, and 155 drastically reduced viral antigenicity, which made these mutants unsuitable as vaccine candidates. However, changes at residues 119 and 186 did not affect virus antigenicity or immunogenicity, justifying their inclusion in live attenuated vaccine candidates to protect against the currently circulating 2009 swine origin H1N1 viruses. PMID:19864389

  5. A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis secreting detoxified heat labile toxin enhances mucosal immunity and confers protection against wild-type challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Kamble, Nitin Machindra; Lee, John Hwa

    2016-01-01

    A live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) capable of constitutively secreting detoxified double mutant Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (dmLT) was developed. The biologically adjuvanted strain was generated via transformation of a highly immunogenic SE JOL1087 with a plasmid encoding dmLT gene cassette; the resultant strain was designated JOL1641. A balanced-lethal host-vector system stably maintained the plasmid via auxotrophic host complementation with a plasmid encoded aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene. Characterization by western blot assay revealed the dmLT subunit proteins in culture supernatants of JOL1641. For the investigation of adjuvanticity and protective efficacy, chickens were immunized via oral or intramuscular routes with PBS, JOL1087 and JOL1641. Birds immunized with JOL1641 showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in intestinal SIgA production at the 1(st) and 2(nd) weeks post-immunization via oral and intramuscular routes, respectively. Interestingly, while both strains showed significant splenic protection via intramuscular immunization, JOL1641 outperformed JOL1087 upon oral immunization. Oral immunization of birds with JOL1641 significantly reduced splenic bacterial counts. The reduction in bacterial counts may be correlated with an adjuvant effect of dmLT that increases SIgA secretion in the intestines of immunized birds. The inclusion of detoxified dmLT in the strain did not cause adverse reactions to birds, nor did it extend the period of bacterial fecal shedding. In conclusion, we report here that dmLT could be biologically incorporated in the secretion system of a live attenuated Salmonella-based vaccine, and that this construction is safe and could enhance mucosal immunity, and protect immunized birds against wild-type challenge. PMID:27262338

  6. Virus recovery rates for wild-type and live-attenuated vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species.

    PubMed

    Venter, G J; Paweska, J T

    2007-12-01

    Previously reported virus recovery rates from Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer and Culicoides (Avaritia) bolitinos Meiswinkel (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) orally infected with vaccine strain of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 (AHSV-7) were compared with results obtained from concurrently conducted oral infections with five recent AHSV-7 isolates from naturally infected horses from various localities in South Africa. Culicoides were fed sheep bloods spiked with 10(7.6) TCID(50)/mL of a live-attenuated vaccine strain AHSV-7, and with five field isolates in which virus titre in the bloodmeals ranged from 10(7.1) to 10(8.2) TCID(50)/mL). After an extrinsic incubation of 10 days at 23.5 degrees C, virus recovery rates were significantly higher in C. imicola (13.3%) and C. bolitinos (4.2%) infected with the live-attenuated virus than in midges infected with any of the field isolates. The virus recovery rates for the latter groups ranged from 0% to 9.5% for C. imicola and from 0% to 1.5% for C. bolitinos. The C. imicola population at Onderstepoort was significantly more susceptible to infection with AHSV-7 isolated at Onderstepoort than to the virus strains isolated from other localities. Results of this study suggest that tissue culture attenuation of AHSV-7 does not reduce its ability to orally infect competent Culicoides species and may even lead to enhanced replication in the vector. Furthermore, oral susceptibility in a midge population appears to vary for geographically distinct isolates of AHSV-7.

  7. Deep Sequencing of Distinct Preparations of the Live Attenuated Varicella-Zoster Virus Vaccine Reveals a Conserved Core of Attenuating Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Yamanishi, Koichi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The continued success of the live attenuated varicella-zoster virus vaccine in preventing varicella-zoster and herpes zoster is well documented, as are many of the mutations that contribute to the attenuation of the vOka virus for replication in skin. At least three different preparations of vOka are marketed. Here, we show using deep sequencing of seven batches of vOka vaccine (including ZostaVax, VariVax, VarilRix, and the Oka/Biken working seed) from three different manufacturers (VariVax, GSK, and Biken) that 137 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations are present in all vaccine batches. This includes six sites at which the vaccine allele is fixed or near fixation, which we speculate are likely to be important for attenuation. We also show that despite differences in the vaccine populations between preparations, batch-to-batch variation is minimal, as is the number and frequency of mutations unique to individual batches. This suggests that the vaccine manufacturing processes are not introducing new mutations and that, notwithstanding the mixture of variants present, VZV live vaccines are extremely stable. IMPORTANCE The continued success of vaccinations to prevent chickenpox and shingles, combined with the extremely low incidence of adverse reactions, indicates the quality of these vaccines. The vaccine itself is comprised of a heterogeneous live attenuated virus population and thus requires deep-sequencing technologies to explore the differences and similarities in the virus populations between different preparations and batches of the vaccines. Our data demonstrate minimal variation between batches, an important safety feature, and provide new insights into the extent of the mutations present in this attenuated virus. PMID:27440875

  8. Long term follow-up study to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of live attenuated hepatitis a vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Monjori; Shah, Nitin; Faridi, Mma; Ghosh, Apurba; Sankaranarayanan, V S; Aggarwal, Anju; Chatterjee, Suparna; Bhattacharyya, Nisha; Kadhe, Ganesh; Vishnoi, Gaurav; Mane, Amey

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, viral hepatitis continues to be a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Mass immunization with a single dose of live attenuated HAV has been shown to significantly reduce disease burden in the community. This was a phase IV, 5-year follow up study carried out at 4 centers (Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai) across India. The subjects with antibody titer <20 mIU/mL at baseline were evaluated for long term immunogenicity. Of the 503 subjects enrolled, 349 subjects were baseline seronegative with an anti-HAV antibody titer <20 mIU/mL. Overall, 343 subjects could be followed up at some point of time during this 5 y post vaccination period. In the last year (60 months) of follow-up, 108 subjects (97.3%) of 111 subjects (who came for follow-up at the end of 5 y) had a protective antibody titer (anti-HAV antibody titer >20 mIU/mL). The seroconversion rates considering seroprotection levels of anti-HAV antibody titer >20 mIU/mL, following vaccination starting from 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months and 60 months were 95.1%, 97.9%, 98.3%, 96.2%, 97.8%, 92.6% and 97.3%, respectively. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) over the years increased from 64.9 mIU/mL at 6 weeks to 38.1 mIU/mL and 135.2 mIU/mL at 6 months and 12 months, respectively and was maintained at 127.1 mIU/mL at 60 months. In conclusion, the result of this 5-year follow up study showed that the single dose of live attenuated vaccine is well tolerated and provides long-term immunogenicity in healthy Indian children.

  9. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium trxA mutants are protective against virulent challenge and induce less inflammation than the live-attenuated vaccine strain SL3261.

    PubMed

    Peters, S E; Paterson, G K; Bandularatne, E S D; Northen, H C; Pleasance, S; Willers, C; Wang, J; Foote, A K; Constantino-Casas, F; Scase, T J; Blacklaws, B A; Bryant, C E; Mastroeni, P; Charles, I G; Maskell, D J

    2010-01-01

    In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, trxA encodes thioredoxin 1, a small, soluble protein with disulfide reductase activity, which catalyzes thiol disulfide redox reactions in a variety of substrate proteins. Thioredoxins are involved as antioxidants in defense against oxidative stresses, such as exposure to hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. We have made a defined, complete deletion of trxA in the mouse-virulent S. Typhimurium strain SL1344 (SL1344 trxA), replacing the gene with a kanamycin resistance gene cassette. SL1344 trxA was attenuated for virulence in BALB/c mice by the oral and intravenous routes and when used in immunization experiments provided protection against challenge with the virulent parent strain. SL1344 trxA induced less inflammation in murine spleens and livers than SL3261, the aroA mutant, live attenuated vaccine strain. The reduced splenomegaly observed following infection with SL1344 trxA was partially attributed to a reduction in the number of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and B lymphocytes in the spleen and reduced infiltration by CD11b(+) cells into the spleen compared with spleens from mice infected with SL3261. This less severe pathological response indicates that a trxA mutation might be used to reduce reactogenicity of live attenuated vaccine strains. We tested this by deleting trxA in SL3261. SL3261 trxA was also less inflammatory than SL3261 but was slightly less effective as a vaccine strain than either the SL3261 parent strain or SL1344 trxA.

  10. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection.

  11. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. PMID:27515208

  12. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Library ▸ Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI ...

  13. Protection induced by a glycoprotein E-deleted bovine herpesvirus type 1 marker strain used either as an inactivated or live attenuated vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of respiratory and genital tract infections; causing a high economic loss in all continents. Use of marker vaccines in IBR eradication programs is widely accepted since it allows for protection of the animals against the disease while adding the possibility of differentiating vaccinated from infected animals. The aim of the present study was the development and evaluation of safety and efficacy of a glycoprotein E-deleted (gE-) BoHV-1 marker vaccine strain (BoHV-1ΔgEβgal) generated by homologous recombination, replacing the viral gE gene with the β-galactosidase (βgal) gene. Results In vitro growth kinetics of the BoHV-1ΔgEβgal virus was similar to BoHV-1 LA. The immune response triggered by the new recombinant strain in cattle was characterized both as live attenuated vaccine (LAV) and as an inactivated vaccine. BoHV-1ΔgEβgal was highly immunogenic in both formulations, inducing specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Antibody titers found in animals vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine based on BoHV-1ΔgEβgal was similar to the titers found for the control vaccine (BoHV-1 LA). In the same way, titers of inactivated vaccine groups were significantly higher than any of the LAV immunized groups, independently of the inoculation route (p < 0.001). Levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in those animals that received the LAV compared to those that received the inactivated vaccine. BoHV-1ΔgEβgal exhibited an evident attenuation when administered as a LAV; no virus was detected in nasal secretions of vaccinated or sentinel animals during the post-vaccination period. BoHV-1ΔgEβgal, when used in either formulation, elicited an efficient immune response that protected animals against challenge with virulent wild-type BoHV-1. Also, the deletion of the gE gene served as an immunological marker to differentiate vaccinated animals from infected animals. All

  14. Modifications in the polymerase genes of a swine-like triple-reassortant influenza virus to generate live attenuated vaccines against 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses.

    PubMed

    Pena, Lindomar; Vincent, Amy L; Ye, Jianqiang; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R; Angel, Matthew; Lorusso, Alessio; Gauger, Philip C; Janke, Bruce H; Loving, Crystal L; Perez, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    On 11 June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus is the predominant influenza virus strain in the human population. It has also crossed the species barriers and infected turkeys and swine in several countries. Thus, the development of a vaccine that is effective in multiple animal species is urgently needed. We have previously demonstrated that the introduction of temperature-sensitive mutations into the PB2 and PB1 genes of an avian H9N2 virus, combined with the insertion of a hemagglutinin (HA) tag in PB1, resulted in an attenuated (att) vaccine backbone for both chickens and mice. Because the new pandemic strain is a triple-reassortant (TR) virus, we chose to introduce the double attenuating modifications into a swine-like TR virus isolate, A/turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) (ty/04), with the goal of producing live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). This genetically modified backbone had impaired polymerase activity and restricted virus growth at elevated temperatures. In vivo characterization of two H1N1 vaccine candidates generated using the ty/04 att backbone demonstrated that this vaccine is highly attenuated in mice, as indicated by the absence of signs of disease, limited replication, and minimum histopathological alterations in the respiratory tract. A single immunization with the ty/04 att-based vaccines conferred complete protection against a lethal H1N1pdm virus infection in mice. More importantly, vaccination of pigs with a ty/04 att-H1N1 vaccine candidate resulted in sterilizing immunity upon an aggressive intratracheal challenge with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus. Our studies highlight the safety of the ty/04 att vaccine platform and its potential as a master donor strain for the generation of live attenuated vaccines for humans and livestock.

  15. Introduction of silent mutations into the NP gene of influenza A viruses as a possible strategy for the creation of a live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Anhlan, Darisuren; Hrincius, Eike-Roman; Scholtissek, Christoph; Ludwig, Stephan

    2012-06-22

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A virus (IAV) is associated with many different functions including host range restriction. Multiple sequence alignment analyses of 748 NP gene sequences from GenBank revealed a highly conserved region of 60 nucleotides within the ORF at the 3'-ends of the cRNA, in some codons even silent mutations were not found. This suggests that the RNA structure integrity within this region is crucial for IAV replication. To explore the impact of these conserved nucleotides for viral replication we created mutant viruses with one or more silent mutations in the respective region of the NP gene of the IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1) (WSN). Assessment of viral replication of these WSN mutant viruses showed significant growth disadvantages when compared to the corresponding parental strain. On the basis of these findings we tested whether the attenuation of IAV by introduction of silent mutations into the NP gene may serve as a strategy to create a live attenuated vaccine. Mice vaccinated with the attenuated WSN mutant survived a lethal challenge dose of wild type WSN virus or the mouse adapted pandemic H1N1v strain A/Hamburg/4/2009. Thus, introduction of silent mutations in the NP of IAV is a feasible approach for a novel vaccination strategy allowing attenuation of the master strain but leaves the antigenicity of the gene product unaltered. This principle is potentially applicable for all viruses with segmented genomes.

  16. Effectiveness of the live attenuated and the inactivated influenza vaccine in two-year-olds - a nationwide cohort study Finland, influenza season 2015/16.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Hanna; Baum, Ulrike; Syrjänen, Ritva; Ikonen, Niina; Sundman, Jonas; Jokinen, Jukka

    2016-09-22

    Although widely recommended, influenza vaccination of children is part of the national vaccination programme only in few countries. In addition to Canada and the United States (US), in Europe Finland and the United Kingdom have introduced live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children in their programmes. On 22 June 2016, the US Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices, voted against further use of LAIV due to no observed vaccine effectiveness (VE) over three consecutive influenza seasons (2013/14 to 2015/16). We summarise the results of a nationwide, register-based cohort study (N=55,258 of whom 8,086 received LAIV and 4,297 TIV); all outcome (laboratory-confirmed influenza), exposure (vaccination) and confounding variable data were retrieved from four computerised national health registers, which were linked via a unique personal identity code assigned to all permanent Finnish residents regardless of nationality. Our study provides evidence of moderate effectiveness against any laboratory-confirmed influenza of the quadrivalent LAIV vaccine (VE: 51%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-66%) as well as the inactivated trivalent vaccine (VE: 61%; 95% CI: 31-78%) among two-year-olds during the influenza season 2015/16 in Finland. Based on these data, Finland will continue using LAIV for young children in its National Immunisation Programme this coming influenza season. PMID:27684447

  17. Safety and protective efficacy of a spiC and crp deletion mutant of Salmonella gallinarum as a live attenuated vaccine for fowl typhoid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhao; Yin, Junlei; Kang, Xilong; Geng, Shizhong; Hu, Maozhi; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-08-01

    With an aim to develop a safe, immunogenic fowl typhoid (FT) vaccine, the safety and efficacy of 1009ΔspiCΔcrp, a spiC and crp deletion mutant of Salmonella gallinarum, were evaluated in chickens. Three-day-old chickens were intramuscularly immunized with 1009ΔspiCΔcrp (1×10(7)CFU) and boosted 7days later (at 10-days old) with the same dose and via the same route (vaccinated group). The vaccinated group showed no clinical symptoms and no differences in body weight compared to the unvaccinated control group. 1009ΔspiCΔcrp bacteria colonized and persisted in the liver and spleen of vaccinated chickens for >14days, and significant specific humoral and cellular immune responses were induced. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with S. gallinarum strain SG9 at 21days post-immunization (24-day-old chickens), and efficient protection was observed based on the mortality and clinical symptoms, as compared to those in the control group. These results demonstrate that 1009ΔspiCΔcrp can be used as a live attenuated vaccine. PMID:27473974

  18. A live attenuated human metapneumovirus vaccine strain provides complete protection against homologous viral infection and cross-protection against heterologous viral infection in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Shu, Zhou; Qin, Xian; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Yao; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    A live attenuated vaccine candidate strain (M2) of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was generated by removing the N-linked carbohydrate at amino acid 172 in the fusion (F) protein. Previously, replication of M2 in mouse lungs could be detected by molecular assays but not by viral titration. In the present study, the protective effects of M2 against infection by homologous or heterologous viruses were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Immunization with M2 produced a high titer of serum virus-neutralizing antibodies in BALB/c mice at 4 and 8 weeks postimmunization, with the titers against the homologous virus being higher than those against the heterologous virus. Challenges at 4 and 8 weeks postinoculation with M2 or wild-type virus led to no replication when mice were challenged with a homologous virus and extremely reduced replication when mice were challenged with a heterologous virus, as determined by the detection of viral genomic RNA copies in the lungs, as well as significantly milder pulmonary pathology. Thus, M2, with only one N-linked carbohydrate removed in the F protein, provides complete protection from homologous virus infection and substantial cross-protection from heterologous virus infection for at least 56 days after inoculation. This vaccine strain may therefore be a candidate for further preclinical study. Furthermore, this attenuating strategy (changing the glycosylation of a major viral protein) may be useful in the development of other viral vaccines.

  19. Comparison between Immunization Routes of Live Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strains Expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD of Brucella abortus in Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won K; Moon, Ja Y; Kim, Suk; Hur, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Live, attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine candidate expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD proteins of Brucella abortus was constructed. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided equally into three groups, Group A, were intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with 100 μl of approximately 1.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml of the Salmonella containing vector only in 100 μl as a control. And groups B and C mice were orally and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 10(9) CFU/ml of the mixture of three delivery strains in 10 μl and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 10(6) CFU/ml of the mixture in 100 μl, respectively. The serum IgG, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations in groups B (except Omp3b) and C were significantly higher than those in group A. Following challenge with B. abortus strain 544; challenge strain was detected <10(3) CFU from the spleen of all mice of group C. These results suggest that IP immunization with the mixture of the vaccine candidate can induce immune responses, and can effectively protect mice against brucellosis.

  20. Simultaneous oral immunization of mice with live attenuated Escherichia coli expressing LT192-STa 13 and LT 192-STb fusion immunogen, respectively, for polyvalent vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Li, Jinping; Bao, Jun; Li, Xingyue; Guan, Weikun; Yuan, Chaowen; Tang, Jie; Zhao, Zhiteng; Shi, Dongfang

    2015-05-01

    Previous epidemiological study showed that most of the porcine enterotoxin Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains harbor multiple enterotoxins but lack any of the fimbriae or non-fimbrial adhesion genes. Therefore, effective ETEC vaccines need to aim directly at all the enterotoxin antigens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous immune effect of two live attenuated E. coli strains expressing LTR192G-STaA13Q and LTR192G-STb fusion immunogen, respectively. The results showed that both local mucosal and systemic immune responses against LT, STa, STb, and F41 were induced in BALB/c mice immunized orally with the recombinant E. coli strains ER-A and ER-B simultaneously. In addition, results of cellular immune responses showed that stimulation index (SI) values of immunized mice were significantly higher than control mice (P < 0.05) and a marked shift toward type-2 helper T lymphocyte (Th 2) immunity. Moreover, the induced antibodies demonstrated neutralizing effects on LT, STa, and STb producing E. coli infection. These data indicated that the use of recombinant E. coli ER-A and ER-B could be a valuable strategy for future polyvalent vaccine development of ETEC. PMID:25549617

  1. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Rederived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Adults Living in Thailand: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Gibbons, Robert V.; Simasathien, Sriluck; Nisalak, Ananda; Jarman, Richard G.; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Tournay, Elodie; De La Barrerra, Rafael; Dessy, Francis; Toussaint, Jean-François; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Innis, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of two formulations of a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine produced using rederived master seeds from a precursor vaccine were tested against a placebo control in a phase II, randomized, double blind trial (NCT00370682). Two doses were administered 6 months apart to 120 healthy, predominantly flavivirus-primed adults (87.5% and 97.5% in the two vaccine groups and 92.5% in the placebo group). Symptoms and signs reported after vaccination were mild to moderate and transient. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events or dengue cases reported. Asymptomatic, low-level viremia (dengue virus type 2 [DENV-2], DENV-3, or DENV-4) was detected in 5 of 80 vaccine recipients. One placebo recipient developed a subclinical natural DENV-1 infection. All flavivirus-unprimed subjects and at least 97.1% of flavivirus-primed subjects were seropositive to antibodies against all four DENV types 1 and 3 months post-TDEN dose 2. The TDEN vaccine was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile in flavivirus-primed adults. PMID:24865677

  2. H7N9 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Is Highly Immunogenic, Prevents Virus Replication, and Protects Against Severe Bronchopneumonia in Ferrets.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Jørgen; Isakova-Sivak, Irina; van Dijken, Harry; Spijkers, Sanne; Mouthaan, Justin; de Jong, Rineke; Smolonogina, Tatiana; Roholl, Paul; Rudenko, Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Avian influenza viruses continue to cross the species barrier, and if such viruses become transmissible among humans, it would pose a great threat to public health. Since its emergence in China in 2013, H7N9 has caused considerable morbidity and mortality. In the absence of a universal influenza vaccine, preparedness includes development of subtype-specific vaccines. In this study, we developed and evaluated in ferrets an intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) against H7N9 based on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) cold-adapted master donor virus. We demonstrate that the LAIV is attenuated and safe in ferrets and induces high hemagglutination- and neuraminidase-inhibiting and virus-neutralizing titers. The antibodies against hemagglutinin were also cross-reactive with divergent H7 strains. To assess efficacy, we used an intratracheal challenge ferret model in which an acute severe viral pneumonia is induced that closely resembles viral pneumonia observed in severe human cases. A single- and two-dose strategy provided complete protection against severe pneumonia and prevented virus replication. The protective effect of the two-dose strategy appeared better than the single dose only on the microscopic level in the lungs. We observed, however, an increased lymphocytic infiltration after challenge in single-vaccinated animals and hypothesize that this a side effect of the model. PMID:26796670

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a rederived, live-attenuated dengue virus vaccine in healthy adults living in Thailand: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Gibbons, Robert V; Simasathien, Sriluck; Nisalak, Ananda; Jarman, Richard G; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Tournay, Elodie; De La Barrerra, Rafael; Dessy, Francis; Toussaint, Jean-François; Eckels, Kenneth H; Thomas, Stephen J; Innis, Bruce L

    2014-07-01

    Safety and immunogenicity of two formulations of a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine produced using rederived master seeds from a precursor vaccine were tested against a placebo control in a phase II, randomized, double blind trial (NCT00370682). Two doses were administered 6 months apart to 120 healthy, predominantly flavivirus-primed adults (87.5% and 97.5% in the two vaccine groups and 92.5% in the placebo group). Symptoms and signs reported after vaccination were mild to moderate and transient. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events or dengue cases reported. Asymptomatic, low-level viremia (dengue virus type 2 [DENV-2], DENV-3, or DENV-4) was detected in 5 of 80 vaccine recipients. One placebo recipient developed a subclinical natural DENV-1 infection. All flavivirus-unprimed subjects and at least 97.1% of flavivirus-primed subjects were seropositive to antibodies against all four DENV types 1 and 3 months post-TDEN dose 2. The TDEN vaccine was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile in flavivirus-primed adults.

  4. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J; Quintero Del Rio, Ana I; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L

    2015-09-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1-50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2-4 years], 60% [5-20 years], and 93% [21-50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858.

  5. A Phase II, Randomized, Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of a Re-Derived, Live-Attenuated Dengue Virus Vaccine in Healthy Children and Adults Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kristen; Esquilin, Ines O.; Cornier, Alberto Santiago; Thomas, Stephen J.; Quintero del Rio, Ana I.; Bertran-Pasarell, Jorge; Morales Ramirez, Javier O.; Diaz, Clemente; Carlo, Simon; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Tournay, Elodie; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; De La Barrera, Rafael; Fernandez, Stefan; Lyons, Arthur; Sun, Wellington; Innis, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial, two dose study of re-derived, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine (two formulations) or placebo in subjects 1–50 years of age. Among the 636 subjects enrolled, 331 (52%) were primed, that is, baseline seropositive to at least one dengue virus (DENV) type. Baseline seropositivity prevalence increased with age (10% [< 2 years], 26% [2–4 years], 60% [5–20 years], and 93% [21–50 years]). Safety profiles of TDEN vaccines were similar to placebo regardless of priming status. No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. Among unprimed subjects, immunogenicity (geometric mean antibody titers [GMT] and seropositivity rates) for each DENV increased substantially in both TDEN vaccine groups with at least 74.6% seropositive for four DENV types. The TDEN vaccine candidate showed an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in children and adults ranging from 1 to 50 years of age, regardless of priming status. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00468858. PMID:26175027

  6. Longitudinal study to assess the safety and efficacy of a live-attenuated SHIV vaccine in long term immunized rhesus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Yankee, Thomas M. Sheffer, Darlene; Liu Zhengian; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Jia Fenglan; Chebloune, Yahia; Stephens, Edward B.; Narayan, Opendra

    2009-01-05

    Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of {delta}vpuSHIV{sub PPC}, a live virus vaccine derived from SHIV{sub PPC}. Macaques were administered two inoculations of {delta}vpuSHIV{sub PPC}, three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years.

  7. A live-attenuated pneumococcal vaccine elicits CD4+ T-cell dependent class switching and provides serotype independent protection against acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Jason W; Iverson, Amy R; Humann, Jessica; Mann, Beth; Gao, Geli; Vogel, Peter; Mina, Michael; Murrah, Kyle A; Perez, Antonia C; Edward Swords, W; Tuomanen, Elaine I; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae remains one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide despite widespread vaccination. A major limitation of the currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines is the lack of efficacy against mucosal disease manifestations such as AOM, acute bacterial sinusitis and pneumonia. We sought to generate a novel class of live vaccines that (1) retain all major antigenic virulence proteins yet are fully attenuated and (2) protect against otitis media. A live vaccine candidate based on deletion of the signal recognition pathway component ftsY induced potent, serotype-independent protection against otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Protection was maintained in animals coinfected with influenza virus, but was lost if mice were depleted of CD4(+) T cells at the time of vaccination. The live vaccine induced a strong serum IgG2a and IgG2b response that correlated with CD4(+) T-cell mediated class switching. Deletion of genes required for microbial adaptation to the host environment is a novel live attenuated vaccine strategy yielding the first experimental vaccine effective against pneumococcal otitis media.

  8. Development of TV003/TV005, a single dose, highly immunogenic live attenuated dengue vaccine; what makes this vaccine different from the Sanofi-Pasteur CYD™ vaccine?

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Stephen S

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is caused by four serotype-distinct dengue viruses (DENVs), and developing a multivalent vaccine against dengue has not been straightforward since partial immunity to DENV may predispose to more severe disease upon subsequent DENV infection. The vaccine that is furthest along in development is CYD™, a live attenuated tetravalent vaccine (LATV) produced by Sanofi Pasteur. Although the multi-dose vaccine demonstrated protection against severe dengue, its overall efficacy was limited by DENV serotype, serostatus at vaccination, region and age. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has developed the LATV dengue vaccines TV003/TV005. A single dose of either TV003 or TV005 induced seroconversion to four DENV serotypes in 74-92% (TV003) and 90% (TV005) of flavivirus seronegative adults and elicited near-sterilizing immunity to a second dose of vaccine administered 6-12 months later. The important differences in the structure, infectivity and immune responses to TV003/TV005 are compared with CYD™. PMID:26559731

  9. CD8+ T-cell Responses in Flavivirus-Naive Individuals Following Immunization with a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Candidate.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haiyan; George, Sarah L; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E; Partidos, Charalambos D

    2015-11-15

    We are developing a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) candidate based on an attenuated dengue 2 virus (TDV-2) and 3 chimeric viruses containing the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue viruses (DENVs) -1, -3, and -4 expressed in the context of the attenuated TDV-2 genome (TDV-1, TDV-3, and TDV-4, respectively). In this study, we analyzed and characterized the CD8(+) T-cell response in flavivirus-naive human volunteers vaccinated with 2 doses of TDV 90 days apart via the subcutaneous or intradermal routes. Using peptide arrays and intracellular cytokine staining, we demonstrated that TDV elicits CD8(+) T cells targeting the nonstructural NS1, NS3, and NS5 proteins of TDV-2. The cells were characterized by the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and to a lesser extent interleukin-2. Responses were highest on day 90 after the first dose and were still detectable on 180 days after the second dose. In addition, CD8(+) T cells were multifunctional, producing ≥2 cytokines simultaneously, and cross-reactive to NS proteins of the other 3 DENV serotypes. Overall, these findings describe the capacity of our candidate dengue vaccine to elicit cellular immune responses and support the further evaluation of T-cell responses in samples from future TDV clinical trials. PMID:25943203

  10. A live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A H7N3 virus vaccine provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 viruses in mice and ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, Tomy; McAuliffe, Josephine; Lu, Bin; Vogel, Leatrice; Swayne, David; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2008-08-15

    The appearance of human infections caused by avian influenza A H7 subtype viruses underscores their pandemic potential and the need to develop vaccines to protect humans from viruses of this subtype. A live attenuated H7N3 virus vaccine was generated by reverse genetics using the HA and NA genes of a low pathogenicity A/chicken/BC/CN-6/04 (H7N3) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2) virus. The reassortant H7N3 BC 04 ca vaccine virus was temperature sensitive and showed attenuation in mice and ferrets. Intranasal immunization with one dose of the vaccine protected mice and ferrets when challenged with homologous and heterologous H7 viruses. The reassortant H7N3 BC 04 ca vaccine virus showed comparable levels of attenuation, immunogenicity and efficacy in mice and ferret models. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this vaccine in mice and ferrets support the evaluation of this vaccine in clinical trials.

  11. Enrollment in YFV Vaccine Trial: An Evaluation of Recruitment Outcomes Associated with a Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Trial of a Live Attenuated Yellow Fever Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M; Shapiro, Eve T; Lu, Lu; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Keyserling, Harry L; Mulligan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    This investigation evaluated several factors associated with diverse participant enrollment of a clinical trial assessing safety, immunogenicity, and comparative viremia associated with administration of 17-D live, attenuated yellow fever vaccine given alone or in combination with human immune globulin. We obtained baseline participant information (e.g., sociodemographic, medical) and followed recruitment outcomes from 2005 to 2007. Of 355 potential Yellow Fever vaccine study participants, 231 cases were analyzed. Strong interest in study participation was observed among racial and ethnically diverse persons with 36.34% eligible following initial study screening, resulting in 18.75% enrollment. The percentage of white participants increased from 63.66% (prescreened sample) to 81.25% (enrollment group). The regression model was significant with white race as a predictor of enrollment (OR=2.744, 95% CI=1.415-5.320, p=0.003).In addition, persons were more likely to enroll via direct outreach and referral mechanisms compared to mass advertising (OR=2.433, 95% CI=1.102-5.369). The findings indicate that racially diverse populations can be recruited to vaccine clinical trials, yet actual enrollment may not reflect that diversity. PMID:25221781

  12. Mutations affecting the stability of the haemagglutinin molecule impair the immunogenicity of live attenuated H3N2 intranasal influenza vaccine candidates lacking NS1.

    PubMed

    Nakowitsch, Sabine; Wolschek, Markus; Morokutti, Alexander; Ruthsatz, Tanja; Krenn, Brigitte M; Ferko, Boris; Ferstl, Nicole; Triendl, Andrea; Muster, Thomas; Egorov, Andrej; Romanova, Julia

    2011-04-27

    The isolation and cultivation of human influenza viruses in embryonated hen eggs or cell lines often leads to amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) molecule. We found that the propagation of influenza A H3N2 viruses on Vero cells may trigger the appearance of HA destabilising mutations, affecting viral resistance to low pH or high temperature treatment. Two ΔNS1 reassortants, containing the HA sequences identical to the original human H3N2 influenza virus isolates were constructed. Passages of these viruses on Vero cells led to the appearance of single mutations in the HA(1) L194P or HA(2) G75R subunits that impaired virus stability. The original HA sequences and the stable phenotypes of the primary isolates were preserved if reassortants were passaged by infection at pH 5.6 and cultivation in medium at pH 6.5. Corresponding ΔNS1 reassortants were compared for their immunogenicity in ferrets upon intranasal immunisation. Vaccine candidates containing HA mutations demonstrated significantly lower immunogenicity compared to those without mutations. Thus, the retaining of the original HA sequences of human viruses during vaccine production might be crucial for the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccines.

  13. Comparison between Immunization Routes of Live Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strains Expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD of Brucella abortus in Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won K.; Moon, Ja Y.; Kim, Suk; Hur, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Live, attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine candidate expressing BCSP31, Omp3b, and SOD proteins of Brucella abortus was constructed. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided equally into three groups, Group A, were intraperitoneally (IP) inoculated with 100 μl of approximately 1.2 × 106 colony-forming units (CFUs)/ml of the Salmonella containing vector only in 100 μl as a control. And groups B and C mice were orally and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 109 CFU/ml of the mixture of three delivery strains in 10 μl and IP immunized with approximately 1.2 × 106 CFU/ml of the mixture in 100 μl, respectively. The serum IgG, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations in groups B (except Omp3b) and C were significantly higher than those in group A. Following challenge with B. abortus strain 544; challenge strain was detected <103 CFU from the spleen of all mice of group C. These results suggest that IP immunization with the mixture of the vaccine candidate can induce immune responses, and can effectively protect mice against brucellosis. PMID:27148232

  14. Effects of vaccination against bluetongue on milk production and quality in cattle vaccinated with live-attenuated monovalent type 2 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, A; Conte, A; Panichi, G; Calistri, P; Dessì, M; Foddis, F; Schintu, A; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    The first epidemic of bluetongue (BT) to affect the three regions of Sardinia, Sicily and Calabria (Italy) in 2000 induced high economic losses caused by the disease itself and by the cessation of ruminant movements both within, and out of, the infected areas. In order to reduce virus circulation, and to create a resistant livestock population, the Italian Ministry of Health ruled, in May 2001, that all sheep, cattle, goats and water buffalo, in infected and in neighbouring regions, be vaccinated. The live-attenuated BTV-2 monovalent vaccine produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products in South Africa was to be used. Accordingly, in 2002, 98.6% of the sheep and goats, and 88.1% of the cattle, on Sardinia were vaccinated. Included was the vaccination of >70% of the cattle in the province of Oristano where >18,000 dairy cows in >220 herds are concentrated in the municipality of Arborea (Oristano) and which account for 65-70% of the milk produced in Sardinia. Using data collected at the centralised dairy co-operative since 1999 the quantity and quality of milk produced before vaccination against bluetongue was compared to that produced after vaccination. The following variables were analysed: average milk production/cow/month, monthly average fat content (%), monthly average protein content (%), average monthly somatic cell count and average monthly platelet count. The findings indicate that vaccination against BTV-2 in Sardinian dairy cattle did not impact negatively upon milk quantity nor milk quality.

  15. Cocaine-mediated enhancement of virus replication in macrophages: implications for human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navneet K; Williams, Rachel; Peng, Fuwang; Tsai, Yi-Jou; Dhillon, Sukhbir; Nicolay, Brandon; Gadgil, Milind; Kumar, Anil; Buch, Shilpa J

    2007-12-01

    Injection drug use has been recognized as a major risk factor for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from the outset of the epidemic. Cocaine, one of the most widely abused drugs in the United States, can both impair the functions of macrophages and CD4(+) lymphocytes and also activate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 expression in these cells. Because the brain is the target organ for both cocaine and HIV, the objective of the present study was to explore the effects of cocaine on virus replication in macrophages, the target cells for the virus in the central nervous system (CNS). Cocaine markedly enhanced virus production in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and in U1 cells, a chronically infected promonocytic cell line as monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry. Cocaine treatment also resulted in the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B and transcriptional activation of the HIV-LTR (long terminal repeat) gag-GFP (green fluorescent protein). Analyses of chemokines in cocaine-treated macrophages by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Luminex assays suggested increased expression of interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that is known to promote HIV replication in MDMs. In addition to enhancing IL-10 expression, cocaine also caused an up-regulation of the macrophage activation marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, in MDMs. The synergistic effect of cocaine on virus replication and its enhancement of host activation markers suggest that cocaine functions at multiple pathways to accelerate HIV-associated dementia (HAD). PMID:18097880

  16. Influenza Virus Detection Following Administration of Live-Attenuated Intranasal Influenza Vaccine in Children With Cystic Fibrosis and Their Healthy Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Boikos, Constantina; Joseph, Lawrence; Martineau, Christine; Papenburg, Jesse; Scheifele, David; Lands, Larry C.; De Serres, Gaston; Chilvers, Mark; Quach, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background. We aimed to explore the detection profile of influenza viruses following live-attenuated intranasal influenza vaccination (LAIV) in children aged 2–19 years with and without cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods. Before the 2013–2014 influenza season, flocked nasal swabs were obtained before vaccination and 4 times in the week of follow-up from 76 participants (nCF: 57; nhealthy: 19). Influenza was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. A Bayesian hierarchical logistic regression model was used to estimate the effect of CF status and age on influenza detection. Results. Overall, 69% of the study cohort shed influenza RNA during follow-up. The mean duration of RT-PCR detection was 2.09 days (95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.73–2.48). The odds of influenza RNA detection on day 1 following vaccination decreased with age in years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82 per year; 95% CrI: 0.70–0.95), and subjects with CF had higher odds of influenza RNA detection on day 1 of follow-up (OR: 5.09; 95% CrI: 1.02–29.9). Conclusion. Despite the small sample size, our results indicate that LAIV vaccine strains are detectable during the week after LAIV, mainly in younger individuals and vaccinees with CF. It remains unclear whether recommendations for avoiding contact with severely immunocompromised patients should differ for these groups. PMID:27747255

  17. Efficient strategy for constructing duck enteritis virus-based live attenuated vaccine against homologous and heterologous H5N1 avian influenza virus and duck enteritis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong; Hu, Yong; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Wei; Cao, Hangzhou; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-04-16

    Duck is susceptible to many pathogens, such as duck hepatitis virus, duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in particular. With the significant role of duck in the evolution of H5N1 HPAIV, control and eradication of H5N1 HPAIV in duck through vaccine immunization is considered an effective method in minimizing the threat of a pandemic outbreak. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against these pathogens should be determined. In this study, the DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1, and its potential as a polyvalent vaccine was evaluated. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the gB and UL26 gene junction of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE). The HA gene of A/duck/Hubei/xn/2007 (H5N1) was inserted into the C-KCE genome via the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC) to generate the recombinant vector pBAC-C-KCE-HA. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-HA was developed by eliminating the BAC backbone. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA induced both the cross-reactive antibodies and T cell response against H5. Moreover, C-KCE-HA-immunized ducks provided rapid and long-lasting protection against homologous and heterologous HPAIV H5N1 and DEV clinical signs, death, and primary viral replication. In conclusion, our BAC-C-KCE is a promising platform for developing a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine.

  18. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Provides Superior Protection from Heterologous Infection in Pigs with Maternal Antibodies without Inducing Vaccine-Associated Enhanced Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M.; Richt, Jürgen A.; Janke, Bruce H.; Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Gauger, Philip C.; Loving, Crystal L.; Webby, Richard J.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Control of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in the United States is hindered because inactivated vaccines do not provide robust cross-protection against the multiple antigenic variants cocirculating in the field. Vaccine efficacy can be limited further for vaccines administered to young pigs that possess maternally derived immunity. We previously demonstrated that a recombinant A/sw/Texas/4199-2/1998 (TX98) (H3N2) virus expressing a truncated NS1 protein is attenuated in swine and has potential for use as an intranasal live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. In the present study, we compared 1 dose of intranasal LAIV with 2 intramuscular doses of TX98 whole inactivated virus (WIV) with adjuvant in weanling pigs with and without TX98-specific maternally derived antibodies (MDA). Pigs were subsequently challenged with wild-type homologous TX98 H3N2 virus or with an antigenic variant, A/sw/Colorado/23619/1999 (CO99) (H3N2). In the absence of MDA, both vaccines protected against homologous TX98 and heterologous CO99 shedding, although the LAIV elicited lower hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in serum. The efficacy of both vaccines was reduced by the presence of MDA; however, WIV vaccination of MDA-positive pigs led to dramatically enhanced pneumonia following heterologous challenge, a phenomenon known as vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). A single dose of LAIV administered to MDA-positive pigs still provided partial protection from CO99 and may be a safer vaccine for young pigs under field conditions, where dams are routinely vaccinated and diverse IAV strains are in circulation. These results have implications not only for pigs but also for other influenza virus host species. PMID:22811541

  19. The epidemiological impact of childhood influenza vaccination using live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Germany: predictions of a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine annual influenza vaccination is primarily recommended for all persons aged 60 and above and for people with underlying chronic conditions in Germany. Other countries have already adopted additional childhood influenza immunisation programmes. The objective of this study is to determine the potential epidemiological impact of implementing paediatric influenza vaccination using intranasally administered live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Germany. Methods A deterministic age-structured model is used to simulate the population-level impact of different vaccination strategies on the transmission dynamics of seasonal influenza in Germany. In our base-case analysis, we estimate the effects of adding a LAIV-based immunisation programme targeting children 2 to 17 years of age to the existing influenza vaccination policy. The data used in the model is based on published evidence complemented by expert opinion. Results In our model, additional vaccination of children 2 to 17 years of age with LAIV leads to the prevention of 23.9 million influenza infections and nearly 16 million symptomatic influenza cases within 10 years. This reduction in burden of disease is not restricted to children. About one third of all adult cases can indirectly be prevented by LAIV immunisation of children. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that vaccinating children 2–17 years of age is likely associated with a significant reduction in the burden of paediatric influenza. Furthermore, annual routine childhood vaccination against seasonal influenza is expected to decrease the incidence of influenza among adults and older people due to indirect effects of herd protection. In summary, our model provides data supporting the introduction of a paediatric influenza immunisation programme in Germany. PMID:24450996

  20. Mucosal Immunization with Live Attenuated Francisella novicida U112ΔiglB Protects against Pulmonary F. tularensis SCHU S4 in the Fischer 344 Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Signarovitz, Aimee L.; Ray, Heather J.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M. N.; Chambers, James P.; Klose, Karl E.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2012-01-01

    The need for an efficacious vaccine against Francisella tularensis is a consequence of its low infectious dose and high mortality rate if left untreated. This study sought to characterize a live attenuated subspecies novicida-based vaccine strain (U112ΔiglB) in an established second rodent model of pulmonary tularemia, namely the Fischer 344 rat using two distinct routes of vaccination (intratracheal [i.t.] and oral). Attenuation was verified by comparing replication of U112ΔiglB with wild type parental strain U112 in F344 primary alveolar macrophages. U112ΔiglB exhibited an LD50>107 CFU compared to the wild type (LD50 = 5×106 CFU i.t.). Immunization with 107 CFU U112ΔiglB by i.t. and oral routes induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and potent humoral responses both systemically (IgG2a>IgG1 in serum) and at the site of mucosal vaccination (respiratory/intestinal compartment). Importantly, vaccination with U112ΔiglB by either i.t. or oral routes provided equivalent levels of protection (50% survival) in F344 rats against a subsequent pulmonary challenge with ∼25 LD50 (1.25×104 CFU) of the highly human virulent strain SCHU S4. Collectively, these results provide further evidence on the utility of a mucosal vaccination platform with a defined subsp. novicida U112ΔiglB vaccine strain in conferring protective immunity against pulmonary tularemia. PMID:23118885

  1. Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Antigenically Drifted Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses among Children and Adolescents following 2014-2015 Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Judith M.; Gross, F. Liaini; Jefferson, Stacie; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Archibald, Crystal Ann; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Susick, Michael; Moehling, Krissy; Spencer, Sarah; Chung, Jessie R.; Flannery, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza A(H3N2) viruses that predominated during the moderately severe 2014-2015 influenza season differed antigenically from the vaccine component, resulting in reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). To examine antibody responses to 2014-2015 inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) among children and adolescents, we collected sera before and after vaccination from 150 children aged 3 to 17 years enrolled at health care facilities. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays were used to assess the antibody responses to vaccine strains. We evaluated cross-reactive antibody responses against two representative A(H3N2) viruses that had antigenically drifted from the A(H3N2) vaccine component using microneutralization (MN) assays. Postvaccination antibody titers to drifted A(H3N2) viruses were higher following receipt of IIV (MN geometric mean titers [GMTs], 63 to 68; 38 to 45% achieved seroconversion) versus LAIV (MN GMT, 22; only 3 to 5% achieved seroconversion). In 9- to 17-year-olds, the highest MN titers were observed among IIV-vaccinated individuals who had received LAIV in the previous season. Among all IIV recipients aged 3 to 17 years, the strongest predictor of antibody responses to the drifted viruses was the prevaccination titers to the vaccine strain. The results of our study suggest that in an antigenically drifted influenza season, vaccination still induced cross-reactive antibody responses to drifted circulating A(H3N2) viruses, although higher antibody titers may be required for protection. Antibody responses to drifted A(H3N2) viruses following vaccination were influenced by multiple factors, including vaccine type and preexisting immunity from prior exposure. PMID:27558294

  2. Influence of FcγRIIa-Expressing Cells on the Assessment of Neutralizing and Enhancing Serum Antibodies Elicited by a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Anthony M.; Broder, Ryan; Haupfear, Kelly; Timiryasova, Tatyana M.; Hu, Branda T.; Boaz, Mark; Warren, William L.; Jackson, Nicholas; Moser, Janice M.; Guy, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background. Recent trials of recombinant, live-attenuated chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue disease with higher point estimates of efficacy toward dengue virus (DENV)3 and DENV4 and moderate levels toward DENV1 and DENV2. It is interesting to note that serotype-specific efficacy did not correlate with absolute neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titer (GMT) values measured in a Vero-based plaque reduction neutralization test assay. The absence of Fcγ receptors on Vero cells may explain this observation. Methods. We performed parallel seroneutralization assays in Vero cells and CV-1 cells that express FcγRIIa (CV-1-Fc) to determine the neutralizing and enhancing capacity of serotype-specific DENV Abs present in CYD-TDV clinical trial sera. Results. Enhancement of DENV infection was observed in CV-1-Fc cells in naturally exposed nonvaccine sera, mostly for DENV3 and DENV4, at high dilutions. The CYD-TDV-vaccinated sera showed similar enhancement patterns. The CV-1-Fc nAb GMT values were 2- to 9-fold lower than Vero for all serotypes in both naturally infected individuals and CYD-TDV-vaccinated subjects with and without previous dengue immunity. The relative (CV-1-Fc/Vero) GMT decrease for anti-DENV1 and anti-DENV2 responses was not greater than for the other serotypes. Conclusions. In vitro neutralization assays utilizing FcγRIIa-expressing cells provide evidence that serotype-specific Ab enhancement may not be a primary factor in the serotype-specific efficacy differences exhibited in the CYD-TDV trials. PMID:26719844

  3. A Rapid Immunization Strategy with a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Elicits Protective Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Ambuel, Yuping; Young, Ginger; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Paykel, Joanna; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Haller, Aurelia A.; Royals, Michael; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Capuano, Saverio; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause approximately 390 million cases of DENV infections annually and over 3 billion people worldwide are at risk of infection. No dengue vaccine is currently available nor is there an antiviral therapy for DENV infections. We have developed a tetravalent live-attenuated DENV vaccine tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) that consists of a molecularly characterized attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the pre-membrane and envelope genes of DENV-1, -3, and -4 expressed in the context of the TDV-2 genome. To impact dengue vaccine delivery in endemic areas and immunize travelers, a simple and rapid immunization strategy (RIS) is preferred. We investigated RIS consisting of two full vaccine doses being administered subcutaneously or intradermally on the initial vaccination visit (day 0) at two different anatomical locations with a needle-free disposable syringe jet injection delivery devices (PharmaJet) in non-human primates. This vaccination strategy resulted in efficient priming and induction of neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes comparable to those elicited by the traditional prime and boost (2 months later) vaccination schedule. In addition, the vaccine induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α, and targeting the DENV-2 NS1, NS3, and NS5 proteins. Moreover, vaccine-specific T cells were cross-reactive with the non-structural NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV-4. When animals were challenged with DENV-2 they were protected with no detectable viremia, and exhibited sterilizing immunity (no increase of neutralizing titers post-challenge). RIS could decrease vaccination visits and provide quick immune response to all four DENV serotypes. This strategy could increase vaccination compliance and would be especially advantageous for travelers into endemic areas. PMID:24926294

  4. A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus induces neutralizing antibody that confers protection from challenge in mice, ferrets, and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Young; Vogel, Leatrice; Matsuoka, Yumiko; Lu, Bin; Swayne, David; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2010-11-01

    A live attenuated H7N7 candidate vaccine virus was generated by reverse genetics using the modified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of highly pathogenic (HP) A/Netherlands/219/03 (NL/03) (H7N7) wild-type (wt) virus and the six internal protein genes of the cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (AA ca) (H2N2) virus. The reassortant H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus was temperature sensitive and attenuated in mice, ferrets, and African green monkeys (AGMs). Intranasal (i.n.) administration of a single dose of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus fully protected mice from lethal challenge with homologous and heterologous H7 viruses from Eurasian and North American lineages. Two doses of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in serum and provided complete protection from pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wild-type H7 challenge viruses in mice and ferrets. One dose of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine elicited an antibody response in one of three AGMs that was completely protected from pulmonary replication of the homologous wild-type H7 challenge virus. The contribution of CD8(+) and/or CD4(+) T cells to the vaccine-induced protection of mice was evaluated by T-cell depletion; T lymphocytes were not essential for the vaccine-induced protection from lethal challenge with H7 wt viruses. Additionally, passively transferred neutralizing antibody induced by the H7N7 NL/03 ca virus protected mice from lethality following challenge with H7 wt viruses. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H7N7 NL/03 ca vaccine virus in mice, ferrets, and AGMs support the evaluation of this vaccine virus in phase I clinical trials. PMID:20810733

  5. Live attenuated influenza vaccine provides superior protection from heterologous infection in pigs with maternal antibodies without inducing vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy L; Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M; Richt, Jürgen A; Janke, Bruce H; Sandbulte, Matthew R; Gauger, Philip C; Loving, Crystal L; Webby, Richard J; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2012-10-01

    Control of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in the United States is hindered because inactivated vaccines do not provide robust cross-protection against the multiple antigenic variants cocirculating in the field. Vaccine efficacy can be limited further for vaccines administered to young pigs that possess maternally derived immunity. We previously demonstrated that a recombinant A/sw/Texas/4199-2/1998 (TX98) (H3N2) virus expressing a truncated NS1 protein is attenuated in swine and has potential for use as an intranasal live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. In the present study, we compared 1 dose of intranasal LAIV with 2 intramuscular doses of TX98 whole inactivated virus (WIV) with adjuvant in weanling pigs with and without TX98-specific maternally derived antibodies (MDA). Pigs were subsequently challenged with wild-type homologous TX98 H3N2 virus or with an antigenic variant, A/sw/Colorado/23619/1999 (CO99) (H3N2). In the absence of MDA, both vaccines protected against homologous TX98 and heterologous CO99 shedding, although the LAIV elicited lower hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in serum. The efficacy of both vaccines was reduced by the presence of MDA; however, WIV vaccination of MDA-positive pigs led to dramatically enhanced pneumonia following heterologous challenge, a phenomenon known as vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). A single dose of LAIV administered to MDA-positive pigs still provided partial protection from CO99 and may be a safer vaccine for young pigs under field conditions, where dams are routinely vaccinated and diverse IAV strains are in circulation. These results have implications not only for pigs but also for other influenza virus host species. PMID:22811541

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the direct and indirect impact of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccination strategies in children: alternative country profiles

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurélio; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza poses a significant burden on healthcare systems and society, with under-recognition in the paediatric population. Existing vaccination policies (largely) target the elderly and other risk groups where complications may arise. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of annual paediatric vaccination (in 2–17-year-olds) with live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV), as well as the protective effect on the wider population in England and Wales (base). The study aimed to demonstrate broad applications of the model in countries where epidemiological and transmission data is limited and that have sophisticated vaccination policies (Brazil, Spain, and Taiwan). Methods The direct and indirect impact of LAIV in the paediatric cohort was simulated using an age-stratified dynamic transmission model over a 5-year time horizon of daily cycles and applying discounting of 3.5% in the base case. Pre-existing immunity structure was based on a 1-year model run. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results In the base case for England and Wales, the annual paediatric strategy with LAIV was associated with improvements in influenza-related events and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost, yielding an incremental cost per QALY of £6,208. The model was robust to change in the key input parameters. The probabilistic analysis demonstrated LAIV to be cost effective in more than 99% of iterations, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000. Incremental costs per QALY for Brazil were £2,817, and for the cases of Spain and Taiwan the proposed strategy was dominant over the current practice. Conclusion In addition to existing policies, annual paediatric vaccination using LAIV provides a cost-effective strategy that offers direct and indirect protection in the wider community. Paediatric vaccination strategies using LAIV demonstrated clinical and economic benefits over alternative (current vaccination) strategies in

  7. In vivo assessment of NS1-truncated influenza virus with a novel SLSYSINWRH motif as a self-adjuvanting live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ngunjiri, John M; Ali, Ahmed; Boyaka, Prosper; Marcus, Philip I; Lee, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Mutants of influenza virus that encode C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-truncated mutants) characteristically induce high interferon responses. The dual activity of interferon in blocking virus replication and enhancing the development of adaptive immune responses makes these mutants promising as self-adjuvanting live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. Yet, among the NS1-truncated mutants, the length of NS1 is not directly correlated with the interferon-inducing efficiency, the level of attenuation, or effectiveness as LAIV. Using quantitative in vitro biologically active particle subpopulation analysis as a tool to identify potential LAIV candidates from a pool of NS1-truncated mutants, we previously predicted that a NS1-truncated mutant pc2, which was less effective as a LAIV in chickens, would be sufficiently effective as a LAIV in mammalian hosts. In this study, we confirmed that pc2 protected mice and pigs against heterologous virus challenge in terms of preventing clinical signs and reducing virus shedding. pc2 expresses a unique SLSYSINWRH motif at the C-terminus of its truncated NS1. Deletion of the SLSYSINWRH motif led to ~821-fold reduction in the peak yield of type I interferon induced in murine cells. Furthermore, replacement of the SLSYSINWRH motif with the wildtype MVKMDQAIMD sequence did not restore the interferon-inducing efficiency. The diminished interferon induction capacity in the absence of the SLSYSINWRH motif was similar to that observed in other mutants which are less effective LAIV candidates. Remarkably, pc2 induced 16-fold or more interferon in human lung and monkey kidney cells compared to the temperature-sensitive, cold-adapted Ann Arbor virus that is currently used as a master backbone for LAIVs such as FluMist. Although the mechanism by which the SLSYSINWRH motif regulates the vaccine properties of pc2 has not been elucidated, this motif has potential use in engineering self-adjuvanting NS1-truncated-based LAIVs.

  8. Live attenuated influenza vaccine provides superior protection from heterologous infection in pigs with maternal antibodies without inducing vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amy L; Ma, Wenjun; Lager, Kelly M; Richt, Jürgen A; Janke, Bruce H; Sandbulte, Matthew R; Gauger, Philip C; Loving, Crystal L; Webby, Richard J; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2012-10-01

    Control of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in the United States is hindered because inactivated vaccines do not provide robust cross-protection against the multiple antigenic variants cocirculating in the field. Vaccine efficacy can be limited further for vaccines administered to young pigs that possess maternally derived immunity. We previously demonstrated that a recombinant A/sw/Texas/4199-2/1998 (TX98) (H3N2) virus expressing a truncated NS1 protein is attenuated in swine and has potential for use as an intranasal live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. In the present study, we compared 1 dose of intranasal LAIV with 2 intramuscular doses of TX98 whole inactivated virus (WIV) with adjuvant in weanling pigs with and without TX98-specific maternally derived antibodies (MDA). Pigs were subsequently challenged with wild-type homologous TX98 H3N2 virus or with an antigenic variant, A/sw/Colorado/23619/1999 (CO99) (H3N2). In the absence of MDA, both vaccines protected against homologous TX98 and heterologous CO99 shedding, although the LAIV elicited lower hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in serum. The efficacy of both vaccines was reduced by the presence of MDA; however, WIV vaccination of MDA-positive pigs led to dramatically enhanced pneumonia following heterologous challenge, a phenomenon known as vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). A single dose of LAIV administered to MDA-positive pigs still provided partial protection from CO99 and may be a safer vaccine for young pigs under field conditions, where dams are routinely vaccinated and diverse IAV strains are in circulation. These results have implications not only for pigs but also for other influenza virus host species.

  9. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Strains Elicit a Greater Innate Immune Response than Antigenically-Matched Seasonal Influenza Viruses during Infection of Human Nasal Epithelial Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, William A.; Brighton, Missy; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses are global pathogens that infect approximately 10–20% of the world’s population each year. Vaccines, including the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), are the best defense against influenza infections. The LAIV is a novel vaccine that actively replicates in the human nasal epithelium and elicits both mucosal and systemic protective immune responses. The differences in replication and innate immune responses following infection of human nasal epithelium with influenza seasonal wild type (WT) and LAIV viruses remain unknown. Using a model of primary differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNECs) cultures, we compared influenza WT and antigenically-matched cold adapted (CA) LAIV virus replication and the subsequent innate immune response including host cellular pattern recognition protein expression, host innate immune gene expression, secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and intracellular viral RNA levels. Growth curves comparing virus replication between WT and LAIV strains revealed significantly less infectious virus production during LAIV compared with WT infection. Despite this disparity in infectious virus production the LAIV strains elicited a more robust innate immune response with increased expression of RIG-I, TLR-3, IFNβ, STAT-1, IRF-7, MxA, and IP-10. There were no differences in cytotoxicity between hNEC cultures infected with WT and LAIV strains as measured by basolateral levels of LDH. Elevated levels of intracellular viral RNA during LAIV as compared with WT virus infection of hNEC cultures at 33°C may explain the augmented innate immune response via the up-regulation of pattern recognition receptors and down-stream type I IFN expression. Taken together our results suggest that the decreased replication of LAIV strains in human nasal epithelial cells is associated with a robust innate immune response that differs from infection with seasonal influenza viruses, limits LAIV shedding and plays a role in the

  10. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Loretta; Meyer, Megan; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Zhou, Haibo; Zhang, Hongtao; Jones, Shannon; Robinette, Carole; Noah, Terry L.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing antiviral host defense responses through nutritional supplementation would be an attractive strategy in the fight against influenza. Using inoculation with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) as an infection model, we have recently shown that ingestion of sulforaphane-containing broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) reduces markers of viral load in the nose. To investigate the systemic effects of short-term BSH supplementation in the context of LAIV-inoculation, we examined peripheral blood immune cell populations in non-smoking subjects from this study, with a particular focus on NK cells. We carried out a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study measuring the effects of BSH (N = 13) or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate, ASH; N = 16) on peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to a standard nasal vaccine dose of LAIV in healthy volunteers. Blood was drawn prior to (day-1) and post (day2, day21) LAIV inoculation and analyzed for neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NKT cells, and NK cells. In addition, NK cells were enriched, stimulated, and assessed for surface markers, intracellular markers, and cytotoxic potential by flow cytometry. Overall, LAIV significantly reduced NKT (day2 and day21) and T cell (day2) populations. LAIV decreased NK cell CD56 and CD158b expression, while significantly increasing CD16 expression and cytotoxic potential (on day2). BSH supplementation further increased LAIV-induced granzyme B production (day2) in NK cells compared to ASH and in the BSH group granzyme B levels appeared to be negatively associated with influenza RNA levels in nasal lavage fluid cells. We conclude that nasal influenza infection may induce complex changes in peripheral blood NK cell activation, and that BSH increases virus-induced peripheral blood NK cell granzyme B production, an effect that may be important for enhanced antiviral defense responses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723 PMID:26820305

  11. Live attenuated influenza vaccine strains elicit a greater innate immune response than antigenically-matched seasonal influenza viruses during infection of human nasal epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Fischer, William A; Chason, Kelly D; Brighton, Missy; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-03-26

    Influenza viruses are global pathogens that infect approximately 10-20% of the world's population each year. Vaccines, including the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), are the best defense against influenza infections. The LAIV is a novel vaccine that actively replicates in the human nasal epithelium and elicits both mucosal and systemic protective immune responses. The differences in replication and innate immune responses following infection of human nasal epithelium with influenza seasonal wild type (WT) and LAIV viruses remain unknown. Using a model of primary differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNECs) cultures, we compared influenza WT and antigenically-matched cold adapted (CA) LAIV virus replication and the subsequent innate immune response including host cellular pattern recognition protein expression, host innate immune gene expression, secreted pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and intracellular viral RNA levels. Growth curves comparing virus replication between WT and LAIV strains revealed significantly less infectious virus production during LAIV compared with WT infection. Despite this disparity in infectious virus production the LAIV strains elicited a more robust innate immune response with increased expression of RIG-I, TLR-3, IFNβ, STAT-1, IRF-7, MxA, and IP-10. There were no differences in cytotoxicity between hNEC cultures infected with WT and LAIV strains as measured by basolateral levels of LDH. Elevated levels of intracellular viral RNA during LAIV as compared with WT virus infection of hNEC cultures at 33°C may explain the augmented innate immune response via the up-regulation of pattern recognition receptors and down-stream type I IFN expression. Taken together our results suggest that the decreased replication of LAIV strains in human nasal epithelial cells is associated with a robust innate immune response that differs from infection with seasonal influenza viruses, limits LAIV shedding and plays a role in the silent

  12. Live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine in children, adolescents and adults in a dengue endemic country: randomized controlled phase I trial in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Capeding, Rosario Z; Luna, Imelda A; Bomasang, Emily; Lupisan, Socorro; Lang, Jean; Forrat, Remi; Wartel, Anh; Crevat, Denis

    2011-05-17

    A recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) is safe and immunogenic in adults and children in dengue-naïve populations. Data are needed in dengue endemic populations. In a phase I, randomized, controlled, blind-observer study in the Philippines, groups of participants aged 2-5, 6-11, 12-17, and 18-45 years received either three TDV vaccinations at months 0, 3.5, and 12 (TDV-TDV-TDV group) or licensed typhoid vaccination at month 0 and TDV at months 3.5 and 12 (TyVi-TDV-TDV group) and were followed for safety (including biological safety and vaccine virus viremia) and immunogenicity. No serious adverse vaccine related events and no significant trends in biological safety parameters were reported. Injection site pain, headache, malaise, myalgia, fever, and asthenia were reported most frequently, as mild to moderate in most cases and transient. Reactogenicity did not increase with successive vaccinations and was no higher in children than in adults and adolescents. Low levels of vaccinal viremia were detected in both groups after each TDV vaccination. After three TDV vaccinations, the seropositivity rates against serotypes 1-4 were: 91%, 100%, 96%, 100%, respectively, in 2-5 year-olds; 88%, 96% 96%, 92% in 6-11 year-olds; 88%, 83%, 92%, 96% in adolescents; and 100% for all serotypes in adults. A similar response was observed after two doses for the TyVi-TDV-TDV group. The safety profile of TDV in a flavivirus endemic population was consistent with previous reports from flavivirus naïve populations. A vaccine regimen of either three TDV vaccinations administered over a year or two TDV vaccinations given more than 8 months apart resulted in a balanced antibody response to all four dengue serotypes in this flavivirus-exposed population, including children.

  13. Deoxynivalenol (DON) naturally contaminated feed impairs the immune response induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) live attenuated vaccine.

    PubMed

    Savard, Christian; Gagnon, Carl A; Chorfi, Younes

    2015-07-31

    Cereal commodities are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins produced by the secondary metabolism of fungal infection. Among these contaminants, deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is the most prevalent type B trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide. Pigs are very sensitive to the toxic effects of DON and are frequently exposed to naturally contaminated feed. Recently, DON naturally contaminated feed has been shown to decrease porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) specific antibody responses following experimental infection. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of DON naturally contaminated feed on the immune response generated following vaccination with PRRSV live attenuated vaccine. Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups of 6 animals based on DON content of the diets (0, 2.5 and 3.5mg DON/kg). They were fed these rations one week prior to the vaccination and for all the duration of the immune response evaluation. All pigs were vaccinated intra-muscularly with one dose of Ingelvac(®) PRRSV modified live vaccine (MLV). Blood samples were collected at day -1, 6, 13, 20, 27 and 35 post vaccination (pv) and tested for PRRSV RNA by RT-qPCR and for virus specific antibodies by ELISA. Results showed that ingestion of DON-contaminated diets significantly decreased PRRSV viremia. All pigs fed control diet were viremic while only 1 (17%) and 3 (50%) out of 6 pigs were viremic in the groups receiving 3.5 and 2.5mg of DON/kg, respectively. Subsequently, all pigs fed control diet developed PRRSV specific antibodies while only viremic pigs that were fed contaminated diets have developed PRRSV specific antibodies. These results suggest that feeding pigs with DON-contaminated diet could inhibit vaccination efficiency of PRRSV MLV by severely impairing viral replication.

  14. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  15. A live-attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine based on subtype 2b is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with PPV and PRRSV and is efficacious in a triple challenge co-infection model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a new live-attenuated chimeric PCV1/2b vaccine. Forty-six, 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups (Negative controls, positive controls, Vac-0, Vac-0-PCV2, Contact-PCV2, Vac-28-PCV2). All pigs we...

  16. A live-attenuated and an inactivated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccine are both effective at inducing a humoral immune response and reducing PCV2 viremia and intrauterine infection in female swine of breeding age.

    PubMed

    Hemann, Michelle; Beach, Nathan M; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Wang, Chong; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of inactivated (1 or 2 dose) and live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccines in sows using the PCV2-spiked semen model. Thirty-five sows were randomly divided into 6 groups: negative and positive controls, 1 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-VAC-PCV2), 2 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (2-VAC-PCV2), 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine unchallenged (1-LIVE-VAC), and 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2). The inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine induced higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies in dams. All vaccination strategies provided good protection against PCV2 viremia in dams, whereas the majority of the unvaccinated sows were viremic. Four of the 35 dams became pregnant: a negative control, a positive control, a 2-VAC-PCV2 sow, and a 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 sow. The PCV2 DNA was detected in 100%, 67%, and 29% of the fetuses obtained from the positive control, inactivated vaccinated, or live-attenuated vaccinated dams, respectively. The PCV2 antigen in hearts was only detectable in the positive control litter (23% of the fetuses). The PCV1-2 DNA was detected in 29% of the fetuses in the litter from the 1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2 dam. Under the conditions of this pilot study, both vaccines protected against PCV2 viremia in breeding age animals; however, vertical transmission was not prevented.

  17. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Ivan K; Shearer, William T

    2015-11-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disorders represent pediatric emergencies due to absence of adaptive immune responses to infections. The conditions result from either intrinsic defects in T-cell development (ie, severe combined immunodeficiency disease [SCID]) or congenital athymia (eg, complete DiGeorge anomaly). Hematopoietic stem cell transplant provides the only clinically approved cure for SCID, although gene therapy research trials are showing significant promise. For greatest survival, patients should undergo transplant before 3.5 months of age and before the onset of infections. Newborn screening programs have yielded successful early identification and treatment of infants with SCID and congenital athymia in the United States. PMID:26454313

  18. Autoimmunity in Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Todoric, Krista; Koontz, Jessica B.; Mattox, Daniel; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) comprise a diverse group of clinical disorders with varied genetic defects. Paradoxically, a substantial proportion of PID patients develop autoimmune phenomena in addition to having increased susceptibility to infections from their impaired immunity. Although much of our understanding comes from data gathered through experimental models, there are several well-characterized PID that have improved our knowledge of the pathways that drive autoimmunity. The goals of this review will be to discuss these immunodeficiencies and to review the literature with respect to the proposed mechanisms for autoimmunity within each put forth to date. PMID:23591608

  19. Assessment of immune responses to H5N1 inactivated influenza vaccine among individuals previously primed with H5N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rudenko, Larisa; Naykhin, Anatoly; Donina, Svetlana; Korenkov, Daniil; Petukhova, Galina; Isakova-Sivak, Irina; Losev, Igor; Stukova, Marina; Erofeeva, Mariana; Nikiforova, Alexandra; Power, Maureen; Flores, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of H5 subtype influenza vaccines have been developed and tested in clinical trials, but most of them induced poor serum antibody responses prompting the evaluation of novel vaccination approaches. One of the most promising ones is a “prime-boost” strategy, which could result in the induction of prompt and robust immune responses to a booster influenza vaccine following priming with homologous or heterologous vaccine strains. In our study we evaluated immunogenicity of an adjuvanted A(H5N1) inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in healthy adult subjects who received A(H5N2) live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) 1.5 years earlier and compared this with a group of naïve subjects. We found that priming with A(H5N2) LAIV induced a long-lasting B-cell immunological memory against influenza A(H5N1) virus, which was brought on by more prompt and vigorous antibody production to a single dose of A(H5N1) IIV in the primed group, compared to the naïve controls. Thus, by day 28 after the first booster dose, the hemagglutination inhibition and neutralizing (MN) antibody titer rises were 17.2 and 30.8 in the primed group, compared to 2.3 and 8.0 in the control group, respectively. The majority (79%) of the primed individuals achieved seroprotective MN antibody titers at 7 days after the first dose of the IIV. All LAIV-primed volunteers had MN titers ≥1:40 by Day 28 after one dose of IIV, whereas only 58% subjects from the naïve control group developed similar immune responses at this time point. The second A(H5N1) IIV dose did not increase the immune response in the LAIV-primed group, whereas 2 doses of IIV were required for naïve volunteers to develop significant immune responses. These findings were of special significance since Russian-based LAIV technology has been licensed to WHO, through whom the vaccine has been provided to vaccine manufacturers in India, China and Thailand — countries particularly vulnerable to a pandemic

  20. Generation and Characterization of Live Attenuated Influenza A(H7N9) Candidate Vaccine Virus Based on Russian Donor of Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbik, Svetlana; Pearce, Nicholas; Balish, Amanda; Jones, Joyce; Thor, Sharmi; Davis, Charles Todd; Pearce, Melissa; Tumpey, Terrence; Cureton, David; Chen, Li-Mei; Villanueva, Julie; Bousse, Tatiana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has emerged recently and continues to cause severe disease with a high mortality rate in humans prompting the development of candidate vaccine viruses. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) are 6:2 reassortant viruses containing the HA and NA gene segments from wild type influenza viruses to induce protective immune responses and the six internal genes from Master Donor Viruses (MDV) to provide temperature sensitive, cold-adapted and attenuated phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings LAIV candidate A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9)-CDC-LV7A (abbreviated as CDC-LV7A), based on the Russian MDV, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2), was generated by classical reassortment in eggs and retained MDV temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted phenotypes. CDC-LV7A had two amino acid substitutions N123D and N149D (H7 numbering) in HA and one substitution T10I in NA. To evaluate the role of these mutations on the replication capacity of the reassortants in eggs, the recombinant viruses A(H7N9)RG-LV1 and A(H7N9)RG-LV2 were generated by reverse genetics. These changes did not alter virus antigenicity as ferret antiserum to CDC-LV7A vaccine candidate inhibited hemagglutination by homologous A(H7N9) virus efficiently. Safety studies in ferrets confirmed that CDC-LV7A was attenuated compared to wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013. In addition, the genetic stability of this vaccine candidate was examined in eggs and ferrets by monitoring sequence changes acquired during virus replication in the two host models. No changes in the viral genome were detected after five passages in eggs. However, after ten passages additional mutations were detected in the HA gene. The vaccine candidate was shown to be stable in the ferret model; post-vaccination sequence data analysis showed no changes in viruses collected in nasal washes present at day 5 or day 7. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that the A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9)-CDC-LV7A reassortant virus is a safe and

  1. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Live Attenuated RSV Vaccine in Healthy RSV-Seronegative Children 5 to 24 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Malkin, Elissa; Yogev, Ram; Abughali, Nazha; Sliman, Joseph; Wang, C. Kathy; Zuo, Fengrong; Yang, Chin-Fen; Eickhoff, Mark; Esser, Mark T.; Tang, Roderick S.; Dubovsky, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial morbidity associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, there is no licensed vaccine. MEDI-559 is a live attenuated intranasal vaccine candidate being developed for prevention of lower respiratory illness due to RSV in young children. This randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated safety of MEDI-559 in healthy, RSV-seronegative children. MEDI-559 or placebo was administered on 3 occasions, 2 months apart. Primary safety was based on solicited symptoms (SSs) and adverse events (AEs) collected for 28 days after each dose. Nasal wash samples were collected 3 times after each dose (days 7-10, 12-18, 28-34) and at sick visits. Serum was collected for measuring antibody immune responses to RSV prior to first vaccination and 28 days post final dose. Long-term safety was monitored for 365 days from first dose. SSs were mild and frequent (MEDI-559 84%; placebo 91%); most common SSs were runny/stuffy nose, cough, and irritability/fussiness. AEs occurred in 67% MEDI-559 and 57% placebo recipients: most common AE was upper respiratory tract infection (MEDI-559 35%; placebo 23%). Higher incidence of medically attended lower respiratory illness within 28 days after dosing occurred in the MEDI-559 arm compared to placebo (none associated with vaccine virus shedding). There was no evidence of enhanced RSV disease. Vaccine virus was detected only in MEDI-559 recipients; shedding occurred in 56%subjects, primarily post dose 1. A functional immune response was observed in 59% and 9% MEDI-559 and placebo recipients, respectively, by an RSV microneutralization assay. Vaccine take, assessed by proportion that shed vaccine-type virus or had a seroresponse against RSV, was seen in 95% MEDI-559 subjects. MEDI-559 is therefore biologically active and immunogenic in this seronegative pediatric population. Although the frequency of SSs and AEs was not considered clinically significant, the increase in medically attended lower respiratory illnesses in

  2. Randomized, Controlled Human Challenge Study of the Safety, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of a Single Dose of Peru-15, a Live Attenuated Oral Cholera Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell B.; Giannella, Ralph A.; Bean, Judy; Taylor, David N.; Parker, Susan; Hoeper, Amy; Wowk, Stephen; Hawkins, Jennifer; Kochi, Sims K.; Schiff, Gilbert; Killeen, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    Peru-15 is a live attenuated oral vaccine derived from a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain by a series of deletions and modifications, including deletion of the entire CT genetic element. Peru-15 is also a stable, motility-defective strain and is unable to recombine with homologous DNA. We wished to determine whether a single oral dose of Peru-15 was safe and immunogenic and whether it would provide significant protection against moderate and severe diarrhea in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human volunteer cholera challenge model. A total of 59 volunteers were randomly allocated to groups to receive either 2 × 108 CFU of reconstituted, lyophilized Peru-15 vaccine diluted in CeraVacx buffer or placebo (CeraVacx buffer alone). Approximately 3 months after vaccination, 36 of these volunteers were challenged with approximately 105 CFU of virulent V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba strain N16961, prepared from a standardized frozen inoculum. Among vaccinees, 98% showed at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers. After challenge, 5 (42%) of the 12 placebo recipients and none (0%) of the 24 vaccinees had moderate or severe diarrhea (≥3,000 g of diarrheal stool) (P = 0.002; protective efficacy, 100%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 75%). A total of 7 (58%) of the 12 placebo recipients and 1 (4%) of the 24 vaccinees had any diarrhea (P < 0.001; protective efficacy, 93%; lower one-sided 95% confidence limit, 62%). The total number of diarrheal stools, weight of diarrheal stools, incidence of fever, and peak stool V. cholerae excretion among vaccinees were all significantly lower than in placebo recipients. Peru-15 is a well-tolerated and immunogenic oral cholera vaccine that affords protective efficacy against life-threatening cholera diarrhea in a human volunteer challenge model. This vaccine may therefore be a safe and effective tool to prevent cholera in travelers and is a strong candidate for further evaluation to prevent cholera

  3. Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Centrin Knock Out Parasites Generate Non-inferior Protective Immune Response in Aged Mice against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Ismail, Nevien; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Debrabant, Alain; Akue, Adovi D.; KuKuruga, Mark A.; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani causes severe disease. Age appears to be critical in determining the clinical outcome of VL and at present there is no effective vaccine available against VL for any age group. Previously, we showed that genetically modified live attenuated L. donovani parasites (LdCen-/-) induced a strong protective innate and adaptive immune response in young mice. In this study we analyzed LdCen-/- parasite mediated modulation of innate and adaptive immune response in aged mice (18 months) and compared to young (2 months) mice. Methodology Analysis of innate immune response in bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from both young and aged mice upon infection with LdCen-/- parasites, showed significant enhancement of innate effector responses, which consequently augmented CD4+ Th1 cell effector function compared to LdWT infected BMDCs in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic dendritic cells from LdCen-/- infected young and aged mice also revealed induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF) and subsequent down regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) genes compared to LdWT infected mice. We also evaluated in vivo protection of the LdCen-/- immunized young and aged mice against virulent L. donovani challenge. Immunization with LdCen-/- induced higher IgG2a antibodies, lymphoproliferative response, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses and stimulated splenocytes for heightened leishmanicidal activity associated with nitric oxide production in young and aged mice. Furthermore, upon virulent L. donovani challenge, LdCen-/- immunized mice from both age groups displayed multifunctional Th1-type CD4 and cytotoxic CD8 T cells correlating to a significantly reduced parasite burden in the spleen and liver compared to naïve mice. It is interesting to note that even though there was no difference in the LdCen-/- induced innate response in dendritic cells

  4. Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a herpes zoster live-attenuated vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: a randomised non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; Weinke, Thomas; Garcia de Lomas, Juan; Meyer, Claudius U; Bertrand, Isabelle; Eymin, Cécile; Thomas, Stéphane; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine developed specifically for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals aged ≥50 years. During the clinical development of Zostavax, which was mainly in the US, the vaccine was administrated by the subcutaneous (SC) route. In Europe, many healthcare professionals prefer administering vaccines by the intramuscular (IM) route. This was an open-label, randomised trial conducted in 354 subjects aged ≥50 years. The primary objectives were to demonstrate that IM administration is both non-inferior to SC administration in terms of 4-week post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs), and elicits an acceptable geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of antibody titres measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pre-specified non-inferiority was set as the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio (IM/SC) being >0.67. An acceptable GMFR for the IM route was pre-specified as the lower bound of its 95% CI being >1.4. Description of the VZV immune response using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT) assay and of the safety were secondary objectives. Participants were randomised to IM or SC administration (1:1). The baseline demographics were comparable between groups; mean age: 62.6 years (range: 50.0-90.5). The primary immunogenicity objectives were met (per protocol analysis): GMT ratio (IM/SC): 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93-1.18); GMFR: 2.7 (2.4-3.0). VZV immune response using IFN-γ ELISPOT were comparable between groups. Frequencies of systemic adverse events were comparable between groups. Injection-site reactions were less frequent with IM than SC route: erythema (15.9% versus 52.5%), pain (25.6% versus 39.5%) and swelling (13.6% versus 37.3%), respectively. In adults aged ≥50 years, IM administration of Zostavax elicited similar immune responses to SC administration and was well tolerated, with fewer injection-site reactions than with SC

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (DENVax) in flavivirus-naive healthy adults in Colombia: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E; Velez, Ivan D; Thomson, Cynthia; Lopez, Liliana; Jimenez, Alejandra; Haller, Aurelia A; Silengo, Shawn; Scott, Jaclyn; Boroughs, Karen L; Stovall, Janae L; Luy, Betty E; Arguello, John; Beatty, Mark E; Santangelo, Joseph; Gordon, Gilad S; Huang, Claire Y-H; Stinchcomb, Dan T

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Dengue virus is the most serious mosquito-borne viral threat to public health and no vaccines or antiviral therapies are approved for dengue fever. The tetravalent DENVax vaccine contains a molecularly characterised live attenuated dengue serotype-2 virus (DENVax-2) and three recombinant vaccine viruses expressing the prM and E structural genes for serotypes 1, 3, and 4 in the DENVax-2 genetic backbone. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of tetravalent DENVax formulations. Methods We undertook a randomised, double-blind, phase 1, dose-escalation trial between Oct 11, 2011, and Nov 9, 2011, in the Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. The first cohort of participants (aged 18–45 years) were randomly assigned centrally, via block randomisation, to receive a low-dose formulation of DENvax, or placebo, by either subcutaneous or intradermal administration. After a safety assessment, participants were randomly assigned to receive a high-dose DENVax formulation, or placebo, by subcutaneous or intradermal administration. Group assignment was not masked from study pharmacists, but allocation was concealed from participants, nurses, and investigators. Primary endpoints were frequency and severity of injection-site and systemic reactions within 28 days of each vaccination. Secondary endpoints were the immunogenicity of DENVax against all four dengue virus serotypes, and the viraemia due to each of the four vaccine components after immunisation. Analysis was by intention to treat for safety and per protocol for immunogenicity. Because of the small sample size, no detailed comparison of adverse event rates were warranted. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01224639. Findings We randomly assigned 96 patients to one of the four study groups: 40 participants (42%) received low-dose vaccine and eight participants (8%) received placebo in the low-dose groups; 39 participants (41%) received high-dose vaccine, with nine (9

  6. Assessment of Human Immune Responses to H7 Avian Influenza Virus of Pandemic Potential: Results from a Placebo–Controlled, Randomized Double–Blind Phase I Study of Live Attenuated H7N3 Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Rudenko, Larisa; Kiseleva, Irina; Naykhin, Anatoly N.; Erofeeva, Marianna; Stukova, Marina; Donina, Svetlana; Petukhova, Galina; Pisareva, Maria; Krivitskaya, Vera; Grudinin, Michael; Buzitskaya, Zhanna; Isakova–Sivak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Svetlana; Larionova, Natalie; Desheva, Julia; Dubrovina, Irina; Nikiforova, Alexandra; Victor, John C.; Neuzil, Kathy; Flores, Jorge; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Kiselev, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are being developed to protect humans against future epidemics and pandemics. This study describes the results of a double–blinded randomized placebo–controlled phase I clinical trial of cold–adapted and temperature sensitive H7N3 live attenuated influenza vaccine candidate in healthy seronegative adults. Objective The goal of the study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity and potential shedding and transmission of H7N3 LAIV against H7 avian influenza virus of pandemic potential. Methods and Findings Two doses of H7N3 LAIV or placebo were administered to 40 randomly divided subjects (30 received vaccine and 10 placebo). The presence of influenza A virus RNA in nasal swabs was detected in 60.0% and 51.7% of subjects after the first and second vaccination, respectively. In addition, vaccine virus was not detected among placebo recipients demonstrating the absence of person–to–person transmission. The H7N3 live attenuated influenza vaccine demonstrated a good safety profile and was well tolerated. The two–dose immunization resulted in measurable serum and local antibody production and in generation of antigen–specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells. Composite analysis of the immune response which included hemagglutinin inhibition assay, microneutralization tests, and measures of IgG and IgA and virus–specific T cells showed that the majority (86.2%) of vaccine recipients developed serum and/or local antibodies responses and generated CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells. Conclusions The H7N3 LAIV was safe and well tolerated, immunogenic in healthy seronegative adults and elicited production of antibodies broadly reactive against the newly emerged H7N9 avian influenza virus. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01511419 PMID:24533064

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  8. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  9. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  10. Neutropenia in primary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sokolic, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Neutropenia is a feature of several primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs). Because of the diverse pathophysiologies of the PIDDs and the rarity of each disorder, data are often lacking, leading to the necessity of empiric treatment. Recent developments in the understanding of neutropenia in several of the PIDDs make a review of the data timely. Recent findings The category of severe congenital neutropenia continues to expand. Mutations in G6PC3 have been identified as the cause of neutropenia in a minority of previously molecularly undefined cases. Recent advances have broadened our understanding of the pathophysiology and the clinical expression of this disorder. A possible function of the C16orf57 gene has been hypothesized that may explain the clinical overlap between Clerucuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia and other marrow diseases. Plerixafor has been shown to be a potentially useful treatment in the warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infection, and myelokathexis syndrome. Investigations of patients with adenosine deaminase deficient severe combined immunodeficiency have identified neutropenia, and particularly susceptibility to myelotoxins, as a feature of this disorder. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is the treatment of choice for neutropenia in PIDD, whereas hematopoietic cell transplantation is the only curative option. Summary The number of PIDDs associated with neutropenia has increased, as has our understanding of the range of phenotypes. Additional data and hypotheses have been generated helping to explain the diversity of presentations of neutropenia in PIDDs. PMID:23196894

  11. Genes Required for the Fitness of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium during Infection of Immunodeficient gp91-/- phox Mice.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew J; Oshota, Olusegun; Chaudhuri, Roy R; Mayho, Matthew; Peters, Sarah E; Clare, Simon; Maskell, Duncan J; Mastroeni, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella enterica causes systemic diseases (typhoid and paratyphoid fever), nontyphoidal septicemia (NTS), and gastroenteritis in humans and other animals worldwide. An important but underrecognized emerging infectious disease problem in sub-Saharan Africa is NTS in children and immunocompromised adults. A current goal is to identify Salmonella mutants that are not pathogenic in the absence of key components of the immune system such as might be found in immunocompromised hosts. Such attenuated strains have the potential to be used as live vaccines. We have used transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to screen mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for their ability to infect and grow in the tissues of wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This was to identify bacterial genes that might be deleted for the development of live attenuated vaccines that would be safer to use in situations and/or geographical areas where immunodeficiencies are prevalent. The relative fitness of each of 9,356 transposon mutants, representing mutations in 3,139 different genes, was determined in gp91(-/-) phox mice. Mutations in certain genes led to reduced fitness in both wild-type and mutant mice. To validate these results, these genes were mutated by allelic replacement, and resultant mutants were retested for fitness in the mice. A defined deletion mutant of cysE was attenuated in C57BL/6 wild-type mice and immunodeficient gp91(-/-) phox mice and was effective as a live vaccine in wild-type mice.

  12. Development of a High-Yield Live Attenuated H7N9 Influenza Virus Vaccine That Provides Protection against Homologous and Heterologous H7 Wild-Type Viruses in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Baz, Mariana; Lu, Janine; Paskel, Myeisha; Santos, Celia; Subbarao, Kanta; Jin, Hong; Matsuoka, Yumiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Live attenuated H7N9 influenza vaccine viruses that possess the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from the newly emerged wild-type (wt) A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and six internal protein gene segments from the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (AA ca) were generated by reverse genetics. The reassortant virus containing the original wt A/Anhui/1/2013 HA and NA sequences replicated poorly in eggs. Multiple variants with amino acid substitutions in the HA head domain that improved viral growth were identified by viral passage in eggs and MDCK cells. The selected vaccine virus containing two amino acid changes (N133D/G198E) in the HA improved viral titer by more than 10-fold (reached a titer of 108.6 fluorescent focus units/ml) without affecting viral antigenicity. Introduction of these amino acid changes into an H7N9 PR8 reassortant virus also significantly improved viral titers and HA protein yield in eggs. The H7N9 ca vaccine virus was immunogenic in ferrets. A single dose of vaccine conferred complete protection of ferrets from homologous wt A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) and nearly complete protection from heterologous wt A/Netherlands/219/2003 (H7N7) challenge infection. Therefore, this H7N9 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidate has been selected for vaccine manufacture and clinical evaluation to protect humans from wt H7N9 virus infection. IMPORTANCE In response to the recent avian H7N9 influenza virus infection in humans, we developed a live attenuated H7N9 influenza vaccine (LAIV) with two amino acid substitutions in the viral HA protein that improved vaccine yield by 10-fold in chicken embryonated eggs, the substrate for vaccine manufacture. The two amino acids also improved the antigen yield for inactivated H7N9 vaccines, demonstrating that this finding could great facilitate the efficiency of H7N9 vaccine manufacture. The candidate H7N9 LAIV was immunogenic and protected ferrets against homologous and heterologous

  13. Vaccination of schoolgirls against rubella. Assessment of serological status and a comparative trial of Wistar RA 27/3 and Cendehill strain live attenuated rubella vaccines in 13-year-old schoolgirls in Dudley.

    PubMed

    Freestone, D S; Reynolds, G M; McKinnon, J A; Prydie, J

    1975-12-01

    A total of 1525 schoolgirls aged 13 years from 21 schools in the County Borough of Dudley, were bled for titration of rubella haemagglutinating inhibiting antibody and then were immediately vaccinated with either Wistar RA 27/3 or Cendehill strain live attenuated. Both vaccines were administered subcutaneously by syringe and needle but the Wistar RA 27/3 vaccine was also given by multiple injection apparatus. Significnatly higher conversion rates and geometric mean haemagglutinating inhibiting antibody titres were obtained in girls initially seronegative given the Wister RA 27/3 than in those given the Cendehill vaccine, regardless of the method of vaccination. The RA 27/3 strain was associated with a small but significantly greater incidence of local pain immediately on injection. With this exception, differences in the occurrence of reactions were not found between vaccines, between those initially susceptible and immune or with the level of antibody response.

  14. Dengue virus-specific human CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses in a recipient of an experimental live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine: bulk culture proliferation, clonal analysis, and precursor frequency determination.

    PubMed Central

    Green, S; Kurane, I; Edelman, R; Tacket, C O; Eckels, K H; Vaughn, D W; Hoke, C H; Ennis, F A

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed the CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses 4 months after immunization of a volunteer with an experimental live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine (DEN-1 45AZ5). We examined bulk culture proliferation to noninfectious antigens, determined the precursor frequency of specific CD4+ T cells by limiting dilution, and established and analyzed CD4+ T-cell clones. Bulk culture proliferation was predominantly dengue virus type 1 specific with a lesser degree of cross-reactive responses to other dengue virus serotypes, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Precursor frequency determination by limiting dilution in the presence of noninfectious dengue virus antigens revealed a frequency of antigen-reactive cells of 1 in 1,686 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for dengue virus type 1, 1 in 9,870 PBMC for dengue virus type 3, 1 in 14,053 PBMC for dengue virus type 2, and 1 in 17,690 PBMC for dengue virus type 4. Seventeen CD4+ T-cell clones were then established by using infectious dengue virus type 1 as antigen. Two patterns of dengue virus specificity were found in these clones. Thirteen clones were dengue virus type 1 specific, and four clones recognized both dengue virus types 1 and 3. Analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) restriction revealed that five clones are HLA-DRw52 restricted, one clone is HLA-DP3 restricted, and one clone is HLA-DP4 restricted. These results indicate that in this individual, the CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses to immunization with live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine are predominantly serotype specific and suggest that a multivalent vaccine may be necessary to elicit strong serotype-cross-reactive CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses in such individuals. PMID:8371350

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  17. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  18. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

    2015-08-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era.

  19. Twenty-Eight Years of Poliovirus Replication in an Immunodeficient Individual: Impact on the Global Polio Eradication Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Glynis; Klapsa, Dimitra; Wilton, Thomas; Stone, Lindsay; Minor, Philip D.; Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are currently huge efforts by the World Health Organization and partners to complete global polio eradication. With the significant decline in poliomyelitis cases due to wild poliovirus in recent years, rare cases related to the use of live-attenuated oral polio vaccine assume greater importance. Poliovirus strains in the oral vaccine are known to quickly revert to neurovirulent phenotype following replication in humans after immunisation. These strains can transmit from person to person leading to poliomyelitis outbreaks and can replicate for long periods of time in immunodeficient individuals leading to paralysis or chronic infection, with currently no effective treatment to stop excretion from these patients. Here, we describe an individual who has been excreting type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus for twenty eight years as estimated by the molecular clock established with VP1 capsid gene nucleotide sequences of serial isolates. This represents by far the longest period of excretion described from such a patient who is the only identified individual known to be excreting highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus at present. Using a range of in vivo and in vitro assays we show that the viruses are very virulent, antigenically drifted and excreted at high titre suggesting that such chronic excreters pose an obvious risk to the eradication programme. Our results in virus neutralization assays with human sera and immunisation-challenge experiments using transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor indicate that while maintaining high immunisation coverage will likely confer protection against paralytic disease caused by these viruses, significant changes in immunisation strategies might be required to effectively stop their occurrence and potential widespread transmission. Eventually, new stable live-attenuated polio vaccines with no risk of reversion might be required to respond to any poliovirus isolation in the post-eradication era. PMID:26313548

  20. Construction and characterization of replication-competent simian immunodeficiency virus vectors that express gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Giavedoni, L D; Yilma, T

    1996-01-01

    We report the construction and characterization of several replication-competent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vectors with a deletion in the viral nef gene (SIV(delta nef)) that express gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The expression of the cytokine gene was controlled either by the simian virus 40 early promoter or by the SIV 5' long terminal repeat regulatory sequences, utilizing the nef gene splice signals. To enhance the expression of IFN-gamma, the two in-frame nef start codons were mutated without altering the Env amino acid sequence (SIV(HyIFN)). Plasmids containing full-length proviral genomes were used to obtain high-titer stocks of each recombinant virus in cell cultures. Expression of IFN-gamma by SIV(HyIFN) reached levels as high as 10(6) U/ml after 11 days in culture. The IFN-gamma gene was unstable and sustained deletions after serial passage of SIV(delta nef) vectors in CEM-X-174 cells. The degree of instability appears to depend on size and orientation of the insert and the expression of IFN-gamma. Only one virus, SIV(HyIFN), expressed detectable levels of IFN-gamma up to the sixth passage. Prospects for the use of IFN-gamma and other lymphokines to enhance the safety and efficacy of live attenuated vaccines are discussed. PMID:8642649

  1. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  2. Guidelines for Screening, Early Diagnosis and Management of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in India.

    PubMed

    Madkaikar, Manisha; Aluri, Jahnavi; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe and fatal forms of inherited primary immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis of SCID improves the outcome of life before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is commonly used in western countries as part of newborn blood spot screening (NBS) program as the assay has high sensitivity and specificity to identify SCID infants, allowing early intervention and curative bone marrow (BM) transplantation. In India, the blood spot based screening programs are yet to mature into a full-fledged national program. Moreover, TREC assay, a PCR based test, is not widely available and may cost USD 5-7 per test; thus limiting its applicability for screening newborns in Indian scenario. Most of the SCID patients have lymphopenia at birth and routine evaluation for absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on cord blood samples can help in pre-symptomatic detection and early intervention for neonates with SCID. Although ALC count lacks the sensitivity and specificity of TREC assay; its lower cost and widespread availability makes it an attractive option for identifying newborns with lymphopenia during the post-partum hospital stay. BCG vaccine and other live attenuated vaccines (e.g., oral polio vaccine) should be withheld in lymphopenic infants until SCID is excluded by clinical and/or immunological work-up. A diagnosis of SCID warrants immediate care to prevent and treat infections and wherever feasible, early stem cell transplantation for disease free survival.

  3. Guidelines for Screening, Early Diagnosis and Management of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in India.

    PubMed

    Madkaikar, Manisha; Aluri, Jahnavi; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe and fatal forms of inherited primary immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis of SCID improves the outcome of life before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is commonly used in western countries as part of newborn blood spot screening (NBS) program as the assay has high sensitivity and specificity to identify SCID infants, allowing early intervention and curative bone marrow (BM) transplantation. In India, the blood spot based screening programs are yet to mature into a full-fledged national program. Moreover, TREC assay, a PCR based test, is not widely available and may cost USD 5-7 per test; thus limiting its applicability for screening newborns in Indian scenario. Most of the SCID patients have lymphopenia at birth and routine evaluation for absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on cord blood samples can help in pre-symptomatic detection and early intervention for neonates with SCID. Although ALC count lacks the sensitivity and specificity of TREC assay; its lower cost and widespread availability makes it an attractive option for identifying newborns with lymphopenia during the post-partum hospital stay. BCG vaccine and other live attenuated vaccines (e.g., oral polio vaccine) should be withheld in lymphopenic infants until SCID is excluded by clinical and/or immunological work-up. A diagnosis of SCID warrants immediate care to prevent and treat infections and wherever feasible, early stem cell transplantation for disease free survival. PMID:26920398

  4. Safety and Immunogenicity of Escalating Dosages of a Single Oral Administration of Peru-15 pCTB, a Candidate Live, Attenuated Vaccine against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wilbur H.; Garza, Jose; Choquette, Monique; Hawkins, Jennifer; Hoeper, Amy; Bernstein, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) organisms are a leading cause of infectious diarrhea in developing countries. A live, attenuated cholera strain that expresses high levels of the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin, which might also serve as an ETEC protective antigen, was evaluated for safety, excretion, and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers. We enrolled four inpatient dose-escalation cohorts of 15 to 16 eligible subjects to randomly (3:1) receive a single oral dose of vaccine or placebo (buffer alone), evaluating 1 ×107, 1 ×108, 1 ×109, and 1 ×1010 CFU of the vaccine. The vaccine was well tolerated, although some subjects experienced moderate diarrhea. The serum Inaba vibriocidal antibody response appeared to display a dose-response relationship with increasing dosages of vaccine, plateauing at the 109-CFU dosage. The serum antitoxin (cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin) antibody seroconversion rate (4-fold increase over baseline) also appeared to display a dose-response relationship. The vaccine strain was excreted in stool cultures, displaying a dose-response relationship. A single oral dose of Peru-15 pCTB at dosages up to 1 ×1010 CFU was safe and immunogenic in this first-in-human trial. These encouraging data support the ongoing clinical development of this candidate combined cholera and ETEC vaccine. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00654108.) PMID:25410205

  5. The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

  6. Enhancement of Vaccine Efficacy by Expression of a TLR5 Ligand in the Defined Live Attenuated Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida Strain U112▲iglB::fljB

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Aimee L.; Dang, Kim Minh; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M. Neal; Heidner, Hans; Klose, Karl E.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Oral vaccination with the defined live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine strain U112▲iglB has been demonstrated to induce protective immunity against pulmonary challenge with the highly human virulent F. tularensis strain SCHU S4. However, this vaccination regimen requires a booster dose in mice and exhibits 50% protective efficacy in the Fischer 344 rat model. To enhance the efficacy of this vaccine strain, we engineered U112▲iglB to express the Salmonella typhimurium FljB flagellin D1 domain, a TLR5 agonist. The U112▲iglB::fljB strain was highly attenuated for intracellular macrophage replication, and although the FljB protein was expressed within the cytosol, it exhibited TLR5 activation in a TLR5-expressing HEK cell line. Additionally, infection of splenocytes and lymphocytes with U112▲iglB::fljB induced significantly greater TNF-α production than infection with U112▲iglB. Oral vaccination with U112▲iglB::fljB also induced significantly greater protection than U112ΔiglB against pulmonary SCHU S4 challenge in rats. The enhanced protection was accompanied by higher IgG2a production and serum-mediated reduction of Francisella infectivity. Thus, the U112▲iglB::fljB strain may serve as a potential vaccine candidate against pneumonic tularemia. PMID:25050972

  7. Evaluation of Psn, HmuR and a modified LcrV protein delivered to mice by live attenuated Salmonella as a vaccine against bubonic and pneumonic Yersinia pestis challenge.

    PubMed

    Branger, Christine G; Sun, Wei; Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Perry, Robert; Roland, Kenneth L; Fetherston, Jacqueline; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-12-16

    We evaluated the ability of Yersinia pestis antigens HmuR, Psn and modified forms of LcrV delivered by live attenuated Salmonella strains to stimulate a protective immune response against subcutaneous or intranasal challenge with Y. pestis CO92. LcrV196 is a previously described truncated protein that includes aa 131-326 of LcrV and LcrV5214 has been modified to replace five key amino acids required for interaction with the TLR2 receptor. Psn is the outer membrane receptor for the siderophore, yersiniabactin, and the bacteriocin, pesticin. Mice immunized with Salmonella synthesizing Psn, LcrV196 or LcrV5214 developed serum IgG responses to the respective Yersinia antigen and were protected against pneumonic challenge with Y. pestis. Immunization with Salmonella synthesizing Psn or LcrV196 was sufficient to afford nearly full protection against bubonic challenge, while immunization with the strain synthesizing LcrV5214 was not protective. Immunization with Salmonella synthesizing HmuR, an outer membrane protein involved in heme acquisition in Y. pestis, was poorly immunogenic and did not elicit a protective response against either challenge route. These findings indicate that both Psn and LcrV196 delivered by Salmonella provide protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  8. Interferon-alpha/beta deficiency greatly exacerbates arthritogenic disease in mice infected with wild-type chikungunya virus but not with the cell culture-adapted live-attenuated 181/25 vaccine candidate

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Christina L.; Burke, Crystal W.; Higgs, Stephen T.; Klimstra, William B.; Ryman, Kate D.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection causes fever, rash, and acute and persisting polyarthalgia/arthritis associated with joint swelling. We report a new CHIKV disease model in adult mice that distinguishes the wild-type CHIKV-LR strain from the live-attenuated vaccine strain (CHIKV-181/25). Although eight-week old normal mice inoculated in the hind footpad developed no hind limb swelling with either virus, CHIKV-LR replicated in musculoskeletal tissues and caused detectable inflammation. In mice deficient in STAT1-dependent interferon (IFN) responses, CHIKV-LR caused significant swelling of the inoculated and contralateral limbs and dramatic inflammatory lesions, while CHIKV-181/25 vaccine and another arthritogenic alphavirus, Sindbis, failed to induce swelling. IFN responses suppressed CHIKV-LR and CHIKV-181/25 replication equally in dendritic cells in vitro whereas macrophages were refractory to infection independently of STAT1-mediated IFN responses. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding may be a CHIKV vaccine attenuation mechanism as CHIKV-LR infectivity was not dependent upon GAG, while CHIKV-181/25 was highly dependent. PMID:22305131

  9. Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens.

    PubMed

    Nandre, Rahul M; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa

    2015-07-01

    This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine.

  10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, J Q; Semiatin, S L

    1991-01-01

    We summarize information from three sets of epidemiologic data: the Nevada AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Surveillance System, which contains information about every case identified within the state boundaries through September 1989; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence reporting systems, which currently include data on all HIV-positive reports submitted statewide to public health authorities; and surveys on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Nevadans concerning HIV-related disease. The Nevada State AIDS Task Force outlined major policy recommendations, nearly half of which concerned testing; only 2 dealt with preventing HIV transmission. Greater efforts should go into education, particularly directed toward groups at greatest risk of exposure to HIV, and to improve community-based care of infected persons.

  11. Live Attenuated Bacterial Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture has emerged as an important economical agribusiness, worldwide. Among the top barrier to growth of aquaculture is infectious disease that is causing severe economic losses. Bacterial species of more than 20 genera have been reported as causes of diseases. The risk of disease is often ...

  12. Live attenuated influenza vaccine--a review.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2011-09-01

    Owing to the variability of influenza viruses, vaccine composition needs to be up-dated annually. As many variables can influence their efficacy, vaccines are still considered "sub-optimal". Many studies have been carried out in recent years to improve vaccines. In particular, researchers and vaccine-producing corporations have focused on developing a live vaccine. Among the candidate vaccines, the strain developed by Maassab has recently been licensed in the USA and Europe, after extensive investigation. This vaccine is safe and well tolerated, and has shown very good genetic stability. Although vaccine recipients are able to spread the virus, transmission to close contacts is practically non-existent. Studies on cold-adapted attenuated influenza vaccines have demonstrated that such vaccines are effective, and sometimes more effective than inactivated influenza vaccines. Cold-adapted attenuated influenza vaccines therefore appear to be an important weapon against influenza. However, a more widespread use of these vaccines is to be recommended, especially in children, as the more acceptable way of administration can favour parental compliance.

  13. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills.

  14. [Cancer as secondary immunodeficiency. Review].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Guido-Bayardo, Ricardo Leopoldo; Martínez-Aguilar, Nora Ernestina; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Secondary immunodeficiencys, previously presented in immunocompetent individuals. The lack of primary or secondary response to the presence of a foreign antigen, in the case of infections is a sentinel data in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency (can be primary or secondary), in the case of a self antigen may generate the presence of Cancer. Cancer has shown an increase in the prevalence and incidence globally. Most current medical treatments in cancer are focused primarily on immunomodulatory actions (immunosuppression / immune stimulation or both). Knowledge of key concepts from the perspective of innate and acquired immunity lead to cancer development, engaging immune surveillance and escape mechanisms of this that contribute to better understand the origin, behavior and treatment of neoplasm's. These treatments can cause immunological disorders such as allergy, anaphylaxis, lack of response immunogenicity care fields specialist in allergy and clinical immunology. PMID:27174760

  15. [Cancer as secondary immunodeficiency. Review].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Guido-Bayardo, Ricardo Leopoldo; Martínez-Aguilar, Nora Ernestina; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Secondary immunodeficiencys, previously presented in immunocompetent individuals. The lack of primary or secondary response to the presence of a foreign antigen, in the case of infections is a sentinel data in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency (can be primary or secondary), in the case of a self antigen may generate the presence of Cancer. Cancer has shown an increase in the prevalence and incidence globally. Most current medical treatments in cancer are focused primarily on immunomodulatory actions (immunosuppression / immune stimulation or both). Knowledge of key concepts from the perspective of innate and acquired immunity lead to cancer development, engaging immune surveillance and escape mechanisms of this that contribute to better understand the origin, behavior and treatment of neoplasm's. These treatments can cause immunological disorders such as allergy, anaphylaxis, lack of response immunogenicity care fields specialist in allergy and clinical immunology.

  16. Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Nichole R.; Silvestri, Guido; Hirsch, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are a diverse group of viruses that naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGMs) and sooty mangabey monkeys (SMs). Although natural infection is widespread in feral populations of AGMs and SMs, this infection generally does not result in immunodeficiency. However, experimental inoculation of Asian macaques results in an immunodeficiency syndrome remarkably similar to human AIDS. Thus, natural nonprogressive SIV infections appear to represent an evolutionary adaptation between these animals and their primate lentiviruses. Curiously, these animals maintain robust virus replication but have evolved strategies to avoid disease progression. Adaptations observed in these primates include phenotypic changes to CD4+ T cells, limited chronic immune activation, and altered mucosal immunity. It is probable that these animals have achieved a unique balance between T-cell renewal and proliferation and loss through activation-induced apoptosis, and virus-induced cell death. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in natural hosts for SIV infection should therefore yield insights into the pathogenesis of AIDS and may inform vaccine design. PMID:22315718

  17. Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Hacein-Bey Abina, S; Touzot, F; Cavazzana, M

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy has effectively entered Medicine via the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Because hematopoietic stem cells are accessible and because it was understood that genetic correction of lymphocyte progenitor cells carrying a genetic defect impairing differentiation, could result in the production of long-lived T lymphocytes, it was reasoned that ex vivo gene transfer in hematopoietic cells could lead to disease phenotype correction. Retroviral vectors were designed to ex vivo transduce such cells. This has indeed been shown to lead to sustained correction of the T cell immunodeficiency associated with two forms of severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) for now more than ten years. Occurrence in some patients of genotoxicity related to retroviral vectors integration close to and transactivation of oncogenes has led to the development of retroviral vectors devoid of its enhancer element. Results of recent trials performed for several forms of PID indeed suggest that their use is both safe and efficacious. It is thus anticipated that their application to the treatment of many more life threatening PID will be developed over the coming years.

  18. Respiratory syncytial virus modified by deletions of the NS2 gene and amino acid S1313 of the L polymerase protein is a temperature-sensitive, live-attenuated vaccine candidate that is phenotypically stable at physiological temperature.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Cindy; Winter, Christine C; Collins, Peter L; Buchholz, Ursula J

    2013-02-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children worldwide. In previous work to develop point mutations in RSV with improved genetic stability, we observed that an attenuating mutation at amino acid position 1321 in the L polymerase protein was subject to deattenuation by a spontaneous second-site compensatory mutation at position 1313 (C. Luongo, C. C. Winter, P. L. Collins, and U. J. Buchholz, J. Virol. 86:10792-10804, 2012). In the present study, we found that deletion of position 1313 (Δ1313), irrespective of the presence of an attenuating mutation at position 1321, provided a new attenuating mutation. RSV bearing Δ1313 replicated in cell culture as efficiently as wild-type virus at 32°C, was restricted for replication at 37°C, and was restricted 50-fold and 150-fold in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, respectively, of mice. We combined the Δ1313 deletion with the previously described, attenuating NS2 gene deletion (ΔNS2) to produce the recombinant live-attenuated RSV vaccine candidate ΔNS2/Δ1313. During in vitro stress tests involving serial passage at incrementally increasing temperatures, a second-site compensatory mutation was detected in close proximity of Δ1313, namely, I1314T. This site was genetically and phenotypically stabilized by an I1314L substitution. Combination of I1314L with ΔNS2/Δ1313 yielded a virus, ΔNS2/Δ1313/1314L, with genetic stability at physiological temperature. This stabilized vaccine candidate was moderately temperature sensitive and had a level of restriction in chimpanzees comparable to that of MEDI-559, a promising RSV vaccine candidate that presently is in clinical trials but lacks stabilized attenuating mutations. The level of attenuation and genetic stability identify ΔNS2/Δ1313/1314L as a promising candidate for evaluation in pediatric phase I studies.

  19. Uptake and impact of a new live attenuated influenza vaccine programme in England: early results of a pilot in primary school-age children, 2013/14 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R G; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Zhao, H; Boddington, N; Bawa, Z; Durnall, H; Singh, N; Sunderland, A; Letley, L; Ellis, J; Elliot, A J; Donati, M; Smith, G E; de Lusignan, S; Zambon, M

    2014-01-01

    As part of the introduction and roll-out of a universal childhood live-attenuated influenza vaccination programme, 4–11 year-olds were vaccinated in seven pilot areas in England in the 2013/14 influenza season. This paper presents the uptake and impact of the programme for a range of disease indicators. End-of-season uptake was defined as the number of children in the target population who received at least one dose of influenza vaccine. Between week 40 2013 and week 15 2014, cumulative disease incidence per 100,000 population (general practitioner consultations for influenza-like illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalisations), cumulative influenza swab positivity in primary and secondary care and cumulative proportion of emergency department respiratory attendances were calculated. Indicators were compared overall and by age group between pilot and non-pilot areas. Direct impact was defined as reduction in cumulative incidence based on residence in pilot relative to non-pilot areas in 4–11 year-olds. Indirect impact was reduction between pilot and non-pilot areas in <4 year-olds and >11 year-olds. Overall vaccine uptake of 52.5% (104,792/199,475) was achieved. Although influenza activity was low, a consistent, though not statistically significant, decrease in cumulative disease incidence and influenza positivity across different indicators was seen in pilot relative to non-pilot areas in both targeted and non-targeted age groups, except in older age groups, where no difference was observed for secondary care indicators. PMID:24925457

  20. Live attenuated pandemic influenza vaccine: clinical studies on A/17/California/2009/38 (H1N1) and licensing of the Russian-developed technology to WHO for pandemic influenza preparedness in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, Larisa; van den Bosch, Han; Kiseleva, Irina; Mironov, Alexander; Naikhin, Anatoly; Larionova, Natalie; Bushmenkov, Dimitry

    2011-07-01

    In February 2009, Nobilon granted the World Health Organization (WHO) a non-exclusive licence to develop, register, manufacture, use and sell seasonal a pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) produced on embryonated chicken eggs. WHO was permitted to grant sub-licences to vaccine manufacturers in developing countries within the framework of its influenza vaccine technology transfer initiative. In parallel, the Institute of Experimental Medicine (IEM), Russia, concluded an agreement with WHO for the supply of Russian LAIV reassortants for use by these manufacturers. Also in 2009, IEM carried out a study on a novel A/17/California/2009/38 (H1N1) pandemic LAIV candidate derived from the pandemic-related A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus and the attenuated A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) master donor virus, using routine reassortant technique in embryonated chicken eggs. Following successful preclinical studies in eggs and in ferrets, a double-blind, controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out in immunologically naïve study participants between 12-18 and 18-60 years old. Collectively, the immunogenicity data (haemagglutinin inhibition test, ELISA and cytokine tests for the detection of memory T cells) support the use of a single dose of the pandemic H1N1 LAIV in 12-60 year olds. The outcome of the studies showed no significant adverse reactions attributable to the vaccine, and suggests that the vaccine is as safe and immunogenic as seasonal influenza vaccines. Importantly, it was clearly demonstrated that reliance on the HAI assay alone is not recommended for testing LAIV. To date, via the licence agreement with WHO, the H1N1 LAIV has been transferred to the Government Pharmaceutical Organization in Thailand, the Serum Institute of India, and the Zhejiang Tianyuan Bio-Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in China.

  1. The cold adapted and temperature sensitive influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 virus, the master donor virus for live attenuated influenza vaccines, has multiple defects in replication at the restrictive temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Winnie; Zhou, Helen; Kemble, George; Jin Hong

    2008-10-25

    We have previously determined that the temperature sensitive (ts) and attenuated (att) phenotypes of the cold adapted influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 strain (MDV-A), the master donor virus for the live attenuated influenza A vaccines (FluMist), are specified by the five amino acids in the PB1, PB2 and NP gene segments. To understand how these loci control the ts phenotype of MDV-A, replication of MDV-A at the non-permissive temperature (39 deg. C) was compared with recombinant wild-type A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (rWt). The mRNA and protein synthesis of MDV-A in the infected MDCK cells were not significantly reduced at 39 deg. C during a single-step replication, however, vRNA synthesis was reduced and the nuclear-cytoplasmic export of viral RNP (vRNP) was blocked. In addition, the virions released from MDV-A infected cells at 39 deg. C exhibited irregular morphology and had a greatly reduced amount of the M1 protein incorporated. The reduced M1 protein incorporation and vRNP export blockage correlated well with the virus ts phenotype because these defects could be partially alleviated by removing the three ts loci from the PB1 gene. The virions and vRNPs isolated from the MDV-A infected cells contained a higher level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) than those of rWt, however, whether Hsp70 is involved in thermal inhibition of MDV-A replication remains to be determined. Our studies demonstrate that restrictive replication of MDV-A at the non-permissive temperature occurs in multiple steps of the virus replication cycle.

  2. Lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine manufactured in a good manufacturing practice facility and non-inferiority with respect to an earlier product.

    PubMed

    Zaman, K; Naser, Abu Mohd; Power, Maureen; Yaich, Mansour; Zhang, Lei; Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Luby, Stephen P; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hills, Susan; Bhardwaj, Mukesh; Flores, Jorge

    2014-10-21

    We conducted a four-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial among 818 Bangladeshi infants between 10 and 12 months of age to establish equivalence among three lots of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the China National Biotec Group's Chengdu Institute of Biological Products (CDIBP) in a new Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facility and to evaluate non-inferiority of the product with a lot of the same vaccine manufactured in CDIBP's original facility. The study took place in two sites in Bangladesh, rural Matlab and Mirpur in urban Dhaka. We collected pre-vaccination (Day 0) and post-vaccination Day 28 (-4 to +14 days) blood samples to assess neutralizing anti-JE virus antibody titers in serum by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Seroprotection following vaccination was defined as a PRNT titer ≥1:10 at Day 28 in participants non-immune at baseline. Follow-up for reactogenicity and safety was conducted through home visits at Day 7 and monitoring for serious adverse events through Day 28. Seroprotection rates ranged from 80.2% to 86.3% for all four lots of vaccine. Equivalence of the seroprotection rates between pairs of vaccine lots produced in the new GMP facility was satisfied at the pre-specified 10% margin of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for two of the three pairwise comparisons, but not for the third (-4.3% observed difference with 95% CI of -11.9 to 3.3%). Nevertheless, the aggregate seroprotection rate for all three vaccine lots manufactured in the GMP facility was calculated and found to be within the non-inferiority margin (within 10%) to the vaccine lot produced in the original facility. All four lots of vaccine were safe and well tolerated. These study results should facilitate the use of SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine as a routine component of immunization programs in Asian countries.

  3. Oral immunization of a live attenuated Escherichia coli strain expressing a holotoxin-structured adhesin-toxoid fusion (1FaeG-FedF-LTA₂:5LTB) protected young pigs against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-03-01

    ETEC strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of porcine post-weaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD continues causing significant economic losses to swine producers worldwide. Vaccines effectively protecting against PWD are needed. Our recent study revealed that a tripartite adhesin-toxin monomer (FaeG-FedF-LT(A2-B)) elicited protective antibodies. In this study, we constructed a new adhesin-toxoid fusion, expressed it as a 1A:5B holotoxin-structured antigen (1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B)) in an avirulent Escherichia coli strain, and evaluated its vaccine potential in pig challenge studies. Piglets orally inoculated with this live strain showed no adverse effects but developed systemic and mucosal antibodies that neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence of K88 and F18 fimbriae in vitro. Moreover, the immunized piglets, when were challenged with ETEC strain 3030-2 (K88ac/LT/STb), had significant fewer bacteria colonized at small intestines and did not develop diarrhea; whereas the control piglets developed severe diarrhea and died. These results indicated the 1FaeG-FedF-LT(192A2):5LT(B) fusion antigen induced protective antiadhesin and antitoxin immunity in pigs, and suggested a live attenuated vaccine can be potentially developed against porcine ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, presenting antigens in a holotoxin structure to target host local mucosal immunity can be used in vaccine development against other enteric diseases. PMID:23375979

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities.

  5. Combined immunodeficiency in a calf.

    PubMed

    Bartram, P A; Smith, B P; Holmberg, C; Mandell, C P

    1989-08-01

    Combined immunodeficiency was documented in a 6-week-old Angus calf. The calf had lymphopenia, undetectable serum IgM or IgA, and low concentrations of serum IgG (420 mg/dl). The calf was treated for diarrhea, pneumonia, and shock, and was given antimicrobial drugs, fluids, and plasma. The calf died of systemic candidiasis and Escherichia coli bacteremia. Aggregated lymphatic folliculi (Peyer patches), lymph nodes, and thymic and splenic lymphoid tissue could not be identified at necropsy. PMID:2768060

  6. Comparison of the safety, vaccine virus shedding, and immunogenicity of influenza virus vaccine, trivalent, types A and B, live cold-adapted, administered to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and non-HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Treanor, J; Fast, P E; Wolff, M; Yan, L; Iacuzio, D; Readmond, B; O'Brien, D; Mallon, K; Highsmith, W E; Lambert, J S; Belshe, R B

    2000-02-01

    Fifty-seven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (CDC class A1-2) and 54 non-HIV-infected adults, not prescreened for influenza susceptibility, were randomized to receive trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo intranasally. LAIV was safe and well tolerated with no serious adverse events attributable to vaccine. Reactogenicity rates were similar in LAIV and placebo recipients except that runny nose/nasal congestion was significantly more common in LAIV recipients regardless of HIV status. No prolonged shedding of LAIV was observed in HIV-infected participants. HIV RNA levels were not increased and CD4 counts were not decreased in HIV-infected LAIV recipients compared with placebo recipients after immunization. Shedding of LAIV and increases in antibody titers were infrequent, consistent with prior experience in unscreened adults. The data suggest that inadvertent vaccination with LAIV in relatively asymptomatic HIV-infected adults would not be associated with frequent significant adverse events.

  7. Replication and pathogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 accessory gene mutants in SCID-hu mice.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrovandi, G M; Zack, J A

    1996-01-01

    The functional roles of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory genes (nef, vpr, vpu, and vif) are as yet unclear. Using the SCID-hu model system, we have examined the infectivity, replicative capacity, and pathogenicity of strains of the molecular clone HIV-1NL4-3 that contain deletion mutations in these individual accessory genes. We determined that deletion of these genes had differential effects on both infectivity and pathogenicity. Deletion of vpr had little or no effect on viral infectivity, replication, and pathogenicity; however, deletion of vpu or vif had a significant effect on infectivity and moderate effects on pathogenicity. nef-minus strains were the most attenuated in this system, demonstrating significantly lower levels of infectivity and pathogenicity. However, deletion of these individual genes attenuated but did not abrogate the pathogenic properties of HIV-1. Mutant viruses still retained the ability to induce thymocyte depletion to various degrees if implants were infected with higher doses of virus or observed for longer periods of time. The relative contributions of these genes to in vivo pathogenic potential should be taken into consideration when one is contemplating a live attenuated vaccine for HIV-1. PMID:8627668

  8. Intra-host competition between nef-defective escape mutants and wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Altes, H K; Jansen, V A

    2000-01-01

    Various forms of nef genes with deletions at conserved positions along the sequence have been reported to persist in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected patients. We investigate the forces maintaining such variants in the proviral population. The main selection pressures are preservation of function and host immune response. The crippled Nef protein might have fewer epitopes, and as such be less visible to the specific immune response, but it will lose some function. Does a trade-off between avoidance of the immune response and loss of function explain the dynamics of the crippled virus found in the patients? To answer this question, we formulated a deterministic model of the virus-host interactions. We found that when the crippled protein presents few epitopes and suffers little loss of function, the two viral types can coexist. Otherwise, the wild-type comes to prevail. The mutant form might initially dominate, but as the selective pressure by the CD84+ T cells decreases over the course of infection, the advantage for the crippled form of losing epitopes disappears. Hence, we go from a situation of coexistence of wild-type and mutant, to a situation of only full-length nef. The results are discussed in the context of the suggested use of live attenuated vaccines having deletions in nef. PMID:10687825

  9. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles activate multiple types of immune cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sailaja, Gangadhara; Skountzou, Ioanna; Quan, Fu-Shi; Compans, Richard W. . E-mail: compans@microbio.emory.edu; Kang, Sang-Moo . E-mail: skang2@emory.edu

    2007-06-05

    The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since live attenuated or inactivated HIV is not likely to be approved as a vaccine due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are safe due to the lack of a viral genome. Although HIV VLPs have been shown to induce humoral and cellular immune responses, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which they induce such responses and to improve their immunogenicity. We generated HIV VLPs, and VLPs containing Flt3 ligand (FL), a dendritic cell growth factor, to target VLPs to dendritic cells, and investigated the roles of these VLPs in the initiation of adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. We found that HIV-1 VLPs induced maturation of dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in vitro and in vivo, with enhanced expression of maturation markers and cytokines. Dendritic cells pulsed with VLPs induced activation of splenocytes resulting in increased production of cytokines. VLPs containing FL were found to increase dendritic cells and monocyte/macrophage populations in the spleen when administered to mice. Administration of VLPs induced acute activation of multiple types of cells including T and B cells as indicated by enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 and down-regulation of the homing receptor CD62L. VLPs containing FL were an effective form of antigen in activating immune cells via dendritic cells, and immunization with HIV VLPs containing FL resulted in enhanced T helper type 2-like immune responses.

  11. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2006-01-01

    Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune manifestations. PIDs must be distinguished from secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies, which are far more common. In this review, we will place these immunodeficiencies in the context of both clinical and laboratory presentations as well as highlight the known genetic basis. PMID:17162365

  12. Immune Responses to Circulating and Vaccine Viral Strains in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Children and Youth Who Received the 2013/2014 Quadrivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Adriana; Curtis, Donna; Ning, Mariangeli Freitas; Claypool, David Jeremy; Jalbert, Emilie; Patterson, Julie; Frank, Daniel N.; Ir, Diana; Armon, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has generally been more efficacious than the inactivated vaccine in children. However, LAIV is not recommended for HIV-infected children because of insufficient data. We compared cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses to the 2013–2014 LAIV quadrivalent (LAIV4) in HIV-infected and uninfected children 2–25 years of age (yoa). We analyzed the responses to the vaccine H1N1 (H1N1-09), to the circulating H1N1 (H1N1-14), which had significant mutations compared to H1N1-09 and to B Yamagata (BY), which had the highest effectiveness in 2013–2014. Forty-six HIV-infected and 56 uninfected participants with prior influenza immunization had blood and nasal swabs collected before and after LAIV4 for IFNγ T and IgG/IgA memory B-cell responses (ELISPOT), plasma antibodies [hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN)], and mucosal IgA (ELISA). The HIV-infected participants had median CD4+ T cells = 645 cells/μL and plasma HIV RNA = 20 copies/mL. Eighty-four percent were on combination anti-retroviral therapy. Regardless of HIV status, significant increases in T-cell responses were observed against BY, but not against H1N1-09. H1N1-09 T-cell immunity was higher than H1N1-14 both before and after vaccination. LAIV4 significantly increased memory IgG B-cell immunity against H1N1-14 and BY in uninfected, but not in HIV-infected participants. Regardless of HIV status, H1N1-09 memory IgG B-cell immunity was higher than H1N1-14 and lower than BY. There were significant HAI titer increases after vaccination in all groups and against all viruses. However, H1N1-14 MN titers were significantly lower than H1N1-09 before and after vaccination overall and in HIV-uninfected vaccinees. Regardless of HIV status, LAIV4 increased nasal IgA concentrations against all viruses. The fold-increase in H1N1-09 IgA was lower than BY. Overall, participants <9 yoa had decreased BY-specific HAI and nasal IgA responses

  13. Vaccination with a Live Attenuated Cytomegalovirus Devoid of a Protein Kinase R Inhibitory Gene Results in Reduced Maternal Viremia and Improved Pregnancy Outcome in a Guinea Pig Congenital Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Bierle, Craig J.; Swanson, Elizabeth C.; McVoy, Michael A.; Wang, Jian Ben; Al-Mahdi, Zainab; Geballe, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    vaccination against virion proteins but have yielded disappointing results. The advent of bacterial artificial chromosome technologies has enabled engineering of recombinant cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) from which virus genome-encoded immune modulation genes have been deleted, toward the goal of developing a safe and potentially more efficacious live attenuated vaccine. Here we report the findings of studies of such a vaccine against congenital CMV infection based on a virus with a targeted deletion in gp145, a virus genome-encoded inhibitor of protein kinase R, using the guinea pig model of vertical CMV transmission. The deletion virus was attenuated for dissemination in immunocompromised guinea pigs but elicited ELISA and neutralizing responses. The vaccine conferred protection against maternal DNAemia and congenital transmission and resulted in reduced viral loads in newborn guinea pigs. These results provide support for future studies of attenuated CMV vaccines. PMID:26178990

  14. Unbalanced Immune System: Immunodeficiencies and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Giuliana; Gallo, Vera; Prencipe, Rosaria; Gaudino, Giovanni; Romano, Roberta; De Cataldis, Marco; Lorello, Paola; Palamaro, Loredana; Di Giacomo, Chiara; Capalbo, Donatella; Cirillo, Emilia; D’Assante, Roberta; Pignata, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of developing autoimmune manifestations has been identified in different primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). In such conditions, autoimmunity and immune deficiency represent intertwined phenomena that reflect inadequate immune function. Autoimmunity in PIDs may be caused by different mechanisms, including defects of tolerance to self-antigens and persistent stimulation as a result of the inability to eradicate antigens. This general immune dysregulation leads to compensatory and exaggerated chronic inflammatory responses that lead to tissue damage and autoimmunity. Each PID may be characterized by distinct, peculiar autoimmune manifestations. Moreover, different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie autoimmunity in PID. In this review, the main autoimmune manifestations observed in different PID, including humoral immunodeficiencies, combined immunodeficiencies, and syndromes with immunodeficiencies, are summarized. When possible, the pathogenetic mechanism underlying autoimmunity in a specific PID has been explained. PMID:27766253

  15. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of this screening: (1) Everyone aged 15 to ... the disease to other people. Potential Benefits and Harms of Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The ...

  16. Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

  17. Cancers Related to Immunodeficiencies: Update and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Tabarsi, Payam; Mansouri, Davod; Khosravi, Adnan; Garssen, Johan; Velayati, Aliakbar; Adcock, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The life span of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency is increasing due to recent improvements in therapeutic strategies. While the incidence of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is 1:10,000 births, that of secondary immunodeficiencies are more common and are associated with posttransplantation immune dysfunction, with immunosuppressive medication for human immunodeficiency virus or with human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection. After infection, malignancy is the most prevalent cause of death in both children and adults with (PIDs). PIDs more often associated with cancer include common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, and severe combined immunodeficiency. This suggests that a protective immune response against both infectious non-self-(pathogens) and malignant self-challenges (cancer) exists. The increased incidence of cancer has been attributed to defective elimination of altered or “transformed” cells and/or defective immunity towards cancer cells. The concept of aberrant immune surveillance occurring in PIDs is supported by evidence in mice and from patients undergoing immunosuppression after transplantation. Here, we discuss the importance of PID defects in the development of malignancies and the current limitations associated with molecular pathogenesis of these diseases and emphasize the need for further knowledge of how specific mutations can modulate the immune system to alter immunosurveillance and thereby play a key role in the etiology of malignancies in PID patients. PMID:27703456

  18. History of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Moin, Mostafa; Rezaei, Nima

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric immunology came into sight in the second half of 20th century, when pediatricians and basic immunologists began to give attention to diagnosis and treatment of children with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Understanding the genetic and mechanistic basis of PIDs provides unique insight into the functioning of the immune system. By progress in basic and clinical immunology, many infrastructural organizations and academic centers have been established in many countries worldwide to focus on training and research on the immune system and related disorders. Along with progress in basic and clinical immunology in the world, pediatric immunology had a good progress in Iran during the last 33-year period. Now, patients with PIDs can benefit from multidisciplinary comprehensive care, which is provided by clinical immunologists in collaboration with other specialists. Patients with history of recurrent and/or chronic infections suggestive of PIDs are evaluated by standard and research-based testing and receive appropriate treatment. The progress in PIDs can be described in three periods. Development of training program for clinical fellowship in allergy and immunology, multidisciplinary and international collaborative projects, primary immunodeficiency diseases textbooks, meetings on immunodeficiency disorders, improvement in diagnosis and treatment, and construction of Iranian primary immunodeficiency association, Students' research group for immunodeficiencies, Iranian primary immunodeficiency registry, and the immunological societies and centers were the main activities on PIDs during these years. In this article, we review the growth of modern pediatric immunology and PIDs status in Iran. PMID:23056678

  19. [Lymphocytes B and primary immunodeficiencies].

    PubMed

    López-Herrera, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies represent the most frequent genetic diseases of the immune system and the first to be recognized along immunology history. The antibodies were recognized as part of the humoral immune system long ago, and after immunoglobulin discovery, the first antibody immunodeficiency were recognized and named as "agammaglobulinemia", followed by the common variable immunoendeficiency and the hyper-IgM syndrome. The following discoveries in immunology history made possible the understanding of these pathologies, for example: the discoveries of B cells, pre-B cells, the signaling pathway directed by the antigen receptor and many other cellular and molecular mechanisms. Primary antibody deficiencies have been studied for a long time and the discoveries of new syndromes have been helpful in the understanding of immunological mechanisms that take place in our organism. Then, this manuscript pretends to review the relevant findings in the history of immunology, focused on the B cells and the connection with the description of representative clinical entities of primary antibody deficiencies. The aim of this manuscript is to show to the reader that the generation of scientific knowledge has a direct application in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are affected in these diseases.

  20. Primary immunodeficiencies of food animals.

    PubMed

    McVey, D S; Tizard, I

    1993-03-01

    Although there are few, well-characterized PIDs of food animals, these diseases are important because they tend to be severe and with no cure. Most animals with PID do not receive the intensive and aggressive care required for survival: Veterinarians may be consulted only when the animals are in the terminal stages of illness; it is generally not economically practical for livestock producers or practitioners to pay for the exhaustive laboratory tests required to detect and characterize these anomalies. Another reason for the small numbers of characterized clinical cases of PID is that they are rare. It is possible, however, that intensive artificial insemination and embryo transfer could select for heterozygous carriers of these autosomal traits. As seen with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, as the frequency of an allele increases in the population, the numbers of affected animals increase. Furthermore, other immunodeficient syndromes are likely to exist. Veterinarians therefore should be aware of these disorders and should seek laboratory assistance to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Because of the inheritable nature of PID, livestock producers need assistance from veterinarians to identify carriers and establish sound breeding and control programs. One positive outcome from studies of PID is that research scientists and veterinarians learn much about immune systems from these afflicted animals. In fact, these animals may become models for gene therapy or marrow reconstruction procedures. PMID:8457931

  1. Progressive intracranial fusiform aneurysms and T-cell immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Piantino, Juan A; Goldenberg, Fernando D; Pytel, Peter; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Ansari, Sameer A

    2013-02-01

    In the pediatric population, intracranial fusiform aneurysms have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rarely with opportunistic infections related to other immunodeficiencies. The HIV virus and other infectious organisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these aneurysms. We present a child with T-cell immunodeficiency but no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or opportunistic intracranial infections that developed progressive bilateral fusiform intracranial aneurysms. Our findings suggest a role of immunodeficiency or inflammation in the formation of some intracranial aneurysms.

  2. Women and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, Constance B.

    1988-01-01

    SPECIAL EDITOR'S NOTE: Constance B. Wofsy, MD, is Co-Director of AIDS Activities at San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, as well as Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco; Assistant Chief, Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital; and Principal Investigator, Project AWARE (Association for Women's AIDS Research and Education). Although she was not able to contribute an article for WOMEN AND MEDICINE on this very important subject, she kindly agreed to an interview. Both physicians and nonphysicians were asked what questions they had about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women. Images PMID:3250110

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies.

  4. Women at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadagno, David; And Others

    This article reports results from a survey among women at risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as transmitting it in a vertical (to offspring) and horizontal (sexual partner or intravenous [IV] drug usage) mode. Little is known about the extent of HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, and IV drug usage for women at risk for…

  5. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is clearly one of the most serious health-care crises in the professional lives of contemporary physicians. It cannot be regarded as a curiosity to be dealt with by inner-city infectious-disease experts, but rather must be considered a problem for all health-care providers and a problem in which the obstetrician-gynecologist has a special role to play. PMID:18475370

  7. Silvery grey hair: clue to diagnose immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Ms; Sacchidanand, S; Hiremagalore, R; Asha, Gs

    2012-04-01

    Silvery hair is a common presentation of rare group of autosomal recessive disorders called Silvery hair syndromes including Griscelli syndrome (GS), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. GS is characterized by a silvery grey sheen to hair, large clumped melanosomes in hair shaft, partial albinism, and variable cellular immunodeficiency. We report two cases of GS with classical clinical features and confirmatory findings by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  8. Immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, and the XCIND syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Richard A; Boder, Elena; Good, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Through the analysis of a rare disorder called ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), many important biological lessons have been gleaned. Today, it is clear that the underlying defect of A-T lies in the nucleus, as an inability to repair or process double strand breaks. More important, by the A-T phenotype now allows us to appreciate a much more general distinction between immunodeficiencies that are radiosensitive and those that are not.

  9. Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population. PMID:2680057

  10. Problems of Prophylaxis of Secondary Immunodeficiency States.

    PubMed

    Pershin, Boris B.; Kuzmin, Sergey N.; Medvedev, Vladimir Ya.; Tolstov, Dmitry V.

    1999-12-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to draw up some results of long-term studies conducted by the "Immunoprophylaxis" Center of RANS on such studies. The results of mass and individual studies among 250 thousand blue- and white-collar workers in Russian industrial enterprises are processed in the data bank of the Center, including an analysis of the immunological reactions of 30 thousand individuals studied. An analysis of the results shows that secondary immunodeficiency is encountered in 30% of the people occupied in industrial positions, in 40% of professional athletes and in more than 60% of the children studied. It should be emphasized that in enterprises where there is substantial excessive environmental harm, the frequency of development of immunodeficiency also exceeded the 60% mark. There are many reasons for the development of immunological deficiency and they depend on a large number of factors. Among them, in the first place, is the anthropogenic effect on the environment, which results in contamination of working zones, the earth, water and, as a consequence, food products, the use of which inevitably results in immunodepression. A special place in this problem is occupied by stress, which accompanies almost any professional activity. There is no doubt concerning the opinion that normal functioning of the immune system provides a sufficiently effective "interdiction" against the development of many diseases. Immune deficiency "opens the door" to illness. In other words, immunodeficiency is a detonator for the growth of a pathology.

  11. Attentiveness of pediatricians to primary immunodeficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is a cluster of serious disorders that requires special alertness on the part of the medical staff for prompt diagnosis and management of the patient. This study explored PID knowledge and experience among pediatricians of wide educational backgrounds, practicing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Method A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the competency of pediatricians in their knowledge of PID disorders. This study questionnaire included questions on PID signs and symptoms, syndromes associated with immunodeficiency, screening tests, interpreting laboratory tests and case management. The participants were 263 pediatricians of diverse education working in the 27 governmental hospitals in all regions of UAE. Results The overall performance of the pediatricians did not differ based on their age, gender, origin of certification, rank, or years of experience. Of the 50 questions, 20% of pediatricians answered correctly <60% of the questions, 76% answered correctly 60 to 79% of the questions, and 4% answered correctly ≥80% of the questions. Seventeen of the 19 PID signs and symptoms were identified by 55 to 97%. Four of 5 syndromes associated with immunodeficiency were identified by 50 to 90%. Appropriate screening tests were chosen by 64 to 96%. Attention to the laboratory reference range values as function of patient age was notably limited. Conclusions There was a noteworthy deficiency in PID work-up. Therefore, implementing effective educational strategies is needed to improve the competency of pediatricians to diagnose and manage PID disorders. PMID:22846098

  12. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  13. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  14. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

  15. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  16. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  17. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genome Research Institute: Learning About Severe Combined Immunodeficiency National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune ... Manual Consumer Version Orphanet: T-B+ severe ...

  18. Severe immunodeficiency associated with a human immunodeficiency virus 1 NEF/3'-long terminal repeat transgene

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We have generated several transgenic mouse strains carrying a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) NEF/3' long terminal repeat (LTR) transgene under control of a T cell-specific promoter-enhancer element, showing a depletion of CD4+ T cells in the thymus and periphery. The immunological functions of the line with the most dramatic changes in lymphocyte populations, B6/338L, were analyzed in greater detail. The presence of the transgene in the heterozygous animal is associated with a dominant severe immunodeficiency. Older animals develop lymph- adenopathy and splenomegaly. CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8- single positive thymocytes already are depleted in these mice at the earliest stages in ontogeny, and peripheral T cells are reduced in frequency and present cell surface marker expression, which is characteristic for memory and activated T cells. The immunological response of B6/338L mice to several viral infections is also greatly impaired. Thus, the HIV-1 NEF/3' LTR as transgene in T cells can cause immunodeficiency and disease with striking similarities to a known retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency called murine AIDS (H. C. Morse III, S. K. Chattopadhyay, M. Makino, T. N. Frederickson, A. W. Hugin, and J. W. Hartley. 1992. AIDS. 6:607). PMID:8113676

  19. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (78 FR 21613), FDA published a document that announced the disease ] areas for meetings in fiscal... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure Research. Patient-Focused Drug... Fee Act (PDUFA V). FDA is interested in obtaining patient input on the impact of HIV on daily...

  20. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure Research,'' published in the Federal Register of May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29755). In that notice, FDA requested public comment regarding...

  1. Endemic mycosis complicating human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sarosi, G A; DAvies, S F

    1996-01-01

    Persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus are prone to the development of many fungal diseases. Normal hosts with intact immunity usually recover from infection by these less-invasive fungi. In persons with compromised T-cell-mediated immunity, however, widespread dissemination from a pulmonary focus occurs. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of the three major North American mycoses, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis. In most cases, amphotericin B is the initial drug of choice, followed by one of the azoles for lifelong maintenance therapy. PMID:8732733

  2. Lipid management in human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Merle

    2015-05-01

    The development and use of antiretroviral medications to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically changed the course of this disease from one that was fatal to a chronic and more manageable condition. Recommendations and guidelines for the general population are presented in this review with suggestions as to how they may be applied to this patient population. Issues for which there is little or no information available are noted to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia for patients living with HIV.

  3. Depoliticize Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Public-health policy is inconsistent in its approach to the sexually transmitted disease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nearly every health agency has politicized the reporting, finding, and contacting of HIV cases. There is also no consistency among the various state health departments and the various federal health agencies. Until we have a uniform health policy that treats HIV infection as every other reportable sexually transmitted disease, we will make little progress toward controlling its inevitable increase in both cases and costs. PMID:18475369

  4. Tinea imbricata as a clue to occult immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maroñas Jiménez, Lidia; Monsálvez, Verónica; Gutiérrez García-Rodrigo, Carlota; Postigo Llorente, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Tinea imbricata (TI) is a geographically restricted dermatophytosis with distinctive clinical and immunologic features. We present a case of TI occurring in a native Brazilian child with previously undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection. Physicians should bear in mind that diagnosis of TI may be a clinical clue to potentially serious underlying immunodeficiency.

  5. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients With Primary Immunodeficiencies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-10-14

    Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immunodeficiency; Graft Versus Host Disease; X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome; Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

  6. Family Physician Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Orange, Jordan S.; Seeborg, Filiz O.; Boyle, Marcia; Scalchunes, Christopher; Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) include over 250 diverse disorders. The current study assessed management of PID by family practice physicians. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Committee and the Immune Deficiency Foundation conducted an incentivized mail survey of family practice physician members of the American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association in direct patient care. Responses were compared with subspecialist immunologist responses from a similar survey. Surveys were returned by 528 (of 4500 surveys mailed) family practice physicians, of whom 44% reported following ≥1 patient with PID. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (21%) and chronic granulomatous disease (11%) were most common and were followed by significantly more subspecialist immunologists (P < 0.05). Use of intravenously administered immunoglobulin and live viral vaccinations across PID was significantly different (P < 0.05). Few family practice physicians were aware of professional guidelines for diagnosis and management of PID (4 vs. 79% of subspecialist immunologists, P < 0.05). Family practice physicians will likely encounter patients with PID diagnoses during their career. Differences in how family practice physicians and subspecialist immunologists manage patients with PID underscore areas where improved educational and training initiatives may benefit patient care. PMID:27066486

  7. Combined Immunodeficiency Associated with DOCK8 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Davis, Jeremiah C.; Lamborn, Ian T.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Jing, Huie; Favreau, Amanda J.; Matthews, Helen F.; Davis, Joie; Turner, Maria L.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.; Su, Helen C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections with elevated serum levels of IgE are features of some variants of combined immunodeficiency. The genetic causes of these variants are unknown. METHODS We collected longitudinal clinical data on 11 patients from eight families who had recurrent sinopulmonary and cutaneous viral infections. We performed comparative genomic hybridization arrays and targeted gene sequencing. Variants with predicted loss-of-expression mutations were confirmed by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase –polymerase-chain-reaction assay and immunoblotting. We evaluated the number and function of lymphocytes with the use of in vitro assays and flow cytometry. RESULTS Patients had recurrent otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonias; recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infections with otitis externa; recurrent, severe herpes simplex virus or herpes zoster infections; extensive and persistent infections with molluscum contagiosum; and human papillomavirus infections. Most patients had severe atopy with anaphylaxis; several had squamous-cell carcinomas, and one had T-cell lymphoma –leukemia. Elevated serum IgE levels, hypereosinophilia, low numbers of T cells and B cells, low serum IgM levels, and variable IgG antibody responses were common. Expansion in vitro of activated CD8 T cells was impaired. Novel homozygous or compound heterozygous deletions and point mutations in the gene encoding the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) led to the absence of DOCK8 protein in lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS Autosomal recessive DOCK8 deficiency is associated with a novel variant of combined immunodeficiency. PMID:19776401

  8. Family Physician Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases.

    PubMed

    Orange, Jordan S; Seeborg, Filiz O; Boyle, Marcia; Scalchunes, Christopher; Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) include over 250 diverse disorders. The current study assessed management of PID by family practice physicians. The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Primary Immunodeficiency Committee and the Immune Deficiency Foundation conducted an incentivized mail survey of family practice physician members of the American Medical Association and the American Osteopathic Association in direct patient care. Responses were compared with subspecialist immunologist responses from a similar survey. Surveys were returned by 528 (of 4500 surveys mailed) family practice physicians, of whom 44% reported following ≥1 patient with PID. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (21%) and chronic granulomatous disease (11%) were most common and were followed by significantly more subspecialist immunologists (P < 0.05). Use of intravenously administered immunoglobulin and live viral vaccinations across PID was significantly different (P < 0.05). Few family practice physicians were aware of professional guidelines for diagnosis and management of PID (4 vs. 79% of subspecialist immunologists, P < 0.05). Family practice physicians will likely encounter patients with PID diagnoses during their career. Differences in how family practice physicians and subspecialist immunologists manage patients with PID underscore areas where improved educational and training initiatives may benefit patient care. PMID:27066486

  9. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  10. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  11. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 536: Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and women of color.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur among women of color (primarily African American and Hispanic women). Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact, often from a partner who has undisclosed risk factors for HIV infection. Safe sex practices, especially consistent condom use, must be emphasized for all women, including women of color. A combination of testing, education, and brief behavioral interventions can help reduce the rate of HIV infection and its complications among women of color. In addition,biomedical interventions such as early treatment of patients infected with HIV and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis of high-risk individuals offer promise for future reductions in infections.

  12. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  13. Response of pheasants to live attenuated turkey rhinotracheitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dalton, J R F; Niblett, J; Thrusfield, M V

    2002-09-21

    The entire crop of 18,120 pheasants for the 2000 rearing season (May 8 to August 7) of one estate in the south of England was vaccinated at one day and five weeks of age with a turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) vaccine. Blood samples and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from the second week's hatching every three weeks throughout the growing season to assess the response of the birds. There was evidence of seroconversion in samples collected three weeks after vaccination, with positive titres being maintained in 33 per cent or more of the population up to at least 22 weeks of age. Positive titres were also recorded in samples taken on December 6 from shot birds between 22 and 30 weeks of age. Positive titres to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were identified in a high proportion of the poults as early as one day of age. Reverse-transcriptase PCR detected IBV-like virus and TRT of the same subtype as the TRT vaccine administered three weeks previously.

  14. Evaluation of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Combined Immunodeficiency Pediatric Patients on the Basis of Cellular Radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lobachevsky, Pavel; Woodbine, Lisa; Hsiao, Kuang-Chih; Choo, Sharon; Fraser, Chris; Gray, Paul; Smith, Jai; Best, Nickala; Munforte, Laura; Korneeva, Elena; Martin, Roger F.; Jeggo, Penny A.; Martin, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients with severe or nonsevere combined immunodeficiency have increased susceptibility to severe, life-threatening infections and, without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may fail to thrive. A subset of these patients have the radiosensitive (RS) phenotype, which may necessitate conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this conditioning includes radiomimetic drugs, which may significantly affect treatment response. To provide statistical criteria for classifying cellular response to ionizing radiation as the measure of functional RS screening, we analyzed the repair capacity and survival of ex vivo irradiated primary skin fibroblasts from five dysmorphic and/or developmentally delayed pediatric patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and combined immunodeficiency. We developed a mathematical framework for the analysis of γ histone 2A isoform X foci kinetics to quantitate DNA-repair capacity, thus establishing crucial criteria for identifying RS. The results, presented in a diagram showing each patient as a point in a 2D RS map, were in agreement with findings from the assessment of cellular RS by clonogenic survival and from the genetic analysis of factors involved in the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway. We provide recommendations for incorporating into clinical practice the functional assays and genetic analysis used for establishing RS status before conditioning. This knowledge would enable the selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen, reducing the risk for severe therapy-related adverse effects. PMID:26151233

  15. Evaluation of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Combined Immunodeficiency Pediatric Patients on the Basis of Cellular Radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lobachevsky, Pavel; Woodbine, Lisa; Hsiao, Kuang-Chih; Choo, Sharon; Fraser, Chris; Gray, Paul; Smith, Jai; Best, Nickala; Munforte, Laura; Korneeva, Elena; Martin, Roger F; Jeggo, Penny A; Martin, Olga A

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric patients with severe or nonsevere combined immunodeficiency have increased susceptibility to severe, life-threatening infections and, without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may fail to thrive. A subset of these patients have the radiosensitive (RS) phenotype, which may necessitate conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this conditioning includes radiomimetic drugs, which may significantly affect treatment response. To provide statistical criteria for classifying cellular response to ionizing radiation as the measure of functional RS screening, we analyzed the repair capacity and survival of ex vivo irradiated primary skin fibroblasts from five dysmorphic and/or developmentally delayed pediatric patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and combined immunodeficiency. We developed a mathematical framework for the analysis of γ histone 2A isoform X foci kinetics to quantitate DNA-repair capacity, thus establishing crucial criteria for identifying RS. The results, presented in a diagram showing each patient as a point in a 2D RS map, were in agreement with findings from the assessment of cellular RS by clonogenic survival and from the genetic analysis of factors involved in the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway. We provide recommendations for incorporating into clinical practice the functional assays and genetic analysis used for establishing RS status before conditioning. This knowledge would enable the selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen, reducing the risk for severe therapy-related adverse effects. PMID:26151233

  16. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  17. Inborn errors of metabolism underlying primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Nima; Quartier, Pierre; Rostami, Parastoo; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    A number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) have been shown to result in predominantly immunologic phenotypes, manifesting in part as inborn errors of immunity. These phenotypes are mostly caused by defects that affect the (i) quality or quantity of essential structural building blocks (e.g., nucleic acids, and amino acids), (ii) cellular energy economy (e.g., glucose metabolism), (iii) post-translational protein modification (e.g., glycosylation) or (iv) mitochondrial function. Presenting as multisystemic defects, they also affect innate or adaptive immunity, or both, and display various types of immune dysregulation. Specific and potentially curative therapies are available for some of these diseases, whereas targeted treatments capable of inducing clinical remission are available for others. We will herein review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) due to underlying metabolic disorders.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Warrier, S Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2015-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection.

  19. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men.

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  1. Autoimmune Cytopenias In Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Podjasek, Jenna C.; Abraham, Roshini S.

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a humoral immunodeficiency whose primary diagnostic features include hypogammaglobulinemia involving two or more immunoglobulin isotypes and impaired functional antibody responses in the majority of patients. While increased susceptibility to respiratory and other infections is a common thread that binds a large cross-section of CVID patients, the presence of autoimmune complications in this immunologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is recognized in up to two-thirds of patients. Among the autoimmune manifestations reported in CVID (20–50%; Chapel et al., 2008; Cunningham-Rundles, 2008), autoimmune cytopenias are by far the most common occurring variably in 4–20% (Michel et al., 2004; Chapel et al., 2008) of these patients who have some form of autoimmunity. Association of autoimmune cytopenias with granulomatous disease and splenomegaly has been reported. The spectrum of autoimmune cytopenias includes thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia. While it may seem paradoxical “prima facie” that autoimmunity is present in patients with primary immune deficiencies, in reality, it could be considered two sides of the same coin, each reflecting a different but inter-connected facet of immune dysregulation. The expansion of CD21 low B cells in CVID patients with autoimmune cytopenias and other autoimmune features has also been previously reported. It has been demonstrated that this unique subset of B cells is enriched for autoreactive germline antibodies. Further, a correlation has been observed between various B cell subsets, such as class-switched memory B cells and plasmablasts, and autoimmunity in CVID. This review attempts to explore the most recent concepts and highlights, along with treatment of autoimmune hematological manifestations of CVID. PMID:22837758

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hepatic veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 link) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases Educational Resources (4 links) Disease InfoSearch: ... Resources (6 links) American Liver Foundation Children's Liver Disease ... Foundation International Patient Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies ...

  3. Neuromuscular complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G

    1994-01-01

    At least 4 distinct peripheral neuropathy syndromes occur in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The most common, painful sensory neuropathy, may be related to the viral infection or may be medication induced and is treated symptomatically. The other 3, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex (some patients), and the progressive polyradiculopathies related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may all respond to appropriate therapy. Both inflammatory myopathy and zidovudine myopathy also abate with early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8048229

  4. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) presenting with malabsorption due to giardiasis.

    PubMed

    Onbaşi, Kevser; Günşar, Fulya; Sin, Aytül Z; Ardeniz, Omür; Kokuludağ, Ali; Sebik, Filiz

    2005-06-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency is characterized with B-cell and T-cell dysfunction and hypogammaglobulinemia. Recurrent bacterial infections, such as otitis media, chronic sinusitis and recurrent pneumonia due to diminished immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and impaired antibody production are frequently observed in common variable immunodeficiency. Almost half of the patients with common variable immunodeficiency have problems related to the gastrointestinal system. A 39-year-old woman was referred to our department with the complaint of chronic diarrhea. She had experienced diarrhea without mucus or blood in the last year and had lost 30 kg. In her medical history, she had suffered from recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections like sinusitis, otitis media and pneumonia since childhood. Serum immunoglobulin levels were low. There were no parasites or ova in her stool examinations. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy detected widespread macroscopic nodular appearance on duodenum, and biopsies from the duodenum revealed giardiasis invading the tissue. She was diagnosed as common variable immunodeficiency. After metronidazole therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin infusion was started, her diarrhea attacks ceased and she regained her normal weight. Common gastrointestinal system problems in patients with common variable immunodeficiency are lactose intolerance, lymphoid hyperplasia/diffuse lymphoid infiltration, loss of villi and infection, especially with Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis may lead to severe mucosal flattening and sometimes to lymphoid hyperplasia at the lamina propria of the duodenum. Medical history should be evaluated carefully regarding recurrent respiratory infections. In such cases with chronic diarrhea, common variable immunodeficiency should be kept in mind as a possible cause. PMID:16252205

  5. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  6. Inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integrase.

    PubMed Central

    Fesen, M R; Kohn, K W; Leteurtre, F; Pommier, Y

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to further extend the number of targets for development of antiretroviral agents, we have used an in vitro integrase assay to investigate a variety of chemicals, including topoisomerase inhibitors, antimalarial agents, DNA binders, naphthoquinones, the flavone quercetin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester as potential human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibitors. Our results show that although several topoisomerase inhibitors--including doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, ellipticines, and quercetin--are potent integrase inhibitors, other topoisomerase inhibitors--such as amsacrine, etoposide, teniposide, and camptothecin--are inactive. Other intercalators, such as chloroquine and the bifunctional intercalator ditercalinium, are also active. However, DNA binding does not correlate closely with integrase inhibition. The intercalator 9-aminoacridine and the polyamine DNA minor-groove binders spermine, spermidine, and distamycin have no effect, whereas the non-DNA binders primaquine, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibit the integrase. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester was the only compound that inhibited the integration step to a substantially greater degree than the initial cleavage step of the enzyme. A model of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone interaction with the zinc finger region of the retroviral integrase protein is proposed. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8460151

  7. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  8. Primary immunodeficiencies of the B lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Moise, Ana; Nedelcu, Filofteia Daniela; Toader, Maria Adela; Sora, Steluta Mihaela; Tica, Anca; Ferastraoaru, Denisa Elena; Constantinescu, Ileana

    2010-01-01

    The immune response consists of two main components: humoral immunity represented by B lymphocytes and cellular immunity maintained by the T lymphocytes. Immunoglobulins, produced by B-lymphocytes, are the main mediators of humoral immunity, and deficiencies at this level affect the body's response to infection. Plasmocytes produce nine antibody izotypes: immunoglobulins G (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4), immunoglobulins M (IgM), immunoglobulins A (IgA1, IgA2), immunoglobulins D (IGD) and immunoglobulins E (IgE). Primary hypogammaglobulinemias are characterized by the occurrence of recurrent infections and, paradoxically, by the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Characteristic for these diseases is that symptoms occur at 7-9 months after birth, when transplacental antibody titers transmitted from the mother decrease, and the infant's body is unable to synthesize them to normal levels. Primary hypogammaglobulinemias are transmitted genetically, but mutations at the molecular level are still not fully understood. The most common are: Bruton agammaglobulinemia, transient newborn hypogammaglobulinemia, selective immunoglobulin deficiency and variable common immunodeficiency. Treatment consists of monthly antibiotics and immunoglobulins, depending on antibody titers (except for IgA deficiency).

  9. Immunodeficiency and laser magnetic therapy in urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maati, Moufagued; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Avdoshin, V. P.

    1996-11-01

    The importance of immunodeficiency problem has increased last time not only due to AIDS appearance, but also to a great extent as a result of the development and active practical use of the methods of immunology parameters investigations. Al great pharmaceutical firms are organizing the process of creating the drugs, influencing on the different phases of immunity, but unfortunately, the problem of their adverse effect and connected complications is till today a milestone. A great number of investigations, proving a good effect of laser-magnetic therapy concerning immune system have been done today. There is, in particular, changing of blood counts and immunologic tests after intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Intravenous laser irradiation of blood results in increasing of lymphocytes, T-immuno stimulation, stabilization of t-lymphocyte subpopulation, increasing of t-lymphocyte helper activity and decreasing of suppressor one.Under this laser action number of circulating immune complexes is decreased, and blood serum bactericide activity and lisozyme number are increased.

  10. Goldenhar syndrome: a cause of secondary immunodeficiency?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome (GS) results from an aberrant development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations, the most common being microtia, hemifacial microsomia, epibulbar dermoids and vertebral malformations. We present two cases of GS and secondary immunodeficiency due to anatomical defects characteristic of this disorder. Case 1 (3-year-old female) averaged 6 episodes of sinusitis and otitis media per year. Case 2 (7-year-old female) also had recurrent otitis media, an episode of bacterial pneumonia, and 2 episodes of bacterial meningitis. Their immune evaluation included a complete blood count with differential, serum immunoglobulin levels and specific antibody concentrations, lymphocyte phenotyping, and mitogen and antigen responses, the results of which were all within normal ranges. Both children demonstrated major structural abnormalities of the inner and middle ear structures, retention of fluid in mastoid air cells, and chronic sinusitis by computed tomography. These two cases illustrate how a genetically-associated deviation of the middle ear cleft can cause recurrent infections and chronic inflammation of the middle ear and adjacent sinuses, even meninges, leading to a greatly reduced quality of life for the child and parents. PMID:22747588

  11. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus Gag proteins.

    PubMed

    Burkala, Evan; Poss, Mary

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the predicted biochemical properties of Gag proteins from a diverse group of feline immunodeficiency viruses (FIV) to determine how different evolutionary histories of virus and host have changed or constrained these important structural proteins. Our data are based on FIV sequences derived from domestic cat (FIVfca), cougar (FIVpco), and lions (FIVple). Analyses consisted of determining the selective forces acting at each position in the protein and the comparing predictions for secondary structure, charge, hydrophobicity and flexibility for matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid, and the C-terminal peptide, which comprise the Gag proteins. We demonstrate that differences among the FIV Gag proteins have largely arisen by neutral evolution, although many neutrally evolving regions have maintained biochemical features. Regions with predicted differences in biochemical features appear to involve intramolecular interactions and structural elements that undergo conformational changes during particle maturation. In contrast, the majority of sites involved in intermolecular contacts on the protein surface are constrained by purifying selection. There is also conservation of sites that interact with host proteins associated with cellular trafficking and particle budding. NC is the only protein with evidence of positive selection, two of which occur in the N-terminal region responsible for RNA binding and interaction with host proteins.

  12. [Cerebral infarction in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Blanche, P; Toulon, P; de La Blanchardière, A; Sicard, D

    1995-06-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to have a high risk of ischaemic cerebral events. We observed two cases of cerebral infarction in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the first case, a 38-year-old homosexual with no cardiovascular risk other than smoking presented with rapidly progressive hemiparesia. Brain CT-scan visualized two infarcts in the territory of the right sylvian artery and the arteriography an occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In the second, a 37-year-old homosexual, hospitalization was required for a left-sided pure sensitive epilepsy seizure. There was no cardiovascular risk other than smoking. Magnetic resonance imaging showed parietal ischaemia and thrombus in the left atrium without atrial hypertrophy was seen at transoesophageal echocardiography. In both cases, there was no evidence of endocarditis, dissection of the neck vessels or disseminated intravascular coagulation nor of associated viral or bacterial infectious complication of AIDS. Angiographic findings eliminated cerebral vascularitis. Among the perturbed haemostasis factors previously reported in HIV+ patients, we observed free proteins S deficiency (68 and 43%) and heparin cofactor II deficiency (54 and 40%). Serum albumin was 33 and 32 g/l respectively. Outcome was favourable in both cases with anticoagulant therapy. These coagulation anomalies would not appear sufficient to explain cerebral infarction. Other mechanisms including immune complexed deposition, direct HIV toxicity for endothelial cells or the effect of cytokines on smooth muscles fibres and fibroblasts are probably more important causal factors. PMID:7638144

  13. Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

  14. The severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis: deficits in cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William C; Middaugh, Lawrence D; Cook, Jennifer E; Tyor, William R

    2004-04-01

    The severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis exhibits many of the histopathological and pathophysiological features of human HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Although deficits that may resemble HAD in humans have been reported for HIV-infected SCID mice, the cognitive deficit aspect of the model has very limited empirical support. Here, the authors report that HIV-infected SCID mice display cognitive deficits on a task requiring the animal to learn and remember the spatial relationship of cues in its environment in order to locate a submerged platform in a Morris water maze. The cognitive deficits manifest as longer latencies to locate the platform on the last day of the maze acquisition period and during a retention test 8 days later. Control experiments indicated that the poor performance by HIV-infected mice in comparison to controls was not due to impaired motor function or swimming ability, impaired visual acuity, or increased susceptibility to fatigue. Thus, the increased times required for HIV-infected mice to locate the submerged platform during the acquisition and memory tests likely reflect a cognitive deficit, rather than sensorimotor or emotional abnormalities. These behavioral deficits are associated with significant increases in astrogliosis and microgliosis in the HIV-infected mice. The results of this study strengthen the SCID mouse model of HIV encephalitis by definitively establishing cognitive deficits for the model in addition to its previously reported neuropathological features.

  15. Immunoassay for detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus in serum.

    PubMed

    Otsyula, M G; Yee, J A; Suleman, M A; Marx, P A; Jennings, M B

    1996-04-01

    We developed a simple, inexpensive, rapid assay for the detection of antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serum. The immunoassay uses inactivated SIV and HIV-1 gp41 transmembrane recombinant protein as antigenic adsorbents on a nitrocellulose filter membrane. Diluted serum, with the addition of Protein-A-Gold, is gravity-filtered through the filter membrane, blocked, and buffer-washed. Antibodies to HIV or SIV or both in serum bind to the appropriate antigen, and the resulting antigen-antibody complex reacts with Protein-A-Gold to produce a readable pink color. Field evaluation of the test on 30 human and 70 nonhuman primate sera in Kenya and Zaire indicated that the test had at least 93 and 90% correlation with Western blot sensitivity and specificity respectively. Prior refrigeration of the test kit and incubation of sera during testing were not required. This result indicates that the test may be a rapid, economical, and simple test for detecting HIV, SIV, or both in serum. This immunoassay can be useful for carrying out HIV and SIV serosurveys in countries with limited or no laboratory facilities. PMID:8723237

  16. Antiviral CD8+ T cells in the genital tract control viral replication and delay progression to AIDS after vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with virulence attenuated SHIV 89.6

    PubMed Central

    Genescà, M.; McChesney, M.B.; Miller, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Genescà M, McChesney MB, Miller CJ (Center for Comparative Medicine and California National Primate Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA). Antiviral CD8+ T cells in the genital tract control viral replication and delay progression to AIDS after vaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaques immunized with virulence attenuated SHIV 89.6 (Review). The recently failed clinical efficacy trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine that elicits antiviral CD8+ T-cell responses has emphasized the challenge of producing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/rhesus monkey model of AIDS, live-attenuated lentivirus ‘vaccines’ provide the best protection from uncontrolled viral replication and clinical disease after pathogenic SIV challenge. This review summarizes a recent series of studies in which we show that after vaginal SIV challenge of rhesus macaques immunized with an attenuated lentivirus protection from uncontrolled viral replication is primarily mediated by CD8+ T cells in the vaginal mucosa. Immunization with a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) results in a systemic infection that induces a moderate population of SIV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells with cytolytic potential in the vaginal mucosa. Depletion of CD8+ T cells at the time of SIV challenge completely abrogates the protection mediated by prior infection with attenuated SHIV. Further after vaginal SIV challenge, the only significant expansion of SIV-specific T cells occurs in the vagina in these animals. No significant expansion of T-cell responses was observed in systemic lymphoid tissues. Thus, the presence of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the vagina on the day of vaginal SIV challenge and a modest expansion of local effector T cells is sufficient to stop uncontrolled SIV replication. It seems that T-cell based vaccine strategies that can elicit mucosal effector CD8+ T

  17. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  18. Thymus involution in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grody, W W; Fligiel, S; Naeim, F

    1985-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, predominantly affecting homosexual males and other high-risk groups and characterized by profound alterations in T-lymphocyte function. The authors have examined thymus tissue from 14 patients who died of AIDS and compared the results with findings in five control groups: healthy age-matched controls, elderly individuals, patients with chronic or debilitating illnesses other than AIDS, infants with conditions causing "stress atrophy," and patients with myasthenia gravis. The AIDS group included 11 homosexual males, 1 Haitian, 1 homosexual who was also a drug abuser, and a 10-month-old infant believed to have contracted AIDS following blood transfusion. All the AIDS cases showed marked thymus involution with severe depletion of both lymphocytes and epithelial elements. The latter component consisted primarily of thin cords and nests of primitive-appearing epithelial cells that could be defined by positive immunohistochemical staining for keratin. Many cases showed a variable plasma cell infiltration, and the majority exhibited distinct vascular changes in the form of hyalinization and/or onion-skin patterns, primarily in the adventitia. Most striking of all was the marked paucity of Hassall's corpuscles; four patients had none at all, while in the other ten patients all the Hassall's corpuscles were calcified. These changes were far more extensive than those seen in any of the control groups, which retained most of their complement of Hassall's corpuscles even in the face of marked overall involution. The physiologic function of Hassall's corpuscles is not known, but recent immunohistochemical studies have implicated them in the synthesis of "facteur thymique serique" (FTS, thymulin) and other thymic hormones known to play a role in regulating T-helper and suppressor cell activity. It is conceivable that the extensive destruction of Hassall's corpuscles observed in

  19. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  20. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  1. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies. PMID:25599590

  2. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04494.001 PMID:25599590

  3. Primary immunodeficiency update I: Syndromes associated with eczematous dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pichard, Dominique C.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the availability of powerful molecular techniques has accelerated the pace of discovery of several new primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and revealed the biologic basis of other established PID. These genetic advances, in turn, have facilitated more precise phenotyping of associated skin and systemic manifestations and provide a unique opportunity to better understand the complex human immunologic response. These continuing medical education articles will provide an update of recent advances about PID that may be encountered by dermatologists through their association with eczematous dermatitis, infectious, and non-infectious cutaneous manifestations. Part I will discuss new primary immunodeficiencies that have an eczematous dermatitis. Part II will focus on primary immunodeficiencies that greatly increase susceptibility to fungal infection and the noninfectious presentations of PID. PMID:26282794

  4. Recent advances in treatment of severe primary immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Gennery, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare, inborn errors that result in impaired, disordered or uncontrolled immune responses. Whilst symptomatic and prophylactic treatment is available, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an option for many diseases, leading to cure of the immunodeficiency and establishing normal physical and psychological health. Newborn screening for some diseases, whilst improving outcomes, is focusing research on safer and less toxic treatment strategies, which result in durable and sustainable immune function without adverse effects. New conditioning regimens have reduced the risk of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and new methods of manipulating stem cell sources should guarantee a donor for almost all patients. Whilst incremental enhancements in transplantation technique have gradually improved survival outcomes over time, some of these new applications are likely to radically alter our approach to treating primary immunodeficiencies. PMID:26918153

  5. Noninfectious Granulomas: A Sign of an Underlying Immunodeficiency?

    PubMed

    Shoimer, Ilya; Wright, Nicola; Haber, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders, such as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), may rarely be associated with cutaneous granulomas without an identifiable infection. The authors report a case of a 3-year-old boy with A-T who presented with two persistent ulcerated erythematous nodules. Histopathology was consistent with a granulomatous process secondary to A-T, without an infectious origin. Partial improvement was noted with clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream applied twice daily under occlusion. Of note, the presence of multiple noninfectious granulomas in a child may be the initial sign of an immune deficiency and should alert the astute clinician to investigate for an underlying primary immunodeficiency. Herein, the authors discuss the associations of noninfectious granulomas and primary immunodeficiency disorders and present management options for these difficult-to-treat lesions.

  6. Noninfectious Granulomas: A Sign of an Underlying Immunodeficiency?

    PubMed

    Shoimer, Ilya; Wright, Nicola; Haber, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders, such as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), may rarely be associated with cutaneous granulomas without an identifiable infection. The authors report a case of a 3-year-old boy with A-T who presented with two persistent ulcerated erythematous nodules. Histopathology was consistent with a granulomatous process secondary to A-T, without an infectious origin. Partial improvement was noted with clobetasol propionate 0.05% cream applied twice daily under occlusion. Of note, the presence of multiple noninfectious granulomas in a child may be the initial sign of an immune deficiency and should alert the astute clinician to investigate for an underlying primary immunodeficiency. Herein, the authors discuss the associations of noninfectious granulomas and primary immunodeficiency disorders and present management options for these difficult-to-treat lesions. PMID:26728658

  7. Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses and Children with Primary Immunodeficiency, Iran, 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Shaghaghi, Mohammadreza; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Abolhassani, Hassan; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Parvaneh, Leila; Mahmoudi, Sussan; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Yazdani, Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Eslamian, Mohammad H; Tabatabaie, Hamideh; Yousefi, Maryam; Kandelousi, Yaghoob M; Oujaghlou, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-10-01

    Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Seven patients with humoral immunodeficiency cleared VDPV infection more frequently than did 6 patients with combined immunodeficiencies. Our results raise questions about manifestations of VDPVs in immunodeficient patients and the role of cellular immunity against enterovirus infections. On the basis of an association between VDPVs and immunodeficiency, we advocate screening of patients with primary immunodeficiency for shedding of polioviruses.

  8. Septic arthritis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rivera, J; Monteagudo, I; Lopez-Longo, J; Sanchez-Atrio, A

    1992-12-01

    We have evaluated the presence and characteristics of septic arthritis in intravenous (iv) drug users with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Sixteen patients with both HIV infection and septic arthritis were studied and compared with 5 patients with septic arthritis but no HIV infection. Clinical profile, laboratory findings at the time of onset, localization, causative organisms, mean hospitalization time and presence of complications were the same in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated organism in both groups. We conclude that septic arthritis in HIV infected iv drug users is not uncommon, it is produced by the same organisms and presents similar characteristics to the ones found in iv drug users without HIV infection. Therefore, the presence of HIV infection does not appear to modify the characteristics of septic arthritis.

  9. Poor specific antibody response immunodeficiency (dysgammaglobulinemia) predates systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Al Hamzi, H; Al Shaikh, A; Arnaout, R K

    2013-08-01

    Poor specific antibody response is a well-known primary immunodeficiency that is related to hypogammaglobulinemia or common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The co-existence of CVID or hypogammaglobulinemia and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been rarely described. In all reported cases, the diagnosis of SLE antedates CVID. We report a 15-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed with poor specific antibody response at age 6 years in the form of poor or no antibody response and dysgammaglobulinemia. She developed SLE with musculoskeletal and hematological manifestations, positive antinuclear antibody and high anti-dsDNA nine years later. She was treated with rituximab with good response.

  10. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Anthony A.; Rosenthal, David G.; Bender Ignacio, Rachel; Chu, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in immunocompromised hosts is a fulminant syndrome of immune activation with high rates of mortality that may be triggered by infections or immunodeficiency. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder is necessary to prevent progression to multiorgan failure and death. We report a case of HLH in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus, disseminated histoplasmosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Escherichia coli bacteremia. We discuss management of acutely ill patients with HLH and treatment of the underlying infection versus initiation of HLH-specific chemotherapy. PMID:26566535

  11. Persistent cryptosporidiosis in horses with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Bjorneby, J M; Leach, D R; Perryman, L E

    1991-01-01

    Cryptosporidial infections were established in five young foals with severe combined immunodeficiency following oral administration of 10(8) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All foals shed oocysts (average of 8 x 10(6) to 2 x 10(8)/g of feces) until death. Inflammation and C. parvum organisms were observed in the common bile duct, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Since foals with severe combined immunodeficiency lack functional T and B lymphocytes and are incapable of antigen-specific immune responses, they are well suited for evaluating the pathogenesis and treatment of persistent cryptosporidiosis. Images PMID:1894380

  12. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  13. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  14. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  15. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  16. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  17. Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum and immunodeficiency problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Fedchenko, P. P.

    2004-05-01

    The importance of the presence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum for development of immunodeficiency has been demonstrated. In vitro and in vivo tests of illumination within Mg lines have proved the possibility to reduce the level of HIV/AIDS development.

  18. Spatial analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cougars.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David C; Waller, Lance A; Biek, Roman

    2010-07-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Sporadic Nonfamilial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda.

    PubMed

    Guha, Sibashish Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Lal, Niharika Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), a relatively uncommon metabolic disease, is the most common cutaneous porphyria. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with sporadic, nonfamilial PCT that presented with classical cutaneous findings and multiple risk factors, including alcohol abuse, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, that have been strongly associated with the sporadic form of PCT. PMID:27293254

  20. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  1. Titration of feline immunodeficiency virus-based lentiviral vector preparations.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Dyana T; Barraza, Román; Loewen, Nils; Teo, Wulin; Poeschla, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vectors are useful for introducing integrated transgenes into nondividing human cells. This protocol describes methods for measuring and calculating vector titers in transducing units (TU)/mL. Alternate methods are provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP) vectors and for β-galactosidase vectors.

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Associated Sporadic Nonfamilial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Sibashish Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti; Lal, Niharika Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), a relatively uncommon metabolic disease, is the most common cutaneous porphyria. Here, we present the case of a patient diagnosed with sporadic, nonfamilial PCT that presented with classical cutaneous findings and multiple risk factors, including alcohol abuse, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS, that have been strongly associated with the sporadic form of PCT. PMID:27293254

  3. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting with neonatal aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Scott, Angela; Glover, Jason; Skoda-Smith, Suzanne; Torgerson, Troy R; Xu, Min; Burroughs, Lauri M; Woolfrey, Ann E; Fleming, Mark D; Shimamura, Akiko

    2015-11-01

    Aplastic anemia in the neonate is rare. We report a case of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting with neonatal aplastic anemia. This report highlights the importance of considering SCID early in the evaluation of neonatal aplastic anemia prior to the development of infectious complications.

  4. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  5. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. PMID:25577549

  6. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future.

  7. Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Biek, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

  8. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M.; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Low, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction. PMID:26269797

  9. The Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic, Washington, DC.

    This document presents findings of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. The executive summary lists 20 major findings and recommendations which together comprise a comprehensive national strategy for managing the HIV epidemic. The commission recommends: (1) replacement of the obsolete term "AIDS"…

  10. Toxicity of oral radiotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S.; Fried, P.R.

    1987-03-01

    Although radiotherapy is a standard form of management of head and neck tumors, treatment of the oral cavity in patients who have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced unacceptable toxicity. Five such patients are described as a warning of enhanced toxicity of oral radiotherapy in this patient population.

  11. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Damani A; Carroll, Karen C; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  12. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  13. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Perinatally infected adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (perinatally human immunodeficiency virus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Leticia S; Cardoso, Claudete A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of highly potent antiretroviral treatment during the last decades has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Children that were diagnosed during the first months or years of life and received treatment, are living longer and better and are presently reaching adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIV) and young adults may present specific clinical, behavior and social characteristics and demands. We have performed a literature review about different aspects that have to be considered in the care and follow-up of PHIV. The search included papers in the MEDLINE database via PubMed, located using the keywords “perinatally HIV-infected” AND “adolescents”. Only articles published in English or Portuguese from 2003 to 2014 were selected. The types of articles included original research, systematic reviews, and quantitative or qualitative studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Results are presented in the following topics: “Puberal development and sexual maturation”, “Growth in weight and height”, “Bone metabolism during adolescence”, “Metabolic complications”, “Brain development, cognition and mental health”, “Reproductive health”, “Viral drug resistance” and “Transition to adult outpatient care”. We hope that this review will support the work of pediatricians, clinicians and infectious diseases specialists that are receiving these subjects to continue treatment. PMID:26279988

  15. Inflammatory joint disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Forster, S M; Seifert, M H; Keat, A C; Rowe, I F; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pinching, A J; Harris, J R W

    1988-01-01

    Nine men positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed peripheral, non-erosive arthritis were followed up. The clinical features were compatible with reactive arthritis but were atypical in several respects: the joint symptoms were generally severe, persistent, and unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The onset of arthritis was associated with various infections, none of which are known to be associated with the development of reactive arthritis. HLA typing was performed for three patients, all of whom were positive for HLA-B27. HIV was isolated from the synovial fluid of one patient. No patient had AIDS before developing arthritis, but four progressed to having AIDS after a mean of 7·5 months, and two died. Arthritis resolved in only one patient. The possibility of HIV infection should be considered in all patients with conditions suggesting reactive arthritis. Synovitis in patients with severe immunodeficiency has important pathogenetic implications. PMID:3135044

  16. Severe combined immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in MTHFD1.

    PubMed

    Keller, Michael D; Ganesh, Jaya; Heltzer, Meredith; Paessler, Michele; Bergqvist, A G Christina; Baluarte, H Jorge; Watkins, David; Rosenblatt, David S; Orange, Jordan S

    2013-02-01

    Folate and vitamin B(12) metabolism are essential for de novo purine synthesis, and several defects in these pathways have been associated with immunodeficiency. Here we describe the occurrence of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, and neurologic abnormalities in which hydroxocobalamin and folate therapy provided partial immune reconstitution. Whole exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations in the MTHFD1 gene, which encodes a trifunctional protein essential for processing of single-carbon folate derivatives. We now report the immunologic details of this novel genetic cause of SCID and the response to targeted metabolic supplementation therapies. This finding expands the known metabolic causes of SCID and presents an important diagnostic consideration given the positive impact of therapy. PMID:23296427

  17. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination. PMID:27169690

  18. Thirty years of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Younai, Fariba S

    2013-01-01

    After more than 30 years of battling a global epidemic, the prospect of eliminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most challenging infectious disease of the modern era is within our reach. Major scientific discoveries about the virus responsible for this immunodeficiency disease state, including its pathogenesis, transmission patterns and clinical course, have led to the development of potent antiretroviral drugs that offer great hopes in HIV treatment and prevention. Although these agents and many others still in development and testing are capable of effectively suppressing viral replication and survival, the medical management of HIV infection at the individual and the population levels remains challenging. Timely initiation of antiretroviral drugs, adherence to the appropriate therapeutic regimens, effective use of these agents in the pre and post-exposure prophylaxis contexts, treatment of comorbid conditions and addressing social and psychological factors involved in the care of individuals continue to be important considerations. PMID:24136672

  19. [A case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with ileocecal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Saruta, Masayuki; Sawada, Ryoichi; Ide, Daisuke; Arihiro, Seiji; Matsuoka, Mika; Katoh, Tomohiro; Tajiri, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ileocecal ulcer. A 31-year-old man was admitted with chief complaints of decreased body weight and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a round punched-out ulcer on the ileocecal valve. Initially, we suspected entero-Behçet's disease and simple ulcer as the cause of the ileocecal ulcer. However, after histologic examination of tissue biopsies obtained during colonoscopy, we diagnosed the patient as having cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Based on the patient's white blood cell depletion and CMV enteritis, we performed a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. The test was positive, and the diagnosis of AIDS was established. The number of patients with AIDS has been increasing in Japan; thus, we should consider the possibility of CMV enteritis and AIDS in young adult patients affected by ileocecal ulcer with no notable history.

  20. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  1. Bacillary angiomatosis: a new entity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hnatuk, L A; Brown, D H; Snell, G E

    1994-06-01

    Since the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, previously rare infections and neoplasms have become increasingly common. Bacillary angiomatosis, undescribed in the medical literature prior to 1983, is now second in frequency only to Kaposi's sarcoma with respect to the cutaneous manifestations associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Caused by Rochalimaea henselae, bacillary angiomatosis is easily treated, when diagnosed early, with erythromycin. We present two cases of bacillary angiomatosis that presented to Toronto General Hospital and review this new and clinically interesting entity. The incidence of bacillary angiomatosis will undoubtedly increase as the HIV epidemic accelerates. Since bacillary angiomatosis commonly affects the head and neck region, it is important for the otolaryngologist to become increasingly proficient in its diagnosis and treatment. The current AIDS crisis demands that the otolaryngologist become aware not only of bacillary angiomatosis, but also of the other cutaneous head and neck manifestations of HIV infection.

  2. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  3. Stereotactic biopsy of cerebral lesions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, M A; Pell, M F; Brew, B J

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy, mortality and morbidity of CT directed stereotactic biopsy of a cerebral lesion in 32 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients between July 1991 and June 1994 who had an atypical presentation for toxoplasmosis or who were failing or intolerant of empirical antitoxoplasmosis treatment was evaluated. An histological diagnosis was able to be made in 85%: progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in 13, primary cerebral lymphoma in 10, toxoplasmosis in 3 and HIV encephalitis in one. Non-specific reactive changes or gliosis were seen in 5 patients. There was no mortality, and morbidity occurred in 2 patients: one intraventricular haemorrhage and one transient third nerve palsy. Correct diagnosis made by image-directed stereotactic biopsy of central nervous system (CNS) disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients may improve outcome, particularly in those diseases where effective treatment strategies already exist and become increasingly available in the future.

  4. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, John; Agrawal, Sudhir; Civeira, Maria P.; Sarin, Prem S.; Sun, Daisy; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs.

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  6. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination.

  7. Functional role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vpu.

    PubMed Central

    Terwilliger, E F; Cohen, E A; Lu, Y C; Sodroski, J G; Haseltine, W A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the role of vpu in the replication and cytopathicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), infectious proviruses were constructed that were isogenic except for the ability to produce the protein product of vpu. The vpu-encoded protein is shown to decrease the rate of syncytium formation and cell killing in infected CD4+ human T cells, to increase greatly the export of virus particles from infected cells, and to reduce the rate of accumulation of cell-associated viral proteins. The vpu protein complements in trans the defect in a vpu- HIV-1 provirus but does not affect the simian immunodeficiency virus, which lacks vpu. These observations suggest that vpu may contribute to the AIDS epidemic by increasing the transmission efficiency of the virus. Images PMID:2472639

  8. Sicca complex and infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Couderc, L J; D'Agay, M F; Danon, F; Harzic, M; Brocheriou, C; Clauvel, J P

    1987-05-01

    Five male patients with the persistent generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome also had a sicca complex. Salivary gland biopsy specimens showed diffuse lymphocytic infiltration of the glandular parenchyma. Serum autoantibodies and rheumatoid factor were not detected. All patients had IgG antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and IgG to the viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr virus. These five patients had benign lymphocytic infiltrates in other organs (lung, liver, and kidneys). Sicca complex may be one of the various manifestations of the lymphoid hyperplasia noted in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. In these patients, the sicca complex showed specific features related to male predominance, lack of serum autoantibodies, and peripheral-blood T-lymphocyte subset distribution.

  9. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Patel, Shital M; Flash, Charlene A; Stager, Charles E; Goodman, Jerry C; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-07-01

    As a result of global migration, a significant number of people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection now live in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and other non-endemic countries. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis is a rare cause of ring-enhancing lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that can closely mimic central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report a case of CNS Chagas reactivation in an AIDS patient successfully treated with benznidazole and antiretroviral therapy in the United States.

  11. Down syndrome associated with severe combined immunodeficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, M S; Artac, H; Reisli, I

    2009-01-01

    An 8-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital because of recurrent bronchopneumonia and gastrointestinal tract infections. On physical examination, he had hypotonia, mental retardation, microcephaly with flat facies, low nasal bridge, small nose, small ears. Laboratory evaluation revealed Down syndrome, lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, reduced proportions of the peripheral blood lymphocytes with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and markedly reduced mitogen response of the lymphocytes. We report here unique case of Down syndrome associated with severe combined immunodeficiency. PMID:19852434

  12. Tissue tropism of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Wyand, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a T-lymphotropic lentivirus that is genetically, immunologically, and morphologically related to the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). In rhesus monkeys, SIV induces a progressively fatal immunodeficiency syndrome strikingly similar to human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The tissue and cellular tropism of SIV was determined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization using a 3.48 kilobase SIV envelope gene probe labeled with biotin, {sup 35}S, or {sup 3}H. Probes labeled with {sup 35}S nonspecifically bound to tissue eosinophils and produced poor signal resolution compared to tritium labeled probes. Biotin labeled probes did not detect SIV under similar hybridization conditions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues produced strong hybridization signal with superior morphology compared to frozen tissues. Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and lymphoid tissues most frequently contained SIV RNA. The distribution of SIV did not correlate with sex, or viral inoculum, but was most extensive in animals with SIV induced granulomatous encephalitis. SIV was most frequently observed in lymphocytes and macrophages. In the brain focal granulomas were composed almost entirely of EBM11+, lysozyme+, macrophages which contained large amounts of SIV RNA and p27 core protein detected by the monoclonal antibody R1C7. Cells away from granulomas in the brain parenchyma and around blood vessels contained virus and were compatible with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Lymph nodes in follicular hyperplasia contained small numbers of SIV positive cells compatible with lymphocytes in the paracortex and mantle zones as well as in cells of the germinal center. Lymph nodes in various stages of follicular depletion with expanded paracortices contained large numbers of cells with SIV RNA in lymphocytes and macrophages.

  13. Antiretroviral therapy reduces neurodegeneration in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Alex K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Letendre, Scott L.; Achim, Cristian L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of virally-suppressive antiretroviral therapy on cortical neurodegeneration and associated neurocognitive impairment. Design Retrospective, postmortem observational study. Methods Clinical neuropsychological and postmortem neuropathology data were analyzed in 90 human immunodeficiency virus-infected volunteers from the general community who had never undergone antiretroviral therapy (n=7, “naïve”) or who had undergone antiretroviral therapy and whose plasma viral load was detectable (n = 64 “unsuppressed”) or undetectable (n = 19, “suppressed”) at the last clinical visit prior to death. Subjects were predominately male (74/90, 82%) with a mean age of 44.7 years (SD 9.8). Cortical neurodegeneration was quantified by measuring microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) and synaptophysin (SYP) density in midfrontal cortex tissue sections. Results The suppressed group had higher SYP density than the naïve group (p = 0.007) and higher MAP2 density than the unsuppressed group (p = 0.04). The suppressed group had lower odds of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders than naïve (OR 0.07, p = 0.03). Higher SYP was associated with lower likelihood of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders in univariable (OR 0.8, p=0.03) and multivariable models after controlling for antiretroviral treatment and brain human immunodeficiency virus p24 protein levels (OR 0.72, p=0.01). Conclusions We conclude that virally suppressive antiretroviral treatment protects against cortical neurodegeneration. Further, we find evidence supporting the causal chain from treatment-mediated peripheral and central nervous system viral load suppression to reduced neurodegeneration and improved neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:25686681

  14. Disseminated bronchiectasis in an adult with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Zea-Vera, Andrés Felipe; Agudelo-Rojas, Olga Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are traditionally considered childhood diseases; however, adults account for 35% of all patients with PID. Antibody deficiencies, especially Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), which have their peak incidence in adulthood, require a high suspicion index. Even though the estimated frequency of CVID is not high (1:25,000), high rates of under diagnosis and under reporting are very likely. The delay in diagnosis increases the morbidity and mortality; therefore, adult physicians should be able to suspect, identify and initiate management of individuals with PID. Here we report the case of a 37 year-old man presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea, fever and cough; he developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He complained of recurring pneumonia associated with widespread bronchiectasis since he was 18 years old. Serum immunoglobulins quantification showed severe hypogammaglobulinemia (total IgG <140 mg/dL; total IgA, 2.9 mg/dL; and total IgM <5 mg/dL). Treatment with Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% was started, and with antibiotic treatment for severe pneumonia (during 14 days) was also prescribed. His clinical evolution has been favorable after one year follow-up. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) diagnosis was made.

  15. Disseminated bronchiectasis in an adult with common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo-Rojas, Olga Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are traditionally considered childhood diseases; however, adults account for 35% of all patients with PID. Antibody deficiencies, especially Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), which have their peak incidence in adulthood, require a high suspicion index. Even though the estimated frequency of CVID is not high (1:25,000), high rates of under diagnosis and under reporting are very likely. The delay in diagnosis increases the morbidity and mortality; therefore, adult physicians should be able to suspect, identify and initiate management of individuals with PID. Here we report the case of a 37 year-old man presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea, fever and cough; he developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He complained of recurring pneumonia associated with widespread bronchiectasis since he was 18 years old. Serum immunoglobulins quantification showed severe hypogammaglobulinemia (total IgG <140 mg/dL; total IgA, 2.9 mg/dL; and total IgM <5 mg/dL). Treatment with Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% was started, and with antibiotic treatment for severe pneumonia (during 14 days) was also prescribed. His clinical evolution has been favorable after one year follow-up. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) diagnosis was made. PMID:26019385

  16. Species-Specific, Postentry Barriers to Primate Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wolfgang; Schubert, David; LaBonte, Jason; Munson, Linda; Gibson, Susan; Scammell, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Paul; Sodroski, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    By using replication-defective vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac), and murine leukemia virus (MuLV), all of which were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G glycoprotein, the efficiency of postentry, early infection events was examined in target cells of several mammalian species. Titers of HIV-1 vectors were significantly lower than those of SIVmac and MuLV vectors in most cell lines and primary cells from Old World monkeys. By contrast, most New World monkey cells exhibited much lower titers for the SIVmac vector compared with those of the HIV-1 vector. Prosimian cells were resistant to both HIV-1 and SIVmac vectors, although the MuLV vector was able to infect these cells. Cells from other mammalian species were roughly equivalent in susceptibility to the three vectors, with the exception of rabbit cells, which were specifically resistant to the HIV-1 vector. The level of HIV-1 vector expression was very low in transduced cells of rodent, rabbit, cow, and pig origin. Early postentry restriction of primate immunodeficiency virus infection exhibits patterns largely coincident with species borders and applies to diverse cell types within an individual host, suggesting the involvement of species-specific, widely expressed cellular factors. PMID:10559316

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

  18. [Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea; Castilla-Rodríguez, Jaisel Luz; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Medina-Torres, Edgar Alejandro; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus) and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia). Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect.

  19. [Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis in common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Sánchez, Diana Andrea; Castilla-Rodríguez, Jaisel Luz; Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia; Medina-Torres, Edgar Alejandro; Blancas-Galicia, Lizbeth; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired antibody production. It shows a wide spectrum of manifestations including severe and recurrent respiratory infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus) and gastrointestinal (Campylobacter jejuni, rotavirus and Giardia lamblia). Viral infections caused by herpes zoster, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C are rare. The opportunistic agents such as CMV, Pneumocystis jirovecii, cryptococcus and atypical mycobacteria have been reported as isolated cases. This paper reports the case of a 38-year-old female patient, who began six years before with weight loss of 7 kg in six months, fatigue, weakness, sweating, fever and abdominal pain. Furthermore, patient had intestinal obstruction and abdominal CT showed mesenteric lymph growth. The mesenteric lymph node biopsy revealed positives Mycobacterium PCR, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture for M. bovis. In the laparotomy postoperative period was complicated with nosocomial pneumonia, requiring mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Two years later, she developed right renal abscess that required surgical drainage, once again with a positive culture for Mycobacterium bovis. She was referred to highly specialized hospital and we documented panhypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia. Secondary causes of hypogammaglobulinemia were ruled out and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) was confirmed, we started IVIG replacement. Four years later she developed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma. Until today she continues with IVIG and chemotherapy. This report of a patient with CVID and Mycobacterium bovis infection, a unusual association, shows the cellular immunity susceptibility in this immunodeficiency, additional to the humoral defect. PMID:25758115

  20. Epstein-Barr and human immunodeficiency viruses in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Morgello, S.

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma was examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors was used as substrate for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Targets for amplification were the EBNA-1 region of EBV, the gag region of HIV, and a single copy cellular sequence as a control. The cases studied were autopsy and surgical specimens collected between the years 1985 and 1989. By the working formulation for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, five had large cell, four had mixed large and small cleaved cell, two had small cleaved cell, and one had an unclassified histology. Epstein-Barr virus was detected in 6 of 12 tumors studied. Human immunodeficiency virus was not detected in any of the tumors. The presence of EBV was not correlated with any particular histologic tumor type. It is concluded that EBV, not HIV, can be detected in a large percentage (50%) of AIDS-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas. This viral association may be significant in light of the demonstrated ability of EBV to induce lymphoid tumors in experimental mammalian systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1323221

  1. Protein microarrays: a new tool for the study of autoantibodies in immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jacob M; Utz, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is highly coincident with immunodeficiency. In a small but growing number of primary immunodeficiencies, autoantibodies are diagnostic of a given disease and implicated in disease pathogenesis. In order to improve our understanding of the role of autoantibodies in immunodeficiencies and to discover novel autoantibodies, new proteomic tools are needed. Protein microarrays have the ability to screen for reactivity to hundreds to many thousands of unique autoantigens simultaneously on a single chip using minimal serum input. Here, we review different types of protein microarrays and how they can be useful in framing the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25904912

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, the virus was termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and antibody to HIV became part of the definition of AIDS. The hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS is examined in terms of Koch's postulates and epidemiological, biochemical, genetic, and evolutionary conditions of viral pathology. HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates: (i) free virus is not detectable in most cases of AIDS; (ii) virus can only be isolated by reactivating virus in vitro from a few latently infected lymphocytes among millions of uninfected ones; (iii) pure HIV does not cause AIDS upon experimental infection of chimpanzees or accidental infection of healthy humans. Further, HIV violates classical conditions of viral pathology. (i) Epidemiological surveys indicate that the annual incidence of AIDS among antibody-positive persons varies from nearly 0 to over 10%, depending critically on nonviral risk factors. (ii) HIV is expressed in less than or equal to 1 of every 10(4) T cells it supposedly kills in AIDS, whereas about 5% of all T cells are regenerated during the 2 days it takes the virus to infect a cell. (iii) If HIV were the cause of AIDS, it would be the first virus to cause a disease only after the onset of antiviral immunity, as detected by a positive "AIDS test." (iv) AIDS follows the onset of antiviral immunity only after long and unpredictable asymptomatic intervals averaging 8 years, although HIV replicates within 1 to 2 days and induces immunity within 1 to 2 months. (v) HIV supposedly causes AIDS

  3. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J K; Sparger, E; Ho, E W; Andersen, P R; O'Connor, T P; Mandell, C P; Lowenstine, L; Munn, R; Pedersen, N C

    1988-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; formerly, feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. It is antigenically dissimilar, however. The virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline T-lymphoblastoid cells and Crandell feline kidney cells. The virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells from man, dogs, mice, and sheep. During short-term inoculation studies in cats, the feline immunodeficiency-like syndrome found in nature was not experimentally induced, but a distinct primary phase of infection was observed. Fever and neutropenia were observed 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation; fever lasted several days, and neutropenia persisted from 1 to 9 weeks. Generalized lymphadenopathy that persisted for 2 to 9 months appeared at the same time. Antibodies to FIV appeared 2 weeks after inoculation and then plateaued. Virus was reisolated from the blood of all infected cats within 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation and persisted indefinitely in the face of humoral antibody response. Virus was recovered from blood, plasma, CSF and saliva, but not from colostrum or milk. Contact transmission was achieved slowly in one colony of naturally infected cats, but not between experimentally infected and susceptible specific-pathogen-free cats kept together for periods as long as 4 to 14 months. The infection was transmitted readily, however, by parenteral inoculation with blood, plasma, or infective cell culture fluids. In utero and lactogenic transmission were not observed in kittens born to naturally or experimentally infected queens. Lymphadenopathy observed during the initial stage of FIV infection was ascribed to lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular dysplasia. A myeloproliferative disorder was observed in 1 cat with experimentally induced infection. PMID:2459996

  4. Neuromyelitis optica in patients with coexisting human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Singh, Parbhdeep; Smith, Robert G

    2013-09-01

    Two patients with known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and receiving antiretroviral treatment developed neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease). One patient tested positive for serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies. Both patients were treated with high dose pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone followed by standard sessions of plasma exchange both at the onset attack and during disease relapses. For maintenance therapy, one patient received rituximab infusions and the second patient received mycophenolate mofetil orally. Despite treatment, both patients are currently wheelchair-bound due to severe paraparesis. Neuromyelitis optica can occur in the course of HIV infection and poses an ongoing therapeutic challenge.

  5. The human immunodeficiency virus reduces network capacity: acoustic noise effect

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Dardo; Chang, Linda; de Castro Caparelli, Elisabeth; Telang, Frank; Ernst, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Increased acoustic noise (AN) during working memory (WM) leads to increased brain activation in healthy individuals, and may have greater impact in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Compared to controls, HIV subjects showed reduced AN-activation and lower neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate in prefrontal and parietal cortices. Competing use of the WM network between AN and cognitive load showed lower dynamic range of the hemodynamic responses in prefrontal and parietal cortices in HIV patients. These findings suggest reduced reserve capacity of the WM network in HIV patients and additional stress (e.g. AN) might exhaust the impaired network for more demanding tasks. PMID:16437575

  6. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  7. Polymorphous hemangioendothelioma in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Paul, Stephan R; Hurford, Matthew T; Miettinen, Markku M; Aronoff, Stephen C; Delvecchio, Michael; Grewal, Harsh; Tuluc, Madalina

    2008-03-01

    Polymorphous hemangioendotheliomas (PH) are rare and borderline malignant tumors that are among the wide range of vascular tumors. We report here a 13-year-old male presenting with a history of weight loss, opportunistic infections, and lymphadenopathy. He was determined to be HIV positive and to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A biopsy of a femoral node was diagnostic of PH. His systemic lymphadenopathy appeared to resolve with anti-retroviral therapy. This tumor should be considered within the differential diagnoses of pediatric and immunocompromised patients.

  8. Morphology and Immunohistochemical Phenotype of the Thymus in Secondary Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Struchko, G Yu; Merkulova, L M; Moskvichev, E V; Kostrova, O Yu; Mikhailova, M N; Drandrova, E G

    2015-10-01

    The thymus of outbred male rats 5 months after splenectomy (experimental secondary immunodeficiency) was studied by common histological and immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to CD3, CD30, CD68, synaptophysin, to S100, p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 proteins. Removal of the spleen led to acute involution of the thymic parenchyma, which was replaced by the adipose tissue and was associated with restructuring of the thymopoietic and nonthymopoietic components of the gland, changes in cellular composition and antigenic phenotype of the lobular cortical and medullary matter, and by reduction of cell proliferation.

  9. Management of dyslipidemia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Shalit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are more common in the patient population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality and has transformed HIV disease into a chronic, manageable condition. As a result, non-AIDS-related illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases, are now the leading causes of death in the HIV-infected population. Optimizing fasting lipid parameters plays an important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in this population. This review focuses on the management of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination ART.

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kalapila, Aley G; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a chronic medical condition. Several new drugs are available, including fixed-dose combination tablets, that have greatly simplified combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens to treat HIV, while increasing the life-expectancy of infected individuals. In the last decade, multiple well-regarded studies have established the benefits of using ART in high-risk, HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV acquisition. The primary care provider must not only understand commonly encountered issues pertaining to ART, such as toxicities and drug interactions, but also needs to be aware of using ART for HIV prevention. PMID:27235622

  11. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: an Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency 2015.

    PubMed

    Picard, Capucine; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Holland, Steven M; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D; Oksenhendler, Eric; Puck, Jennifer M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Tang, Mimi L K; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H Bobby

    2015-11-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Primary Immunodeficiency Expert Committee (PID EC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). In the two years since the previous version, 34 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. In this new version we continue to see the increasing overlap between immunodeficiency, as manifested by infection and/or malignancy, and immune dysregulation, as manifested by auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, and/or allergy. There is also an increased number of genetic defects that lead to susceptibility to specific organisms which reflects the finely tuned nature of immune defense systems. This classification is the most up to date catalogue of all known and published primary immunodeficiencies and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the genetic and molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  15. Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses and Children with Primary Immunodeficiency, Iran, 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Shaghaghi, Mohammadreza; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Abolhassani, Hassan; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Parvaneh, Leila; Mahmoudi, Sussan; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Yazdani, Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Eslamian, Mohammad H; Tabatabaie, Hamideh; Yousefi, Maryam; Kandelousi, Yaghoob M; Oujaghlou, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-10-01

    Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Seven patients with humoral immunodeficiency cleared VDPV infection more frequently than did 6 patients with combined immunodeficiencies. Our results raise questions about manifestations of VDPVs in immunodeficient patients and the role of cellular immunity against enterovirus infections. On the basis of an association between VDPVs and immunodeficiency, we advocate screening of patients with primary immunodeficiency for shedding of polioviruses. PMID:27648512

  16. Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses and Children with Primary Immunodeficiency, Iran, 1995–2014

    PubMed Central

    Shaghaghi, Mohammadreza; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Abolhassani, Hassan; Soleyman-jahi, Saeed; Parvaneh, Leila; Mahmoudi, Sussan; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Yazdani, Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Eslamian, Mohammad H.; Tabatabaie, Hamideh; Yousefi, Maryam; Kandelousi, Yaghoob M.; Oujaghlou, Aliasghar; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of oral poliovirus vaccine has led to an ≈99.9% decrease in global incidence of poliomyelitis (from ≈350,000 cases in 1988 to 74 cases in 2015) and eradication of wild-type poliovirus serotypes 2 and 3. However, patients with primary immunodeficiency might shed vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) for an extended period, which could pose a major threat to polio eradication programs. Since 1995, sixteen VDPV populations have been isolated from 14 patients with immunodeficiency in Iran. For these patients, vaccine-associated paralysis, mostly in >1 extremity, was the first manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Seven patients with humoral immunodeficiency cleared VDPV infection more frequently than did 6 patients with combined immunodeficiencies. Our results raise questions about manifestations of VDPVs in immunodeficient patients and the role of cellular immunity against enterovirus infections. On the basis of an association between VDPVs and immunodeficiency, we advocate screening of patients with primary immunodeficiency for shedding of polioviruses. PMID:27648512

  17. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  19. Microsporum gypseum dermatophytosis in a patient of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhagra, S; Ganju, S A; Sood, A; Guleria, R C; Kanga, A K

    2013-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum, a geophillic dermatophyte is rarely isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report tinea corporis due to Microsporum gypseum, an uncommon aetiological agent, in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from our region. The clinical presentation resembled psoriasis characterised by atypical, scaly and hyperkeratotic lesions.

  20. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea. PMID:27433384

  1. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A; Yoon, Hee Jung

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea.

  2. Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency – More Than Just an Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kathryn V.; Gaspar, Hubert B.

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is best known as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that results from mutations in the gene encoding ADA. Affected patients present with clinical and immunological manifestations typical of a SCID. Therapies are currently available that can target these immunological disturbances and treated patients show varying degrees of clinical improvement. However, there is now a growing body of evidence that deficiency of ADA has significant impact on non-immunological organ systems. This review will outline the impact of ADA deficiency on various organ systems, starting with the well-understood immunological abnormalities. We will discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and also highlight ways in which current treatments could be improved. In doing so, we aim to present ADA deficiency as more than an immunodeficiency and suggest that it should be recognized as a systemic metabolic disorder that affects multiple organ systems. Only by fully understanding ADA deficiency and its manifestations in all organ systems can we aim to deliver therapies that will correct all the clinical consequences. PMID:27579027

  3. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    PubMed

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host. PMID:1663575

  4. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  5. Experience with rehabilitation in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, P G; Levinson, S F

    1991-08-01

    Patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represent a novel referral population for rehabilitation services. Limited information about the rehabilitation needs of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection is available. We reviewed 51 consecutive patients with AIDS referred to a rehabilitation consult service. Common problems encountered included generalized deconditioning (27%) and neurologic dysfunction (45%). Neurologic presentations were diverse and included hemiparesis, diffuse cognitive dysfunction and dementia, myelopathy, myopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Other patients were referred for wound care as well as the management of the local effects of Kaposi's sarcoma, various musculoskeletal syndromes and new onset blindness. Problems identified included impaired mobility (76%), difficulty with self-care (57%), impaired cognition (29%) and uncontrolled pain (37%). Among the rehabilitation interventions utilized were therapeutic exercise (73%), gait aids (45%), bathroom and safety equipment (45%), orthotics (29%), vocational counseling (4%), pain management (29%) and whirlpool treatments (10%). Five patients were too ill or refused treatment. We conclude that AIDS patients referred for rehabilitation have a wide variety of physical deficits, demonstrate a considerable degree of functional impairment and may require multiple rehabilitation interventions. PMID:1878178

  6. Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency - More Than Just an Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Kathryn V; Gaspar, Hubert B

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is best known as a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that results from mutations in the gene encoding ADA. Affected patients present with clinical and immunological manifestations typical of a SCID. Therapies are currently available that can target these immunological disturbances and treated patients show varying degrees of clinical improvement. However, there is now a growing body of evidence that deficiency of ADA has significant impact on non-immunological organ systems. This review will outline the impact of ADA deficiency on various organ systems, starting with the well-understood immunological abnormalities. We will discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and also highlight ways in which current treatments could be improved. In doing so, we aim to present ADA deficiency as more than an immunodeficiency and suggest that it should be recognized as a systemic metabolic disorder that affects multiple organ systems. Only by fully understanding ADA deficiency and its manifestations in all organ systems can we aim to deliver therapies that will correct all the clinical consequences. PMID:27579027

  7. Autoimmunity and infection in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    PubMed

    Patuzzo, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Alessandro; Tinazzi, Elisa; Veneri, Dino; Argentino, Giuseppe; Moretta, Francesca; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by primary hypogammaglobulinemia. B and T cell abnormalities have been described in CVID. Typical clinical features of CVID are recurrent airway infections; lymphoproliferative, autoinflammatory, or neoplastic disorders; and autoimmune diseases among which autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is the most common. The coexistence of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity appears paradoxical, since one represents a hypoimmune state and the other a hyperimmune state. Considering both innate and adaptive immune response abnormalities in CVID, it is easier to understand the mechanisms that lead to a breakdown of self-tolerance. CD21(low) B cells derive from mature B cells that have undergone chronic immune stimulation; they are increased in CVID patients. The expansion of CD21(low) B cells is also observed in certain autoimmune diseases. We have studied CD21(low) B cells in patients with CVID, CVID, and ITP and with ITP only. We observed a statistically significant increase in the CD21(low) population in the three pathological groups. Moreover, we found statistical differences between the two groups of CVID patients: patients with ITP had a higher percentage of CD21(low) cells. Our data suggest that CD21(low) cells are related to autoimmunity and may represent a link between infection and autoimmunity.

  8. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  9. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lola A.; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  10. Cardiac dysfunction in patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, J. E.; Slife, D. M.; Anders, G. T.; Bailey, S. R.; Blanton, H. M.; McAllister, C. K.; Latham, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    To confirm the presence of cardiac dysfunction in a group of patients seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus with either dyspnea on exertion or a reduced anaerobic threshold, 9 patients with no history of opportunistic infection underwent exercise right-sided heart catheterization. When compared with 13 control patients previously exercised in the same manner, the patients showed elevated exercise pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (14.6 +/- 3.3 mm of mercury versus 9.9 +/- 3.3 mm of mercury; P less than .005) and right atrial pressure (10.1 +/- 2.1 mm of mercury versus 4.7 +/- 3.2 mm of mercury; P less than .001) at a similar exercise oxygen consumption and cardiac index. Of the 9 patients, 8 had at least 1 catheterization value outside the 95% confidence limits for the control group and 4 patients had multiple abnormalities. Values for blood CD4 lymphocytes were 0.2 x 10(9) per liter or more for 7 of the 9. One patient underwent endomyocardial biopsy with findings consistent with a cardiomyopathy. We conclude that cardiac disease may occur at any immunologic stage of human immunodeficiency virus infection. These observations suggest an effect of this disease on the heart. Images PMID:1771874

  11. Serial observations of chronic rotavirus infection in an immunodeficient child.

    PubMed

    Oishi, I; Kimura, T; Murakami, T; Haruki, K; Yamazaki, K; Seto, Y; Minekawa, Y; Funamoto, H

    1991-01-01

    Chronic rotavirus infection of an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was studied by virological examinations in association with long-term observation of his symptoms and immune status. During eleven months of hospitalization, the patient was suffering from incurable severe diarrhea with persisting excretion of rotaviruses detected by electron microscopy and the reversed-passive hemagglutination (R-PHA) test and had transient hepatitis symptom despite multiple administrations of human gammaglobulin and high calorie fluids. The detected viruses were morphologically recognized as rotavirus with double capsid structure. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) analysis of their genomic RNAs showed the long electropherotype of group A virus with abnormal migration profiles changing considerably from the early to the late phase of illness: (1) The 11th segment became undetectable; (2) the molecular weight of the 6th segment slightly increased; (3) seven to fourteen extra segments appeared; and (4) PAGE patterns of viral genomic RNAs changed every three or four months. These findings suggest that chronic infection with rotavirus accompanied the generation of extra viral genomic segments and their unusual assortments in an immunodeficient host.

  12. Do ribosomopathies explain some cases of common variable immunodeficiency?

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Pereira, J; Darbyshire, P J; Holding, S; Doré, P C; Sewell, W A C; Huissoon, A

    2011-01-01

    The considerable clinical heterogeneity of patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) shares some similarity with bone-marrow failure disorders such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), now recognized as defects in ribosome biogenesis or ribosomopathies. The recognition of a patient with DBA who subsequently developed CVID lends support to our previous finding of a heterozygous mutation in the SBDS gene of SBDS in another CVID patient, suggesting that ribosome biogenesis defects are responsible for a subset of CVID. Genetic defects in the ribosomal translational machinery responsible for various bone marrow failure syndromes are recognized readily when they manifest in children, but diagnosing these in adults presenting with complex phenotypes and hypogammaglobulinaemia can be a challenge. In this perspective paper, we discuss our clinical experience in CVID patients with ribosomopathies, and review the immunological abnormalities in other conditions associated with ribosomal dysfunction. With genetic testing available for various bone marrow failure syndromes, our hypothesis that ribosomal abnormalities may be present in patients with CVID could be proved in future studies by testing for mutations in specific ribosomal genes. New knowledge might then be translated into novel therapeutic strategies for patients in this group of immunodeficiency disorders. PMID:21062271

  13. Disinfection of Goldmann tonometers against human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Pepose, J S; Linette, G; Lee, S F; MacRae, S

    1989-07-01

    Goldmann tonometer tips were inoculated with 5 X 10(5) IU of cell-free or cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (lymphadenopathy virus type 1 isolate) or 10(4) plaque-forming units of herpes simplex virus type 1 (McKrae strain) or type 2 (Hicks strain). In an effort to mimic a "worst case" clinical scenario, each respective virus was allowed to air dry on the tonometer tip for 10 minutes. Inoculated tonometers were then (1) not treated, (2) wiped with a disposable (Kim-wipe) tissue or sterile gauze; (3) wiped with sterile gauze soaked with 3% hydrogen peroxide; or (4) wiped with a 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. The hydrogen peroxide treatment and the alcohol wipes both completely disinfected the tonometer tips for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, whereas wiping with a sterile gauze or tissue was not effective. Wiping the Goldmann tonometer tip with an isopropyl alcohol swab and then allowing the alcohol to evaporate provides a ready and efficient means of inactivating these three enveloped viruses.

  14. Autoimmunity and infection in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    PubMed

    Patuzzo, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Alessandro; Tinazzi, Elisa; Veneri, Dino; Argentino, Giuseppe; Moretta, Francesca; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, characterized by primary hypogammaglobulinemia. B and T cell abnormalities have been described in CVID. Typical clinical features of CVID are recurrent airway infections; lymphoproliferative, autoinflammatory, or neoplastic disorders; and autoimmune diseases among which autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is the most common. The coexistence of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity appears paradoxical, since one represents a hypoimmune state and the other a hyperimmune state. Considering both innate and adaptive immune response abnormalities in CVID, it is easier to understand the mechanisms that lead to a breakdown of self-tolerance. CD21(low) B cells derive from mature B cells that have undergone chronic immune stimulation; they are increased in CVID patients. The expansion of CD21(low) B cells is also observed in certain autoimmune diseases. We have studied CD21(low) B cells in patients with CVID, CVID, and ITP and with ITP only. We observed a statistically significant increase in the CD21(low) population in the three pathological groups. Moreover, we found statistical differences between the two groups of CVID patients: patients with ITP had a higher percentage of CD21(low) cells. Our data suggest that CD21(low) cells are related to autoimmunity and may represent a link between infection and autoimmunity. PMID:27392505

  15. Enteric ganglionitis in rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Orandle, Marlene S; Veazey, Ronald S; Lackner, Andrew A

    2007-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disease is a debilitating feature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that can occur in the absence of histopathological abnormalities or identifiable enteropathogens. However, the mechanisms of GI dysfunction are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to characterize changes in resident and inflammatory cells in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of macaques during the acute stage of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection to gain insight into potential pathogenic mechanisms of GI disease. Ganglia from duodenum, ileum, and colon were examined in healthy and acutely infected macaques by using a combination of routine histology, double-label immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization. Evaluation of tissues from infected macaques showed progressive infiltration of myenteric ganglia by CD3+ T cells and IBA1+ macrophages beginning as early as 8 days postinfection. Quantitative image analysis revealed that the severity of myenteric ganglionitis increased with time after SIV infection and, in general, was more severe in ganglia from the small intestine than in ganglia from the colon. Despite an abundance of inflammatory cells in myenteric ganglia during acute infection, the ENS was not a target for virus infection. This study provides evidence that the ENS may be playing a role in the pathogenesis of GI disease and enteropathy in HIV-infected people.

  16. International military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome policies and programs: strengths and limitations in current practice.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R; Hendrix, C W; Kingma, S

    2000-02-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policies and programs in 119 countries. Ninety-eight percent of the 62 respondents provide prevention education, 95% in group settings but only 53% individually. Predeployment briefings are more common than postdeployment briefings. Condoms are promoted more often than provided. Seventy-eight respondents report some form of mandatory HIV testing, and 58% perform mandatory recruit testing, with recruitment denied to HIV-positive individuals in 17%. Counseling accompanies mandatory testing less than voluntary testing. In-service care for AIDS patients is universal. Many military prevention programs can be improved through postdeployment briefings and proactive interventions involving education, condom distribution, and counseling combined with testing. Mandatory testing is often inconsistent with stated goals, and AIDS care policies may strain military budgets. Testing based on cost-benefit assessments may increase efficiency in military HIV control. Military budgets may benefit from greater civil-military cost sharing in AIDS care. PMID:10709366

  17. International military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome policies and programs: strengths and limitations in current practice.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R; Hendrix, C W; Kingma, S

    2000-02-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policies and programs in 119 countries. Ninety-eight percent of the 62 respondents provide prevention education, 95% in group settings but only 53% individually. Predeployment briefings are more common than postdeployment briefings. Condoms are promoted more often than provided. Seventy-eight respondents report some form of mandatory HIV testing, and 58% perform mandatory recruit testing, with recruitment denied to HIV-positive individuals in 17%. Counseling accompanies mandatory testing less than voluntary testing. In-service care for AIDS patients is universal. Many military prevention programs can be improved through postdeployment briefings and proactive interventions involving education, condom distribution, and counseling combined with testing. Mandatory testing is often inconsistent with stated goals, and AIDS care policies may strain military budgets. Testing based on cost-benefit assessments may increase efficiency in military HIV control. Military budgets may benefit from greater civil-military cost sharing in AIDS care.

  18. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  19. Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Júnior, Walter Lins; Ramos de Araújo, Paulo Sérgio; Dias de Andrade, Luiz; Aguiar Dos Santos, Ana Maria; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Medeiros, Zulma

    2015-11-01

    After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH(®); DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country.

  20. Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Júnior, Walter Lins; Ramos de Araújo, Paulo Sérgio; Dias de Andrade, Luiz; Aguiar Dos Santos, Ana Maria; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Medeiros, Zulma

    2015-11-01

    After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH(®); DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country. PMID:26416105

  1. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Patients With Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    AGARWAL, SHRADHA; MAYER, LLOYD

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders such as chronic or acute diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, and inflammatory bowel diseases can indicate immune deficiency. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, so it is not surprising that intestinal diseases are common among immunodeficient patients. Gastroenterologists therefore must be able to diagnose and treat patients with primary immunodeficiency. Immune-related gastrointestinal diseases can be classified as those that develop primarily via autoimmunity, infection, an inflammatory response, or malignancy. Immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients with gastrointestinal diseases present with similar symptoms. However, intestinal biopsy specimens from immunodeficient patients often have distinct histologic features, and these patients often fail to respond to conventional therapies. Therefore, early recognition of symptoms and referral to an immunologist for a basic immune evaluation is required to select appropriate treatments. Therapies for primary immunodeficiency comprise immunoglobulin replacement, antibiotics, and, in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation. Treatment of immunodeficient patients with concomitant gastrointestinal disease can be challenging, and therapy with immunomodulators often is required for severe disease. This review aims to guide gastroenterologists in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency. PMID:23501398

  2. Respiratory Failure Associated with Ascariasis in a Patient with Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Aleksandra, Lanocha; Barbara, Zdziarska; Natalia, Lanocha-Arendarczyk; Danuta, Kosik-Bogacka; Renata, Guzicka-Kazimierczak; Ewa, Marzec-Lewenstein

    2016-01-01

    In industrialized countries, risk groups for parasitic diseases include travelers, recent immigrants, and patients with immunodeficiency following chemotherapy and radiotherapy and AIDS. A 66-year-old Polish male was admitted in December 2012 to the Department of Haematology in a fairly good general condition. On the basis of cytological, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow, the patient was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia. On the 7th day of hospitalization in the Department of Haematology, patient was moved to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to acute respiratory and circulatory failure. In March 2013, 3 months after the onset of respiratory failures, a mature form of Ascaris spp. appeared in the patient's mouth. This report highlights the importance of considering an Ascaris infection in patients with low immunity presenting no eosinophilia but pulmonary failure in the central countries of Europe. PMID:27313919

  3. Fear of contagion: a stress response to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, J B; LaCharite, C L

    1989-01-01

    The threat of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has triggered an affective stress response to illness: fear of contagion, an anxious response to the perceived threat of catching a disease. Three behaviors characterize this fear: avoidance, extreme precautions, and verbal expressions of fear regarding the disease. Despite the scientific evidence for the low risk of occupational exposure to this infection, many health care workers appear to demonstrate highly fearful behavior. Social and cultural values, which attach a deep symbolic meaning to AIDS, combine with misperceptions about transmission to create this stress response. This article suggests education on cross-cultural, sexual, and death-related issues, as well as factural information on AIDS to decrease this fear. Implications for nursing research are included.

  4. Follicular dendritic cells and human immunodeficiency virus infectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Sonya L.; Tew, J. Grant; Tew, John G.; Szakal, Andras K.; Burton, Gregory F.

    1995-10-01

    LARGE amounts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) localize on follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues following viral infection1,2. During clinical latency, active viral infection occurs primarily at these sites3,4. As HIV on FDC is in the form of immune complexes5, some of which may be formed with neutralizing antibody, we investigated whether HIV on FDC is infectious. We report here that HIV on FDC is highly infectious. Furthermore, FDC can convert neutralized HIV into an infectious form even in the presence of a vast excess of neutralizing antibody. Thus FDC may provide a mechanism whereby HIV infection can continue in the presence of neutralizing antibody.

  5. Recombination in feline immunodeficiency virus genomes from naturally infected cougars.

    PubMed

    Bruen, Trevor C; Poss, Mary

    2007-08-01

    Recombination contributes significantly to diversity within virus populations and ultimately to viral evolution. Here we use a recently developed statistical test to perform exploratory analysis of recombination in fourteen feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVpco) genomes derived from a wild population of cougars. We use both the global and local Phi statistical test as an overall guide to predict where recombination may have occurred. Further analyses, including similarity plots and phylogenetic incongruence tests, confirmed that three FIVpco lineages were derived from recombinant events. Interestingly, the regions of mosaic origin were clustered in the area encoding lentiviral accessory genes and largely spared the viral structural genes. Because some of the mosaic strains are currently geographically disparate, our data indicate that the dispersal of cougars infected with these strains was preceded by recombination events. These results suggest that recombination has played an important role in the evolution of FIVpco for this wild population of cougars.

  6. Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Francisco A; Khan, David A; Ballas, Zuhair K; Chinen, Javier; Frank, Michael M; Hsu, Joyce T; Keller, Michael; Kobrynski, Lisa J; Komarow, Hirsh D; Mazer, Bruce; Nelson, Robert P; Orange, Jordan S; Routes, John M; Shearer, William T; Sorensen, Ricardo U; Verbsky, James W; Bernstein, David I; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard A; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay M; Randolph, Christopher R; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon L; Tilles, Stephen; Wallace, Dana

    2015-11-01

    The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) and the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing the "Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.

  7. Multivariate analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization data.

    PubMed Central

    Nyambi, P N; Nkengasong, J; Lewi, P; Andries, K; Janssens, W; Fransen, K; Heyndrickx, L; Piot, P; van der Groen, G

    1996-01-01

    We report on the use of spectral map analysis of the inter- and intraclade neutralization data of 14 sera of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and 16 primary isolates, representing genetic clades A to H in group M and group O. This multivariate analysis has been used previously to study the interaction between drugs and receptors and between viruses and antiviral compounds. The analysis reveals the existence of neutralization clusters, not correlated with the known genetic clades. The structural factors that have been identified may correlate with the most important neutralization epitopes. Three key primary HIV-1 isolates, which allow discrimination of sera that are likely or unlikely to neutralize primary isolates from most of the genetic clades, were identified. Our method of analysis will facilitate the evaluation as well as the design of suitable HIV-1 vaccines, which induce high-titer interclade cross-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:8709250

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.

  9. Renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Abramo, F; Taccini, E; Guidi, G; Barsotti, P; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1993-01-01

    Renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. Kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of IgM and C3, and scanty IgG deposits in the mesangium. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. In 6 cats the lesions were severe enough to cause marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and heavy glomerular nonselective proteinuria. These findings suggest that a renal involvement is a frequent occurrence in FIV-infected cats. As the histopathological features observed were similar to those described in HIV-infected patients, FIV-infected cats may represent a valuable model for a better understanding of HIV-associated nephropathy in humans. PMID:8321363

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed. PMID:2004869

  11. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among inpatient pretrial detainees.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Watts, D; Montgomery, L D; Morgan, D W

    1995-01-01

    Medical records of inpatients discharged from a forensic unit in Columbia, South Carolina, from January 1991 to December 1991 were reviewed to determine the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity. Results were linked to age, gender, ethnicity, history of intravenous drug use, and Axis I diagnoses. HIV status was obtained for 74 percent of patients 18 to 55 years of age. The incidence of HIV seropositivity among patients tested was 5.5 percent, which is greater than 40 times the incidence for the general population in South Carolina. Intravenous drug use was reported for 33 percent of the seropositive males. We conclude that inpatient pretrial detainees are at increased risk for HIV infection. HIV testing should be mandated at all facilities housing detainees. Further studies are needed to determine any factors about these patients that can be linked to seropositivity.

  12. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the mouse. Pathology, reconstitution, neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Custer, R. P.; Bosma, G. C.; Bosma, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Histologic findings in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) were remarkably uniform, consisting of lymphopenia, a rudimentary thymic medulla without cortex, relatively empty splenic follicles and lymph nodes, and undeveloped bronchial and gastrointestinal lymphocytic foci. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter studies revealed a few T cells (apparently nonfunctional) in thymus and spleen; interestingly, these cells seemed highly disposed to neoplasia, because thymic T-cell lymphomas were observed in 41 of 269 mice. No pre-B or B cells could be identified. Cells of the myeloid lineage appeared normal. Reconstitution of lymphoid tissues was achieved after intravenous injection of histocompatible bone marrow cells. Images Figure 1 p467-a Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2412448

  13. Primary Immunodeficiencies: “New” Disease in an Old Country

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pamela P W; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2009-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are rare inborn errors of the immune system. Patients with PIDs are unique models that exemplify the functional and phenotypic consequences of various immune defects underlying infections, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, allergy and cancer. Over 150 PID syndromes were characterized in the past 60 years, with an ever growing list of new entities being discovered. Because of their rarity, multi-center collaboration for pooled data analysis and molecular studies is important to gain meaningful insights into the phenotypic and genetic diversities of PIDs. In this article, we summarize our research findings on PIDs in Chinese population in the past 20 years. Close collaboration among various immunology centers, cross-referrals and systematic data analysis constitute the foundation for research on PIDs. Future directions include establishment of a national PID registry, raising awareness of PIDs and securing sufficient resources for patient care and scientific research. PMID:20003815

  14. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed.

  16. Respiratory Failure Associated with Ascariasis in a Patient with Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandra, Lanocha; Barbara, Zdziarska; Natalia, Lanocha-Arendarczyk; Danuta, Kosik-Bogacka; Renata, Guzicka-Kazimierczak; Ewa, Marzec-Lewenstein

    2016-01-01

    In industrialized countries, risk groups for parasitic diseases include travelers, recent immigrants, and patients with immunodeficiency following chemotherapy and radiotherapy and AIDS. A 66-year-old Polish male was admitted in December 2012 to the Department of Haematology in a fairly good general condition. On the basis of cytological, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow, the patient was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia. On the 7th day of hospitalization in the Department of Haematology, patient was moved to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to acute respiratory and circulatory failure. In March 2013, 3 months after the onset of respiratory failures, a mature form of Ascaris spp. appeared in the patient's mouth. This report highlights the importance of considering an Ascaris infection in patients with low immunity presenting no eosinophilia but pulmonary failure in the central countries of Europe. PMID:27313919

  17. Resource utilization patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Okello, D O

    1994-12-01

    A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care.

  18. Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Natarajan, Kannan; Patil, Rajendra; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Beeraka, Swapna Sridevi; Kolaparthi, Venkata Suneel Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is an autosomal recessive inherited platelet function defect characterized by normal platelet count, prolonged bleeding time and abnormal clot retraction. This disease typically presents in infancy or early childhood and has proven to have very good prognosis. In this case study, a 22-year-old GT patient who also developed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after sometime is reported. The patient showed oral manifestations of gingival hyperplasia and petechial lesions. Unfortunately the detection of both thrombasthenia and HIV were done at considerably late stages which contributed to a poor prognosis. The patient died of cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to HIV, thrombasthenia and thrombocytopenia. The importance of early detection, supportive care and communication between the general and oral physician in management of the GT is also discussed. PMID:24829739