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Sample records for liver biopsies showed

  1. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... called if any of the following occur: ● Persistent abdominal or chest pain ● Vomiting ● Pallor, weakness or dizziness ● Bleeding from the site of the biopsy ● Passage of tarry black stools For more information or to locate a pediatric gastroen- terologist in your area please visit our ...

  2. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary biliary cholangitis Pyogenic liver abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Risks Risks may include: Collapsed lung Complications from the sedation Injury to the gallbladder ...

  3. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  4. Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

  5. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients.

  6. Interventional radiology virtual simulator for liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Villard, P F; Vidal, F P; ap Cenydd, L; Holbrey, R; Pisharody, S; Johnson, S; Bulpitt, A; John, N W; Bello, F; Gould, D

    2014-03-01

    Training in Interventional Radiology currently uses the apprenticeship model, where clinical and technical skills of invasive procedures are learnt during practice in patients. This apprenticeship training method is increasingly limited by regulatory restrictions on working hours, concerns over patient risk through trainees' inexperience and the variable exposure to case mix and emergencies during training. To address this, we have developed a computer-based simulation of visceral needle puncture procedures. A real-time framework has been built that includes: segmentation, physically based modelling, haptics rendering, pseudo-ultrasound generation and the concept of a physical mannequin. It is the result of a close collaboration between different universities, involving computer scientists, clinicians, clinical engineers and occupational psychologists. The technical implementation of the framework is a robust and real-time simulation environment combining a physical platform and an immersive computerized virtual environment. The face, content and construct validation have been previously assessed, showing the reliability and effectiveness of this framework, as well as its potential for teaching visceral needle puncture. A simulator for ultrasound-guided liver biopsy has been developed. It includes functionalities and metrics extracted from cognitive task analysis. This framework can be useful during training, particularly given the known difficulties in gaining significant practice of core skills in patients.

  7. Comparison of Transjugular Liver Biopsy and Percutaneous Liver Biopsy With Tract Embolization in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Tulin-Silver, Sheryl; Obi, Chrystal; Kothary, Nishita; Lungren, Matthew

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the study was to compare safety and efficacy of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) with tract embolization in pediatric patients with liver disease. TJLB and PLB between December 2009 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Primary endpoints were adequate sampling and complication rate. Patient age, weight, coagulation factors, ascites, blood transfusions, adequacy of biopsy sample, number of biopsy samples, and complications were compared. There were 39 TJLB (average age 10.6 years) and 120 PLB (average age 7.1 years) (P value <0.05). Average weight was 40.2 kg for TJLB and 26.8 kg for PLB (P value <0.05). Average platelets were 155 for TJLB and 252 for PLB (P value <0.05). Average INR was 1.7 for TJLB and 1.3 for PLB (P value <0.05). Mean postbiopsy hematocrit decrease was 0.8 and 0.9, for TJLB and PLB, respectively. Mean postbiopsy hemoglobin decrease was 0.3 in both groups. Number of core biopsy samples was 4.5 and 4.3, for TJLB and PLB, respectively. There was 1 biopsy yielding insufficient sample in each group. TJLB had 1 (2.6%) complication of supraventricular tachycardia. PLB had 4 (3.3%) complications, with 1 hemoperitoneum, 1 hypotension, 1 patient with decreased hemoglobin, and 1 patient with bilious drainage from the biopsy site. TJLB and PLB with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization are both safe and effective for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in pediatric patients. To avoid radiation, PLB may be considered as first-line approach in the pediatric population, even in the setting of coagulopathy.

  8. Single-Institution Results of Image-Guided Nonplugged Percutaneous Versus Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hardman, Rulon L., E-mail: hardmanr@uthscsa.edu; Perrich, Kiley D.; Silas, Anne M.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review patients who underwent transjugular and image-guided percutaneous biopsy and compare the relative risk of ascites, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: From August 2001 through February 2006, a total of 238 liver biopsies were performed. The radiologist reviewed all patient referrals for transjugular biopsy. These patients either underwent transjugular biopsy or were reassigned to percutaneous biopsy (crossover group). Patients referred to percutaneous image-guided liver biopsy underwent this same procedure. Biopsies were considered successful if a tissue diagnosis could be made from the samples obtained. Results: A total of 36 transjugular biopsies were performed with 3 totalmore » (8.3%) and 1 major (2.8%) complications. A total of 171 percutaneous biopsies were performed with 10 (5.8%) total and 3 (1.8%) major complications. The crossover group showed a total of 4 (12.9%) complications with 1 (3.2%) major complication. Sample adequacy was 91.9% for transjugular and 99.5% for percutaneous biopsy. Conclusion: Both transjugular and percutaneous liver biopsy techniques are efficacious and safe. Contraindications such as thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and ascites are indicators of greater complications but are not necessarily prevented by transjugular biopsy. Percutaneous biopsy more frequently yields a diagnostic specimen than transjugular biopsy.« less

  9. Current Strategies for Quantitating Fibrosis in Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Hou, Jin-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present mini-review updated the progress in methodologies based on using liver biopsy. Data Sources: Articles for study of liver fibrosis, liver biopsy or fibrosis assessment published on high impact peer review journals from 1980 to 2014. Study Selection: Key articles were selected mainly according to their levels of relevance to this topic and citations. Results: With the recently mounting progress in chronic liver disease therapeutics, comes by a pressing need for precise, accurate, and dynamic assessment of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in individual patients. Histopathological information is recognized as the most valuable data for fibrosis assessment. Conventional histology categorical systems describe the changes of fibrosis patterns in liver tissue; but the simplified ordinal digits assigned by these systems cannot reflect the fibrosis dynamics with sufficient precision and reproducibility. Morphometric assessment by computer assist digital image analysis, such as collagen proportionate area (CPA), detects change of fibrosis amount in tissue section in a continuous variable, and has shown its independent diagnostic value for assessment of advanced or late-stage of fibrosis. Due to its evident sensitivity to sampling variances, morphometric measurement is feasible to be taken as a reliable statistical parameter for the study of a large cohort. Combining state-of-art imaging technology and fundamental principle in Tissue Engineering, structure-based quantitation was recently initiated with a novel proof-of-concept tool, qFibrosis. qFibrosis showed not only the superior performance to CPA in accurately and reproducibly differentiating adjacent stages of fibrosis, but also the possibility for facilitating analysis of fibrotic regression and cirrhosis sub-staging. Conclusions: With input from multidisciplinary innovation, liver biopsy assessment as a new “gold standard” is anticipated to substantially support the accelerated progress of

  10. Safety of pediatric percutaneous liver biopsy performed by interventional radiologists.

    PubMed

    Potter, Carol; Hogan, Mark J; Henry-Kendjorsky, Katherine; Balint, Jane; Barnard, John A

    2011-08-01

    National data suggest that pediatric percutaneous liver biopsy is increasingly being performed by interventional radiologists rather than pediatric gastroenterologists. The objective of the present report is to describe the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous liver biopsy performed by interventional radiologists in a large cohort of children and to compare the results with the existing literature on biopsies performed by pediatric gastroenterologists. The medical records of 249 children undergoing ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy by interventional radiologists were reviewed for adverse events and success of obtaining tissue. Two hundred ninety-four biopsies were reviewed. There were no deaths. There were 2 instances of a 2-g or greater drop in hemoglobin following biopsy, neither of which was associated with clinical signs of hemorrhage. A small, asymptomatic pneumothorax quickly resolved without treatment. One patient developed Klebsiella sepsis 48  hours after biopsy. In all but 1 case, an adequate sample size was obtained. This low incidence of adverse events compares favorably with existing published reports of morbidity and mortality following percutaneous liver biopsy performed by pediatric gastroenterologists. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy performed by experienced pediatric interventional radiologists in a children's hospital setting is as safe and effective as biopsy performed by pediatric gastroenterologists.

  11. Emergency right hepatectomy after laparoscopic tru-cut liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Nicolás; León, Felipe; Martínez, Jorge; Jarufe, Nicolás; Guerra, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver biopsy is a common procedure usually required for final pathologic diagnosis of different liver diseases. Morbidity following tru-cut biopsy is uncommon, with bleeding complications generally self-limited. Few cases of major hemorrhage after liver biopsies have been reported, but to our knowledge, no cases of emergency hepatectomy following a tru-cut liver biopsy have been reported previously. Presentation of case We report the case of a 38 years-old woman who presented with an intrahepatic arterial bleeding after a tru-cut liver biopsy under direct laparoscopic visualization, initially controlled by ligation of the right hepatic artery and temporary liver packing. On tenth postoperative day, she developed a pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior branch of the right hepatic artery, evolving with massive bleeding that was not amenable to control by endovascular therapy. Therefore, an emergency right hepatectomy had to be performed in order to stop the bleeding. The patient achieved hemodynamic stabilization, but developed a biliary fistula from the liver surface, refractory to non-operative treatment. In consequence, a Roux-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was performed at third month, with no further complications. Discussion Bleeding following tru-cut biopsy is a rare event. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an emergency hepatectomy due to hemorrhage following liver biopsy. Risks and complications of liver biopsy are revised. Conclusion Care must be taken when performing this kind of procedures and a high level of suspicion regarding this complication should be taken in count when clinical/hemodynamic deterioration occurs after these procedures. PMID:25618399

  12. Utility of pre-procurement bedside liver biopsy in the deceased extended-criteria liver donor.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Borup, Tim C; Popa, Sam; Saxena, Romil; Cummings, Oscar; Tector, A Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The Indiana Organ Procurement Organization (IOPO) utilizes preoperative bedside liver biopsies in certain extended-criteria donors (ECDs), obtained by the on-site coordinator, to determine the utility of pursuing donation. This study reports the clinical and financial outcomes for this management strategy. All bedside liver biopsies obtained in ECDs over a five-yr period were reviewed. Study variables included the following: indication for biopsy, biopsy results, taking the case to the operating room, transplantation of the donor liver, and graft survival. All biopsies were processed at a single university center. There were 110 donors biopsied. Primary indications included the following: old age (29%), extensive/current alcohol abuse (26%), hepatitis C-positive serology (21%), obesity (25%), and severely elevated liver function enzymes (18%). Biopsy results demonstrated a potentially transplantable liver in 73 cases (66%), all of whom were taken to the OR (while 37 ruled out for donation based upon liver biopsy [34%]). Of all biopsied livers, 49 ultimately were transplanted (45%). Intra-operative decisions included the following: transplant 51/73 (70%), surgeon decision to exclude 20/73 (27%), nonuse due to finding of malignancy two (3%). Bedside liver biopsy may be a valuable tool to determine the utility in pursuing donation in ECDs, particularly with liver-only donors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Respiratory analysis of coupled mitochondria in cryopreserved liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    García-Roche, Mercedes; Casal, Alberto; Carriquiry, Mariana; Radi, Rafael; Quijano, Celia; Cassina, Adriana

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at -80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged. Additionally, outer mitochondrial membrane integrity was assessed adding cytochrome c, proving that our cryopreservation method does not harm mitochondrial structure. In sum, we present a reliable way to cryopreserve small liver biopsies without affecting mitochondrial function. Our protocol will enable the transport and storage of samples, extending and facilitating mitochondrial function analysis of liver biopsies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Donation after cardiac death liver transplantation: Graft quality evaluation based on pretransplant liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Weiliang; Ke, Qinghong; Wang, Ye; Feng, Xiaowen; Guo, Haijun; Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Min; Shen, Yan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Xiao; Yan, Sheng; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-06-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver grafts are associated with inferior clinical outcomes and high discard rates because of poor graft quality. We investigated the predictive value of DCD liver biopsy for the pretransplant graft quality evaluation. DCD liver transplants that took place between October 2010 and April 2014 were included (n = 127). Histological features of graft biopsy samples were analyzed to assess risk factors for graft survival. Macrovesicular steatosis ≥ 20% [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.973; P = 0.045] and sinusoidal neutrophilic infiltrate (HR = 6.969; P = 0.005) were confirmed as independent risk factors for graft survival; hepatocellular swelling, vacuolation, and necrosis failed to show prognostic value. Additionally, a donor serum total bilirubin level ≥ 34.2 μmol/L was also associated with a lower probability of graft survival. Our analysis indicates that macrovesicular steatosis ≥ 20% and sinusoidal neutrophilic infiltrate are novel and useful histological markers for DCD liver grafts with unacceptable quality. This finding can be used by transplant surgeons to improve DCD liver acceptance protocols. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. [Are non-invasive tests going to replace liver biopsy for diagnosis of liver fibrosis?].

    PubMed

    Restellini, Sophie; Spahr, Laurent

    2012-06-27

    Liver fibrosis is associated with chronic liver diseases, and may evolve into cirrhosis that may be complicated by liver failure and portal hypertension. Detection and quantification of liver fibrosis is a key point in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is the gold standard method to assess and quantify fibrosis, but its invasiveness is a limiting factor in everyday clinical practice. Non invasive markers using either biological or radiological parameters have been developed and may decrease the need for liver biopsy in some cases. However, information is limited to fibrosis, and cut-offs values and diagnostic accuracies for significant fibrosis may vary according to the etiology of liver disease. Liver biopsy allows the assessment of intermediate stages of fibrosis and describes accompanying lesions.

  16. Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.S.; McLoughlin, M.J.; Tao, L.C.

    1981-04-01

    Forty patients with suspected malignant disease of the liver underwent percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy with radioisotope scintigraphic and fluoroscopic guidance. The needle was aimed at focal defects identified on the liver scan and several passes were made. When the scan was diffusely abnormal, the liver was widely sampled with multiple passes. Thirty patients were eventually considered to have malignant disease and aspiration biopsy was positive in 28 (93%) of these patients, including 25 of 26 with liver metastases (96%). There were two false-positive results and one minor complication. In 24 patients, conventional wide-bore needle biopsy was also performed. In thismore » group, 16 patients had a final diagnosis of hepatic malignancy. Aspiration biopsies were positive in 14 of these (87%) and conventional needle biopsies were positive in four (25%). Guided percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy is recommended for pathologic diagnosis of hepatic malignancy because of its simplicity, high yield, and reasonable safety.« less

  17. Prevalence of histological features of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension in general population: a retrospective study of incidental liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chunlai; Chumbalkar, Vaibhav; Ells, Peter F; Bonville, Daniel J; Lee, Hwajeong

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is associated with histologic changes secondary to obliterative portal venopathy without cirrhosis. We studied the prevalence of individual histological features of INCPH in liver biopsies obtained incidentally during unrelated elective procedures and in elective liver biopsies with the diagnosis of fatty liver disease. A total of 53 incidental liver biopsies obtained intraoperatively during unrelated elective procedures and an additional 28 elective biopsies with the diagnosis of fatty liver disease without portal hypertension and cirrhosis were studied. Various histologic features of INCPH were evaluated. Shunt vessel (30%), phlebosclerosis (27%), increased number of portal vessels (19%) and incomplete septa (17%) were common in these liver biopsies after confounding factors such as co-existing fatty liver disease or fibrosis were excluded. At least one feature of INCPH was noted in 90% of the biopsies. Eight (10%) biopsies showed 5-6 features of INCPH. In total, 11 (14%) of 81 patients had risk factors associated with INCPH, including hypercoagulability, autoimmune disease, exposure to drugs, and infections. No patient had portal hypertension at the end of the follow-up. The histologic features of INCPH are seen in incidental liver biopsies and fatty liver disease without portal hypertension. Ten percent of the biopsies show 5-6 features of INCPH without portal hypertension. Interpreting histologic features in the right clinical context is important for proper patient care.

  18. Magnetic resonance elastography is as accurate as liver biopsy for liver fibrosis staging.

    PubMed

    Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Shintaro; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kondo, Tetsuo; Funayama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Masanori; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Liver MR elastography (MRE) is available for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis; however, no previous studies have compared the diagnostic ability of MRE with that of liver biopsy. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of liver fibrosis staging between MRE-based methods and liver biopsy using the resected liver specimens as the reference standard. A retrospective study at a single institution. In all, 200 patients who underwent preoperative MRE and subsequent surgical liver resection were included in this study. Data from 80 patients were used to estimate cutoff and distributions of liver stiffness values measured by MRE for each liver fibrosis stage (F0-F4, METAVIR system). In the remaining 120 patients, liver biopsy specimens were obtained from the resected liver tissues using a standard biopsy needle. 2D liver MRE with gradient-echo based sequence on a 1.5 or 3T scanner was used. Two radiologists independently measured the liver stiffness value on MRE and two types of MRE-based methods (threshold and Bayesian prediction method) were applied. Two pathologists evaluated all biopsy samples independently to stage liver fibrosis. Surgically resected whole tissue specimens were used as the reference standard. The accuracy for liver fibrosis staging was compared between liver biopsy and MRE-based methods with a modified McNemar's test. Accurate fibrosis staging was achieved in 53.3% (64/120) and 59.1% (71/120) of patients using MRE with threshold and Bayesian methods, respectively, and in 51.6% (62/120) with liver biopsy. Accuracies of MRE-based methods for diagnoses of ≥F2 (90-91% [108-9/120]), ≥F3 (79-81% [95-97/120]), and F4 (82-85% [98-102/120]) were statistically equivalent to those of liver biopsy (≥F2, 79% [95/120], P ≤ 0.01; ≥F3, 88% [105/120], P ≤ 0.006; and F4, 82% [99/120], P ≤ 0.017). MRE can be an alternative to liver biopsy for fibrosis staging. 3. Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:1268-1275. © 2017

  19. Liver Biopsy in Chronic Liver Diseases: Is There a Favorable Benefit: Risk Balance?

    PubMed

    Larrey, Dominique; Meunier, Lucy; Ursic-Bedoya, José

    2017-01-01

    Liver biopsy is still useful in selected clinical situations in which it is the only tool to obtain information necessary for the diagnosis, the prognosis, and the decision for treatment. Main examples are viral hepatitis with confounding co-morbidities, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases.

  20. Histological Spectrum of Idiopathic Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension in Liver Biopsies From Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwajeong; Ainechi, Sanaz; Singh, Mandeep; Ells, Peter F; Sheehan, Christine E; Lin, Jingmei

    2015-09-01

    Liver biopsy is performed for various indications in dialysis patients. Being a less-common subset, the hepatic pathology in renal dialysis is not well documented. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is a clinical entity associated with unexplained portal hypertension and/or a spectrum of histopathological vascular changes in the liver. After encountering INCPH and vascular changes of INCPH in 2 renal dialysis patients, we sought to further investigate this noteworthy association. A random search for patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis with liver biopsy was performed. Hematoxylin and eosin, reticulin, trichrome, and CK7 stains were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Histopathological features were reviewed, and the results were correlated with clinical findings. In all, 13 liver biopsies were retrieved. The mean cumulative duration of dialysis was 50 months (range = 17 months to 11 years). All patients had multiple comorbidities. Indications for biopsy were a combination of abnormal liver function tests (6), portal hypertension (4), ascites (3), and possible cirrhosis (3). Two patients with portal hypertension underwent multiple liver biopsies for diagnostic purposes. All (100%) biopsies showed some histological features of INCPH, including narrowed portal venous lumen (9), increased portal vascular channels (8), shunt vessels (3), dilated sinusoids (9), regenerative nodule (5), and features of venous outflow obstruction (3). No cirrhosis was identified. Liver biopsies from patients on dialysis demonstrate histopathological vascular changes of INCPH. Some (31%) patients present with portal hypertension without cirrhosis. The histological changes may be reflective of underlying risk factors for INCPH in this group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Evidence-based interpretation of liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M

    2006-04-01

    'Evidence based medicine' is a paradigm introduced in the 1990s in which collection of clinical data in a reproducible and unbiased way is intended to guide clinical decision-making. This paradigm has been promulgated across the spectrum of medicine, but with more limited critical analysis in the realm of pathology. The 'evidence base' in support of our practices in Anatomic Pathology is a critical issue, given the key role that such diagnoses play in patient management decisions. The question is, 'On what basis are diagnostic opinions rendered in Anatomic Pathology?' The operative question becomes, 'What is the published literature that supports our anatomic pathology interpretations?' This second question was applied to the published literature in Hepatopathology, by identifying the 'citation classics' of this discipline. Specifically, the top 150 most-cited liver pathology articles were analyzed for: authorship; journal of publication; type of publication; and year of publication. Results are as follows. First, it is indeed true that the preeminent hepatopathologists of the age are the most cited authors in the 'top 150'. Second, the most cited articles in hepatopathology are not published in the pathology literature, but are instead published in much higher impact clinical journals. Third, the pathology of viral hepatitis is demonstrated to be extraordinarily well-grounded in 'evidence based medicine'. Much of the remainder of the hepatopathology literature falls into a 'narrative based' paradigm, which is the rigorous reporting of case experience without statistical clinical outcomes validation. Finally, the years of publication reflect, on the one hand, a vigorous recent literature in the pharmaceutical treatment of viral hepatitis, and on the other, a broadly distributed set of 'narrative' articles from the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. In conclusion, the discipline of hepatopathology appears to be well-grounded in 'evidence based medicine' in the realm of

  2. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic infarction after liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Ting, Peng-Sheng; Green, Richard M

    2014-02-21

    Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms (HAP) are rare events, particularly after liver biopsy, but can be associated with serious complications. Therefore a high suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report on a case of HAP that potentially formed after a liver biopsy in a patient with sarcoidosis. The HAP in our case was virtually undetectable initially by angiography but resulted in several complications including recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic cholecystitis and finally hepatic infarction with abscess formation until it became detectable at a size of 5-mm. The patient remains asymptomatic over a year after endovascular embolization of the HAP. In this report, we demonstrate that a small HAP can avoid detection by angiography at an early stage while being symptomatic for a prolonged course. A high clinical suspicion with a close clinical/radiological follow-up is needed in symptomatic patients with history of liver biopsy despite initial negative work up. Once diagnosed, HAP can be safely and effectively treated by endovascular embolization.

  3. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  4. Importance of liver biopsy findings in immunosuppression management: biopsy monitoring and working criteria for patients with operational tolerance.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    Obstacles to morbidity-free long-term survival after liver transplantation (LT) include complications of immunosuppression (IS), recurrence of the original disease and malignancies, and unexplained chronic hepatitis and graft fibrosis. Many programs attempt to minimize chronic exposure to IS by reducing dosages and stopping steroids. A few programs have successfully weaned a highly select group of recipients from all IS without apparent adverse consequences, but long-term follow-up is limited. Patients subjected to adjustments in IS are usually followed by serial liver chemistry tests, which are relatively insensitive methods for detecting allograft damage. Protocol biopsy has largely been abandoned for hepatitis C virus-negative recipients, at least in part because of the inability to integrate routine histopathological findings into a rational clinical management algorithm. Recognizing a need to more precisely categorize and determine the clinical significance of findings in long-term biopsy samples, the Banff Working Group on Liver Allograft Pathology has reviewed the literature, pooled the experience of its members, and proposed working definitions for biopsy changes that (1) are conducive to lowering IS and are compatible with operational tolerance (OT) and (2) raise concern for closer follow-up and perhaps increased IS during or after IS weaning. The establishment of guidelines should help us to standardize analyses of the effects of various treatments and/or weaning protocols and more rigorously categorize patients who are assumed to show OT. Long-term follow-up using standardized criteria will help us to determine the consequences of lowering IS and to define and determine the incidence and robustness of OT in liver allografts. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Effectiveness of Sedoanalgesia in Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Premedication

    PubMed Central

    Sezgin, Orhan; Ates, Fehmi; Altintas, Engin; Saritas, Bunyamin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Percutaneous needle liver biopsy (PLB) is frequently associated with pain and anxiety. This may discourage the patients for biopsy, and rebiopsies, if needed. We planned a study to investigate the efficacy of additional analgesia or sedation for PLB. Materials and methods: The study has been designed as a single-center, prospective study. The PLB was planned for 18- to 65-year-old consecutive patients who were included in the study. The patients were divided into three premedication groups as control, Meperidine, and Midazolam. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure each subject’s anxiety level. Fifteen minutes before the biopsy, 1 mL 0.9% NaCl subcutaneously (sc), 1 mg/kg (max 100 mg) Meperidine sc, or 0.1 mg/kg (max 5 mg) Midazolam intravenously was administered to patients respectively. Then PLB was done with 16 G Menghini needle. The day after, the patients were asked about feelings regarding biopsy. Results: Groups were similar by gender and age. The HADS scores prior to PLB and on visual analog scale (VAS, 1-10 points) score during PLB were similar. In the three groups, 7, 12, and 7 patients, respectively, experienced no pain. Other patients explained pain as mild or moderate or severe. The number of patients who agreed for possible rebiopsy was higher in Meperidine and Midazolam groups than in the control group. Conclusion: Premedication with Meperidine or Midazolam in PLB would improve patients’ tolerance, comfort, and attitude against a possible repeat PLB. How to cite this article: Sezgin O, Yaras S, Ates F, Altintas E, Saritas B. Effectiveness of Sedoanalgesia in Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Premedication. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2017;7(2):146-149. PMID:29201797

  6. Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marcello; Summers, Paul; Faita, Francesco; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Callea, Francesco; De Nicola, Andrea; Di Lascio, Nicole; Farinati, Fabio; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gridelli, Bruno; Mirabelli, Peppino; Neri, Emanuele; Salvadori, Piero A; Rebelos, Eleni; Tiribelli, Claudio; Valenti, Luca; Salvatore, Marco; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2018-02-27

    The rapidly growing field of functional, molecular and structural bio-imaging is providing an extraordinary new opportunity to overcome the limits of invasive liver biopsy and introduce a "digital biopsy" for in vivo study of liver pathophysiology. To foster the application of bio-imaging in clinical and translational research, there is a need to standardize the methods of both acquisition and the storage of the bio-images of the liver. It can be hoped that the combination of digital, liquid and histologic liver biopsies will provide an innovative synergistic tri-dimensional approach to identifying new aetiologies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the optimization of personalized therapy of liver diseases and liver cancer. A group of experts of different disciplines (Special Interest Group for Personalized Hepatology of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, Institute for Biostructures and Bio-imaging of the National Research Council and Bio-banking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) discussed criteria, methods and guidelines for facilitating the requisite application of data collection. This manuscript provides a multi-Author review of the issue with special focus on fatty liver.

  7. Digital liver biopsy: Bio-imaging of fatty liver for translational and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcello; Summers, Paul; Faita, Francesco; Brunetto, Maurizia R; Callea, Francesco; De Nicola, Andrea; Di Lascio, Nicole; Farinati, Fabio; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Gridelli, Bruno; Mirabelli, Peppino; Neri, Emanuele; Salvadori, Piero A; Rebelos, Eleni; Tiribelli, Claudio; Valenti, Luca; Salvatore, Marco; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2018-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of functional, molecular and structural bio-imaging is providing an extraordinary new opportunity to overcome the limits of invasive liver biopsy and introduce a “digital biopsy” for in vivo study of liver pathophysiology. To foster the application of bio-imaging in clinical and translational research, there is a need to standardize the methods of both acquisition and the storage of the bio-images of the liver. It can be hoped that the combination of digital, liquid and histologic liver biopsies will provide an innovative synergistic tri-dimensional approach to identifying new aetiologies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the optimization of personalized therapy of liver diseases and liver cancer. A group of experts of different disciplines (Special Interest Group for Personalized Hepatology of the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, Institute for Biostructures and Bio-imaging of the National Research Council and Bio-banking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure) discussed criteria, methods and guidelines for facilitating the requisite application of data collection. This manuscript provides a multi-Author review of the issue with special focus on fatty liver. PMID:29527259

  8. Screening for rare variants in the PNPLA3 gene in obese liver biopsy patients.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Doreen; Verrijken, An; Francque, Sven; de Freitas, Fenna; Beckers, Sigri; Aerts, Evi; Ruppert, Martin; Hubens, Guy; Michielsen, Peter; Van Hul, Wim; Van Gaal, Luc F

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has clearly implicated the PNPLA3 gene in the etiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a polymorphism in the gene was found to be robustly associated to the disease. However, data on the involvement of rare PNPLA3 variants in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently limited. Therefore, we performed an extensive mutation analysis study on a cohort of obese liver biopsy patients to determine PNPLA3 variation and its correlation with fatty liver disease. We screened the entire coding region of the PNPLA3 gene in DNA samples of 393 obese liver biopsy patients with varying degrees of fatty liver disease. Mutation analysis was performed by high-resolution melting curve analysis in combination with direct sequencing. We identified several common polymorphisms as well as one rare synonymous variant (c.867G>A rs139896256), one rare intronic variant (c.979+13C>T) and 3 nonsynonymous coding variants (p.A76T, p.A104V and p.T200M) in the PNPLA3 gene. In silico analysis indicated that the p.A104V variant will probably have no functional effect, whereas for the p.A76T and p.T200M variant a possible pathogenic effect is suggested. Overall, we showed that novel variants in PNPLA3 are very rare in our liver biopsy cohort, thereby indicating that their impact on the etiology of NAFLD is probably limited. Nevertheless, for the three rare coding variants that were identified in patients with advanced liver disease, further functional characterization will be essential to verify their potential disease causality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Telangiectatic variant of hepatic adenoma: clinicopathologic features and correlation between liver needle biopsy and resection.

    PubMed

    Mounajjed, Taofic; Wu, Tsung-Teh

    2011-09-01

    Telangiectatic hepatic adenoma (THA) is a benign neoplasm treated by resection. The role of liver needle biopsy in identifying THA before resection has not been evaluated. We identified 55 patients who have undergone resection for hepatic adenoma (HA), THA, or focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) after needle biopsy. Needle biopsies and resections were evaluated for the following: (1) abortive portal tracts; (2) sinusoidal dilatation; (3) ductular reaction; (4) inflammation; (5) aberrant naked vessels; (6) nodules, fibrous septa, and/or central stellate scar. THA diagnosis was made if the lesion had the first 4 criteria and lacked criterion 6. Most patients (36 of 55), including patients with THA (12 of 16), had multiple lesions (0.2 to 14.4 cm). Patients with THA showed no difference in age, body mass index, prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance, or presence of oral contraceptive (OCP) use from patients with HA or FNH, but patients with THA had longer periods of OCP use than patients with HA. Thirty-one percent of THAs had tumor hemorrhage. Of sampled THAs, 27% showed steatosis compared with 76% of sampled HAs (P<0.05). All resected HAs and FNHs were correctly diagnosed on needle biopsy. Of 14 patients with resected THA, 3 histologic patterns were noted on needle biopsy: (1) All THA criteria and naked vessels were present in 6 patients (43%). (2) Consistent with HA: naked vessels only were present in 4 patients (29%). (3) Suggestive of THA: some but not all THA criteria were present in 4 patients (29%). No needle biopsy of a THA was misdiagnosed as FNH. Although evaluation of resection specimens is the gold standard for diagnosis of THA, liver needle biopsy is a useful diagnostic tool that leads to adequate treatment.

  10. Liver biopsy: Analysis of results of two specialist teams.

    PubMed

    Anania, Giulia; Gigante, Elia; Piciucchi, Matteo; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Pucci, Eugenio; Pellicelli, Adriano Maria; Capotondi, Carlo; Rossi, Michele; Baccini, Flavia; Antonelli, Giulio; Begini, Paola; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Marignani, Massimo

    2014-05-15

    To analyze the safety and the adequacy of a sample of liver biopsies (LB) obtained by gastroenterologist (G) and interventional radiologist (IR) teams. Medical records of consecutive patients evaluated at our GI unit from 01/01/2004 to 31/12/2010 for whom LB was considered necessary to diagnose and/or stage liver disease, both in the setting of day hospital and regular admission (RA) care, were retrieved and the data entered in a database. Patients were divided into two groups: one undergoing an ultrasonography (US)-assisted procedure by the G team and one undergoing US-guided biopsy by the IR team. For the first group, an intercostal approach (US-assisted) and a Menghini modified type needle 16 G (length 90 mm) were used. The IR team used a subcostal approach (US-guided) and a semiautomatic modified Menghini type needle 18 G (length 150 mm). All the biopsies were evaluated for appropriateness according to the current guidelines. The number of portal tracts present in each biopsy was assessed by a revision performed by a single pathologist unaware of the previous pathology report. Clinical, laboratory and demographic patient characteristics, the adverse events rate and the diagnostic adequacy of LB were analyzed. During the study period, 226 patients, 126 males (56%) and 100 females (44%), underwent LB: 167 (74%) were carried out by the G team, whereas 59 (26%) by the IR team. LB was mostly performed in a day hospital setting by the G team, while IR completed more procedures on inpatients (P < 0.0001). The groups did not differ in median age, body mass index (BMI), presence of comorbidities and coagulation parameters. Complications occurred in 26 patients (16 G team vs 10 IR team, P = 0.15). Most gross samples obtained were considered suitable for basal histological evaluation, with no difference among the two teams (96.4% G team vs 91.5% IR, P = 0.16). However, the samples obtained by the G team had a higher mean number of portal tracts (G team 9.5 ± 4.8; range 1

  11. Systematic review of bariatric surgery liver biopsies clarifies the natural history of liver disease in patients with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Bedossa, Pierre; Tordjman, Joan; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Torcivia, Adriana; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Paradis, Valerie; Ratziu, Vlad; Clément, Karine

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of morbid obesity, but its severity varies greatly and thus there is a strong need to better define its natural history in these patients. Liver biopsies were systematically performed in 798 consecutive patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery. Histology was compared with clinical, biological, anthropometrical and body composition characteristics. Patients with presumably normal liver (n=179, 22%) were significantly younger at bariatric surgery than patients with NAFLD (37.0 vs 44.4 years, p<0.0001). However, both groups showed quite similar obesity duration, since patients with presumably normal liver reported the onset of obesity at a significantly younger age than those with NAFLD (14.8 vs 20.0 year, p<0.0001). The trunk/limb fat mass ratio increased according to liver disease severity (presumably normal liver: 1.00, steatosis: 1.21, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): 1.34, p<0.0001), although the total body fat mass decreased (presumably normal liver: 50%, steatosis: 49.1%, NASH: 47.4%, p<0.0001). The volume of subcutaneous adipocytes increased according to severity of liver disease but only in female patients (presumably normal liver: 8543 picolitres, steatosis: 9156 picolitres, NASH: 9996 picolitres). These results suggest that young adults are more prone to store fat in subcutaneous tissue and reach the threshold of bariatric surgery indication before their liver is damaged. A shift of fat storage from subcutaneous to visceral adipose tissue compartment is associated with liver damages. Liver might also be targeted by subcutaneous hypertrophic adipocytes in females since hypertrophic adipocytes are more exposed to lipolysis and to the production of inflammatory mediators. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Histology and Glutamine Synthetase Immunoreactivity in Liver Biopsies From Patients With Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Bela; Zhu, Lei; Allende, Daniela; Xie, Hao; Guirguis, John; Cruise, Michael; Patil, Deepa T.; O’Shea, Robert; Rivas, John; Yordanka, Reyna; Lan, Nan; Liu, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    Background Long-standing congestive heart failure can induce a constellation of histopathology changes in the liver that can range from mild sinusoidal dilation to advanced fibrosis and loss of normal perivenular expression of glutamine synthetase (GS). Liver biopsies might be performed to assess the perioperative risk of these patients or to determine the need of synchronous liver transplant. We aimed to assess interobserver agreement in recognizing these liver histologic features in patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation and to examine whether immunohistochemistry of GS will aid the diagnosis of cardiac hepatopathy (CH). Methods Hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome-stained slides from 36 liver biopsies from patients undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation were reviewed by four liver pathologists. Histologic features of CH were reviewed and an overall fibrosis (stage) was assessed according to a recently proposed congestive hepatic fibrosis score (CHFS). In addition, 24 liver biopsies with a consensus diagnosis of CH and eight liver biopsies with no significant pathological changes were subjected to immunohistochemistry for GS. The Fleiss’ kappa coefficient (K) analysis was performed to determine the interobserver agreement. Further, histologic features of CH were correlated with the staining pattern of GS. Results Sinusoidal dilation, centrilobular hepatocyte atrophy, centrilobular fibrosis and hemorrhage were the most common findings in this cohort with a substantial-to-fair level of interobserver agreement among four reviewers. The overall agreement on the diagnosis of CH and CHFS was moderate (K = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32 - 0.73) and fair (K = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.49), respectively. Twelve (of 24, 50%) cases of CH showed loss of the normal perivenular GS staining, while the remaining 12 cases of CH and all eight controls showed retained GS expression. Histologic features of CH (presence of sinusoidal dilation

  13. Transvenous Embolization to Treat Uncontrolled Hemobilia and Peritoneal Bleeding After Transjugular Liver Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Koshy, Chiramel George, E-mail: gkchiramel@gmail.co; Eapen, C. E.; Lakshminarayan, Raghuram

    2010-06-15

    Hemobilia is one of the complications that can occur after a transjugular liver biopsy. Various treatment options have been described for the management of this condition, including transarterial embolization and open surgery. We describe a patient who developed uncontrolled hemobilia after a transjugular liver biopsy that required a transvenous approach for embolization and treatment purposes.

  14. Liver biopsy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Steatohepatitis represents the sole feature of liver damage.

    PubMed

    Masarone, Mario; Rosato, Valerio; Aglitti, Andrea; Bucci, Tommaso; Caruso, Rosa; Salvatore, Teresa; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Tripodi, Marie Francoise; Persico, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies report a prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) of between 70% and 80% in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nevertheless, it is not possible to differentiate between simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with non-invasive tests. The aim of this study was to differentiate between simple steatosis and NASH by liver biopsy in patients with hypertransaminasemia and MS or T2DM. Two hundred and fifteen patients with increased ALT levels and MS, and 136 patients at their first diagnosis of T2DM regardless of ALT values were consecutively admitted to a tertiary hepatology center between January 2004 and November 2014. Exclusion criteria were other causes of liver disease/ALT increase. Each patient underwent a clinical, laboratory and ultrasound evaluation, and a liver biopsy. Gender distribution, age, and body mass index were similar in the two groups of patients, whereas cholesterol levels, glycemia and blood pressure were significantly different between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was 94.82% in MS patients and 100% in T2DM patients. NASH was present in 58.52% of MS patients and 96.82% of T2DM. Consequently, this study reveals that, by using liver biopsy, almost all patients with T2DM or MS have NAFLD, which in patients with T2DM means NASH. Importantly, it suggests that NASH may be one of the early complications of T2DM due to its pathophysiological correlation with insulin resistance.

  15. Multiplex transcriptional analysis of paraffin-embedded liver needle biopsy from patients with liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The possibility of extracting RNA and measuring RNA expression from paraffin sections can allow extensive investigations on stored paraffin samples obtained from diseased livers and could help with studies of the natural history of liver fibrosis and inflammation, and in particular, correlate basic mechanisms to clinical outcomes. Results To address this issue, a pilot study of multiplex gene expression using branched-chain DNA technology was conducted to directly measure mRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy samples of human liver. Twenty-five genes were selected for evaluation based on evidence obtained from human fibrotic liver, a rat BDL model and in vitro cultures of immortalized human hepatic stellate cells. The expression levels of these 25 genes were then correlated with liver fibrosis and inflammation activity scores. Statistical analysis revealed that three genes (COL3A1, KRT18, and TUBB) could separate fibrotic from non-fibrotic samples and that the expression of ten genes (ANXA2, TIMP1, CTGF, COL4A1, KRT18, COL1A1, COL3A1, ACTA2, TGFB1, LOXL2) were positively correlated with the level of liver inflammation activity. Conclusion This is the first report describing this multiplex technique for liver fibrosis and has provided the proof of concept of the suitability of RNA extracted from paraffin sections for investigating the modulation of a panel of proinflammatory and profibrogenic genes. This pilot study suggests that this technique will allow extensive investigations on paraffin samples from diseased livers and possibly from any other tissue. Using identical or other genes, this multiplex expression technique could be applied to samples obtained from extensive patient cohorts with stored paraffin samples in order to correlate gene expression with valuable clinically relevant information. This method could be used to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of liver fibrosis and inflammation, its progression

  16. Contribution of Transjugular Liver Biopsy in Patients with the Clinical Presentation of Acute Liver Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo; Gruttadauria, Salvatore

    2006-12-15

    Purpose. Acute liver failure (ALF) treated with conservative therapy has a poor prognosis, although individual survival varies greatly. In these patients, the eligibility for liver transplantation must be quickly decided. The aim of this study was to assess the role of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) in the management of patients with the clinical presentation of ALF. Methods. Seventeen patients with the clinical presentation of ALF were referred to our institution during a 52 month period. A TJLB was performed using the Cook Quick-Core needle biopsy. Clinical data, procedural complications, and histologic findings were evaluated. Results. Causes of ALF were virusmore » hepatitis B infection in 7 patients, drug toxicity in 4, mushroom in 1, Wilson's disease in 1, and unknown origin in 4. TJLB was technically successful in all patients without procedure-related complications. Tissue specimens were satisfactory for diagnosis in all cases. In 14 of 17 patients the initial clinical diagnosis was confirmed by TJLB; in 3 patients the initial diagnosis was altered by the presence of unknown cirrhosis. Seven patients with necrosis <60% were successfully treated with medical therapy; 6 patients with submassive or massive necrosis ({>=}85%) were treated with liver transplantation. Four patients died, 3 had cirrhosis, and 1 had submassive necrosis. There was a strict statistical correlation (r = 0.972, p < 0.0001) between the amount of necrosis at the frozen section examination and the necrosis found at routine histologic examination. The average time for TJLB and frozen section examination was 80 min. Conclusion. In patients with the clinical presentation of ALF, submassive or massive liver necrosis and cirrhosis are predictors of poor prognosis. TLJB using an automated device and frozen section examination can be a quick and effective tool in clinical decision-making, especially in deciding patient selection and the best timing for liver transplantation.« less

  17. Ethnicity influences pain after ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Mahfudz, Anis S; Vijayananthan, Anushya

    2015-12-01

    The influence of ethnicity on pain complicating ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy (US-guided PLB) and its clinical impact has not been reported to date. Consecutive adults from a multiethnic background, undergoing an US-guided PLB, were independently assessed for pain up to 6 h after the procedure. Clinical and demographic parameters were analysed to determine independent predictors of significant pain after PLB. Willingness to undergo a repeat procedure was assessed 1 week after PLB. Data from 203 patients (median age 50 years; 43.9% female; ethnicity: Malay 41.5%, Chinese 40%, Indian 18%; median BMI 27.7 kg/m; median waist circumference 92.0 cm) were analysed. Pain after US-guided PLB was experienced in 133 (61.1%) patients, with severity grades as follows: none, n=81 (39.9%); mild, n=56 (27.6%); moderate, n=51 (25.1%); and severe, n=15 (7.4%). Analgesia requirements correlated well with severity of pain. Independent predictors of significant pain after PLB (moderate and severe categories) in patients included age less than 50 years [odds ratio (OR) 3.0], female sex (OR 3.7), Indian ethnicity (OR 2.9) and Malay ethnicity (OR 2.7), but not number of needle passes, BMI and educational levels. Patients who experienced moderate/severe pain were less willing to undergo a repeat PLB compared with those who experienced mild/no pain (60.9 vs. 82.8%, P=0.001). Ethnicity has an important role in the development of pain after US-guided PLB. This has a significant impact on willingness to repeat the procedure.

  18. Value of carbon dioxide wedged venography and transvenous liver biopsy in the definitive diagnosis of Abernethy malformation.

    PubMed

    Collard, B; Maleux, G; Heye, S; Cool, M; Bielen, D; George, C; Roskams, T; Van Steenbergen, W

    2006-01-01

    We report a 25-year-old man who presented with congenital absence of the portal vein, or Abernethy malformation, a rare congenital disorder in which the mesenteric and splenic venous drainages bypass the liver and directly drain into the inferior vena cava through an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Magnetic resonance imaging, which showed multiple nodular lesions in both liver lobes that were associated with an absence of intrahepatic portal venous branches, strongly suggested the diagnosis of the Abernethy malformation. Carbon dioxide wedged venography and transvenous liver biopsy, which were performed in the same session by a right jugular approach, confirmed these findings. This technique can be considered a valuable alternative diagnostic tool to catheter arteriography and percutaneous transhepatic liver biopsy.

  19. [Safety of reducing the recovery time after percutaneous and laparoscopic liver biopsy].

    PubMed

    Nodarse-Pérez, Pablo Orlando; Pérez-Menéndez, Roberto; Heredia-Andrade, Enkly Dennys; Noa-Pedroso, Guillermo; Araluce-Cordoví, Roberto; Fernández-Sotolongo, José

    2016-01-01

    Liver biopsy is the main diagnostic tool for the study of the liver, and as such, its inherent complications have been minimised as much as possible over the years, through the modification of several factors regarding its procedure, including post-biopsy recovery time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety in the reduction of post-liver biopsy recovery time. A non-blinded, randomised clinical trial was conducted in the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital from November 2011 to October 2012, on 128 patients in order to assess safety when reducing post-biopsy recovery times. The patients were randomised into 2 groups. Group A was allowed a 6-hour recovery time, while Group B was allowed a 2-hour recovery time after liver biopsy. Complications were fully recorded. The Chi squared test of homogeneity and Student t test was used as appropriate, in the statistical analysis, a significance level of 0.05 was set. The main biopsy indication was elevated plasma transaminases. Pain in the puncture site was the most recurrent complication (67.2%), and the most serious complication was subcapsular liver haematoma in two cases (1.6%). There were no differences regarding the liver biopsy technique that could have caused complications in any group. There were no significant differences between 2 hours and 6 hours post-liver biopsy recovery time in terms of complications, so it is considered that after two hours the patient is incorporated more quickly into their activities, and the institution spends less material and human resources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  20. Biochemical non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis cannot replace biopsy in HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Kliemann, Dimas A; Wolff, Fernando H; Tovo, Cristiane V; Alencastro, Paulo R; Ikeda, Maria L R; Brandão, Ajácio B M; Barcellos, Nêmora; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    The liver biopsy has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and quantification of fibrosis. However, this method presents limitations. In addition, the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis is a challenge. The aim of this study was to validate the fibrosis cirrhosis index (FCI) index in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, and compare to AST/ALT ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 scores, as a tool for the assessment of liver fibrosis in coinfected patients. Retrospective cross sectional study including 92 HIV-HCV coinfected patients evaluated in two reference centers for HIV treatment in the Public Health System in Southern Brazil. Patients who underwent liver biopsy for any indication and had concomitant laboratory data in the 3 months prior to liver biopsy, to allow the calculation of studied noninvasive markers (AAR, APRI, FIB-4 and FCI) were included. APRI < 0.5 presents the higher specificity to detect no or minimal fibrosis, whereas APRI > 1.5 presents the best negative predictive value and FCI > 1.25 the best specificity to detect significant fibrosis. The values of noninvasive markers for each Metavir fibrosis stage showed statistically significant differences only for APRI. In conclusion, until better noninvasive markers for liver fibrosis are developed and validated for HIV-HCV coinfected patients, noninvasive serum markers should be used carefully in this population.

  1. Single-Pass Percutaneous Liver Biopsy for Diffuse Liver Disease Using an Automated Device: Experience in 154 Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Sanfeliz, Gerant, E-mail: gerantrivera@ucsd.edu; Kinney, Thomas B.; Rose, Steven C.

    2005-06-15

    Purpose: To describe our experience with ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous liver biopsies using the INRAD 18G Express core needle biopsy system.Methods: One hundred and fifty-four consecutive percutaneous core liver biopsy procedures were performed in 153 men in a single institution over 37 months. The medical charts, pathology reports, and radiology files were retrospectively reviewed. The number of needle passes, type of guidance, change in hematocrit level, and adequacy of specimens for histologic analysis were evaluated.Results: All biopsies were performed for histologic staging of chronic liver diseases. The majority of patients had hepatitis C (134/153, 90.2%). All patients were discharged to homemore » after 4 hr of postprocedural observation. In 145 of 154 (94%) biopsies, a single needle pass was sufficient for diagnosis. US guidance was utilized in all but one of the procedures (153/154, 99.4%). The mean hematocrit decrease was 1.2% (44.1-42.9%). Pain requiring narcotic analgesia, the most frequent complication, occurred in 28 of 154 procedures (18.2%). No major complications occurred. The specimens were diagnostic in 152 of 154 procedures (98.7%).Conclusions: Single-pass percutaneous US-guided liver biopsy with the INRAD 18G Express core needle biopsy system is safe and provides definitive pathologic diagnosis of chronic liver disease. It can be performed on an outpatient basis. Routine post-biopsy monitoring of hematocrit level in stable, asymptomatic patients is probably not warranted.« less

  2. Digital quantification of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections: description of a new method by Photoshop software.

    PubMed

    Dahab, Gamal M; Kheriza, Mohamed M; El-Beltagi, Hussien M; Fouda, Abdel-Motaal M; El-Din, Osama A Sharaf

    2004-01-01

    The precise quantification of fibrous tissue in liver biopsy sections is extremely important in the classification, diagnosis and grading of chronic liver disease, as well as in evaluating the response to antifibrotic therapy. Because the recently described methods of digital image analysis of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections have major flaws, including the use of out-dated techniques in image processing, inadequate precision and inability to detect and quantify perisinusoidal fibrosis, we developed a new technique in computerized image analysis of liver biopsy sections based on Adobe Photoshop software. We prepared an experimental model of liver fibrosis involving treatment of rats with oral CCl4 for 6 weeks. After staining liver sections with Masson's trichrome, a series of computer operations were performed including (i) reconstitution of seamless widefield images from a number of acquired fields of liver sections; (ii) image size and solution adjustment; (iii) color correction; (iv) digital selection of a specified color range representing all fibrous tissue in the image and; (v) extraction and calculation. This technique is fully computerized with no manual interference at any step, and thus could be very reliable for objectively quantifying any pattern of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections and in assessing the response to antifibrotic therapy. It could also be a valuable tool in the precise assessment of antifibrotic therapy to other tissue regardless of the pattern of tissue or fibrosis.

  3. [Measurement of the status of trace elements in cattle using liver biopsy samples].

    PubMed

    Ouweltjes, W; de Zeeuw, A C; Moen, A; Counotte, G H M

    2007-02-01

    Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper; zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however; these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper; in blood or urine. Therefore measurement of trace elements in liver tissue is considered the gold standard. For the assessment of selenium the method of choice remains determination of glutathion peroxidase in erythrocytes and for the assessment of magnesium determination of magnesium in urine. We determined the accuracy and repeatability of measuring trace elements in liver biopsies and whole liver homogenates. The levels of trace elements measured were similar in both preparations (92% agreement). Liver biopsy in live animals is a relatively simple procedure but not common in The Netherlands. Reference levels of trace elements, classified as too low, low, adequate, high, and too high, were established on the basis of our research and information in the literature. In a second study we investigated the practical aspects of obtaining liver tissue samples and their use. Samples were collected from cattle on a commercial dairy farm. Liver biopsy provided additional information to that obtained from serum and urine samples. We prepared a biopsy protocol and a test package, which we tested on 14 farms where an imbalance of trace minerals was suspected. Biopsy samples taken from 4 to 6 animals revealed extreme levels of trace elements.

  4. Impact of a Full-Time Donor Management Protocol on Donors' Liver Biopsy Findings: Progress to Date.

    PubMed

    Mojtabaee, Meysam; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Gholami, Siavash; Mohsenzadeh, Mojtaba; Sadegh Beigee, Farahnaz

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated a fixed coordinator-directed donor management strategy's impact on donated liver quality, as determined by definitive biopsy results. We collected donated liver biopsy results from donations both before and after implementing a fixed coordinator-directed donor management strategy. This strategy involved full-time attendance by a donor coordinator and continued resuscitation of brain-dead donors. All donations took place in a single organ procurement unit. We also followed up results of biopsies from the Liver Transplantation Center database of Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. We compared biopsy findings of 192 livers donated from 2012 to 2013 (group A) with 276 livers donated from 2015 until August 2016 (group B). Data analysis showed that 67 livers (34.9%) in group A were rejected for transplant owing to severe steatosis in 17 (8.9%), moderate/severe fibrosis in 9 (4.7%), moderate/severe necrosis in 28 (14.6%), and 13 (6.8%) rejected for other pathologies. Among group B livers, 59 (21.4%) were not deemed suitable for transplant owing to severe steatosis in 37 (13.5%), moderate/severe fibrosis in 6 (2.1%), and moderate/ severe necrosis in 16 (5.7%). Overall, steatosis was found in 94 livers (49.2%) in group A versus 175 livers (63.3%) in group B (P = .007). Donor age in group A averaged 36.5 years versus 47.9 years in group B (P = .02). Necrosis was found in 33 livers (17.2%) in group A and 22 livers (7.9%) in group B (P = .008). One-month survival rates were 95.3% and 96.3% for groups A and B (P = .08). Donated liver disqualification before transplant noticeably decreased despite the shift in demographic patterns from 2012 to 2016. In group A, brain-dead liver donors were younger and more often died from trauma, whereas group B donors had more cerebrovascular accident-induced deaths. This achievement took place alongside increased rates of steatosis and decreased rates of necrosis.

  5. Plugged percutaneous biopsy of the liver in living-donor liver transplantation recipients suspected to have graft rejection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Jung; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Young Bae; Wang, Hee-Jung; Kim, Bong-Wan; Kim, Haeryoung; Kim, Jinoo

    2017-07-01

    Background Percutaneous biopsy is a widely-accepted technique for acquiring histologic samples of the liver. When there is concern for bleeding, plugged percutaneous biopsy (PPB) may be performed, which involves embolization of the biopsy tract. Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PPB of the liver in patients suspected to have graft rejection after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Material and Methods During January 2007 and December 2013, 51 patients who underwent PPB of the liver under the suspicion of post-LDLT graft rejection were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 73 biopsies were performed. Biopsy was performed with a 17-gauge core needle and 18-gauge cutting needle. The needle tract was embolized using gelatin sponge (n = 44) or N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (n = 29). The specimens were reviewed to determine their adequacy for histologic diagnosis. We reviewed all medical records after PPB. Results Specimens were successfully acquired in all procedures (100%). They were adequate for diagnosis in 70 cases (95.9%) and inadequate in three (1.3%). Average of 9.8 complete portal tracts was counted per specimen. One minor complication (1.4%) occurred where the patient had transient fever after the procedure. Conclusion PPB is easy and safe to perform in LDLT recipients and provides high diagnostic yield.

  6. A template for a clinico-pathological audit of medical liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    Colling, Richard; Fryer, Eve; Cobbold, Jeremy; Collier, Jane; Collantes, Elena; Wang, Lai Mun; Hubscher, Stefan; Wyatt, Judith; Fleming, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    With changing indications for performing medical liver biopsies, we aimed to develop a tool to allow pathologists to evaluate the current usefulness, value and impact of their medical liver biopsy service. We designed and piloted a questionnaire-based clinico-pathological audit for medical liver biopsies. The audit tool was simple to implement and provided useful information about our service. Hepatologists felt that 96% of reports were clinically useful. 56% of biopsies confirmed clinical diagnoses, 46% helped differentiate between diagnoses and 42% were able to exclude possible diagnoses. 74% resulted in a change of management and 27% of liver biopsies resulted in a diagnosis which was not clinically suspected. We demonstrate the usefulness of an audit tool in providing evidence of the value of the liver pathology service in a large UK regional centre. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. CT-Guided Biopsy of Small Liver Lesions: Visibility, Artifacts, and Corresponding Diagnostic Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Stattaus, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.stattaus@uni-due.de; Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Susanne

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. Our study aimed to determine the visibility of small liver lesions during CT-guided biopsy and to assess the influence of lesion visibility on biopsy results. Material and Methods. Fifty patients underwent CT-guided core biopsy of small focal liver lesions (maximum diameter, 3 cm); 38 biopsies were performed using noncontrast CT, and the remaining 12 were contrast-enhanced. Visibility of all lesions was graded on a 4-point-scale (0 = not visible, 1 = poorly visible, 2 = sufficiently visible, 3 = excellently visible) before and during biopsy (with the needle placed adjacent to and within the target lesion). Results. Forty-three biopsiesmore » (86%) yielded diagnostic results, and seven biopsies were false-negative. In noncontrast biopsies, the rate of insufficiently visualized lesions (grades 0-1) increased significantly during the procedure, from 10.5% to 44.7%, due to needle artifacts. This resulted in more (17.6%) false-negative biopsy results compared to lesions with good visualization (4.8%), although this difference lacks statistical significance. Visualization impairment appeared more often with an intercostal or subcostal vs. an epigastric access and with a subcapsular vs. a central lesion location, respectively. With contrast-enhanced biopsy the visibility of hepatic lesions was only temporarily improved, with a risk of complete obscuration in the late phase. Conclusion. In conclusion, visibility of small liver lesions diminished significantly during CT-guided biopsy due to needle artifacts, with a fourfold increased rate of insufficiently visualized lesions and of false-negative histological results. Contrast enhancement did not reveal better results.« less

  8. Approach to intraoperative consultation for donor liver biopsies.

    PubMed

    Melin, Claire; Miick, Ronald; Young, Nancy A; Ortiz, Jorge; Balasubramanian, Manjula

    2013-02-01

    As demand for organs to treat end-stage liver disease increases, donor livers once deemed only marginally suitable for donation are being considered for transplantation. Pathologists are increasingly being asked to evaluate these livers for acceptability. This article provides guidelines for frozen section evaluation of livers for transplantation. This article concentrates on the histopathologic features of transplant suitability with appropriate clinicopathologic correlation for the practicing pathologist. Recommendations for proper handling and sampling of tissue are discussed. Relative and absolute contraindications as well as artifacts and benign conditions are emphasized. Sources include a compilation of the authors' experiences in academic and community liver transplantation centers. In addition, relevant medical literature was reviewed, as well as Web sites specializing in organ transplantation, such as Transplant Pathology Internet Services and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Malignancy and extensive necrosis in the liver are absolute contraindications to transplantation. Evaluation of macrosteatosis, fibrosis, hepatitis, and necrosis depends on the severity of disease and correlation with the clinical situation. Donor age of greater than 60 years does not preclude transplantation. Artifacts and benign conditions need to be understood to prevent wastage of precious organs and to ensure that an appropriate organ is provided for the recipient.

  9. Navigated MRI-guided liver biopsies in a closed-bore scanner: experience in 52 patients.

    PubMed

    Moche, Michael; Heinig, Susann; Garnov, Nikita; Fuchs, Jochen; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Seider, Daniel; Brandmaier, Philipp; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate clinical effectiveness and diagnostic efficiency of a navigation device for MR-guided biopsies of focal liver lesions in a closed-bore scanner. In 52 patients, 55 biopsies were performed. An add-on MR navigation system with optical instrument tracking was used for image guidance and biopsy device insertion outside the bore. Fast control imaging allowed visualization of the true needle position at any time. The biopsy workflow and procedure duration were recorded. Histological analysis and clinical course/outcome were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. Fifty-four of 55 liver biopsies were performed successfully with the system. No major and four minor complications occurred. Mean tumour size was 23 ± 14 mm and the skin-to-target length ranged from 22 to 177 mm. In 39 cases, access path was double oblique. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 88 %, 100 % and 92 %, respectively. The mean procedure time was 51 ± 12 min, whereas the puncture itself lasted 16 ± 6 min. On average, four control scans were taken. Using this navigation device, biopsies of poorly visible and difficult accessible liver lesions could be performed safely and reliably in a closed-bore MRI scanner. The system can be easily implemented in clinical routine workflow. • Targeted liver biopsies could be reliably performed in a closed-bore MRI. • The navigation system allows for image guidance outside of the scanner bore. • Assisted MRI-guided biopsies are helpful for focal lesions with a difficult access. • Successful integration of the method in clinical workflow was shown. • Subsequent system installation in an existing MRI environment is feasible.

  10. Serum Fetuin-A levels in obese children with biopsy proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pampanini, V; Inzaghi, E; Germani, D; Alterio, A; Puglianiello, A; Alisi, A; Nobili, V; Cianfarani, S

    2018-01-01

    Fetuin-A has been proposed as a marker of liver damage in adults with obesity-related NAFLD. The aim of this study was to test serum fetuin-A concentrations in obese children with NAFLD diagnosed either by ultrasonography or by liver biopsy and to determine its applicability as predictive tool in pediatric NAFLD. Metabolic parameters and fetuin-A levels were investigated in 81 obese children with NAFLD diagnosed by biopsy, 79 obese children with NAFLD defined by liver ultrasonography and 23 lean subjects. Serum fetuin-A correlated significantly with age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin and 2-h postload insulin during OGTT, HOMA-IR, ISI, CRP, and apo B levels. Obese children with NAFLD detected by ultrasonography had significantly higher fetuin-A levels compared to those with normal liver. In obese children who underwent liver biopsy, no significant differences were detected in fetuin-A levels between subject with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and those with simple steatosis. Fetuin-A was not different between obese and lean children. Fetuin-A is not related with the degree of liver damage in obese children with NAFLD and its routine measurement as marker of liver disease severity is therefore not recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biopsy of Liver Target Lesions under Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Guidance - A Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Francica, Giampiero; Meloni, Maria Franca; de Sio, Ilario; Terracciano, Fulvia; Caturelli, Eugenio; Riccardi, Laura; Roselli, Paola; Iadevaia, Maddalena Diana; Scaglione, Mariano; Lenna, Giovanni; Chiang, Jason; Pompili, Maurizio

    2017-12-12

    Purpose  To retrospectively characterize the prevalence and impact of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a guidance technique for the biopsy of liver target lesions (LTLs) at six interventional ultrasound centers. Materials and Methods  The six participating centers retrospectively selected all patients in whom biopsy needles were positioned in LTLs during CEUS. The prevalence of CEUS-guided biopsies at each center between 2005 and 2016, contrast agent consumption, procedure indications, diagnostic yield and complications were assessed. Informed consent was obtained for all patients. Results  CEUS-guided biopsy of LTLs was carried out in 103 patients (68 M/35 F, median age: 69 yrs) with 103 liver target lesions (median size: 20 mm) using cutting needles (18 - 20 g) in 94 cases (91.2 %). CEUS-guided biopsy represented 2.6 % (range: 0.8 - 7.7 %) of 3818 biopsies on LTLs carried out at the participating centers. Indications to CEUS-guided biopsy were: a target lesion not visible on non-enhanced US (27.2 %), improvement of conspicuity of the target (33 %), choice of non-necrotic area inside the target (39.8 %). 26 patients (25.2 %) had a previously non-diagnostic cyto-histological exam. The diagnostic accuracy of the technique was 99 %. No major complications followed infusion of contrast agent or biopsy performance. Conclusion  The indications for CEUS-guided biopsy for LTLs are limited, but CEUS can be useful in challenging clinical scenarios, e. g. poorly visualized or invisible lesions or sampling of non-necrotic areas in the target lesions. There is also a potential advantage in using CEUS to guide repeat biopsies after unsuccessful sampling performed using the standard ultrasound technique. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The biopsied donor liver: incorporating macrosteatosis into high-risk donor assessment.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Austin L; Lao, Oliver B; Dick, André A S; Bakthavatsalam, Ramasamy; Halldorson, Jeffrey B; Yeh, Matthew M; Upton, Melissa P; Reyes, Jorge D; Perkins, James D

    2010-07-01

    To expand the donor liver pool, ways are sought to better define the limits of marginally transplantable organs. The Donor Risk Index (DRI) lists 7 donor characteristics, together with cold ischemia time and location of the donor, as risk factors for graft failure. We hypothesized that donor hepatic steatosis is an additional independent risk factor. We analyzed the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for all adult liver transplants performed from October 1, 2003, through February 6, 2008, with grafts from deceased donors to identify donor characteristics and procurement logistics parameters predictive of decreased graft survival. A proportional hazard model of donor variables, including percent steatosis from higher-risk donors, was created with graft survival as the primary outcome. Of 21,777 transplants, 5051 donors had percent macrovesicular steatosis recorded on donor liver biopsy. Compared to the 16,726 donors with no recorded liver biopsy, the donors with biopsied livers had a higher DRI, were older and more obese, and a higher percentage died from anoxia or stroke than from head trauma. The donors whose livers were biopsied became our study group. Factors most strongly associated with graft failure at 1 year after transplantation with livers from this high-risk donor group were donor age, donor liver macrovesicular steatosis, cold ischemia time, and donation after cardiac death status. In conclusion, in a high-risk donor group, macrovesicular steatosis is an independent risk factor for graft survival, along with other factors of the DRI including donor age, donor race, donation after cardiac death status, and cold ischemia time.

  13. Stellate-cell lipidosis in liver biopsy specimens. Recognition and significance.

    PubMed

    Levine, Pascale Hummel; Delgado, Yara; Theise, Neil D; West, A Brian

    2003-02-01

    Hepatic stellate-cell lipidosis due to hypervitaminosis A can lead to cirrhosis, which can be averted by restricting vitamin A intake. Other causes, including the use of synthetic retinoids, have been postulated. We studied the frequency and etiology of stellate-cell lipidosis in patients undergoing liver biopsy for reasons other than vitamin A abuse. Fourteen cases (1.1%) were identified retrospectively among 1,235 nontransplant liver biopsy specimens examined from January 1995 through December 1999. Diagnostic criteria included the following: lipid-laden cells in the space of Disse; small, dark, crescent-shaped nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli; and wispy cytoplasmic strands separating fat droplets. Patient details, reason for biopsy, and medication use were studied. Reasons for biopsy included hepatitis C (10 cases), abnormal liver enzyme levels (2 cases), methotrexate use (1 case), and alcohol abuse (1 case). Hypervitaminosis A was not suspected clinically in the 5 patients who used oral vitamin A or 3 who used topical tretinoin (Retin-A). In 6 patients, no cause of stellate-cell lipidosis was discerned. Stellate-cell lipidosis should be reported to alert clinicians to a potentially preventable form of liver injury.

  14. Survival of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) following surgical liver biopsy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel N.

    2010-01-01

    We measured intra- and postoperative mortality rates of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) undergoing surgical liver biopsy sampling for determination of the induction of cytochrome P4501A, a biomarker of oil exposure. Liver biopsies were taken from and radio transmitters were implanted into 157 free-ranging Harlequin Ducks over three winters (55 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 47 in 2002). No birds died during surgery, but seven (4.5%) died during recovery from anesthesia (three in 2001 and four in 2002). None of the deaths could be attributed directly to the liver biopsy. Four of the 150 (2.7%) birds that were released died in the 2 wk period after surgery. All post-release deaths occurred in 2001; no birds died after release in 2000 or 2002. No mortalities of 36 captive birds occurred during surgery or recovery or in the 2 wk period following surgery. Hemorrhage was a minor problem with one captive bird. Surgical liver biopsies appear to be a safe procedure, but anesthetic complications may occur with overwintering ducks.

  15. POST-REPERFUSION LIVER BIOPSY AND ITS VALUE IN PREDICTING MORTALITY AND GRAFT DYSFUNCTION AFTER LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.

    PubMed

    Zanchet, Marcos Vinícius; Silva, Larissa Luvison Gomes da; Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto; Coelho, Júlio Cezar Uili

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of the patients after liver transplant is complex and to characterize the risk for complications is not always easy. In this context, the hepatic post-reperfusion biopsy is capable of portraying alterations of prognostic importance. To compare the results of liver transplantation, correlating the different histologic features of the hepatic post-reperfusion biopsy with graft dysfunction, primary non-function and patient survival in the first year after transplantation. From the 377 transplants performed from 1996 to 2008, 164 patients were selected. Medical records were reviewed and the following clinical outcomes were registered: mortality in 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, graft dysfunction in varied degrees and primary graft non-function. The post-reperfusion biopsies had been examined by a blinded pathologist for the outcomes. The following histological variables had been evaluated: ischemic alterations, congestion, steatosis, neutrophilic exudate, monomorphonuclear infiltrate and necrosis. The variables associated with increased mortality were: steatosis (p=0.02209), monomorphonuclear infiltrate (p=0.03935) and necrosis (p<0.00001). The neutrophilic exudate reduced mortality in this study (p=0.00659). The primary non-function showed significant association (p<0.05) with the necrosis, steatosis and the monomorphonuclear infiltrate. Post-reperfusion biopsy is useful tool to foresee complications after liver transplant. A evolução dos pacientes após transplante hepático é complexa e caracterizar o risco para complicações nem sempre é fácil. Nesse contexto, a biópsia hepática pós-reperfusão é capaz de retratar alterações de importância prognóstica. Avaliar os resultados no primeiro ano após transplante hepático, correlacionando as alterações histológicas à biópsia hepática pós-reperfusão com a sobrevida, a disfunção e o não-funcionamento primário do enxerto. Dos 377 transplantes ocorridos de 1996 a 2008, 164 pacientes foram

  16. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... portion of the lump is removed surgically. This type of biopsy is most commonly used for tumors of the skin to distinguish benign conditions and diagnose cancers and other tumors. This can be done by 'shave', 'curette' or 'punch' methods. A " shave " slices a surface portion off with ...

  17. Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... report). The biopsy test is not an exact science. In cases of difficult or unusual problems, second opinions can be helpful. Back to Index The medical information provided in this site is for educational purposes only and is the property of the American ...

  18. Optimizing EUS-guided liver biopsy sampling: comprehensive assessment of needle types and tissue acquisition techniques.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Allison R; Thompson, Christopher C; Odze, Robert; Chan, Walter W; Ryou, Marvin

    2017-02-01

    EUS-guided liver biopsy sampling using FNA and, more recently, fine-needle biopsy (FNB) needles has been reported with discrepant diagnostic accuracy, in part due to differences in methodology. We aimed to compare liver histologic yields of 4 EUS-based needles and 2 percutaneous needles to identify optimal number of needle passes and suction. Six needle types were tested on human cadaveric tissue: one 19G FNA needle, one existing 19G FNB needle, one novel 19G FNB needle, one 22G FNB needle, and two 18G percutaneous needles (18G1 and 18G2). Two needle excursion patterns (1 vs 3 fanning passes) were performed on all EUS needles. Primary outcome was number of portal tracts. Secondary outcomes were degree of fragmentation and specimen adequacy. Pairwise comparisons were performed using t tests, with a 2-sided P < .05 considered to be significant. Multivariable regression analysis was performed. In total, 288 liver biopsy samplings (48 per needle type) were performed. The novel 19G FNB needle had significantly increased mean portal tracts compared with all needle types. The 22G FNB needle had significantly increased portal tracts compared with the 18G1 needle (3.8 vs 2.5, P < .001) and was not statistically different from the 18G2 needle (3.8 vs 3.5, P = .68). FNB needles (P < .001) and 3 fanning passes (P ≤ .001) were independent predictors of the number of portal tracts. A novel 19G EUS-guided liver biopsy needle provides superior histologic yield compared with 18G percutaneous needles and existing 19G FNA and core needles. Moreover, the 22G FNB needle may be adequate for liver biopsy sampling. Investigations are underway to determine whether these results can be replicated in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid diagnosis of liver cancer by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Huber, K; Heuhold, N

    1987-01-01

    Because of the relatively favorable prognosis to the patient with early detected hepatocarcinoma followed by surgical treatment if resection is possible, it is important to differentiate quickly between primary and secondary liver cancer. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) was used as a first diagnostic measure in patients with sonographic evidence of liver tumors. Biopsies were done under sonographic control and antiseptic conditions from the center and the border zone of solid tumors of the liver, and the aspirated cell material was air dried on glass slides and Giemsa stained. The cytologic diagnosis was proved by clinical course and in most cases by surgical or autoptic histology. Cytologic evaluation lead in 15 cases to the diagnosis of definitive or suspicious malignant liver disease; the sensitivity was 93% and the specificity was 87%. One case classified as suspicious for malignancy by cytologic examination could be identified as cirrhotic nodule by further investigations. In none of the patients did we find complications from the biopsy procedure. From these data it is concluded that US-FNAB can serve as a rapid, inexpensive, safe, and highly accurate first diagnostic step in patients with solid lesions of the liver.

  20. Liver biopsy analysis has a low level of performance for diagnosis of intermediate stages of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Poynard, Thierry; Lenaour, Gilles; Vaillant, Jean Christophe; Capron, Frederique; Munteanu, Mona; Eyraud, Daniel; Ngo, Yen; M'Kada, Helmi; Ratziu, Vlad; Hannoun, Laurent; Charlotte, Frederic

    2012-06-01

    There is controversy about the performance of noninvasive tests such as FibroTest in diagnosing intermediate stages of fibrosis. We investigated whether this controversy results from limitations of biopsy analysis for intermediate-stage fibrosis and inappropriate determination of the standard area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC). To determine whether biopsy has a lower diagnostic performance for fibrosis stage F2 (few septa) vs F1 (fibrosis without septa), compared with its performance for F1 vs F0 or F4 vs F3, we determined the fibrotic areas of large surgical samples collected from 20 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease or normal liver tissue that surrounded tumors. We analyzed digitized images of 27,869 virtual biopsies of increasing length and also analyzed data from 6500 patients with interpretable FibroTest results who also underwent biopsy analysis. The overall performance of biopsy analysis (by Obuchowski measure) increased with biopsy length from 0.885 for 5-mm to 0.912 for 30-mm samples (P < .0001). The performance of biopsy was lower for the diagnosis of F2 vs F1 samples (weighted AUROC [wAUROC] = 0.505) than for F1 vs F0 (wAUROC = 0.773; 53% difference; P < .0001) or F4 vs F3 (wAUROC = 0.700; 39% difference; P < .0001), even when 30-mm biopsy samples were used. The performance of FibroTest was also lower for the diagnosis of F2 vs F1 samples (wAUROC = 0.512) than for F1 vs F0 samples (wAUROC = 0.626; 22% difference; P < .0001) or F4 vs F3 (wAUROC = 0.628; 23% difference; P < .0001). However, the FibroTest had smaller percentage differences among wAUROC values than biopsy. Biopsy has a low level of diagnostic performance for fibrosis stages F2 and F1. The recommendation for biopsy analysis, instead of a validated biomarker panel such as FibroTest, for the diagnosis of intermediate stages of fibrosis is therefore misleading. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Any value in a specialist review of liver biopsies? Conclusions of a 4-year review.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Anna L; Allison, Michael E D; Brais, Rebecca; Davies, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Liver pathology is a challenging subspeciality, with histopathologists frequently seeking specialist opinions. This study aims to determine the impact of specialist reviews on the final diagnosis and patient management. Agreement with the initial reporting centre in the histopathological diagnosis of 1265 liver biopsies was determined. The nature of differences was explored in more depth for 103 discrepant cases. Differences in the histopathological interpretation were present in 749 of 1265 (59%) biopsies, of which 505 of 749 (67%) were predicted at the time of reporting to impact upon patient management. Agreement was good in cases with chronic viral hepatitis, fatty liver disease, malignancy and minimal pathological changes, while diagnostic differences occurred in more than 70% with biliary disease, autoimmune hepatitis or vascular/architectural changes. A clinical review of a subset of reports with histopathological differences predicted changes in patient management in 63 of 103 (61%). Clinically significant differences in liver biopsy interpretation between local pathologists and subspecialists are common. Diagnoses with frequent discrepancies, such as biliary disease, may benefit from a specialist review as standard when diagnosed initially, while cases requiring specialist advice from disease subgroups where discrepancies are less common, such as chronic viral hepatitis, could be selected during the clinicopathological conference process. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Incidence of major hemorrhage after aggressive image-guided liver mass biopsy in the era of individualized medicine.

    PubMed

    Boyum, James H; Atwell, Thomas D; Wall, Darci J; Mansfield, Aaron S; Kerr, Sarah E; Gunderson, Tina M; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Weisbrod, Adam J; Kurup, A Nicholas

    2018-05-17

    To analyze a large volume of image-guided liver mass biopsies to assess for an increased incidence of major hemorrhage after aggressive liver mass sampling, and to determine if coaxial technique reduces major hemorrhage rate. Patients who underwent image-guided liver mass biopsy over a 15-year period (December 7, 2001-September 22, 2016) were retrospectively identified. An aggressive biopsy was defined as a biopsy event in which ≥ 4 core needle passes were performed. Association of major hemorrhage after aggressive liver mass biopsy and other potential risk factors of interest were assessed using logistic regression analysis. For the subset of aggressive biopsies, Fisher's exact test was used to compare the incidence of major hemorrhage using coaxial versus noncoaxial techniques. Aggressive biopsies constituted 11.6% of biopsy events (N =579/5011). The incidence of major hemorrhage with <4 passes was 0.4% (N =18/4432) and with ≥4 passes 1.2% (N =6/579). In univariable models, aggressive biopsy was significantly associated with major hemorrhage (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.16-6.92, p =0.025). After adjusting for gender and platelet count, the association was not significant at the p =0.05 level (OR 2.58, 95% CI 0.927-6.24, p =0.067). The rate of major hemorrhage in the coaxial biopsy technique group was 1.4% (N =3/209) compared to 1.1% (N =4/370) in the noncoaxial biopsy technique group, which was not a significant difference (p =0.707). Although aggressive image-guided liver mass biopsies had an increased incidence of major hemorrhage, the overall risk of bleeding remained low. The benefit of such biopsies will almost certainly outweigh the risk in most patients.

  3. Transjugular liver biopsy with use of the shark jaw needle: diagnostic yield, complications, and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Psooy, B J; Clark, T W; Beecroft, J R; Malatjalian, D

    2001-01-01

    Obtaining transjugular liver biopsy specimens with use of single-use needle systems is expensive, whereas biopsy specimens obtained with use of reusable needle systems are frequently associated with inadequate core specimens. The authors report their experience with the reusable Cook Shark Jaw biopsy needle, including diagnostic yield, complications, and cost-effectiveness. A retrospective audit was performed of a cohort of 134 patients who underwent 136 transjugular liver biopsies with use of a reusable 16-gauge Shark Jaw needle during a 30-month period. Specimen adequacy and complication rates were assessed and direct costs of expendable components calculated. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost-per-successful biopsy. Biopsies were technically successful in 126 of 136 (93%) patients, with diagnostic histologic core specimens obtained in 124 of 126 (98%) patients, for an overall success rate of 91%. Complications included capsular penetration in six (4.4%) patients, cardiac arrhythmia in two (1.5%) patients, and puncture site hematoma or bleeding in 10 (7.4%) patients. Three tract embolizations were performed for capsular penetration. No instances of subcapsular hematoma, hemoperitoneum, or sepsis occurred, and no deaths were attributed to the procedure. The cost of expendable components totaled $103 per biopsy, corresponding to a cost-effectiveness of $113/successful biopsy. Transjugular liver biopsy specimens obtained with use of the Shark Jaw needle have a diagnostic yield comparable to those obtained with use of single-use biopsy systems, at a substantially lower cost with no increase in serious complications.

  4. Fibrosis assessment in chronic hepatitis C--is the liver biopsy still necessary? The pathologist point of view.

    PubMed

    Moroşan, Eugenia; Mihailovici, Maria-Sultana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the histological stage of fibrosis determined by liver biopsy with the stage of fibrosis assessed by Fibroscan, to analyze the correspondences and inconsistencies between obtained values and to discuss the role of the microscopic exam, from the pathologist point of view. The study group consisted of 185 patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis. Serological tests diagnosed chronic hepatitis C in 183 patients, and chronic hepatitis B and C for 2 patients. The patients were evaluated to determine the stage of fibrosis using two methods: liver biopsy and elastography (Fibroscan). Based on the pathologic evaluation, 124 cases were diagnosed as moderate chronic hepatitis (score 6-8), and the remaining 60 cases as severe hepatitis (score 9-12). Comparison of data from examination of liver biopsy with that obtained by Fibroscan examination revealed overlapping and divergent aspects. The fibrosis stage established through liver biopsy did not always coincide with the one assigned by liver stiffness measurement, particularly for intermediate stages F2 and F3. The best overlap was noted for F0-F1 and F4 stages, which indicates the evident ability of transient elastography to separate patients with minimal or no fibrosis from patients with extensive fibrosis. Our data concurs with the literature, which confirms presence of differences between Fibroscan and biopsy. From the point of view of the pathologist, liver biopsy still remains a valuable instrument, offering a relevant image of liver changes--as it is regarded more rather a selective than routine technique.

  5. A survey of liver pathology in needle biopsies from HBsAg and anti-HBe positive individuals.

    PubMed

    ter Borg, F; ten Kate, F J; Cuypers, H T; Leentvaar-Kuijpers, A; Oosting, J; Wertheim-van Dillen, P M; Honkoop, P; Rasch, M C; de Man, R A; van Hattum, J; Chamuleau, R A; Tytgat, G N; Jones, E A

    2000-07-01

    To use laboratory data and liver biopsies, prospectively obtained from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) positive patients, for the assessment of: (1) the relation between biopsy length/number of portal tracts and sampling error; (2) the relation between the severity of piecemeal necrosis and the new grading terminology (minimal, mild, moderate, and severe chronic hepatitis); and (3) liver pathology, which has not been studied in patients with this specific serological profile. The study group (n = 174) included 104 patients with normal aminotransferase concentrations and no cases with clinically apparent cirrhosis. The specimen length and number of portal tracts were measured at light microscopy examination. Sampling error analysis was related to the discrepancies between aminotransferase concentrations versus histological grade. Detailed histological scorings were undertaken by the reference pathologist and compared with laboratory and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA precore sequence data. Sampling error seemed to be a constant feature, even for biopsies > or = 20 mm, but increased dramatically in biopsies < 5 mm long and/or containing less than four portal tracts. Between 25% and 30% of biopsies, graded as "mild" or "moderate" activity showed features of moderate and severe piecemeal necrosis, respectively. Ten per cent of the patients with normal aminotransferase values had stage III-IV hepatic fibrosis, and 20% had piecemeal necrosis. Only cytoplasmic, not nuclear, core antigen expression was a strong predictor of high hepatitis B viraemia. There was no association between precore stop codon mutations, grade/stage of liver disease, and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) expression. The specimen available for light microscopical examination should be > 5 mm long and should contain more than four portal tracts. In addition, the new grading terminology might give the clinician an inappropriately mild impression of the

  6. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research Programs & Contacts Human Subjects Research Funding Process Research Training & Career Development Funded ... Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research Programs & Contacts Human Subjects Research Funding Process Research Training & Career Development Funded ...

  7. A methodology for automated CPA extraction using liver biopsy image analysis and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsianou, Zoe E; Manousou, Pinelopi; Hall, Andrew; Tsoulos, Ioannis; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2017-03-01

    Collagen proportional area (CPA) extraction in liver biopsy images provides the degree of fibrosis expansion in liver tissue, which is the most characteristic histological alteration in hepatitis C virus (HCV). Assessment of the fibrotic tissue is currently based on semiquantitative staging scores such as Ishak and Metavir. Since its introduction as a fibrotic tissue assessment technique, CPA calculation based on image analysis techniques has proven to be more accurate than semiquantitative scores. However, CPA has yet to reach everyday clinical practice, since the lack of standardized and robust methods for computerized image analysis for CPA assessment have proven to be a major limitation. The current work introduces a three-stage fully automated methodology for CPA extraction based on machine learning techniques. Specifically, clustering algorithms have been employed for background-tissue separation, as well as for fibrosis detection in liver tissue regions, in the first and the third stage of the methodology, respectively. Due to the existence of several types of tissue regions in the image (such as blood clots, muscle tissue, structural collagen, etc.), classification algorithms have been employed to identify liver tissue regions and exclude all other non-liver tissue regions from CPA computation. For the evaluation of the methodology, 79 liver biopsy images have been employed, obtaining 1.31% mean absolute CPA error, with 0.923 concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology is designed to (i) avoid manual threshold-based and region selection processes, widely used in similar approaches presented in the literature, and (ii) minimize CPA calculation time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Méplan, Catherine; Johnson, Ian T; Polley, Abigael C J; Cockell, Simon; Bradburn, David M; Commane, Daniel M; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Mulholland, Francis; Zupanic, Anze; Mathers, John C; Hesketh, John

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies highlight the potential role of dietary selenium (Se) in colorectal cancer prevention. Our goal was to elucidate whether expression of factors crucial for colorectal homoeostasis is affected by physiologic differences in Se status. Using transcriptomics and proteomics followed by pathway analysis, we identified pathways affected by Se status in rectal biopsies from 22 healthy adults, including 11 controls with optimal status (mean plasma Se = 1.43 μM) and 11 subjects with suboptimal status (mean plasma Se = 0.86 μM). We observed that 254 genes and 26 proteins implicated in cancer (80%), immune function and inflammatory response (40%), cell growth and proliferation (70%), cellular movement, and cell death (50%) were differentially expressed between the 2 groups. Expression of 69 genes, including selenoproteins W1 and K, which are genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and transcription factor NFκB signaling, correlated significantly with Se status. Integrating proteomics and transcriptomics datasets revealed reduced inflammatory and immune responses and cytoskeleton remodelling in the suboptimal Se status group. This is the first study combining omics technologies to describe the impact of differences in Se status on colorectal expression patterns, revealing that suboptimal Se status could alter inflammatory signaling and cytoskeleton in human rectal mucosa and so influence cancer risk.-Méplan, C., Johnson, I. T., Polley, A. C. J., Cockell, S., Bradburn, D. M., Commane, D. M., Arasaradnam, R. P., Mulholland, F., Zupanic, A., Mathers, J. C., Hesketh, J. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies. © The Author(s).

  9. Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating Liver Cirrhosis: Utility of Repeat Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy after Unsuccessful First Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Caturelli, Eugenio; Biasini, Elisabetta; Bartolucci, Francesca

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a second ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of liver nodules thought to be hepatocellular carcinoma when the original biopsy has failed to provide a reliable diagnosis. Methods: Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of liver nodules that were subsequently diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma. Each biopsy involved a single puncture with a 20 G cutting needle, which yielded pathologic material used both for cytologic and histologic studies. In 23 cases (mean diameter of nodules 48 mm) the biopsy furnished exclusively necrotic material (non-diagnostic subgroup); in the other 14 cases (mean diameter 26 mm) the biopsy yieldedmore » no neoplastic elements (false-negative subgroup). All 37 nodules were subjected to repeat biopsies performed in the same manner. Results: The repeat biopsies provided a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in six of the 23 patients from the non-diagnostic subgroup and in seven of the 14 in the false-negative subgroup. Overall, repeat biopsy produced a diagnostic gain of 35.1%. Conclusion: The chance of success with repeat biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma is limited and may depend to some extent on the characteristics of the lesions (i.e., areas of necrosis in large nodules, well-differentiated cellular populations in small ones)« less

  10. Transient elastography compared to liver biopsy and morphometry for predicting fibrosis in pediatric chronic liver disease: Does etiology matter?

    PubMed Central

    Behairy, Behairy El-Sayed; Sira, Mostafa Mohamed; Zalata, Khaled Refat; Salama, El-Sayed Ebrahem; Abd-Allah, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate transient elastography (TE) as a noninvasive tool in staging liver fibrosis compared with liver biopsy and morphometry in children with different chronic liver diseases. METHODS: A total of 90 children [50 with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), 20 with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 20 with Wilson disease] were included in the study and underwent liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using TE. Liver biopsies were evaluated for fibrosis, qualitatively, by Ishak score and quantitatively by fibrosis area fraction (FAF) using digital image analysis (morphometry). LSM was correlated with fibrosis and other studied variables using spearman correlation. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was also performed to examine independent factors associated with LSM. Different cut-off values of LSM were calculated for predicting individual fibrosis stages using receiver-operating characteristic curve. Cut-off values with optimal clinical performance (optimal sensitivity and specificity simultaneously) were selected. RESULTS: The majority of HCV group had minimal activity (80%) and no/mild fibrosis (72%). On the other hand, the majority of AIH group had mild to moderate activity (70%) and moderate to severe fibrosis (95%) and all Wilson disease group had mild to moderate activity (100%) and moderate to severe fibrosis (100%). LSM correlated significantly with both FAF and Ishak scores and the correlation appeared better with the latter (r = 0.839 vs 0.879, P < 0.0001 for both). LSM discriminated individual stages of fibrosis with high performance. Sensitivity ranged from 81.4% to 100% and specificity ranged from 75.0% to 97.2%. When we compared LSM values for the same stage of fibrosis, they varied according to the different etiologies. Higher values were in AIH (16.15 ± 7.23 kPa) compared to Wilson disease (8.30 ± 0.84 kPa) and HCV groups (7.43 ± 1.73 kPa). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Ishak fibrosis stage was the only independent variable

  11. Flow cytometry shows added value in diagnosing lymphoma in brain biopsies.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Matthijs; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Lam, King H; Dammers, Ruben; Langerak, Anton W; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Kros, Johan M; van den Bent, Martin J; van der Velden, Vincent H J

    2018-05-10

    To assess the sensitivity, specificity and turnaround time of flow cytometric analysis on brain biopsies compared to histology plus immunohistochemistry analysis in tumors with clinical suspicion of lymphoma. All brain biopsies performed between 2010 and 2015 at our institution and analyzed by both immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry were included in this retrospective study. Immunohistochemistry was considered the gold standard. In a total of 77 biopsies from 71 patients, 49 lymphomas were diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry results were concordant in 71 biopsies (92,2%). We found a specificity and sensitivity of flow cytometry of 100% and 87,8%, respectively. The time between the biopsy and reporting the result (turnaround time) was significantly shorter for flow cytometry, compared to immunohistochemistry (median: 1 versus 5 days). Flow cytometry has a high specificity and can confirm the diagnosis of a lymphoma significantly faster than immunohistochemistry. This allows for rapid initiation of treatment in this highly aggressive tumor. However, since its sensitivity is less than 100%, we recommend to perform histology plus immunohistochemistry in parallel to flow cytometry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  12. Plasma phospholipids and fatty acid composition differ between liver biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, D W L; Arendt, B M; Hillyer, L M; Fung, S K; McGilvray, I; Guindi, M; Allard, J P

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with perturbations in liver lipid metabolism. Liver phospholipid and fatty acid composition have been shown to be altered in NAFLD. However, detailed profiles of circulating lipids in the pathogenesis of NAFLD are lacking. Objective: Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine circulating lipids and potential mechanisms related to hepatic gene expression between liver biopsy-proven simple steatosis (SS), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and healthy subjects. Subjects: Plasma phospholipid and fatty acid composition were determined in 31 healthy living liver donors as healthy controls (HC), 26 patients with simple hepatic steatosis (SS) and 20 with progressive NASH. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed by Illumina microarray in a subset of 22 HC, 16 SS and 14 NASH. Results: Concentrations of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) increased relative to disease progression, HC

  13. Diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: imaging, non-invasive markers of fibrosis and liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Procopet, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of ‘cirrhosis’ is evolving and it is now clear that compensated and decompensated cirrhosis are completely different in terms of prognosis. Furthermore, the term ‘advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD)’ better reflects the continuum of histological changes occurring in the liver, which continue to progress even after cirrhosis has developed, and might regress after removing the etiological factor causing the liver disease. In compensated ACLD, portal hypertension marks the progression to a stage with higher risk of clinical complication and requires an appropriate evaluation and treatment. Invasive tests to diagnose cirrhosis (liver biopsy) and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and endoscopy) remain of crucial importance in several difficult clinical scenarios, but their need can be reduced by using different non-invasive tests in standard cases. Among non-invasive tests, the accepted use, major limitations and major benefits of serum markers of fibrosis, elastography and imaging methods are summarized in the present review. PMID:28533906

  14. Liver biopsy for diagnosis of presumed benign hepatocellular lesions lacking magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic features of focal nodular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Sannier, Aurélie; Cazejust, Julien; Lequoy, Marie; Cervera, Pascale; Scatton, Olivier; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Wendum, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    The contribution of liver biopsy for the diagnosis of presumed benign hepatocellular lesions lacking the diagnostic features of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unknown. We evaluated liver biopsy and MRI performances in this setting. Magnetic resonance imaging and slides of liver biopsies performed for a presumed benign hepatocellular lesion (2006-2013) without the typical features of FNH on MRI were blindly reviewed (n = 45). Eighteen lesions were surgically removed and also analyzed. The final diagnosis was the diagnosis established after surgery or on the biopsy in the absence of surgery. The final diagnosis was FNH (n = 19), hepatocellular adenoma (HCA, n = 15), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3) and indefinite (n = 4). Four lesions corresponded to non hepatocellular lesions. FNH, HNF1A mutated and inflammatory HCA were diagnosed accurately on the biopsy in 95%, 67% and 100% of the cases respectively. Diagnostic performance of liver biopsy for HNF1A mutated HCA was lower because of the lack of non-tumoral tissue. Diagnosis based on morphological analysis was certain and correct in 27 cases. Immunostaining allowed a definite diagnosis in 12 additionnal cases. Radiological diagnosis was in agreement with the histological diagnosis in 75.6% of the cases, with a very high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (100%) for the diagnosis of HNF1A mutated HCA. Liver biopsy has a good diagnostic performance particularly for FNH and inflammatory HCA, and sampling of non-lesional tissue is highly recommended. A biopsy does not seem necessary if H-HCA is diagnosed on MRI. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fast fibrosis progression between repeated liver biopsies in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Macías, Juan; Berenguer, Juan; Japón, Miguel A; Girón, José A; Rivero, Antonio; López-Cortés, Luis F; Moreno, Ana; González-Serrano, Mercedes; Iribarren, José A; Ortega, Enrique; Miralles, Pilar; Mira, José A; Pineda, Juan A

    2009-10-01

    A few studies have assessed the observed fibrosis progression between serial liver biopsies (LB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) / hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. Approximately half of the patients progressed at least one fibrosis stage over a short period of time. The risk factors for this fast progression need clarification. Because of this, we evaluated the observed fibrosis progression rates of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and the risk factors for accelerated progression. Overall, 135 HIV-infected patients with positive serum HCV RNA, without other possible causes of liver disease, who underwent two LB, separated at least by 1 year, were included in this retrospective cohort study. The median (Q1-Q3) time between both LBs was 3.3 (2.0-5.2) years. Patients showed the following changes in fibrosis stage: regression >or =1 stage: 23 (17%), no change: 52 (39%), progression 1 stage: 38 (28%), and progression > or =2 stages: 22 (16%). Seventeen (13%) patients had cirrhosis in the second biopsy. Factors independently associated with progression > or =1 stage were undetectable plasma HIV RNA during the follow-up (relative risk [RR] [95% confidence interval, 95% CI] 0.61 [0.39-0.93], P = 0.03), moderate-to-severe lobular necroinflammation (1.77 [1.16-2.7], P = 0.009), time between biopsies (1.11 [1.08-1.2], P = 0.01), and end of treatment response to anti-HCV therapy (0.41 [0.19-0.88], P = 0.02). Fibrosis progresses with high frequency in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients over a period of time of 3 years. Absent-to-mild lobular necroinflammation at baseline, achievement of response with anti-HCV treatment, and effective antiretroviral therapy are associated with slower fibrosis progression.

  16. High-resolution respirometry of fine-needle muscle biopsies in pre-manifest Huntington's disease expansion mutation carriers shows normal mitochondrial respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Buck, Eva; Zügel, Martina; Schumann, Uwe; Merz, Tamara; Gumpp, Anja M; Witting, Anke; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Weydt, Patrick; Calzia, Enrico; Lindenberg, Katrin S

    2017-01-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD), one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain. The integrated respiratory chain function of the human vastus lateralis muscle was measured by high-resolution respirometry (HRR) in freshly taken fine-needle biopsies from seven pre-manifest HD expansion mutation carriers and nine controls. The respiratory parameters were unaffected. For comparison skeletal muscle isolated from HD knock-in mice (HdhQ111) as well as a broader spectrum of tissues including cortex, liver and heart muscle were examined by HRR. Significant changes of mitochondrial respiration in the HdhQ knock-in mouse model were restricted to the liver and the cortex. Mitochondrial mass as quantified by mitochondrial DNA copy number and citrate synthase activity was stable in murine HD-model tissue compared to control. mRNA levels of key enzymes were determined to characterize mitochondrial metabolic pathways in HdhQ mice. We demonstrated the feasibility to perform high-resolution respirometry measurements from small human HD muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we conclude that alterations in respiratory parameters of pre-manifest human muscle biopsies are rather limited and mirrored by a similar absence of marked alterations in HdhQ skeletal muscle. In contrast, the HdhQ111 murine cortex and liver did show respiratory alterations highlighting the tissue specific nature of mutant huntingtin effects on respiration.

  17. Pathology and biopsy assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Straub, Beate Katharina; Schirmacher, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases in Western industrialized countries with dramatically rising incidence. The diagnosis of NAFLD requires the existence of steatosis in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. In cases of relevant inflammation pathogenetically linked to steatosis, it is termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). While pure steatosis represents a relatively harmless and rapidly reversible condition without a significant tendency to progression, NASH carries a significant morbidity and progression risk. Noninvasive methods neither reliably establish the diagnosis nor define the extent of disease in NASH, making histopathology the diagnostic gold standard. Since current therapeutic options in NASH are limited, indication for biopsy is made in the clinical context, predominantly in unclear clinical constellations, prior to invasive measures, for follow-up purposes and in the context of clinical studies. Histological hallmarks of NASH are steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning (with and without Mallory-Denk bodies), necroinflammation, and progressing disease a characteristic with perisinusoidal fibrosis. For semiquantitative assessment of necroinflammation (grading) and fibrosis (staging), a score has recently been implemented. Although histology does not reliably distinguish alcoholic steatohepatitis/alcoholic fatty liver disease from NASH/NAFLD, it may give valuable hints. NASH has a tendency for more steatosis, the so-called glycogenated nuclei, and less necroinflammatory activity. Future development of biopsy diagnosis will be coupled to the development of differential systemic therapeutic approaches. Especially in the context of clinical studies, detailed histological evaluation should be considered for the detection of predictive parameters. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Two Cases of Lethal Complications Following Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Biopsy of the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Drinkovic, Ivan; Brkljacic, Boris

    1996-09-15

    Two cases with lethal complications are reported among 1750 ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous fine-needle liver biopsies performed in our department. The first patient had angiosarcoma of the liver which was not suspected after computed tomography (CT) and US studies had been performed. The other patient had hepatocellular carcinoma in advanced hepatic cirrhosis. Death was due to bleeding in both cases. Pre-procedure laboratory tests did not reveal the existence of major bleeding disorders in either case. Normal liver tissue was interposed in the needle track between the liver capsule and the lesions which were targeted.

  19. Stereology shows that damaged liver recovers after protein refeeding.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Silvio Pires; da Silva, Andréa Almeida Pinto; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Borelli, Primavera; Hernandez-Blazquez, Francisco Javier; de Melo, Mariana P; Bacci, Barbara; Loesch, Andrzej; Coppi, A Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative effects of a low-protein diet on the three-dimensional structure of hepatocytes and determine whether this scenario could be reversed by restoring the adequate levels of protein to the diet. Using design-based stereology, the total number and volume of hepatocytes were estimated in the liver of mice in healthy and altered (by protein malnutrition) conditions and after protein renutrition. This study demonstrated a 65% decrease in the liver volume (3302 mm 3 for the control for undernourished versus 1141 mm 3 for the undernourished group) accompanied by a 46% reduction in the hepatocyte volume (8223 μm 3 for the control for undernourished versus 4475 μm 3 for the undernourished group) and a 90% increase in the total number of binucleate hepatocytes (1 549 393 for the control for undernourished versus 2 941 353 for the undernourished group). Reinstating a normoproteinic diet (12% casein) proved to be effective in restoring the size of hepatocytes, leading to an 85% increase in the total number of uninucleate hepatocytes (15 988 560 for the undernourished versus 29 600 520 for the renourished group), and partially reversed the liver atrophy. Awareness of these data will add to a better morphologic understanding of malnutrition-induced hepatopathies and will help clinicians improve the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in humans and in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The classification of secondary colorectal liver cancer in human biopsy samples using angular dispersive x-ray diffraction and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Farquharson, Michael J.

    2009-08-01

    The motivation behind this study is to assess whether angular dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD) data, processed using multivariate analysis techniques, can be used for classifying secondary colorectal liver cancer tissue and normal surrounding liver tissue in human liver biopsy samples. The ADXRD profiles from a total of 60 samples of normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases were measured using a synchrotron radiation source. The data were analysed for 56 samples using nonlinear peak-fitting software. Four peaks were fitted to all of the ADXRD profiles, and the amplitude, area, amplitude and area ratios for three of the four peaks were calculated and used for the statistical and multivariate analysis. The statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between all the peak-fitting parameters and ratios between the normal and the diseased tissue groups. The technique of soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to classify normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases resulting in 67% of the normal tissue samples and 60% of the secondary colorectal liver tissue samples being classified correctly. This study has shown that the ADXRD data of normal and secondary colorectal liver cancer are statistically different and x-ray diffraction data analysed using multivariate analysis have the potential to be used as a method of tissue classification.

  1. Virtual reality, ultrasound-guided liver biopsy simulator: development and performance discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, S J; Hunt, C M; Woolnough, H M; Crawshaw, M; Kilkenny, C; Gould, D A; England, A; Sinha, A; Villard, P F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to identify and prospectively investigate simulated ultrasound-guided targeted liver biopsy performance metrics as differentiators between levels of expertise in interventional radiology. Methods Task analysis produced detailed procedural step documentation allowing identification of critical procedure steps and performance metrics for use in a virtual reality ultrasound-guided targeted liver biopsy procedure. Consultant (n=14; male=11, female=3) and trainee (n=26; male=19, female=7) scores on the performance metrics were compared. Ethical approval was granted by the Liverpool Research Ethics Committee (UK). Independent t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) investigated differences between groups. Results Independent t-tests revealed significant differences between trainees and consultants on three performance metrics: targeting, p=0.018, t=−2.487 (−2.040 to −0.207); probe usage time, p = 0.040, t=2.132 (11.064 to 427.983); mean needle length in beam, p=0.029, t=−2.272 (−0.028 to −0.002). ANOVA reported significant differences across years of experience (0–1, 1–2, 3+ years) on seven performance metrics: no-go area touched, p=0.012; targeting, p=0.025; length of session, p=0.024; probe usage time, p=0.025; total needle distance moved, p=0.038; number of skin contacts, p<0.001; total time in no-go area, p=0.008. More experienced participants consistently received better performance scores on all 19 performance metrics. Conclusion It is possible to measure and monitor performance using simulation, with performance metrics providing feedback on skill level and differentiating levels of expertise. However, a transfer of training study is required. PMID:21304005

  2. Virtual reality, ultrasound-guided liver biopsy simulator: development and performance discrimination.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S J; Hunt, C M; Woolnough, H M; Crawshaw, M; Kilkenny, C; Gould, D A; England, A; Sinha, A; Villard, P F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this article was to identify and prospectively investigate simulated ultrasound-guided targeted liver biopsy performance metrics as differentiators between levels of expertise in interventional radiology. Task analysis produced detailed procedural step documentation allowing identification of critical procedure steps and performance metrics for use in a virtual reality ultrasound-guided targeted liver biopsy procedure. Consultant (n=14; male=11, female=3) and trainee (n=26; male=19, female=7) scores on the performance metrics were compared. Ethical approval was granted by the Liverpool Research Ethics Committee (UK). Independent t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) investigated differences between groups. Independent t-tests revealed significant differences between trainees and consultants on three performance metrics: targeting, p=0.018, t=-2.487 (-2.040 to -0.207); probe usage time, p = 0.040, t=2.132 (11.064 to 427.983); mean needle length in beam, p=0.029, t=-2.272 (-0.028 to -0.002). ANOVA reported significant differences across years of experience (0-1, 1-2, 3+ years) on seven performance metrics: no-go area touched, p=0.012; targeting, p=0.025; length of session, p=0.024; probe usage time, p=0.025; total needle distance moved, p=0.038; number of skin contacts, p<0.001; total time in no-go area, p=0.008. More experienced participants consistently received better performance scores on all 19 performance metrics. It is possible to measure and monitor performance using simulation, with performance metrics providing feedback on skill level and differentiating levels of expertise. However, a transfer of training study is required.

  3. Kidney allocation to liver transplant candidates with renal failure of undetermined etiology: role of percutaneous renal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Wadei, H M; Geiger, X J; Cortese, C; Mai, M L; Kramer, D J; Rosser, B G; Keaveny, A P; Willingham, D L; Ahsan, N; Gonwa, T A

    2008-12-01

    The feasibility, value and risk of percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) in liver transplant candidates with renal failure are unknown. PRB was performed on 44 liver transplant candidates with renal failure of undetermined etiology and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <40 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (n = 37) or on renal replacement therapy (RRT) (n = 7). Patients with >or=30% interstitial fibrosis (IF), >or=40% global glomerulosclerosis (gGS) and/or diffuse glomerulonephritis were approved for simultaneous-liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation. Prebiopsy GFR, urinary sodium indices, dependency on RRT and kidney size were comparable between 27 liver-transplant-alone (LTA) and 17 SLK candidates and did not relate to the biopsy diagnosis. The interobserver agreement for the degree of IF or gGS was moderate-to-excellent. After a mean of 78 +/- 67 days, 16 and 8 patients received LTA and SLK transplants. All five LTA recipients on RRT recovered kidney function after transplantation and serum creatinine was comparable between LTA and SLK recipients at last follow-up. Biopsy complications developed in 13, of these, five required intervention. PRB is feasible in liver transplant candidates with renal failure and provides reproducible histological information that does not relate to the pretransplant clinical data. Randomized studies are needed to determine if PRB can direct kidney allocation in this challenging group of liver transplant candidates.

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Liver Biopsy With Gelatin Sponge Pledget Tract Embolization in Infants Weighing Less Than 10 kg.

    PubMed

    Lungren, Matthew P; Lindquester, Will S; Seidel, Frank Glen; Kothary, Nishita; Monroe, Eric J; Shivaram, Giri; Gill, Anne E; Hawkins, Matthew C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and assess the technical success and safety of ultrasound-guided liver biopsy with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization technique in infants <10 kg across 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals. There were 67 pediatric patients weighing <10 kg (36 boys; 31 girls; average age 202 days; average weight 6 kg, range 1.5-9.9 kg) referred for liver biopsy performed with ultrasound guidance and gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization during a 2-year period. Patient history, procedural records, and clinical follow-up documents were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 67 procedures were included. There was 100% technical success rate and all samples obtained provided adequate tissue for histological assessment. Average number of 18 G biopsy passes was 3 (range 1-6). There were no procedure-related deaths. There was 1 complication (1%) in a 5-kg infant who was readmitted 36 hours after biopsy with a fever and fully recovered after antibiotics were administered. Biliary atresia was the most common underlying diagnosis (20%), whereas others included acute rejection (16%) and biliary obstruction (7%). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization technique in children weighing <10 kg is safe, effective, and use of this technique may lead to a reduction in rates of adverse events reported in other pediatric series.

  5. A comparison of transjugular and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy in patients with contraindications to ordinary percutaneous liver biopsy and an "in-house" protocol for selecting the procedure of choice.

    PubMed

    Atar, Eli; Ben Ari, Ziv; Bachar, Gil N; Amlinski, Yelena; Neyman, Chaim; Knizhnik, Michael; Litvin, Sergey; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Shapiro, Riki; Bruckhaimer, Elchanan; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Belenky, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy (PB) in consecutive patients with severe liver disease associated with impaired coagulation, ascites, or both and to verify the in-house protocol used to select the appropriate procedure. In 2000-2006, 329 patients (208 male [62.8%] and 121 female [37.2%]), aged 1 month to 81 years (mean, 46.8 years), underwent 150 TJLBs (39.1%) or 233 PBs (60.9%) procedures at a major tertiary center, as determined by an in-house protocol. The groups were compared for specimen characteristics, technical success, and complications. Technical success rates were 97.4% for TJLB (146/150) and 99.1% for PB (231/233). TJLB was associated with a lower average core length (1.29 vs. 1.43 cm) and lower average number of specimens obtained (2.44 vs. 2.8), but both methods yielded sufficient tissue for a definitive diagnosis. There were no major complications in either group. TJLB and PB can be safely and effectively performed for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in patients with contraindications for standard percutaneous liver biopsy. When both are technically available, we suggest PB as the procedure of choice, especially in transplanted livers.

  6. A Comparison of Transjugular and Plugged-Percutaneous Liver Biopsy in Patients with Contraindications to Ordinary Percutaneous Liver Biopsy and an 'In-House' Protocol for Selecting the Procedure of Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Atar, Eli, E-mail: Atareli@hotmail.co; Ben Ari, Ziv; Bachar, Gil N.

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy (PB) in consecutive patients with severe liver disease associated with impaired coagulation, ascites, or both and to verify the in-house protocol used to select the appropriate procedure. In 2000-2006, 329 patients (208 male [62.8%] and 121 female [37.2%]), aged 1 month to 81 years (mean, 46.8 years), underwent 150 TJLBs (39.1%) or 233 PBs (60.9%) procedures at a major tertiary center, as determined by an in-house protocol. The groups were compared for specimen characteristics, technical success, and complications. Technicalmore » success rates were 97.4% for TJLB (146/150) and 99.1% for PB (231/233). TJLB was associated with a lower average core length (1.29 vs. 1.43 cm) and lower average number of specimens obtained (2.44 vs. 2.8), but both methods yielded sufficient tissue for a definitive diagnosis. There were no major complications in either group. TJLB and PB can be safely and effectively performed for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in patients with contraindications for standard percutaneous liver biopsy. When both are technically available, we suggest PB as the procedure of choice, especially in transplanted livers.« less

  7. Fibrosis Progression in Paired Liver Biopsies from HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients without Prior Treatment of Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andréa G B; Duarte, Maria Irma S; Mendes-Correa, Maria Cássia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients experience more rapid fibrosis progression. In this study, to estimate the annual rate of direct liver fibrosis progression, we used analyses of paired biopsy samples from HIV/HCV-coinfected patients without prior treatment of hepatitis and assessed the possible association of fibrosis progression with certain clinical variables. We evaluated 30 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, with no history of prior treatment of hepatitis C, who underwent paired liver biopsies. All patients were under antiretroviral therapy at first and second biopsies. The average annual progression rate was 0.13 fibrosis unit/year, with 36.7% of patients defined as progressors. Liver fibrosis progression was associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT; P < .001) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; P < .0340) levels over 3 times the upper limit of normal present at first biopsy. Elevated ALT and AST levels appear to be associated with more accelerated liver fibrosis progression among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Determination of hepatocellular carcinoma grade by needle biopsy is unreliable for liver transplant candidate selection.

    PubMed

    Court, Colin M; Harlander-Locke, Michael P; Markovic, Daniela; French, Samuel W; Naini, Bita V; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S; Kaldas, Fady M; Zarrinpar, Ali; Farmer, Douglas G; Finn, Richard S; Sadeghi, Saeed; Tomlinson, James S; Busuttil, Ronald W; Agopian, Vatche G

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the utility of preoperative needle biopsy (PNB) grading of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a biomarker for liver transplantation (LT) candidate selection. Given the prognostic significance of HCC tumor grade, PNB grading has been proposed as a biomarker for LT candidate selection. Clinicopathologic characteristics of HCC LT recipients (1989-2014) with a PNB were analyzed, and the concordance of PNB grade to explant grade and vascular invasion was assessed to determine whether incorporation of PNB grade to accepted transplant criteria improved candidate selection. Of 965 patients undergoing LT for HCC, 234 (24%) underwent PNB at a median of 280 days prior to transplant. Grade by PNB had poor concordance to final explant pathology (κ = 0.22; P = 0.003), and low sensitivity (29%) and positive predictive value (35%) in identifying poorly differentiated tumors. Vascular invasion was predicted by explant pathologic grade (r s = 0.24; P < 0.001) but not PNB grade (r s = -0.05; P = 0.50). Increasing explant pathology grade (P = 0.02), but not PNB grade (P = 0.65), discriminated post-LT HCC recurrence risk. The incorporation of PNB grade to the established radiologic Milan criteria (MC) did not result in improved prognostication of post-LT recurrence (net reclassification index [NRI] = 0%), whereas grade by explant pathology resulted in significantly improved reclassification of risk (NRI = 19%). Preoperative determination of HCC grade by PNB has low concordance with explant pathologic grade and low sensitivity and positive predictive value in identifying poorly differentiated tumors. PNB grade did not accurately discriminate post-LT HCC recurrence and had no utility in improving prognostication compared with the MC alone. Incorporation of PNB to guide transplant candidate selection appears unjustified. Liver Transplantation 23 1123-1132 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Accurate and simple method for quantification of hepatic fat content using magnetic resonance imaging: a prospective study in biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Tomoko; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kadoya, Masumi; Ueda, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hiroaki; Kurozumi, Masahiro; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Komatsu, Michiharu; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Joshita, Satoru; Kodama, Ryo; Tanaka, Eiji; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kenji; Tanaka, Naoki

    2010-12-01

    To assess the degree of hepatic fat content, simple and noninvasive methods with high objectivity and reproducibility are required. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one such candidate, although its accuracy remains unclear. We aimed to validate an MRI method for quantifying hepatic fat content by calibrating MRI reading with a phantom and comparing MRI measurements in human subjects with estimates of liver fat content in liver biopsy specimens. The MRI method was performed by a combination of MRI calibration using a phantom and double-echo chemical shift gradient-echo sequence (double-echo fast low-angle shot sequence) that has been widely used on a 1.5-T scanner. Liver fat content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, n = 26) was derived from a calibration curve generated by scanning the phantom. Liver fat was also estimated by optical image analysis. The correlation between the MRI measurements and liver histology findings was examined prospectively. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements showed a strong correlation with liver fat content estimated from the results of light microscopic examination (correlation coefficient 0.91, P < 0.001) regardless of the degree of hepatic steatosis. Moreover, the severity of lobular inflammation or fibrosis did not influence the MRI measurements. This MRI method is simple and noninvasive, has excellent ability to quantify hepatic fat content even in NAFLD patients with mild steatosis or advanced fibrosis, and can be performed easily without special devices.

  10. Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9) and lean C57 mice (n = 9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (<30%) microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor

  11. Stereological Analysis of Liver Biopsy Histology Sections as a Reference Standard for Validating Non-Invasive Liver Fat Fraction Measurements by MRI

    PubMed Central

    St. Pierre, Tim G.; House, Michael J.; Bangma, Sander J.; Pang, Wenjie; Bathgate, Andrew; Gan, Eng K.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Clouston, Andrew; Olynyk, John K.; Adams, Leon A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Validation of non-invasive methods of liver fat quantification requires a reference standard. However, using standard histopathology assessment of liver biopsies is problematical because of poor repeatability. We aimed to assess a stereological method of measuring volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) in liver biopsies and to use the method to validate a magnetic resonance imaging method for measurement of VLFF. Methods VLFFs were measured in 59 subjects (1) by three independent analysts using a stereological point counting technique combined with the Delesse principle on liver biopsy histological sections and (2) by three independent analysts using the HepaFat-Scan® technique on magnetic resonance images of the liver. Bland Altman statistics and intraclass correlation (IC) were used to assess the repeatability of each method and the bias between the methods of liver fat fraction measurement. Results Inter-analyst repeatability coefficients for the stereology and HepaFat-Scan® methods were 8.2 (95% CI 7.7–8.8)% and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.5)% VLFF respectively. IC coefficients were 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–0.93) and 0.990 (95% CI 0.985–0.994) respectively. Small biases (≤3.4%) were observable between two pairs of analysts using stereology while no significant biases were observable between any of the three pairs of analysts using HepaFat-Scan®. A bias of 1.4±0.5% VLFF was observed between the HepaFat-Scan® method and the stereological method. Conclusions Repeatability of the stereological method is superior to the previously reported performance of assessment of hepatic steatosis by histopathologists and is a suitable reference standard for validating non-invasive methods of measurement of VLFF. PMID:27501242

  12. Comparison of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) to liver biopsy histologic scores in the evaluation of chronic liver disease: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mazhar; Robinson, Charlotte; Owen, David; Yoshida, Eric M; Harris, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is a novel non invasive technique studying the localized mechanical properties of tissue by utilising short, high intensity acoustic pulses (shear wave pulses) to assess the mechanical response (tissue displacement), providing a measure of tissue elasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of ARFI imaging as a non-invasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis compared to liver biopsy scores. A prospective blind comparison study of ARFI elastography (Virtual Touch Imaging., ACUSON S2000 Ultrasound Unit, Siemens, Mountain View CA) in a consecutive series of patients who underwent liver biopsy for assessment of fibrosis in chronic liver disease. ARFI shear-wave propagation velocity was measured in meters per second. Mean ARFI velocities were compared with both Batts-Ludwig (F0 to F4) and Modified Ishak scores (F0 to F4) for fibrosis in liver biopsy findings. Twenty-one patients with chronic liver disease (Hepatitis C (HCV) =16, Hepatitis B (HBV) = 1, both HCV and HBV = 1 Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) = 1, others = 2) underwent ARFI and liver biopsy on the same day. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the median values of the ARFI measurements and the histological fibrosis stage of the Modified Ishak score and Batts-Lud- (3) wig score were both highly significant (p < 0.01) with rho = 0.69 and rho = 0.72 respectively. The median ARFI (total 180 replications; minimum 5, maximum 10 measurements per patients) velocities for our study population range from 0.92 to 4.17 m/sec. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the accuracy of ARFI imaging was 1.00 and 0.35, for the diagnosis of moderate fibrosis (histologic fibrosis stage, F (3) 2) and 0.85 and 0.85 respectively for Ishak and Batts-Ludwig score, for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. ARFI imaging has a strong correlation with the fibrosis stage of both Batts-Ludwig and shak score in chronic liver disease. It

  13. MR-Guided Freehand Biopsy of Liver Lesions With Fast Continuous Imaging Using a 1.0-T Open MRI Scanner: Experience in 50 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fischbach, Frank, E-mail: frank.fischbach@med.ovgu.de; Bunke, Juergen; Thormann, Markus

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess a new open system with a field-strength of 1.0 T for the feasibility of liver biopsy using the freehand technique with fast continuous imaging. Fifty patients with focal liver lesions measuring 5 to 30 mm in diameter were included in the study. Guidance and monitoring was performed using a 1.0-T open magnetic resonance (MR) scanner (Panorama HFO; Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). With fast continuous imaging using a T1-weighted (T1W) gradient echo (GRE) sequence after administration of gadolinium (Gd)-EOB-DTPA, the needle was placed into the lesion. An interface for interactive dynamic viewingmore » in two perpendicular planes prevented needle deviations T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) fat-suppressed sequence was added to rule out postinterventional hematoma or biloma. All lesions were visible on the interventional images. Biopsy was technically successful, and solid specimens were obtained in all cases. Forty-six patients showed a histopathologic pattern other than native liver tissue, thus confirming correct position of the needle. Time between determination of the lesion and performance of the control scan was on average 18 min. No major complications were recorded. MR guidance with the new 1-T open system must be considered an attractive alternative for liver punction. An interface for dynamic imaging of needle guidance and T1W-GRE imaging with administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA for contrast enhancement allows the pinpoint puncture of liver lesions.« less

  14. A fatal case of hemoperitoneum after ultrasound-guided liver biopsy in a patient with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yasuhiro; Takamiya, Masataka; Satoh, Takashi; Fujita, Sachiko; Kato, Hideaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka

    2011-07-01

    An autopsy case of fatal complication of percutaneous liver biopsy targeting a rare type of large B-cell lymphoma is presented. A 79 year-old man was referred to the hematology unit of a hospital because of anemia with thrombocytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. Results of inguinal lymph node biopsy were inconclusive. To investigate a mass lesion in the liver visualized by ultrasonography, image-guided liver biopsy was performed following platelet infusion. The patient became unresponsive 6h post procedure because of hypotension due to intraperitoneal hemorrhage of undetermined origin. Autopsy revealed hemoperitoneum but failed to identify any macroscopic intra- or extrahepatic vascular injuries. Histopathological investigation disclosed infiltration of atypical lymphocytes into the systemic organs including the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and lungs. Prominent hemophagocytosis was also noted. The lymphoma cells were exclusively accumulated within vascular and sinusoidal structures, and diagnosed with immunohistochemistry as Asian variant of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. Massive blood extravasation was presumed to originate directly from the markedly dilated liver sinusoids filled with erythrocytes, macrophages and tumor cells, under the condition of impaired hemostasis. Although the biopsy was thought to have been correctly performed, this case would be instructive for evaluation of the indications and risks associated with liver biopsy. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Watchful waiting with periodic liver biopsy versus immediate empirical therapy for histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, J B; Koff, R S

    2000-11-07

    Not all patients with histologically mild chronic hepatitis C progress to cirrhosis. To compare no antiviral treatment, periodic liver biopsy with subsequent antiviral treatment for moderate hepatitis or cirrhosis, and immediate antiviral therapy. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Clinical trial data and published studies. Hepatitis C virus-infected patients with histologically mild hepatitis. Lifetime. Societal. Immediate combination antiviral treatment or biopsy every 3 years plus combination antiviral therapy for moderate hepatitis or cirrhosis. Life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and costs. Over 20 years, biopsy every 3 years with treatment of moderate hepatitis would avoid treatment in 50% of the cohort and would result in an 18% likelihood of cirrhosis compared with 16% for immediate treatment and 27% for no antiviral therapy. Immediate antiviral treatment should increase life expectancy by 1.0 quality-adjusted life-year compared with biopsy management. Over an average lifetime, biopsy management would lead to six liver biopsies costing $6200; immediate antiviral treatment would cost $5100 less than biopsy management because of savings related to biopsy and prevention of future hepatitis C-related morbidity. Immediate therapy was cost-effective compared with biopsy management and had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $7000 compared with no antiviral therapy. When age, sex, genotype, and estimates of histologic progression or compliance with follow-up are varied, immediate therapy should result in an increase of at least 0. 8 quality-adjusted life-year compared with biopsy management. For histologically mild chronic hepatitis C, initial combination treatment compared with periodic liver biopsy should reduce the future risk for cirrhosis, prolong life, and be cost-effective.

  16. Histocompatibility antigens in patients with alcoholic liver disease in Scotland and northeastern England: failure to show an association.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, P R; MacSween, R N; Dick, H M; Hislop, W S

    1988-01-01

    A study of HLA-A and B antigens in 248 patients with biopsy diagnosed alcoholic liver disease was conducted to examine for a genetic predisposition to alcohol related liver injury. No statistically significant differences were established for 8 HLA-A and 16 HLA-B antigens between normal healthy controls (n = 342) and patients with alcoholic fatty liver (n = 86), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 63), active alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 64) and inactive alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 35). It is concluded that no HLA-A or B locus genetic susceptibility to alcoholic related injury could be shown. PMID:3162222

  17. Interferon-alpha-induced changes in metallothionein expression in liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Suzuki, Keiji; Kondo, Toshihiko; Nakazato, Kyomi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Katuyuki

    2005-08-01

    An association between reactive oxygen species and liver damage has been postulated in the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Metallothionein (MT), induced by HCV core protein and interferon (IFN), plays a role in scavenging free radicals. MT expression in liver biopsies obtained from 21 patients with chronic HCV infection before and after IFN-alpha therapy was investigated. Changes in Knodell histological activity index (HAI) scores, MT protein levels (immunohistochemistry), MT-I and MT-II messenger (m)RNA expression levels (in situ hybridization) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index were determined and compared in serial liver specimens. MT staining was clustered around the portal tracts with inflammatory cells and fibrosis. The pattern of MT protein before IFN-alpha therapy was similar in all patients, but was higher in IFN-sustained responders than in nonresponders after IFN-alpha therapy. HAI scores and PCNA labelling indexes were significantly reduced after IFN-alpha therapy. MT-II mRNA expression correlated positively with PCNA index before therapy and with HAI scores after therapy (P<0.05). No correlation was found between MT-I mRNA and HAI scores or PCNA index. The findings indicate that IFN-alpha-induced hepatic MT may participate in the therapeutic effects of IFN-alpha for HCV. In addition, MT-II mRNA expression may be involved in cell proliferation in the livers of patients with chronic HCV infection.

  18. Two-color immunostaining of liver fine needle aspiration biopsies with CD34 and carcinoembryonic antigen. Potential utilization in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma vs. metastatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Michael; Zimmerman, Robert L; Bibbo, Marluce

    2004-04-01

    To examine immunohistochemical staining of cell block material with antibodies against vascular marker CD34 and polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (pCEA) for their clinical utility as part of a 2-color staining protocol in fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of liver masses to distinguish metastases from primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The authors obtained cell block material from 96 liver FNAs and performed simultaneous (i.e., "dual-color") immunohistochemical staining utilizing antibodies against vascular marker CD34 and pCEA. Cases were blinded and evaluated by the authors for staining pattern and intensity. A consensus was obtained, the results were unblinded, and the diagnoses were correlated. After staining, 89 cases had sufficient tissue for evaluation. Of the 19 HCC cases, 16 (84%) showed peripheral staining with CD34, and 13 (68%) showed a canalicular or mixed canalicular-cytoplasmic staining pattern for pCEA. Thirteen cases (68%) showed staining for both antigens. All HCC exhibited immunostaining for at least 1 antibody in an appropriate staining pattern. Of the 67 cases of metastatic malignancy, 5 (7%) showed a predominantly transgressing pattern of CD34 staining, 43 (64%) showed a predominantly cytoplasmic or mixed cytoplasmic-canalicular pattern of pCEA staining, and 2 cases (3%) showed staining for both antigens in a transgressing CD34 pattern and cytoplasmic pCEA pattern. None of the 3 normal liver tissue blocks showed staining with either antigen. Two-color immunohistochemical staining of liver cell block material obtained by FNA with antibodies to CD34 and pCEA can be helpful in differentiating metastatic tumors vs. primary HCC.

  19. Comparison of accuracy of fibrosis degree classifications by liver biopsy and non-invasive tests in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Bertrais, Sandrine; Oberti, Frédéric; Gallois, Yves; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Calès, Paul

    2011-11-30

    Non-invasive tests have been constructed and evaluated mainly for binary diagnoses such as significant fibrosis. Recently, detailed fibrosis classifications for several non-invasive tests have been developed, but their accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated in comparison to liver biopsy, especially in clinical practice and for Fibroscan. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of detailed fibrosis classifications available for non-invasive tests and liver biopsy. The secondary aim was to validate these accuracies in independent populations. Four HCV populations provided 2,068 patients with liver biopsy, four different pathologist skill-levels and non-invasive tests. Results were expressed as percentages of correctly classified patients. In population #1 including 205 patients and comparing liver biopsy (reference: consensus reading by two experts) and blood tests, Metavir fibrosis (FM) stage accuracy was 64.4% in local pathologists vs. 82.2% (p < 10-3) in single expert pathologist. Significant discrepancy (≥ 2FM vs reference histological result) rates were: Fibrotest: 17.2%, FibroMeter2G: 5.6%, local pathologists: 4.9%, FibroMeter3G: 0.5%, expert pathologist: 0% (p < 10-3). In population #2 including 1,056 patients and comparing blood tests, the discrepancy scores, taking into account the error magnitude, of detailed fibrosis classification were significantly different between FibroMeter2G (0.30 ± 0.55) and FibroMeter3G (0.14 ± 0.37, p < 10-3) or Fibrotest (0.84 ± 0.80, p < 10-3). In population #3 (and #4) including 458 (359) patients and comparing blood tests and Fibroscan, accuracies of detailed fibrosis classification were, respectively: Fibrotest: 42.5% (33.5%), Fibroscan: 64.9% (50.7%), FibroMeter2G: 68.7% (68.2%), FibroMeter3G: 77.1% (83.4%), p < 10-3 (p < 10-3). Significant discrepancy (≥ 2 FM) rates were, respectively: Fibrotest: 21.3% (22.2%), Fibroscan: 12.9% (12.3%), FibroMeter2G: 5.7% (6.0%), FibroMeter3G: 0

  20. Comparison of accuracy of fibrosis degree classifications by liver biopsy and non-invasive tests in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-invasive tests have been constructed and evaluated mainly for binary diagnoses such as significant fibrosis. Recently, detailed fibrosis classifications for several non-invasive tests have been developed, but their accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated in comparison to liver biopsy, especially in clinical practice and for Fibroscan. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of detailed fibrosis classifications available for non-invasive tests and liver biopsy. The secondary aim was to validate these accuracies in independent populations. Methods Four HCV populations provided 2,068 patients with liver biopsy, four different pathologist skill-levels and non-invasive tests. Results were expressed as percentages of correctly classified patients. Results In population #1 including 205 patients and comparing liver biopsy (reference: consensus reading by two experts) and blood tests, Metavir fibrosis (FM) stage accuracy was 64.4% in local pathologists vs. 82.2% (p < 10-3) in single expert pathologist. Significant discrepancy (≥ 2FM vs reference histological result) rates were: Fibrotest: 17.2%, FibroMeter2G: 5.6%, local pathologists: 4.9%, FibroMeter3G: 0.5%, expert pathologist: 0% (p < 10-3). In population #2 including 1,056 patients and comparing blood tests, the discrepancy scores, taking into account the error magnitude, of detailed fibrosis classification were significantly different between FibroMeter2G (0.30 ± 0.55) and FibroMeter3G (0.14 ± 0.37, p < 10-3) or Fibrotest (0.84 ± 0.80, p < 10-3). In population #3 (and #4) including 458 (359) patients and comparing blood tests and Fibroscan, accuracies of detailed fibrosis classification were, respectively: Fibrotest: 42.5% (33.5%), Fibroscan: 64.9% (50.7%), FibroMeter2G: 68.7% (68.2%), FibroMeter3G: 77.1% (83.4%), p < 10-3 (p < 10-3). Significant discrepancy (≥ 2 FM) rates were, respectively: Fibrotest: 21.3% (22.2%), Fibroscan: 12.9% (12.3%), FibroMeter2G: 5

  1. Liver biopsy as diagnostic method for poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the aim to investigate the use of hepatic biopsies for the diagnosis of poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants, dry leaves of Ipomoea marcellia containing 0.02% of swainsonine were administered to goats. Group I, with six goats, ingested 4g/kg of dry plant (0.8mg of swainsonina/kg) until th...

  2. Anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques for pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) suspected of exposure to crude oil in marine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degernes, Laurel A.; Harms, Craig A.; Golet, Gregory H.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the anesthesia and liver biopsy techniques used in adult and nestling pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) to test for continued exposure to residual crude oil in the marine environment. Populations of pigeon guillemots have declined significantly in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, possibly because of residual effects of crude oil in the environment after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989. Measurement of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is currently the best way to assess crude oil exposure from food sources; however, lethal sampling to obtain adequate liver tissue was not desirable in this declining population of birds. As part of a larger study to identify factors limiting the recovery of pigeon guillemots and other seabird populations, we surgically collected liver samples from adult and nestling guillemots to provide samples for measurement of hepatic CYP1A concentrations. Results from the larger study were reported elsewhere. Liver samples were taken from 26 nestling (1998) and 24 adult (1999) guillemots from a previously oiled site (Naked Island; 12 chicks, 13 adults) and from a nonoiled site (Jackpot Island/Icy Bay; 14 chicks, 11 adults). The birds were anesthetized with isoflurane. No surgical complications occurred with any of the birds and all adult and nestling birds survived after surgery to the point of release or return to the nest. Thirteen out of 14 chicks from the Jackpot Island/Icy Bay and 8 out of 12 chicks from Naked Island fledged. Four chicks at Naked Island were depredated before fledging. All adults abandoned their nests after surgery, so the study sites were revisited the following summer (2000) in an attempt to assess overwinter survival of the adults. All but 1 adult biopsied bird at the nonoiled site (Icy Bay) was found renesting, whereas only 2 birds at the previously oiled site (Naked Island) were similarly observed. The percent of 1999 breeders at Naked Island that returned to their nest sites to breed

  3. Risk factors for biopsy-proven advanced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Veterans Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Y A; Gifford, E J; Glass, L M; McNeil, R; Turner, M J; Han, B; Provenzale, D; Choi, S S; Moylan, C A; Hunt, C M

    2018-01-01

    With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes. In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver. Of 2091 patients reviewed, 399 met inclusion criteria. Normal controls (n = 65) had normal liver function. The four NAFLD cohorts included: NAFL steatosis (n = 76), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) without fibrosis (n = 68), NAFLD/NASH stage 1-3 fibrosis (n = 82), and NAFLD/NASH cirrhosis (n = 70). NAFLD with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was separately identified (n = 38). Most patients were older White men. NAFLD patients with any fibrosis were on average severely obese (BMI>35 kg/m 2 ). Diabetes (54.4%-79.6%) and hypertension (85.8%-100%) were more common in NAFLD with fibrosis or HCC. Across NAFLD, 12.3%-19.5% were enrolled in diet/exercise programs and 0%-2.6% had bariatric surgery. Hispanics exhibited higher rates of NASH (20.6%), while Blacks had low NAFLD rates (1.4%-11.8%), particularly NAFLD cirrhosis and HCC (1.4%-2.6%). Diabetes (OR 11.8, P < .001) and BMI (OR 1.4, P < .001) were the most significant predictors of advanced fibrosis. In the VHA, diabetes and severe obesity increased risk for advanced fibrosis in NAFLD. Of these patients, only a small proportion (~20%) had enrolled in diet/exercise programs or had bariatric surgery (~2%). These results suggest that providers should focus/tailor interventions to improve outcomes, particularly in those with diabetes and severe obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Value of ultrasonically-guided liver puncture biopsy in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Apropos of 84 cases].

    PubMed

    Peghini, M; Eynard, J P; Vergne, R; Seurat, P; Barabe, P; Aubry, P; Diallo, A; Gueye, P M

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonographicaly guided fine needle aspiration of liver was performed in 84 patients having a confirmed HCC. This technics utilizes a CHIBA type fine needle, after blood coagulation tests have been checked. Out of 84 fine needle aspirations performed: 64 were positive (76,2%), 9 negative (10,7%), 11 (13,19%) were questionable (6) or nonanalysable (5). It is ascertained that the sensibility of this technics is over 75%. It should be possible to improve it by repeating such an exam in previously negative patients. The causes of failure are discussed. Tolerance of the technics is good. It is attraumatic, and of very easily performance. No accident, no mishap was noted.

  5. Proteome Analysis of Liver Cells Expressing a Full- Length Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replicon and Biopsy Specimens of Posttransplantation Liver from HCV-Infected Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Diamond, Deborah L.; Chan, Eric Y.

    2005-06-01

    The development of a reproducible model system for the study of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to significantly enhance the study of virus-host interactions and provide future direction for modeling the pathogenesis of HCV. While there are studies describing global gene expression changes associated with HCV infection, changes in the proteome have not been characterized. We report the first large scale proteome analysis of the highly permissive Huh-7.5 cell line containing a full length HCV replicon. We detected > 4,400 proteins in this cell line, including HCV replicon proteins, using multidimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) separations coupled tomore » mass spectrometry (MS). The set of Huh-7.5 proteins confidently identified is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive yet reported for a human cell line. Consistent with the literature, a comparison of Huh-7.5 cells (+) and (-) the HCV replicon identified expression changes of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We extended these analyses to liver biopsy material from HCV-infected patients where > 1,500 proteins were detected from 2 {micro}g protein lysate using the Huh-7.5 protein database and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag strategy. These findings demonstrate the utility of multidimensional proteome analysis of the HCV replicon model system for assisting the determination of proteins/pathways affected by HCV infection. Our ability to extend these analyses to the highly complex proteome of small liver biopsies with limiting protein yields offers the unique opportunity to begin evaluating the clinical significance of protein expression changes associated with HCV infection.« less

  6. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... be due to: Cancer of the bile ducts ( cholangiocarcinoma ) Cysts in the liver Liver cancer Pancreatic cancer ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Bile Duct Cancer Read more Bile Duct Diseases Read more Biopsy ...

  7. Histological findings in protocol biopsies following pediatric liver transplant: Low incidence of abnormalities at 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Amin; Chau, Kai Y; Evans, Helen M

    2018-05-11

    Histological abnormalities, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, and steatosis, are increasingly reported in liver biopsies of children after LT. These changes may be progressive and represent a form of rejection. Liver biochemistry is often initially normal. Our LT program began in 2002, utilizing tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for the first year post-LT. Patients undergo a protocol biopsy at 1 year post-LT prior to stopping steroids, then at 5 years and every 5 years thereafter. Target tacrolimus levels are 5-8 μg/L and 3-5 μg/L after 3 and 12 months, respectively. Between 2002 and 2009, 51 LT were performed; 50 (98%) and 49 (96%) patients survived for 1 and 5 years, respectively. A total of 43 patients (median age at LT 2.3 years) underwent a protocol biopsy at 1 year (16 male; median time post-LT 12.5 months), and 44 (20 male; median time post-LT 5.1 years) at 5 years. By 5 years, 3 had transferred to adult services; 1 was re-transplanted for graft failure and 1 moved overseas. Biopsies were reviewed by 2 pathologists. Most patients (31/44) were on tacrolimus monotherapy at 5 years. At 1 and 5 years, 29 of 43 (67.5%) and 31 of 44 (71%) biopsies were normal, respectively. Two of 44 had chronic allograft hepatitis at 5 years. Two of 43 and 1 of 44 had isolated fibrosis, 3 of 43 and 3 of 44 steatosis, and 3 of 43 and 4 of 44 acute rejection at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Other findings included predominantly biliary changes (6/43 & 3/44 at 1 and 5 years, respectively). Tacrolimus levels at 5 years were slightly higher than anticipated (median trough level 5.8 μg/L). With an immunosuppressive regimen of tacrolimus and low-dose steroids for 1 year followed by tacrolimus monotherapy thereafter, the majority of PLB were normal and no progressive changes were observed at 5 years. Compared to other LT programs, we have lower rates of chronic allograft hepatitis, steatosis, and fibrosis at 5 years. However, the tacrolimus levels at 5

  8. High and variable copper status identified among dairy herds in the Waikato region by concentrations of Cu in liver sourced from biopsies and cull cows.

    PubMed

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Hittmann, A R

    2010-06-01

    To document the Cu supplementation practices on dairy farms in the Waikato region, determine the Cu status of those herds, and compare the suitability of liver samples sourced from biopsies and cull cows for assessing Cu status. During spring 2008, concentrations of Cu, Mo and S were determined from pasture samples from 24 dairy farms. Feeding regimens, herd size, milksolids production, soil type, fertiliser policy and Cu supplementation practices were recorded for each property. Based on these data, 10 monitor farms were selected to represent a range of Cu intakes for herds, from 5 to 12 mg Cu/kg dry matter (DM). On each monitor farm 12 healthy lactating cows were selected for liver biopsy and collection of blood samples during the following autumn. Around the same time, livers were collected from 12 cull cows per farm when they were slaughtered, and samples of pasture were again collected from each farm. Concentrations of Cu were measured in all tissue samples. Concentrations of Cu in pasture tended to be higher (mean 10.4 vs 8.2 mg/kg DM) in the autumn than spring, while concentrations of Mo were lower in the autumn (mean 0.35 vs 1.07 mg/kg DM). Most of the 24 farms used Cu supplementation in some form. Mean concentrations of Cu in liver for herds ranged from 640 (SD 544) to 2,560 (SD 474) micromol/kg fresh tissue in biopsies, and 520 (SD 235) to 2,610 (SD 945) micromol/kg in liver from cull cows. Mean concentrations of Cu in serum ranged from 7.9 to 13.4 micromol/L. The variability in concentrations of Cu for each farm was greater for liver (CV 50%) than serum (CV 21%). For individual cows, concentrations of Cu in liver, obtained by biopsy, and serum were not correlated. The concentration of Cu in liver of dairy cows reflected widely differing dietary intakes of Cu between herds, although levels indicated an adequate Cu status on all farms in this study. Use of either biopsy samples or livers from cull cows were indicative of the Cu status of the herd. Wide

  9. Cellular and humoral immune reactions in chronic active liver disease. II. Lymphocyte subsets and viral antigens in liver biopsies of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, H F; Houthoff, H J; Huitema, S; Wolters, G; Poppema, S; Gips, C H

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate in liver biopsies of 25 patients with hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection were studied in relation to the distribution and expression of HBV antigens. Mononuclear subsets were characterized with monoclonal (OKT, OKM, Leu) antibodies to surface antigens. For the demonstration of viral antigens directly conjugated antibodies to surface (HBsAg), core (HBcAg) and 'e' (HBeAg) antigen were used. For the study of mutual relations all methods were performed on serial cut tissue sections. In chronic active hepatitis B (CAH-B, n = 12) OKT8+ lymphocytes of T cell origin were the only cell type present in areas with liver cell degeneration and T cell cytotoxicity appears to be the only immune mechanism. In chronic persistent hepatitis B (CPH-B, n = 7) the only conspicuous feature was the presence of many Leu 3+ lymphocytes of the helper/inducer population in the portal tracts. In acute hepatitis B (AHB, n = 6) OKT8+ cells of non-T origin (OKT1-,3-) and Leu 7+ cells of presumed natural killer (NK) potential predominated in the areas with liver cell necrosis, and non-T cell cytotoxicity appears to be the predominant immune mechanism. In none of these disease entities a positive spatial relation could be established between the cytotoxic cells and the demonstrable expression of HBV antigens in hepatocytes. It is concluded that differences in immunological reaction pattern may explain the different course in the three forms of HBV infection studied. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6713726

  10. Progression of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Co-Infection: A Comparison between Non-Invasive Assessment Methods and Liver Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Patrick; Bregenzer, Andrea; Huber, Milo; Rauch, Andri; Jochum, Wolfram; Müllhaupt, Beat; Vernazza, Pietro; Opravil, Milos; Weber, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic performance of seven non-invasive tests (NITs) of liver fibrosis and to assess fibrosis progression over time in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Methods Transient elastography (TE) and six blood tests were compared to histopathological fibrosis stage (METAVIR). Participants were followed over three years with NITs at yearly intervals. Results Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for significant fibrosis (> = F2) in 105 participants was highest for TE (0.85), followed by FIB-4 (0.77), ELF-Test (0.77), APRI (0.76), Fibrotest (0.75), hyaluronic acid (0.70), and Hepascore (0.68). AUROC for cirrhosis (F4) was 0.97 for TE followed by FIB-4 (0.91), APRI (0.89), Fibrotest (0.84), Hepascore (0.82), ELF-Test (0.82), and hyaluronic acid (0.79). A three year follow-up was completed by 87 participants, all on antiretroviral therapy and in 20 patients who completed HCV treatment (9 with sustained virologic response). TE, APRI and Fibrotest did not significantly change during follow-up. There was weak evidence for an increase of FIB-4 (mean increase: 0.22, p = 0.07). 42 participants had a second liver biopsy: Among 38 participants with F0-F3 at baseline, 10 were progessors (1-stage increase in fibrosis, 8 participants; 2-stage, 1; 3-stage, 1). Among progressors, mean increase in TE was 3.35 kPa, in APRI 0.36, and in FIB-4 0.75. Fibrotest results did not change over 3 years. Conclusion TE was the best NIT for liver fibrosis staging in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. APRI-Score, FIB-4 Index, Fibrotest, and ELF-Test were less reliable. Routinely available APRI and FIB-4 performed as good as more expensive tests. NITs did not change significantly during a follow-up of three years, suggesting slow liver disease progression in a majority of HIV/HCV co-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26418061

  11. Progression of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Co-Infection: A Comparison between Non-Invasive Assessment Methods and Liver Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Patrick; Bregenzer, Andrea; Huber, Milo; Rauch, Andri; Jochum, Wolfram; Müllhaupt, Beat; Vernazza, Pietro; Opravil, Milos; Weber, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of seven non-invasive tests (NITs) of liver fibrosis and to assess fibrosis progression over time in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Transient elastography (TE) and six blood tests were compared to histopathological fibrosis stage (METAVIR). Participants were followed over three years with NITs at yearly intervals. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for significant fibrosis (> = F2) in 105 participants was highest for TE (0.85), followed by FIB-4 (0.77), ELF-Test (0.77), APRI (0.76), Fibrotest (0.75), hyaluronic acid (0.70), and Hepascore (0.68). AUROC for cirrhosis (F4) was 0.97 for TE followed by FIB-4 (0.91), APRI (0.89), Fibrotest (0.84), Hepascore (0.82), ELF-Test (0.82), and hyaluronic acid (0.79). A three year follow-up was completed by 87 participants, all on antiretroviral therapy and in 20 patients who completed HCV treatment (9 with sustained virologic response). TE, APRI and Fibrotest did not significantly change during follow-up. There was weak evidence for an increase of FIB-4 (mean increase: 0.22, p = 0.07). 42 participants had a second liver biopsy: Among 38 participants with F0-F3 at baseline, 10 were progessors (1-stage increase in fibrosis, 8 participants; 2-stage, 1; 3-stage, 1). Among progressors, mean increase in TE was 3.35 kPa, in APRI 0.36, and in FIB-4 0.75. Fibrotest results did not change over 3 years. TE was the best NIT for liver fibrosis staging in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. APRI-Score, FIB-4 Index, Fibrotest, and ELF-Test were less reliable. Routinely available APRI and FIB-4 performed as good as more expensive tests. NITs did not change significantly during a follow-up of three years, suggesting slow liver disease progression in a majority of HIV/HCV co-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Prospective Evaluation of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Elastography and High-Frequency B-Mode Ultrasound in Compensated Patients for the Diagnosis of Liver Fibrosis/Cirrhosis in Comparison to Mini-Laparoscopic Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, L; Zopf, S; Siebler, J; Schwitulla, J; Wildner, D; Wachter, D; Neurath, M F; Strobel, D

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound is a well-established noninvasive test for assessing patients with liver disease. This study aims to prospectively compare ultrasound to the new technique elastography (ARFI) for the assessment of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. High-frequency B-mode ultrasound (liver surface/vein irregularity, liver homogeneity, spleen size), ARFI quantification, mini-laparoscopic liver evaluation including biopsy were prospectively obtained in compensated patients scheduled for liver biopsy. For the diagnosis of cirrhosis, a combined gold standard (cirrhosis at histology and/or at macroscopic liver evaluation) was used. Out of 157 patients, 35 patients were diagnosed cirrhotic. Ultrasound (combination of liver vein and/or surface irregularity) showed no significant difference compared to ARFI quantification for the diagnosis of significant liver fibrosis (Ishak> = 3) and cirrhosis. Diagnosis of cirrhosis had a sensitivity/specificity/PPV/NPV of 83 %(± 12) / 82 %(± 7) / 57 %(± 14) / 94 %(± 4), respectively, with ultrasound and 86 %(± 12) / 81 %(± 7) / 57 %(± 13) / 95 %(± 4), respectively, with ARFI quantification. The sensitivity/specificity/PPV/NPV for the detection of significant fibrosis were 68 %(± 13) / 86 %(± 7) / 71 %(± 13) / 84 %(± 7), respectively, for ultrasound and 70 %(± 12) / 84 %(± 7) / 69 %(± 12) / 84 %(± 7), respectively, for ARFI quantification. ARFI elastography and high-frequency B-mode ultrasound show similar and good results for the diagnosis of compensated liver cirrhosis and high-grade fibrosis. A key benefit of both methods is the high NPV suggesting them as noninvasive exclusion tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Changes in the expression of α-tocopherol-related genes in liver and mammary gland biopsy specimens of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Haga, S; Miyaji, M; Nakano, M; Ishizaki, H; Matsuyama, H; Katoh, K; Roh, S G

    2018-03-28

    Blood α-tocopherol (α-Toc) concentrations decline gradually throughout the prepartum period, reaching the nadir after calving in dairy cows. The 6 α-Toc-related molecules [α-Toc transfer protein (TTPA); afamin; scavenger receptor class B, Type I; ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; tocopherol-associated protein (SEC14L2); and cytochrome P450 family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2 (CYP4F2)] are expressed in liver and other peripheral tissues. These molecules could regulate α-Toc transport, blood concentrations, and metabolism of α-Toc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the expression of α-Toc-related genes in liver and mammary gland tissues of dairy cows around calving, which have remained elusive until now. In experiment (Exp.) 1, 28 multiparous Holstein cows were used (from -5 to 6 wk relative to parturition) to monitor the changes in dietary α-Toc intake, blood concentrations of α-Toc, and lipoproteins; in Exp. 2, 7 peripartum Holstein cows were used (from -4 to 4 wk relative to parturition) for liver tissue biopsy; and in Exp. 3, 10 peripartum Holstein cows were used (from -8 to 6 wk relative to parturition) to carry out the mammary gland tissue biopsy and milk sampling. In Exp. 1, the serum α-Toc concentrations declined gradually with decreasing amount of α-Toc intake and plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations toward calving time. However, in the early lactation period after calving, serum α-Toc concentrations remained at a lower concentration despite the recovery of α-Toc intake and plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. In Exp. 2, just after calving, the TTPA, SEC14L2, afamin, and albumin mRNA expression levels in the liver were temporarily downregulated, and the hepatic mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced unfolded protein response markers and acute-phase response marker increased at calving. In Exp. 3, the concentrations of α-Toc in colostrum were greater than those in precolostrum

  14. PNPLA3 variant and portal/periportal histological pattern in patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a possible role for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carpino, Guido; Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Overi, Diletta; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Polimeni, Licia; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Carnevale, Roberto; Del Ben, Maria; Arca, Marcello; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2017-11-17

    Pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is influenced by predisposing genetic variations, dysmetabolism, systemic oxidative stress, and local cellular and molecular cross-talks. Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene I148M variant is a known determinant of NAFLD. Aims were to evaluate whether PNPLA3 I148M variant was associated with a specific histological pattern, hepatic stem/progenitor cell (HpSC) niche activation and serum oxidative stress markers. Liver biopsies were obtained from 54 NAFLD patients. The activation of HpSC compartment was evaluated by the extension of ductular reaction (DR); hepatic stellate cells, myofibroblasts (MFs), and macrophages were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Systemic oxidative stress was assessed measuring serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp) and 8-isoprostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ). PNPLA3 carriers showed higher steatosis, portal inflammation and HpSC niche activation compared to wild-type patients. DR was correlated with NAFLD activity score (NAS) and fibrosis score. Serum 8-iso-PGF 2α were significantly higher in I148M carriers compared to non-carriers and were correlated with DR and portal inflammation. sNox2-dp was correlated with NAS and with HpSC niche activation. In conclusion, NAFLD patients carrying PNPLA3 I148M are characterized by a prominent activation of HpSC niche which is associated with a more aggressive histological pattern (portal fibrogenesis) and increased oxidative stress.

  15. Bone Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Bone Biopsy Bone biopsy uses a needle and imaging ... the limitations of Bone Biopsy? What is a Bone Biopsy? A bone biopsy is an image-guided ...

  16. Rectal biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Amyloidosis - rectal biopsy; Crohn disease - rectal biopsy; Colorectal cancer - biopsy; Hirschsprung disease - rectal biopsy ... abnormal conditions of the rectum, such as: Abscesses Colorectal ... Inflammation Tumors Amyloidosis Crohn disease Hirschsprung ...

  17. Cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... grade cone biopsy; High-grade cone biopsy; Carcinoma in situ-cone biopsy; CIS - cone biopsy; ASCUS - cone biopsy; ... marked dysplasia CIN III -- severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ Abnormal results may also be due to cervical ...

  18. Needle Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... needle biopsy procedures include fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy. Needle biopsy may be used to ... hollow needle to draw cells from your body. Core needle biopsy. This type of needle biopsy uses ...

  19. Validation of an LC-MS/MS method to measure tacrolimus in rat kidney and liver tissue and its application to human kidney biopsies.

    PubMed

    Noll, Benjamin D; Coller, Janet K; Somogyi, Andrew A; Morris, Raymond G; Russ, Graeme R; Hesselink, Dennis A; Van Gelder, Teun; Sallustio, Benedetta C

    2013-10-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) has a narrow therapeutic index and high interindividual and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability, necessitating therapeutic drug monitoring to individualize dosage. Recent evidence suggests that intragraft TAC concentrations may better predict transplant outcomes. This study aimed to develop a method for the quantification of TAC in small biopsy-sized samples of rat kidney and liver tissue, which could be applied to clinical biopsy samples from kidney transplant recipients. Kidneys and livers were harvested from Mrp2-deficient TR- Wistar rats administered TAC (4 mg·kg·d for 14 days, n = 8) or vehicle (n = 10). Tissue samples (0.20-1.00 mg of dry weight) were solubilized enzymatically and underwent liquid-liquid extraction before analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. TAC-free tissue was used in the calibrator and quality control samples. Analyte detection was accomplished using positive electrospray ionization (TAC: m/z 821.5 → 768.6; internal standard ascomycin m/z 809.3 → 756.4). Calibration curves (0.04-2.6 μg/L) were linear (R > 0.99, n = 10), with interday and intraday calibrator coefficients of variation and bias <17% at the lower limit of quantification and <15% at all other concentrations (n = 6-10). Extraction efficiencies for TAC and ascomycin were approximately 70%, and matrix effects were minimal. Rat kidney TAC concentrations were higher (range 109-190 pg/mg tissue) than those in the liver (range 22-53 pg/mg of tissue), with median tissue/blood concentrations ratios of 72.0 and 17.6, respectively. In 2 transplant patients, kidney TAC concentrations ranged from 119 to 285 pg/mg of tissue and were approximately 20 times higher than whole blood trough TAC concentrations. The method displayed precision and accuracy suitable for application to TAC measurement in human kidney biopsy tissue.

  20. A comparison of FibroMeter™ NAFLD Score, NAFLD fibrosis score, and transient elastography as noninvasive diagnostic tools for hepatic fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Aykut, Umut Emre; Akyuz, Umit; Yesil, Atakan; Eren, Fatih; Gerin, Fatma; Ergelen, Rabia; Celikel, Cigdem Ataizi; Yilmaz, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    Noninvasive markers that purport to distinguish patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with fibrosis from those without must be evaluated rigorously for their classification accuracy. Herein, we seek to compare the diagnostic performances of three different noninvasive methods (FibroMeter™ NAFLD score, NAFLD Fibrosis score (NFSA), and Transient Elastrography [TE]) for the detection of liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. A total of 88 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included. The Kleiner system was used for grading fibrosis in liver biopsies. The FibroMeter™ NAFLD score was determined using a proprietary algorithm (regression score). The NFSA score was calculated based on age, hyperglycemia, body mass index, platelets, albumin and serum aminotransferase levels. TE was performed using the Fibroscan apparatus. The sensitivities/specificities for the FibroMeter™ NAFLD score, NFSA, and TE for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F2 + F3 + F4 fibrosis) were 38.6%/86.4%, 52.3%/88.6%, and 75.0%/93.2%, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of TE were significantly higher than those of both the FibroMeter™ NAFLD score and NFSA. No significant differences were found between the FibroMeter™ NAFLD score and NFSA for the detection of significant and severe fibrosis, although the diagnostic performance of the FibroMeter™ NAFLD score was higher than that of the NFSA score for cirrhosis. In summary, TE showed the best diagnostic performance for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. The diagnostic performances of the FibroMeter™ NAFLD score and NFSA did not differ significantly for the detection of both significant and severe fibrosis.

  1. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Kidney Biopsy What is a kidney biopsy? A kidney biopsy is a procedure that ... performs procedures using imaging equipment Why is a kidney biopsy performed? A health care provider will perform ...

  2. Accuracy of transient elastography-FibroScan®, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test, APRI, and the FIB-4 index compared with liver biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ragazzo, Taisa Grotta; Paranagua-Vezozzo, Denise; Lima, Fabiana Roberto; de Campos Mazo, Daniel Ferraz; Pessoa, Mário Guimarães; Oliveira, Claudia Pinto; Alves, Venancio Avancini Ferreira; Carrilho, Flair José

    2017-10-01

    Although liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the degree of liver fibrosis, issues regarding its invasiveness and the small amount of liver tissue evaluated can limit its applicability and interpretation in clinical practice. Non-invasive evaluation methods for liver fibrosis can address some of these limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transient elastography-FibroScan®, acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF), the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the FIB-4 index compared with liver biopsy in hepatitis C. We evaluated chronic hepatitis C patients who were followed at the Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Gastroenterology of University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil, and who underwent liver biopsy. The accuracy of each method was determined by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and fibrosis was classified as significant fibrosis (≥F2), advanced fibrosis (≥F3), or cirrhosis (F4). The Obuchowski method was also used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of each method at the various stages of fibrosis. In total, 107 FibroScan®, 51 ARFI, 68 ELF, 106 APRI, and 106 FIB-4 analyses were performed. A total of 107 patients were included in the study. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROCs) according to fibrosis degree were as follows: significant fibrosis (≥F2): FibroScan®: 0.83, FIB-4: 0.76, ELF: 0.70, APRI: 0.69, and ARFI: 0.67; advanced fibrosis (≥F3): FibroScan®: 0.85, ELF: 0.82, FIB-4: 0.77, ARFI: 0.74, and APRI: 0.71; and cirrhosis (F4): APRI: 1, FIB-4: 1, FibroScan®: 0.99, ARFI: 0.96, and ELF: 0.94. The accuracies of transient elastography, ARFI, ELF, APRI and FIB-4 determined by the Obuchowski method were F0-F1: 0.81, 0.78, 0.44, 0.72 and 0.67, respectively; F1-F2: 0.73, 0.53, 0.62, 0.60, and 0.68, respectively; F2-F3: 0.70, 0.64, 0.77, 0.60, and 0

  3. Assessment of biopsy-proven liver fibrosis by two-dimensional shear wave elastography: An individual patient data-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Eva; de Lédinghen, Victor; Cassinotto, Christophe; Chu, Winnie C-W; Leung, Vivian Y-F; Ferraioli, Giovanna; Filice, Carlo; Castera, Laurent; Vilgrain, Valérie; Ronot, Maxime; Dumortier, Jérôme; Guibal, Aymeric; Pol, Stanislas; Trebicka, Jonel; Jansen, Christian; Strassburg, Christian; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Jian; Francque, Sven; Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Vonghia, Luisa; Manesis, Emanuel K; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Sporea, Ioan; Thiele, Maja; Krag, Aleksander; Cohen-Bacrie, Claude; Criton, Aline; Gay, Joel; Deffieux, Thomas; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) has proven to be efficient for the evaluation of liver fibrosis in small to moderate-sized clinical trials. We aimed at running a larger-scale meta-analysis of individual data. Centers which have worked with Aixplorer ultrasound equipment were contacted to share their data. Retrospective statistical analysis used direct and paired receiver operating characteristic and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analyses, accounting for random effects. Data on both 2D-SWE and liver biopsy were available for 1,134 patients from 13 sites, as well as on successful transient elastography in 665 patients. Most patients had chronic hepatitis C (n = 379), hepatitis B (n = 400), or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (n = 156). AUROCs of 2D-SWE in patients with hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were 86.3%, 90.6%, and 85.5% for diagnosing significant fibrosis and 92.9%, 95.5%, and 91.7% for diagnosing cirrhosis, respectively. The AUROC of 2D-SWE was 0.022-0.084 (95% confidence interval) larger than the AUROC of transient elastography for diagnosing significant fibrosis (P = 0.001) and 0.003-0.034 for diagnosing cirrhosis (P = 0.022) in all patients. This difference was strongest in hepatitis B patients. 2D-SWE has good to excellent performance for the noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B; further prospective studies are needed for head-to-head comparison between 2D-SWE and other imaging modalities to establish disease-specific appropriate cutoff points for assessment of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2018;67:260-272). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Assessment of the contamination problems resulting from the use of stainless steel needles in liver biopsies by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Imre

    2006-11-01

    Percutaneous human liver biopsies taken from living patients could not be repeated; therefore considerable contamination was indirectly disproved. In the present study, the possible contamination of biopsy samples during sample collection was determined using a porcine liver model. Portions of porcine liver were cut by a quartz blade and treated the same as the steel needle biopsy samples. Concentrations determined in samples taken by a quartz device represented the non-contaminated values and were used to determine reproducibility of measurement and intra-individual variations. Additionally, multiple samples taken from a human liver of a patient suffering steatosis during autopsy were used to determine intra-individual variation of element concentrations. Concentration data of non-contaminated samples were compared to data of steel needle biopsy samples. To investigate the possible release of elements from the steel needles the samples were allowed to contact with the needle for different time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for simultaneous determination of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Mo and Pb because of the very low sample demand of the two selected techniques. Although the steel needles in the present study could not be substituted by polypropylene or Teflon utensils, it was demonstrated that the application of needle biopsy sampling in the reported analysis does not involve measurable contamination if contact time is kept to several minutes as usual in the clinical practice.

  5. Endometrial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Biopsy - endometrium Images Pelvic laparoscopy Female reproductive anatomy Endometrial biopsy Uterus Endometrial biopsy References Beard JM, Osborn J. Common office procedures. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. T-cell clonality analysis in biopsy specimens from two different skin sites shows high specificity in the diagnosis of patients with suggested mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Stacy E; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Youn H; Schrijver, Iris; Zehnder, James; Kohler, Sabine

    2007-11-01

    The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is often difficult because of significant clinical and histopathologic overlap with inflammatory dermatoses. T-cell receptor (TCR)gamma chain rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (TCR-PCR) is a helpful adjuvant tool in this setting, but several of the inflammatory dermatoses in the differential diagnosis of MF may contain a clonal T-cell proliferation. We examined whether analysis for T-cell clonality and comparison of the clones with the standardized BIOMED-2 PCR multiplex primers for the TCRgamma chain from two anatomically distinct skin sites improves diagnostic accuracy. We examined two biopsy specimens each from 10 patients with unequivocal MF, from 18 patients with inflammatory dermatoses, and from 18 patients who could initially not be definitively given a diagnosis based on clinical and histopathologic criteria. Eight of 10 patients with unequivocal MF had an identical clone in both biopsy specimens. Two of 18 patients with inflammatory dermatoses were found to have a clone in one of the biopsy specimens. On further follow-up of the 18 patients with morphologically nondiagnostic biopsy specimens, 13 of 18 were later confirmed to have MF and 5 of 18 had inflammatory dermatoses. Eleven of 13 patients with MF had an identical clone in both biopsy specimens; two of 13 had a polyclonal amplification pattern in both biopsy specimens. Four of 5 patients with inflammatory dermatoses had no clone in either biopsy specimen. One patient with an inflammatory dermatosis had an identical clone in both specimens. The sensitivity of TCR-PCR analysis to evaluate for an identical clone at different anatomic skin sites (dual TCR-PCR) is 82.6% and the specificity is 95.7%. The number of patients in the study group was limited. These data suggest that dual TCR-PCR is a very promising technique with high specificity in distinguishing MF from inflammatory dermatoses.

  7. Detection of HLA-G in serum and graft biopsy associated with fewer acute rejections following combined liver-kidney transplantation: possible implications for monitoring patients.

    PubMed

    Creput, Caroline; Le Friec, Gaëlle; Bahri, Rajia; Amiot, Laurence; Charpentier, Bernard; Carosella, Edgardo; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Durrbach, Antoine

    2003-11-01

    Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a regulatory molecule that is expressed in the cytotrophoblast during implantation and is thought to allow the tolerance and the development of the semiallogeneic embryo. In vitro, HLA-G inhibits natural killer (NK) cell and CD8 T-cell cytotoxicity. HLA-G also decreases CD4 T-cell expansion. This suggests that it participates in the acceptance of allogeneic organ transplants in humans. We here describe the detection of high concentration of HLA-G in serum from liver-kidney transplant patients, but not in kidney transplant patients. This finding is supported by the ectopic expression of HLA-G in graft biopsies. Finally, its association with a low number of acute transplant rejections, especially in liver-kidney transplant patients led us to propose that HLA-G may serve to monitor transplant patients who are likely to accept their allograft and, thus, may benefit of a reduced immunosuppressive treatment.

  8. Bladder biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... than usual ( oliguria ). You cannot urinate despite a strong urge to do so. Alternative Names Biopsy - bladder Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Bladder biopsy ...

  9. Skin Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin Biopsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Skin Biopsy What's in ... en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a ...

  10. Molecular evidence shows that the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is the predominant Fasciola species in ruminants from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, U; van Paridon, B; Shabbir, M Z; Shafee, M; Ashraf, K; Yaqub, T; Gilleard, J

    2016-03-01

    Fascioliasis is an important disease affecting livestock, with great costs to producers worldwide. It has also become a serious issue for human populations in some endemic areas as an emerging zoonotic infection. There are two Fasciola species of liver fluke responsible for this disease, which occur worldwide, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Identifying these two species on the basis of adult or egg morphology requires specialist knowledge due to the similarity of characters, and may misidentify putative intermediate or hybrid forms. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA of liver flukes collected from multiple species of hosts from seven localities in the Punjab and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan, to determine the distribution of these two species. All 46 flukes processed in this study, collected from seven sites, showed the rDNA ITS-2 genotype corresponding to F. gigantica, contradicting previous reports, based on adult and egg morphology, that both species are present in Pakistan, with F. hepatica being the more common.

  11. Syzyguim guineense Extracts Show Antioxidant Activities and Beneficial Activities on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Chloride in the Liver Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Pieme, Constant Anatole; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Khou-Kouz Nkoulou, Claude Herve; Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Njinkio Nono, Borgia Legrand; Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Ze Minkande, Jacqueline; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging property and the beneficial effects of extracts of various parts of Syzygium guineense in reducing oxidative stress damage in the liver. The effects of extracts on free radicals were determined on radicals DPPH, ABTS, NO and OH followed by the antioxidant properties using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and hosphomolybdenum (PPMB). The phytochemical screening of these extracts was performed by determination of the phenolic content. The oxidative damage inhibition in the liver was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase. Overall, the bark extract of the ethanol/water or methanol showed the highest radical scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS and OH radicals compared to the other extracts. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolic compounds towards the antioxidant activities. However, the methanol extract of the root demonstrated the highest protective effects of SOD and CAT against ferric chloride while the hydro-ethanol extract of the leaves exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that antioxidant properties of S. guineense extracts could be attributed to phenolic compounds revealed by phytochemical studies. Thus, the present results indicate clearly that the extracts of S. guineense possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of the bark extract may thus sustain its various biological activities. PMID:26785075

  12. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L; Black, Katherine; Jones, Lynnette M; McCormick, Sally P A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5'-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors.

  13. Development of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japanese patients with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Association between PNPLA3 genotype and hepatocarcinogenesis/fibrosis progression.

    PubMed

    Seko, Yuya; Sumida, Yoshio; Tanaka, Saiyu; Mori, Kojiroh; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Ishiba, Hiroshi; Hara, Tasuku; Okajima, Akira; Umemura, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Imai, Shunsuke; Shimada, Keiji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-10-01

    Some patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 (encoding the I148M variant) has been associated with advanced fibrosis and HCC. We determined the risk factors for HCC, including the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism, in Japanese patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed hepatocarcinogenesis in 238 patients. PNPLA3 rs738409 genotype was determined by allelic discrimination in 130 patients. Among them, 86 patients who were followed up for >5 years and without liver cirrhosis were analyzed to clarify the relationship between PNPLA3 genotype and long-term changes in biomarkers. Of 238 patients, PNPLA3 genotype frequencies were: CC, 0.14; CG, 0.46; and GG, 0.40. During a follow-up period of 6.1 years, 10 patients (4.2%) with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis developed HCC. The cumulative rate of HCC was 1.9% at the end of the 5th year and 8.3% at the end of the 10th year. Multivariate analysis identified PNPLA3 genotype GG (hazard ratio, 6.36; P = 0.019) and fibrosis stage (fibrosis stage 3/4; hazard ratio, 24.4; P = 0.011) as predictors of HCC development. In the long follow-up cohort, a larger reduction in platelet count was found in the GG group (P = 0.032) despite a larger reduction in alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.023) compared to that in the CC/CG group. In Japanese patients with NAFLD, severe fibrosis and PNPLA3 GG genotype were predictors of HCC development, independent of other known risk factors. Patients with the PNPLA3 GG genotype have the potential for a decreased platelet count, even when alanine aminotransferase levels are well controlled. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Comparison of the prognostic value of liver biopsy and FIB-4 index in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Juan; Zamora, Francisco X; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; Crespo, Manel; López-Aldeguer, José; Carrero, Ana; Montes, Marisa; Quereda, Carmen; Téllez, María J; Galindo, María J; Sanz, José; Santos, Ignacio; Guardiola, Josep M; Barros, Carlos; Ortega, Enrique; Pulido, Federico; Rubio, Rafael; Mallolas, Josep; Tural, Cristina; Jusdado, Juan J; Pérez, Gloria; Díez, Cristina; Álvarez-Pellicer, Julio; Esteban, Herminia; Bellón, José M; González-García, Juan

    2015-03-15

    We compared the prognostic value of liver biopsy (LB) and FIB-4 index in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. We studied patients from the Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 3603 study cohort, in whom fibrosis was evaluated at baseline using both LB (Metavir score) and FIB-4 index. We assessed overall death (OD) and liver-related events (LREs), defined as decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma, whichever occurred first. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the ability of LB and FIB-4 to predict outcomes. We also assessed the association between advanced fibrosis-LB (F3 or greater) or FIB-4 (≥3.25)-and outcomes using multivariate Cox regression analysis. The study sample comprised 903 patients (328 with sustained virologic response [SVR]). Baseline fibrosis by LB was as follows: F0, n = 71; F1, n = 242; F2, n = 236; F3, n = 236; F4, n = 118. Fibrosis by FIB-4 was as follows: ≤1, n = 148; >1 to <3.25, n = 597; ≥3.25, n = 158. After a median follow-up of 62 months, there were 46 deaths and 71 LREs. The area under the ROC curves for OD/LREs was 0.648 and 0.742 for LB and FIB-4, respectively (P = .006). Similar results were found for patients without SVR and for OD and LREs separately. The adjusted hazard ratios of OD or LRE were 1.740 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.119-2.7.06; P = .014) for advanced fibrosis assessed by LB and 3.896 (95% CI, 2.463-6.160; P < .001) assessed by FIB-4. FIB-4 outperformed LB as a predictor of OD and LRE. These findings are of relevance for clinical practice and research and call into question the role of LB as a gold standard for assessing prognosis in HIV/HCV coinfection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Biopsy - testicle Images Endocrine glands Male reproductive anatomy Testicular biopsy References Garibaldi LR, Chematilly W. Disorders of pubertal development. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  16. Agreement Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging Proton Density Fat Fraction Measurements and Pathologist-Assigned Steatosis Grades of Liver Biopsies From Adults With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael S; Heba, Elhamy R; Hooker, Catherine A; Bashir, Mustafa R; Fowler, Kathryn J; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Kleiner, David E; Doo, Edward; Van Natta, Mark L; Lavine, Joel E; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Sanyal, Arun; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-09-01

    We assessed the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton density fat fraction (PDFF) in grading hepatic steatosis and change in hepatic steatosis in adults with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a multi-center study, using central histology as reference. We collected data from 113 adults with NASH participating in a multi-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial to compare the efficacy cross-sectionally and longitudinally of obeticholic acid vs placebo. Hepatic steatosis was assessed at baseline and after 72 weeks of obeticholic acid or placebo by liver biopsy and MRI (scanners from different manufacturers, at 1.5T or 3T). We compared steatosis estimates by PDFF vs histology. Histologic steatosis grade was scored in consensus by a pathology committee. Cross-validated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed. At baseline, 34% of subjects had steatosis grade 0 or 1, 39% had steatosis grade 2, and 27% had steatosis grade 3; corresponding mean PDFF values were 9.8%±3.7%, 18.1%±4.3%, and 30.1%±8.1%. PDFF classified steatosis grade 0-1 vs 2-3 with an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91-0.98), and grade 0-2 vs grade 3 steatosis with an AUROC of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-0.99). PDFF cut-off values at 90% specificity were 16.3% for grades 2-3 and 21.7% for grade 3, with corresponding sensitivities of 83% and 84%. After 72 weeks' of obeticholic vs placebo, 42% of subjects had a reduced steatosis grade (mean reduction in PDFF from baseline of 7.4%±8.7%), 49% had no change in steatosis grade (mean increase in PDFF from baseline of 0.3%±6.3%), and 9% had an increased steatosis grade (mean increase in PDFF from baseline of 7.7%±6.0%). PDFF change identified subjects with reduced steatosis grade with an AUROC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.71-0.91) and increased steatosis grade with an AUROC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.63-0.99). A PDFF reduction of 5.15% identified subjects with reduced steatosis grade

  17. Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... time If your biopsy will be done using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tell your doctor if you ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  18. Breast biopsy -- stereotactic

    MedlinePlus

    ... sent to a pathologist to be examined. Normal Results A normal result means there is no sign ... follow-up mammogram or other tests. What Abnormal Results Mean If the biopsy shows benign breast tissue ...

  19. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy - skin; Skin cancer - biopsy; Melanoma - biopsy; Squamous cell cancer - biopsy; Basal cell cancer - biopsy; Mohs microsurgery ... dermatitis Infection from bacteria or fungus Melanoma Basal cell skin cancer Squamous cell skin cancer

  20. Synovial biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Autoimmune Diseases Read more Biopsy Read more Fungal ...

  1. Ureteral retrograde brush biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - brush - urinary tract; Retrograde ureteral brush biopsy cytology; Cytology - ureteral retrograde brush biopsy ... should not be performed in people with a: Urinary tract infection Blockage at or below the biopsy site ...

  2. Extract of Bauhinia vahlii Shows Antihyperglycemic Activity, Reverses Oxidative Stress, and Protects against Liver Damage in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Ahmed H.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Elalfy, Taha S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential. DEE was selected for further in vivo studies and was administered at two doses, i.e., 150 or 300 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Results: Only DEE exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities and its oral administration at both dose levels resulted in significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, signs of oxidative stress as indicated by hepatic reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels were completely reversed. In addition, histopathological examination and measurement of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels showed that DEE protected the liver from signs of liver pathogenesis when compared to diabetic untreated animals and those treated with metformin. Phytochemical analysis of DEE showed high flavonoids content with quercitrin as the major constituent along with other quercetin glycosides. Conclusion: This study strongly highlights the possible beneficial effect of B. vahlii leaves extract in relieving hyperglycemia and liver damage in STZ-diabetic rats and recommends further investigation of the value of quercetin derivatives in controlling diabetes and ameliorating liver damage associated with it. SUMMARY The polar fraction of the Bauhinia vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) exhibited both in vitro antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and

  3. Bone lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Bone biopsy; Biopsy - bone ... the cut, then pushed and twisted into the bone. Once the sample is obtained, the needle is ... sample is sent to a lab for examination. Bone biopsy may also be done under general anesthesia ...

  4. Open lung biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  5. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Kesavarapu, Keerthana; Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  6. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects. PMID:29204300

  7. There is still a role for cytology in the 'liquid biopsy' era. A lesson from a TKI-treated patient showing adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma transition during disease progression.

    PubMed

    Clery, Eduardo; Pisapia, Pasquale; Feliciano, Salvatore; Vigliar, Elena; Marano, Antonio; De Luca, Caterina; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Bellevicine, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    Non-small cell lung carcinoma harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutation, usually progress after an initial response to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI). Liquid biopsy enables with a simple blood draw the accurate detection of EGFR p.T790M mutation, the most common resistance mechanism, avoiding the more invasive tissue re-biopsy. However, in a subset of cases, resistance mechanisms are more complex featuring both genetic and morphological changes. Here we report the case of a 67 years-old woman, affected by an EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma and treated by TKI. At disease progression, the patient developed a morphological transition to squamous cell carcinoma in association to the arising of a PIK3CA p.E542K mutant subclone. This case illustrates that, even in the "liquid biopsy" era, cytology can have still a role by providing an overall assessment of both morphology and genetic TKI resistance mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows that you have a higher than normal prostate specific antigen (PSA) level Your provider discovers a lump or abnormality in your prostate during a digital rectal exam Normal Results Normal ...

  9. Non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness after splenectomy in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Ling, Wen-Wu; Wang, Hong; Meng, Ling-Wei; Cai, He; Peng, Bing

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in animal models and determine the longitudinal changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ after splenectomy at different stages of fibrosis. METHODS Liver stiffness was measured in sixty-eight rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis at different stages and eight healthy control rabbits by ElastPQ. Liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained at scheduled time points to assess liver function and degree of fibrosis. Thirty-one rabbits with complete data that underwent splenectomy at different stages of liver fibrosis were then included for dynamic monitoring of changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ and liver function according to blood tests. RESULTS LSM by ElastPQ was significantly correlated with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff values by ElastPQ were 11.27, 14.89, and 18.21 kPa for predicting minimal fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, and cirrhosis, respectively. Longitudinal monitoring of the changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ showed that early splenectomy (especially F1) may delay liver fibrosis progression. CONCLUSION ElastPQ is an available, convenient, objective and non-invasive technique for assessing liver stiffness in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. In addition, liver stiffness measurements using ElastPQ can dynamically monitor the changes in liver stiffness in rabbit models, and in patients, after splenectomy. PMID:28028365

  10. Non-invasive evaluation of liver stiffness after splenectomy in rabbits with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Ling, Wen-Wu; Wang, Hong; Meng, Ling-Wei; Cai, He; Peng, Bing

    2016-12-14

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in animal models and determine the longitudinal changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ after splenectomy at different stages of fibrosis. Liver stiffness was measured in sixty-eight rabbits with CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis at different stages and eight healthy control rabbits by ElastPQ. Liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained at scheduled time points to assess liver function and degree of fibrosis. Thirty-one rabbits with complete data that underwent splenectomy at different stages of liver fibrosis were then included for dynamic monitoring of changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ and liver function according to blood tests. LSM by ElastPQ was significantly correlated with histologic fibrosis stage ( r = 0.85, P < 0.001). The optimal cutoff values by ElastPQ were 11.27, 14.89, and 18.21 kPa for predicting minimal fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, and cirrhosis, respectively. Longitudinal monitoring of the changes in liver stiffness by ElastPQ showed that early splenectomy (especially F1) may delay liver fibrosis progression. ElastPQ is an available, convenient, objective and non-invasive technique for assessing liver stiffness in rabbits with CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis. In addition, liver stiffness measurements using ElastPQ can dynamically monitor the changes in liver stiffness in rabbit models, and in patients, after splenectomy.

  11. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-07-07

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients.

  12. [A case of malignant lymphoma successfully diagnosed using Sasada transbronchial angled biopsy forceps].

    PubMed

    Komori, Chika; Sasada, Shinji; Okamoto, Norio; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Uehara, Nobuko; Shimada, Kazutaka; Kuhara, Hanako; Terada, Haruko; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Matsunashi, Tatsuro; Minami, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Masashi; Hirashima, Tomonori; Matsui, Kaoru; Kawase, Ichiro; Kusunoki, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to general fatigue, fever and weight loss. His chest radiograph showed a nodule (2.8 cm) in the right middle lobe. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography showed multiple metastases to the bone, liver and lymph nodes. The lung nodule was not accessible by standard transbronchial forceps. However, biopsy specimens obtained using Sasada Transbronchial Angled Biopsy Forceps (STAF) pathologically confirmed the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. We report the case, and discuss the utility of STAF for lung lesions that are difficult to access with standard forceps.

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Is the Liver Another Target?

    PubMed Central

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done. PMID:23087670

  14. Radiofrequency Cauterization with Biopsy Introducer Needle

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, William F.; Wray-Cahen, Diane; Karanian, John W.; Hilbert, Stephen; Wood, Bradford J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The principal risks of needle biopsy are hemorrhage and implantation of tumor cells in the needle tract. This study compared hemorrhage after liver and kidney biopsy with and without radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the needle tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS Biopsies of liver and kidney were performed in swine through introducer needles modified to allow RF ablation with the distal 2 cm of the needle. After each biopsy, randomization determined whether the site was to undergo RF ablation during withdrawal of the introducer needle. Temperature was measured with a thermistor stylet near the needle tip, with a target temperature of 70°C–100°C with RF ablation. Blood loss was measured as grams of blood absorbed in gauze at the puncture site for 2 minutes after needle withdrawal. Selected specimens were cut for gross examination. RESULTS RF ablation reduced bleeding compared with absence of RF ablation in liver and kidney (P < .01), with mean blood loss reduced 63% and 97%, respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss (±SD) in the liver in the RF and no-RF groups were 2.03 g ± 4.03 (CI, 0.53–3.54 g) and 5.50 g ± 5.58 (CI, 3.33–7.66 g), respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss in the kidney in the RF and no-RF groups were 0.26 g ± 0.32 (CI, −0.01 to 0.53 g) and 8.79 g ± 7.72 (CI, 2.34–15.24 g), respectively. With RF ablation, thermal coagulation of the tissue surrounding the needle tract was observed. CONCLUSION RF ablation of needle biopsy tracts reduced hemorrhage after biopsy in the liver and kidney and may reduce complications of hemorrhage as well as implantation of tumor cells in the tract. PMID:14963187

  15. Left Lobe Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for End-stage Hepatitis B Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, S-F; Chen, X-P; Chen, Z-S; Wei, L; Dong, S-L; Guo, H; Jiang, J-P; Teng, W-H; Huang, Z-Y; Zhang, W-G

    2017-06-01

    Auxiliary liver transplantation (ALT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis previously showed poor results, because the native liver was a significant source of HBV recurrence and the graft could be rapidly destroyed by HBV infection in an immunosuppressive condition. Four patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis were unable to undergo orthotopic liver transplantation because the only available grafts of left lobe were too small. Under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment, they underwent ALT in which the recipient left liver was removed and the small left lobe graft was implanted in the corresponding space. The mean graft weight/recipient weight was 0.49% (range, 0.38%-0.55%). One year after transplantation, the graft sizes were increased to 273% and the remnant livers were decreased to 44%. Serum HBV DNA was persistently undetectable. Periodic graft biopsy showed no signs of tissue injury and negative immunostaining for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen. After a mean follow-up period of 21 months, all patients live well with normal graft function. Our study suggests that ALT for HBV-related liver cirrhosis is feasible under entecavir-based anti-HBV treatment. Successful application of small left livers in end-stage liver cirrhosis may significantly increase the pool of left liver grafts for adult patients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Analysis of S gene mutation of the hepatitis B virus in adult liver transplant recipients showing resistance to hepatitis B immunoglobulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, G-C; Hwang, S; Ahn, C-S; Kim, K-H; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Song, G-W; Jung, D-H; Shin, Y W; Kim, S-H; Chang, K-H; Namgoong, J-M; Park, C-S; Park, H-W; Park, Y-H; Kang, S-H; Jung, B-H; Lee, S-G

    2013-10-01

    A considerable proportion of recipients of liver transplantations who are presented hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) monotherapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) prophylaxis develop HBIG resistance. In this study, we investigated the mutation patterns in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of amino acid sequences 100 to 160. Using the gene sequence analyzer for amino acid sequences 0 to 226 in the S/pre-S region we analyzed blood samples of 15 patients showing HBIG resistance after high-dose HBIG prophylaxis. Various mutations in the MHR were observed in 14/15 samples: Gly145Arg mutation in 8/13 Adr subtype and 1/2 Ayw subtype samples (60%). The next most common mutation was Gly165Trp in 8/13 Adr subtype but neither of 2 Ayw subtype samples (53.3%). Concurrent antiviral resistance was noted in 5 patients: lamivudine (n = 5), or entecavir (n = 3), but not adefovir, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous, antiviral cross-resistances. Two patients underwent retransplantation due to the progression of HBV infection despite vigorous antiviral therapy. At diagnosis of HBV recurrence, the mean HBV DNA load was 6.5 × 10(6) copies/mL; 4 patients showed paradoxical coexistence of anti-HBs and HBsAg. Currently, 2 subjects show low-level HBV DNA replication in peripheral blood, although the other 12 had no DNA replication after prolonged antiviral therapy. This study suggested that various mutations in the "a" determinant were associated with HBIG resistance. Since treatment failure to rescue antiviral therapy was often associated with delayed detection of HBV recurrence rather than concurrent antiviral resistance, frequent HBV surveillance using more sensitive screening tests, such as HBeAg and HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction assay, seems to be mandatory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular profiling of subclinical inflammatory lesions in long-term surviving adult liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Londoño, María-Carlota; Souza, Lara Neves; Lozano, Juan-José; Miquel, Rosa; Abraldes, Juan G; Llovet, Laura-Patricia; Quaglia, Alberto; Rimola, Antoni; Navasa, Miquel; Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto

    2018-04-28

    Subclinical inflammatory changes are commonly described in long-term transplant recipients undergoing protocol liver biopsies. The pathogenesis of these lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the key molecular pathways driving progressive subclinical inflammatory liver allograft damage. All liver recipients followed at Hospital Clínic Barcelona who were >10 years post-transplant were screened for participation in the study. Patients with recurrence of underlying liver disease, biliary or vascular complications, chronic rejection, and abnormal liver function tests were excluded. Sixty-seven patients agreed to participate and underwent blood and serological tests, transient elastography and a liver biopsy. Transcriptome profiling was performed on RNA extracted from 49 out of the 67 biopsies employing a whole genome next generation sequencing platform. Patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years following the index liver biopsy. Median time since transplantation to liver biopsy was 13 years (10-22). The most frequently observed histological abnormality was portal inflammation with different degrees of fibrosis, present in 45 biopsies (67%). Two modules of 102 and 425 co-expressed genes were significantly correlated with portal inflammation, interface hepatitis and portal fibrosis. These modules were enriched in molecular pathways known to be associated with T cell mediated rejection. Liver allografts showing the highest expression levels for the two modules recapitulated the transcriptional profile of biopsies with clinically apparent rejection and developed progressive damage over time, as assessed by non-invasive markers of fibrosis. A large proportion of adult liver transplant recipients who survive long-term exhibit subclinical histological abnormalities. The transcriptomic profile of these patients' liver tissue closely resembles that of T cell mediated rejection and may result in progressive allograft damage. A large

  18. Transient Elastography and Controlled Attenuation Parameter for Diagnosing Liver Fibrosis and Steatosis in Ontario: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thavorn, K; Coyle, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis is characterized by a buildup of connective tissue due to chronic liver damage. Steatosis is the collection of excessive amounts of fat inside liver cells. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and steatosis, but its use as a diagnostic tool is limited by its invasive nature and high cost. Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of transient elastography (TE) with and without controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis or steatosis in patients with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Data Sources An economic literature search was performed using computerized databases. For primary economic and budget impact analyses, we obtained data from various sources, such as the Health Quality Ontario evidence-based analysis, published literature, and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Review Methods A systematic review of existing TE cost-effectiveness studies was conducted, and a primary economic evaluation was undertaken from the perspective of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. Decision analytic models were used to compare short-term costs and outcomes of TE compared to liver biopsy. Outcomes were expressed as incremental cost per correctly diagnosed cases gained. A budget impact analysis was also conducted. Results We included 10 relevant studies that evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TE compared to other noninvasive tests and to liver biopsy; no cost-effectiveness studies of TE with CAP were identified. All studies showed that TE was less expensive but associated with a decrease in the number of correctly diagnosed cases. TE also improved quality-adjusted life-years in patients with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Our primary economic analysis suggested that TE led to cost savings but was less effective than liver biopsy in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis. TE became more

  19. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy Images Throat anatomy Oropharyngeal biopsy References Lee FE-H, Treanor JJ. Viral infections. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray & Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  20. Ultrasound image texture processing for evaluating fatty liver in peripartal dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Viren R.; Bobe, Gerd; Young, Jerry; Ametaj, Burim; Beitz, Donald

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the liver ultrasound texture as it changes in diffuse disease of fatty liver. This technology could allow non-invasive diagnosis of fatty liver, a major metabolic disorder in early lactation dairy cows. More than 100 liver biopsies were taken from fourteen dairy cows, as a part of the USDA-funded study for effects of glucagon on prevention and treatment of fatty liver. Up to nine liver biopsies were taken from each cow during peripartal period of seven weeks and total lipid content was determined chemically. Just before each liver biopsy was taken, ultrasonic B-mode images were digitally captured using a 3.5 or 5 MHz transducer. Effort was made to capture images that were non-blurred, void of large blood vessels and multiple echoes, and of consistent texture. From each image, a region-of-interest of size 100-by-100 pixels was processed. Texture parameters were calculated using algorithms such as first and second order statistics, 2D Fourier transformation, co-occurrence matrix, and gradient analysis. Many cows had normal liver (3% to 6% total lipid) and a few had developed fatty liver with total lipid up to 15%. The selected texture parameters showed consistent change with changing lipid content and could potentially be used to diagnose early fatty liver non-invasively. The approach of texture analysis algorithms and initial results on their potential in evaluating total lipid percentage is presented here.

  1. Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α-mediated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongping; Kong, Xiangliang; Zhang, Tong; Ye, Jin; Fang, Zhaoqin; Yang, Xuejun

    2014-02-05

    The anti-inflammatory effects of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine were investigated using the experimental model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitised male rats in order to elucidate effects other than sympathomimetic effects. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (40 μg/kg) to induce acute liver failure. The treatment groups were then intraperitoneally administered pseudoephedrine/ephedrine at 0 h and 4 h after induction and the activation induced by treatment with pseudoephedrine and/or LPS on the primary Kupffer cells (KCs) was monitored. Compared with controls induced by GalN/LPS alone, pseudoephedrine dramatically reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bile ductular hyperplasia and hepatic necrosis observed in liver sections. It inhibited both hepatocellular apoptosis and the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. It lowered the production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the beginning of acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS. Correspondingly, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and malondialdehyde were attenuated. Ephedrine demonstrated all these identical protective effects as well. In addition, pseudoephedrine significantly suppressed the production of p-IκB-α, reducing the degradation of sequestered nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the cytoplasm, and inhibited the translocation of NF-κB/p65 to the nucleus, the transcription of TNF-α mRNA and the production of TNF-α in primary KCs. These results suggest that pseudoephedrine and ephedrine have a potent anti-inflammatory activity against D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure in rats, and this comprehensive anti-inflammatory effect may result from the inhibition of TNF-α production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coeliac disease and the liver: spectrum of liver histology, serology and treatment response at a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Kaushik; Sakhuja, Puja; Puri, Amarender Singh; Gaur, Kavita; Haider, Aiman; Gondal, Ranjana

    2018-05-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy diagnosed on the basis of ESPGHAN criteria and clinical response to gluten-free diet (GFD). Histological abnormalities on liver biopsy have been noted in CD but have seldom been described. To assess the histological spectrum of 'coeliac hepatitis' and possibility of reversal of such features after a GFD. Twenty-five patients with concomitant CD and hepatic derangement were analysed for clinical profile, laboratory investigations and duodenal and liver biopsy. A histological comparison of pre- and post-GFD duodenal and liver biopsies was carried out, wherever possible. Fifteen patients presenting with CD subsequently developed abnormal liver function tests; 10 patients presenting with liver disease were found to have tissue positive transglutaminase in 70% and antigliadin antibodies in 60%. Serological markers for autoimmune liver disease (AILD) were positive in eight patients. Liver histology ranged from mild reactive hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, steatosis to cirrhosis. Liver biopsies after a GFD were available in six cases, of which five showed a decrease in steatosis, portal and lobular inflammation and fibrosis score. Coeliac hepatitis could be a distinct entity and the patients may present with either CD or secondary hepatic derangement. Evaluation for the presence of CD is recommended for patients presenting with AILD, unexplained transaminasaemia or anaemia. This is one of the very few studies demonstrating the continuum of liver histological changes in 'coeliac hepatitis'. Trial of a GFD may result in clinicopathological improvement of 'coeliac hepatitis'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  4. Pathologic Criteria to Estimate the State of the Liver in Potential Donors.

    PubMed

    Shaimardanova, Caliya; Fedotovskikh, Galina; Savchuk, Aleksandr; Doszhan, Ainura; Smagulova, Aigerim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar

    2015-11-01

    The pathologic evaluation of the liver is one of the most important issues in liver transplants. We evaluated the histopathological condition of livers in potential donors. After liver biopsy, 37 potential donor livers were histologically studied. Liver tissue was stained by hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson Trichrome. The results of the study showed the morphologic criteria used to estimate the state of the liver in potential donors is not only steatosis and fibrosis, but other important histologic criteria, such as proteinosis, necrosis of hepatocytes, endotheliitis of central veins, inflammatory infiltration, endarteritis in portal tracts and phlebitis in portal tracts, proliferation of the bile ducts, and cholestasis. Results of the study showed that the morphologic criteria to estimate the state of the liver in potential donors includes not only steatosis and fibrosis, but other important histologic criteria as well.

  5. Anxiety prior to breast biopsy: Relationships with length of time from breast biopsy recommendation to biopsy procedure and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Hayes Balmadrid, Melissa A; Shelby, Rebecca A; Wren, Anava A; Miller, Lauren S; Yoon, Sora C; Baker, Jay A; Wildermann, Liz A; Soo, Mary Scott

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated how time from breast biopsy recommendation to biopsy procedure affected pre-biopsy anxiety ( N = 140 women), and whether the relationship between wait time and anxiety was affected by psychosocial factors (chronic life stress, traumatic events, social support). Analyses showed a significant interaction between wait time and chronic life stress. Increased time from biopsy recommendation was associated with greater anxiety in women with low levels of life stress. Women with high levels of life stress experienced increased anxiety regardless of wait time. These results suggest that women may benefit from shorter wait times and receiving strategies for managing anxiety.

  6. Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuting; Kang, Chiang Huen; Xu, Shuoyu; Tuo, Xiaoye; Trasti, Scott; Tai, Dean C. S.; Raja, Anju Mythreyi; Peng, Qiwen; So, Peter T. C.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; Welsch, Roy; Yu, Hanry

    2010-09-01

    Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver with minimally invasive optical methods. This would be possible only if the information contained on or near liver surfaces accurately reflects the liver fibrosis progression in the liver interior. In our study, we acquired the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy images of liver tissues from bile duct-ligated rat model of liver fibrosis. We extracted morphology-based features, such as total collagen, collagen in bile duct areas, bile duct proliferation, and areas occupied by remnant hepatocytes, and defined the capsule and subcapsular regions on the liver surface based on image analysis of features. We discovered a strong correlation between the liver fibrosis progression on the anterior surface and interior in both liver lobes, where biopsy is typically obtained. The posterior surface exhibits less correlation with the rest of the liver. Therefore, scanning the anterior liver surface would obtain similar information to that obtained from biopsy for monitoring liver fibrosis progression.

  7. Needle tract implantation of hepatoblastoma after percutaneous needle biopsy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Nishiuchi, Ritsuo; Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Kouzuki, Akihito; Noda, Yoshihiro; Hata, Yasuhiro; Uka, Kiminobu

    2014-06-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to us for investigation of a giant liver mass, approximately 16 cm in diameter. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle biopsy was performed and histological examination revealed a fetal-type hepatoblastoma. After four courses of chemotherapy, we performed a left hepatic trisegmentectomy. Follow-up computed tomography, 55 months after the surgery, showed a 1-cm tumor on the route of the preoperative needle biopsy. A second laparotomy revealed a peritonealised tumor, which was excised. The histology of this tumor was identical to that of the primary hepatoblastoma. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of needle tract implantation of hepatoblastoma after percutaneous needle biopsy.

  8. Deep sequencing shows low-level oncogenic hepatitis B virus variants persists post-liver transplant despite potent anti-HBV prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lau, K C K; Osiowy, C; Giles, E; Lusina, B; van Marle, G; Burak, K W; Coffin, C S

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that withdrawal of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) prophylaxis may be considered in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative liver transplant (LT) recipients with a low risk of disease recurrence. However, the frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) and HBV variants after LT in the current era of potent NA therapy is unknown. Twelve LT recipients on prophylaxis were tested in matched plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for HBV quasispecies by in-house nested PCR and next-generation sequencing of amplicons. HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) was detected in Hirt DNA isolated from PBMCs with cccDNA-specific primers and confirmed by nucleic acid hybridization and Sanger sequencing. HBV mRNA in PBMC was detected with reverse-transcriptase nested PCR. In LT recipients on immunosuppressive therapy (10/12 male; median age 57.5 [IQR: 39.8-66.5]; median follow-up post-LT 60 months; 6 pre-LT hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]), 9 were HBsAg-. HBV DNA was detected in all plasma and PBMC tested; cccDNA and/or mRNA was detected in the PBMC of 10/12 patients. Significant HBV quasispecies diversity (ie 143-2212 nonredundant HBV species) was noted in both sites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with cirrhosis and HCC were detected at varying frequencies. In conclusion, OBI and HBV variants associated with severe liver disease persist in LT recipients on prophylaxis. Although HBV control and cccDNA transcriptional silencing may occur despite immunosuppression, complete virological eradication does not occur in LT recipients with a history of HBV-related end-stage liver disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Enhanced liver fibrosis score is associated with clinical outcomes and disease progression in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katharine M; Wockner, Leesa F; Shanker, Mihir; Fagan, Kevin J; Horsfall, Leigh U; Fletcher, Linda M; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Pretorius, Carel J; Miller, Gregory C; Clouston, Andrew D; Lampe, Guy; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    Current tools for risk stratification of chronic liver disease subjects are limited. We aimed to determine whether the serum-based ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) test predicted liver-related clinical outcomes, or progression to advanced liver disease, and to compare the performance of ELF to liver biopsy and non-invasive algorithms. Three hundred patients with ELF scores assayed at the time of liver biopsy were followed up (median 6.1 years) for liver-related clinical outcomes (n = 16) and clear evidence of progression to advanced fibrosis (n = 18), by review of medical records and clinical data. Fourteen of 73 (19.2%) patients with ELF score indicative of advanced fibrosis (≥9.8, the manufacturer's cut-off) had a liver-related clinical outcome, compared to only two of 227 (<1%) patients with ELF score <9.8. In contrast, the simple scores APRI and FIB-4 would only have predicted subsequent decompensation in six and four patients respectively. A unit increase in ELF score was associated with a 2.53-fold increased risk of a liver-related event (adjusted for age and stage of fibrosis). In patients without advanced fibrosis on biopsy at recruitment, 55% (10/18) with an ELF score ≥9.8 showed clear evidence of progression to advanced fibrosis (after an average 6 years), whereas only 3.5% of those with an ELF score <9.8 (8/207) progressed (average 14 years). In these subjects, a unit increase in ELF score was associated with a 4.34-fold increased risk of progression. The ELF score is a valuable tool for risk stratification of patients with chronic liver disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Number of Biopsies in Diagnosing Pulmonary Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Wehrschuetz, M.; Wehrschuetz, E.; Portugaller, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the number of specimens to be obtained from pulmonary lesions to get the highest possible accuracy in histological work-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective evaluation (January 1999 to April 2004) covered 260 patients with thoracic lesions who underwent computer tomography (CT)-guided core-cut biopsy in coaxial technique. All biopsies were performed utilizing a 19 gauge introducer needle and a 20 gauge core-cut biopsy needle. In all, 669 usable biopsies were taken (from 1–5 biopsies in each setting). The specimens were marked sequentially and each biopsy was worked up histologicaly. The biopsy results were correlated to histology after surgery, clinical follow-up or autopsy. The number of biopsies was determined that is necessary to achieve the highest possible accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary lesions. Results: In 591 of 669 biopsies (88.3%), there were correct positive results. The overall accuracy was 87.4%. In 193 of 260 (74.2%) patients, a suspected malignancy was confirmed. In 50 of 260 (19.2%) patients, a benign lesion was correctly diagnosed. Seventeen (6.5%) patients were lost to follow-up. The first, second and third biopsies had cumulative accuracies of 63.6%, 89.2% and 91.5%, respectively (P < 0.02). More biopsies did not show any higher impact on accuracy. Conclusion: For the highest possible accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary lesions by CT-guided core-cut biopsy, at least three usable specimens are recommended to be taken. PMID:21157523

  11. Factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Abbas Ali; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Majid, Zain

    2018-04-01

    Introduction To determine the factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methodology All patients aged >18 years and having a fatty liver on abdominal ultrasound (US), presenting from January 2011 to January 2017, were included. A liver biopsy was performed on all the patients. Results Of 96 patients undergoing liver biopsy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 76 (79.2%) were men. On liver US, diffuse fatty liver (DFL) was noted in 68 (70.8%) patients. Liver biopsy showed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in 78 (81.3%) patients. Factors associated with NASH were male gender, body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m 2 , DFL and raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A GULAB score (based on gender, US liver findings, lipid (fasting) levels, ALT level and BMI) of ≥5 predicted NASH with 82.05% sensitivity. Factors associated with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD were age >40 years, diabetes mellitus, AST/ALT ratio > 1 and raised GGT. Conclusion NASH is common in patients with male gender, high BMI, DFL on liver US, raised ALT and GULAB score ≥5.

  12. Genome-Wide Screening of Genes Showing Altered Expression in Liver Metastases of Human Colorectal Cancers by cDNA Microarray1

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Rempei; Furukawa, Yoichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kitahara, Osamu; Kameyama, Masao; Murata, Kohei; Ishikawa, Osamu; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In spite of intensive and increasingly successful attempts to determine the multiple steps involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, the mechanisms responsible for metastasis of colorectal tumors to the liver remain to be clarified. To identify genes that are candidates for involvement in the metastatic process, we analyzed genome-wide expression profiles of 10 primary colorectal cancers and their corresponding metastatic lesions by means of a cDNA microarray consisting of 9121 human genes. This analysis identified 40 genes whose expression was commonly upregulated in metastatic lesions, and 7 that were commonly downregulated. The upregulated genes encoded proteins involved in cell adhesion, or remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Investigation of the functions of more of the altered genes should improve our understanding of metastasis and may identify diagnostic markers and/or novel molecular targets for prevention or therapy of metastatic lesions. PMID:11687950

  13. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  14. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max, E-mail: max.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluablemore » liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.« less

  15. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct Measurement of Catalase Activity in Living Cells and Tissue Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharamacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. PMID:26772884

  17. Photoacoustic biopsy: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Tomlins, Scott A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Davis, Mandy A.; Kunju, Lakshmi P.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2015-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode the information associated with both physical microstructures and chemical contents in biological tissues. A two-dimensional physio-chemical spectrogram (PCS) can be formulated by combining the power spectra of PA signals acquired at a series of optical wavelengths. The analysis of PCS, or namely PA physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA), enables the quantification of the concentrations and the spatial distributions of a variety of chemical components in the tissue. The chemical components and their distribution are the two major features observed in the biopsy procedures which have been regarded as the gold standard of the diagnosis of many diseases. Taking non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and prostate cancer for example, this study investigates the feasibility of PAPCA in characterizing the histopathological changes in the diseased conditions in biological tissue. A catheter based setup facilitating measurement in deep tissues was also proposed and tested.

  18. Outcomes of ultrasound guided renal mass biopsies.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Edward L; Choromanska, Agnieszka; Al-Katib, Sayf; Coffey, Mary

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsies (RMBs) at our institution and to determine what patient, procedural, and focal renal mass (FRM) factors were associated with nondiagnostic ultrasound-guided RMBs. Eighty-two ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsies performed between January 2014 and October 2016 were included in our study. Biopsy outcomes (diagnostic vs. nondiagnostic) and patient, procedural, and FRM characteristics were retrospectively reviewed and recorded. Univariate statistical analyses were performed to identify biopsy characteristics that were indicative of nondiagnostic biopsy. Ultrasound-guided RMBs were diagnostic in 70 out of 82 cases (85%) and non-diagnostic in 12 cases (15%). Among the diagnostic biopsies, 54 (77%) were malignant cases, 94% of which were renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Of the 12 nondiagnostic cases, the final diagnosis was RCC in 4 cases and angiomyolipoma in one case; seven of the nondiagnostic cases were lost to follow-up. A weak association (p = 0.04) was found between the number of needle passes and the biopsy outcome. None of the remaining collected RMB characteristics showed a significant correlation with a diagnostic or nondiagnostic RMB. Six patients (7%) experienced complications. Ultrasound-guided renal mass biopsy is a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of renal masses with a low rate of nondiagnostic outcomes. A nondiagnostic biopsy should not be treated as a surrogate for a diagnosis since a significant number of patients with nondiagnostic biopsies have subsequently been shown to have renal malignancies. Repeat biopsy should be considered in such cases.

  19. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test a sample of tissue taken from a biopsy . The Gram stain method can ...

  20. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of biopsy being performed or the design of the biopsy machine, a biopsy of tissue ... cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of biopsy being performed or the design of the biopsy machine, a biopsy of tissue ... cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  2. Polymer film-nanoparticle composites as new multimodality, non-migrating breast biopsy markers.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonah A; Grinstaff, Mark W; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    To develop a breast biopsy marker that resists fast and slow migration and has permanent visibility under commonly used imaging modalities. A polymer-nanoparticle composite film was prepared by embedding superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and a superelastic Nitinol wire within a flexible polyethylene matrix. MRI, mammography, and ultrasound were used to visualize the marker in agar, ex vivo chicken breast, bovine liver, brisket, and biopsy training phantoms. Fast migration caused by the "accordion effect" was quantified after simulated stereotactic, vacuum-assisted core biopsy/marker placement, and centrifugation was used to simulate accelerated long-term (i.e., slow) migration in ex vivo bovine tissue phantoms. Clear marker visualization under MRI, mammography, and ultrasound was observed. After deployment, the marker partially unfolds to give a geometrically constrained structure preventing fast and slow migration. The marker can be deployed through an 11G introducer without fast migration occurring, and shows substantially less slow migration than conventional markers. The polymer-nanoparticle composite biopsy marker is clearly visible on all clinical imaging modalities and does not show substantial migration, which ensures multimodal assessment of the correct spatial information of the biopsy site, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning and improved breast cancer patient care. Polymer-nanoparticle composite biopsy markers are visualized using ultrasound, MRI, and mammography. Embedded iron oxide nanoparticles provide tuneable contrast for MRI visualization. Permanent ultrasound visibility is achieved with a non-biodegradable polymer having a distinct ultrasound signal. Flexible polymer-based biopsy markers undergo shape change upon deployment to minimize migration. Non-migrating multimodal markers will help improve accuracy of pre/post-treatment planning studies.

  3. Mediastinoscopy with biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedure is also done for certain infections (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis) and autoimmune disorders . Normal Results Biopsies of lymph ... Hodgkin disease Lung cancer Lymphoma or other tumors Sarcoidosis The spread of disease from one body part ...

  4. Pleural needle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the pleura Images Pleural biopsy References Klein JS, Bhave AD. Thoracic radiology: invasive diagnostic imaging and image-guided interventions. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and ...

  5. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  6. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  7. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Perla Oliveira; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves; Nascimento, Maria de Fátima Araújo; Vieira, Andrea; Ribeiro, Mauricio Alves; David, André Ibrahim; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver cancer, and NAFLD prevalence in different liver tumors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of the clinical, laboratory and histological data of 120 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary hepatic neoplasms and treated at a tertiary center where they underwent hepatic resection and/or liver transplantation, with subsequent evaluation of the explant or liver biopsy. The following criteria were used to exclude patients from the study: a history of alcohol abuse, hepatitis B or C infection, no tumor detected in the liver tissue examined by histological analysis, and the presence of chronic autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, or hepatoblastoma. The occurrence of NAFLD and the association with its known risk factors were studied. The risk factors considered were diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, body mass index, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension. Presence of reticulin fibers in the hepatic neoplasms was assessed by histological analysis using slide-mounted specimens stained with either hematoxylin and eosin or Masson’s trichrome and silver impregnation. Analysis of tumor-free liver parenchyma was carried out to determine the association between NAFLD and its histological grade. RESULTS: No difference was found in the association of NAFLD with the general population (34.2% and 30.0% respectively, 95%CI: 25.8-43.4). Evaluation by cancer type showed that NAFLD was more prevalent in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer than in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (OR = 3.99, 95%CI: 1.78-8.94, P < 0.001 vs OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.18-2.01, P = 0.406 and OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.18-2.80, P = 0.613, respectively). There was a higher prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR = 3.50, 95%CI: 1.06-11.57, P = 0.032). Evaluation of the

  8. Endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess: first case report from iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, A R; Masjedi, A; Fazel, F; Ghanbari, H; Akhlaghi, M; Karbasi, N

    2011-01-07

    To report the first case of endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis associated with liver abscess in Iran. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to severe pain and visual loss in the left eye. On physical examination, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema, hypopyon and severe vitreous cellular reaction were identified in the left eye; however, yellowish conjunctival discoloration was more apparent in the right eye. Abdominal CT scan showed a right liver lobe abscess that was confirmed by sonographically guided percutaneous liver mass biopsy. Blood, vitreous and liver mass aspirate cultures revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae growth. The patient was thus diagnosed with endogenous Klebsiella endophthalmitis secondary to bacteremia associated with liver abscess. This report suggests that, rather than being confined to Taiwan, endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to a liver abscess due to K. pneumoniae may be a global problem. Therefore, physicians should be aware of the possibility of endophthalmitis whenever a patient with K. pneumoniae liver abscess complains of ocular symptoms.

  9. The impact of longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring on liver function in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, K; Zahn, K; Buch, C von; Zoeller, M; Hagl, C I; Ali, M; Waag, K-L

    2008-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a functional or anatomic loss of major parts of the small bowel leading to severe malnutrition. The limiting factor for the survival of these patients remains parenteral nutrition-related liver damage leading to end-stage liver failure. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has been proven to enhance peristalsis, to decrease bacterial overgrowth and to extend the mucosal contact time for the absorption of nutrients. The aim of this study was to show the impact of LILT on the development of parenteral nutrition-related liver damage. A cohort of 55 patients with short bowel syndrome managed with LILT in our institution between 1987 and 2007 was retrospectively reviewed. LILT was performed at a mean age of 24 months (range 4 - 150 months). Mean follow-up time was 83.76 months (range 5 - 240 months). We obtained reliable data from 31 patients with regard to liver enzymes and function parameters in blood samples before LILT and at the present time. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients prior to LILT. Liver enzymes ALAT (mean 121 U/l), ASAT (mean 166 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 2.49 mg/dl) were elevated preoperatively in 27/31 children. After the lengthening procedure, ALAT (mean 50 U/l), ASAT (mean 63 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 1.059 mg/dl) normalized except in 5 of 8 patients who could not be weaned from parenteral nutrition after LILT. Liver function parameters such as the international normal ratio (INR) were slightly elevated in 5/31 patients. Albumin was generally low, probably due to parenteral nutrition. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients preoperatively, showing 4 patients with low-grade, 6 patients with intermediate and 4 patients with high-grade fibrosis. End-stage liver disease with cirrhosis was an exclusion criterion for LILT. All patients with liver fibrosis showed a normalization of liver enzymes when they were weaned from parenteral nutrition. But patients with higher grade liver fibrosis tend to develop

  10. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella; Haynes, Paul A

    2016-10-28

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Identification of proteins from 4200-year-old skin and muscle tissue biopsies from ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period shows evidence of acute inflammation and severe immune response

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Ravishankar, Prathiba; Xavier, Dylan; Lim, Do Seon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    We performed proteomics analysis on four skin and one muscle tissue samples taken from three ancient Egyptian mummies of the first intermediate period, approximately 4200 years old. The mummies were first dated by radiocarbon dating of the accompany-\\break ing textiles, and morphologically examined by scanning electron microscopy of additional skin samples. Proteins were extracted, separated on SDS–PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) gels, and in-gel digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analysed using nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We identified a total of 230 unique proteins from the five samples, which consisted of 132 unique protein identifications. We found a large number of collagens, which was confirmed by our microscopy data, and is in agreement with previous studies showing that collagens are very long-lived. As expected, we also found a large number of keratins. We identified numerous proteins that provide evidence of activation of the innate immunity system in two of the mummies, one of which also contained proteins indicating severe tissue inflammation, possibly indicative of an infection that we can speculate may have been related to the cause of death. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644972

  12. Hepatic cholesterol ester hydrolase in human liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simon, J B; Poon, R W

    1978-09-01

    Human liver contains an acid cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) of presumed lysosomal origin, but its significance is unknown. We developed a modified CEH radioassay suitable for needle biopsy specimens and measured hepatic activity of this enzyme in 69 patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy. Histologically normal livers hydrolyzed 5.80 +/- 0.78 SEM mumoles of cholesterol ester per hr per g of liver protein (n, 10). Values were similar in alcoholic liver disease (n, 17), obstructive jaundice (n, 9), and miscellaneous hepatic disorders (n, 21). In contrast, mean hepatic CEH activity was more than 3-fold elevated in 12 patients with acute hepatitis, 21.05 +/- 2.45 SEM mumoles per hr per g of protein (P less than 0.01). In 2 patients studied serially, CEH returned to normal as hepatitis resolved. CEH activity in all patients paralleled SGOT levels (r, 0.84; P less than 0.01). There was no correlation with serum levels of free or esterified cholesterol nor with serum activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. These studies confirm the presence of CEH activity in human liver and show markedly increased activity in acute hepatitis. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of altered hepatic CEH activity in liver disease require further study.

  13. Hepatic gene expression of Caucasian and African-American patients with obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Maria; Hossain, Noreen; Afendy, Arian; Perry, Kellie; Goodman, Zachary D; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing data suggesting that African Americans with NAFLD tend to have less progressive liver disease. The aim of this study is to assess differences in the hepatic gene expression of African-American and Caucasian patients with NAFLD who had undergone bariatric surgery. A total of 94 patients (81 NAFLD and 13 weight-matched controls with normal liver biopsy) were included. Of the entire cohort, 73 were Caucasians and 21 were African Americans. All patients were undergoing bariatric surgery. Two liver biopsies were obtained at the time of surgery. One biopsy was snap-frozen for gene expression and the other biopsy was stained for pathologic assessment. Liver biopsy confirmed that 24 patients from our cohort had NASH while 57 had only simple steatosis. Snap-frozen liver biopsy specimens of these patients were then used for the RNA extraction. cDNA probes were hybridized with customized microarray gene chips containing 5,220 relevant genes. Gene expression profiles were compared between groups using significance analysis of microarrays algorithm. In comparison to all Caucasian patients, African-American patients had over-expression of EPB41L1, IGF2, FAH, ACSL4, FUT4, CYP3A (q values < 10(-4)). In comparison to Caucasian NAFLD patients, African-American NAFLD patients showed over-expression of EPB41L1 and ACSL4 genes. Finally, in comparison to Caucasian NASH patients, African-American NASH patients showed over-expression of GSTM 2, GSTM4 and GSTM5 as well as FH and ASCL4 genes. Some genes highlighted by this analysis, particularly cytochrome CYP3A and glutathione transferases GSTM2, 4, 5, were previously implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. African-American patients with biopsy-proven obesity-related NAFLD and NASH have a specific hepatic gene expression pattern that may explain their differences from Caucasian patients with NAFLD in developing progressive liver disease.

  14.  Usefulness of acoustic radiation force impulse and fibrotest in liver fibrosis assessment after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Bignulin, Sara; Falleti, Edmondo; Cmet, Sara; Cappello, Dario; Cussigh, Annarosa; Lenisa, Ilaria; Dissegna, Denis; Pugliese, Fabio; Vivarelli, Cinzia; Fabris, Carlo; Fabris, Carlo; Toniutto, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

     Background and rationale. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a non-invasive tool used in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in HCV positive immune-competent patients. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ARFI in discriminating liver transplanted patients with different graft fibrosis severity and to verify whether ARFI, eventually combined with non-invasive biochemical tests, could spare liver biopsies. This prospective study included 51 HCV positive liver transplanted patients who consecutively underwent to annual liver biopsy concomitantly with ARFI and blood chemistry tests measurements needed to calculate several non-invasive liver fibrosis tests. Overall ARFI showed an AUC of 0.885 in discriminating between patients without or with significant fibrosis (Ishak score 0-2vs. 3-6). Using a cut-off of 1.365 m/s, ARFI possesses a negative predictive value of 100% in identifying patients without significant fibrosis. AUC for Fibrotest was 0.848 in discriminating patients with Ishak fibrosis score 0-2 vs. 3-6. The combined assessment of ARFI and Fibro-test did not improve the results obtained by ARFI alone. ARFI measurement in HCV positive liver transplanted patients can be considered an easy and accurate non-invasive tool in identify patients with a benign course of HCV recurrence.

  15. Stage scoring of liver fibrosis using Mueller matrix microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Liver fibrosis is a common pathological process of varied chronic liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis, virus hepatitis, and so on. Accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis is necessary for effective therapy and a five-stage grading system was developed. Currently, experienced pathologists use stained liver biopsies to assess the degree of liver fibrosis. But it is difficult to obtain highly reproducible results because of huge discrepancy among different observers. Polarization imaging technique has the potential of scoring liver fibrosis since it is capable of probing the structural and optical properties of samples. Considering that the Mueller matrix measurement can provide comprehensive microstructural information of the tissues, in this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope to human liver fibrosis slices in different fibrosis stages. We extract the valid regions and adopt the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters for quantitative analysis. We also use the Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the relationship between the microscopic Mueller matrix parameters and the characteristic structural changes during the fibrosis process. The experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show good consistency. We get a positive correlation between the parameters and the stage of liver fibrosis. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope can provide additional information for the detections and fibrosis scorings of liver tissues and has great potential in liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  16. A low cost solution for post-biopsy complications using available RFA generator and coaxial core biopsy needle.

    PubMed

    Azlan, C A; Mohd Nasir, N F; Saifizul, A A; Faizul, M S; Ng, K H; Abdullah, B J J

    2007-12-01

    Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy is typically performed in highly vascular organs or in tumours with rich macroscopic and microscopic blood supply. The main risks related to this procedure are haemorrhage and implantation of tumour cells in the needle tract after the biopsy needle is withdrawn. From numerous conducted studies, it was found that heating the needle tract using alternating current in radiofrequency (RF) range has a potential to minimize these effects. However, this solution requires the use of specially designed needles, which would make the procedure relatively expensive and complicated. Thus, we propose a simple solution by using readily available coaxial core biopsy needles connected to a radiofrequency ablation (RFA) generator. In order to do so, we have designed and developed an adapter to interface between these two devices. For evaluation purpose, we used a bovine liver as a sample tissue. The experimental procedure was done to study the effect of different parameter settings on the size of coagulation necrosis caused by the RF current heating on the subject. The delivery of the RF energy was varied by changing the values for delivered power, power delivery duration, and insertion depth. The results showed that the size of the coagulation necrosis is affected by all of the parameters tested. In general, the size of the region is enlarged with higher delivery of RF power, longer duration of power delivery, and shallower needle insertion and become relatively constant after a certain value. We also found that the solution proposed provides a low cost and practical way to minimizes unwanted post-biopsy effects.

  17. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  18. Metabolomics discloses donor liver biomarkers associated with early allograft dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Miriam; Pareja, Eugenia; García-Cañaveras, Juan C; Donato, M Teresa; Montero, Sandra; Mir, Jose; Castell, José V; Lahoz, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) dramatically influences graft and patient outcome after orthotopic liver transplantation and its incidence is strongly determined by donor liver quality. Nevertheless, objective biomarkers, which can assess graft quality and anticipate organ function, are still lacking. This study aims to investigate whether there is a preoperative donor liver metabolomic biosignature associated with EAD. A comprehensive metabolomic profiling of 124 donor liver biopsies collected before transplantation was performed by mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. Donor liver grafts were classified into two groups: showing EAD and immediate graft function (IGF). Multivariate data analysis was used to search for the relationship between the metabolomic profiles present in donor livers before transplantation and their function in recipients. A set of liver graft dysfunction-associated biomarkers was identified. Key changes include significantly increased levels of bile acids, lysophospholipids, phospholipids, sphingomyelins and histidine metabolism products, all suggestive of disrupted lipid homeostasis and altered histidine pathway. Based on these biomarkers, a predictive EAD model was built and further evaluated by assessing 24 independent donor livers, yielding 91% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The model was also successfully challenged by evaluating donor livers showing primary non-function (n=4). A metabolomic biosignature that accurately differentiates donor livers, which later showed EAD or IGF, has been deciphered. The remarkable metabolomic differences between donor livers before transplant can relate to their different quality. The proposed metabolomic approach may become a clinical tool for donor liver quality assessment and for anticipating graft function before transplant. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. NEEDLE BIOPSY OF THE LIVER—General Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Molle, William E.; Kaplan, Leo

    1952-01-01

    Needle biopsy of the liver provides concrete diagnostic information that cannot be as readily obtained in any other way. This report reviews 401 liver biopsies in 312 patients. The major indications for use of this procedure are: To determine the cause of an obscure liver enlargement; to establish the cause of jaundice; to distinguish between malignant disease and cirrhosis of the liver; to determine when hepatitis has subsided; and to evaluate the results of treatment. At times, systemic disease that has not been recognized by other means may be diagnosed by this technique. There is risk in performing this test, and the 0.25 per cent mortality in this series compares favorably with that reported from other clinics. Where the diagnosis by biopsy could be compared with observations at operation or autopsy, the correct diagnosis was made by biopsy in 85 per cent of cases. Greater accuracy was obtained by two or more biopsic examinations in one case then by single biopsy. In several cases in which surgical operation was considered, biopsic information made it unnecessary, and vice versa. PMID:14886754

  20. Breast Biopsy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) are high technology silicon chips that connect light directly into electronic or digital images, which can be manipulated or enhanced by computers. When Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) scientists realized that existing CCD technology could not meet scientific requirements for the Hubble Space Telescope Imagining Spectrograph, GSFC contracted with Scientific Imaging Technologies, Inc. (SITe) to develop an advanced CCD. SITe then applied many of the NASA-driven enhancements to the manufacture of CCDs for digital mammography. The resulting device images breast tissue more clearly and efficiently. The LORAD Stereo Guide Breast Biopsy system incorporates SITe's CCD as part of a digital camera system that is replacing surgical biopsy in many cases. Known as stereotactic needle biopsy, it is performed under local anesthesia with a needle and saves women time, pain, scarring, radiation exposure and money.

  1. [Clinical Application of Non-invasive Diagnostic Tests for Liver Fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Woo; Park, Neung Hwa

    2016-07-25

    The diagnostic assessment of liver fibrosis is an important step in the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard to assess necroinflammation and fibrosis. However, recent technical advances have introduced numerous serum biomarkers and imaging tools using elastography as noninvasive alternatives to biopsy. Serum markers can be direct or indirect markers of the fibrosis process. The elastography-based studies include transient elastography, acoustic radiation force imaging, supersonic shear wave imaging and magnetic resonance elastography. As accumulation of clinical data shows that noninvasive tests provide prognostic information of clinical relevance, non-invasive diagnostic tools have been incorporated into clinical guidelines and practice. Here, the authors review noninvasive tests for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  2. Optical spectroscopy for differentiation of liver tissue under distinct stages of fibrosis: an ex vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabila, D. A.; Hernández, L. F.; de la Rosa, J.; Stolik, S.; Arroyo-Camarena, U. D.; López-Vancell, M. D.; Escobedo, G.

    2013-11-01

    Liver fibrosis is the decisive step towards the development of cirrhosis; its early detection affects crucially the diagnosis of liver disease, its prognosis and therapeutic decision making. Nowadays, several techniques are employed to this task. However, they have the limitation in estimating different stages of the pathology. In this paper we present a preliminary study to evaluate if optical spectroscopy can be employed as an auxiliary tool of diagnosis of biopsies of human liver tissue to differentiate the fibrosis stages. Ex vivo fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from biopsies using a portable fiber-optic system. Empirical discrimination algorithms based on fluorescence intensity ratio at 500 nm and 680 nm as well as diffuse reflectance intensity at 650 nm were developed. Sensitivity and specificity of around 80% and 85% were respectively achieved. The obtained results show that combined use of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy could represent a novel and useful tool in the early evaluation of liver fibrosis.

  3. The Skin Punch Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Blakeman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The skin punch biopsy is a simple and safe office procedure which is a valuable aid in diagnosing many skin diseases. It can be performed in a few minutes and offers in most situations a very suitable histological specimen with a minimum amount of scarring and little or no pain or discomfort to the patient. The indications for skin biopsy, selection of a proper site and the technique are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:21283375

  4. Epithelioid Haemangioendothelioma (EHE) of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abidullah; Humayun, Mohammad; Haider, Iqbal; Khan, Wazir Muhammad; Ajmal, Fahad; Ayub, Maimoona

    2016-06-01

    A45-year previously known hypertensive lady presented with 2-year history of upper abdominal pain, heaviness, and weight loss. Her radiological assessment suggested the possibility of hepatoma or liver metastases. Considering her age, overall good health and absence of cirrhosis, a liver biopsy was taken which showed hepatic epithelioidhaemangioendothelioma (HEHE), a rare and unusual intermediate grade vascular tumor which can easily be confused with hepatoma or metastatic liver disease. To the best of their knowledge, the authors are most probably reporting the first ever case of HEHE from Pakistan with special emphasis on its clinical presentations, clinico-radiological diagnostic clues, and the management options in the light of the limited retrospective studies.

  5. Diagnostic Usefulness of APRI and FIB-4 for the Prediction of Liver Fibrosis After Liver Transplantation in Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Imai, H; Kamei, H; Onishi, Y; Ishizu, Y; Ishigami, M; Goto, H; Ogura, Y

    2018-06-01

    Aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) are well known as representative indirect serum biomarkers related to liver fibrosis. The usefulness of these markers for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis after liver transplantation (LT) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients and the influence of splenectomy were investigated. From June 2003 to May 2014, 31 HCV-infected patients who underwent LT and postoperative follow-up liver biopsies were included in this study. The association between liver fibrosis and serum biomarkers and the influence of splenectomy on APRI and FIB-4 were also investigated. A total of 195 biopsy specimens were collected, and liver fibrosis was identified as: F0, 59.7%; F1, 34.1%; and F2, 6.3%. Both APRI and FIB-4 were significantly higher in patients who showed F1 and F2 in liver biopsy specimen than F0 (P values, .009 and .022, respectively); sensitivity and specificity of APRI were, respectively, 63.4% and 66.7%, and those of FIB-4 were 57.7% and 69.6%. In 11 patients (35.5%) who underwent splenectomy at the time of LT, the cutoff values for APRI and FIB-4 were 0.61 and 1.41, which were significantly lower than the corresponding values (1.00 and 3.64) of patients without splenectomy. APRI and FIB-4 could effectively estimate liver fibrosis after LT for HCV-related liver disease. For LT patients with splenectomy, APRI and FIB-4 were also useful to estimate liver fibrosis, but the standard values should be adjusted lower than those for patients without splenectomy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated by: C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Amyloidosis Read more Biopsy Read more Carpal Tunnel ...

  7. Bone marrow biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspiration removes a small amount of marrow in liquid form for examination. ... and a syringe is used to withdraw the liquid bone marrow. If this is done, the needle will be removed and repositioned. Or, another needle may be used for the biopsy.

  8. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Biopsy Read more Cancer Read more ...

  9. Genetically-engineered pig-to-baboon liver xenotransplantation: histopathology of xenografts and native organs.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Klein, Edwin; He, Jing; Stolz, Donna B; Echeverri, Gabriel J; Long, Cassandra; Lin, Chih Che; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Hara, Hidetaka; Veroux, Massimiliano; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C; Gridelli, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation was carried out in baboons using wild-type (WT, n = 1) or genetically-engineered pigs (α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout, GTKO), n = 1; GTKO pigs transgenic for human CD46, n = 7) and a clinically-acceptable immunosuppressive regimen. Biopsies were obtained from the WT pig liver pre-Tx and at 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-transplantation. Biopsies of genetically-engineered livers were obtained pre-Tx, 2 h after reperfusion and at necropsy (4-7 days after transplantation). Tissues were examined by light, confocal, and electron microscopy. All major native organs were also examined. The WT pig liver underwent hyperacute rejection. After genetically-engineered pig liver transplantation, hyperacute rejection did not occur. Survival was limited to 4-7 days due to repeated spontaneous bleeding in the liver and native organs (as a result of profound thrombocytopenia) which necessitated euthanasia. At 2 h, graft histology was largely normal. At necropsy, genetically-engineered pig livers showed hemorrhagic necrosis, platelet aggregation, platelet-fibrin thrombi, monocyte/macrophage margination mainly in liver sinusoids, and vascular endothelial cell hypertrophy, confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed minimal deposition of IgM, and almost absence of IgG, C3, C4d, C5b-9, and of a cellular infiltrate, suggesting that neither antibody- nor cell-mediated rejection played a major role.

  10. Bile duct hamartomas (von Mayenburg complexes) mimicking liver metastases from bile duct cancer: MRC findings

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Yasuhiko; Matsuo, Kenichi; Gorai, Katsuya; Sugimori, Kazuya; Kunisaki, Chikara; Ike, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Imada, Toshio; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of a 72-year-old man with a common bile duct cancer, who was initially believed to have multiple liver metastases based on computed tomography findings, and in whom magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) revealed a diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. At exploration for pancreaticoduodenectomy, liver palpation revealed disseminated nodules at the surface of the liver. These nodules showed gray-white nodular lesions of about 0.5 cm in diameter scattered on the surface of both liver lobes, which were looked like multiple liver metastases from bile duct cancer. Frozen section of the liver biopsy disclosed multiple bile ducts with slightly dilated lumens embedded in the collagenous stroma characteristics of multiple bile duct hamartomas (BDHs). Only two reports have described the MRC features of bile duct hamartomas. Of all imaging procedures, MRC provides the most relevant features for the imaging diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. PMID:16534895

  11. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takano, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. MR elastography may help clinicians assess patients with chronic liver diseases. Usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography has rarely been reported. Measured liver stiffness correlated well with the histological grades of liver fibrosis. Measured liver stiffness was also affected by necroinflammation, but to a lesser degree. 3.0-T MRE could be a non-invasive alternative to liver biopsy.

  12. Polycystic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Linda, Nguyen, E-mail: nguyenli@einstein.edu

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations.more » The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.« less

  13. Celiac Disease Diagnosis: Endoscopic Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue samples are also vital to an accurate diagnosis—celiac disease can cause patchy lesions in the duodenum which ... to perform an intestinal biopsy to establish the diagnosis of celiac disease in a patient with DH; the skin biopsy ...

  14. Phencyclidine-induced malignant hyperthermia causing submassive liver necrosis.

    PubMed

    Armen, R; Kanel, G; Reynolds, T

    1984-07-01

    This report describes three male patients arrested for aggressive and combative behavior, characteristic of phencyclidine intoxication, in whom severe hyperthermia, respiratory failure, and coma developed. Two days after the malignant hyperthermic event, serum transaminase levels rose acutely to extremely high levels with concomitant elevations in bilirubin levels and a fall in prothrombin activity. Liver biopsy specimens in two patients showed marked perivenular necrosis and collapse. No specific treatment was directed at the phencyclidine intoxication. Two of the three patients survived. Submassive liver necrosis caused by malignant hyperthermia is an unusual complication of phencyclidine abuse.

  15. Biopsy - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Nepali (नेपाली) Russian (Русский) ... हिन्दी (Hindi) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Expand Section Biopsy - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual PDF ...

  16. Shear-Wave Elastography for the Estimation of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Liver Disease: Determining Accuracy and Ideal Site for Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Dhyani, Manish; Vij, Abhinav; Bhan, Atul K.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Corey, Kathleen E.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for staging liver fibrosis in patients with diffuse liver disease (including patients with hepatitis C virus [HCV]) and to determine the relative accuracy of SWE measurements obtained from different hepatic acquisition sites for staging liver fibrosis. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this single-institution prospective study, which was performed between January 2010 and March 2013 in 136 consecutive patients who underwent SWE before their scheduled liver biopsy (age range, 18–76 years; mean age, 49 years; 70 men, 66 women). Informed consent was obtained from all patients. SWE measurements were obtained at four sites in the liver. Biopsy specimens were reviewed in a blinded manner by a pathologist using METAVIR criteria. SWE measurements and biopsy results were compared by using the Spearman correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results SWE values obtained at the upper right lobe showed the highest correlation with estimation of fibrosis (r = 0.41, P < .001). Inflammation and steatosis did not show any correlation with SWE values except for values from the left lobe, which showed correlation with steatosis (r = 0.24, P = .004). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the differentiation of stage F2 fibrosis or greater, stage F3 fibrosis or greater, and stage F4 fibrosis was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68, 0.86), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.95), respectively, for all subjects who underwent liver biopsy. The corresponding AUCs for the subset of patients with HCV were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.92), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.95), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.00). The adjusted AUCs for differentiating stage F2 or greater fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease and those with HCV were 0.84 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion SWE estimates of liver stiffness obtained from the right upper lobe showed the best

  17. Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fustik, Stojka

    2013-01-01

    As the expected survival improves in individuals with the cystic fibrosis (CF), so they may be faced with a number of medical complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of liver cirrhosis in our CF population as well as the clinical and genetic characteristics of these patients. All patients older than 2 years (n = 96) were screened for liver disease. Liver cirrhosis was defined by ultrasonographic findings of distinct heterogeneity of liver parenchyma and nodular liver surface and/or by liver biopsy findings. Enlarged spleen, distended portal vein and abnormal portal venous flow indicated portal hypertension. Clinical and genotype data were analyzed. Sixteen patients were found to have liver cirrhosis, three of them with portal hypertension. All patients had pancreatic insufficiency. Nutritional status expressed as standard deviation score (Z score) for weight, height, and body mass index was as follows: zW = -0.40 +/- 1.24, zH = -0.83 +/- 1.02, and BMI = 20.1 +/- 2.3. CF patients with liver cirrhosis generally had mild-to-moderate lung disease, with average FVC and FEV1 values of 97.1 +/- 16.5% of predicted and 87.9 +/- 23.5% of predicted, respectively. Genetic analysis showed high frequency of F508del mutation in the group with cirrhosis (90.6%). The prevalence of liver cirrhosis in our CF population older than 2 years was 16.6%. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency and severe CFTR mutations, especially F508del, were exposed to higher risk of developing liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis has no significant impact on the pulmonary function and the nutritional status, until the end-stage liver disease.

  18. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis. PMID:27128907

  20. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  1. Effect of Colesevelam on Liver Fat Quantified by Magnetic Resonance in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thuy-Anh; Chen, Joshua; Changchien, Christopher; Peterson, Michael R; Kono, Yuko; Patton, Heather; Cohen, Benjamin L; Brenner, David; Sirlin, Claude; Loomba, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels and improve glycemic control. Colestimide, a BAS, has been claimed by computed tomography to reduce liver fat. Therefore, we examined the efficacy of colesevelam, a potent BAS, to decrease liver fat in patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver fat was measured by a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, the proton-density-fat-fraction (PDFF), as well as by conventional MR spectroscopy (MRS). Fifty patients with biopsy-proven NASH were randomly assigned to either colesevelam 3.75 g/day orally or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in liver fat as measured by MRI-PDFF in colocalized regions of interest within each of the nine liver segments. Compared with placebo, colesevelam increased liver fat by MRI-PDFF in all nine segments of the liver with a mean difference of 5.6% (P = 0.002). We cross-validated the MRI-PDFF-determined fat content with that assessed by colocalized MRS; the latter showed a mean difference of 4.9% (P = 0.014) in liver fat between the colesevelam and the placebo arms. MRI-PDFF correlated strongly with MRS-determined hepatic fat content (r2 = 0.96, P < 0.0001). Liver biopsy assessment of steatosis, cellular injury, and lobular inflammation did not detect any effect of treatment. Conclusion: Colesevelam increases liver fat in patients with NASH as assessed by MRI as well as MRS without significant changes seen on histology. Thus, MRI and MRS may be better than histology to detect longitudinal changes in hepatic fat in NASH. Underlying mechanisms and whether the small MR-detected increase in liver fat has clinical consequences is not known. (Hepatology 2012;56:922–932) PMID:22431131

  2. Telepathology and Optical Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The ability to obtain information about the structure of tissue without taking a sample for pathology has opened the way for new diagnostic techniques. The present paper reviews all currently available techniques capable of producing an optical biopsy, with or without morphological images. Most of these techniques are carried out by physicians who are not specialized in pathology and therefore not trained to interpret the results as a pathologist would. In these cases, the use of telepathology or distant consultation techniques is essential. PMID:20339507

  3. Safety and Outcomes of Percutaneous Biopsy of 61 Hepatic Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Derrick A; Atwell, Thomas D; Sanchez, William; Mounajjed, Taofic; Hough, David M; Schmit, Grant D; Kurup, A Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Given the recent classification of hepatic adenoma (HA) into subtypes and recognition of imperfect specificity of MRI to differentiate HA from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), there is a resurgent interest in the role of biopsy to diagnose HA. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and outcomes of biopsy of HAs. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all patients who underwent hepatic mass biopsy revealing HA from 2000 through 2013 was performed. The biopsy procedure parameters were evaluated. Complications were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Pathology-specific outcomes related to the diagnosis of HA were assessed. Sixty patients (52 women and eight men) were identified with a mean age of 42 ± 13 (SD) years and a mean follow-up of 2.3 ± 3.0 years after biopsy. One patient had two HAs biopsied during the same procedure, resulting in a total of 61 biopsy-proven HAs. Of the 60 patients, one patient (2%) had a single major complication, which involved bleeding that resulted in a blood transfusion, and six patients (10%) had a minor complication. A total of six (10%) discordant biopsy results were found: Four biopsy-proven HAs (7%) revealed FNH on surgical resection or repeat biopsy, one HA (2%) showed well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at subsequent biopsy, and one HA (2%) showed findings suggestive of HCC on follow-up imaging. Complications after biopsy of HAs are uncommon. Although uncommon, discordant pathology results between biopsy and surgical resection may occur.

  4. Influence of preformed donor-specific antibodies and C4d on early liver allograft function.

    PubMed

    Perera, M T; Silva, M A; Murphy, N; Briggs, D; Mirza, D F; Neil, D A H

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION. The impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) is incompletely understood in liver transplantation. The incidence and impact of preformed DSA on early post liver transplant were assessed and these were correlated with compliment fragment C4d on allograft biopsy. METHODS. Pretransplant serum from 41 consecutive liver transplant recipients (brain dead donors; DBD = 27 and cardiac death donors; DCD = 14) were tested for class-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and compared against donor HLA types. Liver biopsies were taken during cold storage (t-1) and post-reperfusion (t0) stained with C4d and graded for preservation-reperfusion injury (PRI). RESULTS. Of the 41 recipients, 8 (20%) had anti-HLA class I/II antibodies pretransplant, 3 (7%) were confirmed preformed DSA; classes I and II (n=1) and class I only (n=2). No biopsies showed definite evidence of antibody-mediated rejection. Graft biopsies in overall showed only mild PRI with ischemic hepatocyte C4d pattern similar in both positive and negative DSA patients. One DSA-positive (33%) compared with four DSA-negative patients (10%) had significant early graft dysfunction; severe PRI causing graft loss from primary nonfunction was seen only in DSA-negative group. Allograft biopsy of preformed DSA-positive patient demonstrated only minimal PRI; however, no identifiable cause could be attributed to graft dysfunction other than preformed DSA. CONCLUSION. Preformed DSA are present in 5-10% liver transplant recipients. There is no association between anti-HLA DSA and PRI and C4d, but preformed DSA may cause early morbidity. Larger studies on the impact of DSA with optimization of C4d techniques are required.

  5. Physicians’ practices for diagnosing liver fibrosis in chronic liver diseases: A nationwide, Canadian survey

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Giada; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Klein, Marina B; Deschenes, Marc; Myers, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine practices among physicians in Canada for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. METHODS: Hepatologists, gastroenterologists, infectious diseases specialists, members of the Canadian Gastroenterology Association and/or the Canadian HIV Trials Network who manage patients with liver diseases were invited to participate in a web-based, national survey. RESULTS: Of the 237 physicians invited, 104 (43.9%) completed the survey. Routine assessment of liver fibrosis was requested by the surveyed physicians mostly for chronic hepatitis C (76.5%), followed by autoimmune/cholestatic liver disease (59.6%) and chronic hepatitis B (52.9%). Liver biopsy was the main diagnostic tool for 46.2% of the respondents, Fibroscan (Echosens, France) for 39.4% and Fibrotest (LabCorp, USA) for 7.7%. Etiology-specific differences were observed: noninvasive methods were mostly used for hepatitis C (63% versus 37% liver biopsy) and hepatitis B (62.9% versus 37.1% liver biopsy). For 42.7% of respondents, the use of noninvasive methods reduced the need for liver biopsy by >50%. Physicians’ characteristics associated with higher use of noninvasive methods were older age and being based at a university hospital or in private practice versus community hospital. Physicians’ main concerns regarding noninvasive fibrosis assessment methods were access/availability (42.3%), lack of guidelines for clinical use (26.9%) and cost/lack of reimbursement (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who manage patients with chronic liver diseases in Canada require routine assessment of liver fibrosis stage. Although biopsy remains the primary diagnostic tool for almost one-half of respondents, noninvasive methods, particularly Fibroscan, have significantly reduced the need for liver biopsy in Canada. Limitations in access to and availability of the noninvasive methods represent a significant barrier. Finally, there is a need for clinical guidelines and a better

  6. Needle biopsy for hepatic vitamin A levels in lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Shamir, Merav H; Rubin, Gal; Aizenberg, Zachi; Berkovich, Zipi; Reifen, Ram; Horowitz, Igal; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Aroch, Itamar

    2012-06-01

    Hypovitaminosis A (HA)-related skull malformations resulting in neurologic abnormalities and death have been, and still are, reported in captive lions (Panthera leo) worldwide. Liver vitamin A (VA) concentration is the most reliable indicator of animals' VA status, and its assessment is essential in prevention and treatment of HA in lions. A percutaneous needle liver biopsy using high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet retinoid analysis for VA concentration measurement was validated. It was first assessed in vitro using chicken liver. Later, the safety and feasibility of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle liver biopsy was assessed in living lions. Hepatic VA concentrations in lion liver were measured using the above laboratory method. Mean chicken hepatic VA concentration in needle biopsy (NB) and wedge biopsy (WB) of the same liver lobes were 108.66 and 60.89 microg/g wet tissue, respectively, and were significantly (P = 0.03) correlated (r = 0.74). The calculated linear regression for predicting VA concentration in WB using NB VA for chicken liver was 25.194 + 0.3234x NB (microg/g). Four ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle liver biopsies were obtained from each of the four lions under general anesthesia. Mean hepatic VA concentration was 8.25 microg/g wet tissue (range 1.43-25.29 microg/g). Mean serum VA concentration, measured in these four lions was 1,011.1 nmol/L with a standard deviation of 337.91 nmol/L (range 590.26-1,077.2 nmol/L). The lions recovered uneventfully, and no complications were observed during a 4-yr follow-up period. In conclusion, the percutaneous needle liver biopsy technique is a reliable, practical, safe tool for obtaining liver tissue samples antemortem for assessment of the VA status in lions and can be used in future studies.

  7. Liver Transplant in a Patient under Methylphenidate Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Hoi Y.; Díaz, Carmen; Collantes, Elena; Medrano, Nicolás; Borobia, Alberto M.; Jara, Paloma; Ramírez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used in treating children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Hepatotoxicity is a rare phenomenon; only few cases are described with no liver failure. Case. We report on the case of a 12-year-old boy who received MPH for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Two months later the patient presented with signs and symptoms of hepatitis and MPH was discontinued, showing progressive worsening and developing liver failure and a liver transplantation was required. Other causes of liver failure were ruled out and the liver biopsy was suggestive of drug toxicity. Discussion. One rare adverse reaction of MPH is hepatotoxicity. The review of the literature shows few cases of liver injury attributed to MPH; all of them recovered after withdrawing the treatment. The probable mechanism of liver injury was MPH direct toxicity to hepatocytes. In order to establish the diagnosis of MPH-induced liver injury, we used CIOMS/RUCAM scale that led to an assessment of “possible” relationship. This report provides the first published case of acute MPH-induced liver failure with successful hepatic transplantation. Conclusions. It is important to know that hepatotoxicity can occur in patients with MPH treatment and monitoring the liver's function is highly recommended. PMID:25688317

  8. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Scaglione, Christine N.; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan, E-mail: Ramanujanv@csmc.edu

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Usingmore » catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. - Highlights: • A novel, direct measurement of Catalase enzyme activity via, oxygen sensing method. • Steady-stateprofiles of Catalase activity follow the Michaelis-Menten Kinetics. • Catalase-specific activity demonstrated using genetic and pharmacological tools. • Overcomes limitations of spectroscopic methods and indirect calorimetric approaches. • Clear

  9. Ultrasound-Guided Abrams Pleural Biopsy vs CT-Guided Tru-Cut Pleural Biopsy in Malignant Pleural Disease, a 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Parthipan; Jayaram, Deepak; Rao, Deepak; Dhileepan, Vignesh; Ahmed, Irfan; Ahmed, Liju

    2016-12-01

    Conventional Abrams biopsy shows low sensitivity in suspected malignant pleural disease. There are limited data on the improvement in sensitivity by adding in image guidance. This retrospective study compares the diagnostic sensitivity of Abrams biopsy using ultrasound guidance with CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy in suspected malignant pleural disease. Data were collected from 2006 to 2012 of patients who underwent image-guided biopsies for suspected non-tuberculous pleural disease. Data were collected on the result of the initial biopsy and final patient diagnosis as of June 2015. Sixty-three patients underwent image-guided Abrams biopsy and 29 underwent CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsies. The sensitivity of Abrams was 71.43 % compared to 75 % in the CT-guided Tru-Cut group. Specificity was 100 % in both groups. Image-guided Abrams biopsies demonstrate comparable diagnostic sensitivity in malignant pleural disease to CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy.

  10. Liver transplantation in man: morphometric analysis of the parenchymal alterations following cold ischaemia and warm ischaemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    VIZZOTTO, LAURA; VERTEMATI, MAURIZIO; DEGNA, CARLO TOMMASINI; ASENI, PAOLO

    2001-01-01

    Ischaemia and reperfusion phases represent critical events during liver transplantation. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological alterations of both vascular and parenchymal compartments after ischaemia and reperfusion and to evaluate the possible relationship between morphometric parameters and biochemical/clinical data. Three needle biopsies were drawn from 20 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. The first biopsy was taken before flushing with preservation solution, and the second and the third to evaluate respectively the effects of cold ischaemia and of warm ischaemia/reperfusion. Biopsies were examined by an image analyser and morphometric parameters related to the liver parenchyma were evaluated. At the second biopsy we observed a decrease of the endothelium volume fraction while the same parameter referred to the sinusoidal lumen achieved a peak value. The hepatocytes showed a lower surface parenchymal/vascular sides ratio. This parameter was reversed at the end of the reperfusion phase; furthermore the third biopsy revealed endothelial swelling and a decreased volume fraction of the sinusoidal lumen. The results quantify the damage to the sinusoidal bed which, as already known, is one of the main targets of cold ischaemia; warm ischaemia and reperfusion accentuate endothelial damage. The end of transplantation is characterised by damage chiefly to parenchymal cells. Hepatocytes show a rearrangement of their surface sides, probably related to the alterations of the sinusoidal bed. In addition, the fluctuations of morphometric parameters during ischaemia/reperfusion correlate positively with biochemical data and clinical course of the patients. PMID:11430699

  11. Common Data Elements for Muscle Biopsy Reporting

    PubMed Central

    Dastgir, Jahannaz; Rutkowski, Anne; Alvarez, Rachel; Cossette, Stacy A.; Yan, Ke; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Sewry, Caroline; Hayashi, Yukiko K.; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Bonnemann, Carsten; Lawlor, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Context There is no current standard among myopathologists for reporting muscle biopsy findings. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has recently launched a common data element (CDE) project to standardize neuromuscular data collected in clinical reports and to facilitate their use in research. Objective To develop a more-uniform, prospective reporting tool for muscle biopsies, incorporating the elements identified by the CDE project, in an effort to improve reporting and educational resources. Design The variation in current biopsy reporting practice was evaluated through a study of 51 muscle biopsy reports from self-reported diagnoses of genetically confirmed or undiagnosed muscle disease from the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry. Two reviewers independently extracted data from deidentified reports and entered them into the revised CDE format to identify what was missing and whether or not information provided on the revised CDE report (complete/incomplete) could be successfully interpreted by a neuropathologist. Results Analysis of the data highlighted showed (1) inconsistent reporting of key clinical features from referring physicians, and (2) considerable variability in the reporting of pertinent positive and negative histologic findings by pathologists. Conclusions We propose a format for muscle-biopsy reporting that includes the elements in the CDE checklist and a brief narrative comment that interprets the data in support of a final interpretation. Such a format standardizes cataloging of pathologic findings across the spectrum of muscle diseases and serves emerging clinical care and research needs with the expansion of genetic-testing therapeutic trials. PMID:26132600

  12. Acute-on-chronic liver failure due to thiamazole in a patient with hyperthyroidism and trilogy of Fallot: case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Thiamazole is a widely used antithyroid agent that has been approved for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Although thiamazole-induced hepatotoxicity is a main side effect, it may progress to liver failure in a very few cases. Case Presentation We described a 24-year-old patient with hyperthyroidism and trilogy of Fallot, who developed liver failure due to thiamazole. Liver biopsy showed intrahepatic cholestasis, mild inflammatory infiltrates, as well as significant fibrosis, indicating both acute and chronic liver injuries. Although a series of potent therapies were given, the patient deceased due to severe liver decompensation. Conclusions This case suggests that thiamazole-induced hepatotoxicity in the setting of advanced fibrosis increases the risk of poor outcome. Regular liver function monitoring during thiamazole therapy is therefore important. PMID:20707932

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Scott B.; Cruite, Irene; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is characterized by abnormal and excessive accumulation of lipids within hepatocytes. It is an important feature of diffuse liver disease, and the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Other conditions associated with steatosis include alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies, cystic fibrosis liver disease, and hepatotoxicity from various therapeutic agents. Liver biopsy, the current clinical gold standard for assessment of liver fat, is invasive and has sampling errors, and is not optimal for screening, monitoring, clinical decision making, or well-suited for many types of research studies. Non-invasive methods that accurately and objectively quantify liver fat are needed. Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) can be used to assess liver fat but have limited accuracy as well as other limitations. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques can decompose the liver signal into its fat and water signal components and therefore assess liver fat more directly than CT or US. Most magnetic resonance (MR) techniques measure the signal fat-fraction (the fraction of the liver MR signal attributable to liver fat), which may be confounded by numerous technical and biological factors and may not reliably reflect fat content. By addressing the factors that confound the signal fat-fraction, advanced MR techniques measure the proton density fat-fraction (the fraction of the liver proton density attributable to liver fat), which is a fundamental tissue property and a direct measure of liver fat content. These advanced techniques show promise for accurate fat quantification and are likely to be commercially available soon. PMID:22025886

  14. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  15. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz; de Carvalho-Filho, Roberto José

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a relevant part of patient care and key for decision making. Although liver biopsy has been considered the gold standard for staging liver fibrosis, it is an invasive technique and subject to sampling errors and significant intra- and inter-observer variability. Over the last decade, several noninvasive markers were proposed for liver fibrosis diagnosis in chronic HCV infection, with variable performance. Besides the clear advantage of being noninvasive, a more objective interpretation of test results may overcome the mentioned intra- and inter-observer variability of liver biopsy. In addition, these tests can theoretically offer a more accurate view of fibrogenic events occurring in the entire liver with the advantage of providing frequent fibrosis evaluation without additional risk. However, in general, these tests show low accuracy in discriminating between intermediate stages of fibrosis and may be influenced by several hepatic and extra-hepatic conditions. These methods are either serum markers (usually combined in a mathematical model) or imaging modalities that can be used separately or combined in algorithms to improve accuracy. In this review we will discuss the different noninvasive methods that are currently available for the evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C, their advantages, limitations and application in clinical practice. PMID:24659877

  16. Histological Value of Duodenal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Limci; B., Hamid

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to see the value of histopathological diagnosis in management of patients with duodenal biopsies; to look for correlation of histology and serology in suspected cases of coeliac disease; the reasons for taking duodenal biopsies and whether proper adequate histories are provided on the forms sent with request for histopathological view on duodenal biopsies. Here are the observations of the study followed by the discussion. PMID:15915293

  17. Liver and chorion cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Roels, F; De Prest, B; De Pestel, G

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic visualization of peroxisomes in chorionic villus cytotrophoblast and in biopsy and autopsy samples of liver and kidney, the presence of enlarged liver macrophages containing lipid droplets insoluble in acetone and n-hexane as well as polarizing inclusions formed by stacks of trilamellar sheets are of diagnostic value in peroxisomal disorders. Methods are presented for evaluating these structures by light microscopy; trilamellar inclusions are only detected by electron microscopy. Macrophage features are preserved in archival paraffin blocks. In adrenal cortex, insoluble lipid, polarizing inclusions and trilamellar structures should be looked for. The stains are easily reproducible, and all reagents are commercially available.

  18. Cobalamin Concentrations in Fetal Liver Show Gender Differences: A Result from Using a High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry as an Ultratrace Cobalt Speciation Method.

    PubMed

    Bosle, Janine; Goetz, Sven; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Lombi, Enzo; Meharg, Andrew A; Fowler, Paul A; Feldmann, Jörg

    2016-12-20

    Maternal diet and lifestyle choices may affect placental transfer of cobalamin (Cbl) to the fetus. Fetal liver concentration of Cbl reflects nutritional status with regards to vitamin B12, but at these low concentration current Cbl measurement methods lack robustness. An analytical method based on enzymatic extraction with subsequent reversed-phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) separation and parallel ICPMS and electrospray ionization (ESI)-Orbitrap-MS to determine specifically Cbl species in liver samples of only 10-50 mg was developed using 14 pig livers. Subsequently 55 human fetal livers were analyzed. HPLC-ICPMS analysis for cobalt (Co) and Cbl gave detection limits of 0.18 ng/g and 0.88 ng/g d.m. in liver samples, respectively, with a recovery of >95%. Total Co (Co t ) concentration did not reflect the amount of Cbl or vitamin B12 in the liver. Cbl bound Co contributes only 45 ± 15% to Co t . XRF mapping and μXANES analysis confirmed the occurrence of non-Cbl cobalt in pig liver hot spots indicating particular Co. No correlations of total cobalt nor Cbl with fetal weight or weeks of gestation were found for the human fetal livers. Although no gender difference could be identified for total Co concentration, female livers were significantly higher in Cbl concentration (24.1 ± 7.8 ng/g) than those from male fetuses (19.8 ± 7.1 ng/g) (p = 0.04). This HPLC-ICPMS method was able to quantify total Co t and Cbl in fetus liver, and it was sensitive and precise enough to identify this gender difference.

  19. Circulating Extracellular Vesicles with Specific Proteome and Liver MicroRNAs Are Potential Biomarkers for Liver Injury in Experimental Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Povero, Davide; Eguchi, Akiko; Li, Hongying; Johnson, Casey D.; Papouchado, Bettina G.; Wree, Alexander; Messer, Karen; Feldstein, Ariel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aim Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in both adult and children. Currently there are no reliable methods to determine disease severity, monitor disease progression, or efficacy of therapy, other than an invasive liver biopsy. Design Choline Deficient L-Amino Acid (CDAA) and high fat diets were used as physiologically relevant mouse models of NAFLD. Circulating extracellular vesicles were isolated, fully characterized by proteomics and molecular analyses and compared to control groups. Liver-related microRNAs were isolated from purified extracellular vesicles and liver specimens. Results We observed statistically significant differences in the level of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in liver and blood between two control groups and NAFLD animals. Time-course studies showed that EV levels increase early during disease development and reflect changes in liver histolopathology. EV levels correlated with hepatocyte cell death (r2 = 0.64, p<0.05), fibrosis (r2 = 0.66, p<0.05) and pathological angiogenesis (r2 = 0.71, p<0.05). Extensive characterization of blood EVs identified both microparticles (MPs) and exosomes (EXO) present in blood of NAFLD animals. Proteomic analysis of blood EVs detected various differentially expressed proteins in NAFLD versus control animals. Moreover, unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a signature that allowed for discrimination between NAFLD and controls. Finally, the liver appears to be an important source of circulating EVs in NAFLD animals as evidenced by the enrichment in blood with miR-122 and 192 - two microRNAs previously described in chronic liver diseases, coupled with a corresponding decrease in expression of these microRNAs in the liver. Conclusions These findings suggest a potential for using specific circulating EVs as sensitive and specific biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD. PMID:25470250

  20. The influence of donor age on liver regeneration and hepatic progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Hayashida, Tetsu; Wakui, Masatoshi; Tanabe, Minoru; Itano, Osamu; Obara, Hideaki; Shinoda, Masahiro; Hibi, Taizo; Oshima, Go; Tani, Noriyuki; Mihara, Kisyo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that donor age might have a major impact on recipient outcome in adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but the reasons underlying this effect remain unclear. The aims of this study were to compare liver regeneration between young and aged living donors and to evaluate the number of Thy-1+ cells, which have been reported to be human hepatic progenitor cells. LDLT donors were divided into 2 groups (Group O, donor age ≥ 50 years, n = 6 and Group Y, donor age ≤ 30 years, n = 9). The remnant liver regeneration rates were calculated on the basis of computed tomography volumetry on postoperative days 7 and 30. Liver tissue samples were obtained from donors undergoing routine liver biopsy or patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for metastatic liver tumors. Thy-1+ cells were isolated and counted using immunomagnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) technique. Donor liver regeneration rates were significantly higher in young donors compared to old donors (P = .042) on postoperative day 7. Regeneration rates were significantly higher after right lobe resection compared to rates after left lobe resection. The MACS findings showed that the number of Thy-1+ cells in the human liver consistently tended to decline with age. Our study revealed that liver regeneration is impaired with age after donor hepatectomy, especially after right lobe resection. The declining hepatic progenitor cell population might be one of the reasons for impaired liver regeneration in aged donors. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative characterization of fatty liver disease using x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharkawy, Wafaa B.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2013-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dynamic condition in which fat abnormally accumulates within the hepatocytes. It is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and carcinoma. The fat content in liver biopsies determines its validity for liver transplantation. Transplantation of livers with severe NAFLD is associated with a high risk of primary non-function. Moreover, NAFLD is recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection. Unfortunately, there is a lack in a precise, reliable and reproducible method for quantification of NAFLD. This work suggests a method for the quantification of NAFLD. The method is based on the fact that fatty liver tissue would have a characteristic x-ray scattering profile with a relatively intense fat peak at a momentum transfer value of 1.1 nm-1 compared to a soft tissue peak at 1.6 nm-1. The fat content in normal and fatty liver is plotted against three profile characterization parameters (ratio of peak intensities, ratio of area under peaks and ratio of area under fat peak to total profile area) for measured and Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles. Results show a high linear dependence (R2>0.9) of the characterization parameters on the liver fat content with a reported high correlation coefficient (>0.9) between measured and simulated data. These results indicate that the current method probably offers reliable quantification of fatty liver disease.

  2. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis using two-dimensional shear wave elastography in patients with autoimmune liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Huang, Ze-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Rong-Qin

    2017-07-14

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) using liver biopsy as the reference standard. Patients with AILD who underwent liver biopsy and 2D-SWE were consecutively enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the overall accuracy and to identify optimal cut-off values. The characteristics of the diagnostic performance were determined for 114 patients with AILD. The areas under the ROC curves for significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.85, 0.85, and 0.86, respectively, and the optimal cut-off values associated with significant fibrosis (≥ F2), severe fibrosis (≥ F3), and cirrhosis (F4) were 9.7 kPa, 13.2 kPa and 16.3 kPa, respectively. 2D-SWE showed sensitivity values of 81.7% for significant fibrosis, 83.0% for severe fibrosis, and 87.0% for cirrhosis, and the respective specificity values were 81.3%, 74.6%, and 80.2%. The overall concordance rate of the liver stiffness measurements obtained using 2D-SWE vs fibrosis stages was 53.5%. 2D-SWE showed promising diagnostic performance for assessing liver fibrosis stages and exhibited high cut-off values in patients with AILD. Low overall concordance rate was observed in the liver stiffness measurements obtained using 2D-SWE vs fibrosis stages.

  3. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis using two-dimensional shear wave elastography in patients with autoimmune liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jie; Huang, Ze-Ping; Zheng, Jian; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Rong-Qin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) using liver biopsy as the reference standard. METHODS Patients with AILD who underwent liver biopsy and 2D-SWE were consecutively enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the overall accuracy and to identify optimal cut-off values. RESULTS The characteristics of the diagnostic performance were determined for 114 patients with AILD. The areas under the ROC curves for significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.85, 0.85, and 0.86, respectively, and the optimal cut-off values associated with significant fibrosis (≥ F2), severe fibrosis (≥ F3), and cirrhosis (F4) were 9.7 kPa, 13.2 kPa and 16.3 kPa, respectively. 2D-SWE showed sensitivity values of 81.7% for significant fibrosis, 83.0% for severe fibrosis, and 87.0% for cirrhosis, and the respective specificity values were 81.3%, 74.6%, and 80.2%. The overall concordance rate of the liver stiffness measurements obtained using 2D-SWE vs fibrosis stages was 53.5%. CONCLUSION 2D-SWE showed promising diagnostic performance for assessing liver fibrosis stages and exhibited high cut-off values in patients with AILD. Low overall concordance rate was observed in the liver stiffness measurements obtained using 2D-SWE vs fibrosis stages. PMID:28765706

  4. Hepatic steatosis after pediatric liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Perito, Emily R; Vase, Tabitha; Ramachandran, Rageshree; Phelps, Andrew; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Lustig, Robert H; Feldstein, Vickie A; Rosenthal, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplantation (LT) in 30% of adults, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in nontransplanted children. However, posttransplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric LT recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n = 318), 31% of those with any posttransplant biopsy (n = 271) had ≥ 1 biopsy with steatosis. Median time from transplant to first biopsy with steatosis was 0.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 0.3-6.5 months) and to last biopsy with steatosis was 5.5 months (IQR, 1.0-24.5 months); 85% of patients with steatosis also had for-cause biopsies without steatosis. All available for-cause biopsies were re-evaluated (n = 104). Of 9 biopsies that could be interpreted as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)/borderline NASH, with steatosis plus inflammation or ballooning, 8 also had features of cholestasis or rejection. Among 70 patients with surveillance biopsies 3.6-20.0 years after transplant, only 1 overweight adolescent had a biopsy with NAFLD (grade 1 steatosis, mild inflammation, no ballooning or fibrosis)-despite a 30% prevalence of overweight/obesity in the cohort and 27% with steatosis on previous for-cause biopsy. Steatosis on preceding for-cause biopsy was not associated with portal (P = 0.49) or perivenular fibrosis (P = 0.85) on surveillance biopsy. Hepatic steatosis commonly develops early after transplant in children and adolescents, but it rarely persists. Biopsies that did have steatosis with NASH characteristics were all for-cause, mostly in patients with NAFLD risk factors and/or confounding causes of liver damage. Prospective studies that follow children into adulthood will be needed to evaluate if and when hepatic steatosis presents a longterm risk for

  5. [Utility of Fibroscan in the evaluation of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Carrión, José A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases produce a progressive accumulation of collagenous fiber in the liver parenchyma. For years, liver biopsy has been the gold standard to quantify liver fibrosis. Currently, non-invasive alternatives are available to quantify fibrosis. Transient elastography (TE) or Fibroscan quantifies liver rigidity, which is proportional to the grade of liver fibrosis. Studies are available that have evaluated the reliability and limitations of TE in healthy individuals, in patients with acute hepatitis, in distinct chronic liver diseases and in liver transplant recipients. TE is reliable for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (F4) and significant fibrosis (F2) but its values may vary according to the patient's characteristics and the etiology of the disease. TE can avoid liver biopsy in 90% of patients with cirrhosis and in up to 70% of those with significant fibrosis when combined with other non-invasive methods.

  6. Performance and Cost of Disposable Biopsy Forceps in Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Comparison with Reusable Biopsy Forceps

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Jin Soo; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong; Chung, In-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims It is believed that disposable biopsy forceps are more costly than reusable biopsy forceps. In this study, we evaluated performance and cost of disposable forceps versus reusable forceps in esophagogastroduodenoscopic biopsy. Methods Between October 2009 and July 2010, we enrolled 200 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopic biopsy at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Biopsies were performed with 100 disposable or 5 reusable forceps by random assignment. Seventy-five additional patients were studied to estimate durability of reusable forceps. The assisting nurses estimated the performance of the forceps. The evaluation of costs included purchase prices and reprocessing costs. The adequacy of the sample was estimated according to the diameter of the obtained tissue. Results Performance of disposable forceps was estimated as excellent in 97.0%, good in 2.0% and adequate in 1.0%. Reusable forceps were estimated as excellent in 36.0%, good in 36.0%, adequate in 25.1% and inadequate in 2.9%. The performance of reusable forceps declined with the number of uses. The reprocessing cost of reusable forceps for one biopsy session was calculated as ₩8,021. The adequacy of the sample was excellent for both forceps. Conclusions Disposable forceps showed excellent performance. Considering the reprocessing costs of reusable forceps, usage of disposable forceps with a low price should be considered. PMID:22741133

  7. Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Sitt, Jacqueline C M; Wong, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of synovium is an increasingly performed procedure with a high diagnostic yield. In this review, we discuss the normal synovium, as well as the indications, technique, tissue handling and clinical applications of ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy. PMID:26581578

  8. Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print What It Is Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are performed to examine bone marrow, the spongy liquid part of the bone where blood cells are ... you might also feel the pressure of the biopsy needle pushing in. Some ... sharp cramp as the liquid bone marrow is withdrawn for the aspiration or ...

  9. Ultrasound-guided chest biopsies.

    PubMed

    Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Dahiya, Nirvikar

    2006-12-01

    Pulmonary nodules that are surrounded by aerated lung cannot be visualized with sonography. Therefore, percutaneous biopsy must be guided with computed tomography or fluoroscopy. Although this restriction only applies to central lung nodules, it has permeated referral patterns for other thoracic lesions and has retarded the growth of ultrasound-guided interventions. Nevertheless, sonography is an extremely flexible modality that can expeditiously guide many biopsy procedures in the thorax. Peripheral pulmonary nodules can be successfully biopsied with success rates exceeding 90% and complications rates of less than 5%. Orienting the probe parallel to the intercostal space facilitates biopsies of peripheral pulmonary nodules. Anterior mediastinal masses that extend to the parasternal region are often easily approachable provided the internal mammary vessels, costal cartilage, and deep great vessels are identified and avoided. Superior mediastinal masses can be sampled from a suprasternal or supraclavicular approach. Phased array probes or tightly curved arrays may provide improved access for biopsies in this location. Posterior mediastinal masses are more difficult to biopsy with ultrasound guidance because of the overlying paraspinal muscles. However, when posterior mediastinal masses extend into the posterior medial pleural region, they can be biopsied with ultrasound guidance. Because many lung cancers metastasize to the supraclavicular nodes, it is important to evaluate the supraclavicular region when determining the best approach to obtain a tissue diagnosis. When abnormal supraclavicular nodes are present, they often are the easiest and safest lesions to biopsy.

  10. Reliability of chronic allograft nephropathy diagnosis in sequential protocol biopsies.

    PubMed

    Serón, Daniel; Moreso, Francesc; Fulladosa, Xavier; Hueso, Miguel; Carrera, Marta; Grinyó, Josep M

    2002-02-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) progresses rapidly during the first few months and slowly thereafter. Although the presence of CAN in protocol renal biopsies is a predictor of outcome, the reliability of this diagnosis according to Banff criteria has not been characterized. Renal lesions were evaluated according to the Banff criteria in sequential protocol biopsies performed at 4 and 14 months in 310 biopsies obtained from 155 patients. CAN progressed from 40 to 53% (P=0.001) while serum creatinine remained stable (146 +/- 44 vs. 147 +/- 48 micromol/L, P=NS). Graft survival in patients with and without CAN in the first biopsy was 74 versus 91% (P < 0.05), and in the second biopsy 75 versus 94% (P < 0.05). In 54 patients (35%) no CAN was present in both biopsies, 39 (25%) showed progression to CAN, 19 (12%) showed regression of CAN, and 43 (28%) showed CAN in both biopsies. Graft survival was: 100%, 81.6%, 82.6% and 69.4%, respectively (P < 0.01). Assuming that CAN does not regress and sampling error is normally distributed, we estimated that 25% of biopsies cannot be properly classified. The increase in the incidence of CAN between the 4th and 14th month is lower than the proportion of misclassified biopsies. Thus, monitoring the progression of CAN by means of two sequential biopsies at 4 and 14 months is inaccurate. We suggest that progression of scarring be monitored by means of a donor and a protocol biopsy performed during the first year evaluated with a quantitative approach.

  11. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  12. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ganesh M; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S

    2017-10-01

    Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered: In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary: As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies.

  13. [A case of gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases showing marked efficacy of preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy with CDDP, MMC and UFT(PMU), or CDDP, MMC, UFT and etoposide (PMUE)].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kato, M; Sawa, T; Yoshimitsu, S; Tomita, F; Takano, Y; Yonemura, Y; Miyazaki, I; Matsui, H

    1993-04-01

    The patient, a 65-year-old male with far advanced gastric cancer of H3N4 (Stage 4), was assumed inoperable on admission and chemotherapy using CDDP, MMC and UFT(PMU) was carried out. As a result, the levels of AFP and CEA were reduced notably, and PR effects were recognized in liver and lymphnode metastatic lesion. Thus, 2 months later, reduction surgery was performed, during which primary lesion was resected and a reservoir tube for chemotherapy was placed in the common hepatic artery. Subsequently, the chemotherapy with Etoposide added to PMU(PMUE) was continued by utilization of a reservoir, so that liver metastasis decreased more than 90% from the maximum. However, metastasis lesions of left lobe of the liver had enlarged with reincrease of AFP and CEA since 6 months after the operation. A month later left lobectomy of the liver was performed. Residual metastases of the liver were then enlarged. PMUE with Ca antagonist was used with little effect then. The patient died of liver failure 15 months after initial admission.

  14. Acute Liver Failure from Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antagonists: Report of Four Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kok, Beverley; Lester, Erica L W; Lee, William M; Hanje, A James; Stravitz, R Todd; Girgis, Safwat; Patel, Vaishali; Peck, Joshua R; Esber, Christopher; Karvellas, Constantine J

    2018-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists (anti-TNF-α) have been associated with drug-induced liver injury. However, cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure have only been rarely reported. To identify cases of anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure and evaluate patterns of liver injury and common characteristics to the cases. The United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group database was searched from 1998 to 2014. Four subjects were identified. A PubMed search for articles that reported anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure identified five additional cases. The majority of individuals affected were female (eight of nine cases). Age of individual ranged from 20 to 53 years. The most common anti-TNF-α agent associated with acute liver failure was infliximab (n = 8). The latency between initial drug exposure and acute liver failure ranged from 3 days to over a year. Of the nine cases, six required emergency LT. Liver biopsy was obtained in seven cases with a preponderance toward cholestatic-hepatitic features; none showed clear autoimmune features. Anti-TNF-α-associated acute liver failure displays somewhat different characteristics compared with anti-TNF-α-induced drug-induced liver injury. Infliximab was implicated in the majority of cases. Cholestatic-hepatitic features were frequently found on pre-transplant and explant histology.

  15. Ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies may assist in diagnosing mitochondrial cytopathy when muscle biopsies yield negative results.

    PubMed

    McAfee, John L; Warren, Christine B; Prayson, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of skin biopsies has been utilized for diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. This study investigates how frequently skin biopsies reveal mitochondrial abnormalities, correlates skin and muscle biopsy findings, and describes clinical diagnoses rendered following the evaluation. A retrospective review of surgical pathology reports from 1990 to 2015 identified skin biopsies examined by electron microscopy for suspected metabolic disease. A total of 630 biopsies were included from 615 patients. Of these patients, 178 also underwent a muscle biopsy. Of the 630 skin biopsies, 75 (12%) showed ultrastructural abnormalities and 34 (5%) specifically showed mitochondrial abnormalities including increased size (n=27), reduced or abnormal cristae (n=23), dense matrices (n=20), and increased number (n=8). Additional findings included lysosomal abnormalities (n=13), lipid accumulation (n=2) or glycogen accumulation (n=1). Of the 34 patients with mitochondrial abnormalities on skin biopsy, 20 also had muscle biopsies performed and nine showed abnormalities suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder including absent cytochrome oxidase staining (n=2), increased subsarcolemmal NADH, SDH, or cytochrome oxidase staining (n=1), or ultrastructural findings including large mitochondrial size (n=5), abnormal mitochondrial structure (n=5), and increased mitochondrial number (n=4). The most common presenting symptoms were intellectual disability (n=13), seizures (n=12), encephalopathy (n=9), and gastrointestinal disturbances (n=9). At last known follow-up, 12 patients had a definitive diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder. One patient each had Complex I deficiency, Complex III deficiency, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Our results suggest that skin biopsy sometimes yields diagnostic clues suggestive of a mitochondrial cytopathy in cases with a negative muscle biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Liver manipulation during liver surgery in humans is associated with hepatocellular damage and hepatic inflammation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Maartje A J; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; Schreurs, Joris J W; Bloemen, Johanne G; Bieghs, Veerle; Rensen, Sander S; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2013-04-01

    Manipulation of the liver during liver surgery results in profound hepatocellular damage. Experimental data show that mobilization-induced hepatocellular damage is related to hepatic inflammation. To date, information on this link in humans is lacking. As it is possible to modulate inflammation, it is clinically relevant to unravel this relationship. This observational study aimed to establish the association between liver mobilization and hepatic inflammation in humans. Consecutive patients requiring mobilization of the right hemi-liver during liver surgery were studied. Plasma samples and liver biopsies were collected prior to and directly after mobilization and after transection of the liver. Hepatocellular damage was assayed by liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and aminotransferase levels. Hepatic inflammation was determined by (a) immunohistochemical identification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and CD68- positive cells and (b) hepatic gene expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1). A total of 25 patients were included. L-FABP levels increased significantly during mobilization (301 ± 94 ng/ml to 1599 ± 362 ng/ml, P = 0.008), as did ALAT levels (36 ± 5 IU/L to 167 ± 21 IU/L, P < 0.001). A significant increase in MPO (P = 0.001) and CD68 (P = 0.002) positive cells was noticed in the liver after mobilization. The number of MPO-positive cells correlated with the duration of mobilization (Pearson correlation=0.505, P = 0.033). Hepatic gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, chemo-attractant IL-8 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 increased significantly during liver manipulation. Liver mobilization is associated with hepatocellular damage and liver inflammation, as shown by infiltration of inflammatory cells and upregulation of genes involved in acute inflammation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Liver steatosis is associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle rather than in the liver in Japanese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ken-Ichiro; Takeshita, Yumie; Misu, Hirofumi; Zen, Yoh; Kaneko, Shuichi; Takamura, Toshinari

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association between liver histological features and organ-specific insulin resistance indices calculated from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test data in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained from 72 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and were scored for steatosis, grade and stage. Hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin resistance indices (hepatic insulin resistance index and Matsuda index, respectively) were calculated from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test data, and metabolic clearance rate was measured using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp method. The degree of hepatic steatosis, and grade and stage of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were significantly correlated with Matsuda index (steatosis r = -0.45, P < 0.001; grade r = -0.54, P < 0.001; stage r = -0.37, P < 0.01), but not with hepatic insulin resistance index. Multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and each histological score showed that the degree of hepatic steatosis (coefficient = -0.22, P < 0.05) and grade (coefficient = -0.40, P < 0.01) were associated with Matsuda index, whereas the association between stage and Matsuda index (coefficient = -0.07, P = 0.593) was no longer significant. A similar trend was observed for the association between steatosis and metabolic clearance rate (coefficient = -0.62, P = 0.059). Liver steatosis is associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle rather than in the liver in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting a central role of fatty liver in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and the existence of a network between the liver and skeletal muscle.

  18. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Results: Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates. PMID:27488003

  19. Resolution of donor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Posner, Andrew D; Sultan, Samuel T; Zaghloul, Norann A; Twaddell, William S; Bruno, David A; Hanish, Steven I; Hutson, William R; Hebert, Laci; Barth, Rolf N; LaMattina, John C

    2017-09-01

    Transplant surgeons conventionally select against livers displaying high degrees (>30%) of macrosteatosis (MaS), out of concern for primary non-function or severe graft dysfunction. As such, there is relatively limited experience with such livers, and the natural history remains incompletely characterized. We present our experience of transplanted livers with high degrees of MaS and microsteatosis (MiS), with a focus on the histopathologic and clinical outcomes. Twenty-nine cases were identified with liver biopsies available from both the donor and the corresponding liver transplant recipient. Donor liver biopsies displayed either MaS or MiS ≥15%, while all recipients received postoperative liver biopsies for cause. The mean donor MaS and MiS were 15.6% (range 0%-60%) and 41.3% (7.5%-97.5%), respectively. MaS decreased significantly from donor (M=15.6%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=0.86%), P<.001. Similarly, MiS decreased significantly from donor biopsies (M=41.3%) to recipient postoperative biopsies (M=1.8%), P<.001. At a median of 68 days postoperatively (range 4-384), full resolution of MaS and MiS was observed in 27 of 29 recipients. High degrees of MaS and MiS in donor livers resolve in recipients following liver transplantation. Further insight into the mechanisms responsible for treating fatty liver diseases could translate into therapeutic targets. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Congenital portosystemic shunts associated with liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Pupulim, L F; Vullierme, M-P; Paradis, V; Valla, D; Terraz, S; Vilgrain, V

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnosis and presentation of liver tumours in patients with congenital portosystemic shunts (CPS). Eight patients were diagnosed in Hôpital Beaujon as having CPS. All patients underwent Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histological examination of liver tumours. CPS were classified according to anatomy and the amount of portal flow deviated to the systemic circulation as: total, subtotal, or partial. Liver tumours were diagnosed by needle core biopsy (n = 5) or surgery (n = 3). Clinical follow-up was available in all patients but one (mean follow-up 36 months; range 1-5 years). Six patients had total CPS, one patient had a subtotal CPS, and the last had a partial CPS. All patients presented with multiple liver nodules (range four to >15). The tumours were characterized as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH; n = 4), FNH with hepatocellular adenoma (n = 2), and regenerative nodular hyperplasia (n = 2). In four of seven patients (57%) that had follow-up, tumours showed enlargement or new lesions appeared. In this series of CPS patients, tumours were all benign, multiple, and of hepatocellular origin, and different tumours were present simultaneously in two patients. Tumour enlargement or new nodules were common during follow-up. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Giada; Gkouvatsos, Konstantinos; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide and predisposes to liver fibrosis and end-stage liver complications. Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen, and is considered as a wound healing response to chronic liver injury. Its staging is critical for the management and prognosis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, whose number is expected to rise over the next decades, posing a major health care challenge. This review provides a brief update on HCV epidemiology, summarizes basic mechanistic concepts of HCV-dependent liver fibrogenesis, and discusses methods for assessment of liver fibrosis that are routinely used in clinical practice. Liver biopsy was until recently considered as the gold standard to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis. However, its invasiveness and drawbacks led to the development of non-invasive methods, which include serum biomarkers, transient elastography and combination algorithms. Clinical studies with CHC patients demonstrated that non-invasive methods are in most cases accurate for diagnosis and for monitoring liver disease complications. Moreover, they have a high prognostic value and are cost-effective. Non-invasive methods for assessment of liver fibrosis are gradually being incorporated into new guidelines and are becoming standard of care, which significantly reduces the need for liver biopsy. PMID:25170193

  2. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-Guided Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the type of biopsy being performed or the design of the biopsy machine, a biopsy of tissue ... cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. ...

  3. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-06-07

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible.

  4. A robust collagen scoring method for human liver fibrosis by second harmonic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Thomas; Odin, Christophe; Le Grand, Yann; Gailhouste, Luc; Turlin, Bruno; Ezan, Frédérick; Désille, Yoann; Baffet, Georges; Guyader, Dominique

    2010-12-06

    Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy offers the opportunity to image collagen of type I without staining. We recently showed that a simple scoring method, based on SHG images of histological human liver biopsies, correlates well with the Metavir assessment of fibrosis level (Gailhouste et al., J. Hepatol., 2010). In this article, we present a detailed study of this new scoring method with two different objective lenses. By using measurements of the objectives point spread functions and of the photomultiplier gain, and a simple model of the SHG intensity, we show that our scoring method, applied to human liver biopsies, is robust to the objective's numerical aperture (NA) for low NA, the choice of the reference sample and laser power, and the spatial sampling rate. The simplicity and robustness of our collagen scoring method may open new opportunities in the quantification of collagen content in different organs, which is of main importance in providing diagnostic information and evaluation of therapeutic efficiency.

  5. High regenerative capacity of the liver and irreversible injury of male reproductive system in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis rat model.

    PubMed

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Drahulian, Maria V; Buchek, Polina V; Gulko, Tamara P

    2018-03-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system. Studies were conducted on 20 3-month old Wistar male rats. The experimental animals were injected with freshly prepared 50% olive oil solution of carbohydrate tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). On the 8th week after injection we noted the manifestations of liver fibrosis. The rats were left to self-healing of the liver for 8 weeks. All male rats underwent ultrasound and biopsy of the liver and testes on the 8th and 16th weeks. The male rats were mated with healthy females before CCl 4 injection, after modeling LF on the 8th week, and after self-healing of the liver. Pregnancy was monitored on ultrasound. On the 8th week of experiment we observed ultrasound manifestation of advanced liver fibrosis, including hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension. Ultrasound exam of the rat testes showed testicular degeneration, hydrocele, fibrosis, scarring, petrifications, size reduction, and restriction of testicular descent; testes size decreased from 1.24 ± 0.62 ml to 0.61 ± 0.13, p  < 0.01. Liver histology showed granular dystrophy of hepatocytes, necrotic areas, lipid inclusions in parenchyma. Rats with liver fibrosis demonstrated severe injury of the reproductive system and altering of fertility: the offspring of male rats with advanced LF was 4.71 ± 0.53 born alive vs 9.55 ± 0.47 born from mating with healthy males, p  < 0.001. Eight weeks after last CCl 4 injection, we revealed signs of liver regeneration, significant

  6. Low-dose steroids associated with milder histological changes after pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kosola, Silja; Lampela, Hanna; Jalanko, Hannu; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Lohi, Jouko; Arola, Johanna; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2013-02-01

    Controversy remains about the role of protocol liver biopsy for symptom-free recipients and about the long-term use of low-dose steroids after pediatric liver transplantation (LT). We conducted a national cross-sectional study of pediatric recipients who underwent LT between 1987 and 2007. Liver biopsy samples were taken from 54 patients (82% of survivors) after a median posttransplant follow-up of 11 years, and they were reviewed by 2 pathologists blinded to the clinical data. Biopsy samples from 18 patients (33%) showed nearly normal histology with no inflammation, fibrosis, or steatosis. Portal inflammation was detected in 14 samples (26%), showed no correlation with anti-nuclear antibodies, and was less frequent in the 35 patients whose immunosuppression included steroids (14% versus 47% of patients not using steroids, P = 0.008). Fibrosis was present in 21 biopsy samples (39%). According to the Metavir classification, 16 were stage 1, 3 were stage 2, and 2 were stage 3. The fibrosis stage correlated negatively with serum prealbumin levels (r = -0.364, P = 0.007) and positively with chronic cholestasis (cytokeratin 7 staining; r = 0.529, P < 0.001) and portal inflammation (r = 0.350, P = 0.01). Microvesicular steatosis was found in 23 biopsy samples (43% of patients in 5%-80% of hepatocytes), and it correlated with the body mass index (r = 0.458, P < 0.001) but not with steroid use. The age of the allograft (donor age plus follow-up time) correlated with higher serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (r = 0.472, P < 0.001) and conjugated bilirubin levels (r = 0.420, P = 0.002) as well as chronic cholestasis (r = 0.299, P = 0.03). The biopsy findings led to treatment changes in 10 patients (19%), whereas only 1 complication (subcapsular hematoma) was encountered. In conclusion, continuing low-dose steroids indefinitely after pediatric LT may have a positive effect on the long-term histological state of the liver graft. Allograft aging may lead to chronic cholestasis and

  7. Clinical and prognostic significance of muscle biopsy in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yanardag, Halil; Tetikkurt, Cuneyt; Bilir, Muammer

    2018-04-30

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of muscle involvement on the clinical features, prognostic outcome, extrapulmonary organ, and endobronchial involvement in sarcoidosis patients. The second aim was to assess the diagnostic yield of muscle biopsy for the histopathologic identification of sarcoidosis.  Fifty sarcoidosis patients participated in the study. The patients were classified into two groups according to the histopathologic presence of non-caseating granulomatous inflammatory pattern of the muscle biopsy samples and were evaluated retrospectively in regard to clinical features, prognosis, extrapulmonary, and endobronchial disease involvement. Pathologic examination of the muscle biopsy samples revealed non-caseating granulomas in eighteen and myositis in seven patients compatible with sarcoidosis. The diagnostic yield of muscle biopsy for demonstrating non-caseating granulomatous inflammation was fifty percent. Patients with muscle sarcoidosis showed a worse prognosis and a more severe extrapulmonary organ involvement than the patients without muscle disease. Muscle biopsy was not statistically significant to delineate diffuse endobronchial involvement while it was suggestive for endobronchial disease clinically. The results of our study reveal that muscle biopsy appears to be a useful diagnostic tool along with its safety and easy clinical applicability. It is a rewarding utility to predict the prognostic outcome and extrapulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis patients. Positive biopsy on the other hand confirms the identification of sarcoidosis in patients with single organ involvement carrying an equivocal diagnostic clinical pattern. Muscle biopsy may be considered as the initial step for the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis in such cases.

  8. Diffuse reflectance imaging: a tool for guided biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Jayaraj L.; Subhash, Narayanan; Manju, Stephen; Nisha, Unni G.; Beena, Valappil T.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of premalignant or malignant oral lesions depends on the quality of the biopsy, adequate clinical information and correct interpretation of the biopsy results. The major clinical challenge is to precisely locate the biopsy site in a clinically suspicious lesion. Dips due to oxygenated hemoglobin absorption have been noticed at 545 and 575 nm in the diffusely reflected white light spectra of oral mucosa and the intensity ratio R545/R575 has been found suited for early detection of oral pre-cancers. A multi-spectral diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging system has been developed consisting of an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter for guiding the clinician to an optimal biopsy site. Towards this DR images were recorded from 27 patients with potentially malignant lesions on their tongue (dorsal, lateral and ventral sides) and from 44 healthy controls at 545 and 575 nm with the DR imaging system. False colored ratio image R545/R575 of the lesion provides a visual discerning capability that helps in locating the most malignant site for biopsy. Histopathological report of guided biopsy showed that out of the 27 patients 16 were cancers, 9 pre-cancers and 2 lichen planus. In this clinical trial DR imaging has correctly guided 25 biopsy sites, yielding a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98%, thereby establishing the potential of DR imaging as a tool for guided biopsy.

  9. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  10. Liquid Biopsy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Circulating Tumor-Derived Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chang-Qing; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Qu, Zhen; Guan, Qing; Chen, Hao; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide due to latent liver disease, late diagnosis, and nonresponse to systemic treatments. Till now, surgical and/or biopsy specimens are still generally used as a gold standard by the clinicians for clinical decision-making. However, apart from their invasive characteristics, tumor biopsy only mirrors a single spot of the tumor, failing to reflect current cancer dynamics and progression. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new diagnostic strategies with significant effectiveness and reliability to monitor high-risk populations and detect HCC at an early stage. In the past decade, the potent utilities of "liquid biopsy" have attracted intense concern and were developed to evaluate cancer progression in several clinical trials. "Liquid biopsies" represent a series of noninvasive tests that detect cancer byproducts easily accessible in peripheral blood, mainly including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) that are shed into the blood from the tumor sites. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the field of "liquid biopsy" as well as the diagnostic and prognostic significance of CTCs and cfNAs in HCC patients.

  11. [A case of advanced gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases completely responding long term to paclitaxel plus S-1 therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanou, Mikihiro; Kurisu, Yoshihiro; Akagi, Shinji; Tanaka, Tomoko; Toge, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaints of loss of appetite, fatigue and dysphasia. Upper gastroscopy revealed advanced gastric cancer. Abdominal CT suggested liver metastases. At first we thought the liver metastases has been completely resected, but we found multiple liver metastases unexpectedly. So only total gastric resection and liver biopsy were performed. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic carcinoma. Paclitaxel (PTX) and S-1 combination chemotherapy was started after operation and was continued for 42 courses. A CT scan showed a complete response, and he has been well without tumor re-growth ever since. The combination of PTX and S-1 not only may be an effective regimen for gastric cancer with liver metastases, but also can be used without side effects for a long time.

  12. Tumor-Like Liver Abscess Mimicking Malignancy With Lung Metastases in a Patient With Acute Renal Failure: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih Hsin; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Tsai, Ming Hsien

    2016-03-01

    The worldwide incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is increasing. It is important to accurately diagnose this life-threatening disease to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old man with acute renal failure and a tumor-like liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism. Initially, his clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and radiological findings presented equivocal results of malignancy with metastases. Fine needle aspiration of liver tumor was performed, which showed purulent material with a culture positive for K pneumoniae. KLA symptoms are atypical, and radiological findings may mimic a malignancy with tumor necrosis. In some circumstances, liver aspiration biopsy may be necessary to confirm the real etiology, leading to prompt and timely treatment. Moreover, we should be alert for the impression of KLA when facing a diabetic patient with liver mass lesion and acute renal failure.

  13. Tumor-Like Liver Abscess Mimicking Malignancy With Lung Metastases in a Patient With Acute Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih Hsin; Sun, Cheuk-Kay; Jiang, Jiunn-Song; Tsai, Ming Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The worldwide incidence of Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KLA) is increasing. It is important to accurately diagnose this life-threatening disease to provide timely and appropriate treatment. Here we report the case of a 38-year-old man with acute renal failure and a tumor-like liver abscess and septic pulmonary embolism. Initially, his clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and radiological findings presented equivocal results of malignancy with metastases. Fine needle aspiration of liver tumor was performed, which showed purulent material with a culture positive for K pneumoniae. KLA symptoms are atypical, and radiological findings may mimic a malignancy with tumor necrosis. In some circumstances, liver aspiration biopsy may be necessary to confirm the real etiology, leading to prompt and timely treatment. Moreover, we should be alert for the impression of KLA when facing a diabetic patient with liver mass lesion and acute renal failure. PMID:26986170

  14. Controlled attenuation parameter is correlated with actual hepatic fat content in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with none-to-mild obesity and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Naoki; Shibata, Soichiro; Sano, Kenji; Yamazaki, Tomoo; Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Kitabatake, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Kimura, Takefumi; Komatsu, Michiharu; Umemura, Takeji; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive steatosis-quantifying methods are required for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients in order to monitor disease severity and assess therapeutic efficacy. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) evaluated with vibration-controlled transient elastography can predict the presence of steatosis, but its application to absolute hepatic fat quantitation remains unclear. The aim of this st\\udy was to examine whether CAP is correlated with real hepatic fat content in NAFLD patients. Eighty-two NAFLD patients who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy were enrolled. CAP was measured using FibroScan(®) just before liver biopsy. The percentage of fat droplet area to hepatocyte area in biopsied specimen was determined morphometrically using computerized optical image analyzing system. The correlation between CAP and liver histology was examined. CAP showed an excellent correlation with actual liver fat percentage in the NAFLD patients with body mass index (BMI) of less than 28 kg/m(2) (r = 0.579, P < 0.0001), especially less than 25 kg/m(2) (r = 0.708, P < 0.01), but the meaningful correlation disappeared in the patients with BMI of 28 kg/m(2) or more. In the patients with BMI of less than 28 kg/m(2) , CAP quantitativeness was affected by the presence of stage 2-4 fibrosis, but not the presence of hepatocyte ballooning and severity of lobular inflammation. CAP may be a promising tool for quantifying hepatic fat content in NAFLD patients with none-to-mild obesity and liver fibrosis. Further improvement of CAP performance is needed for the NAFLD patients with BMI of more than 28 kg/m(2) or significant hepatic fibrosis. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  15. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width Levels Correlate With Liver Fibrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Shen; Qiu, Xiao-Ming; Ou, Qi-shui; Liu, Can; Lin, Jin-Piao; Chen, Hui-Juan; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Wen-Hua; Lin, Shou-Rong; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to study whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) could be one of the variables determining the extent of liver fibrosis and inflammation in patients with biopsy-proven hepatitis B. A total of 446 hepatitis B virus-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy were divided into 2 groups: absent or mild and moderate–severe according to the severity of liver fibrosis and inflammation. The independent variables that determine the severity of liver fibrosis and inflammation were explored. RDW values increased with progressive liver fibrosis and inflammation. After adjustments for other potent predictors, liver fibrosis (moderate–severe) was independently associated with RDW, platelet, and albumin (odds ratio = 1.121, 0.987, and 0.941, respectively), whereas increased odds ratios of significant inflammation were found for RDW, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, and PLT (odds ratio = 1.146, 1.003, 0.927, and 0.990, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of model A were 70.0% and 62.9% for detection of significant liver fibrosis [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.713, P < 0.001]. The sensitivity and specificity of model B were 66.1% and 79.4% for predicting advanced liver inflammation (AUC = 0.765, P < 0.001). Compared with preexisting indicators, model A achieved the highest AUC, whereas model B showed a higher AUC than RDW to platelet ratio (0.670, P < 0.001) and FIB-4 (0.740, P = 0.32). RDW may provide a useful clinical value for predicting liver fibrosis and necroinflammation in hepatitis B-infected patients with other markers. PMID:25761184

  16. Liver cirrhosis in Fontan patients does not affect 1-year post-heart transplant mortality or markers of liver function.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen E; Esmaeeli, Amir; Khanna, Geetika; White, Francis; Turnmelle, Yumirle; Eghtesady, Pirooz; Boston, Umar; Canter, Charles E

    2014-02-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized with long-term follow-up of patients after the Fontan procedure. The effect of liver cirrhosis on the use of heart transplant (HT) and on post-HT outcomes is unknown. We reviewed Fontan patients evaluated for HT from 2004 to 2012 with hepatic computed tomography (CT) imaging, classified as normal, non-cirrhotic changes, or cirrhosis. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was differences in serial post-HT liver evaluation. CT imaging in 32 Fontan patients evaluated for HT revealed 20 (63%) with evidence of liver disease, including 13 (41%) with cirrhosis. Twenty underwent HT, including 5 non-cirrhotic and 7 cirrhosis patients. Characteristics at listing between normal or non-cirrhotic (n = 13) and cirrhosis (n = 7) groups were similar, except cirrhosis patients were older (median 17.6 vs 9.6 years, p = 0.002) and further from Fontan (median 180 vs 50 months, p < 0.05). Serial liver evaluation was similar, including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, and tacrolimus dose at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Overall patient survival was 80% at 1 year, with no difference between cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis patients (86% vs 77%, p = 0.681). Liver biopsies were performed in 7 patients before HT, and all specimens showed architectural changes with bridging fibrosis. Most patients evaluated for HT had abnormal liver findings by CT, with cirrhosis in 41%. One-year mortality and serial liver evaluation were similar between groups after HT. Liver cirrhosis identified by CT imaging may not be an absolute contraindication to HT alone in this population. © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Published by International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  19. Shear wave elastography results correlate with liver fibrosis histology and liver function reserve.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Hong; Hu, Xiang-Dong; Zhai, Lin; Liu, Ji-Bin; Qiu, Lan-Yan; Zu, Yuan; Liang, Si; Gui, Yu; Qian, Lin-Xue

    2016-05-07

    To evaluate the correlation of shear wave elastography (SWE) results with liver fibrosis histology and quantitative function reserve. Weekly subcutaneous injection of 60% carbon tetrachloride (1.5 mL/kg) was given to 12 canines for 24 wk to induce experimental liver fibrosis, with olive oil given to 2 control canines. At 24 wk, liver condition was evaluated using clinical biochemistry assays, SWE imaging, lidocaine metabolite monoethylglycine-xylidide (MEGX) test, and histologic fibrosis grading. Clinical biochemistry assays were performed at the institutional central laboratory for routine liver function evaluation. Liver stiffness was measured in triplicate from three different intercostal spaces and expressed as mean liver stiffness modulus (LSM). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its metabolite MEGX were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography repeated in duplicate. Liver biopsy samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and liver fibrosis was graded using the modified histological activity index Knodell score (F0-F4). Correlations among histologic grading, LSM, and MEGX measures were analyzed with the Pearson linear correlation coefficient. At 24 wk liver fibrosis histologic grading was as follows: F0, n = 2 (control); F1, n = 0; F2, n = 3; F3, n = 7; and F4, n = 2. SWE LSM was positively correlated with histologic grading (r = 0.835, P < 0.001). Specifically, the F4 group had a significantly higher elastic modulus than the F3, F2, and F0 groups (P = 0.002, P = 0.003, and P = 0.006, respectively), and the F3 group also had a significantly higher modulus than the control F0 group (P = 0.039). LSM was negatively associated with plasma MEGX concentrations at 30 min (r = -0.642; P = 0.013) and 60 min (r = -0.651; P = 0.012), time to ½ of the maximum concentration (r = -0.538; P = 0.047), and the area under the curve (r = -0.636; P = 0.014). Multiple comparisons showed identical differences in these three measures: significantly lower with F4 (P

  20. Association between macroscopic appearance of liver lesions and liver histology in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma: 79 cases (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Clendaniel, Daphne C; Sivacolundhu, Ramesh K; Sorenmo, Karin U; Donovan, Taryn A; Turner, Avenelle; Arteaga, Theresa; Bergman, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Medical records for 79 dogs with confirmed splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) following splenectomy were reviewed for information regarding either the presence or absence of macroscopic liver lesions and the histopathological characteristics of the liver. Only 29 of 58 dogs (50%) with grossly abnormal livers had HSA metastasis. No dogs with grossly normal livers had metastasis detected on liver pathology. Gross lesions in the liver such as multiple nodules, dark-colored nodules, and active bleeding nodules were highly associated with malignancy. For the dogs in this study, performing biopsy in a grossly normal liver was a low-yield procedure in dogs with splenic HSA.

  1. A trucut biopsy needle for bipolar radiofrequency ablation of needle tract: a proof-of-concept experiment.

    PubMed

    Bruners, Philipp; Penzkofer, Tobias; Isfort, Peter; Pfeffer, Jochen; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Günther, Rolf W; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2010-08-01

    To develop a trucut biopsy needle featuring two electrodes that allow for bipolar radiofrequency (RF) coagulation of the puncture tract. We modified a 14-G trucut biopsy needle to contain two insulated electrodes and connected the device to an RF generator. Biopsies in ex vivo porcine liver and kidney were performed. The puncture tract was coagulated by using different RF energy settings (5 W, 10 W, 20 W). Tissue specimens were dissected along the puncture tract and the coagulation area was macroscopically evaluated. CT-guided in vivo liver and kidney biopsies were performed in two domestic pigs. Lengths of specimens were measured. Post-biopsy contrast-enhanced CT examinations were performed to rule out biopsy-related bleeding. Animals were euthanised and coagulation areas macroscopically explored. The mean diameters of the coagulated area around the ex vivo biopsy tract were 4.2 +/- 1.1 mm (5 W), 6.0 +/- 2.0 mm (10 W) and 5.2 +/- 0.51 mm (20 W) in liver and 5.0 +/- 0.7 mm (5 W), 6.6 +/- 0.9 (10 W) and 6.0 +/- 2.0 mm (20 W) in kidney. After biopsies CT revealed no bleeding. Mean maximum coagulation diameters were 10.1 +/- 4.6 mm (10 W) in liver and 6.0 +/- 2.5 mm (10 W) in kidney. Mean length of the specimens was 12.2 +/- 4.4 mm in kidney and 11.1 +/- 3.6 mm in liver tissue. Bipolar RF biopsy is a promising tool for tract coagulation after percutaneous biopsy.

  2. A haptic unit designed for magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tse, Z T H; Elhawary, H; Rea, M; Young, I; Davis, B L; Lamperth, M

    2009-02-01

    The magnetic fields present in the magnetic resonance (MR) environment impose severe constraints on any mechatronic device present in its midst, requiring alternative actuators, sensors, and materials to those conventionally used in traditional system engineering. In addition the spatial constraints of closed-bore scanners require a physical separation between the radiologist and the imaged region of the patient. This configuration produces a loss of the sense of touch from the target anatomy for the clinician, which often provides useful information. To recover the force feedback from the tissue, an MR-compatible haptic unit, designed to be integrated with a five-degrees-of-freedom mechatronic system for MR-guided prostate biopsy, has been developed which incorporates position control and force feedback to the operator. The haptic unit is designed to be located inside the scanner isocentre with the master console in the control room. MR compatibility of the device has been demonstrated, showing a negligible degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio and virtually no geometric distortion. By combining information from the position encoder and force sensor, tissue stiffness measurement along the needle trajectory is demonstrated in a lamb liver to aid diagnosis of suspected cancerous tissue.

  3. Comparison of nine blood tests and transient elastography for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C: the ANRS HCEP-23 study.

    PubMed

    Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Guechot, Jérôme; Paris, Adeline; Zafrani, Elie-Serge; Asselah, Tarik; Boisson, Renée-Claude; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Guyader, Dominique; Renversez, Jean-Charles; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Tran, Albert; Trocme, Candice; De Ledinghen, Victor; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Poujol-Robert, Armelle; Ziegler, Frédéric; Bourliere, Marc; Voitot, Hélène; Larrey, Dominique; Rosenthal-Allieri, Maria Alessandra; Fouchard Hubert, Isabelle; Bailly, François; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Blood tests and transient elastography (Fibroscan™) have been developed as alternatives to liver biopsy. This ANRS HCEP-23 study compared the diagnostic accuracy of nine blood tests and transient elastography (Fibroscan™) to assess liver fibrosis, vs. liver biopsy, in untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). This was a multicentre prospective independent study in 19 French University hospitals of consecutive adult patients having simultaneous liver biopsy, biochemical blood tests (performed in a centralized laboratory) and Fibroscan™. Two experienced pathologists independently reviewed the liver biopsies (mean length=25±8.4 mm). Performance was assessed using ROC curves corrected by Obuchowski's method. Fibroscan™ was not interpretable in 113 (22%) patients. In the 382 patients having both blood tests and interpretable Fibroscan™, Fibroscan™ performed similarly to the best blood tests for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Obuchowski's measure showed Fibrometer® (0.86), Fibrotest® (0.84), Hepascore® (0.84), and interpretable Fibroscan™ (0.84) to be the most accurate tests. The combination of Fibrotest®, Fibrometer®, or Hepascore® with Fibroscan™ or Apri increases the percentage of well classified patients from 70-73% to 80-83% for significant fibrosis, but for cirrhosis a combination offers no improvement. For the 436 patients having all the blood tests, AUROC's ranged from 0.82 (Fibrometer®) to 0.75 (Hyaluronate) for significant fibrosis, and from 0.89 (Fibrometer® and Hepascore®) to 0.83 (FIB-4) for cirrhosis. Contrarily to blood tests, performance of Fibroscan™ was reduced due to uninterpretable results. Fibrotest®, interpretable Fibroscan™, Fibrometer®, and Hepascore® perform best and similarly for diagnosis of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High frequency of X chromosome abnormalities in women with short stature and elevated liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Roulot, Dominique; Malan, Valérie; Ziol, Marianne; Linglart, Agnès; Bourcier, Valérie; Beaugrand, Michel; Benzacken, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    Paucisymptomatic forms of Turner's syndrome (TS), in which short stature is the predominant clinical abnormality, remain underdiagnosed. Abnormal liver tests are extremely frequent in adult TS patients reflecting various types of hepatic lesions. The objective of the study was to investigate whether unexplained elevated liver enzymes in women with short stature could reveal X chromosome abnormalities of undiagnosed TS. Thirty-one consecutive short stature women displaying elevated liver enzymes and no previous diagnosis of TS were compared with 31 age-matched controls in a prospective study. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 patients. Systematic karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. X chromosome abnormalities were found in 27 patients and one control (87.0% vs 3.2%, P < .0001), including a 45,X/46,XX mosaicism in 24 patients and isochromosome of the long arm in three. Liver histological analysis showed architectural changes in 17 patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia in 12. Biliary lesions were present in 13 patients and liver steatosis in 20. X chromosome abnormalities indicative of cryptic TS are extremely frequent in short-stature women with unexplained elevated liver enzymes. In short-stature women, abnormal liver tests should lead to systematic karyotype analysis.

  5. Validity criteria for the diagnosis of fatty liver by M probe-based controlled attenuation parameter.

    PubMed

    Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Petta, Salvatore; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Cammà, Calogero; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Marra, Fabio; Vergniol, Julien; Chan, Anthony Wing-Hung; Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Merrouche, Wassil; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Le Bail, Brigitte; Arena, Umberto; Craxì, Antonio; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) can be performed together with liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography (TE) and is often used to diagnose fatty liver. We aimed to define the validity criteria of CAP. CAP was measured by the M probe prior to liver biopsy in 754 consecutive patients with different liver diseases at three centers in Europe and Hong Kong (derivation cohort, n=340; validation cohort, n=414; 101 chronic hepatitis B, 154 chronic hepatitis C, 349 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 37 autoimmune hepatitis, 49 cholestatic liver disease, 64 others; 277 F3-4; age 52±14; body mass index 27.2±5.3kg/m 2 ). The primary outcome was the diagnosis of fatty liver, defined as steatosis involving ≥5% of hepatocytes. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUROC) for CAP diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88). The interquartile range (IQR) of CAP had a negative correlation with CAP (r=-0.32, p<0.001), suggesting the IQR-to-median ratio of CAP would be an inappropriate validity parameter. In the derivation cohort, the IQR of CAP was associated with the accuracy of CAP (AUROC 0.86, 0.89 and 0.76 in patients with IQR of CAP <20 [15% of patients], 20-39 [51%], and ≥40dB/m [33%], respectively). Likewise, the AUROC of CAP in the validation cohort was 0.90 and 0.77 in patients with IQR of CAP <40 and ≥40dB/m, respectively (p=0.004). The accuracy of CAP in detecting grade 2 and 3 steatosis was lower among patients with body mass index ≥30kg/m 2 and F3-4 fibrosis. The validity of CAP for the diagnosis of fatty liver is lower if the IQR of CAP is ≥40dB/m. Lay summary: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is measured by transient elastography (TE) for the detection of fatty liver. In this large study, using liver biopsy as a reference, we show that the variability of CAP measurements based on its interquartile range can reflect the accuracy of fatty liver diagnosis. In contrast, other clinical factors such

  6. Liquid Biopsy in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lousada-Fernandez, Fatima; Rapado-Gonzalez, Oscar; Lopez-Cedrun, Jose-Luis; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes

    2018-06-08

    Oral cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer worldwide. Carcinogenesis is a complex process, in which heterogeneity plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease. This review provides an overview of the current biological and clinical significance of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), and exosomes for diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. We highlight the importance of liquid biopsy—using blood and saliva—which represents a potential alternative to solid biopsy for diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, liquid biomarkers allow for the real-time monitoring of tumour evolution and therapeutic responses, initiating the era of personalized medicine. However, in oral cancer, the impact of liquid biopsies in clinical settings is still limited, requiring further studies to discover the best scenario for its clinical use.

  7. Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  8. In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spliethoff, Jarich W.; de Boer, Lisanne L.; Meier, Mark A. J.; Prevoo, Warner; de Jong, Jeroen; Kuhlmann, Koert; Bydlon, Torre M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Hendriks, Benno H. W.; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2016-09-01

    There is a strong need to develop clinical instruments that can perform rapid tissue assessment at the tip of smart clinical instruments for a variety of oncological applications. This study presents the first in vivo real-time tissue characterization during 24 liver biopsy procedures using diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy at the tip of a core biopsy needle with integrated optical fibers. DR measurements were performed along each needle path, followed by biopsy of the target lesion using the same needle. Interventional imaging was coregistered with the DR spectra. Pathology results were compared with the DR spectroscopy data at the final measurement position. Bile was the primary discriminator between normal liver tissue and tumor tissue. Relative differences in bile content matched with the tissue diagnosis based on histopathological analysis in all 24 clinical cases. Continuous DR measurements during needle insertion in three patients showed that the method can also be applied for biopsy guidance or tumor recognition during surgery. This study provides an important validation step for DR spectroscopy-based tissue characterization in the liver. Given the feasibility of the outlined approach, it is also conceivable to make integrated fiber-optic tools for other clinical procedures that rely on accurate instrument positioning.

  9. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  10. Breast Biopsy: The Effects of Hypnosis and Music.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Arnoldo; Sánchez-Jáuregui, Teresa; Juárez-García, Dehisy M; García-Solís, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacies of audio-recorded hypnosis with background music and music without hypnosis in the reduction of emotional and physical disturbances in patients scheduled for breast biopsy in comparison with a control group. A total of 75 patients were randomly assigned to 3 different groups and evaluated at baseline and before and after breast biopsy using visual analog scales of stress, pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, optimism, and general well-being. The results showed that, before breast biopsy, the music group presented less stress and anxiety, whereas the hypnosis with music group presented reduced stress, anxiety, and depression and increased optimism and general well-being. After the biopsy, the music group presented less anxiety and pain, whereas the hypnosis group showed less anxiety and increased optimism.

  11. Myositis with antimitochondrial antibodies diagnosed by rectus abdominis muscle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Uenaka, Takeshi; Kowa, Hisatomo; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nagata, Kakuya; Ohtsuka, Yoshihisa; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2013-05-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies are autoantibodies detected in 90% of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients. Some PBC cases are complicated by myositis, which is difficult to confirm due to minimal histological evidence of inflammation in limb muscles. Our aim was to determine the extent of inflammatory changes in a truncal muscle biopsy specimen from a PBC patient. A 48-year-old woman with a 5-year history of atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure was evaluated for elevated serum creatine kinase level. Antimitochondrial M2 antibodies were detected, and PBC was diagnosed. A biceps brachii biopsy specimen showed mild, non-specific myogenic changes; a second biopsy was performed on the rectus abdominis muscle, which showed typical inflammatory changes. Myositis with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies was confirmed. In myositis patients with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies, muscles of the extremities are involved to a lesser extent. Radiological and histological examination focusing on truncal muscles, including a biopsy, is important. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Serum endocan levels in patients with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Duran; Ekiz, Fuat; Basar, Omer; Coban, Sahin; Ozturk, Gulfer

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Early detection of fibrosis should be the main goal of treatment in liver cirrhosis. Endocan, previously called endothelial cell specific molecule-1, is expressed by endothelial cells, primarily in the lung, liver and kidney. In this study, we aimed to examine the correlation of liver fibrosis stage, histological activity and grade of steatosis between serum levels of endocan in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study includes a total of 146 subjects. 55 CHB patients, 19 CHC patients, 38 NAFLD patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled consecutively. Liver biopsies were performed in all patients with chronic viral hepatitis. NAFLD patients had either grade 2 or grade 3 steatosis on ultrasonography and elevated liver enzymes above the upper normal limits. Serum endocan levels were assessed from blood samples obtained at admission. Results: Gender distribution was similar among the groups (p=0.056). The mean age of the CHB patients was 45.8±12.1, CHC patients was 55.0±12.8 years, NAFLD patients was 42.8±10.8, while control group was 39.4±13.6 years old. Patients with CHC were older than all the others (p=0.001). Serum endocan levels were statistically significantly lower in CHB, CHC and NAFLD groups when compared with controls. Although levels of endocan were lower in CHB and CHC groups when compared with NAFLD group, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Serum endocan concentrations decrease in patients with liver disease. Unlike previous studies, we showed a negative correlation between endocan levels and inflammation stage of chronic hepatitis. However, further studies are needed to establish the association between endocan levels, liver fibrosis and hepatic inflammation. PMID:25126183

  13. Electromagnetic-Tracked Biopsy under Ultrasound Guidance: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hakime, Antoine, E-mail: thakime@yahoo.com; Deschamps, Frederic; Marques De Carvalho, Enio Garcia

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and safety of electromagnetic needle tracking for sonographically guided percutaneous liver biopsies. Methods: We performed 23 consecutive ultrasound-guided liver biopsies for liver nodules with an electromagnetic tracking of the needle. A sensor placed at the tip of a sterile stylet (18G) inserted in a coaxial guiding trocar (16G) used for biopsy was localized in real time relative to the ultrasound imaging plane, thanks to an electromagnetic transmitter and two sensors on the ultrasound probe. This allows for electronic display of the needle tip location and the future needle path overlaid onmore » the real-time ultrasound image. Distance between needle tip position and its electronic display, number of needle punctures, number of needle pull backs for redirection, technical success (needle positioned in the target), diagnostic success (correct histopathology result), procedure time, and complication were evaluated according to lesion sizes, depth and location, operator experience, and 'in-plane' or 'out-of-plane' needle approach. Results: Electronic display was always within 2 mm from the real position of the needle tip. The technical success rate was 100%. A single needle puncture without repuncture was used in all patients. Pull backs were necessary in six patients (26%) to obtain correct needle placement. The overall diagnostic success rate was 91%. The overall true-positive, true-negative, false-negative, and failure rates of the biopsy were 100% (19/19) 100% (2/2), 0% (0/23), and 9% (2/23). The median total procedure time from the skin puncture to the needle in the target was 30 sec (from 5-60 s). Lesion depth and localizations, operator experience, in-plane or out-of-plane approach did not affect significantly the technical, diagnostic success, or procedure time. Even when the tumor size decreased, the procedure time did not increase. Conclusions: Electromagnetic-tracked biopsy is accurate to

  14. Toxocariasis masquerading as liver and lung metastatic nodules in patents with gastrointestinal cancer: clinicopathologic study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghui; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Yu Jin; Kyung, Sun Young; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2012-01-01

    There are sporadic reports in the literature in which radiologic liver and lung lesions found incidentally during follow-up metastatic surveillance were shown to be caused by toxocariasis. The objective of the work discussed in this report was to identify common clinical and histopathological features of toxocariasis resembling metastatic nodules in five patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features of five gastrointestinal cancer patients with liver or lung nodules mimicking metastasis. Serologic tests for parasitic infestations and pathologic examinations were performed. All five patients were males and three patients had gastric cancer and two had colorectal cancer. All the cases of toxocariasis were confirmed serologically. On follow-up imaging, the lesions improved or resolved, suggestive of the phenomenon of visceral larva migrans. In two patients, liver biopsy was performed and showed eosinophilic abscess. Serologic tests and liver or lung biopsy should be performed aggressively to exclude toxocariasis when patients with underlying gastrointestinal cancer present with hepatic or pulmonary nodules associated with eosinophilia, particularly if the patients have a clinical history of raw animal liver ingestion. Curative surgical intervention should not be excluded just because of multiple nodules in the liver or the lungs.

  15. Liver transplantation for metastatic liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Foss, Aksel; Lerut, Jan P

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a validated treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumours. Over the last decade, a renewed interest for liver transplantation as a curative treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CR-LM) and neuro-endocrine metastasis (NET-LM) has developed. The ELTR and UNOS analyses showed that liver transplantation may offer excellent disease-free survival (ranging from 30 to 77%) in case of NET-LM, on the condition that stringent selection criteria are implemented. The interest for liver transplantation in the treatment of CR-LM has been fostered by the Norwegian SECA study. Five-year A 5-year survival rate of 60% could be reached. Despite the high recurrence rate (90%), one-third of patients were disease free following pulmonary surgery for metastases. Liver transplantation will take a more prominent place in the therapeutic algorithm of CR-LM and NET-LM. Larger experiences are necessary to improve knowledge about tumour biology and to refine selection criteria. A multimodal approach adding neo and adjuvant medical treatment to the transplant procedure will be key to bring this oncologic transplant project into the clinical arena. The preserved liver function in these patients will allow a more deliberate access to split liver and living donation for these indications.

  16. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  17. Histological scoring and associated risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Majid, N; Ali, Z; Rahman, M R; Akhter, A; Rajib, R C; Ahmad, F; Sharmin, S; Akond, A K; Huq, N

    2013-10-01

    Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is a hepatic disorder with histological features of alcohol induced liver disease that occurs in individual who do not consume significant alcohol. Liver biopsy is an important part of the evaluation in term of both grade & stage. A cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Pathology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka & department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from July 2007 to June 2009. Total 55 adult subjects of both sex were included on the basis of predefined inclusion & exclusion criteria in this study to evaluate the histological pattern of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its correlation with risk factors. Liver biopsy was done and H & E and Masson's Trichrome stain slides were examined to evaluate the grade and stage of NAFLD. Scoring and semiquantitative assessment of steatosis and NAFLD severity was done according to Kleiner scale known as NAFLD activity score (NAS). The results of Pearson correlation showed only BMI and triglyceride level significantly correlated with NAS score. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that BMI, central obesity, triglyceridaemia and age significantly correlated with staging of fibrosis. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that variation of NAS depend on BMI and triglyceride level. The study also revealed that risk factors contributed about 29% risk for the occurrence of non alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  18. Quantification of Liver Fat with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Scott B.; Sirlin, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular fat accumulation is common feature of liver disease. Intracellular fat (steatosis) is the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but also may occur with alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies, and chemotherapy. This article reviews emerging magnetic resonance imaging techniques that attempt to quantify liver fat. The content provides an overview of fatty liver disease and diseases where fat is an important disease feature. Also discussed is the current use and limitation of non-targeted biopsy in diffuse liver disease, and why quantitative non-invasive biomarkers of liver fat would be beneficial. PMID:21094444

  19. Improved clinicopathologic assessments of acute liver damage due to trauma in Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis).

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan M; Holthaus, Lisa; Barron, Heather Wilson; Divers, Stephen J; McBride, Michael; Almy, Frederic; Bush, Sharon; Latimer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-01

    Increased activities of certain biochemical enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) have been associated with blunt liver injury in many species. To evaluate changes in plasma hepatic biochemical parameters in acute avian liver disease caused by trauma and to compare biochemical changes with histologic lesions in hepatic parenchyma, 30 healthy fasted Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) were divided into 2 groups, and traumatic liver injury was caused by endoscopic liver biopsy (group 1) or by liver biopsy and crushing injury to the hepatic parenchyma with endoscopic forceps (group 2) in anesthetized birds. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, and 120 hours in alternate groups to compare analyte values after injury with those at baseline. Results showed consistently decreased plasma ALP activity (excluding 1 time point) throughout the study, which was thought to be associated with isoflurane administration. Plasma glutamate dehydrogenase activity initially increased but rapidly declined thereafter and was attributed to acute focal hepatocellular injury. In both groups, increases in plasma AST, ALT, and LDH activities was most likely caused by muscle injury because creatine kinase activity was concurrently increased. Compared with baseline values, bile acid concentration and y-glutamyl transferase activity were not affected by liver biopsy or crush injury. Plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was the most specific indicator of liver injury in both groups. Histologic changes correlated poorly with biochemical results, possibly because the small area of hepatic parenchyma that was damaged did not affect enzyme values substantially.

  20. Incidence and Severity of Acute Cellular Rejection in Recipients Undergoing Adult Living Donor or Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation123

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Abraham; Ghobrial, R. Mark; Merion, Robert M.; Shearon, Tempie H.; Emond, Jean C.; Fair, Jeffrey H.; Fisher, Robert A.; Kulik, Laura M.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2013-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) may have better immunological outcomes compared to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) after LDLT and DDLT. Data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation (A2ALL) Retrospective Cohort Study on 593 liver transplants done between May 1998 and March 2004 were studied (380 LDLT; 213 DDLT). Median LDLT and DDLT follow-up was 778 and 713 days, respectively. Rates of clinically treated and biopsy-proven ACR were compared. There were 174 (46%) LDLT and 80 (38%) DDLT recipients with ≥1 clinically treated episodes of ACR, whereas 103 (27%) LDLT and 58 (27%) DDLT recipients had ≥1 biopsy-proven ACR episode. A higher proportion of LDLT recipients had clinically treated ACR (P=0.052), but this difference was largely attributable to one center. There were similar proportions of biopsy-proven rejection (P=0.97) and graft loss due to rejection (P=0.16). Longer cold ischemia time was associated with a higher rate of ACR in both groups despite much shorter median cold ischemia time in LDLT. These data do not show an immunological advantage for LDLT, and therefore do not support the application of unique post-transplant immunosuppression protocols for LDLT recipients. PMID:19120082

  1. Interobserver Variability in Histologic Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Using Categorical and Quantitative Scores.

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Michael; Birks, Jacqueline; Fryer, Eve; Delaney, David; Sarania, Nikita; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Neubauer, Stefan; Barnes, Eleanor; Fleming, Kenneth A; Wang, Lai Mun

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the interobserver agreement for categorical and quantitative scores of liver fibrosis. Sixty-five consecutive biopsy specimens from patients with mixed liver disease etiologies were assessed by three pathologists using the Ishak and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) scoring systems, and the fibrosis area (collagen proportionate area [CPA]) was estimated by visual inspection (visual-CPA). A subset of 20 biopsy specimens was analyzed using digital imaging analysis (DIA) for the measurement of CPA (DIA-CPA). The bivariate weighted κ between any two pathologists ranged from 0.57 to 0.67 for Ishak staging and from 0.47 to 0.57 for the NASH CRN staging. Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between all possible pathologist pairings for visual-CPA but good agreement between all pathologist pairings for DIA-CPA. There was good agreement between the two pathologists who assessed biopsy specimens by visual-CPA and DIA-CPA. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which is equivalent to the κ statistic for continuous variables, was 0.78 for visual-CPA and 0.97 for DIA-CPA. These results suggest that DIA-CPA is the most robust method for assessing liver fibrosis followed by visual-CPA. Categorical scores perform less well than both the quantitative CPA scores assessed here. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Influence of vitamin D on liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the pooled clinical trials data.

    PubMed

    Dadabhai, Alia S; Saberi, Behnam; Lobner, Katie; Shinohara, Russell T; Mullin, Gerard E

    2017-02-18

    To investigate the relationship between vitamin D and liver fibrosis in hepatitis C-monoinfected or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Pertinent studies were located by a library literature search in PubMed/Embase/Cochrane/Scopus/LILACS by two individual reviewers. Inclusion criteria: (1) studies with patients with HCV or co-infected HCV/HIV; (2) studies with patients ≥ 18 years old; (3) studies that evaluated liver fibrosis stage, only based on liver biopsy; and (4) studies that reported serum or plasma 25(OH)D levels. Studies that included pediatric patients, other etiologies of liver disease, or did not use liver biopsy for fibrosis evaluation, or studies with inadequate data were excluded. Estimated measures of association reported in the literature, as well as corresponding measures of uncertainty, were recorded and corresponding odds ratios with 95%CI were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled data of this systematic review showed that 9 of the 12 studies correlated advanced liver disease defined as a Metavir value of F3/4 with 25(OH) D level insufficiency. The meta-analysis indicated a significant association across studies. Low vitamin D status is common in chronic Hepatitis C patients and is associated with advanced liver fibrosis.

  3. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Feldman M, Lee EL. Gastritis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ... Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 10th ed. ...

  4. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Palle; Bredahl, Erik; Lauritsen, Ove; Laursen, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    Petersen, P., Bredahl, E., Lauritsen, O., and Laursen, T. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 141-146. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellants. Personnel working with liquid rocket propellants were subjected to routine health examinations, including liver function tests, as the propellant, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is potentially toxic to the liver. In 46 persons the concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) were raised. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 of these men; 6 specimens were pathological (fatty degeneration), 5 were uncertain, and 15 were normal. All 6 pathological biopsies were from patients with a raised SGPT at the time of biopsy. Of the 15 persons with a normal liver biopsy, 14 had a normal SGPT, while one (who was an alcoholic) had a raised SGPT. The connection between SGPT and histology of the liver, as well as the possible causal relation between the pathological findings and exposure to UDMH, is discussed. Images PMID:5428632

  5. Transjugular Renal Biopsy: Our Experience and Technical Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    See, Teik Choon, E-mail: teikchoon.see@addenbrookes.nhs.u; Thompson, Barbara C.; Howie, Alexander J.

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failedmore » percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the

  6. Room-temperature susceptometry predicts biopsy-determined hepatic iron in patients with elevated serum ferritin.

    PubMed

    Maliken, Bryan D; Avrin, William F; Nelson, James E; Mooney, Jody; Kumar, Sankaran; Kowdley, Kris V

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing clinical need for novel methods to measure hepatic iron content (HIC) noninvasively. Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) methods have previously shown promise for estimation of HIC, but these methods can be expensive and are not widely available. Room-temperature susceptometry (RTS) represents an inexpensive alternative and was previously found to be strongly correlated with HIC estimated by SQUID measurements among patients with transfusional iron overload related to thalassemia. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationship between RTS and biochemical HIC measured in liver biopsy specimens in a more varied patient cohort. Susceptometry was performed in a diverse group of patients with hyperferritinemia due to hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) (n = 2), secondary iron overload (n = 3), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 2), and chronic viral hepatitis (n = 3) within one month of liver biopsy in the absence of iron depletion therapy. The correlation coefficient between HIC estimated by susceptometry and by biochemical iron measurement in liver tissue was 0.71 (p = 0.022). Variance between liver iron measurement and susceptometry measurement was primarily related to reliance on the patient's body-mass index (BMI) to estimate the magnetic susceptibility of tissue overlying the liver. We believe RTS holds promise for noninvasive measurement of HIC. Improved measurement techniques, including more accurate overlayer correction, may further improve the accuracy of liver susceptometry in patients with liver disease.

  7. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): impact of endoscopy and biopsy on health, testicular morphology, and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Histologic examination of a testicular biopsy sample may be required to evaluate the reproductive status of male psittacine birds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of testicular sampling from live birds by assessing the impact on the birds' health, testicular integrity, and sperm quality. Testicular biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopy 4 times during 12 months from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri). Only 2 of 16 birds showed testicular cicatrization or divided testicular tissue after a single endoscopy. Further complications, such as damage to the air sacs or bleeding, predominantly occurred in subsequent endoscopies. In both species, endoscopy and testicular biopsy caused only minor or transient effects on sperm production and sperm quality. These results support that a single testicular biopsy is a viable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male psittacine birds.

  8. CT-guided transthoracic needle biopsy: a comparison between automated biopsy gun and fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, H; Nakajima, Y; Kurihara, Y; Niimi, H; Ishikawa, T

    1996-07-01

    We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic accuracy and complication rate of transthoracic core biopsy using an automated biopsy gun and compared the findings with those of aspiration needle biopsy. Seventy-three patients underwent 74 core biopsy procedures and 50 patients underwent 52 aspiration biopsy procedures. Of these, a final diagnosis was obtained in 107 lesions with surgery or clinical course. Fifteen patients in which a final diagnosis was not obtained were excluded from the study on diagnostic accuracy. Thus, in the study of diagnostic accuracy, 63 core biopsy procedures for 62 lesions are included. Core biopsy was performed with an 18 G cutting needle using an automated biopsy gun. Aspiration biopsy was performed with a 20 G aspiration needle. Core biopsy yielded sufficient material in 57/63 procedures (90.5%). A correct diagnosis was obtained in 36 procedures (85.7%) for malignant leisons and a specific benign diagnosis was obtained in 11 procedures (52.4%). Aspiration biopsy yielded a correct diagnosis in 26 procedures (81.3%) for malignant leisons and in seven (46.7%) for benign lesions. The overall correct diagnosis were 75.8% and 71.7% with core biopsy and aspiration biopsy, respectively. Core biopsy gave a higher predictive rate than that of aspiration biopsy for both benign and malignant lessons (P < 0.02). Pneumothorax occurred in 18/74 (24.3%) patients with core biopsy and in 18/45 (40.0%) patients with aspiration biopsy. Of these, three with core biopsy and two with aspiration biopsy needed tube drainage. The other complication was haemoptysis, which occurred in six patients following core biopsy and in three after aspiration biopsy. All nine cases subsided spontaneously. There were no fatal complications. Core biopsy with a biopsy gun increase the diagnostic accuracy with a higher histologic predictive rate and no obvious additional risk of complications.

  9. GH administration rescues fatty liver regeneration impairment by restoring GH/EGFR pathway deficiency.

    PubMed

    Collin de l'Hortet, A; Zerrad-Saadi, A; Prip-Buus, C; Fauveau, V; Helmy, N; Ziol, M; Vons, C; Billot, K; Baud, V; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    GH pathway has been shown to play a major role in liver regeneration through the control of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. This pathway is down-regulated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Because regeneration is known to be impaired in fatty livers, we wondered whether a deregulation of the GH/EGFR pathway could explain this deficiency. Hepatic EGFR expression and triglyceride levels were quantified in liver biopsies of 32 obese patients with different degrees of steatosis. We showed a significant inverse correlation between liver EGFR expression and the level of hepatic steatosis. GH/EGFR down-regulation was also demonstrated in 2 steatosis mouse models, a genetic (ob/ob) and a methionine and choline-deficient diet mouse model, in correlation with liver regeneration defect. ob/ob mice exhibited a more severe liver regeneration defect after partial hepatectomy (PH) than methionine and choline-deficient diet-fed mice, a difference that could be explained by a decrease in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation 32 hours after PH. Having checked that GH deficiency accounted for the GH signaling pathway down-regulation in the liver of ob/ob mice, we showed that GH administration in these mice led to a partial rescue in hepatocyte proliferation after PH associated with a concomitant restoration of liver EGFR expression and signal transducer and activator of trnascription 3 activation. In conclusion, we propose that the GH/EGFR pathway down-regulation is a general mechanism responsible for liver regeneration deficiency associated with steatosis, which could be partially rescued by GH administration.

  10. HCV-RNA quantification in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, using the abbott RealTime HCV assay.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, FrancescoPaolo; Cento, Valeria; Sorbo, Maria Chiara; Manuelli, Matteo Ciancio; Lenci, Ilaria; Sforza, Daniele; Di Carlo, Domenico; Milana, Martina; Manzia, Tommaso Maria; Angelico, Mario; Tisone, Giuseppe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the performance of a rapid method to quantify HCV-RNA in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments, by using for the first time the Abbott RealTime HCV-assay. Non-tumoral (NT), tumoral (TT) liver samples, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid from patients undergoing orthotopic-liver-transplantation (N=18) or liver resection (N=4) were used for the HCV-RNA quantification; 5/22 patients were tested after or during direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment. Total RNA and DNA quantification from tissue-biopsies allowed normalization of HCV-RNA concentrations in IU/μg of total RNA and IU/10 6 liver-cells, respectively. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver biopsies, lymph nodes and ascitic fluid samples. Among the 17 untreated patients, a positive and significant HCV-RNA correlation between serum and NT liver-samples was observed (Pearson: rho=0.544, p=0.024). Three DAA-treated patients were HCV-RNA "undetectable" in serum, but still "detectable" in all tested liver-tissues. Differently, only one DAA-treated patient, tested after sustained-virological-response, showed HCV-RNA "undetectability" in liver-tissue. HCV-RNA was successfully quantified with high reliability in liver bioptic samples and extrahepatic compartments, even when HCV-RNA was "undetectable" in serum. Abbott RealTime HCV-assay is a good diagnostic tool for HCV quantification in intra- and extra-hepatic compartments, whenever a bioptic sample is available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Current Status and Problems of T790M Detection, a Molecular Biomarker of Acquired Resistance to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, with Liquid Biopsy and Re-biopsy.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kazutoshi; Nakashima, Chiho; Nakamura, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Haruki; Abe, Tomonori; Ogusu, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Koichiro; Takeda, Yuji; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Shinya; Sueoka-Aragane, Naoko

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider appropriate application of liquid and re-biopsy through analysis of current status in practice. We performed a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer who exhibited 1st/2nd generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance. The cobas® method was used to detect T790M with re-biopsy and the mutation-biased PCR and quenched probe method was used with liquid biopsy. T790M detection rate was 52% with re-biopsy and 58% with liquid biopsy. The concordance between tissue and plasma was 58%. One patient who was T790M-positive with liquid biopsy showed heterogeneity among metastatic lesions in terms of osimertinib efficacy, as revealed by T790M detection with re-biopsy. Liquid biopsy reflects the whole body, whereas re-biopsy is useful for spatial diagnosis. Considering these characteristics, a combination of liquid and re-biopsy contribute to enhanced treatment. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  13. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  14. [Lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver].

    PubMed

    Valdivielso Córtazar, E; Yáñez López, J A; Yáñez Gónzalez-Dopeso, L; Diz-Lois Palomares, M; González Conde, B; Alonso Aguirre, P

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a middle-aged woman with antecedents of cholecystectomy and several episodes of resi-dual coledocolitiasis resolved endoscopically. She attended Emergency Services due to a new clinical picture of abdo-minal pain and alteration of hepatic enzymes. Image tests showed lesions that suggested hepatic abscesses without ruling out a malign origin. Given this doubt it was decided to carry out a thick needle biopsy obtaining a diagnosis of an inflammatory pseudotumour of the liver related to IgG4-related disease. This is an infrequent entity but must be taken into consideration because - unlike malign pathology, which is the main differential diagnosis - its behaviour is benign, with a good evolution with medical treatment. That is why a suitable diagnosis is vital to avoid aggressive, diagnostic-therapeutic procedures.

  15. Morphometric investigations on the portal tracts of the liver, the differentiation of variable progression in chronic persistent hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Volmer, J; Lüders, C J

    1981-01-01

    Morphometric investigations were carried out on the portal tracts of the liver in different forms of chronic hepatitis. The investigation groups each contained 25 liver biopsies, which were subdivided into cases with normal liver, a subsiding acute virus hepatitis, three different forms of chronic persistent hepatitis (CPH) and chronic aggressive hepatitis type IIa (CAH IIa). Determinations of the volume and surface of the portal tracts and their components enabled three forms of COH (type Ia, Ib, Ic) to be characterised. Preliminary clinical and semiquantitative histological investigations were correlated with a significant difference in the histological characteristics and prognosis. HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative cases showed no significant morphologically detectable differences in all grups investigated. Morphometry is suitable for investigation of pathological changes in liver tissue, especially the portal tracts.

  16. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  17. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  18. Liver fibrosis alleviation after co-transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells with mesenchymal stem cells in patients with thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Hashemi Taheri, Amir Pejman; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Pashaiefar, Hossein; Jalili, Mahdi; Shahi, Farhad; Jahani, Mohammad; Yaghmaie, Marjan

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study are to determine the replacement rate of damaged hepatocytes by donor-derived cells in sex-mismatched recipient patients with thalassemia major and to determine whether co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can alleviate liver fibrosis. Ten sex-mismatched donor-recipient pairs who received co-transplantation of HSCs with mesenchymal stem cells were included in our study. Liver biopsy was performed before transplantation. Two other liver biopsies were performed between 2 and 5 years after transplantation. The specimens were studied for the presence of donor-derived epithelial cells or hepatocytes using fluorescence in situ hybridization by X- and Y-centromeric probes and immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin, CD45, and a hepatocyte-specific antigen. All sex-mismatched tissue samples demonstrated donor-derived hepatocyte independent of donor gender. XY-positive epithelial cells or hepatocytes accounted for 11 to 25% of the cells in histologic sections of female recipients in the first follow-up. It rose to 47-95% in the second follow-up. Although not statistically significant, four out of ten patients showed signs of improvement in liver fibrosis. Our results showed that co-transplantation of HSC with mesenchymal stem cells increases the rate of replacement of recipient hepatocytes by donor-derived cells and may improve liver fibrosis.

  19. Liver transplantation for HBsAg-positive recipients using grafts from HBsAg-positive deceased donors.

    PubMed

    Choi, YoungRok; Choi, Jong Young; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kyoungbun; Mori, Shozo; Hong, Geun; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Yoo, Tae; Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2013-12-01

    This study reports our experience using deceased donor liver grafts from HBsAg-positive donors. We performed eight cases of liver transplantation (LT) using grafts from deceased HBsAg-positive donors between November 2005 and October 2010. The median age of donors was 48 years (range: 26-64). HBV DNA in the serum of donors ranged from 44 to 395 IU/ml, but HBeAg in all donors was negative. Preoperative laboratory and liver biopsy samples revealed the absence of definitive cirrhotic features and hepatitis. All recipients showed HBsAg positive preoperatively except one patient with HBsAg(-) status post previous LT for HBV related liver cirrhosis. The median age was 60 years (range: 46-76) at LT. Post-LT antiviral management consisted of hepatitis B immunoglobulin and antiviral nucleos(t)ide analogues. The median follow-up period was 25.5 months (range: 14-82). Of eight recipients, two recipients experienced serum HBsAg and HBV DNA disappearance postoperatively. Three recipients died of HBV-unrelated causes. The remaining five recipients were stable with normal liver function and no marked pathologic changes on follow-up biopsies. This experience shows that LT using grafts from deceased HBsAg-positive donors is feasible, and may represent a valuable expansion of the pool of organ donors with appropriate antiviral management and monitoring. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantification of liver fibrosis via second harmonic imaging of the Glisson's capsule from liver surface.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuoyu; Kang, Chiang Huen; Gou, Xiaoli; Peng, Qiwen; Yan, Jie; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Cheng, Chee Leong; He, Yuting; Kang, Yuzhan; Xia, Wuzheng; So, Peter T C; Welsch, Roy; Rajapakse, Jagath C; Yu, Hanry

    2016-04-01

    Liver surface is covered by a collagenous layer called the Glisson's capsule. The structure of the Glisson's capsule is barely seen in the biopsy samples for histology assessment, thus the changes of the collagen network from the Glisson's capsule during the liver disease progression are not well studied. In this report, we investigated whether non-linear optical imaging of the Glisson's capsule at liver surface would yield sufficient information to allow quantitative staging of liver fibrosis. In contrast to conventional tissue sections whereby tissues are cut perpendicular to the liver surface and interior information from the liver biopsy samples were used, we have established a capsule index based on significant parameters extracted from the second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy images of capsule collagen from anterior surface of rat livers. Thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver fibrosis animal models was used in this study. The capsule index is capable of differentiating different fibrosis stages, with area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) up to 0.91, making it possible to quantitatively stage liver fibrosis via liver surface imaging potentially with endomicroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Biopsies

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking, including blood thinners such as aspirin and herbal supplements, and whether you have any allergies – especially to ... doctor all medications that you are taking, including herbal supplements, and if you have any allergies, especially to ...

  2. Effects of muscular biopsy on the mechanics of running.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Samozino, Pierre; Féasson, Léonard; Geyssant, André; Millet, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a widely used technique in protocols aiming at studying physical capacities and fiber profiles of athletes, and muscular adaptations to exercise. Side effects of biopsy alone on physiological parameters have recently been pointed out, and we sought to determine whether a single biopsy had effects on the main stride mechanical parameters. Ten male runners performed 4-min runs before and after undergoing a biopsy of their left vastus lateralis muscle. Step frequency and duty factor were significantly higher after biopsy (2.86 +/- 0.14 vs. 2.82 +/- 0.15 Hz, and 0.77 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.75 +/- 0.05, respectively), whereas other factors were significantly lower: maximal vertical ground reaction force (1,601 +/- 240 vs. 1,643 +/- 230 N), loading rate (53.9 +/- 12.8 vs. 58.4 +/- 13.5 bw s(-1)), center of mass vertical displacement (0.056 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.058 +/- 0.008 m) and external mechanical work at each step (1.14 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.24 +/- 0.10 J kg(-1) step(-1)). These effects were observed on the left (biopsed) leg, but also on the right one for the external mechanical work, the duty factor and the maximal vertical ground reaction force, showing that a single biopsy had both ipsi- and contralateral effects on running mechanics.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Curved Biopsy Device for CT-Guided Biopsy of Lesions Unreachable Using Standard Straight Needle Trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Hagen, Maximilian Franz, E-mail: mschulze@ukaachen.de; Pfeffer, Jochen; Zimmermann, Markus

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of a novel curved CT-guided biopsy needle prototype with shape memory to access otherwise not accessible biopsy targets.Methods and MaterialsA biopsy needle curved by 90° with specific radius was designed. It was manufactured using nitinol to acquire shape memory, encased in a straight guiding trocar to be driven out for access of otherwise inaccessible targets. Fifty CT-guided punctures were conducted in a biopsy phantom and 10 CT-guided punctures in a swine corpse. Biposies from porcine liver and muscle tissue were separately gained using the biopsy device, and histological examination was performed subsequently.ResultsMean time for placement ofmore » the trocar and deployment of the inner biopsy needle was ~205 ± 69 and ~93 ± 58 s, respectively, with a mean of ~4.5 ± 1.3 steps to reach adequate biopsy position. Mean distance from the tip of the needle to the target was ~0.7 ± 0.8 mm. CT-guided punctures in the swine corpse took relatively longer and required more biopsy steps (~574 ± 107 and ~380 ± 148 s, 8 ± 2.6 steps). Histology demonstrated appropriate tissue samples in nine out of ten cases (90%).ConclusionsTargets that were otherwise inaccessible via standard straight needle trajectories could be successfully reached with the curved biopsy needle prototype. Shape memory and preformed size with specific radius of the curved needle simplify the target accessibility with a low risk of injuring adjacent structures.« less

  4. Paritaprevir and Ritonavir Liver Concentrations in Rats as Assessed by Different Liver Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Venuto, Charles S; Markatou, Marianthi; Woolwine-Cunningham, Yvonne; Furlage, Rosemary; Ocque, Andrew J; DiFrancesco, Robin; Dumas, Emily O; Wallace, Paul K; Morse, Gene D; Talal, Andrew H

    2017-05-01

    The liver is crucial to pharmacology, yet substantial knowledge gaps exist in the understanding of its basic pharmacologic processes. An improved understanding for humans requires reliable and reproducible liver sampling methods. We compared liver concentrations of paritaprevir and ritonavir in rats by using samples collected by fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), and surgical resection. Thirteen Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated, nine of which received paritaprevir/ritonavir at 30/20 mg/kg of body weight by oral gavage daily for 4 or 5 days. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on samples collected via FNA (21G needle) with 1, 3, or 5 passes (FNA 1 , FNA 3 , and FNA 5 ); via CNB (16G needle); and via surgical resection. Drug concentrations in plasma were also assessed. Analyses included noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and use of Bland-Altman techniques. All liver tissue samples had higher paritaprevir and ritonavir concentrations than those in plasma. Resected samples, considered the benchmark measure, resulted in estimations of the highest values for the pharmacokinetic parameters of exposure (maximum concentration of drug in serum [ C max ] and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC 0-24 ]) for paritaprevir and ritonavir. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the best agreement occurred between tissue resection and CNB, with 15% bias, followed by FNA 3 and FNA 5 , with 18% bias, and FNA 1 and FNA 3 , with a 22% bias for paritaprevir. Paritaprevir and ritonavir are highly concentrated in rat liver. Further research is needed to validate FNA sampling for humans, with the possible derivation and application of correction factors for drug concentration measurements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Paritaprevir and Ritonavir Liver Concentrations in Rats as Assessed by Different Liver Sampling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Venuto, Charles S.; Markatou, Marianthi; Woolwine-Cunningham, Yvonne; Furlage, Rosemary; Ocque, Andrew J.; DiFrancesco, Robin; Dumas, Emily O.; Wallace, Paul K.; Morse, Gene D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The liver is crucial to pharmacology, yet substantial knowledge gaps exist in the understanding of its basic pharmacologic processes. An improved understanding for humans requires reliable and reproducible liver sampling methods. We compared liver concentrations of paritaprevir and ritonavir in rats by using samples collected by fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), and surgical resection. Thirteen Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated, nine of which received paritaprevir/ritonavir at 30/20 mg/kg of body weight by oral gavage daily for 4 or 5 days. Drug concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on samples collected via FNA (21G needle) with 1, 3, or 5 passes (FNA1, FNA3, and FNA5); via CNB (16G needle); and via surgical resection. Drug concentrations in plasma were also assessed. Analyses included noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and use of Bland-Altman techniques. All liver tissue samples had higher paritaprevir and ritonavir concentrations than those in plasma. Resected samples, considered the benchmark measure, resulted in estimations of the highest values for the pharmacokinetic parameters of exposure (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0–24]) for paritaprevir and ritonavir. Bland-Altman analyses showed that the best agreement occurred between tissue resection and CNB, with 15% bias, followed by FNA3 and FNA5, with 18% bias, and FNA1 and FNA3, with a 22% bias for paritaprevir. Paritaprevir and ritonavir are highly concentrated in rat liver. Further research is needed to validate FNA sampling for humans, with the possible derivation and application of correction factors for drug concentration measurements. PMID:28264852

  6. Angiomyolipoma of the liver: case report.

    PubMed

    Sung, K F; Chen, T C; Hung, C F; Jeng, L B; Lien, J M

    2001-05-01

    Hepatic angiomyolipoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the liver. Most multiple hepatic angiomyolipomas have appeared in patients with renal angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis. A 38-year-old female patient without chronic hepatitis B or C was hospitalized because of epigastric fullness for 2 months. Radiologic studies showed a large solid tumor with a small daughter nodule in the right hepatic lobe. Upon intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium, both tumors showed weak heterogeneous enhancement in the delayed phase. Although hepatocellular carcinoma was suspected by the findings of computed tomography, percutaneous transhepatic ultrasound-guided biopsy was performed for the large tumor. The histopathology showed many mature fat cells intermingled with thick-walled blood vessels, and epithelioid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm; the epithelioid cells stained positively for HMB-45 and smooth muscle actin. Angiomyolipoma of the liver was confirmed. The main tumor enlarged considerably during a follow-up period of 3 years. Surgical resection was performed due to persistent symptoms. She had an uneventful postoperative recovery and was well when followed up 10 months after surgery. We should be aware that a hepatic angiomyolipoma can change in size during its natural course, and this finding does not necessarily indicate malignancy.

  7. Extensive testing or focused testing of patients with elevated liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Elliot B; Saini, Sameer D; Sengupta, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Many patients have elevated serum aminotransferases reflecting many underlying conditions, both common and rare. Clinicians generally apply one of two evaluative strategies: testing for all diseases at once (extensive) or just common diseases first (focused). We simulated the evaluation of 10,000 adult outpatients with elevated with alanine aminotransferase to compare both testing strategies. Model inputs employed population-based data from the US (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) and Britain (Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies). Patients were followed until a diagnosis was provided or a diagnostic liver biopsy was considered. The primary outcome was US dollars per diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included doctor visits per diagnosis, false-positives per diagnosis and confirmatory liver biopsies ordered. The extensive testing strategy required the lowest monetary cost, yielding diagnoses for 54% of patients at $448/patient compared to 53% for $502 under the focused strategy. The extensive strategy also required fewer doctor visits (1.35 vs. 1.61 visits/patient). However, the focused strategy generated fewer false-positives (0.1 vs. 0.19/patient) and more biopsies (0.04 vs. 0.08/patient). Focused testing becomes the most cost-effective strategy when accounting for pre-test probabilities and prior evaluations performed. This includes when the respective prevalence of alcoholic, non-alcoholic and drug-induced liver disease exceeds 51.1%, 53.0% and 13.0%. Focused testing is also the most cost-effective strategy in the referral setting where assessments for viral hepatitis, alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have already been performed. Testing for elevated liver enzymes should be deliberate and focused to account for pre-test probabilities if possible. Many patients have elevated liver enzymes reflecting one of many possible liver diseases, some of which are very common and some of which are rare. Tests are widely

  8. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Teach Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy Using a Tru-Cut Needle for Veterinary and Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araújo Setin, Raíza; Fortes Cirimbelli, Carolina; Mazeto Ercolin, Anna Carolina; Pires, Sâmara Turbay; Disselli, Tamiris; Ferrarini Nunes Soares Hage, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of artisanal simulators to teach veterinary and medical students the ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy using a tru-cut needle. The artisanal simulators consisted of bovine liver between two layers of commercially available grape gelatin. Students were paired, with one doing the biopsy and…

  9. Preoperatively staging liver fibrosis using noninvasive method in Hepatitis B virus-infected hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hengyi; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Hang; Ye, Dawei; Yang, Jiayin; Jiang, Li; Liu, Chang; Qin, Renyi; Yan, Lunan; Xiao, Guangqin

    2017-01-01

    Background Advanced liver fibrosis can result in serious complications (even patient’s death) after partial hepatectomy. Preoperatively percutaneous liver biopsy is an invasive and expensive method to assess liver fibrosis. We aim to establish a noninvasive model, on the basis of preoperative biomarkers, to predict liver fibrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods The HBV-infected liver cancer patients who had received hepatectomy were retrospectively and prospectively enrolled in this study. Univariate analysis was used to compare the variables of the patients with mild to moderate liver fibrosis and with severe liver fibrosis. The significant factors were selected into binary logistic regression analysis. Factors determined to be significant were used to establish a noninvasive model. Then the diagnostic accuracy of this novel model was examined based on sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results This study included 2,176 HBV-infected HCC patients who had undergone partial hepatectomy (1,682 retrospective subjects and 494 prospective subjects). Regression analysis indicated that total bilirubin and prothrombin time had positive correlation with liver fibrosis. It also demonstrated that blood platelet count and fibrinogen had negative correlation with liver fibrosis. The AUC values of the model based on these four factors for predicting significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.79-0.83, 0.83-0.85 and 0.85-0.88, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that this novel preoperative model was an excellent noninvasive method for assessing liver fibrosis in HBV-infected HCC patients. PMID:28008144

  10. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2013-04-11

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (P<0.001) in cows suffering from fatty liver. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of PON1 activity for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.973-0.989 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.941, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). We found that adding serum PON1 measurement to different batteries of serum diagnostic panels showed a combination of high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows, which would

  11. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    PubMed

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  12. Acute lymphocytic cholangitis and liver failure in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Crook, Erika K; Carpenter, Nancy A

    2014-03-01

    An adult male Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with confirmed inflammatory bowel disease developed acute severe icterus, bilirubinuria, bilirubinemia, and elevated bile acids after a diet change. Liver biopsies showed moderate lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis (lymphocytic cholangitis). The tiger developed neurologic signs including ataxia, tremors, and seizures, as well as epistaxis. Therapy consisted of antibiotics, a steroid anti-inflammatory, vitamins, pro-coagulants, and liver-supportive medicines. The tiger improved from acute liver failure within 3 wk, while the epistaxis began at 3.5 wk and did not resolve until 10.5 wk. The long-term maintenance plan consists of oral prednisolone, metronidazole, ursodiol, and an all muscle-meat beef diet.

  13. Transthoracic needle biopsy of the lung

    PubMed Central

    DiBardino, David M.; Yarmus, Lonny B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Image guided transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) is a valuable tool used for the diagnosis of countless thoracic diseases. Computed tomography (CT) is the most common imaging modality used for guidance followed by ultrasound (US) for lesions abutting the pleural surface. Novel approaches using virtual CT guidance have recently been introduced. The objective of this review is to examine the current literature for TTNA biopsy of the lung focusing on diagnostic accuracy and safety. Methods MEDLINE was searched from inception to October 2015 for all case series examining image guided TTNA. Articles focusing on fluoroscopic guidance as well as influence of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on yield were excluded. The diagnostic accuracy, defined as the number of true positives divided by the number of biopsies done, as well as the complication rate [pneumothorax (PTX), bleeding] was examined for CT guided TTNA, US guided TTNA as well as CT guided electromagnetic navigational-TTNA (E-TTNA). Of the 490 articles recovered 75 were included in our analysis. Results The overall pooled diagnostic accuracy for CT guided TTNA using 48 articles that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria was 92.1% (9,567/10,383). A similar yield was obtained examining ten articles using US guided TTNA of 88.7% (446/503). E-TTNA, being a new modality, only had one pilot study citing a diagnostic accuracy of 83% (19/23). Pooled PTX and hemorrhage rates were 20.5% and 2.8% respectively for CT guided TTNA. The PTX rate was lower in US guided TTNA at a pooled rate of 4.4%. E-TTNA showed a similar rate of PTX at 20% with no incidence of bleeding in a single pilot study available. Conclusions Image guided TTNA is a safe and accurate modality for the biopsy of lung pathology. This study found similar yield and safety profiles with the three imaging modalities examined. PMID:26807279

  14. Accuracy and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy of renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianding; Lv, Yuanhang; Xu, Zilin; Aniu, Muguo; Qiu, Yang; Wei, Bing; Li, Xiaohong; Wei, Qiang; Dong, Qiang; Lin, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Our aim is to determine the sufficiency, accuracy, and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy of renal masses in Chinese patients. Patients who had undergone ultrasound-guided needle core renal mass biopsy from June 2012 to June 2016 at West China Hospital, China were retrospectively reviewed. The information obtained included demographics, mass-related parameters, biopsy indications, technique, complications, pathologic results, and follow-up. Concordance of surgical resection pathology and follow-up data were assessed. Renal mass biopsies were performed in 106 patients. Thirty-nine (36.8%) were asymptomatic. The male/female ratio was 60/46, with a median age of 49.5 years. Median mass size was 8.1 cm (range 1.8–20). Biopsy was performed through a 16-gauge needle, with median cores of 2 taken (range 1–5). Only one significant biopsy-related complication (hemorrhage requiring transfusion) was encountered. An adequate tissue sample was obtained in 97.2% (103/106) of biopsies. Eighty-seven biopsies (82.1%) showed malignant neoplasms, 16 (15.1%) yielded benignity, and 3 (2.8%) were nondiagnostic. After biopsy, 46 patients (43.4%) underwent surgery. Compared with the subsequent mass resection pathology, the biopsy diagnoses were identical in 43 cases. The accuracy rate of biopsy distinguishing malignant from benign lesions was 99.1%, and the rate for determining tumor histological type (excluding the nondiagnostic biopsies) was 95.1%. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting malignancy were 98.9% and 100%, respectively. In several situations, there is still a role for biopsy before intervention. Percutaneous needle core biopsy under ultrasonography guidance is highly accurate and safe, and can determine the proper management of undefinable masses. PMID:29595650

  15. Percutaneous transgastric computed tomography-guided biopsy of the pancreas using large needles

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hsiuo-Shan; Chen, Chia-Yuen; Chan, Wing P; Chiang, Jen-Huey

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety, yield and clinical utility of percutaneous transgastric computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of pancreatic tumor using large needles, in selected patients. METHODS: We reviewed 34 CT-guided biopsies in patients with pancreas mass, of whom 24 (71%) had a direct path to the mass without passing through a major organ. The needle passed through the liver in one case (3%). Nine passes (26%) were made through the stomach. These nine transgastric biopsies which used a coaxial technique (i.e. a 17-gauge coaxial introducer needle and an 18-gauge biopsy needle) were the basis of this study. Immediate and late follow-up CT images to detect complications were obtained. RESULTS: Tumor tissues were obtained in nine pancreatic biopsies, and histologic specimens for diagnosis were obtained in all cases. One patient, who had a rare sarcomatoid carcinoma, received a second biopsy. One patient had a complication of transient pneumoperitoneum but no subjective complaints. An immediate imaging study and clinical follow-up detected neither hemorrhage nor peritonitis. No delayed procedure-related complication was seen during the survival period of our patients. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic biopsy can be obtained by a transgastric route using a large needle as an alternative method, without complications of peritonitis or bleeding. PMID:20014462

  16. Process utility in breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Swan, J Shannon; Lawrence, William F; Roy, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the waiting trade-off (WTO) is feasible for differentiating short-term biopsy preferences in an acute situation where anxiety is the symptomatic disease state. 75 women with past experience of either breast core-needle biopsy (CNB), more invasive excisional surgical biopsy (EXB), or both, had telephone WTO assessments. Patients' baseline and test-related anxiety were valued by time trade-off (TTO) used to scale the WTO. Rating scales (RS) were obtained for convergent validity assessment with WTO and TTO. Data were obtained in 38 women who had both CNB and EXB ("paired") and 20 who had CNB only and 16 who had EXB only ("unpaired"). Patients rated only the procedure(s) they experienced. Median paired and mean unpaired WTO scores indicated patients were willing to wait significantly longer to avoid EXB (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0002, respectively). The waiting time difference between EXB and CNB was 2.1 weeks greater in unpaired data than paired data. RS scores comparing the procedures were significantly different only for paired data (P < 0.05). Median TTO preferences for baseline (1.00) and test anxiety (0.93) obtained in 74 patients were significantly different (P < 0.0001) and consistent with RS. Correlation was noted between WTO and RS (-0.307 to -0.453, P = 0.0205 to 0.0001). The median EXB quality-adjusted life years toll (1.5 quality-adjusted life days) calculated from pooled WTO data (paired and unpaired) from 54 patients is near a threshold in a published model. The WTO is feasible for discriminating preferences for short-term health states in an acute medical scenario where it might have been expected to be impracticable.

  17. Methylation analyses in liquid biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lissa, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent implementation of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening is predicted to lead to diagnosis of lung cancer at an earlier stage, with survival benefit. However, there is still a pressing need for biomarkers that will identify individuals eligible for screening, as well as improve the diagnostic accuracy of LDCT. In addition, biomarkers for prognostic stratification of patients with early stage disease, and those that can be used as surrogates to monitor tumor evolution, will greatly improve clinical management. Molecular alterations found in the DNA of tumor cells, such as mutations, translocations and methylation, are reflected in DNA that is released from the tumor into the bloodstream. Thus, in recent years, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained increasing attention as a noninvasive alternative to tissue biopsies and potential surrogate for the entire tumor genome. Activating gene mutations found in ctDNA have been proven effective in predicting response to targeted therapy. Analysis of ctDNA is also a valuable tool for longitudinal follow-up of cancer patients that does not require serial biopsies and may anticipate the acquisition of resistance. DNA methylation has also emerged as a promising marker for early detection, prognosis and real-time follow-up of tumor dynamics that is independent of the genomic composition of the primary tumor. This review summarizes the various investigational applications of methylated ctDNA in lung cancer reported to date. It also provides a brief overview of the technologies for analysis of DNA methylation in liquid biopsies, and the challenges that befall the implementation of methylated ctDNA into routine clinical practice. PMID:27826530

  18. Diagnosing regenerative nodular hyperplasia, the "great masquerader" of liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jason M; Litwin, Alan; Gibbs, John F; Intengen, Marilyn; Kuvshinoff, Boris W

    2006-05-01

    Distinguishing benign tumors and pseudotumors of the liver from malignant tumors is a common clinical problem. Regenerative nodular hyperplasia (RNH) represents one of the more challenging pseudotumors to diagnose, because they can appear clinically indistinguishable from either a primary or a secondary liver malignancy. Even after comprehensive radiologic evaluation and image-guided percutaneous biopsy, the diagnosis of RNH can remain elusive. We reviewed the pathophysiology of RNH and present five cases illustrating the limitations of percutaneous biopsy and the utility of laparoscopic wedge biopsy in establishing the diagnosis. All patients underwent a complete workup that included percutaneous biopsy. Patients with a nondiagnostic percutaneous biopsy underwent a laparoscopic wedge biopsy or anatomical resection. H&E, vimentin, trichrome, and reticulin staining as well as CD34 immunostaining were performed. Five patients were diagnosed with RNH between May 2002 and April 2004. Three had focal nodular disease, whereas the other two had a diffuse multinodular presentation. Percutaneous biopsy definitively made the diagnosis in only one out of the five cases. Laparoscopic wedge biopsy was necessary to accurately make the diagnosis in three cases, whereas the fifth diagnosis was established after an anatomical resection. RNH is a unique pseudotumor of the liver that can present either as a solitary nodule or as a multinodular process. Percutaneous biopsy is associated with limitations in diagnosing RNH, and a more definitive surgical biopsy may be required. When RNH is considered, laparoscopic wedge biopsy is a safe and efficient way to obtain enough tissue to preserve the hepatic architecture required for diagnosis, while avoiding the morbidity of an unnecessary open resection.

  19. Demystifying liver iron concentration measurements with MRI.

    PubMed

    Henninger, B

    2018-06-01

    This Editorial comment refers to the article: Non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentration using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging: validation against biopsy. D'Assignies G, et al. Eur Radiol Nov 2017. • MRI is a widely accepted reliable tool to determine liver iron concentration. • MRI cannot measure iron directly, it needs calibration. • Calibration curves for 3.0T are rare in the literature. • The study by d'Assignies et al. provides valuable information on this topic. • Evaluation of liver iron overload should no longer be restricted to experts.

  20. Medical audit of rectal biopsy diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Frei, J V; Morson, B C

    1982-03-01

    The records of the rectal biopsy diagnoses of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in the Department of Pathology, St Mark's Hospital, London, were reviewed. The biopsy diagnoses were compared to subsequent resection diagnoses on the same patients, and annual and seasonal variations in the frequency of these and related diagnoses were studied. The accuracy rate for the biopsy diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was about 70% and for Crohn's disease about 40% each time a biopsy was read. The low figure for the accuracy rate for Crohn's disease could be attributed to sampling error inherent in the diagnosis of a disease which is essentially patchy, showing discontinuous pathology. Also, many patients with Crohn's disease have a normal rectum which is biopsied to demonstrate the distinction from ulcerative colitis. In practical terms therefore a 40% accuracy rate in Crohn's disease is probably adequate. The rate of "false-positive" diagnoses was about 5%. There was a seasonal variation in the frequency of these two diagnoses, but no variation attributable to changes in observers, as pathology trainees in the Department change regularly. The frequency of diagnoses of non-specific inflammation and of normal colon did show such non-random variations.

  1. Cauliflower-like Neoplasm of Duodenal Papilla in a Liver Transplant Recipient: What Should We Think and Do? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wan, D-L; Li, M-X; Bao, L; Zhang, L-L; Zhang, L; Chen, Q-Y; Lin, S-Z

    2018-04-01

    With the continuous improvement of liver transplantation technology, the survival rate of liver transplantation has been improved, but recurrent or de novo malignancy remains one of the major factors affecting the long-term survival of liver transplant recipients. A 45-year-old Chinese man had a plastic biliary stent placed on account of biliary anastomotic stenosis after 3 years of piggyback liver transplantation. He came to our hospital because of recurrent fever and jaundice for 2 weeks, and his carcinoembryonic antigen-199 had increased. The patient's duodenal papillary was cauliflower-like at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to replace the biliary stent. He was initially suspected of having duodenal papillary carcinoma after liver transplantation. However, the pathology from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy showed inflammation. While awaiting the result of biopsy, his CA-199 decreased significantly after anti-infection and symptomatic treatment. The patient was diagnosed with biliary anastomotic stenosis and duodenal papillitis. He was discharged uneventfully; to date, there is no evidence of malignant tumor. We report this case to provide helpful information to clinicians about the management of the duodenal papilla cauliflower-like neoplasm after liver transplantation, which should be considered as inflammatory first. Perhaps our view can avoid the risk of bringing an excessive medical treatment and unnecessary economic burden to patients and their families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  3. The utility of Xenon-133 liver scan in the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Busafi, Said A; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Novales-Diaz, Javier A; Deschênes, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important and common condition affecting approximately 20% of the general population. Given the limitation of radiological investigations, diagnosis often requires a liver biopsy. To compare Xenon-133 (Xe-133) liver scanning with ultrasonography in the diagnosis of NAFLD. From January 2003 to February 2007, 258 consecutive patients with suspected NAFLD underwent Xe-133 liver scanning at Royal Victoria Hospital (Montreal, Quebec). Of these, 43 patients underwent ultrasonography and liver biopsy for the evaluation of NAFLD. Patients with other liver diseases and significant alcohol consumption were excluded. Two nuclear medicine physicians assessed liver Xe-133 uptake and measured the grade of steatosis using a standardized protocol. The degree of steatosis was determined from biopsy specimens assessed by two hepatopathologists. NAFLD was identified by liver biopsy in 35 of 43 patients (81.4%). Xe-133 scan demonstrated 94.3% sensitivity (95% CI 81.4% to 98.4%) and 87.5% specificity (95% CI 52.9% to 99.4%) for the presence of NAFLD. The positive and negative predictive values for detection of steatosis by Xe-133 scan were 97.1% (95% CI 85.1% to 99.8%) and 77.8% (95% CI 45.3% to 93.7%), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.54 (95% CI 1.20 to 47.26) and 0.07 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.26), respectively. Two patients with NAFLD (5.7%) who had a negative Xe-133 scan result had histologically mild steatosis (<10%). The grade of steatosis on liver biopsy was highly correlated with the results of the Xe-133 scan (r=0.87; P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosing steatosis were 62.9% and 75%, respectively. Xe-133 liver scan proved to be a safe, reliable, noninvasive method for diagnosing and quantifying hepatic steatosis, and was superior to ultrasound.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  5. A case of unresectable combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma showing favorable response to LFP therapy.

    PubMed

    Kato, Sayuri; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Wada, Nozomu; Morimoto, Yuuki; Kuwaki, Kenji; Ohnishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Shiraha, Hidenori; Takaki, Akinobu; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A woman in her 50s was admitted to our hospital because of multiple tumors detected in her liver. She was diagnosed with combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy of the liver tumors. We judged the tumors to be unresectable because they were found in both lobes of the liver, with a tumor thrombus being found in the main left portal vein. The pathological findings showed that the tumors exhibited characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, sorafenib was administered;however, 6 months later, the disease progressed. Consequently, she received second-line chemotherapy with a one-shot intra-arterial injection of cisplatin, but this too was ineffective, and her general condition worsened. As hence, we changed the regimen to 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion and consecutive low dose cisplatin (LFP) therapy. After one cycle of chemotherapy with LFP, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI showed markedly decreased sizes and numbers of tumors. To date, she has completed six cycles of LFP therapy, and almost all her tumors are no longer visible on MRI. She has recovered to a good state and has achieved long-term survival. Thus, this case indicates that although LFP therapy is generally selected for cases of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, it also appears to be effective for long-term disease control in cases of hepatocellular cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Basics of kidney biopsy: A nephrologist's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, S. K.; Sethi, S.; Dinda, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the kidney biopsy is one of the major events in the history of nephrology. Primary indications of kidney biopsy are glomerular hematuria/proteinuria with or without renal dysfunction and unexplained renal failure. Kidney biopsy is usually performed in prone position but in certain situations, supine and lateral positions may be required. Biopsy needles have changed with times from Vim–Silverman needle to Tru-cut needle to spring-loaded automatic gun. The procedure has also changed from blind bedside kidney biopsy to ultrasound marking to real-time ultrasound guidance to rarely computerized tomography guidance and laparoscopic and open biopsy. In very specific situations, transjugular kidney biopsy may be required. Most of the centers do kidney biopsy on short 1-day admission, whereas some take it as an outdoor procedure. For critical interpretation of kidney biopsy, adequate sample and clinical information are mandatory. Tissue needs to be stained with multiple stains for delineation of various components of kidney tissue. Many consider that electron microscopy (EM) is a must for all kidney biopsies, but facilities for EM are limited even in big centers. Sophisticated tests such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization are useful adjuncts for definitive diagnosis in certain situations. PMID:23960337

  7. Temporal artery biopsy size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Kaptanis, Sarantos; Perera, Joanne K; Halkias, Constantine; Caton, Nadine; Alarcon, Lida; Vig, Stella

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether positive temporal artery biopsies had a greater sample length than negative biopsies in temporal arteritis. It has been suggested that biopsy length should be at least 1 cm to improve diagnostic accuracy. A retrospective review of 149 patients who had 151 temporal artery biopsies was conducted. Twenty biopsies were positive (13.3%), 124 negative (82.1%) and seven samples were insufficient (4.6%). There was no clinically significant difference in the mean biopsy size between positive (0.7 cm) and negative samples (0.65 cm) (t-test: p = .43 NS). Ninety-four patients fulfilled all three ACR criteria prior to biopsy (62.3%) and four patients (2.6%) changed ACR score from 2 to 3 after biopsy. Treatment should not be delayed in anticipation of the biopsy or withheld in the case of a negative biopsy if the patient's symptoms improve. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis. PMID:25561782

  9. Non invasive tools for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Cervello, Melchiorre; Licata, Anna; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-12-28

    Liver cirrhosis (LC), the end stage of many forms of chronic hepatitis of different etiologies is a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and the conversion of normal liver architecture into structurally abnormal nodules surrounded by annular fibrosis. This chronic progressive clinical condition, leads to liver cell failure and portal hypertension, which can favour the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Defining the phase of the natural history is crucial for therapeutic choice and prognosis. Liver biopsy is currently considered the best available standard of reference but it has some limits, so alternative tools have been developed to substitute liver biopsy when assessing liver fibrosis. Serum markers offer a cost-effective alternative to liver biopsy being less invasive and theoretically without complications. They can be classified into direct and indirect markers which may be used alone or in combination to produce composite scores. Diagnostic imaging includes a number of instruments and techniques to estimate liver fibrosis and cirrhosis like ultrasound (US), US Doppler, contrast enhanced US and Elastography. US could be used for the diagnosis of advanced LC while is not able to evaluate progression of fibrosis, in this case Elastography is more reliable. This review aims to revise the most recent data from the literature about non invasive methods useful in defining liver fibrosis.

  10. Evaluating Diagnostic Accuracy of Noninvasive Tests in Assessment of Significant Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C Egyptian Patients.

    PubMed

    Omran, Dalia; Zayed, Rania A; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Mobarak, Lamiaa; Zakaria, Zeinab; Farid, Azza; Hassany, Mohamed; Saif, Sameh; Mostafa, Muhammad; Saad, Omar Khalid; Yosry, Ayman

    2018-05-01

    Stage of liver fibrosis is critical for treatment decision and prediction of outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE)-FibroScan and noninvasive serum markers tests in the assessment of liver fibrosis in CHC patients, in reference to liver biopsy. One-hundred treatment-naive CHC patients were subjected to liver biopsy, TE-FibroScan, and eight serum biomarkers tests; AST/ALT ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index (APRI), age-platelet index (AP index), fibrosis quotient (FibroQ), fibrosis 4 index (FIB-4), cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), King score, and Goteborg University Cirrhosis Index (GUCI). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of these noninvasive methods in predicting significant fibrosis in CHC patients. TE-FibroScan predicted significant fibrosis at cutoff value 8.5 kPa with area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) 0.90, sensitivity 83%, specificity 91.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) 91.2%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 84.4%. Serum biomarkers tests showed that AP index and FibroQ had the highest diagnostic accuracy in predicting significant liver fibrosis at cutoff 4.5 and 2.7, AUROC was 0.8 and 0.8 with sensitivity 73.6% and 73.6%, specificity 70.2% and 68.1%, PPV 71.1% and 69.8%, and NPV 72.9% and 72.3%, respectively. Combined AP index and FibroQ had AUROC 0.83 with sensitivity 73.6%, specificity 80.9%, PPV 79.6%, and NPV 75.7% for predicting significant liver fibrosis. APRI, FIB-4, CDS, King score, and GUCI had intermediate accuracy in predicting significant liver fibrosis with AUROC 0.68, 0.78, 0.74, 0.74, and 0.67, respectively, while AAR had low accuracy in predicting significant liver fibrosis. TE-FibroScan is the most accurate noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy. AP index and FibroQ, either as individual tests or combined, have good accuracy in predicting significant liver fibrosis

  11. KI-67 heterogeneity in well differentiated gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: when is biopsy reliable for grade assessment?

    PubMed

    Grillo, Federica; Valle, Luca; Ferone, Diego; Albertelli, Manuela; Brisigotti, Maria Pia; Cittadini, Giuseppe; Vanoli, Alessandro; Fiocca, Roberto; Mastracci, Luca

    2017-09-01

    Ki-67 heterogeneity can impact on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor grade assignment, especially when tissue is scarce. This work is aimed at devising adequacy criteria for grade assessment in biopsy specimens. To analyze the impact of biopsy size on reliability, 360 virtual biopsies of different thickness and lengths were constructed. Furthermore, to estimate the mean amount of non-neoplastic tissue component present in biopsies, 28 real biopsies were collected, the non-neoplastic components (fibrosis and inflammation) quantified and the effective area of neoplastic tissue calculated for each biopsy. Heterogeneity of Ki-67 distribution, G2 tumors and biopsy size all play an important role in reducing the reliability of biopsy samples in Ki-67-based grade assignment. In particular in G2 cases, 59.9% of virtual biopsies downgraded the tumor and the smaller the biopsy, the more frequent downgrading occurs. In real biopsies the presence of non-neoplastic tissue reduced the available total area by a mean of 20%. By coupling the results from these two different approaches we show that both biopsy size and non-neoplastic component must be taken into account for biopsy adequacy. In particular, we can speculate that if the minimum biopsy area, necessary to confidently (80% concordance) grade gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors on virtual biopsies ranges between 15 and 30 mm 2 , and if real biopsies are on average composed of only 80% of neoplastic tissue, then biopsies with a surface area not <12 mm 2 should be performed; using 18G needles, this corresponds to a minimum total length of 15 mm.

  12. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential etiopathogenesis of seventh day syndrome following living donor liver transplantation: ischemia of the graft?

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiang; Li, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Wei, Yong-Gang; Yan, Lu-Nan; Zhao, Ji-Chun

    2010-02-01

    Seventh-day syndrome (7DS) is an early serious complication following liver transplantation with a high mortality because of its unknown etiopathogenesis. This study aimed to analyze the potential etiopathogenesis of 7DS. A retrospective analysis of 98 consecutive living donor liver transplants performed from 2001 to 2007 at our center revealed that 5 patients had suffered from 7DS; their age, MELD score, portal vein inflow and other parameters were compared with those of the other recipients. The 5 patients showed common features: (a) initial uneventful recovery, and a dramatic rise of serum liver enzyme levels 1 to 2 weeks later; (b) decreased inflow in the portal vein accompanied by augmentation of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen level; and (c) serial liver biopsy findings of apoptosis and ischemic necrosis of hepatocytes. Four of the 5 patients died. Age, waiting time to transplantation, MELD score, operation time, cold ischemic time, portal interceptive time and diameter of the portal vein were not significantly different between the 2 groups, but a difference was found in the flow rate of the portal vein (t=3.234, P<0.001). The 5 patients suffered from a decreased portal vein inflow, ischemic liver necrosis, and renal failure. Hence, hypoperfusion of the liver graft was considered to be the etiopathogenesis of 7DS, for which, however sufficient evidence is lacking. More studies of 7DS are needed.

  14. [Prediction of histological liver damage in asymptomatic alcoholic patients by means of clinical and laboratory data].

    PubMed

    Iturriaga, H; Hirsch, S; Bunout, D; Díaz, M; Kelly, M; Silva, G; de la Maza, M P; Petermann, M; Ugarte, G

    1993-04-01

    Looking for a noninvasive method to predict liver histologic alterations in alcoholic patients without clinical signs of liver failure, we studied 187 chronic alcoholics recently abstinent, divided in 2 series. In the model series (n = 94) several clinical variables and results of common laboratory tests were confronted to the findings of liver biopsies. These were classified in 3 groups: 1. Normal liver; 2. Moderate alterations; 3. Marked alterations, including alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Multivariate methods used were logistic regression analysis and a classification and regression tree (CART). Both methods entered gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), weight and age as significant and independent variables. Univariate analysis with GGT and AST at different cutoffs were also performed. To predict the presence of any kind of damage (Groups 2 and 3), CART and AST > 30 IU showed the higher sensitivity, specificity and correct prediction, both in the model and validation series. For prediction of marked liver damage, a score based on logistic regression and GGT > 110 IU had the higher efficiencies. It is concluded that GGT and AST are good markers of alcoholic liver damage and that, using sample cutoffs, histologic diagnosis can be correctly predicted in 80% of recently abstinent asymptomatic alcoholics.

  15. Steatorrhea in patients with liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. N.; Sidorov, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal function was studied in 26 patients with seven types of acute and chronic liver disease, documented by liver biopsy. Steatorrhea, defined by a stool fat higher than 6 g. per day, was present in 18 of 23 consecutive patients studied, an incidence of 78.3%. Two patients with infectious hepatitis associated with steatorrhea studied previously were added and the 20 cases were analyzed. The malabsorption found was confined to fat and fat-soluble vitamins; stool excretion varied from 6.1 to 22 g. per day in the seven groups studied. No histological abnormality was seen on jejunal biopsy, serum vitamin B12, D-xylose and Schilling tests were normal, and no radiological findings associated with malabsorption were detected in the small bowel. It is concluded that steatorrhea is a common finding in a wide variety of acute and chronic liver diseases and cannot be attributed to a primary defect of the small bowel. PMID:5150072

  16. Fast MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Laura; Morris, Elizabeth A; Dershaw, D David; Thornton, Cynthia M; Van Zee, Kimberly J; Tan, Lee K

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method for performing MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in a study of lesions that had subsequent surgical excision. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty women scheduled for MRI-guided needle localization and surgical biopsy were prospectively entered in the study. MRI-guided biopsy was performed with a vacuum-assisted probe, followed by placement of a localizing clip, and then needle localization for surgical excision. Vacuum-assisted biopsy and surgical histology were correlated. Vacuum-assisted biopsy was successfully performed in 19 (95%) of the 20 women. The median size of 27 MRI-detected lesions that had biopsy was 1.0 cm (range, 0.4-6.4 cm). Cancer was present in eight (30%) of 27 lesions and in six (32%) of 19 women; among these eight cancers, five were infiltrating and three were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Among these 27 lesions, histology was benign at vacuum-assisted biopsy and at surgery in 19 (70%), cancer at vacuum-assisted biopsy in six (22%), atypical ductal hyperplasia at vacuum-assisted biopsy and DCIS at surgery in one (4%), and benign at vacuum-assisted biopsy with surgery showing microscopic DCIS that was occult at MRI in one (4%). The median time to perform vacuum-assisted biopsy of a single lesion was 35 min (mean, 35 min; range, 24-48 min). Placement of a localizing clip, attempted in 26 lesions, was successful in 25 (96%) of 26, and the clip was retrieved on specimen radiography in 22 (96%) of 23. One complication occurred: a hematoma that resolved with compression. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is a fast, safe, and accurate alternative to surgical biopsy for breast lesions detected on MRI.

  17. Cirrhosis and autoimmune liver disease: Current understanding

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952

  18. Image patch-based method for automated classification and detection of focal liver lesions on CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, Mustafa; Pasari, Raghav; Rubin, Daniel; Greenspan, Hayit

    2013-03-01

    We developed a method for automated classification and detection of liver lesions in CT images based on image patch representation and bag-of-visual-words (BoVW). BoVW analysis has been extensively used in the computer vision domain to analyze scenery images. In the current work we discuss how it can be used for liver lesion classification and detection. The methodology includes building a dictionary for a training set using local descriptors and representing a region in the image using a visual word histogram. Two tasks are described: a classification task, for lesion characterization, and a detection task in which a scan window moves across the image and is determined to be normal liver tissue or a lesion. Data: In the classification task 73 CT images of liver lesions were used, 25 images having cysts, 24 having metastasis and 24 having hemangiomas. A radiologist circumscribed the lesions, creating a region of interest (ROI), in each of the images. He then provided the diagnosis, which was established either by biopsy or clinical follow-up. Thus our data set comprises 73 images and 73 ROIs. In the detection task, a radiologist drew ROIs around each liver lesion and two regions of normal liver, for a total of 159 liver lesion ROIs and 146 normal liver ROIs. The radiologist also demarcated the liver boundary. Results: Classification results of more than 95% were obtained. In the detection task, F1 results obtained is 0.76. Recall is 84%, with precision of 73%. Results show the ability to detect lesions, regardless of shape.

  19. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A; Hachulla, E; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-10-01

    To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of seven patients with RA (20%) and only one patient in the control group (8%). A second specimen of LSG was studied after a mean treatment period of six months and failed to show any feature of inflammatory vascular involvement in three of the five cases that were analysed. The study emphasises the high incidence of immunopathological features of microvascular damage in patients with RV. LSG biopsy is minimally invasive and may be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of RV especially when skin lesions are absent or impossible to biopsy. The assessment of the predictive value of positive LSG biopsy in RA requires a long term prospective study.

  20. Labial salivary gland biopsy assessment in rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Flipo, R M; Janin, A; Hachulla, E; Houvenagel, E; Foulet, A; Cardon, T; Desbonnet, A; Grardel, B; Duquesnoy, B; Delcambre, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the vascular involvement in labial salivary gland (LSG) from patients with rheumatoid vasculitis (RV). METHODS--Forty seven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) took part in a prospective study. Among them, 12 had proven RV. LSG biopsy was performed after local anaesthesia. RESULTS--Histological appearance of inflammatory vascular damage was observed in all but one patient with proven RV (92%). Inflammatory vascular involvement was also identified in LSG biopsy of seven patients with RA (20%) and only one patient in the control group (8%). A second specimen of LSG was studied after a mean treatment period of six months and failed to show any feature of inflammatory vascular involvement in three of the five cases that were analysed. CONCLUSIONS--The study emphasises the high incidence of immunopathological features of microvascular damage in patients with RV. LSG biopsy is minimally invasive and may be a potential useful tool for the diagnosis of RV especially when skin lesions are absent or impossible to biopsy. The assessment of the predictive value of positive LSG biopsy in RA requires a long term prospective study. Images PMID:7979576

  1. Infrared needle mapping to assist biopsy procedures and training.

    PubMed

    Shar, Bruce; Leis, John; Coucher, John

    2018-04-01

    A computed tomography (CT) biopsy is a radiological procedure which involves using a needle to withdraw tissue or a fluid specimen from a lesion of interest inside a patient's body. The needle is progressively advanced into the patient's body, guided by the most recent CT scan. CT guided biopsies invariably expose patients to high dosages of radiation, due to the number of scans required whilst the needle is advanced. This study details the design of a novel method to aid biopsy procedures using infrared cameras. Two cameras are used to image the biopsy needle area, from which the proposed algorithm computes an estimate of the needle endpoint, which is projected onto the CT image space. This estimated position may be used to guide the needle between scans, and results in a reduction in the number of CT scans that need to be performed during the biopsy procedure. The authors formulate a 2D augmentation system which compensates for camera pose, and show that multiple low-cost infrared imaging devices provide a promising approach.

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis and complications following prostate biopsies - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Klemann, Nina; Helgstrand, John Thomas; Brasso, Klaus; Vainer, Ben; Iversen, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUS-gb) are associated with both mild and serious complications. Prophylactic antibiotics reduce the risk of septicaemia and mortality; however, no international consensus exists on the timing and duration of antibiotics, including the optimal drug strategy. We reviewed the current evidence supporting use of prophylactic antibiotics and the risk of complications following prostate biopsies. This review was drafted in accordance with the Prisma Guidelines. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. A total of 19 eligible trials were identified. One trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of infection after biopsy and reported that oral ciprofloxacin as either a single-dose or a three-day regimen was superior to oral chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. Of three studies investigating the timing of the first dose of antibiotic, one study found that administration 24 h before biopsy versus administration immediately before reduced the relative risk of post-biopsy infection by 55%. Seven studies compared different durations of antibiotic prophylaxis. None showed any benefit from continuing prophylaxis beyond a single dose or a one-day regimen. Evidence supporting a specific antibiotic regimen for TRUS-gb prophylaxis is scarce. Widespread use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis may be associated with an increase in resistant Escherichia coli strains, posing a potentially major health issue in the future.  .

  3. Distribution of liver disease in a cohort of immigrants in Sicily: analysis of day-hospital admissions in a migration medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Affronti, Marco; Affronti, Andrea; Soresi, Maurizio; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Campagna, Elisa; Tramuto, Fabio; Brunori, Giuseppe; Montalto, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of liver disease and its aetiology in a cohort of immigrants. We retrospectively examined the hospital discharge charts of all the immigrant patients presenting at our day hospital from July 2009 to June 2013, and after evaluating the anamnestic, clinical and laboratory data on these charts we identified subjects with liver disease and its various aetiologies. The total sample population consisted of 1218 patients, of whom 112 (9.2%) had a diagnosis of liver disease. More than two-thirds of the latter (67.8%) came from Africa, while 15.2% were from Asia and 17.0% from Eastern Europe. In most patients the disease was related to HBV (44.6%), followed by alcohol (25%) and then HCV or cryptogenic disease (both 15.2%). Forty-six patients had undergone liver biopsy, which showed eight cases of varying degrees of liver steatosis, 29 cases with a variable severity of chronic liver disease, eight cases with a definite picture of liver cirrhosis and one case of alcoholic hepatitis. These data show that a significant proportion of our immigrant population has liver disease and that the most frequent cause is hepatitis B infection.

  4. CARCINOMA IN SITU OF THE UTERINE CERVIX—DIAGNOSIS BY BIOPSY

    PubMed Central

    Fluhmann, C. Frederic; Lyons, Harold M.

    1960-01-01

    In 50 cases of carcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri, the lesion was present in the cervical canal in 36 instances, but the squamous epithelium of the portio was involved in only 14 cases. Since single biopsy from the portio or external os may show no malignant change even in cases in which vaginal smears are positive for cancer, single biopsy is indicated only in the presence of gross suspicious lesions. When positive smears have been obtained, cold-knife cone biopsy is indicated (a) whenever gross lesions are not visible on the ectocervix, (b) if carcinoma in situ is found in a biopsy of the external os, in order to determine the presence or absence of invasion, and (c) when there are repeated positive smears and biopsy of the portio has not shown the presence of malignancy. The technique of cone biopsy is given in detail. PMID:13823610

  5. [Image fusion: use in the control of the distribution of prostatic biopsies].

    PubMed

    Mozer, Pierre; Baumann, Michaël; Chevreau, Grégoire; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2008-02-01

    Prostate biopsies are performed under 2D TransRectal UltraSound (US) guidance by sampling the prostate according to a predefined pattern. Modern image processing tools allow better control of biopsy distribution. We evaluated the accuracy of a single operator performing a pattern of 12 ultrasound-guided biopsies by registering 3D ultrasound control images acquired after each biopsy. For each patient, prostate image alignment was performed automatically with a voxel-based registration algorithm allowing visualization of each biopsy trajectory in a single ultrasound reference volume. On average, the operator reached the target in 60% of all cases. This study shows that it is difficult to accurately reach targets in the prostate using 2D ultrasound. In the near future, real-time fusion of MRI and US images will allow selection of a target in previously acquired MR images and biopsy of this target by US guidance.

  6. Two-stage liver transplantation using auxiliary laparoscopically harvested grafts in adults: Emphasizing the concept of "hypersmall graft nursing".

    PubMed

    Scatton, Olivier; Cauchy, François; Conti, Filomena; Perdigao, Fabiano; Massault, Pierre Philippe; Goumard, Claire; Soubrane, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Living donor liver transplantation is limited by the donor's risk in case of right liver donation and by the risk of small-for-size syndrome on the recipient in case of left lobe transplantation. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility and results of two-stage liver transplantation using auxiliary hyper small grafts harvested laparoscopically and discussing relevant technical insights and issues that still need to be overcome. Retrospective analysis involving two patients operated at a tertiary referral center. The recipients underwent left lateral sectionectomy and then auxillary liver transplantation using laparoscopically harvested left lateral section. The native right liver was transiently left in place to sustain the initially small functional graft functional during its hypertrophy. No donor experienced postoperative complication. After 7days, the hypertrophy rate was 112% (105-120). Doppler assessments during the first two postoperative weeks showed progressive portal vein inflow decrease in the right native livers and portal vein inflow increase in the grafts. Liver biopsies on postoperative day 7 showed no lesion of overperfusion. No recipient experienced liver failure or small-for-size syndrome. Second stage hepatectomy of the native liver was undertaken in one patient. In the other patient, biliary stenosis on postoperative day 30 precluded second stage hepatectomy. This patient required retransplantation after one year. The current strategy increases donor safety and may allow increasing the pool of available grafts. Refinements in the management of the native right liver are however required to improve the feasibility rate of this strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The pros and cons of outpatient breast biopsy.

    PubMed

    Lou, M A; Mandal, A K; Alexander, J L

    1976-06-01

    A review of the 130 breast biopsies performed on women during the past three years at the Martin Luther King, Jr, General Hospital showed that 90 were performed on outpatients and 40 on inpatients. Of the 90 outpatient procedures, 61 were under local anesthesia and 29 under general. Only three outpatient biopsy specimens were malignant and required subsequent patient admission to the hospital for mastectomy at an interval of 9 to 14 days. In all three, the axillary nodes were uninvolved. In two, no residual tumor was found in the mastectomy specimen.

  8. [Application of Liquid Biopsy for Lung Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shunsuke; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2016-05-01

    Liquid biopsy is defined as a non-invasive blood test that detects features of tumor cells, which are shed into the blood stream from the primary tumor and/or metastatic sites. This method is developing based on research on circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the circulating free/fragments of tumor DNA (cfDNA). CfDNA can be detected in the absence of detectable CTCs, and has been shown to increase with the disease condition. The detection of cfDNA can be used for tumor genotyping, monitoring of the tumor burden, and monitoring minimal residual diseases, and recent results showed that cfDNA is a highly specific biomarker with intermediate sensitivity. Liquid biopsy with cfDNA is promising, and is becoming an alternative to re- biopsy. However, there are some caveats: it has not been elucidated which patients and tumor types can be accessed with cfDNA. Further research is warranted.

  9. Successful Treatment of Protein-Losing Enteropathy Induced by Intestinal Lymphangiectasia in a Liver Cirrhosis Patient with Octreotide: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hang Lak; Kim, Jin Bae; Jeon, Yong Chul; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Hahm, Joon Soo

    2004-01-01

    A 47-yr-old man with hepatitis B virus associated liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with diarrhea and generalized edema and diagnosed as protein-losing enteropathy due to intestinal lymphangiectasia by intestinal biopsy and 99mTc albumin scan. During hospitalization, he received subcutaneous octreotide therapy. After 2 weeks of octreotide therapy, follow-up albumin scan showed no albumin leakage, and the serum albumin level was sustained. We speculate that liver cirrhosis can be a cause of intestinal lymphangiectasia and administration of octreotide should be considered for patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia whose clinical and biochemical abnormalities do not respond to a low-fat diet. PMID:15201518

  10. Adult dementia: history, biopsy, pathology.

    PubMed

    Torack, R M

    1979-05-01

    The historical events in the evolution of Alzheimer's disease are reviewed, including the initial description by Alois Alzheimer and the subsequent controversy regarding the nosological specificity of this entity. The similarity of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease is emphasized. The basis for the modern concept of Alzheimer's disease as premature or accelerated aging is included in the review. The pathological correlates of the major categories of adult dementia have been described. The traditional criteria of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been re-evaluated using the current insight into these changes afforded by electron microscopy and biochemistry. The significance of amyloid has been described because it occurs within the senile plaque and also as the essential component of congophilic angiopathy. The new information regarding neuronal cell counts and the loss of choline acetyltransferase has been evaluated in terms of an indication of a pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease. The current understanding of normal pressure hydrocephalus, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and multi-infarct dementia has been described. Brain biopsy in dementia has been described as having diagnostic, research, pathogenic, and prognostic value. The precautions involving the performance and handling of the biopsy have been stressed, particularly because these procedures involve conditions of possible slow virus etiology. The polemic for Alzheimer's disease as aging or slow virus infection has been summarized. At this time a consideration seems justified that Alzheimer's disease is an age-related, slow virus disease due to a hitherto unknown immune defect. Aging as an etiological agent must be clarified before Alzheimer's disease, in any form, can be considered to be an inevitable consequence of longevity.

  11. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  12. Clinical impact and efficacy of lamivudine therapy in de novo hepatitis B infection after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Vargas, Víctor; Rodríguez, Francisco; Allende, Helena; Buti, Maria; Sánchez-Avila, José F; Jardí, Rosendo; Margarit, Carlos; Pumarola, Tomás; Esteban, Rafael; Guardia, Jaime

    2002-10-01

    De novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is between 1.7% and 3.5% in areas with a low prevalence of HBV infection. The importance of this problem and the efficacy of lamivudine treatment has not been defined in areas with a high prevalence of positivity to antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (Anti-HBc). To define the characteristics and the clinical impact of de novo HBV infection in OLT recipients and to evaluate the efficacy of lamivudine treatment in this context, 229 HBsAg (-) donors (145 men, 84 women) were retrospectively evaluated between June 1994 and June 2000. Forty-eight recipients were excluded for various reasons. The final study population included 181 patients that were prospectively followed up for more than 6 months after OLT. When de novo HBV infection was detected, liver allograft biopsy was performed and treatment with lamivudine was indicated if patients were HBV-DNA-positive with elevated ALT levels. Survival time was defined as the interval between diagnosis of HBV infection and death or last follow-up visit. Thirty-one of 229 liver donors (13.5%) were anti-HBc(+). After a mean follow-up of 54.4+/-30 months, 9 of the 181 recipients (5%) developed de novo HBV infection; 8 of 27 recipients (29.6%) of livers from anti-HBc(+) donors as compared with only one of 154 recipients (0.6%) of livers from anti-HBc(-) donors P < 0.005). Liver biopsies performed in 8 of 9 cases showed chronic active hepatitis in 7 patients and acute hepatitis in one patient who cleared HBV spontaneously during the first 3 months. Seven patients were treated with lamivudine for a mean period of 24.5 months; HBV-DNA became negative in 5 of 7 (71.4%), and HBeAg became undetectable in 3 of 6 patients (50%). Patient actuarial survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 100%, 94.7%, and 81.2% for recipients of anti-HBc (+) livers and 95.2%, 83%, and 77.3% for recipients of

  13. Comparison of skin smears and biopsy specimens for demonstration of Leishmania tropica bodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nasser Rashid; Khurshid, Tariq

    2005-12-01

    To determine and compare the diagnostic value of skin biopsy, saline aspirate smears, skin slit smears and skin biopsy impression smears to demonstrate Leishmania tropica (LT) bodies in cutaneous leishmaniasis and to determine any association within the applied diagnostic tests. An analytical study. Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa, Karachi from January to December 2003. Seventyeight patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis were subjected to saline aspirate smears, skin slit smears, skin biopsy impression smears and skin biopsy and looked for LT bodies. The percentage positivity of all methods was calculated. McNemar test was applied to determine the association between percentage positivities of methods. Skin biopsy showed LT bodies in 70 (89.74%) patients, saline aspirate smears in 24 (30.76%), skin slit smears in 25 (32.05%) and skin biopsy impression smears in 27 (34.61%) patients. Smears demonstrated LT bodies in 10.25% cases in which biopsy was negative. Skin biopsy impression smears showed concordant results with skin biopsy in 20.51%, skin slit smears in 16.66% and saline aspirate smears in 19.25% of cases. Saline aspirate smears were positive in 48.1% of cases in which biopsy impression smears were negative, slit smears were positive in 50.9 % of cases in which biopsy impression smears were negative and slit smears were positive in 37% of cases in which saline aspirate smears were negative. Skin biopsy for histopathology is the most useful method in the demonstration of Leishmania parasite. Sensitivity of smears can be increased by a combination of various skin smears.

  14. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

  15. Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit

    2015-05-15

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.

  16. Prospective randomized trial comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided in-bore biopsy to MRI-ultrasound fusion and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in patients with prior negative biopsies.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Christian; Rabenalt, Robert; Blondin, Dirk; Quentin, Michael; Hiester, Andreas; Godehardt, Erhard; Gabbert, Helmut E; Becker, Nikolaus; Antoch, Gerald; Albers, Peter; Schimmöller, Lars

    2015-10-01

    A significant proportion of prostate cancers (PCas) are missed by conventional transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-GB). It remains unclear whether the combined approach using targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-ultrasound fusion-guided biopsy (FUS-GB) and systematic TRUS-GB is superior to targeted MRI-guided in-bore biopsy (IB-GB) for PCa detection. To compare PCa detection between IB-GB alone and FUS-GB + TRUS-GB in patients with at least one negative TRUS-GB and prostate-specific antigen ≥4 ng/ml. Patients were prospectively randomized after multiparametric prostate MRI to IB-GB (arm A) or FUS-GB + TRUS-GB (arm B) from November 2011 to July 2014. The study was powered at 80% to demonstrate an overall PCa detection rate of ≥60% in arm B compared to 40% in arm A. Secondary endpoints were the distribution of highest Gleason scores, the rate of detection of significant PCa (Gleason ≥7), the number of biopsy cores to detect one (significant) PCa, the positivity rate for biopsy cores, and tumor involvement per biopsy core. The study was halted after interim analysis because the primary endpoint was not met. The trial enrolled 267 patients, of whom 210 were analyzed (106 randomized to arm A and 104 to arm B). PCa detection was 37% in arm A and 39% in arm B (95% confidence interval for difference, -16% to 11%; p=0.7). Detection rates for significant PCa (29% vs 32%; p=0.7) and the highest percentage tumor involvement per biopsy core (48% vs 42%; p=0.4) were similar between the arms. The mean number of cores was 5.6 versus 17 (p<0.001). A limitation is the limited number of patients because of early cessation of accrual. This trial failed to identify an important improvement in detection rate for the combined biopsy approach over MRI-targeted biopsy alone. A prospective comparison between MRI-targeted biopsy alone and systematic TRUS-GB is justified. Our randomized study showed similar prostate cancer detection rates between targeted prostate biopsy

  17. Long-term lamivudine treatment achieves regression of advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bei; Lin, Lanyi; Xu, Guoguang; Zhuang, Yan; Guo, Qing; Liu, Yunye; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Xiaqiu; Wu, Shanming; Bao, Shisan; Cai, Wei; Xie, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Antiviral therapy is important in advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis with chronic hepatitis B (AdLF-CHB) patients, but complete regression of cirrhosis remains to be the challenge. We aimed to investigate whether up to 10 years lamivudine treatment achieves liver fibrosis/cirrhosis regression in AdLF-CHB patients. Improvement of hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis, virological response and disease progression were evaluated in 28 AdLF-CHB patients with up to 10 years lamivudine treatment. Liver biopsy was performed in all of the 28 patients at baseline, but only 19 patients had second biopsy at year 10. There were 24 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 4 HBeAg-negative patients within the original 28 AdLF-CHB patients. At the end of 10 years lamivudine treatment, 20 of the 24 HBeAg-positive patients had HBeAg loss. HBeAg seroconversion was detected in 10 of these 20 HBeAg loss patients. HBsAg loss was observed in 4 of the original 28 patients. Among these four HBsAg loss patients, three had HBsAg seroconversion. All patients achieved hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) undetectable. Histopathology was evaluated between paired original and final liver biopsies among 19 patients as follows: 4/19 achieved complete liver fibrosis/cirrhosis regression; 9/19 improved in Ishak fibrosis score; whereas 6/19 showed no fibrosis improvement. About 75% patients achieved inflammatory/fibrotic improvement. No significant disease progression was observed in 24/28 patients. Furthermore, no significant difference in histopathology improvement, cirrhosis regression, disease progression between non-resistance and rescue for resistance was observed. Long-term lamivudine therapy achieves regression of fibrosis/cirrhosis and improvement of histological and disease progression in AdLF-CHB patients. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. [Muscle biopsy in children: Usefulness in 2012].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Maurage, C-A; Carpentier, A; Briand, G; Thévenon, A; Rouaix, N; Vallée, L

    2013-01-01

    Muscle biopsy is a mainstay diagnostic tool for investigating neuromuscular disorders in children. We report the yield of pediatric muscle biopsy in a population of 415 children by a retrospective study of 419 biopsies performed between 1/01/2000 and 31/12/2009 in a neuropediatric department, including mitochondrial respiratory chain analysis for 87 children. Two hundred and fifty-five biopsies were from boys (61%) 164 from girls (39%). Their mean age at biopsy was 6.5years; 155 (37%) biopsies were obtained before the child was 5years old. Final histopathological diagnoses were: congenital myopathy (n=193, including 15 structural congenital myopathies); progressive muscular dystrophy (n=75 [18%] including 57 dystrophinopathies); congenital muscular dystrophy (n=17, including six primary merosinopathies); dermatomyositis (n=11); spinal muscular atrophy (n=9, including six atypical spinal muscular atrophies); metabolic myopathy (n=32, including 19 mitochondrial myopathies); encephalomyopathy (n=53 [13%], including 27 with a mitochondrial respiratory chain defect). Pathological diagnosis remained undetermined in 16 cases. In 184 patients (44%), the muscle biopsy revealed specific histopathological anomalies (dystrophic process; specific ultrastructural abnormalities; perifascicular atrophy; neurogenic atrophy; metabolic anomalies) enabling a precise etiological diagnosis. For 85% of progressive muscular dystrophies, the biopsy resulted in a genetic diagnosis after identification of the protein defect. In 15% of the congenital myopathies, histopathological anomalies focused attention on one or several genes. Concerning dystrophinopathies, quantification of dystrophin deficiency on the biopsy specimen contributed to the definition of the clinical phenotype: Duchenne, or Becker. In children with a myopathy, muscle biopsy is often indispensable to establish the etiological diagnosis. Based on the results from this series, muscle biopsy can provide a precise

  19. [Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1: a new biochemical marker of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?].

    PubMed

    Graffigna, Mabel Nora; Belli, Susana H; de Larrañaga, Gabriela; Fainboim, Hugo; Estepo, Claudio; Peres, Silvia; García, Natalia; Levalle, Oscar

    2009-03-01

    to assess the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with risk factors for this pathology (obesity, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2) and to determine the role of insulin, HOMA index, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1, sex hormone-binding globulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, as biochemical markers. Ninety-one patients with risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were evaluated. Serum transaminases, insulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 were measured. The diagnosis of fatty liver was performed by ultrasonography and liver biopsies were performed to 31 subjects who had steatosis by ultrasonography and high alanine aminotransferase. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was present in 65 out of 91 patients (71,4%). Liver biopsy performed to 31 subjects confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty-five patients had different degrees of fibrosis. Those individuals with fatty liver had higher waist circumference, serum levels of triglycerides, insulin and HOMA index, and lower serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 concentration. The degree ofhepatic steatosis by ultrasonography was positively correlated to waist circumference, triglycerides, insulin and HOMA index (p<0,003; p<0,003; p<0,002 and p<0,001, respectively), and was negatively correlated to HDL-cholesterol and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (p<0,025 and p<0,018, respectively). We found a high prevalence of NAFLD in patients with risk factors, most of them overweight or obese. Although SHBG and PAI-1 have a closely relationship to insulin resistance, they did not show to be markers of NAFLD. Regardless of low IGFBP-1 levels associated with NAFLD, serum IGFBP-1 measure is less accessible than insulin and triglycerides levels, HOMA index and waist circumference. Moreover, it is not a better marker for NAFLD than the above

  20. A comparison of liver sampling techniques in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S D; Zimmerman, K L; Panciera, D L; Monroe, W E; Leib, M S; Lanz, O I

    2015-01-01

    The liver sampling technique in dogs that consistently provides samples adequate for accurate histopathologic interpretation is not known. To compare histopathologic results of liver samples obtained by punch, cup, and 14 gauge needle to large wedge samples collected at necropsy. Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy. Prospective study. Liver specimens were obtained from the left lateral liver lobe with an 8 mm punch, a 5 mm cup, and a 14 gauge needle. After sample acquisition, two larger tissue samples were collected near the center of the left lateral lobe to be used as a histologic standard for comparison. Histopathologic features and numbers of portal triads in each sample were recorded. The mean number of portal triads obtained by each sampling method were 2.9 in needle samples, 3.4 in cup samples, 12 in punch samples, and 30.7 in the necropsy samples. The diagnoses in 66% of needle samples, 60% of cup samples, and 69% of punch samples were in agreement with the necropsy samples, and these proportions were not significantly different from each other. The corresponding kappa coefficients were 0.59 for needle biopsies, 0.52 for cup biopsies, and 0.62 for punch biopsies. The histopathologic interpretation of a liver sample in the dog is unlikely to vary if the liver biopsy specimen contains at least 3-12 portal triads. However, in comparison large necropsy samples, the accuracy of all tested methods was relatively low. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. [An adult with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection associated with repeated liver dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsu; Mori, Yuki; Fukushi, Tsugumi; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Sato, Ken; Sakamoto, Juichi; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Wada, Ryuichi

    2010-08-01

    A 30-year-old woman with hepatitis for 5 months was admitted to our hospital. She had been given a diagnosis of liver dysfunction 2 years previously, and the hepatitis in this case was believed to be drug-induced. On admission, the patient was asymptomatic. Serologic tests for hepatitis A, B, and C were negative, and the laboratory results showed a WBC count of 7600/mm3 (lymphocytes, 85%), an AST level of 559 U/L, ALT level of 427 U/L, and EBV-DNA of 2.9x10(6) copies/microg DNA. Histopathological examination of the liver biopsy specimens revealed moderate lymphocyte infiltration in the sinusoids and positive Epstein-Barr-encoded RNA (EBER) -lymphocytes. Therefore, chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) was diagnosed. However, 9 months after the diagnosis she died of mycotic sepsis. We presume that the patient may have developed CAEBV at the prior diagnosis of liver dysfunction 2 years previously. Therefore, CAEBV associated with liver dysfunction should be considered during the differential diagnosis of patients showing persistent liver dysfunction.

  2. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-01-01

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  3. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  4. Mice Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet Supplemented with Quercetin-3-Glucoside Show Attenuated Hyperlipidemia and Hyperinsulinemia Associated with Differential Regulation of PCSK9 and LDLR in their Liver and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Mbikay, Majambu; Mayne, Janice; Sirois, Francine; Fedoryak, Olesya; Raymond, Angela; Noad, Jennifer; Chrétien, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulate the clearance of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C): LDLR promotes it, and PCSK9 opposes it. These proteins also express in pancreatic β cells. Using cultured hepatocytes, we previously showed that the plant flavonoid quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3G) inhibits PCSK9 secretion, stimulated LDLR expression, and enhanced LDL-C uptake. Here, we examine whether Q3G supplementation could reverse the hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia of mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, and how it affects hepatic and pancreatic LDLR and PCSK9 expression. For 12 weeks, mice are fed a low- (0%) or high- (1%) cholesterol diet (LCD or HCD), supplemented or not with Q3G at 0.05 or 0.1% (w/w). Tissue LDLR and PCSK9 is analyzed by immunoblotting, plasma PCSK9 and insulin by ELISA, and plasma cholesterol and glucose by colorimetry. In LCD-fed mice, Q3G has no effect. In HCD-fed mice, it attenuates the increase in plasma cholesterol and insulin, accentuates the decrease in plasma PCSK9, and increases hepatic and pancreatic LDLR and PCSK9. In cultured pancreatic β cells, however, it stimulates PCSK9 secretion. In mice, dietary Q3G could counter HCD-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, in part by oppositely modulating hepatic and pancreatic PCSK9 secretion. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High-resolution, 2- and 3-dimensional imaging of uncut, unembedded tissue biopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Torres, Richard; Vesuna, Sam; Levene, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Despite continuing advances in tissue processing automation, traditional embedding, cutting, and staining methods limit our ability for rapid, comprehensive visual examination. These limitations are particularly relevant to biopsies for which immediate therapeutic decisions are most necessary, faster feedback to the patient is desired, and preservation of tissue for ancillary studies is most important. The recent development of improved tissue clearing techniques has made it possible to consider use of multiphoton microscopy (MPM) tools in clinical settings, which could address difficulties of established methods. To demonstrate the potential of MPM of cleared tissue for the evaluation of unembedded and uncut pathology samples. Human prostate, liver, breast, and kidney specimens were fixed and dehydrated by using traditional histologic techniques, with or without incorporation of nucleic acid fluorescent stains into dehydration steps. A benzyl alcohol/benzyl benzoate clearing protocol was substituted for xylene. Multiphoton microscopy was performed on a home-built system. Excellent morphologic detail was achievable with MPM at depths greater than 500 μm. Pseudocoloring produced images analogous to hematoxylin-eosin-stained images. Concurrent second-harmonic generation detection allowed mapping of collagen. Subsequent traditional section staining with hematoxylin-eosin did not reveal any detrimental morphologic effects. Sample immunostains on renal tissue showed preservation of normal reactivity. Complete reconstructions of 1-mm cubic samples elucidated 3-dimensional architectural organization. Multiphoton microscopy on cleared, unembedded, uncut biopsy specimens shows potential as a practical clinical tool with significant advantages over traditional histology while maintaining compatibility with gold standard techniques. Further investigation to address remaining implementation barriers is warranted.

  6. [Abdominal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging: a comparative study on the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosis in morbidly obese patients].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gabriela Villaça; Pereira, Sílvia Elaine; Saboya, Carlos José; Cortes, Caroline; Ramalho, Rejane

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the concordance between abdominal ultrasound and an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and concordance of these two methods with the histopathological exam. The population studied was comprised of 145 patients with morbid obesity (BMI > or = 40 Kg/m(2)), of both genders. NAFLD diagnosis was performed by MRI and Ultrasound. Liver biopsy was performed in a sub-sample (n=40). To evaluate the concordance of these two methods, the kappa coefficient was used. Concordance between both methods (MRI and Ultrasound) was poor and not significant (Kappa adjusted= 0.27; CI 95%= 0.07-0.39.) Nevertheless a slight concordance was found between diagnosis of NAFLD by ultrasound and the hepatic biopsy, with 83.,3% of concordant results and Kappa adjusted= 0.67.Results of an MRI and the histopathological exam were compared and results showed 53.6% of concordant results and kappa adjusted= 0.07. The concordance found in the diagnosis performed using the ultrasound method and the hepatic biopsy, shows a need to implement and perform more research on the use of ultrasound to validate and reconsider these methods. This would minimize the need to perform biopsies to detect and diagnose such disease.

  7. Kidney biopsy in AA amyloidosis: impact of histopathology on prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Kiremitci, Saba; Ozturk, Bengi; Akturk, Serkan; Erdogmus, Siyar; Duman, Neval; Ates, Kenan; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Nergizoglu, Gokhan; Kutlay, Sim; Sengul, Sule; Ensari, Arzu; Keven, Kenan

    2017-09-01

    In AA amyloidosis, while kidney biopsy is widely considered for diagnosis by clinicians, there is no evidence that the detailed investigation of renal histopathology can be utilized for the prognosis and clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to obtain whether histopathologic findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have prognostic and clinical value. This is a retrospective cohort study that included 38 patients who were diagnosed with AA amyloidosis by kidney biopsy between 2005 and 2013.The kidney biopsy specimens of patients were evaluated and graded for several characteristics of histopathological lesions and their relationship with renal outcomes. Segmental amyloid deposition in the kidney biopsy was seen in 29%, global amyloid deposition in 71, diffuse involvement of glomeruli in 84.2%, focal involvement in 7%, glomerular enlargement in 53%, tubular atrophy in 75% and interstitial fibrosis in 78% of patients. Histopathologically, glomerular enlargement, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and global amyloid deposition were significantly associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = .02, p < .001, p = .001, p = .009, p = .002, respectively) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, tubular atrophy was the only predictor of eGFR (p = .019 B = -20.573). In the follow-up at an average of 27 months, 18 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among them, global amyloid deposition was the only risk factor for the development of ESRD (p = .01, OR = 18.750, %95 CI= 2.021-173.942). This is the first study showing that the histopathological findings in kidney biopsy of AA amyloidosis might have a prognostic and clinical value for renal outcomes.

  8. Significance of Ureteroscopic Biopsy Grade in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Junya; Miyake, Hideaki; Sakai, Iori; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the ureteroscopic biopsy grade for patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Patients and Methods This study included 40 patients who were diagnosed with a single focus of UTUC by ureteroscopic biopsy and subsequently underwent nephroureterectomy. The significance of the biopsy grade as a predictive factor for pathological outcomes of nephroureterectomy was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of these 40 patients, 19 (47.5%) and 21 (52.5%) were diagnosed with low and high grade UTUC, respectively. The ureteroscopic biopsy grade matched the pathological grade of surgically resected specimens in 35 of the 40 cases (87.5%), and there was a significant correlation between the biopsy and pathological grades (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the biopsy grade was also shown to be closely associated with the pathological stage (p < 0.001); that is, only 1 of the 19 patients (5.3%) with biopsy low grade UTUC were pathologically diagnosed as having muscle invasive disease, while 17 of the 21 patients (81.0%) with biopsy high grade UTUC appeared to show tumor invasion into muscle or deeper. Conclusions The grade of UTUC on ureteroscopic biopsy could provide accurate diagnostic information on the final pathology of nephroureterectomy specimens. PMID:24917735

  9. Liver fibrosis markers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Bando, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hideji; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury. NAFLD includes a wide range of clinical conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. The histological findings of NASH indicate hepatic steatosis and inflammation with characteristic hepatocyte injury (e.g., ballooning degeneration), as is observed in the patients with alcoholic liver disease. NASH is considered to be a potentially health-threatening disease that can progress to cirrhosis. A liver biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic method to appropriately diagnose NASH, evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis, and determine the prognosis and optimal treatment. However, this invasive technique is associated with several limitations in routine use, and a number of biomarkers have been developed in order to predict the degree of liver fibrosis. In the present article, we review the current status of noninvasive biomarkers available to estimate liver fibrosis in the patients with NASH. We also discuss our recent findings on the use of the glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin ratio, which is a new index that correlates to various chronic liver diseases, including NASH. PMID:26139988

  10. Liver fibrosis markers of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Bando, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Hideji; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-06-28

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury. NAFLD includes a wide range of clinical conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. The histological findings of NASH indicate hepatic steatosis and inflammation with characteristic hepatocyte injury (e.g., ballooning degeneration), as is observed in the patients with alcoholic liver disease. NASH is considered to be a potentially health-threatening disease that can progress to cirrhosis. A liver biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic method to appropriately diagnose NASH, evaluate the severity of liver fibrosis, and determine the prognosis and optimal treatment. However, this invasive technique is associated with several limitations in routine use, and a number of biomarkers have been developed in order to predict the degree of liver fibrosis. In the present article, we review the current status of noninvasive biomarkers available to estimate liver fibrosis in the patients with NASH. We also discuss our recent findings on the use of the glycated albumin-to-glycated hemoglobin ratio, which is a new index that correlates to various chronic liver diseases, including NASH.

  11. Performance of non-invasive models of fibrosis in predicting mild to moderate fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammad S; Patidar, Kavish R; Boyett, Sherry; Luketic, Velimir A; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-04-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, presence of fibrosis is predictive of long-term liver-related complications. Currently, there are no reliable and non-invasive means of quantifying fibrosis in those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of a panel of non-invasive models in predicting fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The accuracy of FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, fibrosis 4 and four other non-invasive models in predicting fibrosis in those with biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was compared. These models were constructed post hoc in patients who had necessary clinical information collected within 2 months of a liver biopsy. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves were compared for each model using Delong analysis. Optimum cut-off for each model and fibrosis stage were calculated using the Youden index. The area under receiver operating characteristics curves for F ≥ 1 fibrosis for fibrosis 4 and FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was 0.821 and 0.801 respectively. For F ≥ 3, the area under receiver operating characteristics curves was 0.866 for fibrosis 4 and 0.862 for FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Delong analysis showed the area under receiver operating characteristics curves was statistically different for fibrosis 4 and FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared with BARD, BAAT and aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase ratio for F ≥ 1 and F ≥ 3. Area under receiver operating characteristics curves were significantly different for fibrosis 4 and FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease for F ≥ 3 compared with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score. At a fixed sensitivity of 90%, FibroMeter non-alcoholic fatty liver disease had the highest specificity for F ≥ 1 (52.4%) and F ≥ 3 (63.8%). In contrast, at a fixed specificity of 90%, fibrosis 4 outperformed other models with a

  12. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Burroughs, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    The presence and degree of hepatic fibrosis is crucial in order to make therapeutic decisions and predict clinical outcomes. Currently, the place of liver biopsy as the standard of reference for assessing liver fibrosis has been challenged by the increasing awareness of a number of drawbacks related to its use (invasiveness, sampling error, inter-/intraobserver variability). In parallel with this, noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis has experienced explosive growth in recent years and a wide spectrum of noninvasive methods ranging from serum assays to imaging techniques have been developed. Some are validated methods, such as the Fibrotest/ Fibrosure and transient elastography in Europe, and are gaining a growing role in routine clinical practice, especially in chronic hepatitis C. Large-scale validation is awaited in the setting of other chronic liver diseases. However, noninvasive tests used to detect significant fibrosis and cirrhosis, the two major clinical endpoints, are not yet at a level of performance suitable for routine diagnostic tests, and there is still no perfect surrogate or method able to completely replace an optimal liver biopsy. This article aims to review current noninvasive tests for the assessment of liver fibrosis and the perspectives for their rational use in clinical practice. PMID:24714123

  13. Amoxicillin–Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghabril, Marwan; Rockey, Don C.; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Fontana, Robert J.; Kleiner, David E.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Amoxicillin–clavulanate (AC) is the most frequent cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced injury (DILI) in the US DILI Network (DILIN) registry. Here, we examined a large cohort of AC-DILI cases and compared features of AC-DILI to those of other drugs. Methods Subjects with suspected DILI were enrolled prospectively, and cases were adjudicated as previously described. Clinical variables and outcomes of patients with AC-DILI were compared to the overall DILIN cohort and to DILI caused by other antimicrobials. Results One hundred and seventeen subjects with AC-DILI were identified from the cohort (n = 1038) representing 11 % of all cases and 24 % of those due to antimicrobial agents (n = 479). Those with AC-DILI were older (60 vs. 48 years, P < 0.001). AC-DILI was more frequent in men than women (62 vs. 39 %) compared to the overall cohort (40 vs. 60 %, P < 0.001). The mean time to symptom onset was 31 days. The Tb, ALT, and ALP were 7 mg/dL, 478, and 325 U/L at onset. Nearly all liver biopsies showed prominent cholestatic features. Resolution of AC-DILI, defined by return of Tb to <2.5 mg/dL, occurred on average 55 days after the peak value. Three female subjects required liver transplantation, and none died due to DILI. Conclusion AC-DILI causes a moderately severe, mixed hepatocellular–cholestatic injury, particularly in older men, unlike DILI in general, which predominates in women. Although often protracted, eventual apparent recovery is typical, particularly for men and usually in women, but three women required liver transplantation. PMID:27003146

  14. Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    deLemos, Andrew S; Ghabril, Marwan; Rockey, Don C; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman X; Fontana, Robert J; Kleiner, David E; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) is the most frequent cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced injury (DILI) in the US DILI Network (DILIN) registry. Here, we examined a large cohort of AC-DILI cases and compared features of AC-DILI to those of other drugs. Subjects with suspected DILI were enrolled prospectively, and cases were adjudicated as previously described. Clinical variables and outcomes of patients with AC-DILI were compared to the overall DILIN cohort and to DILI caused by other antimicrobials. One hundred and seventeen subjects with AC-DILI were identified from the cohort (n = 1038) representing 11 % of all cases and 24 % of those due to antimicrobial agents (n = 479). Those with AC-DILI were older (60 vs. 48 years, P < 0.001). AC-DILI was more frequent in men than women (62 vs. 39 %) compared to the overall cohort (40 vs. 60 %, P < 0.001). The mean time to symptom onset was 31 days. The Tb, ALT, and ALP were 7 mg/dL, 478, and 325 U/L at onset. Nearly all liver biopsies showed prominent cholestatic features. Resolution of AC-DILI, defined by return of Tb to <2.5 mg/dL, occurred on average 55 days after the peak value. Three female subjects required liver transplantation, and none died due to DILI. AC-DILI causes a moderately severe, mixed hepatocellular-cholestatic injury, particularly in older men, unlike DILI in general, which predominates in women. Although often protracted, eventual apparent recovery is typical, particularly for men and usually in women, but three women required liver transplantation.

  15. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  16. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  17. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  18. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  19. Liquid biopsy for early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenhua; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Weizhe; Liang, Hengrui; Zeng, Haikang; He, Jianxing

    2018-04-01

    Liquid biopsy, which analyzes biological fluids especially blood specimen to detect and quantify circulating cancer biomarkers, have been rapidly introduced and represents a promising potency in clinical practice of lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Unlike conventional tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy is non-invasive, safe, simple in procedure, and is not influenced by manipulators' skills. Notably, some circulating cancer biomarkers are already detectable in disease with low-burden, making liquid biopsy feasible in detecting early stage lung cancer. In this review, we described a landscape of different liquid biopsy methods by highlighting the rationale and advantages, accessing the value of various circulating biomarkers and discussing their possible future development in the detection of early lung cancer.

  20. The liquid biopsy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Junaid; Yun, Jungmi W; Kompelli, Anvesh R; Moufarrej, Youmna E; Alexander, Jonathan S; Herrera, Guillermo A; Shackelford, Rodney E

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has significantly increased over the last century, largely due to smoking, and remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. This is often due to lung cancer first presenting at late stages and a lack of curative therapeutic options at these later stages. Delayed diagnoses, inadequate tumor sampling, and lung cancer misdiagnoses are also not uncommon due to the limitations of the tissue biopsy. Our better understanding of the tumor microenvironment and the systemic actions of tumors, combined with the recent advent of the liquid biopsy, may allow molecular diagnostics to be done on circulating tumor markers, particularly circulating tumor DNA. Multiple liquid biopsy molecular methods are presently being examined to determine their efficacy as surrogates to the tumor tissue biopsy. This review will focus on new liquid biopsy technologies and how they may assist in lung cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

  1. Coeliac disease: to biopsy or not?

    PubMed

    Reilly, Norelle R; Husby, Steffen; Sanders, David S; Green, Peter H R

    2018-01-01

    Coeliac disease is increasingly recognized as a global problem in both children and adults. Traditionally, the findings of characteristic changes of villous atrophy and increased intraepithelial lymphocytosis identified in duodenal biopsy samples taken during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy have been required for diagnosis. Although biopsies remain advised as necessary for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in adults, European guidelines for children provide a biopsy-sparing diagnostic pathway. This approach has been enabled by the high specificity and sensitivity of serological testing. However, these guidelines are not universally accepted. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of a biopsy-avoiding pathway for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, especially in this current era of the call for more biopsies, even from the duodenal bulb, in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. In addition, a contrast between paediatric and adult guidelines is presented.

  2. Clinical usefulness of temporal artery biopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Vilaseca, J; González, A; Cid, M C; Lopez-Vivancos, J; Ortega, A

    1987-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic usefulness of temporal artery biopsy in temporal arteritis (TA) and establish clinical features capable of predicting its positivity we have retrospectively studied the biopsy specimens and the clinical features of 103 patients who had undergone temporal artery biopsy. Temporal artery biopsy reached a positive predictive value of 90.2% with respect to the final diagnosis based on the criteria proposed by Ellis and Ralston and the clinical course. The simultaneous presence of recent onset headache, jaw claudication, and abnormalities of the temporal arteries on physical examination had a specificity of 94.8% with respect to the histological diagnosis and of 100% with respect to final diagnosis. The presence of any of these clinical features, though of little specificity (34.4%), had a sensitivity of 100% with respect to histological diagnosis, selecting a group of patients in whom temporal artery biopsy has more discriminative value. PMID:3592783

  3. Determining the Optimal Number of Core Needle Biopsy Passes for Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nam S; Ge, Benjamin H; Pan, Lorraine Y; Ozawa, Michael G; Kong, Christina S; Louie, John D; Shah, Rajesh P

    2018-03-01

    The number of core biopsy passes required for adequate next-generation sequencing is impacted by needle cut, needle gauge, and the type of tissue involved. This study evaluates diagnostic adequacy of core needle lung biopsies based on number of passes and provides guidelines for other tissues based on simulated biopsies in ex vivo porcine organ tissues. The rate of diagnostic adequacy for pathology and molecular testing from lung biopsy procedures was measured for eight operators pre-implementation (September 2012-October 2013) and post-implementation (December 2013-April 2014) of a standard protocol using 20-gauge side-cut needles for ten core biopsy passes at a single academic hospital. Biopsy pass volume was then estimated in ex vivo porcine muscle, liver, and kidney using side-cut devices at 16, 18, and 20 gauge and end-cut devices at 16 and 18 gauge to estimate minimum number of passes required for adequate molecular testing. Molecular diagnostic adequacy increased from 69% (pre-implementation period) to 92% (post-implementation period) (p < 0.001) for lung biopsies. In porcine models, both 16-gauge end-cut and side-cut devices require one pass to reach the validated volume threshold to ensure 99% adequacy for molecular characterization, while 18- and 20-gauge devices require 2-5 passes depending on needle cut and tissue type. Use of 20-gauge side-cut core biopsy needles requires a significant number of passes to ensure diagnostic adequacy for molecular testing across all tissue types. To ensure diagnostic adequacy for molecular testing, 16- and 18-gauge needles require markedly fewer passes.

  4. Reliability of skin biopsies in determining accurate tumor margins: a retrospective study after Mohs micrographic surgery.

    PubMed

    Koslosky, Cynthia Lynn; El Tal, Abdel Kader; Workman, Benjamin; Tamim, Hani; Durance, Michelle Christine; Mehregan, David Ali

    2014-09-01

    Skin biopsy reports of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are often accompanied by comments on the margins. A physician's management can be influenced by such reports, particularly when the margins are reported as clear and no further interventions are pursued. To retrospectively review pathology margins on Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) cases performed at a University Center and to compare biopsy margins with the Mohs margins found on the first stage. Data collection of 1,000 cases of Mohs surgery was obtained regarding margins on skin biopsy and compared with margins on the first stage of MMS. Overall, of the biopsies that showed only deep margin involvement, a lateral margin was seen on 32% of the first stages of MMS. Conversely, of the biopsies that showed only lateral margin involvement, a deep margin was seen on 14% of the first stages of MMS. Of the biopsies that showed clear margins, a margin was seen in 30% of the cases on the first stage of MMS. Skin biopsies processed through the "bread-loafing" technique are not reliable in detecting accurate margins, and therefore, a biopsy report should not include margin involvement within it.

  5. Stereotactic biopsy complicated by pneumocephalus and acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan; Avneri, Itzik; Nimrod, Adi; Kanner, Andrew A

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe pneumocephalus as a rare complication of stereotactic biopsy and as a possible cause of acute neurogenic pulmonary edema. A case of frameless stereotactic biopsy complicated by pneumocephalus presenting with acute lung injury 48 hours after the procedure. A frameless stereotactic procedure was performed in the standard fashion. Immediate postoperative CT showed no intracranial air except for a gas inclusion at the biopsy site within the lesion. The skin staple placed at the end of surgery on the skin incision was removed 36 hours later. A CT scan performed 48 hours postoperatively showed new pneumocephalus. The patient exhibited acute respiratory distress but no new neurologic symptoms. There was no detectable systemic cause for the pulmonary edema. The patient received supportive respiratory treatment and fully recovered. Pneumocephalus is apparently a rare complication of stereotactic brain biopsy and one that may result from early removal of the skin staple or suture. The occurrence of acute neurogenic pulmonary edema may be attributed to the pneumocephalus.

  6. Fatty Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Information, Search Drug Names, Generic and Brand Natural Products, ... fat to accumulate in liver cells by causing the body to synthesize more fat or by processing (metabolizing) and excreting fat more slowly. As a ...

  7. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current “gold standard” for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence. PMID:26494961

  8. Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2015-10-21

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current "gold standard" for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence.

  9. Bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells do not reduce fibrosis or improve function in a rat model of severe chronic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Adriana B; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; Dias, Juliana V; Paredes, Bruno D; Mannheimer, Elida G; Carvalho, Felipe G; Asensi, Karina D; Gutfilen, Bianca; Fonseca, Lea Mirian B; Resende, Celia Maria C; Rezende, Guilherme F M; Takiya, Christina M; de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Campos; Goldenberg, Regina C S

    2008-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in a rat model of severe chronic liver injury. Fourteen female Wistar rats were fed exclusively an alcoholic liquid diet and received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride every other day during 15 weeks. After this period, eight animals (MSC group) had 1 x 10(7) cells injected into the portal vein while six animals (placebo group) received vehicle. Blood analysis was performed to evaluate alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and albumin before cell therapy and 1 and 2 months after cell or placebo infusion. Fibrosis was evaluated before and 1 month after cell or placebo injection by liver biopsies. Two months after cell delivery, animals were sacrificed and histological analysis of the livers was performed. Fibrosis was quantified by histomorphometry. Biopsies obtained before cell infusion showed intense collagen deposition and septa interconnecting regenerative nodules. One month after cell injection, this result was unaltered and differences in fibrosis quantification were not found between MSC and placebo groups. ALT and AST returned to normal values 2 weeks after cell or placebo infusion, without significant differences between experimental groups. Two months after cell or placebo injection, albumin had also returned to normal values and histological results were maintained, again without differences between MSC and placebo groups. Therefore, under our experimental conditions, MSC were unable to reduce fibrosis or improve liver function in a rat model of severe chronic liver injury.

  10. Rapidly progressing malignant insulinoma presented with multiple liver metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Askin; Askin, Erdogan; Kose, Fatih; Fatih, Kose; Akkaya, Hampar; Hampar, Akkaya; Bascil Tutuncu, Neslihan; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil; Ozyilkan, Ozgur; Ozgur, Ozyilkan

    2010-12-01

    A 51-year-old female was admitted to emergency unit with sudden loss of consciousness. Her blood glucose level from fingertip was 33 mg/dl, and insulin level was 55 (normal range, 4-17 IU). Abdominal ultrasonography revealed pancreatic mass with diffuse liver metastases. Biopsy of liver metastases showed differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Diazoxide and chemotherapy stabilized her glucose level for more than 4 months. However, the disease showed progression, and death occurred 8 months later. In conclusion, this case may suggest that biologic behavior may differ from histological behavior in insulinoma and platin-based systemic chemotherapy may provide some benefit in patients those who had diazoxide- and octreotide-resistant tumors.

  11. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS): A light and electron microscopy study in human liver.

    PubMed

    Vreuls, C P H; Driessen, A; Olde Damink, S W M; Koek, G H; Duimel, H; van den Broek, M A J; Dejong, C H C; Braet, F; Wisse, E

    2016-05-01

    Oxaliplatin is an important chemotherapeutic agent, used in the treatment of hepatic colorectal metastases, and known to induce the sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Pathophysiological knowledge concerning SOS is based on a rat model. Therefore, the aim was to perform a comprehensive study of the features of human SOS, using both light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). Included were all patients of whom wedge liver biopsies were collected during a partial hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases, in a 4-year period. The wedge biopsy were perfusion fixated and processed for LM and EM. The SOS lesions were selected by LM and details were studied using EM. Material was available of 30 patients, of whom 28 patients received neo-adjuvant oxaliplatin. Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients showed SOS lesions, based on microscopy. The lesions consisted of sinusoidal endothelial cell detachment from the space of Disse on EM. In the enlarged space of Disse a variable amount of erythrocytes were located. Sinusoidal endothelial cell detachment was present in human SOS, accompanied by enlargement of the space of Disse and erythrocytes in this area. These findings, originally described in a rat model, were now for the first time confirmed in human livers under clinically relevant settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness Measurements for Steatosis Assessment in the Liver Transplant of Brain Dead Donors.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Claire; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Carrier, Paul; Naudet, Florian; Bellissant, Eric; Labrousse, François; Pichon, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    One of the main selection criteria of the quality of a liver graft is the degree of steatosis, which will determine the success of the transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of FibroScan and its related methods Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness to assess objectively steatosis and fibrosis in livers from brain-dead donors to be potentially used for transplantation. Over a period of 10 months, 23 consecutive brain dead donors screened for liver procurement underwent a FibroScan and a liver biopsy. The different predictive models of liver retrievability using liver biopsy as the gold standard have led to the following area under receiver operating characteristic curve: 76.6% (95% confidence intervals [95% CIs], 48.2%-100%) when based solely on controlled attenuation parameter, 75.0% (95% CIs, 34.3%-100%) when based solely on liver stiffness, and 96.7% (95% CIs, 88.7%-100%) when based on combined indices. Our study suggests that a preoperative selection of brain-dead donors based on a combination of both Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness obtained with FibroScan could result in a good preoperative prediction of the histological status and degree of steatosis of a potential liver graft.

  13. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the biopsy punch, gastrointestinal mechanical biopsy instrument, suction... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is a...

  14. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... generic type of device includes the biopsy punch, gastrointestinal mechanical biopsy instrument, suction... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. 876... Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument is a...

  15. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... biopsy instrument, gastro-urology biopsy needle and needle set, and nonelectric biopsy forceps. This... regulations. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for the biopsy forceps cover and the non-electric biopsy forceps. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from...

  16. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... biopsy instrument, gastro-urology biopsy needle and needle set, and nonelectric biopsy forceps. This... regulations. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for the biopsy forceps cover and the non-electric biopsy forceps. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from...

  17. 21 CFR 876.1075 - Gastroenterology-urology biopsy instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... biopsy instrument, gastro-urology biopsy needle and needle set, and nonelectric biopsy forceps. This... regulations. (b) Classification. (1) Class II (performance standards). (2) Class I for the biopsy forceps cover and the non-electric biopsy forceps. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from...

  18. Dynamic PET of human liver inflammation: impact of kinetic modeling with optimization-derived dual-blood input function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guobao; Corwin, Michael T; Olson, Kristin A; Badawi, Ramsey D; Sarkar, Souvik

    2018-05-30

    The hallmark of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is hepatocellular inflammation and injury in the setting of hepatic steatosis. Recent work has indicated that dynamic 18F-FDG PET with kinetic modeling has the potential to assess hepatic inflammation noninvasively, while static FDG-PET did not show a promise. Because the liver has dual blood supplies, kinetic modeling of dynamic liver PET data is challenging in human studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate and identify a dual-input kinetic modeling approach for dynamic FDG-PET of human liver inflammation. Fourteen human patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were included in the study. Each patient underwent one-hour dynamic FDG-PET/CT scan and had liver biopsy within six weeks. Three models were tested for kinetic analysis: traditional two-tissue compartmental model with an image-derived single-blood input function (SBIF), model with population-based dual-blood input function (DBIF), and modified model with optimization-derived DBIF through a joint estimation framework. The three models were compared using Akaike information criterion (AIC), F test and histopathologic inflammation reference. The results showed that the optimization-derived DBIF model improved the fitting of liver time activity curves and achieved lower AIC values and higher F values than the SBIF and population-based DBIF models in all patients. The optimization-derived model significantly increased FDG K1 estimates by 101% and 27% as compared with traditional SBIF and population-based DBIF. K1 by the optimization-derived model was significantly associated with histopathologic grades of liver inflammation while the other two models did not provide a statistical significance. In conclusion, modeling of DBIF is critical for kinetic analysis of dynamic liver FDG-PET data in human studies. The optimization-derived DBIF model is more appropriate than SBIF and population-based DBIF for dynamic FDG-PET of liver inflammation. © 2018

  19. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  20. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  1. Cytology Preparations of Formalin Fixative Aid Detection of Giardia in Duodenal Biopsy Samples.

    PubMed

    Panarelli, Nicole C; Gobara, Nariman; Hoda, Rana S; Chaump, Michael; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2017-04-01

    Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. The organism elicits no, or minimal, inflammatory changes in duodenal biopsy samples, so it can be easily overlooked. We performed this study to determine whether Giardia could be isolated from the formalin fixative of biopsy samples, and to evaluate the value of fluid analysis in the assessment for potential infection. We prospectively evaluated duodenal biopsy samples from 92 patients with a clinical suspicion of giardiasis or symptoms compatible with that diagnosis (ie, diarrhea, bloating, or abdominal pain) Biopsy samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histologic diagnoses included giardiasis (5 cases, 4%), normal findings (64 cases, 70%), peptic injury/active duodenitis (12 cases, 13%), and intraepithelial lymphocytosis with villous blunting (10 cases, 12%). Fifteen cases (13%) showed detached degenerated epithelial cells or mucus droplets in the intervillous space that resembled Giardia. Cytology slides were prepared from formalin in the biopsy container using the standard Cytospin protocol and reviewed by a cytopathologist blinded to the biopsy findings. Cytologic evaluation revealed Giardia spp. in all 5 biopsy-proven cases, and identified an additional case that was not detected by biopsy analysis. Organisms were significantly more numerous (mean: 400 trophozoites; range, 120 to 810) and showed better morphologic features in cytology preparations compared with tissue sections (mean: 129 trophozoites; range, 37 to 253 organisms; P=0.05). Our findings suggest that cytology preparations from formalin fixative can resolve diagnostically challenging cases and even enhance Giardia detection in some cases.

  2. Fibrillar collagen scoring by second harmonic microscopy: a new tool in the assessment of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gailhouste, Luc; Le Grand, Yann; Odin, Christophe; Guyader, Dominique; Turlin, Bruno; Ezan, Frédéric; Désille, Yoann; Guilbert, Thomas; Bessard, Anne; Frémin, Christophe; Theret, Nathalie; Baffet, Georges

    2010-03-01

    Imaging of supramolecular structures by multiphoton microscopy offers significant advantages for studying specific fibrillar compounds in biological tissues. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the relevance of Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) for assessing and quantifying, without staining, fibrillar collagen in liver fibrosis. We first showed the relationship between SHG signal and collagen forms over-produced and accumulated during fibrosis progression. Taking this property into consideration, we developed an innovative method to precisely quantify the fibrosis area in histological slices by scoring of fibrillar collagen deposits (Fibrosis-SHG index). The scoring method was routinely applied to 119 biopsies from patients with chronic liver disease allowing a fast and accurate measurement of fibrosis correlated with the Fibrosis-Metavir score (rho=0.75, p<0.0001). The technique allowed discriminating patients with advanced (moderate to severe) fibrosis (AUROC=0.88, p<0.0001) and cirrhosis (AUROC=0.89, p<0.0001). Taking advantage of its continuous gradation, the Fibrosis-SHG index also allowed the discrimination of several levels of fibrosis within the same F-Metavir stage. The SHG process presented several advantages such as a high reliability and sensitivity that lead to a standardized evaluation of hepatic fibrosis in liver biopsies without staining and pathological examination. Second harmonic microscopy emerges as an original and powerful tool in the assessment of liver fibrosis and offers new possibilities for the evaluation of experimental protocols. We expect that this technology could easily be applicable in the study of other fibro-proliferative pathologies. Copyright (c) 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Psoriasis skin biopsy image segmentation using Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anabik; Garain, Utpal; Chandra, Aditi; Chatterjee, Raghunath; Senapati, Swapan

    2018-06-01

    Development of machine assisted tools for automatic analysis of psoriasis skin biopsy image plays an important role in clinical assistance. Development of automatic approach for accurate segmentation of psoriasis skin biopsy image is the initial prerequisite for developing such system. However, the complex cellular structure, presence of imaging artifacts, uneven staining variation make the task challenging. This paper presents a pioneering attempt for automatic segmentation of psoriasis skin biopsy images. Several deep neural architectures are tried for segmenting psoriasis skin biopsy images. Deep models are used for classifying the super-pixels generated by Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) and the segmentation performance of these architectures is compared with the traditional hand-crafted feature based classifiers built on popularly used classifiers like K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF). A U-shaped Fully Convolutional Neural Network (FCN) is also used in an end to end learning fashion where input is the original color image and the output is the segmentation class map for the skin layers. An annotated real psoriasis skin biopsy image data set of ninety (90) images is developed and used for this research. The segmentation performance is evaluated with two metrics namely, Jaccard's Coefficient (JC) and the Ratio of Correct Pixel Classification (RCPC) accuracy. The experimental results show that the CNN based approaches outperform the traditional hand-crafted feature based classification approaches. The present research shows that practical system can be developed for machine assisted analysis of psoriasis disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores <12, and lack of biopsy location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  5. Dual-echo, chemical shift gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging to quantify hepatic steatosis: Implications for living liver donation.

    PubMed

    Rinella, Mary E; McCarthy, Richard; Thakrar, Kiran; Finn, John Paul; Rao, Sambasiva M; Koffron, Alan J; Abecassis, Michael; Blei, Andres T

    2003-08-01

    In living liver donation, a fatty liver poses risks for both recipient and donor. Currently, liver biopsy is the standard for assessing the presence and extent of steatosis. The goals of this study were to correlate a steatosis index derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the histologic grade on biopsy as well as to determine the topographic distribution of steatosis within the liver. We examined the ability of dual-echo, chemical shift gradient-echo MRI to predict the degree of steatosis on liver biopsy. A total of 22 subjects received both a liver biopsy and detailed MRI evaluation. These individuals included 15 potential living donors and 7 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. MRI steatosis index was then compared with histologic grade on liver biopsy. The topographic distribution of hepatic steatosis was determined from those subjects in whom MRI detected hepatic steatosis. The steatosis index had a positive correlation with grade of steatosis on liver biopsy (correlation coefficient, 0.84). There was no significant variation in the degree of steatosis among segments. A steatosis index of >0.2 had good positive and negative predictive value for the presence of significant steatosis (>15%) on biopsy. Our quantitative MRI protocol can predict the degree of hepatic steatosis when it is minimal to moderate, and may obviate the need for liver biopsy for the purpose of quantification of steatosis in living donors. Fat saturation added to the MRI protocol may further improve diagnostic accuracy. This technique may be applicable to the larger population with hepatic steatosis.

  6. [Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: an uncommon liver tumor].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Rayon, Miguel; Moya, Angel; Mir, Jose

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a female patient who was referred to our unit because of a solid liver tumor, suggestive of metastasis. After biopsy, the patient was diagnosed with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare entity with an unpredictable, potentially fatal, clinical course and outcome. Due to its rarity, this entity should be considered when a solitary hepatic lesion is detected and should be included in the differential diagnosis with liver metastases. We highlight the infrequency of this tumor, its presentation as a solitary hepatic lesion and the indication of surgical treatment. We describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver and report a new case of this entity. The distinct therapeutic options are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...

  8. Portal inflow and pressure changes in right liver living donor liver transplantation including the middle hepatic vein.

    PubMed

    Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau; Ng, Kelvin K C; Ng, Irene O L; Yong, Boon Hun; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2011-02-01

    The middle hepatic vein may be included in right liver living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) to optimize hepatic venous outflow. We studied the graft's ability to relieve portal hypertension and accommodate portal hyperperfusion with portal manometry and ultrasonic flowmetry. Surgical outcomes with respect to portal hemodynamometry were also investigated. The ages of the recipients and donors for 46 consecutive LDLT procedures were 50 (range, 16-66 years) and 31 years (range, 18-54 years), respectively. The graft to standard liver volume ratio was 47.4% (range, 32.4%-69.0%). The hospital mortality rate was 4.4% as 2 recipients died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage and sepsis. The portal pressure dropped by 8 mm Hg (range, -7 to 19 mm Hg) from 23 (range, 8-37 mm Hg) to 14 mm Hg (range, 10-26 mm Hg) after graft implantation. The portal inflow positively correlated with the portal pressure before native liver hepatectomy (R(2) = 0.305, P = 0.001) and not with the graft size. The portal inflow increased from 81 mL/minute/100 g (range, 35-210 mL/minute/100 g) before donor right hepatectomy to 318 mL/minute/100 g (range, 102-754 mL/minute/100 g) after graft implantation. The graft portal inflow had a positive linear correlation with the recipient portal pressure before native liver total hepatectomy (R(2) = 0.261, P = 0.001) but not after graft implantation, and it had a negative correlation with the graft to standard liver volume ratio (R(2) = 0.247, P = 0.001). Only 1 of the graft biopsies showed moderate sinusoidal congestion. Twelve recipients had Clavien grade 2+ complications that were not related to the portal inflow and pressure or graft size. Right liver LDLT including the middle hepatic vein effectively lowered the recipient portal pressure by allowing unimpeded venous outflow. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Prostate Cancer in Deceased Liver Donors.

    PubMed

    Skalski, M; Gierej, B; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, B; Hołówko, W; Krawczyk, M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignant tumor (13%) among male subjects in Poland. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of prostate cancer in a group of deceased liver donors. A total of 784 liver procurement attempts from deceased donors were performed in the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, from January 1, 2012, to April 1, 2015; 700 grafts were actually used in a liver transplant. A retrospective analysis was performed based on these data. Among male donors (n = 486 [62%]), there were 30 (6.2%) cases of a frozen biopsy of the prostate performed before making the decision regarding liver graft utilization. In the group of 30 donors who underwent prostate examination, 3 (10%) were diagnosed as having prostate cancer of a moderate invasive stage. In 2 other cases, fresh frozen section suggested prostate cancer; however, this fact was not confirmed in routine section. liver transplantation was not performed in these cases of suspicion of prostate cancer (5 of 30 [17%]) in the frozen biopsy specimens. The difference between groups of donors with prostate cancer and benign pathology of the prostate gland according to prostate-specific antigen serum concentration (P = .578) or age (P = .730) was not statistically significant. Increased prostate-specific antigen serum concentrations without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in histopathologic examinations should not be an independent contraindication for performing organ transplantation. Nevertheless, for recipient safety, even when prostate cancer is only suspected in the frozen biopsy sample, the procured organ should not be used for transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rating of CCl(4)-induced rat liver fibrosis by blood serum glycomics.

    PubMed

    Desmyter, Liesbeth; Fan, Ye-Dong; Praet, Marleen; Jaworski, Tomasz; Vervecken, Wouter; De Hemptinne, Bernard; Contreras, Roland; Chen, Cuiying

    2007-07-01

    Non-invasive staging of human liver fibrosis is a desirable objective that remains under extensive evaluation. Animal model systems are often used for studying human liver disease and screening antifibrotic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of serum N-glycan profiles to evaluate liver fibrosis in a rat model. Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were induced in rats by oral administration of CCl(4). Liver injury was assessed biochemically (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity, aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activity and total bilirubin) and histologically. The N-glycan profile (GlycoTest) was performed using DNA sequencer-assisted-fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis technology. In parallel, the effect of cotreatment with antifibrotic interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was studied. The biopsy scoring system showed that CCl(4) induced early fibrosis (F < 1-2) in rats after 3 weeks of treatment, and cirrhosis (F4) after 12 weeks. Significant increases in ALT activity, AST activity and total bilirubin levels were detected only after 12 weeks of CCl(4) treatment. GlycoTest showed three glycans were significantly altered in the CCl(4)-goup. Peak 3 started at week 6, at an early stage in fibrosis development (F < 1-2), whereas peaks 4 and 5 occurred at week 9, at which time mild liver fibrosis (F = 1-2) had developed. The changes in the CCl(4)-IFN-gamma group were intermediate between the CCl(4)- and the control groups. The GlycoTest is much more sensitive than biochemical tests for evaluating liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in the rat model. The test can also be used as a non-invasive marker for screening and monitoring the antifibrotic activity of potential therapeutic compounds.

  11. Clinical application of Lin's biopsy grasper for intrauterine targeted biopsy and polypectomy during office hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bao-Liang; Tseng, Jen-Yu; Ueno, Kazunori; Nakada, Sakura

    2018-06-01

    Hysteroscopy has widely been used for diagnosis of the uterine cavity; however, target biopsy has often been difficult in part to the inherent limitations of ancillary instruments. Lin's biopsy grasper was specifically designed to work in conjunction with a flexible hysteroscope to obtain intrauterine biopsy under transabdominal sonography. Herein, we share our clinical experience in the management of endometrial abnormalities with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper during office-based hysteroscopy. From February 2006 to November 2016, the use of Lin's biopsy grasper for tissue biopsy was attempted on 126 cases. We retrospectively recorded and analyzed the patients' preoperative characteristics and biopsy outcomes to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of Lin's biopsy grasper. Out of the one hundred and twenty-six enrolled patients, satisfactory targeted biopsies were achieved; including high diagnostic rate (92.1%, with 116 cases confirmed histologically) and adequate tissue retrieval (77.8%, with 98 cases obtaining optimal specimen volume). All patients tolerated the procedure without analgesics or anesthesia. Diagnostic flexible hysteroscopy combined with the use of Lin's biopsy grasper has proven to be an effective tool for intrauterine evaluation and obtaining tissue sample. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effective osimertinib treatment in a patient with discordant T790 M mutation detection between liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mambetsariev, Isa; Vora, Lalit; Yu, Kim Wai; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-21

    We report the successful treatment of the patient with osimertinib 80 mg/day following disease progression and a discordance in the detection of a mechanism of resistance epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790 M between liquid biopsy and tissue biopsy methods. A 57-year-old Hispanic male patient initially diagnosed with an EGFR 19 deletion positive lung adenocarcinoma and clinically responded to initial erlotinib treatment. The patient subsequently progressed on erlotinib 150 mg/day and repeat biopsies both tissue and liquid were sent for next-generation sequencing (NGS). A T790 M EGFR mutation was detected in the blood sample using a liquid biopsy technique, but the tissue biopsy failed to show a T790 M mutation in a newly biopsied tissue sample. He was then successfully treated with osimertinib 80 mg/day, has clinically and radiologically responded, and remains on osimertinib treatment after 10 months. Second-line osimertinib treatment, when administered at 80 mg/day, is both well tolerated and efficacious in a patient with previously erlotinib treated lung adenocarcinoma and a T790 M mutation detected by liquid biopsy.

  13. Novel biopsy forceps for diagnosis of biliary tract diseases during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a prospective comparative study with 90° adjustable and conventional biopsy forceps.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kentaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Umeda, Junko; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2012-01-01

    Recently, controllable biopsy forceps (MTW, D°sseldorf, Germany) have been developed. This biopsy forceps were 90° adjustable. In the present study, the feasibility and efficacy of the controllable biopsy forceps were compared with those of conventional biopsy forceps in patients with biliary tract disease. A total of 27 patients with biliary tract lesions were enrolled. We evaluated the procedure time, the sample tissue size and the diagnostic accuracy. In addition, the physicians performing the procedure rated their impressions about operability into 3 classes: excellent, fair and poor. The sensitivity in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions was 71.4% (15/21) for the 90° adjustable type and 66.7% (14/21) for the conventional type. The accuracy rate was 77.8% (21/27) for the 90° adjustable type and 74.0% (20/27) for the conventional type. In terms of operability as rated by each physician, the 'excellent' rate was given more frequently to the 90° adjustable type 25.9% than for the conventional type 11.1% (p=0.047). This preliminary study showed that controllable biopsy forceps compared to conventional type biopsy forceps, despite a larger diameter, enables biopsy in a similar procedure time and its ease of use was rated better.

  14. Radial scars without atypia in percutaneous biopsy specimens: can they obviate surgical biopsy?

    PubMed

    Mesa-Quesada, J; Romero-Martín, S; Cara-García, M; Martínez-López, A; Medina-Pérez, M; Raya-Povedano, J L

    To evaluate the need for surgical biopsy in patients diagnosed with radial scars without atypia by percutaneous biopsy. In this retrospective observational study, we selected patients with a histological diagnosis of radial scar in specimens obtained by percutaneous biopsy during an 8-year period. The statistical analysis was centered on patients with radial scar without atypia (we assessed the radiologic presentation, the results of the percutaneous biopsy, and their correlation with the results of surgical biopsy and follow-up) and we added the patients with atypia and cancer in the elaboration of the diagnostic indices. We identified 96 patients with radial scar on percutaneous biopsy; 54 had no atypia, 18 had atypia, and 24 had cancer. Among patients with radial scar without atypia, there were no statistically significant differences between patients who underwent imaging follow-up and those who underwent surgical biopsy (p>0.05). The rate of underdiagnosis for percutaneous biopsy in patients without atypia was 1.9%. The rates of diagnosis obtained with percutaneous biopsy in relation to follow-up and surgical biopsy in the 96 cases were sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 97.2%, and accuracy 97.9%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 (p<0.001), and the kappa concordance index was 0.95 (p<0.001) CONCLUSIONS: We consider that it is not necessary to perform surgical biopsies in patients with radial scars without atypia on percutaneous biopsies because the rate of underestimation is very low and the concordance between the diagnosis reached by percutaneous biopsy and the definitive diagnosis is very high. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparison of Four- Versus Three-Pass Transjugular Biopsy Using a 19-G Tru-Cut Needle and a Randomized Study Using a Cassette to Prevent Biopsy Fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Vibhakorn, Shusang; Cholongitas, Evangelos; Kalambokis, George

    2009-05-15

    Recently, it has been shown that transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) with three passes gives comparable specimens to percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of TJLB using four passes in a consecutive series of patients, and whether using a supportive cassette can prevent fragmentation. One hundred consecutive TJLBs in 92 patients (48 transplanted), always using four passes (19-G Tru-Cut), were compared to three-pass TJLBs. The four-pass TJLB specimens were randomized at a 1:1 ratio of liver cores placed in a cassette versus not. The four-pass TJLBs, compared to three-pass TJLBs, resulted in bettermore » specimens for length ({>=}25 mm: 50% vs. 35%; p = 0.026) and number of complete portal tracts (CPTs) ({>=}11: 40% vs. 26%; p = 0.027), without a higher complication rate. The four-pass TJLB with {>=}11 CPTs had a median length of 27 mm, and 57% of them longer than 28 mm contained {>=}11 CPTs. Putting the liver biopsy cores into a cassette did not improve the fragmentation rate or adequacy of the specimen (length and number of CPTs) of TJLB. We conclude that at least four passes with TJLB should be performed when liver specimens are needed for grading and staging. Using a supportive cassette did not reduce fragmentation.« less

  16. Endometrial biopsy in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. III. Bacteriological analysis and correlations with histological findings.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, B N; Martin, S W; Gannon, V P; Miller, R B; Etherington, W G

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the results of bacterial culture from 159 endometrial biopsy samples from 97 commercial dairy cows and correlations between bacteriological and histological findings. Bacteria were isolated from approximately 80% of biopsies taken at day 26 and day 40 postpartum. Eleven percent of biopsies were positive for both aerobic and anaerobic culture. Streptococci, Escherichia coli and Actinomyces pyogenes were the most common isolates. Isolation of A. pyogenes from a biopsy at day 26 was positively correlated with isolation of anaerobic bacteria and segmented cell inflammation in the same biopsy, and with subsequent isolation of A. pyogenes at day 40. There was a strong association between isolation of A. pyogenes and anaerobes at day 26 with increased uterine lesions at day 40. Isolation of alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) was negatively correlated with isolation of A. pyogenes and with inflammation. Actinomyces pyogenes and AHS showed opposite associations with mononuclear cell inflammation and lymphocytic foci. PMID:1884297

  17. Morphometric analysis of primary graft non-function in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vertemati, M; Sabatella, G; Minola, E; Gambacorta, M; Goffredi, M; Vizzotto, L

    2005-04-01

    Primary graft non-function (PNF) is a life-threatening condition that is thought to be the consequence of microcirculation injury. The aim of the present study was to assess, with a computerized morphometric model, the morphological changes at reperfusion in liver biopsy specimens from patients who developed PNF after liver transplantation. Biopsy specimens were obtained at maximum ischaemia and at the end of reperfusion. Morphology included many stereological parameters, such as volumes of all parenchymal components, surface density, size distribution and mean diameter of hepatocytes. Other variables examined were intensive care unit stay, degree of steatosis, serum liver function tests and ischaemic time. In the postoperative period, the PNF group showed elevated serum levels of alanine transferase, decreased daily rate of bile production and prothrombin activity. Blood lactates were significantly higher in the PNF group than in a control group. When comparing groups, the volumetric parameters related to hepatocytes and sinusoids and the surface densities of the hepatic cells showed an inverse relationship. At the end of reperfusion, in PNF group the volume fraction of hepatocyte cytoplasm was decreased; in contrast, the volume fraction of sinusoidal lumen was markedly increased. The cell profiles showed the same inverse trend: the surface density of the parenchymal border of hepatocytes was decreased in PNF when compared with the control group, while the surface density of the vascular border was increased. In the PNF group, the surface density of the sinusoidal bed was directly correlated with alanine transferase, daily rate of bile production, prothrombin activity and cold ischaemic time. The alterations in hepatic architecture, as demonstrated by morphometric analysis in liver transplant recipients that developed PNF, provide additional information that may represent useful viability markers of the graft to complement conventional histological analysis.

  18. [The clinicopathological analysis of 88 patients with abnormal liver function test of unknown etiology].

    PubMed

    Pang, Shu-zhen; Ou, Xiao-juan; Shi, Xiao-yan; Wang, Tai-ling; Duan, Wei-jia; Jia, Ji-dong

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and histological features of patients with abnormal liver tests of unknown etiology, and then to investigate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Patients with abnormal liver function test hospitalized and had liver biopsies during 2008 - 2009 constituted this retrospective study cohort. After excluding those patients diagnosed with hepatotropic viral hepatitis, space occupying lesions of the liver, alcoholic liver disease and obstruction of bile duct caused by stone or malignancy and AMA/AMA-M(2) positive of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the clinical and histological characteristics were evaluated. Out of the 180 patients who underwent liver biopsy, 88 patients were included in the present analysis. The final diagnosis involved 15 categories of diseases, with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) [34.09% (30/88)], autoimmune liver diseases [22.73% (20/88)], and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [12.50% (11/88)] being the most common causes, following by genetic and other rare diseases. DILI, autoimmune liver disease and NAFLD were the most common causes of abnormal liver tests in these non-viral liver diseases. Some rare diseases such as hereditary metabolic liver disease also represent a considerable proportion in patients with abnormal liver function test.

  19. Investigating the influence of standard staining procedures on the copper distribution and concentration in Wilson's disease liver samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachmöller, Oliver; Aichler, Michaela; Schwamborn, Kristina; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Sperling, Michael; Walch, Axel; Karst, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    The influence of rhodanine and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining on the copper distribution and concentration in liver needle biopsy samples originating from patients with Wilson's disease (WD), a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of the copper metabolism, is investigated. In contemporary diagnostic of WD, rhodanine staining is used for histopathology, since rhodanine and copper are forming a red to orange-red complex, which can be recognized in the liver tissue using a microscope. In this paper, a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method is applied for the analysis of eight different WD liver samples. Apart from a spatially resolved elemental detection as qualitative information, this LA-ICP-MS method offers also quantitative information by external calibration with matrix-matched gelatine standards. The sample set of this work included an unstained and a rhodanine stained section of each WD liver sample. While unstained sections of WD liver samples showed very distinct structures of the copper distribution with high copper concentrations, rhodanine stained sections revealed a blurred copper distribution with significant decreased concentrations in a range from 20 to more than 90%. This implies a copper removal from the liver tissue by complexation during the rhodanine staining. In contrast to this, a further HE stained sample of one WD liver sample did not show a significant decrease in the copper concentration and influence on the copper distribution in comparison to the unstained section. Therefore, HE staining can be combined with the analysis by means of LA-ICP-MS in two successive steps from one thin section of a biopsy specimen. This allows further information to be gained on the elemental distribution by LA-ICP-MS additional to results obtained by histological staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium in prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Rey, J A; Chantada-de la Fuente, D; Peteiro-Cancelo, M Á; Gómez-de María, C; San Miguel-Fraile, M P

    2017-11-01

    The incidental presence of seminal vesicle epithelium in prostate needle biopsies is generally recognisable through routine microscopy. However, the biopsy can sometimes be erroneously interpreted as malignant due to its architectural and cytological characteristics, and immunohistochemistry can be useful for correctly identifying the biopsy. Our objective was to analyse the potential usefulness of GATA-3 as a marker of seminal epithelium. Through immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal anti-GATA-3 antibody (clone L50-823), we studied seminal vesicle sections from 20 prostatectomy specimens, 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal vesicle tissue and 68 prostate biopsies without seminal vesicle epithelium, 36 of which showed adenocarcinoma. Staining for GATA-3 was intense in the 20 seminal vesicles of the prostatectomy specimens and in the 12 prostate needle biopsies that contained seminal epithelium. In the 60 biopsies without a seminal vesicle, GATA-3 was positive in the prostate basal cells and even in the secretory cells (57 cases), although with less intensity in 55 of the cases. One of the 36 prostatic adenocarcinomas tested positive for GATA-3. The intense immunohistochemical expression of GATA-3 in the seminal vesicle epithelium can help identify the epithelium in prostate biopsies. This marker is also positive in the basal cells of healthy prostates and, with less intensity, in the secretory cells. Positivity, weak or moderate, is observed on rare occasions in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlations between A/H1N1 influenza and acute cellular rejection in liver transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Stucchi, R S B; Boin, I F S F; Angerami, R Nogueira; Sinckoc, V; Sa, F Cesar; Seva-Pereira, T; Escanhoela, C A Fazzio

    2010-12-01

    Influenza is a common cause of respiratory infection in transplant recipients. It is expected that A/H1N1 influenza virus causes more severe disease in solid-organ recipients. Our goal was to describe two A/H1N1 infections that occurred after Orthotopic liver transplantation followed by acute allograft rejection episodes. From March 2009 to March 2010 we observe two liver transplant patients with symptoms suggestive of A/H1N1 infection. The diagnosis was out based on a temperature of 37.8°C (100°F) or higher and the presence of a cough or using materials from anasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs a sore throat. The diagnosis was confirmed by viral RNA detection by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay (RT-PCR) using materials from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. We performed the RT-PCR assay for A/H1N1 detection in a liver biopsy from one patient. Both patients were treated with usual doses of oseltamivir (75 mg twice daily for 5 days). One patient developed acute bacterial sinusitis requiring antibiotic therapy. Thereafter the liver enzymes increased and transplant biopsies showed moderate-to-severe acute cellular rejection. They were treated with corticosteroids. The liver enzymes normalized after 3 months. A/H1N1 influenza can lead to a severe acute cellular rejection episode with corticosteroid resistant treatment in liver transplant patients. Transplant centers should be aware of a possible relationship between A/H1N1 infections and acute allograft rejection episodes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis: comparison of shear wave elastography and transient elastography.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shashi B; Das, Prasenjit; Mahanta, Mousumi; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Kedia, Saurabh; Kalra, Nancy; Kaur, Harpreet; Vijayvargiya, Maneesh; Ghosh, Shouriyo; Gamanagatti, Shivanand R; Shalimar; Gupta, Siddhartha Dutta; Acharya, Subrat K

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear wave elastography (SWE) and transient elastography (TE) in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC) patients taking liver biopsy as gold standard. Ethics committee approved this prospective cross-sectional study. Between October 2012 and December 2014, consecutive CHB/CHC patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included-age more than 18 years, informed written consent, willing and suitable for liver biopsy. SWE, TE, and biopsy were performed the same day. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) cut-offs for various stages of fibrosis were generated for SWE and TE. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values were estimated individually or in combination. CH patients (n = 240, CHB 172, CHC 68), 176 males, 64 females, mean age 32.6 ± 11.6 years were enrolled. Mean LSM of patients with no histological fibrosis (F0) was 5.0 ± 0.7 and 5.1+1.4 kPa on SWE and TE, respectively. For differentiating F2 and F3-4 fibrosis on SWE, at 7.0 kPa cut-off, the sensitivity was 81.3% and specificity 77.6%. For TE, at 8.3 kPa cut-off, sensitivity was 81.8% and specificity 83.1%. For F3 vs. F4, SWE sensitivity was 83.3% and specificity 90.7%. At 14.8 kPa cut-off, TE showed similar sensitivity (83.3%) but specificity increased to 96.5%. Significant correlation between SWE and TE was observed (r = 0.33, p < 0.001). On combining SWE and TE, a drop in sensitivity with increased specificity for all stages of liver fibrosis occured. SWE is an accurate technique for evaluating liver fibrosis. SWE compares favorably with TE especially for predicting advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. Combining SWE and TE further improves specificity.

  3. Transbronchial biopsies safely diagnose amyloid lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Govender, Praveen; Keyes, Colleen M.; Hankinson, Elizabeth A.; O’Hara, Carl J.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Berk, John L.

    2018-01-01

    Background Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58–92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies. Methods We identified patients referred to the Amyloidosis Center at Boston Medical Center with lung amyloidosis diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsies (TBBX). Amyloid typing was determined by immunohistochemistry or mass spectrometry. Standard end organ assessments, including pulmonary function test (PFT) and chest tomography (CT) imaging, and extra-thoracic biopsies established the extent of disease. Results Twenty-five (21.7%) of 115 patients with lung amyloidosis were diagnosed by TBBX. PFT classified 33.3% with restrictive physiology, 28.6% with obstructive disease, and 9.5% mixed physiology; 9.5% exhibited isolated diffusion defects while 19% had normal pulmonary testing. Two view chest or CT imaging identified focal opacities in 52% of cases and diffuse interstitial disease in 48%. Amyloid type and disease extent included 68% systemic AL disease, 16% localized (lung limited) AL disease, 12% ATTR disease, and 4% AA amyloidosis. Fluoroscopy was not used during biopsy. No procedure complications were reported. Conclusions Our case series of 25 patients supports the use of bronchoscopic transbronchial biopsies for diagnosis of parenchymal lung amyloidosis. Normal PFTs do not rule out the histologic presence of amyloid lung disease. PMID:28393574

  4. Nasal hydropulsion: a novel tumor biopsy technique.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Elizabeth A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Miller, Carrie J; Powers, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Intranasal tumors of dogs and cats pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for small animal practitioners. Multiple nasal biopsy techniques have been described in the past. This report describes a simplified flushing technique to biopsy and debulk nasal tumors, which often also results in immediate clinical relief for the patient. Based on the results of this retrospective study, the authors recommend high-pressure saline hydropulsion as a minimally invasive diagnostic, and potentially therapeutic, technique for nasal tumors in dogs and cats.

  5. Periodontitis is associated with significant hepatic fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Alazawi, William; Bernabe, Eduardo; Tai, David; Janicki, Tomasz; Kemos, Polychronis; Samsuddin, Salma; Syn, Wing-Kin; Gillam, David; Turner, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that periodontitis is associated with NAFLD and with significant fibrosis in two study groups. We analyzed data from a population-based survey and a patient-based study. NHANES III participants with abdominal ultrasound and sociodemographic, clinical, and oral examination data were extracted and appropriate weighting applied. In a separate patient-based study, consenting patients with biopsy-proved NAFLD (or with liver indices too mild to justify biopsy) underwent dental examination. Basic Periodontal Examination score was recorded. In NHANES, periodontitis was significantly associated with steatosis in 8172 adults even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. However, associations were fully explained after accounting for features of metabolic syndrome. In the patient-based study, periodontitis was significantly more common in patients with biopsy-proven NASH and any fibrosis (F0-F4) than without NASH (p = 0.009). Periodontitis was more common in patients with NASH and significant fibrosis (F2-4) than mild or no fibrosis (F0-1, p = 0.04). Complementary evidence from an epidemiological survey and a clinical study show that NAFLD is associated with periodontitis and that the association is stronger with significant liver fibrosis.

  6. Electrical property sensing biopsy needle for prostate cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V; Schned, A R; Hartov, A; Heaney, J A; Seigne, J; Halter, R J

    2013-11-01

    Significant electrical property differences have been demonstrated to exist between malignant and benign prostate tissues. We evaluated how well a custom designed clinically deployable electrical property sensing biopsy needle is able to discriminate between these tissue types in an ex vivo prostate model. An electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensing biopsy (Bx) needle was developed to record resistive (ρR) and reactive (ρX) components of electrical impedance from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Standard twelve-core biopsy protocols were followed, in which the EIS-Bx device was used to gauge electrical properties prior to extracting tissue cores through biopsy needle firing from 36 ex vivo human prostates. Histopathological assessment of the cores was statistically compared to the impedance spectrum gauged from each core. The magnitudes of the mean resistive and reactive components were significantly higher in cancer tissues (P < 0.05). ROC curves showed that ρR at 63.09 kHz was optimal for discriminating cancer from benign tissues; this parameter had 75.4% specificity, 76.1% sensitivity, and ROC AUC of 0.779. Similarly, 251.1 kHz was optimal when using ρX to discriminate cancer from benign tissues; this parameter had a 77.9% specificity, 71.4% sensitivity, and ROC AUC of 0.79. Significant electrical property differences noted between benign and malignant prostate tissues suggest the potential efficacy an EIS-Bx device would provide for cancer detection in a clinical setting. By sensing a greater fraction of the prostate's volume in real-time, the EIS-Bx device has the potential to improve the accuracy of cancer grading and volume estimation made with current biopsy procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Imaging biomarkers in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Berzigotti, A; França, M; Martí-Aguado, D; Martí-Bonmatí, L

    There is a need for early identification of patients with chronic liver diseases due to their increasing prevalence and morbidity-mortality. The degree of liver fibrosis determines the prognosis and therapeutic options in this population. Liver biopsy represents the reference standard for fibrosis staging. However, given its limitations and complications, different non-invasive methods have been developed recently for the in vivo quantification of fibrosis. Due to their precision and reliability, biomarkers' measurements derived from Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance stand out. This article reviews the different acquisition techniques and image processing methods currently used in the evaluation of liver fibrosis, focusing on their diagnostic performance, applicability and clinical value. In order to properly interpret their results in the appropriate clinical context, it seems necessary to understand the techniques and their quality parameters, the standardization and validation of the measurement units and the quality control of the methodological problems. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Red blood cell distribution width levels correlate with liver fibrosis and inflammation: a noninvasive serum marker panel to predict the severity of fibrosis and inflammation in patients with hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-Shen; Qiu, Xiao-Ming; Ou, Qi-shui; Liu, Can; Lin, Jin-Piao; Chen, Hui-Juan; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Wen-Hua; Lin, Shou-Rong; Chen, Jing

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to study whether red blood cell distribution width (RDW) could be one of the variables determining the extent of liver fibrosis and inflammation in patients with biopsy-proven hepatitis B. A total of 446 hepatitis B virus-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy were divided into 2 groups: absent or mild and moderate-severe according to the severity of liver fibrosis and inflammation. The independent variables that determine the severity of liver fibrosis and inflammation were explored. RDW values increased with progressive liver fibrosis and inflammation. After adjustments for other potent predictors, liver fibrosis (moderate-severe) was independently associated with RDW, platelet, and albumin (odds ratio = 1.121, 0.987, and 0.941, respectively), whereas increased odds ratios of significant inflammation were found for RDW, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, and PLT (odds ratio = 1.146, 1.003, 0.927, and 0.990, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of model A were 70.0% and 62.9% for detection of significant liver fibrosis [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.713, P < 0.001]. The sensitivity and specificity of model B were 66.1% and 79.4% for predicting advanced liver inflammation (AUC = 0.765, P < 0.001). Compared with preexisting indicators, model A achieved the highest AUC, whereas model B showed a higher AUC than RDW to platelet ratio (0.670, P < 0.001) and FIB-4 (0.740, P = 0.32). RDW may provide a useful clinical value for predicting liver fibrosis and necroinflammation in hepatitis B-infected patients with other markers.

  9. Testicular biopsy: clinical practice and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Dohle, Gert R; Elzanaty, Saad; van Casteren, Niels J

    2012-01-01

    Testicular biopsy was considered the cornerstone of male infertility diagnosis for many years in men with unexplained infertility and azoospermia. Recent guidelines for male infertility have limited the indications for a diagnostic testicular biopsy to the confirmation of obstructive azoospermia in men with normal size testes and normal reproductive hormones. Nowadays, testicular biopsies are mainly performed for sperm harvesting in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Testicular biopsy is also performed in men with risk factors for testicular malignancy. In a subgroup of infertile men, there is an increased risk for carcinoma in situ of the testis, especially in men with a history of cryptorchidism and testicular malignancy and in men with testicular atrophy. Ultrasonographic abnormalities, such as testicular microlithiasis, inhomogeneous parenchyma and lesions of the testes, further increase the risk of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in these men. For an accurate histological classification, proper tissue handling, fixation, preparation of the specimen and evaluation are needed. A standardized approach to testicular biopsy is recommended. In addition, approaches to the detection of CIS of the testis testicular immunohistochemistry are mandatory. In this mini-review, we describe the current indications for testicular biopsies in the diagnosis and management of male infertility. PMID:22157985

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: MR Imaging of Liver Proton Density Fat Fraction to Assess Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, An; Tan, Justin; Sun, Mark; Hamilton, Gavin; Bydder, Mark; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C.; Middleton, Michael; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Loomba, Rohit; Lavine, Joel E.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for assessing hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using centrally scored histopathologic validation as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: This prospectively designed, cross-sectional, internal review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study was conducted in 77 patients who had NAFLD and liver biopsy. MR imaging–PDFF was estimated from magnitude-based low flip angle multiecho gradient-recalled echo images after T2* correction and multifrequency fat modeling. Histopathologic scoring was obtained by consensus of the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Pathology Committee. Spearman correlation, additivity and variance stabilization for regression for exploring the effect of a number of potential confounders, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed. Results: Liver MR imaging–PDFF was systematically higher, with higher histologic steatosis grade (P < .001), and was significantly correlated with histologic steatosis grade (ρ = 0.69, P < .001). The correlation was not confounded by age, sex, lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, NASH diagnosis, fibrosis, or magnetic field strength (P = .65). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.989 (95% confidence interval: 0.968, 1.000) for distinguishing patients with steatosis grade 0 (n = 5) from those with grade 1 or higher (n = 72), 0.825 (95% confidence interval: 0.734, 0.915) to distinguish those with grade 1 or lower (n = 31) from those with grade 2 or higher (n = 46), and 0.893 (95% confidence interval: 0.809, 0.977) to distinguish those with grade 2 or lower (n = 58) from those with grade 3 (n = 19). Conclusion: MR imaging–PDFF showed promise for assessment of hepatic steatosis grade in patients with NAFLD. For validation, further studies with larger sample sizes are

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: MR imaging of liver proton density fat fraction to assess hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Tan, Justin; Sun, Mark; Hamilton, Gavin; Bydder, Mark; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony C; Middleton, Michael; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Loomba, Rohit; Lavine, Joel E; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Sirlin, Claude B

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-estimated proton density fat fraction (PDFF) for assessing hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using centrally scored histopathologic validation as the reference standard. This prospectively designed, cross-sectional, internal review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study was conducted in 77 patients who had NAFLD and liver biopsy. MR imaging-PDFF was estimated from magnitude-based low flip angle multiecho gradient-recalled echo images after T2* correction and multifrequency fat modeling. Histopathologic scoring was obtained by consensus of the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Pathology Committee. Spearman correlation, additivity and variance stabilization for regression for exploring the effect of a number of potential confounders, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed. Liver MR imaging-PDFF was systematically higher, with higher histologic steatosis grade (P < .001), and was significantly correlated with histologic steatosis grade (ρ = 0.69, P < .001). The correlation was not confounded by age, sex, lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, NASH diagnosis, fibrosis, or magnetic field strength (P = .65). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.989 (95% confidence interval: 0.968, 1.000) for distinguishing patients with s