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Sample records for liver cancer treatment

  1. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed to high temperatures created by microwaves. This can damage and kill cancer cells or ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed to high temperatures created by microwaves. This can damage and kill cancer cells or ...

  3. Surgical treatment of double primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aijun; Ma, Senlin; Pawlik, Timothy; Wu, Bin; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Longjiu; Wu, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Double primary liver cancer (DPLC) is a special type of clinical situation. As such, a detailed analysis of the surgical management and prognosis of patients with DPLC is lacking. The objective of the current study was to define the management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for DPLC at a major hepatobiliary center. A total of 87 patients treated by surgical resection at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2013 who had DPLC demonstrated by final pathological diagnosis were identified. Among these, 50 patients had complete clinical and prognostic data. Demographic and tumor characteristics as well as the prognosis were analyzed. The proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) (+), HBsAg (+), and HBeAg (−) hepatocirrhosis in all patients was 21.84%, 67.82%, and 63.22%, respectively. Incidental findings accounted for 58.62% of patients; among those who had symptoms, the main symptom was abdominal pain (31.03%). Nonanatomic wedge resection was the main operative approach (62.07%). Postoperatively, the main complications included seroperitoneum (11.49%), hypoproteinemia (10.34%), and pleural effusion (8.05%). Factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) tumor size (P = 0.002) and use of postoperative prophylactic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment (P = 0.015). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) size (P = 0.045), ICC size (P < 0.001), and liver function (including aspartate aminotransferase [P = 0.001] and r-glutamyl transferase [P < 0.001]) were associated with overall survival (OS). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis or cirrhosis is also an important factor in the pathogenesis of DPLC and surgical treatment is safe for it with low complication rates. In addition, it is effective to prolong DFS that DPLC patients undergo postoperative

  4. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  5. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-10

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  6. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research? Because there are only ... being made in treating chronic hepatitis. Screening Several new blood tests are being studied to see if ...

  7. HIFU treatment of liver cancer-Successes and failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Haar, Gail; Rivens, Ian; Kennedy, James; Wu, Feng

    2003-04-01

    Clinical trials of the HIFU treatment of liver cancer have been underway in the UK at the Royal Marsden Hospital since December 1997, and at the Churchill Hospital since November 2002. Royal Marsden treatments are undertaken using a prototype device known as the Teleson, while those at the Churchill are performed using the machine produced by the Chongqing HAIFU company in China. Both sites have demonstrated the ability to ablate significant volumes of a tumor within the liver. Despite differences in ultrasound exposure delivery, these treatments have highlighted some of the problems associated with the clinical use of extracorporeal HIFU. These problems lie primarily in the areas of targeting, treatment optimization and monitoring of ablation. These problems will be discussed and potential solutions suggested. [Work funded by the UK Department of Health, the Institute of Cancer Research and UTL.

  8. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THE LIVER METASTASES FROM COLORECTAL CANCER

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eloy; Celis, Juan; Berrospi, Francisco; Payet, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the absence of extra hepatic disease, the hepatic resection is the treatment of choice for liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma, but a no treatment attitude or the use of chemotherapy still persists in some health centers. This study was done to evaluate the peri operative morbi-mortality and survival after resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer in our institution.METHODS: Clinical, pathologic and outcome data of patients undergoing liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer at the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas de Lima Peru between January 1986 and July 2000 was examined.RESULTS: Of 300 liver resections, 24 were performed in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer; 17 patients were men and 7 women, who ranged in age from 21 to 79 years ( a mean of 52.66 years), the site of primary disease was the rectum in 7 and colon in 17, 20 patients were Dukes C and 4 Dukes B.Synchronous secondary disease were found in 9 patients and metachronous lesions were found in 15 patients Forty nine metastases were resected (Mean size 4.5 cm, range 1.5 cm 24 cm)Seven patients underwent right hepatectomy, one right hepatectomy plus non anatomic wedge resection, two right trisegmentectomy, 4 left lobectomy and ten a non anatomical resection.The overall post operative morbidity was 8% and the 30 day post operative mortality rate was 0% Estimated three and five year survival rates using Kaplan-Meier method was 50 % and 20% respectively.CONCLUSION: Hepatic resection for a secondary malignant liver growth from colorectal cancer is relatively safe with low morbidity and mortality rates, an remains the only potentially curative treatment. We continue to recommend an aggressive surgical approach to hepatic metastases of colorectal origin in the abscense of extra hepatic disease.

  9. Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Bryan D.; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer, yet no effective therapeutics exist. This review provides an overview of the recent development of recombinant immunotoxins for the treatment of glypican-3 (GPC3) expressing HCC. GPC3 is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in HCC, but is absent from normal adult human tissues. Treatment of HCC with anti-GPC3 immunotoxins represents a new therapeutic option. Using phage display and hybridoma technologies, three high affinity antibodies (HN3, HS20 and YP7) have been generated against GPC3. Two of these antibodies (HN3 and HS20) have demonstrated the ability to inhibit Wnt/Yap signaling, leading to a reduction in liver cancer cell proliferation. By combining the HN3 antibody capable of inhibiting Wnt/Yap signaling with the protein synthesis inhibitory domain of the Pseudomonas exotoxin, a recombinant immunotoxin that exhibits a dual inhibitory mechanism was generated. This immunotoxin was found to be highly effective in the treatment of human HCCs in mouse xenograft models. Engineering of the toxin fragment to reduce the level of immunogenicity is currently being explored. The development of immunotoxins provides opportunities for novel liver cancer therapies. PMID:27669301

  10. What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat or help control the infection. Keeping health insurance and copies of your medical records Even after treatment, it’s very important to keep health insurance . Tests and doctor visits cost a lot, and ...

  11. Web site construction for information and treatment on liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Sotiris; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Bizopoulou, Zoi; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer requires a considerable attention of health care scientists worldwide. A holistic treatment includes patient information about risk factors, education on pragmatic evaluation of the symptoms, as well as presentation of best and individualized treatment methods. In this direction, Internet seems to be a powerful tool that has an essential role. The aim of this study is the development of a web site in order to inform and present treatment options on liver cancer, it consists of four parts. In the first part, the presentation of the disease's knowledge base is attempted, whereas in the second part this knowledge base is organized in two conceptual entities: (a) information and (b) treatment. In the third part the importance of internet in the health care sector is highlighted. In the fourth and last part the web site is presented and a brief illustration of several relevant theories and specific implementation tools. The critical success factor of the implementation phase is considered to be the selection of the appropriate methods and development tools. Finally, the constant need for ongoing site maintenance is discussed and thus, is proposed to formulate one of the main aspects for further research, along with several issues concerning site usability.

  12. Treatment and multivariate analysis of colorectal cancer with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Duan, Boshi; Shen, Chunjian; Wu, Bo; Luo, Ji; Zhao, Guohua

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the influencing factors related to outcome of patients of colorectal cancer with liver metastasis. From January 1999 to January 2009, 293 cases of colorectal cancer with liver metastasis undergoing surgery were analysised retrospectively. Relationships between survival and clinicopathological factors including patient demographics and tumor characteristics were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients after resection were 58.3%, 26.4%, and 11.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that preoperative CEA level, degree of primary tumor differentiation, resection margin, number of liver metastases, resection of liver metastases were prognostic impacts. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Cox multivariate analysis showed that preoperative CEA level, number of liver metastases, and resection of liver metastases are three separate prognostic factors. Racical resection is the key to improve the long-term survival rate of colorectal cancer with liver metastasis. Important predictive factors related to poor survival are preoperative CEA level and number of liver metastases.

  13. Global Proteome Changes in Liver Tissue 6 Weeks after FOLFOX Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Urdzik, Jozef; Vildhede, Anna; Wiśniewski, Jacek R.; Duraj, Frans; Haglund, Ulf; Artursson, Per; Norén, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    (1) Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis is associated with sinusoidal injury of liver parenchyma. The effects of oxaliplatin-induced liver injury on the protein level remain unknown. (2) Protein expression in liver tissue was analyzed—from eight patients treated with FOLFOX (combination of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) and seven controls—by label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Recursive feature elimination–support vector machine and Welch t-test were used to identify classifying and relevantly changed proteins, respectively. Resulting proteins were analyzed for associations with gene ontology categories and pathways. (3) A total of 5891 proteins were detected. A set of 184 (3.1%) proteins classified the groups with a 20% error rate, but relevant change was observed only in 55 (0.9%) proteins. The classifying proteins were associated with changes in DNA replication (p < 0.05) through upregulation of the minichromosome maintenance complex and with the innate immune response (p < 0.05). The importance of DNA replication changes was supported by the results of Welch t-test (p < 0.05). (4) Six weeks after FOLFOX treatment, less than 1% of identified proteins showed changes in expression associated with DNA replication, cell cycle entry, and innate immune response. We hypothesize that the changes remain after recovery from FOLFOX treatment injury. PMID:28248240

  14. Targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer using specific binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianfeng; Tan, Gewen; Sheng, Nengquan; You, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the first in China among all gastrointestinal cancers in terms of incidence, and liver metastasis is the leading cause of death for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine commonly chosen as the target for gene therapy against cancers. The specific binding peptide pd20 of gastric cancer cells with a high potential for liver metastasis was fused with human TNF to obtain the pd20-TNF gene using DNA recombinant technique. The expression of the fusion protein was induced and the protein was purified. In vitro activity test showed that the fusion protein greatly improved the membrane permeability of liver cells in nude mice with liver metastasis from gastric cancer. The tumor implantation experiment in nude mice showed that the fusion protein effectively mitigated the cancer lesions. The results provide important clues for developing the drugs for targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer. PMID:27347305

  15. Surgical treatment of liver metastasis from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marín Gómez, Luis Miguel; Jiménez Romero, Carlos; Pérez Saborido, Baltasar; González-Pinto Arrillaga, Ignacio; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Ortiz Johansson, Carlos; Ferrero Celemin, Esther; Moreno González, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    We report five patients who underwent laparotomy for liver metastasis from breast cancer without extrahepatic spread, with the intention to perform liver resection. All these patients had been subjected to modified radical mastectomy following systemic chemotherapy and periodical consecutive investigations to detect distant spreading. After laparotomy, patients have been regularly followed. Case 1, right trisegmentectomy in a 53-year-old woman, 36.5 months after the mastectomy. In the 17th postoperative month she continues without relapse. Case 2, hepatic artery ligature in a 41-year-old woman, 15 months after the mastectomy. In the 17th postoperative month she died. Case 3, bisegmentectomy (VI-VII) in a 51-year-old woman, 24 months after the mastectomy. In the 17th postoperative month she died. Case 4, exploratory laparotomy in a 51-year-old woman, 91 months after the mastectomy. In the 31th postoperative month she remains alive. Case 5, segmentectomy (IV) in a 59-year-old woman, 112 months after the mastectomy. In the 33th postoperative month she continues without relapse. As a conclusion, the surgical resection of liver metastasis from breast tumors after chemotherapy must be used in selected cases.

  16. Microenvironment of liver regeneration in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Min; Ye, Zhi-Hua

    2017-07-01

    The occurrence and development of liver cancer are essentially the most serious outcomes of uncontrolled liver regeneration. The progression of liver cancer is inevitably related to the abnormal microenvironment of liver regeneration. The deterioration observed in the microenvironment of liver regeneration is a necessary condition for the occurrence, development and metastasis of cancer. Therefore, the use of a technique to prevent and treat liver cancer via changes in the microenvironment of liver regeneration is a novel strategy. This strategy would be an effective way to delay, prevent or even reverse cancer occurrence, development and metastasis through an improvement in the liver regeneration microenvironment along with the integrated regulation of multiple components, targets, levels, channels and time sequences. In addition, the treatment of "tonifying Shen (Kidney) to regulate liver regeneration and repair by affecting stem cells and their microenvironment" can regulate "the dynamic imbalance between the normal liver regeneration and the abnormal liver regeneration"; this would improve the microenvironment of liver regeneration, which is also a mechanism by which liver cancer may be prevented or treated.

  17. Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2005-05-01

    It has been suggested that obesity and fatty liver may be associated with the morbidity and mortality of liver cancer, and the early diagnosis and effective treatment of fatty liver coupled with liver cancer are supposed to improve the prognosis of obese patients. This review was attempted to understand the relationship between obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer. An English-language literature search using PUBMED (1990-2004) on obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer and other related articles in Chinese. Obesity is associated with the risk of death from all cancers and from cancers at individual sites including liver cancer, and it is an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has been implicated as a major cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis, the development of HCC may be part of progressive nature of this condition. Obesity is associated with the incidence and mortality of HCC. More frequent surveillance for HCC may be warranted in obese patients with fatty liver and attempts should be made to interrupt the progression from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and ultimately HCC.

  18. [Multi-modal treatment of patients with multiple liver metastases caused by sigmoid cancer].

    PubMed

    Sawada, S; Nagata, K; Kato, T; Oshima, T; Yoshida, M; Kawa, S; Harima, K; Tanaka, Y; Nakamura, H

    1989-05-01

    A case of sigmoid cancer with multiple liver metastases (S2PON3 + H3) who was treated by multi-modal treatment was reported. The multi-modal treatment is including intra-arterial administration of anti-cancer drugs as a pre-surgery treatment, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy lasting for three to five weeks (three times), hyperthermia treatment combined with intra-arterial administration of anti-cancer drugs and intra-arterial expandable metalic stent. The patients lived for 2 years and 4 months in good condition.

  19. [Regularity analysis on clinical treatment in primary liver cancer by traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoni; Li, Ning

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate clinical treatment regularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on primary liver cancer and provide inspiration for the clinical use. Traditional Chinese medicine database on primary liver cancer was established to analysis the classification, frequency, dosage of TCM in clinical treatment. Tonic medicine is the most common medication, herbs for heat-clearing, promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis, eliminating dampness and diuresis and regulating flow of Qi are more common medication, herbs for relieving exterior disorder and digesting are common medication; the first frequency of single herb is Atractglodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Codonopsis Radix. Popular classical prescriptions are Sijunzi Tang, Xiaochaihu Tang, YiguanJian, Xiangsha Liujunzi Tang, Xiaoyao Wan and Gexia Zhuyu Tang, Liuwei Dihuang Tang and Yinchenhao Tang et al. Gallic Gigerii Endothelium Corneum and Ophiopogonis Radix are most commonly drug for poor appetite. Astragali Radix is most commonly drug for fatigue. Corydalis Rhizoma, Toosendan Fructus are most common for liver pain; Pericarpium Arecae, Polyporus, Poria are most common herbs for ascites; Artemisiae Scopariae Herba is common drug for jaundice. Replenishing qi to invigorate the spleen, sparsing liver to regulate the flow of vital energy, clearing heat and promoting diuresis, promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis, nourishing yin and detoxification are the main principles for treating primary liver cancer. Improving clinical symptoms, signs and quality of life of patients with TCM is the key to clinical treatment.

  20. Combining Angiogenesis-Targeted Treatments for Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who are ineligible for a liver transplant or other local therapies will be given oral sorafenib at the standard approved dose and intravenous TRC105.

  1. Surgical treatment of liver metastasis of gastric cancer: a retrospective multicenter cohort study (KSCC1302).

    PubMed

    Oki, Eiji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Emi, Yasunori; Kusumoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Manabu; Fukuzawa, Kengo; Takahashi, Ikuo; Ishigami, Sumiya; Tsuji, Akihito; Higashi, Hidefumi; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Saeki, Hiroshi; Shirabe, Ken; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Kenji; Baba, Hideo; Nishimaki, Tadashi; Natsugoe, Shoji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-07-01

    The necessity of surgical treatment of liver metastases of gastric cancer is still controversial. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of liver-limited metastasis of gastric cancer treated surgically between 2000 and 2010. In this study, 103 patients were registered, with nine patients excluded from the analysis as they did not meet the eligibility criteria. Of the 94 patients, 69 underwent surgical resection, 11 underwent surgical resection combined with radiofrequency ablation or microwave coagulation therapy for small or deep tumors, and 14 underwent radiofrequency ablation or microwave coagulation therapy only. Synchronous and metachronous metastases were found in 37 and 57 patients, respectively. The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates of all the patients were 51.4 and 42.3 %, respectively. The 3- and 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 29.2 and 27.7 %, respectively. No significant difference in prognosis was observed between the patients who underwent surgical resection and those who underwent ablation therapy. The patients with hepatic solitary lesions and low-grade lymph node metastases of primary gastric cancer had significantly better overall survival and relapse-free survival. To our knowledge, this study is the largest series and first multicenter cohort study of liver-limited metastasis of gastric cancer. The study indicated that patients with a single liver metastasis with a grade lower than N2 lymph node metastasis of the primary lesion are the best candidates for liver resection.

  2. Treatment of Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: Medico-Surgical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Essadi, Ismail; Sbitti, Yassir; Fetohi, Mohamed; Slimani, Khaoula Alaoui; Essadi, Meryam; Tazi, Elmehdi; Ichou, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background The management of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer can be understood only as part of a multidisciplinary strategy. Progress experienced by medical treatment, surgical techniques and ways of imaging, has improved the prognosis of patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancers. This work displays the experience of Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, 60 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer, synchronous or metachronous were supported in the Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Results Liver metastases were synchronous in 41 (68%) patients and metachronous in 19 (32%). Patients were classified into 3 categories according to their resectability: 14 (22%) were resectable at the outset, 28 (47%) were unresectable and 18 (31%) were considered uncertain resectability. Thirty-five patients (58%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgical gesture, 25 (42%) received chemotherapy after resection of primary tumor. This chemotherapy enabled the resection of liver metastases in 5 patients initially deemed uncertain resectability. The average objective responses to chemotherapy were in the range of 59% with 4 complete responses and one confirmed histologically. Twenty-three patients (38%) underwent surgery including 15 liver resections with R0 (25%). The median progression-free survival in this series was 15.5 months. Some minor side effects were noted, which have not entered the prognosis of patients. Conclusions Hepatic resection remains the only potentially curative treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancers. Perioperative chemotherapy is a promising standard, which has improved the prognosis of patients historically associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:27942326

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of liver cancer treatment with 166Ho-loaded glass microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa Guimarães, Carla; Moralles, Maurício; Roberto Martinelli, José

    2014-02-01

    Microspheres loaded with pure beta-emitter radioisotopes are used in the treatment of some types of liver cancer. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is developing 166Ho-loaded glass microspheres as an alternative to the commercially available 90Y microspheres. This work describes the implementation of a Monte Carlo code to simulate both the irradiation effects and the imaging of 166Ho and 90Y sources localized in different parts of the liver. Results obtained with the code and perspectives for the future are discussed.

  4. [Role of loco-regional treatments for patients with breast cancer liver metastases].

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Cristina; Danova, Marco; Chatzileontiadou, Sofia; Palmeri, Laura; Vercelli, Alessandro; Palmeri, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    Breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) are not uncommon (about 18% of cases): although some patients have been reported as still living after 25 months, median survival after hormonal- or chemotherapy is 6-14 months. In recent years, new chemotherapy regimens and molecular targeted therapies have given medical oncologists reason to believe that metastatic disease can be eradicated, or at least controlled for prolonged periods. In an attempt to improve survival, consideration has also been given to loco-regional treatments such as hepatic resection and radio-frequency ablation, which have been associated with better outcomes in selected patients. This review considers the role of two loco-regional approaches in a multidisciplinary perspective in the treatment of single or multiple breast cancer metastases limited to the liver. An expanded role for hepatic resection and ablation is being investigated. We assessed available data in the literature to determine their role on survival outcomes. They suggest that loco-regional treatments might be of significant benefit in a selected group of women with BCLM, but the role of these local treatments in multimodality treatment of liver metastases remains controversial. It can generally be said that loco-regional treatments can improve overall survival, with no mortality and less than 20% morbidity in patients at low surgical risk; however, they should only be considered cytoreductive treatments and, as such, always need to be integrated with systemic therapy.

  5. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... are being studied in clinical trials. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors ... lower your risk of cancer. The following risk factors may increase the risk of liver cancer: Hepatitis ...

  6. Recombinant Human Acid Sphingomyelinase as an Adjuvant to Sorafenib Treatment of Experimental Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savić, Radoslav; He, Xingxuan; Fiel, Isabel; Schuchman, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The only approved systemic treatment for unresectable HCC is the oral kinase inhibitor, sorafenib. Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), which hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, is an orphan drug under development for the treatment of Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Due to the hepatotropic nature of rhASM and its ability to generate pro-apoptotic ceramide, this study evaluated the use of rhASM as an adjuvant treatment with sorafenib in experimental models of HCC. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro, rhASM/sorafenib treatment reduced the viability of Huh7 liver cancer cells more than sorafenib. In vivo, using a subcutaneous Huh7 tumor model, mouse survival was increased and proliferation in the tumors decreased to a similar extent in both sorafenib and rhASM/sorafenib treatment groups. However, combined rhASM/sorafenib treatment significantly lowered tumor volume, increased tumor necrosis, and decreased tumor blood vessel density compared to sorafenib. These results were obtained despite poor delivery of rhASM to the tumors. A second (orthotopic) model of Huh7 tumors also was established, but modest ASM activity was similarly detected in these tumors compared to healthy mouse livers. Importantly, no chronic liver toxicity or weight loss was observed from rhASM therapy in either model. Conclusions/Significance The rhASM/sorafenib combination exhibited a synergistic effect on reducing the tumor volume and blood vessel density in Huh7 xenografts, despite modest activity of rhASM in these tumors. No significant increases in survival were observed from the rhASM/sorafenib treatment. The poor delivery of rhASM to Huh7 tumors may be due, at least in part, to low expression of mannose receptors. The safety and efficacy of this approach, together with the novel findings regarding enzyme targeting, merits further

  7. MCNP simulation of the dose distribution in liver cancer treatment for BNC therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Zoran; Markovic, Vladimir; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Urosevic, Vlade

    2014-10-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ( BNCT) is based on selective uptake of boron in tumour tissue compared to the surrounding normal tissue. Infusion of compounds with boron is followed by irradiation with neutrons. Neutron capture on 10B, which gives rise to an alpha particle and recoiled 7Li ion, enables the therapeutic dose to be delivered to tumour tissue while healthy tissue can be spared. Here, therapeutic abilities of BNCT were studied for possible treatment of liver cancer using thermal and epithermal neutron beam. For neutron transport MCNP software was used and doses in organs of interest in ORNL phantom were evaluated. Phantom organs were filled with voxels in order to obtain depth-dose distributions in them. The result suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for liver cancer treatment.

  8. MCNP simulation of the dose distribution in liver cancer treatment for BNC therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Zoran; Markovic, Vladimir; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Urosevic, Vlade

    2014-10-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective uptake of boron in tumour tissue compared to the surrounding normal tissue. Infusion of compounds with boron is followed by irradiation with neutrons. Neutron capture on 10B, which gives rise to an alpha particle and recoiled 7Li ion, enables the therapeutic dose to be delivered to tumour tissue while healthy tissue can be spared. Here, therapeutic abilities of BNCT were studied for possible treatment of liver cancer using thermal and epithermal neutron beam. For neutron transport MCNP software was used and doses in organs of interest in ORNL phantom were evaluated. Phantom organs were filled with voxels in order to obtain depth-dose distributions in them. The result suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for liver cancer treatment.

  9. Induction of an altered lipid phenotype by two cancer promoting treatments in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Riedel, S; Abel, S; Swanevelder, S; Gelderblom, W C A

    2015-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been associated with tumor promotion in rat liver. Similarities and differences of lipid parameters were investigated using the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) and the 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (AAF/PH) treatments as cancer promoters in rat liver. A typical lipid phenotype was observed, including increased membranal phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cholesterol content, increased levels of C16:0 and monounsaturated fatty acids in PE and phosphatidylcholine (PC), as well as a decrease in C18:0 and long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PC fraction. The observed lipid changes, which likely resulted in changes in membrane structure and fluidity, may represent a growth stimulus exerted by the cancer promoters that could provide initiated cells with a selective growth advantage. This study provided insight into complex lipid profiles induced by two different cancer promoting treatments and their potential role in the development of hepatocyte nodules, which can be used to identify targets for the development of chemopreventive strategies against cancer promotion in the liver.

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation for Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Interventional ablative technologies aided by imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have been crucial in managing patients with primary liver cancer and liver metastases over the past 20 years. Several ablative technologies have been used to treat liver cancer; however, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has emerged as the most common ablative therapy for hepatic lesions, both in the United States and globally. RFA is the treatment of choice for patients who cannot have surgical resection of the liver. This article focuses on the role of imaging in RFA treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic lesions.

  11. Practical questions in liver metastases of colorectal cancer: general principles of treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Héctor Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are currently treated by multidisciplinary teams using strategies that combine chemotherapy, surgery and ablative techniques. Many patients classically considered non-resectable can now be rescued by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection, with similar results to those obtained in initial resections. While many of those patients will recur, repeat resection is a feasible and safe approach if the recurrence is confined to the liver. Several factors that until recently were considered contraindications are now recognized only as adverse prognostic factors and no longer as contraindications for surgery. The current evaluation process to select patients for surgery is no longer focused on what is to be removed but rather on what will remain. The single most important objective is to achieve a complete (R0) resection within the limits of safety in terms of quantity and quality of the remaining liver. An increasing number of patients with synchronous liver metastases are treated by simultaneous resection of the primary and the liver metastatic tumours. Multilobar disease can also be approached by staged procedures that combine neoadjuvant chemotherapy, limited resections in one lobe, embolization or ligation of the contralateral portal vein and a major resection in a second procedure. Extrahepatic disease is no longer a contraindication for surgery provided that an R0 resection can be achieved. A reverse surgical staged approach (liver metastases first, primary second) is another strategy that has appeared recently. Provided that a careful selection is made, elderly patients can also benefit from surgical treatment of liver metastases. PMID:18345300

  12. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  13. Sorafenib treatment during partial hepatectomy reduces tumorgenesis in an inflammation-associated liver cancer model.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Tamar; Lanton, Tali; Divon, Mali Salmon; Salmon, Asher; Peretz, Tamar; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H; Sonnenblick, Amir

    2016-01-26

    The long-term prognosis after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is one of the treatment options for early-stage HCC, remains unsatisfactory as a result of a high incidence of disease recurrence. Recent studies performed in murine models revealed a link between liver regeneration under chronic inflammation and hepatic tumorigenesis. Sorafenib is a potent drug for advanced HCC with multikinase inhibition activity. We propose that inhibition of signal transduction pathways which are activated during hepatectomy, using Sorafenib, will reduce accelerated tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we studied the Mdr2-knockout (KO) mouse strain, a model of inflammation-associated cancer, which underwent partial hepatectomy (PHx) at three months of age, with or without Sorafenib.Here we show that Sorafenib treatment during PHx inhibited different signal transduction pathways at the multikinase levels, but did not result in increased morbidity or mortality. At the early stages after PHx, Sorafenib treatment had no effect on the course of proliferation, apoptosis and DNA repair in the regenerating liver, but resulted in decreased stellate cells activation and inflammatory response. Finally, we show that Sorafenib treatment during PHx at three months of age resulted in decreased fibrosis and tumor formation at 8.5 months.In conclusion our study indicates that short-term Sorafenib treatment during PHx is safe and effective in inhibiting inflammation-associated cancer, and is therefore a potential strategy for recurrence prevention in patients with early-stage HCC treated with PHx.

  14. Obesity and Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Schlesinger, Sabrina

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure. Accumulating evidence has established an association between higher body mass index as an indicator of general obesity and higher risk of primary liver cancer. The associations are stronger in men, in patients with underlying liver disease and in white ethnic groups. Abdominal obesity, weight gain in adult life and metabolic factors related to visceral fat accumulation were also suggested as important risk factors for liver cancer; however, more studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The association of obesity and metabolic parameters with liver cancer survival remains controversial. It is unclear which exact mechanisms could provide links between obesity and liver cancer risk. Recent evidence has implicated several molecular pathways in obesity-associated liver cancer. These include insulin resistance leading to increased levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factors, chronic inflammation, adipose tissue remodeling, pro-inflammatory cytokine and adipokine secretion, and altered gut microbiota. These mechanisms coincide with inflammatory and metabolic processes occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease predisposing cancer development and progression. In the context of the current evidence, better understanding of the role of obesity and related metabolic factors may help in

  15. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  16. Liver metastases from colorectal cancer: regional intra-arterial treatment following failure of systemic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cyjon, A; Neuman-Levin, M; Rakowsky, E; Greif, F; Belinky, A; Atar, E; Hardoff, R; Brenner, B; Sulkes, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine response rate, survival and toxicity associated with combination chemotherapy delivered intra-arterially to liver in patients with hepatic metastases of colorectal origin refractory to standard systemic treatment. A total of 28 patients who failed prior systemic treatment with fluoropyrimidines received a median of 5 cycles of intra-arterial treatment consisting of 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m2/d, leucovorin 120 mg/m2/d, and cisplatin 20 mg/m2/d for 5 consecutive days. Cycles were repeated at intervals of 5–6 weeks. A major response was achieved in 48% of patients: complete response in 8% and partial response in 40%. The median duration of response was 11.5 months. Median survival was 12 months at a median follow up of 12 months. On multivariate analysis, the only variables with a significant impact on survival were response to treatment and performance status. Toxicity was moderate: grades III–IV neutropenia occurred in 29% of patients. Most of the patients complained of fatigue lasting for a few days following each cycle. There were no cases of hepatobiliary toxicity. These findings indicate that regional intra-arterial treatment should be considered in selected patients with predominantly liver disease following failure of standard treatment. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506487

  17. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  18. Intratumoral injection of boiling carboplatin (BCBP) solution for treatment of liver cancer in the animal model.

    PubMed

    Lu, M; Yin, X; Shen, Q; Lu, J

    2001-01-01

    To develop a new modality of local hyperthermal chemotherapy for liver cancer. Carboplatin solutions of various concentrations were heated at 60 degrees C, 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C, and carboplatin content, pH value and ultraviolet absorption spectrum were assayed before and after heating. By establishing BALB/c murine model of subcutaneous transplant liver cancer, intratumoral injection of boiling carboplatin solution (group A), 45 degrees C carboplatin solution (group B), room-temperature carboplatin solution (group C), boiling distilled-water (group D) and room-temperature distilled-water (control group) was carried out, and tumor growth curve, tumor regression rate and pathohistological features following treatment were evaluated. Carboplatin content remained stable, ultraviolet absorption spectrum presented no remarkable changes and pH value showed a slight decline after being heated for up to 20 min. Following treatment, all 16 tumors in group A were completely regressed up to day 21. In groups B, C and control group, no tumors became fully regressed and a size of 1.98 +/- 1.11 cm2, 1.50 +/- 0.58 cm2 and 4.83 +/- 0.37 cm2 was presented on day 21, respectively. In group D, though all tumors grossly disappeared during the early post-treatment days, 12 out of 16 recurred on day 21. The tumor regression rate in group A was significantly lower as compared with that of groups B, C, D and control group (all P < 0.01). Histological examination revealed massive necrosis with some degenerated tumor cells at the tumor margin in groups A and D, and only focal necrosis with more viable tumor cells at the center and margin in groups B and C on post-treatment day 1 and 3. Twenty-one days after injection, all tumors in group A presented complete necrosis and were partly replaced by fibrotic tissue. Except for 4 regressed tumors in group D which had the same histological features as those in group A, all other tumors in groups B, C, D and control group presented the

  19. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer? Although several risk factors for hepatocellular cancer ... Cancer? Can Liver Cancer Be Prevented? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  20. Activation of the mTOR Pathway by Oxaliplatin in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min; Zessin, Amelia S.; Glover, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background Standard of care treatment for colorectal cancer liver metastasis consists of a cytotoxic chemotherapy in combination with a targeted agent. Clinical trials have guided the use of these combinatory therapies, but it remains unclear what the optimal combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy with a targeted agent are. Methods Using a genomic based approach, gene expression profiling was obtained from tumor samples of patient with colorectal cancer liver metastasis who received an oxaliplatin based therapy. Early passaged colorectal cancer liver metastasis cell lines and patient derived xenografts of colorectal cancer liver metastasis were then treated with oxaliplatin and a mTOR inhibitor. Results Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the mTOR pathway was activated in patients receiving oxaliplatin based therapy. Treatment of early passaged colorectal cancer lines and patient derived xenografts with oxaliplatin resulted in activation of the mTOR pathway. Combination therapy with oxaliplatin and a mTOR inhibitor resulted in a synergistic effect both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our findings suggest a genomic based approach can be used to identify optimal combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy with a targeted agent and that these observations can be validated both in vitro and in vivo using patient derived colorectal cancer cell lines and patient derived xenografts prior to clinical use. PMID:28060954

  1. The changing role of surgery in the treatment of primary liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z Y; Yu, Y Q; Zhou, X D

    1986-01-01

    For decades, the role of surgery in the treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) was important but limited. However, a comparison of pathologically proven PLC during the three periods 1958-1966, 1967-1975, and 1976-1984 revealed that as a result of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) serosurvey, changing concepts in surgical oncology, and introduction of new surgical modalities, the role of surgery has become greater. The increasing proportion of subclinical PLC (0, 7.2, and 21.2%) has favored the increasing series resection rate (16.1, 34.7, and 39.6%) and palliative surgery (13.7, 17.0, and 29.8%). The results indicated that early resection, reoperation for subclinical recurrence, resection of huge PLC in stages, and combination of palliative surgery other than resection might be responsible for the increasing 5-year survival rate (1.7, 7.1, and 19.5%) in the entire series.

  2. Can More Aggressive Treatment Improve Prognosis in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma? A Direct Comparison of the Hong Kong Liver Cancer and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sun; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Hae Rim; Yoo, Yang Jae; Kim, Tae Suk; Kang, Seong Hee; Suh, Sang Jun; Joo, Moon Kyung; Jung, Young Kul; Lee, Beom Jae; Yim, Hyung Joon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Park, Jong-Jae; Um, Soon Ho; Bak, Young-Tae; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2017-09-07

    In addition to the globally endorsed Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system, other algorithms or staging systems have been developed, including the Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging system. This study aimed to validate the HKLC staging system relative to the BCLC staging system for predicting survival for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in Korea. From 2004 to 2013, 2,571 patients newly diagnosed with HCC were consecutively enrolled at three Korea University medical centers. Both staging systems differentiated survival well (p<0.001). However, 1-year and 3-year survival were predicted better using the HKLC system than the BCLC system (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.869 vs 0.856 for 1 year, p=0.002; 0.841 vs 0.827 for 3 years, p=0.010). In hypothetical survival curves, the HKLC system exhibited better median overall survival than the BCLC system (33.1 months vs 19.2 months). In evaluations of prognosis according to either BCLC or HKLC treatment guidelines, risk of death was reduced in the group following only HKLC guidelines compared with the group following only BCLC guidelines (hazard ratio, 0.601; 95% confidence interval, 0.443 to 0.816; p=0.001). Although both staging systems predicted and discriminated HCC prognoses well, the HKLC system showed more encouraging survival benefits than the BCLC system.

  3. Drug-Loaded Microspheres for the Treatment of Liver Cancer: Review of Current Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kettenbach, Joachim Stadler, Alfred; Katzler, Isabella v.; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Blum, Melanie; Lammer, Johannes; Rand, Thomas

    2008-05-15

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) involves the emulsification of a chemotherapeutic agent in a viscous drug carrier, delivered intra-arterially to liver tumor for maximum effect. TACE reduces arterial inflow, diminishes washout of the chemotherapeutic agent, and decreases systemic exposure. Despite evidence of some clinical success with TACE, a new type of microspheres with drug-eluting capabilities may offer a precisely controlled and sustainable release of the chemotherapeutic agent into the tumor bed. In animal trials tumor necrosis (approaching 100%) was greatest at 7 days, with significantly lower plasma concentrations of doxorubicin than in control animals treated with doxorubicin intra-arterially. Clinically, drug-eluting microspheres loaded with doxorubicin, either at 75 mg/m{sup 2} or at a fixed dose of 150 mg, were used recently and no severe disorders of the hepatic function were observed postprocedure, while a substantial reduction of the fetoprotein levels occurred. An interim analysis of the first 15 patients from the Hong Kong group at 3 months showed an objective response rate of 61.54% and 53.84% according to EASL criteria and RECIST criteria, respectively, and a survival rate of 93.3%. In this paper we present how to use microspheres loaded with doxorubicin and review their clinical value and preliminary performance for treatment of unresectable liver cancer.

  4. Obesity and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Ester; Bugianesi, Elisabetta

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for many types of cancers, particularly for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), owing to its carcinogenic potential and the association with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). HCC may develop in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic livers with NAFLD, particularly in the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors such as obesity and diabetes. This issue is alarming because the population potentially at higher risk is greatly increasing. This review summarizes current evidence linking obesity and liver cancer, and discusses recent advances on the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pooled analysis of the surgical treatment for colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Veereman, G; Robays, J; Verleye, L; Leroy, R; Rolfo, C; Van Cutsem, E; Bielen, D; Ceelen, W; Danse, E; De Man, M; Demetter, P; Flamen, P; Hendlisz, A; Sinapi, I; Vanbeckevoort, D; Ysebaert, D; Peeters, M

    2015-04-01

    Liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients decreases the expected 5 year survival rates by a factor close to nine. It is generally accepted that resection of liver metastases should be attempted whenever feasible. This manuscript addresses the optimal therapeutic plan regarding timing of resection of synchronous liver metastases and the use of chemotherapy in combination with resection of synchronous metachronous liver metastases. The aim is to pool all published results in order to attribute a level of evidence to outcomes and identify lacking evidence areas. A systematic search of guidelines, reviews, randomised controlled, observational studies and updating a meta-analysis was performed. Data were extracted and analysed. Data failed to demonstrate an effect of timing of surgery or use of chemotherapy on overall survival. Concomitant resection of liver metastases and the primary tumour may result in lower postoperative morbidity. Systemic peri-operative chemotherapy may improve progression free survival compared to surgery alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [A case with liver resection of metastasis from rectal cancer after FOLFOX4+bevacizumab treatment].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taiki; Matsui, Takanori; Uemura, Takanori; Fujimitsu, Yasunobu; Kure, Narihiro; Kojima, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    We report a 59-year-old woman with rectal cancer who underwent low anterior resection in March 2007. After curative operation at Stage IIIb(pT3N2M0), multiple liver metastasis was diagnosed in May 2007. Chemotherapy with FOLFOX4+bevacizumab was performed from June to August in 2007, and liver resection(left lobectomy and partial resection)was performed in September 2007. Bevacizumab was newly available from June 2007 in Japan, and liver resection after bevacizumab administration was safely performed.

  7. Treatment of Neuroendocrine Cancer Metastatic to the Liver: The Role of Ablative Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, T.D. Charboneau, J.W.; Que, F.G.; Rubin, J.; Lewis, B.D.; Nagorney, D.M.; Callstrom, M.R.; Farrell, M.A.; Pitot, H.C.; Hobday, T.J.

    2005-05-15

    Carcinoid tumors and islet cell neoplasms are neuroendocrine neoplasms with indolent patterns of growth and association with bizarre hormone syndromes. These tumors behave in a relatively protracted and predictable manner, which allows for multiple therapeutic options. Even in the presence of hepatic metastases, the standard of treatment for neuroendocrine malignancy is surgery, either with curative intent or for tumor cytoreduction, i.e., resection of 90% or more of the tumor volume. Image-guided ablation, as either an adjunct to surgery or a primary treatment modality, can be used to treat neuroendocrine cancer metastatic to the liver. Image-guided ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation, alcohol injection, and cryoablation, can be used in selected patients to debulk hepatic tumors and improve patient symptoms. Although long-term follow-up data are not available, the surgical literature indicates that significant ablative debulking may improve patient survival. In this review, we discuss metastatic neuroendocrine disease and its treatment options, especially image-guided ablative techniques.

  8. Viral hepatitis and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ringehan, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C viruses are a global health problem causing acute and chronic infections that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These infections are the leading cause for HCC worldwide and are associated with significant mortality, accounting for more than 1.3 million deaths per year. Owing to its high incidence and resistance to treatment, liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with HCC representing approximately 90% of all primary liver cancer cases. The majority of viral-associated HCC cases develop in subjects with liver cirrhosis; however, hepatitis B virus infection can promote HCC development without prior end-stage liver disease. Thus, understanding the role of hepatitis B and C viral infections in HCC development is essential for the future design of treatments and therapies for this cancer. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on hepatitis B and C virus hepatocarcinogenesis and highlight direct and indirect risk factors. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human oncogenic viruses’. PMID:28893941

  9. Preliminary investigation on regulating effects of different TCM treatments on transcription of the correlated genes of liver cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dongyuan; Fang, Zhaoqin; Lu, Hengxin; Li, Haiyan

    2003-03-01

    The regulating effects of TCM treatments including clearing away heat and toxic materials, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, and strengthening the spleen and regulating qi on the oncogene transcription were observed in the liver cancer model rats. The preliminary results indicated that the mRNA levels of H-ras N-ras and K-ras, and signal molecules correlated with the ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway were down-regulated by the different TCM treatments in varying degrees. Also, the regulating effects of the treatments on differently-displayed genes were discrepant. It is suggested that the molecular mechanisms of the TCM treatments for liver cancer was complex with different target genes.

  10. GPU-based RFA simulation for minimally invasive cancer treatment of liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Panchatcharam; Weir, Phil; Flanagan, Ronan; Voglreiter, Philip; Alhonnoro, Tuomas; Pollari, Mika; Moche, Michael; Busse, Harald; Futterer, Jurgen; Portugaller, Horst Rupert; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Kolesnik, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is one of the most popular and well-standardized minimally invasive cancer treatments (MICT) for liver tumours, employed where surgical resection has been contraindicated. Less-experienced interventional radiologists (IRs) require an appropriate planning tool for the treatment to help avoid incomplete treatment and so reduce the tumour recurrence risk. Although a few tools are available to predict the ablation lesion geometry, the process is computationally expensive. Also, in our implementation, a few patient-specific parameters are used to improve the accuracy of the lesion prediction. Advanced heterogeneous computing using personal computers, incorporating the graphics processing unit (GPU) and the central processing unit (CPU), is proposed to predict the ablation lesion geometry. The most recent GPU technology is used to accelerate the finite element approximation of Penne's bioheat equation and a three state cell model. Patient-specific input parameters are used in the bioheat model to improve accuracy of the predicted lesion. A fast GPU-based RFA solver is developed to predict the lesion by doing most of the computational tasks in the GPU, while reserving the CPU for concurrent tasks such as lesion extraction based on the heat deposition at each finite element node. The solver takes less than 3 min for a treatment duration of 26 min. When the model receives patient-specific input parameters, the deviation between real and predicted lesion is below 3 mm. A multi-centre retrospective study indicates that the fast RFA solver is capable of providing the IR with the predicted lesion in the short time period before the intervention begins when the patient has been clinically prepared for the treatment.

  11. Evaluation of the Medicinal Herb Graptopetalum paraguayense as a Treatment for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Huang, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Wu, Li-Chen; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Lai, Jin-Mei; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug for patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that has been shown to confer a survival benefit to patients with HCC; however, it has many side effects. Thus, alternate therapeutic strategies with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy for the management of HCC should be developed. Methods and Findings We demonstrate that an extract of Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) down-regulated the expression levels of several onco-proteins, including AURKA, AURKB, and FLJ10540, in HCC cells. To isolate the active components in the GP extracts, we prepared extracts fractions and assessed their effects on the expression of onco-proteins in HCC cells. The fraction designated HH-F3 was enriched in active ingredients, exhibited cytotoxic effects, and suppressed the expression of the onco-proteins in HCC cells. The structure of the main active compound in HH-F3 was found to be similar to that of the proanthocyanidin compounds derived from Rhodiola rosea. In addition, a distinct new compound rich in 3, 4, 5-trihydroxy benzylic moieties was identified in the HH-F3 preparations. Mechanistic studies indicated that HH-F3 induced apoptosis in HCC cells by promoting the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the production of reactive oxygen species. HH-F3 also enhanced PTEN expression and decreased AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in a concentration-dependent manner in HCC cells. Moreover combination of GP or HH-F3 and sorafenib synergistically inhibits the proliferation of Huh7 cells. The treatment of a rat model with diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer with extracts of GP and HH-F3 decreased hepatic collagen contents and inhibited tumor growth. Conclusions These results indicate that GP extracts and HH-F3 can protect the liver by suppressing tumor growth; consequently, these compounds

  12. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  13. Role of functional imaging in treatment plan optimization of stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Berardino; Jumeau, Raphael; Deantonio, Letizia; Adib, Salim; Godin, Sarah; Zeverino, Michele; Moeckli, Raphael; Bourhis, Jean; Prior, John O; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-10-13

    We report the first known instance of the clinical use of 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for the optimization of radiotherapy treatment planning and for the follow-up of acute toxicity in a patient undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. In our experience, HBS allowed the identification and the sparing of more functioning liver areas, thus potentially reducing the risk of radiation-induced liver toxicity.

  14. Cetuximab as treatment for head and neck cancer patients with a previous liver transplant: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Francia; Rubió-Casadevall, Jordi; Saigi, Maria; Marruecos, Jordi; Taberna, Miren; Tobed, Marc; Maños, Manuel; Mesía, Ricard

    2017-10-01

    Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor useful in the treatment of patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma combined with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Its pharmacokinetics are not influenced by hepatic status and there are no specific warnings concerning its indication in patients with impaired hepatic function. Patients with a previous liver transplant are at risk for hepatic toxicity and use immunosupressants to avoid rejection that can interact with other drugs. We present two cases of patients with a previous liver transplant in which cetuximab was administered to treat head and neck cancer.

  15. Gel dosimetry in the BNCT facility for extra-corporeal treatment of liver cancer at the HFR Petten.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, G; Daquino, G G; Moss, R L; Carrara, M; Nievaart, V A; Vanossi, E

    2007-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of the dose inside a specially designed and built facility for extra-corporeal treatment of liver cancer by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten (The Netherlands) is the necessary step before animal studies can start. The absorbed doses are measured by means of gel dosemeters, which help to validate the Monte Carlo simulations of the spheroidal liver holder that will contain the human liver for irradiation with an epithermal neutron beam. These dosemeters allow imaging of the dose due to gammas and to the charged particles produced by the (10)B reaction. The thermal neutron flux is extrapolated from the boron dose images and compared to that obtained by the calculations. As an additional reference, Au, Cu and Mn foil measurements are performed. All results appear consistent with the calculations and confirm that the BNCT liver facility is able to provide an almost homogeneous thermal neutron distribution in the liver, which is a requirement for a successful treatment of liver metastases.

  16. Optimal dose of gemcitabine for the treatment of biliary tract or pancreatic cancer in patients with liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takashi; Ebata, Tomoki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Shimokata, Tomoya; Maeda, Osamu; Mitsuma, Ayako; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Nagino, Masato; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    A clear consensus does not exist about whether the initial dose of gemcitabine, an essential anticancer antimetabolite, should be reduced in patients with liver dysfunction. Adult patients with biliary tract or pancreatic cancer were divided into three groups according to whether they had mild, moderate, or severe liver dysfunction, evaluated on the basis of serum bilirubin and liver transaminase levels at baseline. As anticancer treatment, gemcitabine at a dose of 800 or 1000 mg/m(2) was given as an i.v. infusion once weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. The patients were prospectively evaluated for adverse events during the first cycle, and the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and its inactive metabolite, difluorodeoxyuridine, were studied to determine the optimal initial dose of gemcitabine as monotherapy according to the severity of liver dysfunction. A total of 15 patients were studied. Liver dysfunction was mild in one patient, moderate in six, and severe in eight. All 15 patients had been undergoing biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice when they received gemcitabine. Grade 3 cholangitis developed in one patient with moderate liver dysfunction who received gemcitabine at the dose level of 1000 mg/m(2). No other patients had severe treatment-related adverse events resulting in the omission or discontinuation of gemcitabine treatment. The plasma concentrations of gemcitabine and difluorodeoxyuridine were similar among the groups. An initial dose reduction of gemcitabine as monotherapy for the treatment of biliary tract or pancreatic cancers is not necessary for patients with hyperbilirubinemia, provided that obstructive jaundice is well managed. (Clinical trial registration no. UMIN000005363.)

  17. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer Who Have Undergone a Liver Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer

  19. Microwave Ablation (MWA) for the Treatment of a Solitary, Chemorefractory Testicular Cancer Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Violari, Elena G. Petre, Elena N.; Feldman, Darren R.; Erinjeri, Joseph P. Brown, Karen T. Solomon, Stephen B.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2015-04-15

    We present a case of a patient with stage IIIC metastatic seminoma with a persistent chemorefractory liver lesion. The patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate due to the tumor’s aggressive biology with numerous other liver lesions treated with chemotherapy and a relatively high probability for additional recurrences. Further chemotherapy with curative intent was not a feasible option due to the fact that the patient had already received second-line high-dose chemotherapy and four cycles of third-line treatment complicated by renal failure, refractory thrombocytopenia, and debilitating neuropathy. After initial failure of laser, microwave ablation of the chemorefractory liver metastasis resulted in prolonged local tumor control and rendered the patient disease-free for more than 35 months, allowing him to regain an improved quality of life.

  20. Plectin deficiency in liver cancer cells promotes cell migration and sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Chao, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chen-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-02-17

    Plectin involved in activation of kinases in cell signaling pathway and plays important role in cell morphology and migration. Plectin knockdown promotes cell migration by activating focal adhesion kinase and Rac1-GTPase activity in liver cells. Sorafenib is a multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor that improves patient survival on hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the expression of plectin and cell migration as well as the sensitivity of hepatoma cell lines exposing to sorafenib. Hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 were used to examine the level of plectin expression and cell migration in comparison with Chang liver cell line. In addition, sensitivity of the 3 cell lines to sorafenib treatment was also measured. Expression of plectin was lower in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 hepatoma cells than that of Chang liver cells whereas HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells exhibit higher rate of cell migration in trans-well migration assay. Immunohistofluorecent staining on E-cadherin revealed the highest rate of collective cell migration in HepG2 cells and the lowest was found in Chang liver cells. Likewise, HepG2 cell line was most sensitive to sorafenib treatment and Chang liver cells exhibited the least sensitivity. The drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment showed inverse correlation with the expression of plectin. We suggest that plectin deficiency and increased E-cadherin in hepatoma cells were associated with higher rates of cell motility, collective cell migration as well as higher drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

  1. A technique using {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for radiotherapy treatment planning for liver cancers or metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Sui; Jacob, Rojymon; Bender, Luvenia W.; Duan, Jun; Spencer, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) requires a sufficient functional liver volume to tolerate the treatment. The current study extended the work of de Graaf et al. (2010) [3] on the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin imaging for presurgery planning to radiotherapy planning for liver cancer or metastases. Patient was immobilized and imaged in an identical position on a single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) system and a radiotherapy simulation CT system. {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT was registered to the planning CT through image registration of noncontrast CT from SPECT-CT system to the radiotherapy planning CT. The voxels with higher uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin were transferred to the planning CT as an avoidance structure in optimizing a 2-arc RapidArc plan for SBRT delivery. Excellent dose coverage to the target and sparing of the healthy remnant liver volume was achieved. This report illustrated a procedure for the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for optimizing radiotherapy for liver cancers and metastases.

  2. A technique using 99mTc-mebrofenin SPECT for radiotherapy treatment planning for liver cancers or metastases.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sui; Jacob, Rojymon; Bender, Luvenia W; Duan, Jun; Spencer, Sharon A

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) requires a sufficient functional liver volume to tolerate the treatment. The current study extended the work of de Graaf et al. (2010) [3] on the use of (99m)Tc-mebrofenin imaging for presurgery planning to radiotherapy planning for liver cancer or metastases. Patient was immobilized and imaged in an identical position on a single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) system and a radiotherapy simulation CT system. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin SPECT was registered to the planning CT through image registration of noncontrast CT from SPECT-CT system to the radiotherapy planning CT. The voxels with higher uptake of (99m)Tc-mebrofenin were transferred to the planning CT as an avoidance structure in optimizing a 2-arc RapidArc plan for SBRT delivery. Excellent dose coverage to the target and sparing of the healthy remnant liver volume was achieved. This report illustrated a procedure for the use of (99m)Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for optimizing radiotherapy for liver cancers and metastases. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. All rights reserved.

  3. [Efficacy evaluation and exploration of TACE combined with CT-guided precision microwave ablation treatment for primary liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhao, P; Zheng, J S; Zhang, H H; Yuan, C W; Cui, S C; Du, N; Zhao, L Y

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the clinical therapeutic efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with CT-guided percutaneous precision microwave ablation for the treatment of primary liver cancer and its influencing factors. A total of 126 patients with primary liver cancer were treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with CT-guided percutaneous precision microwave ablation from Mar 2010 to Oct 2014 in our center. The treatment effect, postoperative complications and recurrence rates were observed, and the factors related to recurrence and survival time were analyzed. All 126 primary liver cancer patients with 201 tumors were ablated for 177 times, and 113 cases with 185 tumors were completed ablated, the complete ablation rate was 92.0%. In all patients, 4 cases had serious complications, the incidence rate was 3.2%. 37 cases had recurrence, with a recurrence rate of 29.4%. All patients were followed up for 10 to 65 months, 17 patients died, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative survival rates were 95.2%, 88.1%, and 84.1%, respectively, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free-survival rates were 81.5%, 62.7% and 49.2%, respectively .Univariate analysis showed that preoperative AFP level, Child-Pugh score, BCLC stage and the largest tumor size were associated with the survival of patients who received TACE combined with CT-guided precision MWA, and the preoperative AFP level, internal medicine therapy, tumor number and the largest tumor size were associated with the progression-free-survival after the treatment (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that Child-Pugh score and BCLC stage were independent factors affecting the survival of patients with primary liver cancer patients treated with TACE combined with CT guided percutaneous MWA, and the tumor number and the maximum tumor size were independent factors affecting the progression-free-survival of the patients (P<0.05). TACE combined with CT-guided percutaneous precision microwave

  4. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients.

  5. Liver Cancer: Connections with Obesity, Fatty Liver, and Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Andrea; Rosso, Chiara; Bugianesi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, is steadily growing because obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are replacing viral- and alcohol-related liver disease as major pathogenic promoters. The most worrisome aspects of these new risk factors are their large spread in the general population and their link with HCC arising in noncirrhotic livers. HCC may be the presenting feature of an asymptomatic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD. The HCC risk connected to metabolic factors has been underestimated so far, and a poorer surveillance has prevented an adequate treatment. Systemic and hepatic molecular mechanisms involved in obesity- and NAFLD-induced hepatocarcinogenesis as well as potential early markers of HCC are being extensively investigated. This review summarizes current evidence linking obesity, NAFLD and liver cancer, discusses its clinical impact and describes the main mechanisms underlying this complex relationship.

  6. Lipids changes in liver cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing-ting; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wu, Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism. Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs, these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed. Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide, and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases, which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo. In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer. PMID:17565510

  7. A decision analysis model predicts the optimal treatment pathway for patients with colorectal cancer and resectable synchronous liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Thomas A; Fahy, Bridget N

    2008-05-01

    The estimated 2400 Americans who annually present with colorectal cancer and simultaneous resectable liver metastases encounter a wide array of surgical and medical treatment options. Because of the large number of possible treatment sequences and the absence of clinical trials comparing these various pathways, there is no consensus on the optimal therapeutic strategy. To address this issue, a decision-making model was developed incorporating all possible combinations of the following treatments: colorectal resection, hepatic resection, simultaneous colohepatic resection, and systemic chemotherapy. Transition probabilities associated with each treatment were determined by systematic review of the literature. Variations in complication rates based on the extent of hepatectomy (minor: 1-2 segments vs. major: > 2 segments) were factored into the model. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify threshold values for study variables that altered the optimal treatment pathway. After 10,000 simulated patient trials with no bias toward any one initial treatment (ie, current practice conditions), the global calculated 5-year survival rate was 21%. For simulated patients with moderate hepatic tumor burden, only treatment sequences that placed systemic therapy before major hepatectomy resulted in improved 5-year survival projections (38% vs. 29%; P = .001; odds ratio, 1.82). Initial treatment with simultaneous colohepatic resection was only favored when the operative mortality rate was adjusted to < 0.5%. This detailed decision-making analysis predicts that the optimal treatment pathway for most patients with colorectal cancer and simultaneous resectable liver metastases is preoperative systemic therapy followed by colohepatectomy or 2-stage resection. In the era of improved systemic therapies, major hepatic resection should be deferred until local and systemic disease can been addressed.

  8. Current Medical Treatment of Patients with Non-Colorectal Liver Metastases: Primary Tumor Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Cornelia; Kolberg, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background (Metastatic) breast cancer is a heterogeneous entity in which every disease subtype requires an individualized systemic treatment approach. Methods We reviewed the currently available data regarding systemic therapy of breast cancer and present a review of historical and current treatment approaches, with the publications cited covering a time span from 1896 to the last ASCO 2015. Results Systemic therapy of metastatic breast cancer may include chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and targeted therapies (e.g. antibody-based approaches). Based on the patient's breast cancer subtype, these agents may be employed alone or in combination. Therefore, characterization of the phenotype of the disease is necessary and may include biopsy of the metastatic site. Novel therapeutic approaches include immunologic therapies as well as PARP, PI3K and CDK 4/6 inhibitors, which are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Conclusion Systemic therapy of metastatic breast cancer requires complex and individualized treatment approaches that are best offered in an interdisciplinary setting. PMID:26889146

  9. Successful Multidisciplinary Treatment with Secondary Metastatic Liver Resection after Downsizing by Palliative Second-Line Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: A Curative Option

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Axel; Siebler, Jürgen; Goertz, Ruediger; Wolff, Kerstin; Ostermeier, Nicola; Busse, Dagmar; Kremer, Andreas E.; Koch, Franz; Hagel, Alexander; Farnbacher, Michael; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Neurath, Markus F.; Gruetzmann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prognostic outcome following progression after palliative first-line treatment for patients suffering from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma is generally poor. Long-term relapse-free survival with palliative second-line treatment may be achieved in only a limited number of individual cases. Case Report A 37-year-old patient presented with bilobar liver metastases of colon cancer confirmed by histology with wild-type K-RAS (exon 2). Due to progressive disease after eight cycles of first-line therapy with FOLFIRI plus cetuximab, second-line chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX4 (mFOLFOX4) plus bevacizumab was initiated. During four cycles of mFOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab (2 months), no higher-grade toxicity occurred. Liver MRI with contrast medium revealed downsizing of the segment II/III metastases, as well as regressive, small, faint, hardly definable lesions in segments VI and IVb. The interdisciplinary tumor board of the University of Erlangen thus decided to perform resection of the liver metastases. Segments II and III were resected, and the liver metastases in segments IVa and VI were excised (R0). Histopathology confirmed three of the R0-resected metastases to be completely necrotic, with residual scarring. As perioperative therapy, four additional cycles of mFOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab were administered postoperatively. No higher-grade toxicity was observed. Three years after the initial diagnosis, the patient is relapse free, professionally fully reintegrated, and has an excellent performance status. Conclusion Patients suffering from metastatic colorectal cancer may benefit from multidisciplinary treatment with secondary metastatic liver resection after downsizing by palliative second-line treatment. In individual cases, patients may even have a curative treatment option, provided that close interdisciplinary collaboration exists. PMID:27489542

  10. The impact of respiratory motion and treatment technique on stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q. Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang Zhiheng; Chankong, Vira; Yin Fangfang

    2008-04-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which delivers a much higher fractional dose than conventional treatment in only a few fractions, is an effective treatment for liver metastases. For patients who are treated under free-breathing conditions, however, respiration-induced tumor motion in the liver is a concern. Limited clinical information is available related to the impact of tumor motion and treatment technique on the dosimetric consequences. This study evaluated the dosimetric deviations between planned and delivered SBRT dose in the presence of tumor motion for three delivery techniques: three-dimensional conformal static beams (3DCRT), dynamic conformal arc (DARC), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five cases treated with SBRT for liver metastases were included in the study, with tumor motions ranging from 0.5 to 1.75 cm. For each case, three different treatment plans were developed using 3DCRT, DARC, and IMRT. The gantry/multileaf collimator (MLC) motion in the DARC plans and the MLC motion in the IMRT plans were synchronized to the patient's respiratory motion. Retrospectively sorted four-dimensional computed tomography image sets were used to determine patient-organ motion and to calculate the dose delivered during each respiratory phase. Deformable registration, using thin-plate-spline models, was performed to encode the tumor motion and deformation and to register the dose-per-phase to the reference phase images. The different dose distributions resulting from the different delivery techniques and motion ranges were compared to assess the effect of organ motion on dose delivery. Voxel dose variations occurred mostly in the high gradient regions, typically between the target volume and normal tissues, with a maximum variation up to 20%. The greatest CTV variation of all the plans was seen in the IMRT technique with the largest motion range (D99: -8.9%, D95: -8.3%, and D90: -6.3%). The greatest variation for all 3DCRT plans was less

  11. Ganetespib radiosensitization for liver cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Malek, Reem; Annadanam, Anvesh; Nugent, Katriana M.; Kato, Yoshinori; Wang, Hailun; Cades, Jessica A.; Taparra, Kekoa; Belcaid, Zineb; Ballew, Matthew; Manmiller, Sarah; Proia, David; Lim, Michael; Anders, Robert A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Tran, Phuoc T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Therapies for liver cancer particularly those including radiation are still inadequate. Inhibiting the stress response machinery is an appealing anti-cancer and radiosensitizing therapeutic strategy. Heat-shock-protein-90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is a prominent effector of the stress response machinery and is overexpressed in liver cancer cells. HSP90 client proteins include critical components of pathways implicated in liver cancer cell survival and radioresistance. The effects of a novel non-geldanamycin HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, combined with radiation were examined on 3 liver cancer cell lines, Hep3b, HepG2 and HUH7, using in vitro assays for clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, γH2AX foci kinetics and client protein expression in pathways important for liver cancer survival and radioresistance. We then evaluated tumor growth delay and effects of the combined ganetespib-radiation treatment on tumor cell proliferation in a HepG2 hind-flank tumor graft model. Nanomolar levels of ganetespib alone exhibited liver cancer cell anti-cancer activity in vitro as shown by decreased clonogenic survival that was associated with increased apoptotic cell death, prominent G2-M arrest and marked changes in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MAPK client protein activity. Ganetespib caused a supra-additive radiosensitization in all liver cancer cell lines at low nanomolar doses with enhancement ratios between 1.33–1.78. These results were confirmed in vivo, where the ganetespib-radiation combination therapy produced supra-additive tumor growth delay compared with either therapy by itself in HepG2 tumor grafts. Our data suggest that combined ganetespib-radiation therapy exhibits promising activity against liver cancer cells, which should be investigated in clinical studies. PMID:26980196

  12. Ganetespib radiosensitization for liver cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chettiar, Sivarajan T; Malek, Reem; Annadanam, Anvesh; Nugent, Katriana M; Kato, Yoshinori; Wang, Hailun; Cades, Jessica A; Taparra, Kekoa; Belcaid, Zineb; Ballew, Matthew; Manmiller, Sarah; Proia, David; Lim, Michael; Anders, Robert A; Herman, Joseph M; Tran, Phuoc T

    2016-04-02

    Therapies for liver cancer particularly those including radiation are still inadequate. Inhibiting the stress response machinery is an appealing anti-cancer and radiosensitizing therapeutic strategy. Heat-shock-protein-90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is a prominent effector of the stress response machinery and is overexpressed in liver cancer cells. HSP90 client proteins include critical components of pathways implicated in liver cancer cell survival and radioresistance. The effects of a novel non-geldanamycin HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, combined with radiation were examined on 3 liver cancer cell lines, Hep3b, HepG2 and HUH7, using in vitro assays for clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, γH2AX foci kinetics and client protein expression in pathways important for liver cancer survival and radioresistance. We then evaluated tumor growth delay and effects of the combined ganetespib-radiation treatment on tumor cell proliferation in a HepG2 hind-flank tumor graft model. Nanomolar levels of ganetespib alone exhibited liver cancer cell anti-cancer activity in vitro as shown by decreased clonogenic survival that was associated with increased apoptotic cell death, prominent G2-M arrest and marked changes in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MAPK client protein activity. Ganetespib caused a supra-additive radiosensitization in all liver cancer cell lines at low nanomolar doses with enhancement ratios between 1.33-1.78. These results were confirmed in vivo, where the ganetespib-radiation combination therapy produced supra-additive tumor growth delay compared with either therapy by itself in HepG2 tumor grafts. Our data suggest that combined ganetespib-radiation therapy exhibits promising activity against liver cancer cells, which should be investigated in clinical studies.

  13. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-22

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  14. Obesity, Inflammation and Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has become a universal and major public health problem with increasing prevalence in both adults and children in the 21st century, even in developing countries. Extensive epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between obesity and development and progression of various types of cancers. The connection between obesity and liver cancer is particularly strong and obesity often results in liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by fatty liver inflammation and is believed to cause fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter is a known liver cancer risk factor. In fact, due to its much higher prevalence, obesity may be a more substantial contributor to overall hepatocellular carcinoma burden than infection with hepatitis viruses. Here we review and discuss recent advances in elucidation of cellular and molecular alterations and signaling pathways associated with obesity and liver inflammation, and their contribution to hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:22120206

  15. First human study in treatment of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer with irinotecan-loaded beads (DEBIRI)

    PubMed Central

    EICHLER, K.; ZANGOS, S.; MACK, M.G.; HAMMERSTINGL, R.; GRUBER-ROUH, T.; GALLUS, C.; VOGL, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this pilot clinical study was to assess the safety, technical feasibility, pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and tumour response of DC Bead™ with irinotecan (DEBIRI™) delivered by intra-arterial embolisation for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Eleven patients with unresectable liver metastases from CRC, tumour burden <30% of liver volume, adequate haematological, liver and renal function, performance status of <2 were included in this study. Patients received up to 4 sessions of TACE with DEBIRI at 3-week intervals. Feasibility of the procedure, safety and tumour response were assessed after each cycle. PK was measured after the first cycle. Patients were followed up to 24 weeks. Only mild to moderate adverse events were observed. DEBIRI is a technically feasibile procedure; no technical complications were observed. Average Cmax for irinotecan and SN-38 was 194 ng/ml and 16.7 ng/ml, respectively, with average t½ of 4.6 h and 12.4 h following administration of DEBIRI. Best overall response during the study showed disease control in 9 patients (2 patients with partial response and 7 with stable disease, overall response rate of 18%). Our study shows that transarterial chemoembolisation with irinotecan-loaded DC beads (DEBIRI) is safe, technically feasible and effective with a good PK profile. PMID:22842404

  16. Yttrium-90 radioembolization for colorectal cancer liver metastases: a prospective cohort study on circulating angiogenic factors and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, C E N M; van den Hoven, A F; Braat, M N G J A; Koopman, M; Lam, M G E H; Zonnenberg, B A; Verkooijen, H M; van den Bosch, M A A J

    2016-12-01

    Yttrium-90 radioembolization ((90)Y-RE) as a treatment for liver tumours induces radiation damage and hypoxia in liver tissue, which is also a trigger for systemic release of angiogenic factors, potentially stimulating tumour growth. We examined changes in circulating angiogenic factors following (90)Y-RE and investigated the association between response and angiogenic factors. In this prospective study, 42 patients with unresectable, chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (CRCLM) were treated with (90)Y-RE. Blood samples were collected pre-treatment and at 0, 1, 3, 7 and 30 days of follow-up. Response was measured with MRI according to RECIST 1.1 at 1 month and subsequently 3-month interval until progressive disease (PD) occurred. Associations between circulating angiogenic factors and response were examined with linear mixed model analysis. Following (90)Y-RE, three angiogenic factors demonstrated an increase in plasma levels, i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2). Non-responders (= PD at 1-month follow-up, n = 10) had a significant increase of Ang-2 and HGF at 3 and 7 days post treatment compared to responders (= stable disease or better, n = 32), who showed little to no changes in plasma levels (respectively p = 0.01 and p = 0.007). Median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval 6.1-12.4). Significant increases in plasma levels of Ang-2 and HGF in the first week after treatment were associated with rapid progressive disease of liver lesions at 1 month after (90)Y-RE. Combination of (90)Y-RE with anti-angiogenic therapy may reduce these effects and result in better response.

  17. Intrahepatic therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Kerlijne; Prenen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, the liver is the most common site of metastatic disease. In patients with liver-dominant disease, consideration needs to be given to locoregional treatments such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolisation and selective internal radiation therapy because hepatic metastases are a major cause of liver failure especially in chemorefractory disease. In this review we provide insights on the published literature for locoregional treatment of liver metastases in metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26380058

  18. Evaluation of Rotational Errors in Treatment Setup of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Liver Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Minsong; Lasley, Foster D.; Das, Indra J.; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Slessinger, Eric D.; Cardenes, Higinia R.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of rotational setup errors in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of liver tumors and to investigate whether translational shifts can compensate for rotation. Methods and Materials: The positioning accuracy in 20 patients with liver malignancies treated with SBRT was reevaluated offline by matching the patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans (n=75) to the planning CT scans and adjusting the 3 rotational angles (pitch, roll, and yaw). Systematic and random setup errors were calculated. The dosimetric changes caused by rotational setup errors were quantified for both simulated and observed patient rotations. Dose distributions recalculated on the rotated CT scans were compared with the original planned doses. Translational corrections were simulated based on manual translational registration of the rotated images to the original CT scans. The correction efficacy was evaluated by comparing the recalculated plans with the original plans. Results: The systematic rotational setup errors were -0.06 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.68 Degree-Sign , -0.29 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.62 Degree-Sign , and -0.24 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.61 Degree-Sign ; the random setup errors were 0.80 Degree-Sign , 1.05 Degree-Sign , and 0.61 Degree-Sign for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Analysis of CBCT images showed that 56.0%, 14.7%, and 1.3% of treated fractions had rotational errors of >1 Degree-Sign , >2 Degree-Sign , and >3 Degree-Sign , respectively, in any one of the rotational axes. Rotational simulations demonstrated that the reduction of gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage was <2% when rotation was <3 Degree-Sign . Recalculated plans using actual patient roll motions showed similar reduction (<2%) in GTV coverage. Translational corrections improved the GTV coverage to within 3% of the original values. For organs at risk (OAR), the dosimetric impact varied case by case. Conclusion: Actual rotational setup errors in SBRT for liver tumors are

  19. A three-dimensional visualisation preoperative treatment planning system in microwave ablation for liver cancer: a preliminary clinical application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangyi; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Lu, Tong; Cheng, Zhigang; Lei, Chenglong; Han, Zhiyu

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application value of a 3D visualisation preoperative treatment planning system in microwave ablation for liver cancer. From December 2011 to November 2012, 94 enrolment patients of liver cancer were divided into two groups. The 3D preoperative planning group included 36 patients with 44 lesions, who underwent microwave ablation with the aid of the self-developed 3D visualisation preoperative treatment planning system. The 2D preoperative planning group included 58 patients with 64 lesions, who underwent microwave ablation according to conventional 2D image preoperative planning methods. After microwave ablation, therapeutic efficacy was assessed by contrast-enhanced imaging during follow-up. The 3D preoperative planning group had a higher success rate of first ablation than the 2D preoperative planning group (p = 0.01). There were more sessions in the 2D preoperative planning group than in the 3D preoperative planning group (p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in technique effectiveness rate between the 2D preoperative planning group (96.55%) and the 3D preoperative planning group (100%) according to the contrast-enhanced imaging follow-up after microwave ablation (p = 0.64). There were no significant differences in the rate of LTP between the 2D preoperative planning group and the 3D preoperative planning group (p = 0.64) during 3-12 months follow up (median 6 months). Compared with the 2D preoperative planning group, the 3D preoperative planning group had a higher success rate of first ablation and fewer sessions. Therefore, the 3D visualisation preoperative treatment planning system has a relatively high clinical application value.

  20. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    To date, nine case-control studies conducted in developed countries have identified an association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and liver cancer. The most recent population-based data from both developed and developing countries failed to confirm such an association, however. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in eight developing countries (Chile, China, Colombia, Israel, Kenya, Nigeria, Philippines, and Thailand), in which 122 women with liver cancer were matched with 802 controls, found no elevated risk for OC users compared with never-users (relative risk, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2). This study is particularly significant since it was conducted in countries where hepatitis B virus infection, an important risk factor for primary liver cancer, is widespread. In addition, population mortality data from the US, UK, Japan, and Sweden have failed to document increases in liver cancer cases coincident with increases in OC use. Given that population statistics can detect changes on the magnitude of a 40-50% decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer related to OC use, they should be able to detect increases of two to 20 times the risk of liver cancer. The increased risk of liver cancer found in the case-control studies may reflect bias resulting from the small size of these studies.

  1. Weekly epirubicin for breast cancer with liver metastases and abnormal liver biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Twelves, C. J.; O'Reilly, S. M.; Coleman, R. E.; Richards, M. A.; Rubens, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-six consecutive patients with breast cancer and liver metastases with abnormal liver biochemistry were treated with epirubicin 25 mg m-2 i.v. weekly. No dose modification was made for abnormal liver biochemistry, but dose intensity was adjusted by delaying treatment according to myelosuppression. The UICC overall response rate according to UICC criteria was 11/36 (30%) and median response duration was 27 weeks. Liver biochemistry improved in a further seven patients. Treatment was well tolerated. Epirubicin given in this way is effective in patients with breast cancer and liver metastases. An initial deterioration in liver biochemistry may occur before there is a response to epirubicin. PMID:2605102

  2. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  3. CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the interdisciplinary treatment of patients with liver metastases of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wieners, Gero; Schippers, Alexander Christian; Collettini, Federico; Schnapauff, Dirk; Hamm, Bernd; Wust, Peter; Riess, Hanno; Gebauer, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) is an interventional radiologic technique for local ablation of primary and secondary malignomas applying a radiation source through a brachycatheter percutaneously into the targeted lesion. The aim of this study was to assess local tumor control, safety and efficacy of CT-HDRBT in the treatment of liver metastases of pancreatic cancer. Twenty consecutive patients with 49 unresectable liver metastases of pancreatic cancer were included in this retrospective trial and treated with CT-HDRBT, applied as a single fraction high-dose irradiation (15-20 Gy) using a 192Ir-source. Primary endpoint was local tumor control and secondary endpoints were complications, progression-free survival and overall survival. The mean tumor diameter was 29 mm (range 10-73). The mean irradiation time was 20 minutes (range 7-42). The mean coverage of the clinical target volume was 98% (range 88%-100%). The mean D100 was 18.1 Gy and the median D100 was 19.78 Gy. Three major complications occurred with post-interventional abscesses, three of which were seen in 15 patients with biliodigestive anastomosis (20%) and overall 15%. The mean follow-up time was 13.7 months (range 1.4-55.0). The median progression-free survival was 4.9 months (range 1.4-42.9, mean 9.4). Local recurrence occurred in 5 (10%) of 49 metastases treated. The median overall survival after CT-HDRBT was 8.6 months (range 1.5-55.3). Eleven patients received chemotherapy after ablation with a median progression-free survival of 4.9 months (mean 12.9). Nine patients did not receive chemotherapy after intervention with a median progression-free survival of 3.2 months (mean 5.0). The rate of local tumor control was 91% in both groups after 12 months. CT-HDRBT was safe and effective for the treatment of liver metastases of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Association between tamoxifen treatment and the development of different stages of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Chang, Hong-Tai; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-06-01

    For estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer cases, tamoxifen has been the most important adjuvant hormonal therapy for the purpose of reducing recurrence rates and prolonging disease free survival. However, several side effects have been noticed, and fatty liver is one of the most common side effects among them. Since fatty liver is a common problem in the general population, we wanted to examine the effects of tamoxifen under pre-existing fatty liver conditions and evaluate the prevalence of tamoxifen-related impaired liver function. We recruited breast cancer cases at ages 20-70 years and divided them into tamoxifen or control groups. Personal information was collected, and fasting blood tests and abdominal ultrasound were performed. The changes of fatty liver degree between the initial and follow-up ultrasound were divided into five categories. Of the 406 enrolled participants, 266 were in the tamoxifen group and 140 were in the control group. The tamoxifen group had a higher risk of newly developed fatty liver [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-8.13), lower rate of improved fatty liver (HR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.15-0.75), and higher rate of worsened fatty liver (HR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.02-4.35). The current study suggests that tamoxifen treatment is associated with the risk of fatty liver either by increasing the risk of newly developed fatty liver conditions or worsening previous fatty liver conditions, and even retarding fatty liver improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Heterogeneity of liver cancer and personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an extraordinarily heterogeneous malignant disease among the tumors that have so far been identified. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises most frequently in the setting of chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis, and takes a variety of course in individual patients to process to tumor. The risk factors such as HBV and/or HCV infections, aflatoxin infection, abuse alcohol intake, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are closely related to the environmental and genetic susceptibilities to HCC. The consequent resulting genomic instability, molecular and signal transduction network disorders and microenvironmental discrepancies are characterized by the extraordinary heterogeneity of liver cancer. The histology-based definition of the morphological heterogeneity of liver cancer has been modified and refined to treat patients with targeted therapies, but this still cannot solve all the problems. Lack of consistent outcome for anticancer agents and conventional therapies in liver cancer treatment calls for assessing the benefits of new molecularly targeted drugs and combined therapy, under the heterogeneity condition of tumor. The present review article will provide the complex mechanism and phenotype of liver cancer heterogeneity, and help us to execute precision medicine in a really personalized manner.

  6. Malnutrition, liver damage, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P

    1981-01-01

    There is no clear indication that malnutrition, per se, is a principal cause of cancer in man, but the prevalence of liver cancer in areas where malnutrition exists supports this hypothesis. Liver damage and liver cancer have been induced in laboratory rats by diets consisting of peanut meal and proteins deficient in some essential amino acids. However, liver damage, but not cancer, was produced when the diets contained no peanut meal but consisted of a mixture of amino acids deficient in methionine and cysteine, so that it is possible that aflatoxin, a contaminant of peanut meal, may have been responsible for the malignancies seen in the earlier experiments. Liver cancer developes in a high proportion of mice allowed to feed ad libitum or given a diet containing a high proportion of fat (groundnut oil) or protein (casein). Dietary restriction reduced the incidences of this cancer. This findings lends some support to current thinking that diet may be a factor in the development of cancer in man.

  7. Delivery of sFIT-1 engineered MSCs in combination with a continuous low-dose doxorubicin treatment prevents growth of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jian; Wang, Yue; Wang, Ji; Liu, Bin; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    One important process in liver cancer growth and progression is angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has the significant role in liver cancer angiogenesis. sFlt1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) is the promising inhibitor of VEGF and can be used as the new method of inhibiting angiogenesis. MSCs (Mesenchymal stem cells) can infiltrate into tumor tissue and function as the efficient transgene delivery mediator. Here, we engineered murine MSCs to express sFlt1 and examined the anti-tumor effect of MSC- sFlt1 in combination with continues low-dose doxorubicin treatment. We found that this combination therapy significantly inhibited liver cancer cells proliferation. Above all, HepG2 xenografts treated with this combination therapy went into remission. It is of note that this inhibition effect was not p53 binding and by increasing caspase8. This study suggests that this combination treatment has novel therapeutic potential for liver cancer because of significantly inhibiting cancer cells growth and anti-angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28039440

  8. Ablative safety margin depicted by fusion imaging with post-treatment contrast-enhanced ultrasound and pre-treatment CECT/CEMRI after radiofrequency ablation for liver cancers.

    PubMed

    Bo, Xiao-Wan; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Guo, Le-Hang; Sun, Li-Ping; Li, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Chong-Ke; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Bo-Ji; Li, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Dan

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the value of fusion imaging with post-treatment contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and pre-treatment contrast-enhanced CT/MRI (CECT/CEMRI) in evaluating ablative safety margin after percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for liver cancers. 34 consecutive patients with 47 liver lesions who had undergone RFA were included. Fusion imaging with post-treatment CEUS and pre-treatment CECT/CEMRI was carried out to evaluate local treatment response and ablative safety margin within 1-3 days after RFA. The minimal ablative safety margins of the ablation zones were recorded. The complete response (CR) rate was calculated with reference to CECT/CEMRI results 1 month after RFA. The local tumour progression (LTP) was also recorded. Of the 47 ablation zones, 47 (100%) were clearly depicted with CEUS-CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging, 36 (76.6%) with US-CECT/CEMRI fusion imaging and 21 (44.7%) with conventional US (both p < 0.001). The minimal ablative safety margins were great than or equal to 5 mm in 28 ablation zones, between 0 and 5 mm in 15, and less than 0 mm in 4. For the four lesions without enough ablative safety margin, three were referred to follow-up because CEUS showed larger ablation zones than pre-treatment lesions and the remaining lesion was subject to additional RFA 5 days after the first RFA. The CR rate was 95.7% (45/47) with reference to CECT/CEMRI results 1 month after RFA. During 2 to 34 months follow-up, LTP was found in two (4.4%) of 45 lesions with CR. Insufficient ablative safety margin was more commonly found in those lesions with LTP than those without LTP (1/4 vs 1/43, p < 0.001). Fusion imaging with post-treatment CEUS and pre-treatment CECT/CEMRI can depict the ablative safety margin accurately after RFA. Inadequate ablative safety margin is associated with LTP. Depiction of ablative safety margin by fusion imaging after ablation might be considered as a routine procedure to assess the treatment response of RFA

  9. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Obesity, inflammation, and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has become a universal and major public health problem with increasing prevalence in both adults and children in the 21st century, even in developing countries. Extensive epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between obesity and development and progression of various types of cancers. The connection between obesity and liver cancer is particularly strong and obesity often results in liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterized by fatty liver inflammation and is believed to cause fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter is a known liver cancer risk factor. In fact due to its much higher prevalence obesity may be a more substantial contributor to overall hepatocellular carcinoma burden than infection with hepatitis viruses. Here we review and discuss recent advances in elucidation of cellular and molecular alterations and signaling pathways associated with obesity and liver inflammation and their contribution to hepatocarcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fighting liver cancer with combination immunotherapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A new clinical trial testing the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment combinations against liver cancer is enrolling patients at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Individually, immunotherapy drugs harness the power of the human immune system to better identify and kill cancer cells. Now, researchers at the NIH’s Center for Cancer Research have begun to find evidence that the drugs may work far more effectively when taken in combination with other therapies and with each other than when taken alone.

  12. Cancer and liver cirrhosis: implications on prognosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Matthias; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Sieghart, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis, the end-stage of every chronic liver disease, is not only the major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma but also a limiting factor for anticancer therapy of liver and non-hepatic malignancies. Liver cirrhosis may limit surgical and interventional approaches to cancer treatment, influence pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs, increase side effects of chemotherapy, render patients susceptible for hepatotoxicity, and ultimately result in a competitive risk for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a concise overview about the impact of liver cirrhosis on the management and prognosis of patients with primary liver cancer or non-hepatic malignancies. PMID:27843598

  13. Validation of The Hong Kong Liver Cancer Staging System in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Intent Treatment

    PubMed

    Chuncharunee, Alan; Siramolpiwat, Sith

    2017-06-25

    Backgrounds: Recently Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging system has been proposed for staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and has been shown to provide better prognostic ability than the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) system. However, the HKLC system lacks external validation, and its applicability remains uncertain. The present study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic performance of HKLC in HCC patients treated with curative intent. Methods: Medical records of HCC patients treated with either resection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) from 2011 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The overall survival and the prognostic ability of the HKLC and BCLC system were evaluated. Results: 79 HCC patients were included, of which 64.56% had Child A cirrhosis. Chronic viral hepatitis B infection was the leading cause of HCC, followed by chronic viral hepatitis C infection, alcohol and alcohol with HBV or HCV infection. According to the BCLC system, 82.28% were in stage 0-A, and according to the HKLC system, 93.67% were in stage I-IIb. RFA and liver resection were the primary treatment in 56.96% and 43.04%, respectively. The 5-year survival rate of patients in HKLC stage I, IIa and IIb were 81.64%, 61.66%, and 54.42%, respectively (P<0.001). Whereas, the 5-year survival rate of patients in BCLC stage 0, A and B were 60.00%, 75.90%, and 26.65%, respectively (P=0.053). The AUROC curve of the HKLC and BCLC for the entire cohort was 0.77 and 0.64, respectively (P=0.15). Subgroup analysis showed the AUROC curve of the HKLC and BCLC for the patients with viral-associated HCC was 0.79 and 0.68, respectively (P=0.02). Conclusions: Applying the HKLC staging system provides a good discriminative ability for survival prediction in HCC patients treated with curative intent. Comparing with the BCLC system, the HKLC system tends to yield better prognostic accuracy, particularly in viral-associated HCC. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatocellular carcinoma. Written by References The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team Our team is ... 2016 Last Revised: April 28, 2016 American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material. For reprint requests, ...

  15. Liver immunology and herbal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Yasemin H; Aka, Ceylan; Koca-Caliskan, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the metabolic functions, the liver recently has been defined as an organ of immune system (IS), which have central regulatory role for innate and adaptive immunity. The liver keeps a delicate balance between hepatic screening of pathogenic antigens and immune tolerance to self-antigens. Herbal treatments with immunological effects have potential to alter this hepatic immune balance towards either therapeutic side or diseases side by inducing liver injury via hepatotoxicity or initiation of autoimmune diseases. Most commonly known herbal treatments, which have therapeutic effect on liver and IS, have proven via in vitro, in vivo, and/or clinical studies were summarized in this review. PMID:28660010

  16. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2015-10-07

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  17. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  18. BMS-247550 in Treating Patients With Liver or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  19. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are being studied in clinical trials. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors ... lower your risk of cancer. The following risk factors may increase the risk of liver cancer: Hepatitis ...

  20. Liver Fluke-Associated Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Piyachaturawat, Panida; Aumpansub, Prapimphan; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2017-08-09

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer arising from epithelial cells of the bile duct. Most patients with CCA have an unresectable tumor at the time of diagnosis. In Western countries, the risk of CCA increases in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, whereas liver fluke infection appears to be the major risk factor for CCA in Asian countries. A diagnosis of liver fluke infection often relies on stool samples, including microscopic examination, polymerase chain reaction-based assays, and fluke antigen detection. Tests of serum, saliva and urine samples are also potentially diagnostic. The presence of liver fluke along with exogenous carcinogens magnifies the risk of CCA in people living in endemic areas. The "liver fluke-cholangiocarcinoma" carcinogenesis pathways consist of mechanical damage to the bile duct epithelium, immunopathologic and cellular reactions to the liver fluke's antigens and excretory/secretory products, liver fluke-induced changes in the biliary tract microbiome and the effects of repeated treatment for liver fluke. A vaccine and novel biomarkers are needed for the primary and secondary prevention of CCA in endemic areas. Importantly, climate change exerts an effect on vector-borne parasitic diseases, and awareness of liver fluke should be enhanced in potentially migrated habitat areas.

  1. Predictive Models of Liver Cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive models of chemical-induced liver cancer face the challenge of bridging causative molecular mechanisms to adverse clinical outcomes. The latent sequence of intervening events from chemical insult to toxicity are poorly understood because they span multiple levels of bio...

  2. Predictive Models of Liver Cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive models of chemical-induced liver cancer face the challenge of bridging causative molecular mechanisms to adverse clinical outcomes. The latent sequence of intervening events from chemical insult to toxicity are poorly understood because they span multiple levels of bio...

  3. Liver cancer stem cell markers: Progression and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing-Hui; Luo, Qing; Liu, Ling-Ling; Song, Guan-Bin

    2016-04-07

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation in cancer, have been proposed to be cancer-initiating cells, and have been shown to be responsible for chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. The identification of CSC subpopulations inside a tumor presents a new understanding of cancer development because it implies that tumors can only be eradicated by targeting CSCs. Although advances in liver cancer detection and treatment have increased the possibility of curing the disease at early stages, unfortunately, most patients will relapse and succumb to their disease. Strategies aimed at efficiently targeting liver CSCs are becoming important for monitoring the progress of liver cancer therapy and for evaluating new therapeutic approaches. Herein, we provide a critical discussion of biological markers described in the literature regarding liver cancer stem cells and the potential of these markers to serve as therapeutic targets.

  4. [Primary cancer of the liver].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiologic and pathogenic aspects of primary hepatic malignancies are discussed. The role of viruses in the etiology of the disease is stressed. Imageology methods have a preponderant role for diagnosis and treatment options. Liver resection has a one years survival between 60 and 80% and a five years survival of 20 to 40%. A good surgical results is expected for tumors with no more than 5 cm in diameter, encapsulated and without vascular invasion non-cirrhotic livers, large tumors can also be removed. Surgical resection margin should be of 1 cm. For cirrhotic livers, a good liver function is needed (Child A-B) and no safe major resection can be done. History of bleeding portal hypertension has a negative role in the outcome. Liver transplantation should be limited to selected case, in which the tumors are small and asymptomatic (incidental). For larger tumors, long term results are not good with invariable recurrency of the tumor.

  5. Contrast-Enhanced Three Dimensional Ultrasonography supporting HIFU treatment of Small Liver Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohto, Masao; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryu; Shinohara, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Akio; Karasawa, Eii

    2009-04-01

    HIFU was carried out in the 12 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (small HCC) as a extracorporeal ablation therapy, and clinical availability was studied from the results. In carrying out the HIFU therapy, contrast enhanced (CE) three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging played an important role to clarify the tumor nature , to monitor the sonication procedure and to assess the tumor ablation and was almost indispensable for the treatment. All the patient had no serious side effects and they are all alive with no local tumor progression for 3 to 14 months after the treatment. Ultrasound supporting HIFU therapy could be usefully available for the treatment of small HCC.

  6. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  7. Development of a liver-specific Tet-on inducible system for AAV vectors and its application in the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Vanrell, Lucia; Di Scala, Marianna; Blanco, Laura; Otano, Itziar; Gil-Farina, Irene; Baldim, Victor; Paneda, Astrid; Berraondo, Pedro; Beattie, Stuart G; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Lilianne; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2011-07-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are effective gene delivery vehicles that can mediate long-lasting transgene expression. However, tight regulation and tissue-specific transgene expression is required for certain therapeutic applications. For regulatable expression from the liver we designed a hepatospecific bidirectional and autoregulatory tetracycline (Tet)-On system (Tet(bidir)Alb) flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We characterized the inducible hepatospecific system in comparison with an inducible ubiquitous expression system (Tet(bidir)CMV) using luciferase (luc). Although the ubiquitous system led to luc expression throughout the mouse, luc expression derived from the hepatospecific system was restricted to the liver. Interestingly, the induction rate of the Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly higher than that of Tet(bidir)CMV, whereas leakage of Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly lower. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this vector, an AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) was tested in a murine model for hepatic colorectal metastasis. The vector induced dose-dependent levels of IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), showing no significant toxicity. AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-IL-12 was highly efficient in preventing establishment of metastasis in the liver and induced an efficient T-cell memory response to tumor cells. Thus, we have demonstrated persistent, and inducible in vivo expression of a gene from a liver-specific Tet-On inducible construct delivered via an AAV vector and proved to be an efficient tool for treating liver cancer.

  8. Agonistic anti-CD137 antibody treatment leads to antitumor response in mice with liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Gauttier, Vanessa; Judor, Jean-Paul; Le Guen, Valentin; Cany, Jeannette; Ferry, Nicolas; Conchon, Sophie

    2014-12-15

    Immunotherapy is a promising strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We assessed the therapeutic effects of stimulating CD137, a member of the TNF receptor family, with agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Agonistic anti-CD137 mAb treatment was tested on two in situ models of HCC in immunocompetent mice. We also studied the mediators involved at different time points. In an orthotopic HCC the treatment consistently leads to complete tumor regression in 40-60% of animals. The protection is long lasting in the animals responding to the treatment, which can reject a second tumor challenge more than 3 months after treatment and eradication of the first malignancy. The main mediators of the effect are T lymphocytes and NK cells, demonstrated through depletion experiments. In addition, adoptive transfer of splenocytes prepared from anti-CD137 mAb-treated and -cured mice to naive mice allowed them to, in turn, reject the tumor. The efficacy of anti-CD137 mAb treatment is associated with early, sustained recruitment of iNOS-positive macrophages within tumor nodules. Moreover, in the absence of treatment, tumor development is accompanied by infiltration by myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T lymphocytes. In mice responding to the anti-CD137 mAb treatment, this infiltration is very limited, and a combination treatment with a depletion of MDSC leads to the recovery of 80% of the mice. These results demonstrate that agonistic anti-CD137 mAb is a promising therapeutic strategy for anti-tumor immunity stimulation against HCC.

  9. The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesoloras, Geraldine

    Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best

  10. CD133+CD54+CD44+ circulating tumor cells as a biomarker of treatment selection and liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cun; Huang, Qiaorong; Meng, Wentong; Yu, Yongyang; Yang, Lie; Peng, Zhihai; Hu, Jiankun; Li, Yuan; Mo, Xianming; Zhou, Zongguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). Results The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis proved the association between the expression of CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation and the existence of CRC-LM (P<0.001). The combination of abdominal CT/MRI, CEA and the CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation showed increased detection and discrimination rate for liver metastasis, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.4%. Meanwhile, it also show accurate predictive value for liver metastasis (OR=2.898, 95% C.I.1.374–6.110). Materials and Method Flow cytometry and multivariate analysis was performed to detect the expression of cancer initiating cells the correlation between cellular subpopulations and liver metastasis in patients with CRC. The receiver operating characteristic curves combined with the area under the curve were generated to compare the predictive ability of the cellular subpopulation for liver metastasis with current CT and MRI images. Conclusions The identification, expression and application of CTC subpopulations will provide an ideal cellular predictive marker for CRC liver metastasis and a potential marker for further investigation. PMID:27764803

  11. Increased incidence of liver cancer after successful DAA treatment of chronic hepatitis C: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Alberti, Alfredo; Piovesan, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Therapy of hepatitis C has been revolutionized by Direct Antiviral Agents. These drugs are safe and efficacious in all infected patients, including those with advanced, or decompensated cirrhosis, and are currently largely used in such cases in clinical practice worldwide. It was therefore cause of great concern the publication of two reports suggesting that treatment with DAAs could increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients, particularly in those receiving antiviral therapy after having been cured for an HCC. These reports have generated a great and controversial debate and have been followed by a series of other publications not confirming such increased risk. This article summarizes published studies assessing the relation between DAA therapy and HCC in two different clinical setting: HCC recurrence in patients with an history of cured HCC and "de novo" HCC occurrence in patients without previous HCC. Rates of HCC recurrence after DAAs were extremely variable in different studies, reflecting great heterogeneity of this clinical setting. Data on "de novo" HCC incidence were more homogeneous and suggest that treatment with DAAs is not modifying the risk of developing HCC in the first 6-12 months. The possibility that treatment with DAAs may favour tumour growth and spread in individual patients with active HCC foci is suggested by some observations but remains unproven. There is clearly a need for prospective studies designed to better define these issues. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Stopping Liver Cancer's Rogue COP | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer type and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Many liver tumors are actually metastases, tumors seeded in the liver by cancer cells from another organ, but hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), the most common liver tumors, are a heterogeneous family of cancers that arise in hepatocytes, the functional cells of the liver. HCCs are often associated with cirrhosis or liver scarring. Because of the variation in tumor phenotypes, the poor understanding of the molecular origins of these tumors, and the increasing number of diagnoses especially in the US, HCC is a major clinical challenge.

  13. A three-dimensional visualization preoperative treatment planning system for microwave ablation in liver cancer: a simulated experimental study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangyi; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Mingan; Liang, Ping

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the application value of three-dimensional (3D) visualization preoperative treatment planning system (VPTPS) for microwave ablation (MWA) in liver cancer. The study was a simulated experimental study using the CT imaging data of patients in DICOM format in a model. Three students (who learn to interventional ultrasound for less than 1 year) and three experts (who have more than 5 years of experience in ablation techniques) in MWA performed the preoperative planning for 39 lesions (mean diameter 3.75 ± 1.73 cm) of 32 patients using two-dimensional (2D) image planning method and 3D VPTPS, respectively. The number of planning insertions, planning ablation rate, and damage rate to surrounding structures were compared between2D image planning group and 3D VPTPS group. There were fewer planning insertions, lower ablation rate and higher damage rate to surrounding structures in 2D image planning group than 3D VPTPS group for both students and experts. When using the 2D ultrasound planning method, students could carry out fewer planning insertions and had a lower ablation rate than the experts (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in planning insertions, the ablation rate, and the incidence of damage to the surrounding structures between students and experts using 3D VPTPS. 3DVPTPS enables inexperienced physicians to have similar preoperative planning results to experts, and enhances students' preoperative planning capacity, which may improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the complication of MWA.

  14. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    PubMed

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms.

  15. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  16. Transcatheter intra-arterial infusion of doxorubicin loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters with iodinated oil for the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Jeong; Gordon, Andrew C; Larson, Andrew C; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    A promising strategy for liver cancer treatment is to deliver chemotherapeutic agents with multifunctional carriers into the tumor tissue via intra-arterial (IA) transcatheter infusion. These carriers should release drugs within the target tissue for prolonged periods and permit intra-procedural multi-modal imaging of selective tumor delivery. This targeted transcatheter delivery approach is enabled via the arterial blood supply to liver tumors and utilized in current clinical practice which is called chemoembolization or radioembolization. During our study, we developed Doxorubicin (Dox) loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters (Dox-pMNCs). The porous structure and carboxylic groups on the MNCs achieved high-drug loading efficiency and sustained drug release, along with magnetic properties resulting in high MRI T2-weighted image contrast. Dox-pMNC within iodinated oil, Dox-pMNCs, and Dox within iodinated oil were infused via hepatic arteries to target liver tumors in a rabbit model. MRI and histological evaluations revealed that the long-term drug release and retention of Dox-pMNCs within iodinated oil induced significantly enhanced liver cancer cell death.

  17. Evolution of surgical microwave ablation for the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis: review of the literature and a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Stättner, Stefan; Primavesi, Florian; Yip, Vincent S; Jones, Robert P; Öfner, Dietmar; Malik, Hassan Z; Fenwick, Stephen W; Poston, Graeme J

    2015-04-01

    Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for colorectal liver metastasis, with reported five-year survival rates of 40 %. Unfortunately, despite progress in systemic therapies and surgical techniques, only 20-30 % of patients can be offered this potentially curative treatment modality. Ablative therapies have recently been suggested to treat unresectable lesions or to extend the margins of resectability. Additionally, cases of local recurrence after hepatic surgery might require alternative strategies and options for re-intervention. Microwave ablation (MWA) has recently become a matter of particular interest for such indications. We, herein, present a review of the literature published between January 1999 and June 2013 from a database search with the following keywords: microwave, ablation, liver metastases, colorectal neoplasm, resection, hepatectomy, colonic neoplasm, cancer. Furthermore, we provide insight based on our own data for 28 consecutive patients who underwent hepatic resection combined with MWA from 2005 to 2012 in a single centre.

  18. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Golas, Benjamin J.; Yeung, Vincent W.; Madoff, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed. PMID:25610708

  19. Cancer Treatment - Cancer Currents Blog

    Cancer.gov

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on cancer treatment research. Includes posts on new treatments for cancer and their effects, clinical trial results, and overcoming treatment resistance.

  20. Liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gallinger, S.; Biagi, J.J.; Fletcher, G.G.; Nhan, C.; Ruo, L.; McLeod, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Questions Should surgery be considered for colorectal cancer (crc) patients who have liver metastases plus (a) pulmonary metastases, (b) portal nodal disease, or (c) other extrahepatic metastases (ehms)? What is the role of chemotherapy in the surgical management of crc with liver metastases in (a) patients with resectable disease in the liver, or (b) patients with initially unresectable disease in the liver that is downsized with chemotherapy (“conversion”)? What is the role of liver resection when one or more crc liver metastases have radiographic complete response (rcr) after chemotherapy? Perspectives Advances in chemotherapy have improved survival in crc patients with liver metastases. The 5-year survival with chemotherapy alone is typically less than 1%, although two recent studies with folfox or folfoxiri (or both) reported rates of 5%–10%. However, liver resection is the treatment that is most effective in achieving long-term survival and offering the possibility of a cure in stage iv crc patients with liver metastases. This guideline deals with the role of chemotherapy with surgery, and the role of surgery when there are liver metastases plus ehms. Because only a proportion of patients with crc metastatic disease are considered for liver resection, and because management of this patient population is complex, multidisciplinary management is required. Methodology Recommendations in the present guideline were formulated based on a prepublication version of a recent systematic review on this topic. The draft methodology experts, and external review by clinical practitioners. Feedback was incorporated into the final version of the guideline. Practice Guideline These recommendations apply to patients with liver metastases from crc who have had or will have a complete (R0) resection of the primary cancer and who are being considered for resection of the liver, or liver plus specific and limited ehms, with curative intent. 1(a). Patients with liver and lung

  1. Radio Frequency Ablation for Primary Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of radio frequency ablation (RFA) compared with other treatments for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Ontario. Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer globally, although it is most prevalent in Asia and Africa. The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in the Western world, primarily because of an increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Data from Cancer Care Ontario from 1998 to 2002 suggest that the age-adjusted incidence of liver cancer in men rose slightly from 4.5 cases to 5.4 cases per 100,000 men. For women, the rates declined slightly, from 1.8 cases to 1.4 cases per 100,000 women during the same period. Most people who present with symptoms of liver cancer have a progressive form of the disease. The rates of survival in untreated patients in the early stage of the disease range from 50% to 82% at 1 year and 26% to 32% at 2 years. Patients with more advanced stages have survival rates ranging from 0% to 36% at 3 years. Surgical resection and transplantation are the procedures that have the best prognoses; however, only 15% to 20% of patients presenting with liver cancer are eligible for surgery. Resection is associated with a 50% survival rate at 5 years. The Technology: Radio Frequency Ablation RFA is a relatively new technique for the treatment of small liver cancers that cannot be treated with surgery. This technique applies alternating high-frequency electrical currents to the cancerous tissue. The intense heat leads to thermal coagulation that can kill the tumour. RFA is done under general or local anesthesia and can be done percutaneously (through the skin with a small needle), laparoscopically (microinvasively, using a small video camera), or intraoperatively. Percutaneous RFA is usually a day procedure. Methods The leading international

  2. Novel Antibody Targets Glypican-3 in Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    New treatments for patients with liver cancer, the third most common cause of cancer-related death, are desperately needed. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, and HCC tumors are particularly insensitive to chemotherapy. Surgery is the standard treatment for HCCs caught early, but only about a third of cases are identified at this stage. Antibody therapy offers a potential alternative for treating later-stage tumors.

  3. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  4. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin (poison from certain foods) are important risk factors for liver cancer. Learn about all of the risk factors for liver cancer and how to prevent liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  5. Treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic liver cancer with yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere): assessment of hepatic arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kent; Lewandowski, Robert J; Bui, James T; Omary, Reed; Hunter, Russell D; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary; Liu, David; Chrisman, Howard; Resnick, Scott; Nemcek, Albert A; Vogelzang, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and Europe, yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere); MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) are a primary treatment option for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We present data from 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease treated with TheraSphere from a single academic institution to evaluate the angiographically evident embolization that follows treatment. Seven interventional radiologists from one treatment center compared pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms. The reviewers were blinded to the timing of the studies. The incidence of postembolization syndrome (PES) was determined as well as objective tumor response rates by the World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. There were 420 independent angiographic observations that were assessed using the chi-squared statistic. The pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms could not be correctly identified on average more than 43% of the time (p = 0.0004). The postprocedure arterial patency rate was 100%. The objective tumor response rates for all patients were 24%, 31%, and 72% for WHO, RECIST, and EASL criteria, respectively. All of the patients tolerated the procedure without complications and were treated on an outpatient basis, and four patients had evidence of PES. This treatment method does not result in macroscopic embolization of the hepatic arteries, thereby maintaining hepatic tissue perfusion. These data support the principle that the favorable response rates reported with TheraSphere are likely due to radiation and microscopic embolization rather than flow-related macroscopic embolization and ischemia.

  6. Radioembolization as a Treatment Strategy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer to the Liver: What Can We Learn from the SIRFLOX Trial?

    PubMed

    Sangha, Bippan Singh; Nimeiri, Halla; Hickey, Ryan; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    In the setting of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC), radioembolization with yttrium-90 has been used to treat chemotherapy refractory disease with a growing interest to establish its efficacy in prospective trials combined with first- and second-line chemotherapy. SIRFLOX is an ongoing, multi-center, phase 3 randomized trial comparing first-line chemotherapy alone or in combination with yttrium-90 radioembolization in patients with CRC who have isolated liver metastases or liver-dominant metastases. Preliminary results from SIRFLOX demonstrate that radioembolization combined with first-line chemotherapy is safe and feasible. There was no significant difference in median overall progression-free survival (PFS) between the combined radioembolization-chemotherapy and chemotherapy-only arms (10.7 versus 10.2 months). Although the trial did not meet its primary endpoint of improved median PFS, there was a significant increase in the median hepatic PFS (20.5 versus 12.6 months; p = 0.02) favoring the combination arm. Thus, combining radioembolization with chemotherapy in the first-line setting may be most effective for liver-limited metastatic CRC. Since radioembolization targets liver disease, it is plausible that the trial failed to achieve an improvement in PFS given that 40 % of the SIRFLOX population had extra-hepatic disease. It is also possible that the overall median PFS may be a poor surrogate endpoint, and other endpoints like overall survival still needs to be delineated in this setting. In addition, it is crucial to document improvement or delay in time to deterioration in quality of life symptom endpoints in this population. SIRFLOX is the first of three prospective studies that assess the efficacy of adding radioembolization to first-line chemotherapy, and the combined data from these trials will provide the necessary power for an overall survival analysis. The final results of SIRFLOX will be eagerly awaited to determine if the increased

  7. Focused ultrasound as a local therapy for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Krisztina; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2010-01-01

    Conventional surgical treatments of liver cancer are invasive (including minimally invasive) with a high incidence of new metastasis and poor success, even after multiple resections or ablations. These limitations motivated research into new, less invasive solutions for liver cancer treatment.Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), or high-intensity focused ultrasound, has been recognized as a noninvasive technology for benign and malignant tumor treatment. Previously, FUS was guided with ultrasound that has limited target definition and monitoring capability of the ablation process. Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with multiple-element phased-array transducers to create MRI-guided focused ultrasound thermal therapy provides more accurate targeting and real-time temperature monitoring. This treatment is hindered by the ribcage that limits the acoustic windows to the liver and the respiratory motion of the liver. New advances in MRI and transducer design will likely resolve these limitations and make MRI-guided FUS a powerful tool in local liver cancer therapy. This article reviews this technology and advances that can expand its use for cancer treatment in general and liver cancer in particular.

  8. Genistein-loaded nanoparticles of star-shaped diblock copolymer mannitol-core PLGA-TPGS for the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binquan; Liang, Yong; Tan, Yi; Xie, Chunmei; Shen, Jin; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Xinkuang; Yang, Lixin; Zhang, Fujian; Liu, Liang; Cai, Shuyu; Huai, De; Zheng, Donghui; Zhang, Rongbo; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Ke; Tang, Xiaolong; Sui, Xuemei

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop nanoparticles (NPs) of star-shaped copolymer mannitol-functionalized PLGA-TPGS for Genistein delivery for liver cancer treatment, and evaluate their therapeutic effects in liver cancer cell line and hepatoma-tumor-bearing nude mice in comparison with the linear PLGA nanoparticles and PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. The Genistein-loaded M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (MPTN), prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation method, were observed by FESEM and TEM to be near-spherical shape with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles were further characterized in terms of their size, size distribution, surface charge, drug-loading content, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release profiles. The data showed that the M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles were found to be stable, showing almost no change in particle size and surface charge during 3-month storage of their aqueous solution. In vitro Genistein release from the nanoparticles exhibited biphasic pattern with burst release at the initial 4days and sustained release afterwards. The cellular uptake efficiency of fluorescent M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was 1.25-, 1.22-, and 1.29-fold higher than that of the PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles at the nanoparticle concentrations of 100, 250, and 500μg/mL, respectively. In the MPTN group, the ratio of apoptotic cells increased with the drug dose increased, which exhibited dose-dependent effect and a significant difference compared with Genistein solution group (p<0.05). The data also showed that the Genistein-loaded M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have higher antitumor efficacy than that of linear PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and PLGA nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the star-shaped copolymer M-PLGA-TPGS could be used as a potential and promising bioactive material for nanomedicine development for liver cancer treatment.

  9. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  10. Quercetin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles for the targeted treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xin; Gao, Meng; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chenghong; Liu, Hongyan; Lv, Li; Deng, Sa; Gao, Dongyan; Tian, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Utilization of quercetin (QT) in clinics is limited by its instability and poor solubility. To overcome these disadvantages, we prepared QT as QT-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (QPTN) and examined its properties and therapeutic efficacy for liver cancer. QT-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (QPN) and QT/coumarin-6-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (QCPTN) with coumarin-6 as a fluorescent marker were also prepared to investigate the cellular uptake by HepG2 and HCa-F cells using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and their effects on apoptosis of HepG2 cells were assessed with flow cytometry. The results measured using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and size analyses indicated that QPTN were stably dispersed sphere with diameter in the range of 100-200 nm. It indicated that the QT loading and encapsulation efficiency in QPTN reached 21.63% and 93.74%, respectively, and the accumulative drug release of QPTN was 85.8%, the QCPTN uptake in HCa-F and HepG2 cells were 50.87% and 61.09% using HPLC analysis, respectively. The results determined using an Annexin-PI flow cytometry indicated that QPTN could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. The results of histological examination and HPLC analysis confirmed that QPTN was targeted to liver cells. In vivo analysis using solid tumor-bearing mouse model indicated that QPTN could suppress tumor growth by 59.07%. Moreover, all the studied properties of QPTN were more desirable than those of QT-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (QPN). In conclusion, QPTN could be used as a potential intravenous dosage form for the treatment of liver cancer owing to the enhanced pharmacological effects of QT with increased liver targeting.

  11. Liver cell cancer--intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Linsell, C A

    1981-01-01

    The field studies leading to possible intervention procedures are reviewed. Currently the most promising form of intervention is the prevention of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuffs. It is essential that these are monitored and their efficacy in lowering the incidence of liver cancer measured. The association of liver cancer with hepatitis B infection may be a confounding factor and the impact of this on the study population must also be considered. The imminent production of vaccines for hepatitis B infection may provide an alternative or additional mode of intervention. The possibilities for intervention in liver cell cancer appear one of the brighter prospects for primary prevention of a cancer.

  12. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  13. Investigation of phosphorylated adjuvants co-encapsulated with a model cancer peptide antigen for the treatment of colorectal cancer and liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Tyler J; Huang, Leaf

    2017-05-02

    The lipid calcium phosphate nanoparticle is a versatile platform capable of encapsulating a wide range of phosphorylated molecules from single nucleotides to pDNA. The use of this platform has shown great success as an immunotherapeutic vaccine carrier, capable of delivering co-encapsulated phosphorylated adjuvants and peptides. Three potent vaccine formulations were investigated for anti-cancer efficacy. The phosphorylated adjuvants, CpG, 2'3'cGAMP, and 5'pppdsRNA were co-encapsulated with a model phosphorylated tumor specific peptide antigen (p-AH1-A5). The anti-cancer efficacy of these adjuvants was assessed using an orthotopic colorectal liver metastasis model based on highly aggressive and metastatic CT-26 FL3 cells implanted into the cecum wall. The results clearly indicate that the RIG-1 ligand, 5'pppdsRNA, co-encapsulated with the p-AH1-A5 peptide antigen greatly reduced the growth rate of the primary colon cancer as well as arrested the establishment of liver metastasis in comparison to the other adjuvant formulations and unvaccinated controls. Further evaluation of the immune cell populations within the primary tumor confirms the ability of the 5'pppdsRNA adjuvant to boost the adaptive CD8+ T-cell population, while not inciting increased populations of immune suppressive cell types such as T-regulatory cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells. Furthermore, to our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the anti-cancer efficacy of a specific RIG-1 receptor ligand, 5'pppdsRNA, alongside more established TLR 9 (CpG) and STING (2'3'cGAMP) adjuvants in a cancer vaccine. The 5'pppdsRNA vaccine formulation can be a potent immunotherapy, especially when combined with agents that remodel the immune suppressive microenvironment of the tumor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Liver transplantation for nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagness, Morten; Foss, Aksel; Line, Pål-Dag; Scholz, Tim; Jørgensen, Pål Foyn; Fosby, Bjarte; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Mathisen, Oystein; Gladhaug, Ivar P; Egge, Tor Skatvedt; Solberg, Steinar; Hausken, John; Dueland, Svein

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the potential for long-term overall survival (OS) after liver transplantation for colorectal liver metastases (CLMs). Patients with nonresectable CLMs have poor prognosis, and few survive beyond 5 years. CLMs are currently considered an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation, although liver transplantation for primary and some secondary liver malignancies shows excellent outcome in selected patients. Before 1995, several liver transplantations for CLMs were performed, but outcome was poor (5-year survival rate: 18%) and liver transplantation for CLMs was abandoned. Since then, the survival rate after liver transplantation in general has improved by almost 30%. On the basis of this, a 5-year survival rate of about 50% after liver transplantation for CLMs could be anticipated. In a prospective pilot study, liver transplantation for nonresectable CLMs was performed (n = 21). Main inclusion criteria were liver-only CLMs, excised primary tumors, and at least 6 weeks of chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the OS rate at 1, 3, and 5 years were 95%, 68%, and 60%, respectively. Metastatic recurrence of disease was common (mainly pulmonary). However, a significant proportion of the recurrences were accessible for surgery, and at follow-up (after median of 27 months; range, 8-60), 33% had no evidence of disease. Hepatic tumor load before liver transplantation, time from primary surgery to liver transplantation, and progressive disease on chemotherapy were identified as significant prognostic factors. OS exceeds by far reported outcome for chemotherapy, which is the only treatment option available for this patient group. Furthermore, OS is comparable with liver resection for resectable CLMs and survival after repeat liver transplantation for nonmalignant diseases. Selection strategies based on prognostic factors may further improve the outcome (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01311453).

  15. [Second cancer after starting treatment for prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Mikata, Noriharu; Imao, Sadao; Fukasawa, Ritu

    2002-08-01

    The subjects for the present study were 270 patients with prostate cancer who underwent initial treatment at our hospital over the 14 years from 1986 to 1999. They were investigated to assess the relationship between their treatment and metachronous tumors. Sixteen patients (5.9%) developed cancer of other organs after starting treatment for prostate cancer. These metachronous tumors included gastric cancer in six patients as well as lung cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, and mediastinal adenocarcinoma. Treatment for prostate cancer other than surgery included radiotherapy in eight patients, administration of estramustine phosphate sodium in nine patients, and LH-RH analogues in six patients. The chi-square test showed no significant difference in the incidence of metachronous cancer in relation to the presence/absence of these three therapies. The present study therefore ruled out the possible induction of other tumors by treatment for prostate cancer.

  16. Changes in plasma chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 levels during treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid predict outcome in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Milene; Perry, Sarah L; Marston, Gemma; Ingram, Nicola; Cockbain, Andrew J; Burghel, Heather; Mann, Jake; Lowes, David; Wilson, Erica; Droop, Alastair; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; Coletta, P Louise; Hull, Mark A

    2016-05-10

    The mechanism of the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) activity of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is not understood. We tested the hypothesis that EPA reduces expression of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), a pro-inflammatory chemokine with known roles in metastasis.We measured CCL2 in clinical samples from a randomized trial of EPA in patients undergoing liver surgery for CRC liver metastasis (LM) and preclinical models. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of tumors from EPA-treated patients was performed.EPA decreased CCL2 synthesis by CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. CCL2 was localized to malignant epithelial cells in human CRCLM. EPA did not reduce CCL2 content in human or mouse tumors compare to control. However, EPA treatment was associated with decreased plasma CCL2 levels compared with controls (P=0.04). Reduction in plasma CCL2 following EPA treatment predicted improved disease-free survival (HR 0.32; P=0.003). Lack of 'CCL2 response' was associated with a specific CRCLM gene expression signature.In conclusion, reduction in plasma CCL2 in patients with CRCLM treated with EPA predicts better clinical outcome and a specific tumor gene expression profile. Further work is needed to validate CCL2 as a therapeutic response biomarker for omega-3 fatty acid treatment of CRC patients.

  17. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  18. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 09: Accuracy of Liver Cancer Treatment on Cyberknife® with Synchrony™ Optical Tracking Throughout the Respiratory Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.; Chow, T; Wong, R.

    2014-08-15

    The Cyberknife® robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy system is well-suited for treating liver lesions over the respiratory cycle as it includes room-mounted orthogonal x-ray tracking of internal fiducial markers and optical tracking of external markers. The Synchrony™ software generates a model of internal target positions during patient respiration and correlates it to the external optical tracking system for real-time optical-based position corrections of the linear accelerator during beam delivery. Although clinical studies have provided preliminary outcomes for liver lesions treated with the Cyberknife system, to date, there is little data demonstrating the ability of the Synchrony software to track targets in the liver, which deforms throughout the respiratory cycle. In this study, we investigated the respiratory motion model performance for predicting tumour motion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of fifteen liver cancer patients treated on the Cyberknife using the Synchrony optical tracking system. We analyzed Cyberknife tracking information stored in the log files to extract the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) correlation errors between the model-predicted position and the internal fiducial centroid position determined by x-ray imaging. Only translational tracking and corrections were applied during treatment. Overall, the correlation errors were greatest in the SI direction. We calculated radial correlation errors, and determined that the 95{sup th}, 98{sup th} and 99{sup th} percentile errors were 3.4 mm, 4.4 mm and 5.1 mm, respectively. Based on translational correlation tracking errors we expect the clinical target volume will be within 3.4 mm of the planning target volume for 95 % of beam delivery time.

  19. Multidisciplinary approach of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giammaria; Sarti, Donatella; Aliberti, Camillo; Carandina, Riccardo; Mambrini, Andrea; Guadagni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Large bowel cancer is a worldwide public health challenge. More than one third of patients present an advanced stage of disease at diagnosis and the liver is the most common site of metastases. Selection criteria for early diagnosis, chemotherapy and surgery have been recently expanded. The definition of resectability remains unclear. The presence of metastases is the most significant prognostic factor. For this reason the surgical resection of hepatic metastases is the leading treatment. The most appropriate resection approach remains to be defined. The two step and simultaneous resection processes of both primary and metastases have comparable survival long-term outcomes. The advent of targeted biological chemotherapeutic agents and the development of loco-regional therapies (chemoembolization, thermal ablation, arterial infusion chemotherapy) contribute to extend favorable results. Standardized evidence-based protocols are missing, hence optimal management of hepatic metastases should be single patient tailored and decided by a multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the outcomes of resection, systemic and loco-regional therapies of liver metastases originating from large bowel cancer. PMID:28638789

  20. Wnt Inactivation for Liver Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third most deadly type of cancer in the world. The majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa, resulting in most cases being diagnosed only at advanced stages of the disease when drug resistance is high. HCC typically follows damage to the liver such as cirrhosis, making radiation and chemotherapy a more challenging prospect. Surgery is also not a very viable option because less than one in four carcinomas can be completely removed. The limitations in these treatment modalities create the need for alternative therapeutic approaches.

  1. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging What Should You Ask Your Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? ... add others as you think of them. When you’re told you have liver cancer What kind ...

  2. Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver or Biliary Tract Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-08

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  3. Lymphatic drainage of the liver and its implications in the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Paye, François; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirolla; Herman, Paulo

    2014-12-01

    The liver is the most common site of distant metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Surgery represents the mainstream for curative treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) with long-term survival up to 58 and 36 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Despite advances on diagnosis, staging and surgical strategies, 60-70 % of patients will develop recurrence of the disease even after R0 resection of CRCLM. Tumor staging, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches for cancer are most often based on the extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes (LNs) and, to a lesser extent, on the invasion of regional lymphatic vessels draining the primary tumor. For CRCLM, the presence of intra hepatic lymphatic and blood vascular dissemination has been associated with an increased risk of intra hepatic recurrence, poorer disease-free and overall survival after liver resection. Also, several studies have reviewed the role of surgery in the patient with concomitant CRCLM and liver pedicle LN metastasis. Although pedicle LN involvement is related to worst survival rates, it does not differentiate patients that will relapse from those that will not. This review aims to briefly describe the anatomy of the liver's lymphatic drainage, the incidence of intrahepatic lymphatic invasion and hilar lymph node involvement, as well as their clinical impact in CRCLM. A better understanding of the role of liver lymphatic metastasis might, in the near future, impact the strategy of systemic therapies after liver resection as for primary colorectal tumors.

  4. A prospective study to validate the Polish language version of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Colorectal Liver Metastases (QLQ-LMC21) module.

    PubMed

    Paradowska, Dominika; Bereza, Krzysztof; Sanna, Beatrice; Kucharska, Ewa; Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew; Skotnicki, Piotr; Bottomley, Andrew; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2017-08-01

    This validation study was designed to assess the psychometric validity and quality of the Polish translation of the EORTC QLQ-LMC21 questionnaire in Polish colorectal patients suffering with liver metastases. Patients with either histopathological or imaging confirmation of colorectal cancer with liver metastases, with a minimum of three months survival, were eligible for this study. These patients completed the Polish version of the EORTC core QLQ-C30, the QLQ-LMC21 module, and a demographic data questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed twice, once before undergoing either hepatectomy (n = 63) or palliative treatment (n = 97) and three months after the primary treatment. Standardized analyses of validity and reliability were performed. One hundred and sixty patients were enrolled in this study with the mean age of the hepatectomy group 64.3 ± 14.1 and 66.1 ± 12.7 for the palliative treatment group. The QLQ-LMC21 exhibited positive internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.72 to 0.90. The multi-trait scaling analysis demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. Test-retest reliability was undertaken with 40 patients (25%) with the ICCs for each item ranging from 0.64 to 0.88. The hepatectomy group had a significantly greater Karnofsky Performance Score than the palliative treatment group (p.<0.001). Overall there were weak correlations between the two questionnaires which confirm that the QLQ-LMC21 addresses health issues not assessed in the QLQ-C30. The Polish version of the QLQ-LMC21 proved to be a valid and reliable questionnaire to use in conjunction with the QLQ-C30 core questionnaire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The significance of a combination of hepatic artery pump reservoir and new immunotherapy for cancer (NITC) in the treatment of colorectal liver metastasis].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shoji; Yagita, Akikuni; Sukegawa, Yasushi

    2004-10-01

    Infusion of anti-cancer agents through a hepatic artery pump reservoir has been reported as a relatively useful means of treating multiple liver metastases but its mechanism of action remains to be clarified. We thought that immune responses might be involved in the mechanism of action of this therapy and attempted to test this assumption in patients with colorectal liver metastases. When the patients were divided into two groups by survival period (the 24-week or longer survival group and the less than 24-week survival group), the 24-week or longer survival group had significantly higher Th1 cytokine levels (p<0.001-0.05) and significantly lower VEGF levels (p<0.01) than the less than 24-week survival group. The survival rate tended to be higher in patients for whom intra-arterial infusion therapy was combined with NITC. These results suggest that the combined therapy induces some kind of immune reaction closely related to tumor size reduction and prolonged patient survival. It seems necessary to compare immune activity during intra-arterial infusion therapy alone with activity during intra-arterial infusion treatment in combination with a new immunotherapy.

  6. Local recurrence rates after radiofrequency ablation or resection of colorectal liver metastases. Analysis of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer #40004 and #40983.

    PubMed

    Tanis, E; Nordlinger, B; Mauer, M; Sorbye, H; van Coevorden, F; Gruenberger, T; Schlag, P M; Punt, C J A; Ledermann, J; Ruers, T J M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe local tumour control after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and surgical resection (RES) of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) in two independent European Organisations for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) studies. Only 10-20% of patients with newly diagnosed CLM are eligible for curative RES. RFA has found a place in daily practice for unresectable CLM. There are no prospective trials comparing RFA to RES for resectable CLM. The CLOCC trial randomised 119 patients with unresectable CLM between RFA (±RES)+adjuvant FOLFOX (±bevacizumab) versus FOLFOX (±bevacizumab) alone. The EPOC trial randomised 364 patients with resectable CLM between RES±perioperative FOLFOX. We describe the local control of resected patients with lesions ≤4 cm in the perioperative chemotherapy arm of the EPOC trial (N=81) and the RFA arm of the CLOCC trial (N=55). Local recurrence (LR) rate for RES was 7.4% per patient and 5.5% per lesion. LR rate for RFA was 14.5% per patient and 6.0% per lesion. When lesion size was limited to 30 mm, LR rate for RFA lesions was 2.9% per lesion. Non-local hepatic recurrences were more often observed in RFA patients than in RES patients, 30.9% and 22.3% respectively. Patients receiving RFA had a more advanced disease. LR rate after RFA for lesions with a limited size is low. The local control per lesion does not appear to differ greatly between RFA and surgical resection. This study supports the local control of RFA in patients with limited liver metastases. Future studies should evaluate in which patients RFA could be an equal alternative to liver resection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... a needle or probe placed in the tumor. Laser Therapy Laser therapy uses a very narrow, focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous ...

  8. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Small Intestine Cancer Treatment Research Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  9. Working during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... October 12, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Facing Forward: Life After Cancer Treatment. Updated May 2014. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf . Accessed October 12, 2016. Review Date ...

  10. Immune-Mediated Therapies for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has gained renewed interest as an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumors. Its premise is based on harnessing the power of the host immune system to destroy tumor cells. Development of immune-mediated therapies, such as vaccines, adoptive transfer of autologous immune cells, and stimulation of host immunity by targeting tumor-evasive mechanisms have advanced cancer immunotherapy. In addition, studies on innate immunity and mechanisms of immune evasion have enhanced our understanding on the immunology of liver cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies with immune-mediated therapies have shown potential benefits in patients with liver cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and recent developments in tumor immunology by focusing on two main primary liver cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:28218682

  11. Hepatic stellate cells in liver development, regeneration, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chunyue; Evason, Kimberley J.; Asahina, Kinji; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells are liver-specific mesenchymal cells that play vital roles in liver physiology and fibrogenesis. They are located in the space of Disse and maintain close interactions with sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic epithelial cells. It is becoming increasingly clear that hepatic stellate cells have a profound impact on the differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis of other hepatic cell types during liver development and regeneration. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the recent advances in our understanding of the formation and characteristics of hepatic stellate cells, as well as their function in liver development, regeneration, and cancer. We also discuss how improved knowledge of these processes offers new perspectives for the treatment of patients with liver diseases. PMID:23635788

  12. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-05-28

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately.

  13. Enhanced laser thermal ablation for the in vitro treatment of liver cancer by specific delivery of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Catoi, Cornel; Stiufiuc, Rares; Stir, Ariana; Matea, Cristian; Iancu, Dana; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to develop and test a new method of treatment for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We present a method of carbon nanotube-enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) based on a simple multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) carrier system, such as human serum albumin (HSA), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy compared with normal hepatocyte cells. Both HepG2 cells and hepatocytes were treated with HSA–MWCNTs at various concentrations and at various incubation times and further irradiated using a 2 W, 808 nm laser beam. Transmission electron, phase contrast, and confocal microscopy combined with immunochemical staining were used to demonstrate the selective internalization of HSA–MWCNTs via Gp60 receptors and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inside HepG2 cells. The postirradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with HSA–MWCNTs ranged from 88.24% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 sec to 92.34% (for 50 mg/L) at 30 min. Significantly lower necrotic rates were obtained when human hepatocytes were treated with HSA–MWCNTs in a similar manner. Our results clearly show that HSA–MWCNTs selectively attach on the albondin (aka Gp60) receptor located on the HepG2 membrane, followed by an uptake through a caveolin-dependent endocytosis process. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating. PMID:21289990

  14. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients. PMID:25598674

  15. [Liver Atrophy and Failure Associated with Paclitaxel and Bevacizumab Combination Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mari; Ikeda, Masahiko; Kubo, Shinichiro; Tsukioki, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Shougo

    2016-07-01

    We managed 6 cases of severe liver atrophy and failure associated with paclitaxel and bevacizumab combination therapy (PB therapy)for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this case-controlstudy, we examined the records of these 6 patients to investigate past treatment, medication history, and degree of atrophy, and compared their data with that of 67 patients without liver atrophy. The degree of the liver atrophy used SYNAPSE VINCENT®of the image analysis software. The results showed that patients with liver atrophy had a longer pretreatment period than those without liver atrophy(33.5 months vs 15.5 months), and they also experienced a longer median time to treatment failure with PB therapy than other patients(11 months vs 6 months). The ratio of individuals presenting with diffuse liver metastasis among patients with liver metastasis was 80% with liver atrophy, compared to 8% without liver atrophy. The degree of liver atrophy was an average of 67%in terms of volume ratio before/after PB therapy(57-82%). The individualwith the greatest extent of liver atrophy died of liver failure, not as a result of breast cancer progression. The direct causal link between bevacizumab and liver atrophy and failure is unclear, but the individuals in this study had a long previous history of treatment, and diffuse liver metastases may develop in patients undergoing long periods of PB therapy, which may also cause liver atrophy; therefore, the possibility of liver failure should be considered in such cases.

  16. Multisciplinary management of patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Greef, Kathleen; Rolfo, Christian; Russo, Antonio; Chapelle, Thiery; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Coelho, Andreia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Peeters, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been till now the main therapeutic strategies for disease control and improvement of the overall survival. Twenty-five per cent (25%) of CRC patients have clinically detectable liver metastases at the initial diagnosis and approximately 50% develop liver metastases during their disease course. Twenty-thirty per cent (20%-30%) are CRC patients with metastases confined to the liver. Some years ago various studies showed a curative potential for liver metastases resection. For this reason some authors proposed the conversion of unresectable liver metastases to resectable to achieve cure. Since those results were published, a lot of regimens have been studied for resectability potential. Better results could be obtained by the combination of chemotherapy with targeted drugs, such as anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However an accurate selection for patients to treat with these regimens and to operate for liver metastases is mandatory to reduce the risk of complications. A multidisciplinary team approach represents the best way for a proper patient management. The team needs to include surgeons, oncologists, diagnostic and interventional radiologists with expertise in hepatobiliary disease, molecular pathologists, and clinical nurse specialists. This review summarizes the most important findings on surgery and systemic treatment of CRC-related liver metastases. PMID:27621569

  17. Multisciplinary management of patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    De Greef, Kathleen; Rolfo, Christian; Russo, Antonio; Chapelle, Thiery; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Coelho, Andreia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Peeters, Marc

    2016-08-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been till now the main therapeutic strategies for disease control and improvement of the overall survival. Twenty-five per cent (25%) of CRC patients have clinically detectable liver metastases at the initial diagnosis and approximately 50% develop liver metastases during their disease course. Twenty-thirty per cent (20%-30%) are CRC patients with metastases confined to the liver. Some years ago various studies showed a curative potential for liver metastases resection. For this reason some authors proposed the conversion of unresectable liver metastases to resectable to achieve cure. Since those results were published, a lot of regimens have been studied for resectability potential. Better results could be obtained by the combination of chemotherapy with targeted drugs, such as anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However an accurate selection for patients to treat with these regimens and to operate for liver metastases is mandatory to reduce the risk of complications. A multidisciplinary team approach represents the best way for a proper patient management. The team needs to include surgeons, oncologists, diagnostic and interventional radiologists with expertise in hepatobiliary disease, molecular pathologists, and clinical nurse specialists. This review summarizes the most important findings on surgery and systemic treatment of CRC-related liver metastases.

  18. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy using fluorouracil, epirubicin, and mitomycin C for patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer after treatment failure of systemic S-1 plus cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Seki, Hiroshi; Ohi, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Toshirou; Yabusaki, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    For patients with liver metastases from gastric cancer (LMGC), combination chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines and platinum agents has been recognized as standard treatment. However, the prognosis of hepatic progression after first-line treatment failure remains poor. When hepatic progression occurs, hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy may be helpful for preventing disease progression. To retrospectively assess the feasibility and efficacy of HAI chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and mitomycin C (FEM) for patients with LMGC after failure of systemic S-1 plus cisplatin. We reviewed the records of patients who received HAI chemotherapy using FEM for LMGC that progressed during systemic S-1 plus cisplatin treatment while extrahepatic disease was decreased or did not appear. HAI chemotherapy was given as second-line therapy using 5-fluorouracil (330 mg/m(2) weekly), epirubicin (30 or 40 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks), and mitomycin C (2.7 mg/m(2) biweekly). Fourteen patients were analyzed. Toxicity of HAI chemotherapy was generally mild. The objective response rate was 42.9%, including a complete response rate of 14.3%. Median times to hepatic and extrahepatic progression were 9.2 and 7.4 months, respectively. Of 12 patients with documented progression after HAI chemotherapy, 10 patients (83.3%) received additional treatment, including irinotecan or taxanes. Overall, median survival was 12.7 months. Our findings suggest that HAI chemotherapy using FEM is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with LMGC after failure of systemic S-1 plus cisplatin. HAI chemotherapy employed in the second-line setting is useful for achieving long-term disease control of LMGC. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  19. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Quercetin Potentiates Doxorubicin Mediated Antitumor Effects against Liver Cancer through p53/Bcl-xl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanyu; Sharma, Sherven; Dong, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Background The dose-dependent toxicities of doxorubicin (DOX) limit its clinical applications, particularly in drug-resistant cancers, such as liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of quercetin on the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells and its ability to provide protection against DOX-mediated liver damage in mice. Methodology and Results The MTT and Annexin V/PI staining assay demonstrated that quercetin selectively sensitized DOX-induced cytotoxicity against liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. The increase in DOX-mediated apoptosis in hepatoma cells by quercetin was p53-dependent and occurred by downregulating Bcl-xl expression. Z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor), or overexpressed Bcl-xl decreased the effects of quercetin on DOX-mediated apoptosis. The combined treatment of quercetin and DOX significantly reduced the growth of liver cancer xenografts in mice. Moreover, quercetin decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase that were increased in DOX-treated mice. Quercetin also reversed the DOX-induced pathological changes in mice livers. Conclusion and Significance These results indicate that quercetin potentiated the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. Therefore, the development of quercetin may be beneficial in a combined treatment with DOX for increased therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer. PMID:23240061

  2. [A Case of Brain Metastasis from Rectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver and Lung Metastases after Multimodality Treatment--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Masaru; Tominaga, Ben; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Yuuya; Watanabe, Shuuichi; Adikrisna, Rama; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yabata, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of brain metastasis from rectal cancer a long time after the initial resection. A 62-year-old woman, diagnosed with lower rectal cancer with multiple synchronous liver and lung metastases, underwent abdominoperineal resection after preoperative radiochemotherapy (40 Gy at the pelvis, using the de Gramont regimen FL therapy: 1 kur). The histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Various regimens of chemotherapy for unresectable and metastatic colorectal cancer were administered, and a partial response was obtained; thereby, the metastatic lesions became resectable. The patient underwent partial resection of the liver and lung metastases. Pathological findings confirmed that both the liver and lung lesions were metastases from the rectal cancer. A disease-free period occurred for several months; however, there were recurrences of the lung metastases, so we started another round of chemotherapy. After 8 months, she complained of vertigo and dizziness. A left cerebellar tumor about 3 cm in diameter was revealed by MRI and neurosurgical excision was performed. Pathological findings confirmed a cerebellar metastasis from the rectal cancer. Twenty months after resection of the brain tumor, the patient complained of a severe headache. A brain MRI showed hydrocephalia, and carcinomatous meningitis from rectal cancer was diagnosed by a spinal fluid cytology test. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted, but the cerebrospinal pressure did not decreased and she died 20 months after the first surgery. Although brain metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, the number of patients with brain metastasis is thought to increase in the near future. Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is effective enough to prolong the survival period even if multiple metastases have occurred. However, after a long survival period with lung metastases such as in our case, there is a high probability of developing brain metastases.

  3. Epigenetic Events in Liver Cancer Resulting From Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    French, Samuel W.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an extensive role in the development of liver cancer (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as in liver disease associated with other conditions. For example, epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in the methylation and/or acetylation pattern of certain DNA regions or of the histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped, contribute to the reversion of normal liver cells into progenitor and stem cells that can develop into HCC. Chronic exposure to beverage alcohol (i.e., ethanol) can induce all of these epigenetic changes. Thus, ethanol metabolism results in the formation of compounds that can cause changes in DNA methylation and interfere with other components of the normal processes regulating DNA methylation. Alcohol exposure also can alter histone acetylation/deacetylation and methylation patterns through a variety of mechanisms and signaling pathways. Alcohol also acts indirectly on another molecule called toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is a key component in a crucial regulatory pathway in the cells and whose dysregulation is involved in the development of HCC. Finally, alcohol use regulates an epigenetic mechanism involving small molecules called miRNAs that control transcriptional events and the expression of genes important to ALD. PMID:24313165

  4. Epigenetic events in liver cancer resulting from alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play an extensive role in the development of liver cancer (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as in liver disease associated with other conditions. For example, epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in the methylation and/or acetylation pattern of certain DNA regions or of the histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped, contribute to the reversion of normal liver cells into progenitor and stem cells that can develop into HCC. Chronic exposure to beverage alcohol (i.e., ethanol) can induce all of these epigenetic changes. Thus, ethanol metabolism results in the formation of compounds that can cause changes in DNA methylation and interfere with other components of the normal processes regulating DNA methylation. Alcohol exposure also can alter histone acetylation/deacetylation and methylation patterns through a variety of mechanisms and signaling pathways. Alcohol also acts indirectly on another molecule called toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is a key component in a crucial regulatory pathway in the cells and whose dysregulation is involved in the development of HCC. Finally, alcohol use regulates an epigenetic mechanism involving small molecules called miRNAs that control transcriptional events and the expression of genes important to ALD.

  5. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed to high temperatures created by microwaves. This can damage and kill cancer cells or ...

  6. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... the needles and tumor which kills cancer cells . Microwave therapy : A type of treatment in which the tumor is exposed to high temperatures created by microwaves. This can damage and kill cancer cells or ...

  7. [Treatment of parasitic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Lecuna, V

    1989-01-01

    Most of primary and secondary parasitic liver diseases, at present can be property treated with drugs. Venezuelan pharmaceutic market has some peculiarities that have determined the disappearance from the market of many drugs such as emetine, thiabendazole, quinacrine and niclosamide. Diloxanide never appeared. Venezuela has no commercial international treatises that protect international patents in the pharmaceutical area. In addition, government regulation of cost of drugs is very strict. This is particularly true with old drugs (such as emetine or quinacrine) which had such a low price that is non-commercial for the maker of the drug, usually a large transnational, and is withdrawn from the market. Flexibility of prices is quite easy for new antibiotics which are very expensive. Frequently small national companies import the drug from Italy and Japan which sell the drug independently from international treats. Such companies frequently produce the drug for the government social system, but are unreliable and also frequently they withdraw the drug a variable period of time. The government, through the Ministry of Public Health administer free treatment with drugs for malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy. The severe economic crisis of the country has severely impaired the preventive programs and there is an increase of malaria due to gold mining in the south of the country and falciparum chloroquine resistance and an increase of schistosomiasis in a previous free area. Also administration of drugs for malaria has been severely impaired, mainly for economic reasons. The establishment of a National Government Laboratory is an old (as far as 1946) political goal, but has remained in the political intention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Aflatoxin, hepatitis and worldwide liver cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sara H; Bosch, F Xavier; Bowers, J C

    2002-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic substances known. Differential potency of aflatoxin among species can be partially attributed to differences in metabolism; however, current information on competing aspects of metabolic activation and detoxification of aflatoxin in various species does not identify an adequate animal model for humans. Risk of liver cancer is influenced by a number of factors, most notably carriage of hepatitis B virus as determined by the presence in serum of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg+ or HBsAg-). About 50 to 100% of liver cancer cases are estimated to be associated with persistent infection of hepatitis B (or C) virus. The potency of aflatoxin in HBsAg+ individuals is substantially higher (about a factor of 30) than the potency in HBsAg- individuals. Thus, reduction of the intake of aflatoxins in populations with a high prevalence of HBsAg+ individuals will have greater impact on reducing liver cancer rates than reductions in populations with a low prevalence of HbsAg+ individuals. The present analysis suggests that vaccination against hepatitis B (or protection against hepatits C), which reduces prevalence of carriers, would reduce the potency of the aflatoxins in vaccinated populations and reduce liver cancer risk.

  9. Hyaluronic acid co-functionalized gold nanoparticle complex for the targeted delivery of metformin in the treatment of liver cancer (HepG2 cells).

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Senthil; Raja, M D; Sundar, D Sathish; Gover Antoniraj, M; Ruckmani, K

    2015-09-05

    In this study, green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was achieved using the extract of eggplant as a reducing agent. Hyaluronic acid (HA) serves as a capping and targeting agent. Metformin (MET) was successfully loaded on HA capped AuNPs (H-AuNPs) and this formulation binds easily on the surface of the liver cancer cells. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, HR-TEM, particle size analyser and zeta potential measurement. Toxicity studies of H-AuNPs in zebra fish confirmed the in vivo safety of the AuNPs. The in vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the amount of MET-H-AuNPs enough to achieve 50% inhibition (IC50) was much lower than free MET. Flow cytometry analysis showed the significant reduction in G2/M phase after treatment with MET-H-AuNPs, and molecular level apoptosis were studied using western blotting. The novelty of this study is the successful synthesis of AuNPs with a higher MET loading and this formulation exhibited better targeted delivery as well as increased regression activity than free MET in HepG2 cells.

  10. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for ... What is hyperthermia? Hyperthermia (also called thermal therapy or thermotherapy) is a type of cancer treatment ...

  11. Radioembolization with 90Y glass microspheres for the treatment of unresectable metastatic liver disease from chemotherapy-refractory gastrointestinal cancers: final report of a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kerlan, Robert K.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Pampaloni, Miguel; Taylor, Andrew G.; Kohi, Maureen P.; Kolli, K. Pallav; Atreya, Chloe E.; Bergsland, Emily K.; Kelley, R. Kate; Ko, Andrew H.; Korn, W. Michael; Van Loon, Katherine; McWhirter, Ryan M.; Luan, Jennifer; Johanson, Curt; Venook, Alan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background This prospective pilot single-institution study was undertaken to document the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of radioembolization of liver-dominant metastatic gastrointestinal cancer using 90Y glass microspheres. Methods Between June 2010 and October 2013, 42 adult patients (26 men, 16 women; median age 60 years) with metastatic chemotherapy-refractory unresectable colorectal (n=21), neuroendocrine (n=11), intrahepatic bile duct (n=7), pancreas (n=2), and esophageal (n=1) carcinomas underwent 60 lobar or segmental administrations of 90Y glass microspheres. Data regarding clinical and laboratory adverse events (AE) were collected prospectively for up to 5.5 years after radioembolization. Radiographic responses were evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1. Time to maximum response, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS) (hepatic and extrahepatic), and overall survival (OS) were measured. Results Median target dose and activity were 109.4 Gy and 2.6 GBq per treatment session, respectively. Majority of clinical AE were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Patients with colorectal cancer had hepatic objective response rate (ORR) of 25% and a hepatic disease control rate (DCR) of 80%. Median PFS and OS were 1.0 and 4.4 months, respectively. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) had hepatic ORR and DCR of 73% and 100%, respectively. Median PFS was 8.9 months for this cohort. DCR and median PFS and OS for patients with cholangiocarcinoma were 86%, 1.1 months, and 6.7 months, respectively. Conclusions 90Y glass microspheres device has a favorable safety profile, and achieved prolonged disease control of hepatic tumor burden in a subset of patients, including all patients enrolled in the neuroendocrine cohort. PMID:28078110

  12. Neoplasms of the Stomach, Liver & Pancreas: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment among High-Risk Populations | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Agenda - Day 1, September 18, 2015 08:00 am - Registration 08:30 am - Welcome remarks and overview of the Conference Dr. Leslie Ford (NCI) – 5 min Dr. Edgar Colon (RCM and UPRCCC) - 5 min Luz Maria Rodriguez – Conference objectives & structure  Global Cancer Burden: An Overview and State of the Problem Moderators: Dr. Luz Maria Rodriguez and Dr. Victor Jose Carlo (PR Gastroenterology Association) |

  13. Results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment for small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas: a retrospective and nationwide survey in Japan. The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan.

    PubMed

    Arii, S; Yamaoka, Y; Futagawa, S; Inoue, K; Kobayashi, K; Kojiro, M; Makuuchi, M; Nakamura, Y; Okita, K; Yamada, R

    2000-12-01

    Hepatic resection (HX), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transcatheter arterial embolization (TCAE) have all been used in the treatment of patients with small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the indications for these therapeutic modalities remain unclear. Therefore, the first step to minimize the debate on these indications is to review the standard results from each treatment based on an extensive survey. The participants in this study were patients with HCCs less than 5 cm in diameter who were enrolled in The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. The survival rates in the HX (n = 8,010), PEI (n = 4,037), and TCAE (n = 841) groups were calculated in relation to the number of tumors and the clinical stage. In the clinical stage I cases with a solitary tumor less than 2 cm in diameter and in all clinical stages with a solitary tumor greater than 2 cm and in the clinical stage II cases with 2 tumors greater than 2 cm, the HX group showed higher survival rates than the nonsurgical groups. The HX group had a higher male/female ratio and a younger mean age than the PEI or TCAE group. The ratio of HBs antigen-positive cases/hepatitis C virus antibody-positive cases in the PEI group was lower than that in the corresponding HX group. In contrast, the PIVKA-II values in the HX group tended to be higher than in the PEI group. In conclusion, these findings will provide useful information for selection of a therapeutic modality for small-sized HCCs.

  14. S-Adenosylmethionine in cell growth, apoptosis and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shelly C; Mato, José M

    2008-03-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal biological methyl donor, is synthesized from methionine and ATP in a reaction catalyzed by methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). In mammals, two genes (MAT1A and MAT2A), encode for two homologous MAT catalytic subunits, while a third gene MAT2beta, encodes for the beta-subunit that regulates MAT2A-encoded isoenzyme. Normal liver expresses MAT1A, whereas extrahepatic tissues express MAT2A. MAT2A and MAT2 beta are induced in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which facilitate cancer cell growth. Patients with cirrhosis of various etiologies, including alcohol, have decreased hepatic MAT activity and SAMe biosynthesis. Consequences of hepatic SAMe deficiency as illustrated by the Mat1a knock-out mouse model include increased susceptibility to steatosis and oxidative liver injury, spontaneous development of steatohepatitis and HCC. Predisposition to HCC can be partly explained by the effect of SAMe on growth. Thus, SAMe inhibits the mitogenic effect of growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor and, following partial hepatectomy, a fall in SAMe level is required for the liver to regenerate. During liver regeneration, the fall in hepatic SAMe is transient. If the fall were to persist, it would favor a proliferative phenotype and, ultimately, development of HCC. Not only does SAMe control liver growth, it also regulates apoptosis. Interestingly, SAMe is anti-apoptotic in normal hepatocytes but pro-apoptotic in liver cancer cells. In liver cancer cells but not in normal human hepatocytes, SAMe can selectively induce Bcl-x(S), an alternatively spliced isoform of Bcl-x(L) that promotes apoptosis. This should make SAMe an attractive agent for both chemoprevention and treatment of HCC.

  15. Molecular Signature Reveals Which Liver Cancer Patients May Benefit from a New Drug | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Only one drug currently on the market has the potential to extend survival for patients with advanced-stage liver cancer and only 30 percent of patients are eligible to receive it. As the fastest-growing type of cancer by incidence in the United States, liver cancer represents a major public health problem and there is an urgent need to develop new treatment strategies.

  16. Surgical management of breast cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cassera, Maria A; Hammill, Chet W; Ujiki, Michael B; Wolf, Ronald F; Swanström, Lee L; Hansen, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Selected patients with isolated breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) may benefit from surgical management; however, indications remain unclear and the risks may outweigh the benefits in patients with a generally poor prognosis. Methods Between 1998 and 2006, 17 patients diagnosed with BCLM were considered for surgical management (<4 tumours, tumour <4 cm in diameter and no/stable extrahepatic metastases). Peri-operative and outcomes data were analysed and compared. Results Eight patients were found to have extensive or untreatable disease on staging laparoscopy and intra-operative ultrasound (SL/IOUS). The remaining nine patients underwent surgical management [seven laparoscopic radiofrequency ablations (RFA) and two hepatic resections]. Median length of follow-up for patients treated surgically was 40.0 months, median disease-free survival (DFS) was 32.2 months and median time to disease progression was 17.7 months. Of the eight patients not amenable to surgery, median length of follow-up was 21.8 months. Conclusion SL/IOUS prevented unnecessary laparotomy in half of the patients taken to the operating room for surgical treatment of BCLM. In patients with BCLM, SL/IOUS should be considered standard of care before surgical intervention. The small number of patients and short follow-up may be inadequate to determine the true value of surgical management in this group of patients with BCLM. PMID:21418133

  17. [Treatment of liver failure using tissue engineering techniques].

    PubMed

    Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2007-07-01

    Liver transplantation is the only efficient method of treatment of liver failure. Short time between liver end-stage insufficiency and transplantation procedure is the main problem limiting the number of liver transplants. In this paper the methods of liver support in patients awaiting a liver transplant using tissue engineering techniques were introduced. The methods of liver support using bioartificial liver and isolated hepatocytes transplantation were described.

  18. Selective internal radiation therapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Amanda R; Chong, Li Chia; Karapetis, Christos; Price, Timothy J

    2016-11-01

    Liver metastases are often the dominant site of metastatic disease in colorectal cancer. Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) involves embolising radiolabeled spheres (SIR-Spheres) into the arterial supply of the liver. This review assesses the effectiveness and toxicity of SIRT in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer liver metastasis when given alone or with systemic or regional hepatic artery chemotherapy. We reviewed only randomised controlled trials comparing SIRT and chemotherapy (systemic and/or regional) with chemotherapy alone, or comparing SIRT alone with best supportive care. Only four randomized trials were identified. Due to heterogeneity of the patients and treatments received it was not possible to perform a formal meta-analysis, therefore this is a descriptive analysis only. All studies included patients with either liver only or liver dominant metastatic colorectal cancer. Two trials compared SIRT alone and SIRT with chemotherapy first line. The first with only 21 patients revealed a significant improvement in PFS and median survival with SIRT. The larger second study SIRFLOX of 530 patients comparing SIRT and current standard first line FOLFOX chemotherapy (+/- bevacizumab) with standard FOLFOX+/-bevacizumab alone. There was no improvement in overall PFS with addition of SIRT. In chemotherapy refractory patients SIRT and systemic chemotherapy (fluorouracil) improved progression free survival but not overall survival. A final study (63 patients) compared SIRT and regional chemotherapy (floxuridine) with regional chemotherapy alone in first line showed no significant difference in progression free survival and median survival. There remains a lack of evidence that SIRT improves survival or quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The overall survival results from SIRFLOX combined with FOXFIRE and FOXFIRE Global are awaited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ... cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. ... options. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ...

  20. Therapeutic potential of octreotide in the treatment of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Davies, N; Cooke, T G; Jenkins, S A

    1996-01-01

    Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of somatostatin that has clear inhibitory effects on the growth of many animal and human cell lines, including colorectal cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver is clinically important, both in terms of the number of patients affected and the lack of any effective treatment for the majority of patients. Octreotide inhibits the growth of colorectal liver tumour in a number of experimental models and, in at least three tumour types, inhibits the growth of established micro-metastases. The precise mechanism of action is not known. However, the drug is likely to be most beneficial in the treatment of liver metastases when the tumour burden is relatively small. The available evidence, although experimental, suggests that octreotide may also have a beneficial effect on the development of liver metastases when used as an adjuvant to surgery in colorectal cancer and this area warrants urgent clinical investigation. The cytotoxics which are currently used as an adjuvant to surgery for colorectal cancer have unpleasant side effects which can be life-threatening. There will also be a proportion of patients who have undergone a truly curative resection of their tumour and will thus be treated unnecessarily. The potential benefits of octreotide in the adjuvant setting, although promising, remain speculative, but octreotide has an acceptably low incidence of side effects and can be administered safely for a prolonged period of time.

  1. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-01-01

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately. PMID:24876738

  2. Flipping a citrate switch on liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-18

    Energy homeostasis and oncogenic signaling are critical determinants of the growth of human liver cancer cells, providing a strong rationale to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms for these systems. A new study reports that loss of solute carrier family 13 member 5, which transports citrate across cell membranes, halts liver cancer cell growth by altering both energy production and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in human liver cancer cell lines and in both an in vitro and in vivo model of liver tumors, suggesting a new target for liver cancer chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Recurrent Hepatitis B after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maiwall, Rakhi; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem that leads to development of various complications, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure requiring liver transplantation. The recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) post-liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft dysfunction, cirrhosis of the allograft, and graft failure. Patients with high viral load at the time of transplantation, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, or those with a history of anti-viral drug resistance are considered as high-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation, while patients with low viral load, including HBeAg negative status, acute liver failure, and hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection are considered to be at low-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation. Antivirals for patients awaiting liver transplantation(LT) cause suppression of HBV replication and reduce the risk of recurrent HBV infection of the allograft and, therefore, all HBV patients with decompensated cirrhosis should be treated with potent antivirals with high genetic barrier to resistance (entecavir or tenofovir) prior to liver transplantation. Prevention of post-liver transplantation recurrence should be done using a combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and antivirals in patients at high risk of recurrence. Low dose HBIG, HBIG-free protocols, and monoprophylaxis with high potency antivirals can still be considered in patients at low risk of recurrence. Even, marginal grafts from anti-HBc positive donors can be safely used in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, preferably in anti-hepatitis B core (HBc)/anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) positive recipients. In this article, we aim to review the mechanisms and risk factors of HBV recurrence post-LT in addition to the various treatment strategies proposed for the prevention of recurrent HBV infection PMID:27047773

  4. Lessons Learned From a Case of Gastric Cancer After Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Chong-Cheng; Wen, Tian-Fu; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Guo, Dong-Jiao; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, de novo malignancies have become an important cause of death after transplantation. According to the accumulation of cases with liver transplantation, the incidence of de novo gastric cancer is anticipated to increase among liver transplant recipients in the near future, especially in some East Asian countries where both liver diseases requiring liver transplantation and gastric cancer are major burdens. Unfortunately, there is limited information regarding the relationship between de novo gastric cancer and liver transplantation. Herein, we report a case of stage IIIc gastric cancer after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma, who was successfully treated by radical distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy but died 15 months later due to tumor progression. Furthermore, we extract some lessons to learn from the case and review the literatures. The incidence of de novo gastric cancer following liver transplantations is increasing and higher than the general population. Doctors should be vigilant in early detection and control the risk factors causing de novo gastric cancer after liver transplantation. Curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is still the mainstay of treatment for such patients. Preoperative assessments, strict postoperative monitoring, and managements are mandatory. Limited chemotherapy could be given to the patients with high risk of recurrence. Close surveillance, early detection, and treatment of posttransplant cancers are extremely important and essential to improve the survival. PMID:26886605

  5. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  6. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a narrow beam and creates a very high-intensity light. This powerful beam of light may be ... it used in cancer treatment? Laser therapy uses high-intensity light to treat cancer and other illnesses. Lasers ...

  7. Biological treatment for liver tumor and new potential biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Grizzi, Fabio; Wachtel, Mitchell S; Jenkins, Marjorie; Ferrari, Raffaele; Cobos, Everardo; Frezza, Eldo E

    2008-03-01

    The search for effective and efficacious therapy for liver tumor was started many years ago and is still ongoing. Despite all of the surgical advances, much work needs to be done to improve understanding of the biology of the tumor and its treatment. The rules of hepatic surgery are changing because of two recent major trends: (1) technical simplification, and (2) the endeavor to treat an increasing number of patients. T lymphocytes are potent cellular effectors of the immune system and possess a memory that responds to rechallenge by the same antigen. Being more specific and less toxic than chemotherapy, tumor infusion could be an ideal adjuvant therapy for patients with primary and secondary liver malignancies. Moreover, tumor cell vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in terms of minimal residual disease and are being investigated, but the requirement for an adequate supple of autologos tumor may limit the general applicability of these approaches. Various studies have demonstrated the aberrant expression of germ-cell proteins called cancer-testis (CT) antigens in liver neoplastic cells. Their selective normal-tissue expression makes them ideal antigens for immune targeting of malignant disease. Specific expression of CT antigens also suggests their application as tumor markers to detect circulating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, as an adjuvant diagnostic tool, and as indicators for recurrence and prognosis. Biological therapy is now generating more clinical trials. More studies need to be performed and further experiments need to be done, although currently this seems a valid pathway for the treatment of liver cancer. Cytoreduction treatment of liver tumor and the vaccine might be the future of the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumor.

  8. Metformin use improves survival of diabetic liver cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Zheng, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Yan-Ni; Tan, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Metformin has garnered considerable interest as a chemo-preventive and chemo-therapeutic agent given the increased risk of liver cancer among diabetic patients. This work was performed to illustrate the association between metformin use and survival of diabetic liver cancer patients. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Cochrane Library from inception to 12 May 2016. Meta-analyses were performed using Stata (version 12.0), with hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as effect measures. Eleven cohort studies involving 3452 liver cancer patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed that metformin use was associated with better survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.83; p = 0.002) of liver cancer patients, and the beneficial effect persisted (HR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97; p = 0.035) when the population was restricted to diabetic liver cancer patients. After adjusting for age, etiology, index of tumor severity and treatment of liver cancer, the association between metformin use and better survival of liver cancer patients was stable, pooled HR ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. The results indicated that metformin use improved survival of diabetic liver cancer patients. However, the results should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding. Further prospective studies are still needed to confirm the prognostic benefit of metformin use. PMID:27494848

  9. Diagnosis of Primary Cancer of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kew, M. C.; Dos Santos, H. A.; Sherlock, Sheila

    1971-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary cancer of the liver was reviewed in 75 patients. A definitive diagnosis was made during life in 63% and in a further 20% this condition was suspected though histological confirmation was obtained only at necropsy. The most common presenting complaints were abdominal pain and weight loss and the most frequent findings hepatomegaly and ascites. Less than one-half of the patients were jaundiced and when present it was usually mild. An arterial bruit was heard over the liver in 25% of the patients. A sudden and unexplained deterioration in a patient known to have cirrhosis or haemochromatosis should raise the possibility of a primary hepatic tumour; this occurred in 24% of our patients. Alpha-fetoprotein was found in the serum of 11 out of 18 cases. The presence of a mass in the liver was frequently confirmed by liver scan, portal venography, or hepatic arteriography, but these showed no features diagnostic of a primary tumour. Liver scan also proved useful in localizing the lesion for biopsy purposes. Definitive diagnosis is dependent on the histological demonstration of the features of the tumour. This can frequently be achieved by percutaneous needle biopsy, which was positive in 38 out of 57 patients. Wedge biopsies were positive in a further nine patients. PMID:5124443

  10. Investigation of the roles of exosomes in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Ding, Xiaoling; Nan, Lijuan; Wang, Yiting; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jihong; Zhu, Wei; Ni, Bing; Dong, Suzhen; Yu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    The leading cause of death among cancer patients is tumor metastasis. Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging as mediators of metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that exosomes play a pivotal role in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer. First, a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis was established and characterized. Then, we demonstrated that exosomes from a highly liver metastatic colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) could significantly increase the metastatic tumor burden and distribution in the mouse liver of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells, which ordinarily exhibit poor liver metastatic potential. We further investigated the mechanisms by which HT-29-derived-exosomes influence the liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and found that mice treated with HT-29-derived exosomes had a relatively higher level of CXCR4 in the metastatic microenvironment, indicating that exosomes may promote colorectal cancer metastasis by recruiting CXCR4-expressing stromal cells to develop a permissive metastatic microenvironment. Finally, the migration of Caco-2 cells was significantly increased following treatment with HT-29-derived exosomes in vitro, further supporting a role for exosomes in modulating colorectal tumor-derived liver metastasis. The data from the present study may facilitate further translational medicine research into the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  11. Management of colorectal cancer presenting with synchronous liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, Ajith K; Mason, James M; Mullamitha, Saifee; Hancock, Helen C; Jegatheeswaran, Santhalingam

    2014-08-01

    Up to a fifth of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with synchronous hepatic metastases. In patients with CRC who present without intestinal obstruction or perforation and in whom comprehensive whole-body imaging confirms the absence of extrahepatic disease, evidence indicates a state of equipoise between several different management pathways, none of which has demonstrated superiority. Neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy is advocated by current guidelines, but must be integrated with surgical management in order to remove the primary tumour and liver metastatic burden. Surgery for CRC with synchronous liver metastases can take a number of forms: the 'classic' approach, involving initial colorectal resection, interval chemotherapy and liver resection as the final step; simultaneous removal of the liver and bowel tumours with neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy; or a 'liver-first' approach (before or after systemic chemotherapy) with removal of the colorectal tumour as the final procedure. In patients with rectal primary tumours, the liver-first approach can potentially avoid rectal surgery in patients with a complete response to chemoradiotherapy. We overview the importance of precise nomenclature, the influence of clinical presentation on treatment options, and the need for accurate, up-to-date surgical terminology, staging tests and contemporary management options in CRC and synchronous hepatic metastatic disease, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary care.

  12. Updated options for liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are common in patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of metastatic disease or at the time of recurrence. Without treatment, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the metastases might provide long-term benefit.; however, the size, number, or location of the metastases can limit the ability to perform a resection. The use of chemotherapy, both systemic and via hepatic artery infusion, in patients undergoing surgery for liver metastases from CRC has augmented the long-term survival benefits and even the cure obtained in some patients with surgery. Chemotherapy might also convert a portion of patients with initially unresectable liver metastases to resectable. A growing body of literature is helping to define the role of chemotherapy for potentially resectable liver metastases and for initially unresectable liver metastases. The introduction of newer agents such as oxaliplatin and irinotecan, and targeted agents such as cetuximab and bevacizumab, has led to meaningful improvements in response rates and survival over those previously achieved with 5-fluorouracil. Further trials are needed to refine the use of chemotherapy and targeted agents in the management of patients with liver metastases.

  13. [Clinical effect of ultrasound-guided injection of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Fe3O4 in situ implant for magnetic thermal ablation in treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Zuo, G Q; Zheng, Y Y; He, S; Zuo, D Y

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To prepare the Fe3O4-loaded biodegradable liquid-solid phase inversion poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in situ implant for ultrasound-guided injection into nude mouse tumor model, and to investigate its clinical effect in thermomagnetic treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells in an alternating magnetic field. Methods: An in situ implant containing 10% Fe3O4 was prepared, and 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP gel was injected into the subcutaneous tissue of Kunming mice. The degradation of this material was observed for 2 consecutive months, and the changes in body weight were recorded. HE staining and Prussian blue staining were performed for the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of Kunming mice. Fresh ex vivo bovine liver was taken and cut into cubes with a dimension of 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm and then 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP gel was injected; after phase inversion, the cubes of ex vivo bovine liver were heated for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes, respectively, and then cut open for observing the range of ablation; HE staining was also performed. Micro-CT scan was performed after ultrasound-guided injection of 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA gel into the tumors of the nude mice, and then the nude mice were divided into treatment group and control group. The mice in the treatment group were given thermomagnetic treatment for 3 minutes, and tumor growth was observed daily. Results: The biodegradation of Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP implant showed that the subcutaneously injected material was gradually metabolized at 2 weeks after injection and that the nude mice were in good condition. The bovine liver ablation experiment showed that the range of ablation of 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA implant reached 1.46 ± 0.11 cm. HE staining showed that part of bovine liver had coagulative necrosis. The phase inversion experiment of Fe3O4-PLGA gel showed quick liquid-solid phase inversion of the material after injection into the tumor, and the process of liquid-solid phase inversion could be

  14. Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 resin microspheres plus standard systemic chemotherapy regimen of FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone as first-line treatment of non-resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: the SIRFLOX study.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Peter; Gebski, Val; Van Buskirk, Mark; Thurston, Kenneth; Cade, David N; Van Hazel, Guy A

    2014-12-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), unresectable liver metastases are linked to poor prognosis. Systemic chemotherapy with regimens such as FOLFOX (combination of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) is the standard first-line treatment. The SIRFLOX trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of combining FOLFOX-based chemotherapy with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-SpheresR; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia). SIRFLOX is a randomised, multicentre trial of mFOLFOX6 chemotherapy+/-SIRT as first-line treatment of patients with liver-only or liver-predominant metastatic CRC (mCRC). The trial aims to recruit adult chemotherapy-naive patients with proven liver metastases with or without limited extra-hepatic disease, a life expectancy of >=3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients will be randomised to receive either mFOLFOX6 or SIRT+mFOLFOX6 (with a reduced dose of oxaliplatin in cycles 1-3 following SIRT). Patients in both arms can receive bevacizumab at investigator discretion. Protocol chemotherapy will continue until there is unacceptable toxicity, evidence of tumour progression, complete surgical resection or ablation of cancerous lesions, or the patient requests an end to treatment. The primary endpoint of the SIRFLOX trial is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include: PFS in the liver; tumour response rate (liver and any site); site of tumour progression; health-related quality of life; toxicity and safety; liver resection rate; and overall survival. Assuming an increase in the median PFS from 9.4 months to 12.5 months with the addition of SIRT to mFOLFOX6, recruiting >=450 patients will be sufficient for 80% power and 95% confidence. The SIRFLOX trial will establish the potential role of SIRT+standard systemic chemotherapy in the first-line management of mCRC with non-resectable liver metastases. SIRFLOX Clinical

  15. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Biliary Tract or Liver Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  16. Alternating Systemic and Hepatic Artery Infusion Therapy for Resected Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG)/ National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Phase II Intergroup Trial, N9945/CI-66

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Steven R.; Roh, Mark S.; Mahoney, Michelle R.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Nagorney, David M.; Wagman, Lawrence; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Weiland, Timothy L.; Lai, Lily Lau; Schwarz, Roderich E.; Molina, Roy; Dentchev, Todor; Bolton, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Prior trials have shown that surgery followed by hepatic artery infusion (HAI) of floxuridine (FUDR) alternating with systemic fluorouracil improves survival rates. Oxaliplatin combined with capecitabine has demonstrated activity in advanced colorectal cancer. Based on this observation a trial was conducted to assess the potential benefit of systemic oxaliplatin and capecitabine alternating with HAI of FUDR. The primary end point was 2-year survival. Patients and Methods Patients with liver-only metastases from colorectal cancer amenable to resection or cryoablation were eligible. HAI and systemic therapy was initiated after metastasectomy. Alternating courses of HAI consisted of 0.2 mg/m2/d FUDR and dexamethasone, day 1 through 14 weeks 1 and 2. Systemic therapy included oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 day 1 with capecitabine at 1,000 mg/m2 twice daily, days 1 through 14, weeks 4 and 5. Two additional 3-week courses of systemic therapy were given. Capecitabine was reduced to 850 mg/m2 twice daily after interim review of toxicity. Results Fifty-five of 76 eligible patients were able to initiate protocol-directed therapy and completed median of six cycles (range, one to six). Three postoperative or treatment-related deaths were reported. Overall, 88% of evaluable patients were alive at 2 years. With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, a total of 30 patients have had disease recurrence, 11 involving the liver. Median disease-free survival was 32.7 months. Conclusion Alternating HAI of FUDR and systemic capecitabine and oxaliplatin met the prespecified end point of higher than 85% survival at 2 years and was clinically tolerable. However, the merits of this approach need to be established with a phase III trial. PMID:20048179

  17. Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded polydopamine-modified TPGS-PLA nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system for the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dunwan; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongling; Liu, Gan; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Linhua; Zeng, Xiaowei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine-based surface modification is a simple way to functionalize polymeric nanoparticle (NP) surfaces with ligands and/or additional polymeric layers. In this work, we developed DTX-loaded formulations using polydopamine-modified NPs synthesized using D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-poly(lactide) (pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs). To target liver cancer cells, galactosamine was conjugated on the prepared NPs (Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs) to enhance the delivery of DTX via ligand-mediated endocytosis. The size and morphology of pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs and Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs changed obviously compared with TPGS-PLA/NPs. In vitro studies showed that TPGS-PLA/NPs, pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs and Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs had similar release profiles of DTX. Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometric results showed that coumarin 6-loaded Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs had the highest cellular uptake efficiency in liver cancer cell line HepG2. Moreover, DTX-loaded Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells more potently than TPGS-PLA/NPs, pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs, and a clinically available DTX formulation (Taxotere®). The in vivo biodistribution experiments show that the Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs are specifically targeted to the tumor. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-tumor effects study showed that injecting DTX-loaded Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs reduced the tumor size most significantly on hepatoma-bearing nude mice. These results suggest that Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs prepared in the study specifically interacted with the hepatocellular carcinoma cells through ligand-receptor recognition and they may be used as a potentially eligible drug delivery system targeting liver cancers. Polydopamine-based surface modification is a simple way to functionalize polymeric nanoparticle surfaces with ligands and/or additional polymeric layers. In this work, we developed docetaxel (DTX)-loaded formulations using polydopamine-modified NPs synthesized from D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate

  18. Liver cancer oncogenomics: opportunities and dilemmas for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches. Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could contribute to new therapeutic approaches. Importantly, these investigations indicate that a classical oncogene addiction cannot be assumed for primary liver cancer. Therefore, hepatocarcinogenesis can be considered a paradigm suitable for individualized medicine. PMID:26257864

  19. Farnesoid X receptor inhibits gankyrin in mouse livers and prevents development of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Iakova, Polina; Jin, Jingling; Sullivan, Emily; Sharin, Vladislav; Hong, Il-Hwa; Anakk, Sayee; Mayor, Angela; Darlington, Gretchen; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2013-03-01

    One of the early events in the development of liver cancer is a neutralization of tumor suppressor proteins Rb, p53, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α. The elimination of these proteins is mediated by a small subunit of proteasome, gankyrin, which is activated by cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms that repress gankyrin in quiescent livers and mechanisms of activation of gankyrin in liver cancer. We found that farnesoid X receptor (FXR) inhibits expression of gankyrin in quiescent livers by silencing the gankyrin promoter through HDAC1-C/EBPβ complexes. C/EBPβ is a key transcription factor that delivers HDAC1 to gankyrin promoter and causes epigenetic silencing of the promoter. We show that down-regulation of C/EBPβ in mouse hepatoma cells and in mouse livers reduces C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes and activates the gankyrin promoter. Deletion of FXR signaling in mice leads to de-repression of the gankyrin promoter and to spontaneous development of liver cancer at 12 months of age. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)-mediated liver cancer in wild-type mice also involves the reduction of FXR and activation of gankyrin. Examination of liver cancer in old mice and liver cancer in human patients revealed that FXR is reduced, while gankyrin is elevated during spontaneous development of liver cancer. Searching for animal models with altered levels of FXR, we found that long-lived Little mice have high levels of FXR and do not develop liver cancer with age and after DEN injections due to failure to activate gankyrin and eliminate Rb, p53, HNF4α and C/EBPα proteins. FXR prevents liver cancer by inhibiting the gankyrin promoter via C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes, leading to subsequent protection of tumor suppressor proteins from degradation. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Local Ablation for Solid Tumor Liver Metastases: Techniques and Treatment Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joyce; Cooper, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for liver metastases from solid tumors, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, and sarcomas, have expanded in recent years and now include nonresection methods. The literature focused on the treatment of liver metastases was reviewed for technique, perioperative, and long-term outcomes specifically related to local ablation techniques for liver metastases. Ablation modalities have become popular as therapies for patients who are not appropriate candidates for surgical resection. Use of these techniques, alone or in combination with other liver-directed therapies (and often systemic therapy), has extended the rate of survival for patients with liver metastases and, at times, offers nearly equivalent disease-free survival rates to surgical resection. Although surgical resection remains the optimal treatment for liver metastasis, local options, including microwave ablation and radiofrequency ablation, can offer similar long-term local control in appropriately selected patients.

  1. Ablation effects of noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia on liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaiyun; Zhu, Shuguang; Xiang, Guoan; Duan, Xiaopeng; He, Jiwen; Chen, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    To have in-depth analysis of clinical ablation effect of noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia on liver cancer cells, this paper collected liver cancer patients' treatment information from 10 hospitals during January 2010 and December 2011, from which 1050 cases of patients were randomly selected as study object of observation group who underwent noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia treatment; in addition, 500 cases of liver cancer patients were randomly selected as study object of control group who underwent clinical surgical treatment. After treatment was completed, three years of return visit were done, survival rates of the two groups of patients after 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were compared, and clinical effects of radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer were evaluated. Zoom results show that the two groups are similar in terms of survival rate, and the difference is without statistical significance. 125 patients in observation group had varying degrees of adverse reactions, while 253 patients in control group had adverse reactions. There was difference between groups P < 0.05, with significant statistical significance. It can be concluded that radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer is more secure. Therefore, the results of this study fully demonstrate that liver cancer treatment with noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia is with safety effect and satisfactory survival rate, thus with relatively high clinical value in clinical practice.

  2. Synergistic inhibition of autophagy and neddylation pathways as a novel therapeutic approach for targeting liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Hu, Tao; Liang, Yupei; Jiang, Yanan; Pan, Yongfu; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongping; Li, Pei; Jeong, Lak Shin; Chu, Yiwei; Qi, Hui; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M; Dong, Ziming; Jia, Lijun

    2015-04-20

    Liver cancer is the second-most frequent cause of cancer death in the world and is highly treatment resistant. We reported previously that inhibition of neddylation pathway with specific NAE inhibitor MLN4924, suppressed the malignant phenotypes of liver cancer. However, during the process, MLN4924 induces pro-survival autophagy as a mechanism of drug resistance. Here, we report that blockage of autophagy with clinically-available autophagy inhibitors (e.g. chloroquine) significantly enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 on liver cancer cells by triggering apoptosis. Mechanistically, chloroquine enhanced MLN4924-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. NOXA) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, the down-regulation of NOXA expression via siRNA silencing substantially attenuated apoptosis of liver cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that blockage of autophagy augmented MLN4924-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The elimination of DNA damage or blockage of ROS production significantly reduced the expression of NOXA, and thereby attenuated apoptosis and reduced growth inhibition of liver cancer cells. Moreover, blockage of autophagy enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 in an orthotopic model of human liver cancer, with induction of NOXA and apoptosis in tumor tissues. These findings provide important preclinical evidence for clinical investigation of synergistic inhibition of neddylation and autophagy in liver cancer.

  3. Liver cancer in Wisconsin: The potential for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, I.R.; Remington, P.L.; Moss, M.; Anderson, H. )

    1990-02-01

    In this study liver cancer deaths that could be attributed to certain risk factors were calculated. Applying population attributable risk methodology, the attributable risk of liver cancer was estimated for alcohol use, hepatitis B viral exposure, and occupational and industrial exposures. We found that these three risk factors accounted for 38% of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin; 29% was attributable to alcohol consumption, 7% to occupational exposures, and 2% to hepatitis B viral infection. More than half of liver cancer mortality, however, was not accounted for by the three risk factors studied.

  4. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation.

    PubMed

    Segkos, Konstantinos; Schmidt, Carl; Nabhan, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC.

  5. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC. PMID:28163939

  6. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Siebler, Juergen; Galle, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause for elevated liver enzymes in the developed nations. Beyond prevention programs which are of particular interest because of the increasing number of overweight children, treatment should be focussed on the most important risk factors, obesity and insulin resistance. As a consequence of elucidating the pathomechanisms of NAFLD, the number of potential therapeutic options increased. However, many studies investigating the therapeutic effect show shortcomings in at least one of the following points: lack of a serial liver biopsy, short term of treatment and limited number of included patients. The second generation insulin sensitizer pioglitazone and rosiglitazone show the most promising improvements in NAFLD, but weight gain and potential hepatotoxicity calls for attention. In conclusion, a general recommendation for the application of specific drugs cannot be given. Besides controlled clinical trials, weight reduction and physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in obese patients should be the priority objective. PMID:16610015

  7. Early Dose Response to Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatment of Metastatic Liver Cancer by a Patient-Specific Method Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Janice M. Wong, C. Oliver; Muzik, Otto; Marples, Brian; Joiner, Michael; Burmeister, Jay

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a patient-specific single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based method of dose calculation for treatment planning of yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT). Methods and Materials: Fourteen consecutive {sup 90}Y SIRTs for colorectal liver metastasis were retrospectively analyzed. Absorbed dose to tumor and normal liver tissue was calculated by partition methods with two different tumor/normal liver vascularity ratios: an average 3:1 and a patient-specific ratio derived from pretreatment technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT. Tumor response was quantitatively evaluated from fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans. Results: Positron emission tomography showed a significant decrease in total tumor standardized uptake value (average, 52%). There was a significant difference in the tumor absorbed dose between the average and specific methods (p = 0.009). Response vs. dose curves fit by linear and linear-quadratic modeling showed similar results. Linear fit r values increased for all tumor response parameters with the specific method (+0.20 for mean standardized uptake value). Conclusion: Tumor dose calculated with the patient-specific method was more predictive of response in liver-directed {sup 90}Y SIRT.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Liver Cancer: Etiology and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Zhuonan; Ye, Yanshuo; Xie, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that oxidative stress (OS) is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Normally, OS occurs when the body receives any danger signal—from either an internal or external source—and further induces DNA oxidative damage and abnormal protein expression, placing the body into a state of vulnerability to the development of various diseases such as cancer. There are many factors involved in liver carcinogenesis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The relationship between OS and HCC has recently been attracting increasing attention. Therefore, elucidation of the impact of OS on the development of liver carcinogenesis is very important for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. This review focuses mainly on the relationship between OS and the development of HCC from the perspective of cellular and molecular mechanisms and the etiology and therapeutic targets of HCC. PMID:27957239

  9. Cardiotoxicity Following Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, AR; Harbinson, MT; Hanna, GG

    2017-01-01

    More than half of those born after 1960 will develop cancer during their lifetime. Fortunately, owing to improved diagnosis and treatment, cure rates have risen steadily over the last three decades. With an increased survivorship, more will experience adverse effects of cancer therapeutics on the heart. As the oncologist’s focus begins to encompass the issues of cancer survivorship, awareness of the management of cardiac toxicity would be prudent for all physicians looking after patients with cancer. PMID:28298705

  10. FXR inhibits gankyrin in mouse livers and prevents development of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanjun; Iakova, Polina; Jin, Jingling; Sullivan, Emily; Sharin, Vladislav; Hong, Il-Hwa; Anakk, Sayee; Mayor, Angela; Darlington, Gretchen; Finegold, Milton; Moore, David; Timchenko, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the early events in development of liver cancer is a neutralization of tumor suppressor proteins Rb, p53, HNF4α and C/EBPα. The elimination of these proteins is mediated by a small subunit of proteasome, gankyrin, which is activated by cancer. The aim of this study was to determine mechanisms which repress gankyrin in quiescent livers and mechanisms of activation of gankyrin in liver cancer. We found that farnesoid X receptor, FXR, inhibits expression of gankyrin in quiescent livers by silencing the gankyrin promoter through HDAC1-C/EBPβ complexes. C/EBPβ is a key transcription factor which delivers HDAC1 to gankyrin promoter and causes epigenetic silencing of the promoter. We show that down-regulation of C/EBPβ in mouse hepatoma cells and in mouse livers reduces C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes and activates the gankyrin promoter. Deletion of FXR signaling in mice leads to de-repression of the gankyrin promoter and to spontaneous development of liver cancer at 12 months of age. DEN-mediated liver cancer in WT mice also involves the reduction of FXR and activation of gankyrin. Examination of liver cancer in old mice and liver cancer in human patients revealed that FXR is reduced; while gankyrin is elevated during spontaneous development of liver cancer. Searching for animal models with altered levels of FXR, we found that long-lived Little mice have high levels of FXR and do not develop liver cancer with age and after DEN injections due to failure to activate gankyrin and eliminate Rb, p53, HNF4α and C/EBPα proteins. CONCLUSION FXR prevents liver cancer by inhibiting the gankyrin promoter via C/EBPβ-HDAC1 complexes leading to subsequent protection of tumor suppressor proteins from degradation. PMID:23172628

  11. [Studies on telomerase reverse transcriptase components and liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Cai, J J; Guo, X L

    2016-07-20

    Telomeres are DNA tandem repeats at the ends of chromosomes in eukaryotic cells and play important roles in maintaining the stability and integrity of chromosomes. Telomeres are gradually shortened with cell proliferation, and when they are shortened to a certain length, the cells experience senescence and apoptosis. However, a small number of cells can maintain the length of telomeres and restore their function through related mechanisms (activation of telomerase or other mechanisms), and some cells may even be immortalized. Therefore, telomere and telomerase are thought to be closely associated with tumor development and progression. It has been confirmed that telomerase activation is an early event in the development of primary liver cancer, especially the important component of telomerase telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), which plays an important role in this process. Here this article reviews the latest research advances in the function and regulation mechanisms of telomerase and the role of TERT in the development, progression, and treatment of primary liver cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma, so as to provide a molecular genetic basis for intervention of liver cancer and related targeted therapy.

  12. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  13. Stop feeding cancer: pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Lawless, Matthew W

    2013-12-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world with an estimated over half a million new cases diagnosed every year. Due to the difficulty in early diagnosis and lack of treatment options, the prevalence of liver cancer continues to climb with a 5-year survival rate of between 6% and 11%. Coinciding with the rise of liver cancer, the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Evidence from epidemiological studies demonstrates a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in obese individuals. Obesity is recognised as a low-grade inflammatory disease, this is of particular relevance as inflammation has been proposed as the seventh hallmark of cancer development with abdominal visceral adiposity considered as an important source of pro-inflammatory stimuli. Emerging evidence points towards the direct role of visceral adipose tissue rather than generalised body fat in carcinogenesis. Cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α secreted from visceral adipose tissue have been demonstrated to induce a chronic inflammatory condition predisposing the liver to a protumourigenic milieu. This review focuses on excess visceral adiposity rather than simple obesity; particularly adipokines and their implications for chronic inflammation, lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and angiogenesis. Evidence of molecular signalling pathways that may give rise to the onset and progression of HCC in this context are depicted. Delineation of the pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer and its targeting will provide better rational and therapeutic approaches for HCC prevention and elimination. The concept of a central role for metabolism in cancer is the culmination of an effort that began with one of the 20th century's leading biochemists and Nobel laureate of 1931, Otto Warburg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy with CyberKnife®for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Koki; Kaihara, Masaki; Sunahori, Sayaka; Yamashiro, Naotsugu; Nishiya, Shin; Ito, Yasuhiro; Funakoshi, Kazuto; Egawa, Tomohisa; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Nagashima, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    For treatment of colorectal liver metastases, liver resection is recommended for resectable cases in the clinical guidelines for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, there are currently no data supporting the efficacy of radiation therapy as a topical treatment, and this treatment can therefore not presently be recommended. With CyberKnife®, it is possible to perform stereotactic radiation therapy using a linear accelerator with high accuracy, even for lesions in the trunk area such as liver metastases. Between December 2009 and September 2014 in our hospital, we performed radiation treatment using CyberKnife® for 14 cases with 22 colorectal liver metastases. As a result, we obtained response and local control rates of 76.2%and 81.0%, respectively. Moreover, no advanced adverse events were observed. Thus, we consider that CyberKnife® treatment for colorectal liver metastases is effective as a topical treatment, with low invasiveness and high safety.

  15. Treatment of Unresectable Primary and Metastatic Liver Cancer with Yttrium-90 Microspheres (TheraSphere (registered) ): Assessment of Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kent; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Bui, James T.; Omary, Reed; Hunter, Russell D.; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary; Liu, David; Chrisman, Howard; Resnick, Scott; Nemcek, Albert A.; Vogelzang, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2006-08-15

    In Canada and Europe, yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere); MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) are a primary treatment option for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We present data from 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease treated with TheraSphere from a single academic institution to evaluate the angiographically evident embolization that follows treatment. Seven interventional radiologists from one treatment center compared pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms. The reviewers were blinded to the timing of the studies. The incidence of postembolization syndrome (PES) was determined as well as objective tumor response rates by the World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. There were 420 independent angiographic observations that were assessed using the chi-squared statistic. The pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms could not be correctly identified on average more than 43% of the time (p = 0.0004). The postprocedure arterial patency rate was 100%. The objective tumor response rates for all patients were 24%, 31%, and 72% for WHO, RECIST, and EASL criteria, respectively. All of the patients tolerated the procedure without complications and were treated on an outpatient basis, and four patients had evidence of PES. This treatment method does not result in macroscopic embolization of the hepatic arteries, thereby maintaining hepatic tissue perfusion. These data support the principle that the favorable response rates reported with TheraSphere are likely due to radiation and microscopic embolization rather than flow-related macroscopic embolization and ischemia.

  16. Evidence-based medical oncology and interventional radiology paradigms for liver-dominant colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Alan Alper; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Mandel, Nil Molinas

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer metastasizes predictably, with liver predominance in most cases. Because liver involvement has been shown to be a major determinant of survival in this population, liver-directed therapies are increasingly considered even in cases where there is (limited) extrahepatic disease. Unfortunately, these patients carry a known risk of recurrence in the liver regardless of initial therapy choice. Therefore, there is a demand for minimally invasive, non-surgical, personalized cancer treatments to preserve quality of life in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of cancer therapy. This report aims to review evidence-based conceptual, pharmacological, and technological paradigm shifts in parenteral and percutaneous treatment strategies as well as forthcoming evidence regarding next-generation systemic, locoregional, and local treatment approaches for this patient population. PMID:27003990

  17. Evidence-based medical oncology and interventional radiology paradigms for liver-dominant colorectal cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Mandel, Nil Molinas

    2016-03-21

    Colorectal cancer metastasizes predictably, with liver predominance in most cases. Because liver involvement has been shown to be a major determinant of survival in this population, liver-directed therapies are increasingly considered even in cases where there is (limited) extrahepatic disease. Unfortunately, these patients carry a known risk of recurrence in the liver regardless of initial therapy choice. Therefore, there is a demand for minimally invasive, non-surgical, personalized cancer treatments to preserve quality of life in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of cancer therapy. This report aims to review evidence-based conceptual, pharmacological, and technological paradigm shifts in parenteral and percutaneous treatment strategies as well as forthcoming evidence regarding next-generation systemic, locoregional, and local treatment approaches for this patient population.

  18. Current treatment for colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Karidis, Nikolaos P; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Surgical resection offers the best opportunity for survival in patients with colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver, with five-year survival rates up to 58% in selected cases. However, only a minority are resectable at the time of diagnosis. Continuous research in this field aims at increasing the percentage of patients eligible for resection, refining the indications and contraindications for surgery, and improving overall survival. The use of surgical innovations, such as staged resection, portal vein embolization, and repeat resection has allowed higher resection rates in patients with bilobar disease. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy allows up to 38% of patients previously considered unresectable to be significantly downstaged and eligible for hepatic resection. Ablative techniques have gained wide acceptance as an adjunct to surgical resection and in the management of patients who are not surgical candidates. Current management of colorectal liver metastases requires a multidisciplinary approach, which should be individualized in each case. PMID:22039320

  19. Long-term oncologic outcomes for simultaneous resection of synchronous metastatic liver and primary colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Silberhumer, Gerd R; Paty, Philip B; Denton, Brian; Guillem, Jose; Gonen, Mithat; Araujo, Raphael L C; Nash, Garret M; Temple, Larissa K; Allen, Peter J; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Weiser, Martin R; Wong, W Douglas; Jarnagin, William R; D'Angelica, Michael I; Fong, Yuman

    2016-07-01

    Twenty-five percent of patients with colorectal cancer present with simultaneous liver metastasis. Complete resection is the only potential curative treatment. Due to improvements in operative and perioperative management, simultaneous liver and colon resections are an accepted procedure at specialized centers for selected patients. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term, oncologic results of simultaneous operative procedures compared with those of staged operations. Patients with colorectal cancer and simultaneous liver metastases presenting for complete resection at a tertiary cancer center were identified. Patients who received the primary colon resection at an outside institution were excluded from analysis. Between 1984 and 2008, 429 patients underwent operative treatment for colorectal cancer with simultaneous liver metastasis. Of these, 320 (75%) had simultaneous resection and 109 had staged resection. There was no difference in the distribution of primary tumor locations between the 2 groups. Mean size of the hepatic metastases was significantly greater in the staged group (median 4 cm vs 2.5 cm; P < .01). Neither disease-free nor overall survival differed significantly between the 2 treatment strategies. The extent of the liver procedure (more than 3 segments) was identified as a risk factor for decreased disease-free and overall survival (both P < .01). Simultaneous liver and colorectal resections for metastatic colorectal cancer are associated with similar long-term cancer outcome compared with staged procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasound-guided interventional PDT of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chaoying; Yang, Dong; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Muyin; Chen, Ji; Lu, Guorong

    1996-09-01

    Thirty patients with advanced liver cancer were treated by interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT). These included 28 hepatocellular carcinoma and two adenocarcinoma, 19 primary tumors and 11 recurred follow other treatments. The diameter of tumors were 7-10cm in 13 cases and 10-16cm in 17 cases. In this study, an argon laser pumped dye laser system was used to give a CW laser beam at 630 nm which was split and coupled into there optical fibers. The patients were injected intravenously with photosensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight 48 hours before PDT. Then the fibers were inserted into tumor by ultrasound- guided percutaneous puncture. The inserted irradiation points were spaced in entire tumor with the light release power 300mW and the irradiation time 12 minutes per point. Total 52 treatments were performed in 30 patients. Among them, 14 cases were treated only one time and 16 cases via 2-3 times. The follow-up was carried out in 25 cases for 12- 24 months. The results show that significant remission was 22 percent in those patients by only one treatment and 62 percent in those via 2 to 3 treatments. The shrink rate of tumor size was over 90 percent in five of six cases after treatment 3. The survival time has been over one year in 12 cases. No obvious change to be found for all patients in liver function test, renal function test and blood routine examination. The level of AFP indicated a descending trend after PDT. This work indicate that PDT is effective and safe for the treatment of large liver cancers including those recurred follow hepatic resection and those failed in hepatic artery infusion embolic chemotherapy.

  1. Lipid Biomarkers Identified for Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer of the liver with poor prognosis and growing incidence in developed countries. Pathology and genetic profiles of HCC are heterogeneous, suggesting that it can begin growing in different cell types. Although human tumors such as HCC have been profiled in-depth by genomics-based studies, not much is known about their overall metabolite modifications and how these changes can form a network that leads to aggressive disease and poor outcome.

  2. Differential effects of targeting Notch receptors in a mouse model of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Huntzicker, Erik G; Hötzel, Kathy; Choy, Lisa; Che, Li; Ross, Jed; Pau, Gregoire; Sharma, Neeraj; Siebel, Christian W; Chen, Xin; French, Dorothy M

    2015-03-01

    Primary liver cancer encompasses both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The Notch signaling pathway, known to be important for the proper development of liver architecture, is also a potential driver of primary liver cancer. However, with four known Notch receptors and several Notch ligands, it is not clear which Notch pathway members play the predominant role in liver cancer. To address this question, we utilized antibodies to specifically target Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, or jagged1 (Jag1) in a mouse model of primary liver cancer driven by v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog and neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRas). We show that inhibition of Notch2 reduces tumor burden by eliminating highly malignant HCC- and CCA-like tumors. Inhibition of the Notch ligand, Jag1, had a similar effect, consistent with Jag1 acting in cooperation with Notch2. This effect was specific to Notch2, because Notch3 inhibition did not decrease tumor burden. Unexpectedly, Notch1 inhibition altered the relative proportion of tumor types, reducing HCC-like tumors but dramatically increasing CC-like tumors. Finally, we show that Notch2 and Jag1 are expressed in, and Notch2 signaling is activated in, a subset of human HCC samples. These findings underscore the distinct roles of different Notch receptors in the liver and suggest that inhibition of Notch2 signaling represents a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of liver cancer. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  4. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... them if you have had certain types of cancer. Vaginal estrogen. Even if you cannot take hormone therapy, ... Y Jelly or Astroglide. Or, try using a vaginal moisturizer like ... Ask your provider what treatments might work best for you.

  5. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer? For some people with stomach cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Stomach Cancer Stops Working More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  6. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Bone Cancer? For some people with bone cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Bone Cancer Stops Working More In Bone Cancer About Bone Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  8. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p < 0.05 to all). Significant decrease in hepatic artery perfusion was also observed in pericancerous liver tissue, but other parameters kept constant. CT perfusion imaging is able to detect decrease in blood perfusion of liver cancer post-argon-helium knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy.

  9. Frequently mutated genes/pathways and genomic instability as prevention targets in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chinthalapally V; Asch, Adam S; Yamada, Hiroshi Y

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of liver cancer has increased in recent years. Worldwide, liver cancer is common: more than 600000 related deaths are estimated each year. In the USA, about 27170 deaths due to liver cancer are estimated for 2016. Liver cancer is highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For all stages combined, the 5-year survival rate is 15-17%, leaving much to be desired for liver cancer prevention and therapy. Heterogeneity, which can originate from genomic instability, is one reason for poor outcome. About 80-90% of liver cancers are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and recent cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed frequently mutated genes in HCC. In this review, we discuss the cause of the tumor heterogeneity based on the functions of genes that are frequently mutated in HCC. We overview the functions of the genes that are most frequently mutated (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, ARID1A and WWP1) that portray major pathways leading to HCC and identify the roles of these genes in preventing genomic instability. Notably, the pathway analysis suggested that oxidative stress management may be critical to prevent accumulation of DNA damage and further mutations. We propose that both chromosome instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MIN) are integral to the hepatic carcinogenesis process leading to heterogeneity in HCC and that the pathways leading to heterogeneity may be targeted for prognosis, prevention and treatment.

  10. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity includes efforts to identify individual toxicity risks and prevention strategies support the National Cancer Insitute's goal of reducing the burden of cancer diagnoses and treatment outcomes.

  11. Preclinical evaluation of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate on liver cancer and cancer stem cells with different p53 status.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Evelyn; Hertrampf, Anke; Herz, Corinna; Schüler, Julia; Erlacher, Miriam; Bertele, Daniela; Bakare, Adekunle; Wagner, Meike; Weiland, Timo; Lauer, Ulrich; Drognitz, Oliver; Huber, Roman; Rohn, Sascha; Giesemann, Torsten; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Isothiocyanates from plants of the order Brassicales are considered promising cancer chemotherapeutic phytochemicals. However, their selective cytotoxicity on liver cancer has been barely researched. Therefore, in the present study, we systematically studied the chemotherapeutic potency of 4-methylthiobutyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC). Selective toxicity was investigated by comparing its effect on liver cancer cells and their chemoresistant subpopulations to normal primary hepatocytes and liver tissue slices. Additionally, in a first assessment, the in vivo tolerability of MTBITC was investigated in mice. Growth arrest at G2/M and apoptosis induction was evident in all in vitro cancer models treated with MTBITC, including populations with cancer initiating characteristics. This was found independent from TP53; however cell death was delayed in p53 compromised cells as compared to wt-p53 cells which was probably due to differential BH3 only gene regulation i. e. Noxa and its antagonist A1. In normal hepatocytes, no apoptosis or necrosis could be detected after repeated administration of up to 50 µM MTBITC. In mice, orally applied MTBITC was well tolerated over 18 days of treatment for up to 50 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, we could show here that the killing effect of MTBITC has a definite selectivity for cancer cells over normal liver cells and its cytotoxicity even applies for chemoresistant cancer initiating cells. Our study could serve for a better understanding of the chemotherapeutic properties of isothiocyanates on human liver-derived cancer cells.

  12. Radioembolization for primary and metastatic liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Riaz, Ahsun; Mulcahy, Mary F; Salem, Riad

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing. Most patients present beyond potentially curative options and are usually affected by underlying cirrhosis. In this scenario, trans-arterial therapies, such as radioembolization, are rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Radioembolization is a catheter-based liver-directed therapy that involves injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous transarterial techniques. Cancer cells are preferentially supplied by arterial blood and normal hepatocytes by portal venous blood; radioembolization therefore specifically targets tumor cells with a high dose of lethal radiation and spares healthy hepatocytes. The antitumor effect mostly comes from radiation rather than embolization. The most commonly used radioisotope is Yttrium-90. The commercially available devices are TheraSphere® (glass-based) and SIR-Sphere® (resin-based). The procedure is performed on outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is generally less than other locoregional therapies and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, gastrointestinal ulcers and vascular injury. However, these can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection and adequate dosimetry. This article focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of radioembolization with emphasis on patient selection, uses and complications. PMID:21939859

  13. FOXFIRE protocol: an open-label, randomised, phase III trial of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and folinic acid (OxMdG) with or without interventional Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) as first-line treatment for patients with unresectable liver-only or liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Susan J; Kenealy, Nicola; Love, Sharon B; Wasan, Harpreet S; Sharma, Ricky A

    2014-07-09

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common malignancy in Europe and a leading cause of cancer-related death. Almost 50% of patients with CRC develop liver metastases, which heralds a poor prognosis unless metastases can be downsized to surgical resection or ablation. The FOXFIRE trial examines the hypothesis that combining radiosensitising chemotherapy (OxMdG: oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and folic acid) with Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT or radioembolisation) using yttrium-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres®; Sirtex Medical Limited, North Sydney, Australia) as a first-line treatment for liver-dominant metastatic CRC will improve clinical outcomes when compared to OxMdG chemotherapy alone. FOXFIRE is an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial of OxMdG with or without the addition of SIRT (1:1 randomisation). Eligible adult patients have histologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma, liver metastases measurable on computed tomography scan and untreatable by either surgical resection or local ablation, and they may have limited extra-hepatic disease, defined as ≤5 nodules in the lung and/or one other metastatic site which is amenable to future definitive treatment. Eligible patients may have received adjuvant chemotherapy following resection of the primary tumour, but are not permitted to have previously received chemotherapy for metastatic disease, and must have a life expectancy of ≥3 months and a WHO performance status of 0-1. The primary outcome is overall survival. Secondary outcomes include progression free survival (PFS), liver-specific PFS, patient-reported outcomes, safety, response rate, resection rate and cost-effectiveness. FOXFIRE shares a combined statistical analysis plan with an international sister trial called SIRFLOX. This trial is establishing a network of SIRT centres and 'feeder' chemotherapy-only centres to standardise the delivery of SIRT across the whole of the UK and to provide greater equity of

  14. EASL HCC summit: liver cancer management.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Rodolfo; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Galati, Giovanni; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mazza, GianCarlo; Cabibbo, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    EASL HCC Summit, Geneva, Switzerland, 13-16 February 2014. The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) organized the 2014 EASL HCC Summit in Geneva, Switzerland. We discuss here the most interesting and provocative contents from the clinical program of the summit. The objective of this segment was to provide an in-depth review on the different management issues related to early detection, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, and, in addition, to highlight the ways of dealing with such an important and rapidly involving field.

  15. International trends in liver cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1978-2007.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Braunlin, Megan; Laversanne, Mathieu; Valery, Patricia C; Bray, Freddie; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2016-10-01

    Primary liver cancer, the most common histologic types of which are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While rising incidence of liver cancer in low-risk areas and decreasing incidence in some high-risk areas has been reported, trends have not been thoroughly explored by country or by histologic type. We examined liver cancer incidence overall and by histology by calendar time and birth cohort for selected countries between 1978 and 2007. For each successive 5-year period, age-standardized incidence rates were calculated from volumes V-IX of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume X) database. Wide global variations persist in liver cancer incidence. Rates of liver cancer remain highest in Asian countries, specifically Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries. While rates in most of these high-risk countries have been decreasing in recent years, rates in India and several low-risk countries of Africa, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania have been on the rise. Liver cancer rates by histologic type tend to convey a similar temporal profile. However, in Thailand, France, and Italy, ICC rates have increased while HCC rates have declined. We expect rates in high-risk countries to continue to decrease, as the population seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues to decline. In low-risk countries, targeted screening and treatment of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment of diabetes and primary prevention of obesity, will be key in reducing future liver cancer incidence. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Pilot clinical trial of 5-[{sup 125}I] iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine in the treatment of colorectal cancer metastic to the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Macapinlac, H.A.; Kemeny, N.; Daghighian, F.

    1996-04-01

    The thymidine analog, 5-iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine (IUdR), is incorporated in the DNA of cell sin the S phase. When incorporated in the DNA, short-range Auger electrons emitted by {sup 125}I-labeled IUdR can cause double-strand breaks, delivering a lethal radiation dose to the cell. We conducted therapeutic trial to evaluate [{sup 125}I/{sup 131}I]IUdR pharmacokinetics in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Dosimetry, safety, and therapeutic potential were assessed. Four patients were each infused with 5 mCi [{sup 125}I]IUdR and 10 mCi [{sup 131}I]IUdR through the sideport of a hepatic artery pump. Iodine-131 images were quantitated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. The radioactivity in the DNA of biopsy samples of tumor, normal liver and bone marrow, obtained 24 or 48 hr after injection, was counted. All patients had [{sup 125}I]IUdR and [{sup 131}I]IUdR uptake in tumor, with a biexponential clearance. Repeat injections in individual patients showed little variation in tumor uptake, especially in the slow clearance component. On planar images, no long-term retention was seen in bone marrow or other activity dividing normal tissues. Radioactivity in the DNA of one marrow sample taken at 24 hr was above background, but in another taken at 48 hr it was equal to background levels. No side effects were noted, no hematologic toxicity was observed in any patients and no tumor responses were seen. There is persisten uptake of [{sup 125}I]IUdR in hepatic tumors, thereby making hepatic artery infusion a suitable mode of delivery for therapy. Repeat injections will be needed because only 15%-50% of tumor cells are in the S phase. Based on results from this pilot study, a therapeutic regimen is being planned. 43 refs. 2 figs.

  17. Multivariate analysis of a personal series of 247 consecutive patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. I. Treatment by hepatic resection.

    PubMed

    Fortner, J G; Silva, J S; Golbey, R B; Cox, E B; Maclean, B J

    1984-03-01

    In the United States, there are an estimated 5000 to 6000 new patients annually who might be candidates for major hepatic resection to treat their recurrent colon cancer. Since 1971, the program reported here has evaluated various factors that might influence the curative potential of such an approach. Sixty-five patients had a major hepatic resection from March 1971 through May 1982. Using a stepwise proportional hazard analysis, all data that had been stored in CLINFO (a data analysis system by Bolt, Beranek and Newman; Boston, MA) were evaluated for the effect of multiple variables on the survival of patients with resected hepatic metastases. Twenty-seven had a right hepatic lobectomy; 14 had extended right hepatectomy with one having the caudate lobe also removed; ten had left lobectomy, nine had left lateral segmentectomy; and five had a major hepatic resection with three-dimensional wedge excision of a metastatic deposit in the contralateral lobe. The 30-day operative mortality rate was 7% (4/58) for patients undergoing the standard major hepatic resection. It was 14% for seven patients in whom the isolation-hypothermic perfusion technique was used early in the series. In ten patients, wedge excision only was required to remove the tumor. Stage I disease is defined as tumor confined to the resected portion of the liver without invasion of major intrahepatic vessels or bile ducts. Stage II disease is regional spread and Stage III disease is metastasis to lymph nodes or extraregional sites. The 3-year survival estimate was 66% for the 37 patients with Stage I disease. The 3-year survival estimate for 13 patients with Stage II disease was 58%. Five of the nine patients with Stage III disease are presently alive from 3 to 23 months; one of the other four died at 35 months of disease. The stage of liver disease was the most significant variable in this survival analysis (p = 0.02); Dukes' classification of colorectal primary was significant at p less than 0

  18. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G; Hsu, Brian E; Tam, Christine E; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M

    2015-04-20

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.

  19. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G.; Hsu, Brian E.; Tam, Christine E.; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors. PMID:25823815

  20. Usefulness of examination of some tumor markers in diagnostics of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Snarska, Jadwiga; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Puchalski, Zbigniew; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chabielska, Ewa; Kaminski, Fabian; Zwierz, Piotr; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostics of liver cancer is mainly based on imaging methods: which are ultrasound and computer tomography. Determination of tumor markers is an accessory investigation enabling us to detect cancer, to evaluate the effectiveness of its operative and postoperative treatment and to diagnose early cancer relapse or distant metastases. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a basic well-known marker in diagnostics of liver cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer procoagulant (CP) are also important in case of metastases to this organ, especially from the colon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of AFP, CEA and CP in detection of liver cancer. The material of the study was the blood serum from 25 patients with liver cancer diagnosed histopathologically and 12 healthy individuals as a control group. The concentrations of AFP and CEP were assessed by immunoenzymatic method (MEIA) in the Axsym analyzer of Abbott and expressed in ng/mL. CP activity was determined by coagulation method worked out by Gordon and Benson and expressed as coagulation time in seconds (s). Based on the results obtained in our study, the concentrations of AFP and CEP were several fold higher in the serum of patients with liver cancer than the relevant values of these markers. CP activity was higher in the serum of patients with liver cancer than the mean values of patients in the control group. The differences found in the study between the groups examined and the control group were statistically significant atp<0.001. The results confirmed a high diagnostic value of AFP and CEA testing and suggest the possibility of using CP activity to detect liver cancer.

  1. Glypican-3 antibodies: a new therapeutic target for liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mingqian Feng, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an emerging therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even though the biological function of GPC3 remains elusive. Currently human (MDX-1414 and HN3) and humanized mouse (GC33 and YP7) antibodies that target GPC3 for HCC treatment are under different stages of preclinical or clinical development. Humanized mouse antibody GC33 is being evaluated in a phase II clinical trial. Human antibodies MDX-1414 and HN3 are under different stages of preclinical evaluation. Here, we summarize current evidence for GPC3 as a new target in liver cancer, discuss both its oncogenic function and its mode of actions for current antibodies, and evaluate potential challenges for GPC3-targeted anti-cancer therapies. PMID:24140348

  2. Feature statistic analysis of ultrasound images of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuqin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a specific feature analysis of liver ultrasound images including normal liver, liver cancer especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other hepatopathy is discussed. According to the classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primary carcinoma is divided into four types. 15 features from single gray-level statistic, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM) are extracted. Experiments for the discrimination of each type of HCC, normal liver, fatty liver, angioma and hepatic abscess have been conducted. Corresponding features to potentially discriminate them are found.

  3. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Delgado, Teresa C.; García-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Fernández-Ramos, David; Buqué, Xabier; Cano, Ainara; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Fernández-Domínguez, Itziar; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Boix, Loreto; Bruix, Jordi; Villa, Erica; Castro, Azucena; Lu, Shelly C.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mato, José M.; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María L.

    2015-01-01

    The current view of cancer progression highlights that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational regulation and metabolic reprogramming to progress in an unfriendly environment. In here, the importance of neddylation modification in liver cancer was investigated. We found that hepatic neddylation was specifically enriched in liver cancer patients with bad prognosis. In addition, the treatment with the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 in Phb1-KO mice, an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma showing elevated neddylation, reverted the malignant phenotype. Tumor cell death in vivo translating into liver tumor regression was associated with augmented phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the PEMT pathway, known as a liver-specific tumor suppressor, and restored mitochondrial function and TCA cycle flux. Otherwise, in protumoral hepatocytes, neddylation inhibition resulted in metabolic reprogramming rendering a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and concomitant tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, Akt and LKB1, hallmarks of proliferative metabolism, were altered in liver cancer being new targets of neddylation. Importantly, we show that neddylation-induced metabolic reprogramming and apoptosis were dependent on LKB1 and Akt stabilization. Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25650664

  4. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Delgado, Teresa C; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Fernández-Ramos, David; Buqué, Xabier; Cano, Ainara; Gutiérrez-de Juan, Virginia; Fernández-Domínguez, Itziar; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Boix, Loreto; Bruix, Jordi; Villa, Erica; Castro, Azucena; Lu, Shelly C; Aspichueta, Patricia; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mato, José M; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María L

    2015-02-10

    The current view of cancer progression highlights that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational regulation and metabolic reprogramming to progress in an unfriendly environment. In here, the importance of neddylation modification in liver cancer was investigated. We found that hepatic neddylation was specifically enriched in liver cancer patients with bad prognosis. In addition, the treatment with the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 in Phb1-KO mice, an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma showing elevated neddylation, reverted the malignant phenotype. Tumor cell death in vivo translating into liver tumor regression was associated with augmented phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the PEMT pathway, known as a liver-specific tumor suppressor, and restored mitochondrial function and TCA cycle flux. Otherwise, in protumoral hepatocytes, neddylation inhibition resulted in metabolic reprogramming rendering a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and concomitant tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, Akt and LKB1, hallmarks of proliferative metabolism, were altered in liver cancer being new targets of neddylation. Importantly, we show that neddylation-induced metabolic reprogramming and apoptosis were dependent on LKB1 and Akt stabilization. Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Selective CD4+ T Cell Loss Promotes Liver Cancer Development | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, commonly develops in patients with underlying chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis B or C virus infection or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  6. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  7. Novel roles of DC-SIGNR in colon cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Na, Heya; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xinsheng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhaohui; Yuan, Menglang; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Shuangyi; Zuo, Yunfei

    2017-01-21

    Tumor metastasis is an essential cause of the poor prognosis of colon cancer. DC-SIGNR is a C-type lectin that is frequently found on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. LSECtin, which is a homologue of DC-SIGNR, has been demonstrated to participate in colon cancer liver metastasis. Due to the similarities in the expression pattern and structure of the two proteins, we speculated that DC-SIGNR could also be involved in this process. Colon cancer cells were treated with the DC-SIGNR protein or control IgG, after which cell migration, invasion, and morphology were assayed. Xenograft mouse models were used to determine the role of DC-SIGNR in colon cancer liver metastasis in vivo. In addition, a human gene expression array was used to detect differential gene expression in colon cancer cells stimulated with the DC-SIGNR protein. The serum level of DC-SIGNR was examined in colon cancer patients by ELISA, and the significance of DC-SIGNR was determined. In our research, we investigated whether DC-SIGNR promotes colon cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Knocking down mouse DC-SIGNR decreased the liver metastatic potency of colon cancer cells and increased survival time. Expressing human DC-SIGNR enhanced colon cancer liver metastasis. Furthermore, DC-SIGNR conferred metastatic capability on cancer cells by upregulating various metallothionein isoforms. To validate the above results, we also found that the serum DC-SIGNR level was statistically higher in colon cancer patients with liver metastasis compared with those without metastasis. These results imply that DC-SIGNR may promote colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis and could serve as a promising therapeutic target for anticancer treatment.

  8. Targets for immunotherapy of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Greten, Tim F; Sangro, Bruno

    2017-09-15

    Drug development in HCC has been characterized in the past by many failures. Despite good rationales and promising phase II data, many phase III trials failed. Immunotherapy represents an alternate treatment approach and has been successful in many different types of cancer. Being an inflammation induced cancer HCC represents a very interesting target for immune based approaches and indeed early results from clinical trials testing immune checkpoint inhibitors are not only promising but have already led to evaluation of such in a phase III setting. Here we summarize our current knowledge on the rationale, mechanism of action and clinical data for immune checkpoint blockade in HCC. In addition, we provide an overview about other novel immune based approaches currently under development for the treatment of HCC such as adoptive cell based and antibody-based approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Otto K-W; Cheng, Alfred S-L

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  10. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Otto K.-W.; Cheng, Alfred S.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management. PMID:27703473

  11. Silencing of WWP2 inhibits adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong; Xu, Sheng-Qian; Pan, De-Biao; Ye, Guan-Xiong; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Shi; Wang, Chao-Jun; Jiang, Jin-Yan; Fu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The role and clinical implication of the WWP2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in liver cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the expression level of WWP2 and its functions in cell adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer. We used real-time PCR to detect the expression of WWP2 in liver cancer and adjacent samples from the People's Hospital of Lishui and also analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq data by bioinformatics. Migration and invasion were detected by transwell analysis. We detected a strong WWP2 expression in tumor tissues of the People's Hospital of Lishui, and the survival rate was significantly higher in patients with lower WWP2-expressing tumors. WWP2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus stably infected cells (shWWP2), Huh7, showed slower growth speed compared with scramble control-infected cells in a xenograft mouse model. Knockdown of WWP2 Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells demonstrated a reduction in adhesion, invasion, and migration. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that WWP2 is positively correlated to cancer-related pathways including the chemokine signaling pathway. WWP2 also regulated MMP-9, caspase-9, CXCR3, and CCR5 expression in liver cancer cells. In addition, knockdown of CXCR3 and CCR5 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration in Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells. Our data suggest that targeting of WWP2 may be a therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment.

  12. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  13. Diagnosis of liver cancer based on the analysis of pathological liver color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammouda, Mohamed; Sammouda, Rachid; Niki, Noboru; Mukai, Kiyoshi

    2000-06-01

    Liver cancer is one of the leading cancerous diseases that can disappoint a physician before reaching the final diagnosis. Thus far, all cancer diagnoses should and usually do have tissue diagnose. A physician gets a little piece of tissue from the abnormal area and a pathologist determines if it is cancer or not. Therefore, the biopsy is the definitive test for liver cancer. In this paper, we present an unsupervised approach using Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) to segment color images of liver tissues prepared by standard staining method. The segmentation problem is formulated as the minimization of an energy function synonymous to that of HNN for optimization. We modify the HNN to reach a status close to the global minimum in a prespecified time of convergence. Furthermore, the nuclei and their corresponding cytoplasm regions are automatically extracted based on the features of color image histogram. The nuclei and cytoplasm regions are then used to formulate the diagnostic rules. In the analysis, we show a tables of the ratio of (nuclei/cytoplasm) image areas inside different subwindow sizes of the image. Each liver color image is represented in the RGB, HSV and HLS color spaces to investigate the effect of color system choice on the results. The automation of the extraction process in the liver pathological image can be easily implemented in the clinic in order to provide more accurate quantitative information that can help for a better liver cancer diagnosis.

  14. Oncogenic role of the Notch pathway in primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, JIE; XIA, YUJING; CHEN, KAN; ZHENG, YUANYUAN; WANG, JIANRONG; LU, WENXIA; YIN, QIN; WANG, FAN; ZHOU, YINGQUN; GUO, CHUANYONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer, which includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and fibrolamellar HCC, is one of the most common malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, worldwide. Despite the development of novel therapies, the prognosis of liver cancer patients remains extremely poor. Thus, investigation of the genetic background and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this disease has gained significant attention. The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial determinant of cell fate during development and disease in several organs. In the liver, Notch signaling is involved in biliary tree development and tubulogenesis, and is also significant in the development of HCC and ICC. These findings suggest that the modulation of Notch pathway activity may have therapeutic relevance. The present review summarizes Notch signaling during HCC and ICC development and discusses the findings of recent studies regarding Notch expression, which reveal novel insights into its function in liver cancer progression. PMID:27347091

  15. Curing patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third commonest malignancy worldwide and the second commonest cause of cancer-related deaths.1,2 Around 15-25% of patients with colorectal cancer have metastases at presentation, and a further 20-25% develop them subsequently.3 Management for metastatic disease is mainly palliative and traditionally 5-year survival has been rare.3-5 In colorectal cancer, metastases mostly occur in the liver and in 30-50% of patients with liver involvement, this is the only site of spread. For those with liver-only metastases, resection of these lesions provides a chance of longer-term survival or even cure (e.g. 5-year survival 25-71%).4,6-13 Here we focus on recent advances in chemotherapy for patients with initially unresectable liver metastases, aimed at rendering such lesions operable, with potential improvements in survival.4,13,14.

  16. Changes in the renin angiotensin system during the development of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blockade of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) via angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition reduces growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases in a mouse model. In this work we defined the expression of the various components of the RAS in both tumor and liver during the progression of this disease. Methods Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine RAS expression in a mouse CRC liver metastases model. CRC metastases and liver tissue was assessed separately at key stages of CRC liver metastases development in untreated (control) mice and in mice treated with the ACE inhibitor captopril (750 mg/kg/day). Non-tumor induced (sham) mice indicated the effect of tumors on normal liver RAS. The statistical significance of multiple comparisons was determined using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni adjustment with SAS/STAT software. Results Reduced volume of CRC liver metastases with captopril treatment was evident. Local RAS of CRC metastases differed from the surrounding liver, with lower angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression but increased ANG-(1-7) receptor (MasR) compared to the liver. The AT1R localised to cancer and stromal infiltrating cells, while other RAS receptors were detected in cancer cells only. Tumor induction led to an initial increase in AT1R and ACE expression while captopril treatment significantly increased ACE expression in the final stages of tumor growth. Conversely, captopril treatment decreased expression of AT1R and angiotensinogen. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant changes in RAS expression in the tumor-bearing captopril treated liver and in CRC metastases. The data suggests the existence of a tumor-specific RAS that can be independently targeted by RAS blockade. PMID:20380732

  17. Effective Dose from Stray Radiation for a Patient Receiving Proton Therapy for Liver Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Krishnan, Sunil; Mirkovic, Dragan; Yepes, Pablo; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2009-03-01

    Because of its advantageous depth-dose relationship, proton radiotherapy is an emerging treatment modality for patients with liver cancer. Although the proton dose distribution conforms to the target, healthy tissues throughout the body receive low doses of stray radiation, particularly neutrons that originate in the treatment unit or in the patient. The aim of this study was to calculate the effective dose from stray radiation and estimate the corresponding risk of second cancer fatality for a patient receiving proton beam therapy for liver cancer. Effective dose from stray radiation was calculated using detailed Monte Carlo simulations of a double-scattering proton therapy treatment unit and a voxelized human phantom. The treatment plan and phantom were based on CT images of an actual adult patient diagnosed with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. For a prescribed dose of 60 Gy to the clinical target volume, the effective dose from stray radiation was 370 mSv; 61% of this dose was from neutrons originating outside of the patient while the remaining 39% was from neutrons originating within the patient. The excess lifetime risk of fatal second cancer corresponding to the total effective dose from stray radiation was 1.2%. The results of this study establish a baseline estimate of the stray radiation dose and corresponding risk for an adult patient undergoing proton radiotherapy for liver cancer and provide new evidence to corroborate the suitability of proton beam therapy for the treatment of liver tumors.

  18. Evaluation of tumour markers as differential diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of liver metastases from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liska, Vaclav; Holubec, Lubos; Treska, Vladislav; Vrzalova, Jindra; Skalicky, Tomas; Sutnar, Alan; Kormunda, Stanislav; Bruha, Jan; Vycital, Ondrej; Finek, Jindrich; Pesta, Martin; Pecen, Ladislav; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2011-04-01

    The liver is the site of breast cancer metastasis in 50% of patients with advanced disease. Tumour markers have been demonstrated as being useful in follow-up of patients with breast cancer, in early detection of recurrence of breast cancer after radical surgical treatments, and in assessing oncologic therapy effect, but no study has been carried out on their usefullness in distinguishing benign liver lesions from breast cancer metastases. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the importance of tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen CA19-9 (CA19-9), thymidine kinase (TK), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) in differential diagnosis between benign liver lesions and liver metastases of breast cancer. The study includes 3 groups: 22 patients with liver metastases of breast cancer; 39 patients with benign liver lesions (hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, liver cyst, hepatocellular adenoma); and 21 patients without any liver disease or lesion that were operated on for benign extrahepatic diseases (groin hernia, varices of lower limbs) as a control group. The serum levels of tumour markers were assessed by means of immunoanalytical methods. Preoperative serum levels of CYFRA 21-1, TPA, TPS and CEA were significantly higher in patients with liver metastases of breast cancer in contrast to healthy controls and patients with benign liver lesions (p-value<0.05). Serum levels of CA19-9 and TK were higher in patients with malignancy in comparison with benign liver disease and healthy controls but these differences were not statistically significant. Tumour markers CEA, CYFRA 21-1, TPA and TPS can be recommended as a good tool for differential diagnosis between liver metastases of breast cancer and benign liver lesions.

  19. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  20. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  1. Birth control pills, cigarettes, alcohol linked to liver cancer.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    Data on 74 pathologically confirmed cases of liver cancer among blacks and whites living in Los Angeles County, California were compared with 162 matched controls. The study was limited to only people with no hepatitis infection and to non-Asians. The risk of liver cancer for women who have used OCs for 5 years was 5.5 times higher than that for women who had never used OCs. This risk was 3 times higher for women who had ever used OCs. The data for women who were in their reproductive years when OCs 1st entered the market in the 1960s showed that the risk for 5 years of OC use increased to almost 30 times that of women who had never used OCs. Even though estrogens were presumed to be the risk factor since they induce liver cancer in animals, no significant association was found between estrogens used in estrogen replacement therapy and liver cancer. Overall, diabetics were at 3.3 times the risk for liver cancer compared with nondiabetics. People who had diabetes for at least 10 years had 4.3 times the risk and those dependent on insulin injections had 18.5 times the risk. Cigarette smokers had a 2.1 times greater risk of liver cancer than nonsmokers. Most of the women did not drink heavily which showed the independent effect of cigarette smoking. As of December 1991, these data represented the best data on OCs and cigarette smoking to date. The risk for heavy drinkers of alcohol (80g of alcohol/day=9 cans of beer, 9 glasses of wine, or 9 shots of spirits) was 4.7 times the risk of nondrinkers or light drinkers. It is concluded that alcohol and/or cigarettes caused 56% of liver cancer cases in men and that cigarettes and/or OCs caused 54% of liver cancer cases in women.

  2. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Schenberg, Eduardo E

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca's pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca's known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca's possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer.

  3. Real-time confocal laser endomicroscopic evaluation of primary liver cancer based on human liver autofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Arita, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Harihara, Yasushi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-02-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is available for real-time microscopic examination. This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative CLE examination as a modality to evaluate surgical margins in surgery for primary liver cancer. A probe-based CLE system (Cellvizio 100, Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France) was used. The subjects comprised seven specimens obtained from six patients with primary liver cancer in November 2015. The probe was manually attached to the surfaces of specimens, and images were collected without external fluorophores. CLE images were compared with hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. Fluorescence intensity (FI) values of the CLE images were assessed using luminance-analyzing software. CLE examination visualized non-cancerous regions in the background liver as regular structures with high fluorescence because of human liver autofluorescence. Conversely, hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were depicted as irregular structures with low fluorescence. The median FI values of the non-cancerous regions and the cancerous regions were 104 (79.8-156) and 74.9 (60.6-106), respectively, and were significantly different (P = 0.031). The probe-based CLE enables real-time differentiation of cancerous regions from non-cancerous tissues in surgical specimens because of human liver autofluorescence. CLE can be used to confirm negative surgical margins in the operating room. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:151-157. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Liver resection for cancer: New developments in prediction, prevention and management of postresectional liver failure.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Kim M C; Schaap, Frank G; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatic failure is a feared complication that accounts for up to 75% of mortality after extensive liver resection. Despite improved perioperative care, the increasing complexity and extensiveness of surgical interventions, in combination with an expanding number of resections in patients with compromised liver function, still results in an incidence of postresectional liver failure (PLF) of 1-9%. Preventive measures aim to enhance future remnant liver size and function. Numerous non-invasive techniques to assess liver function and predict remnant liver volume are being developed, along with introduction of novel surgical strategies that augment growth of the future remnant liver. Detection of PLF is often too late and treatment is primarily symptomatic. Current therapeutic research focuses on ([bio]artificial) liver function support and regenerative medicine. In this review we discuss the current state and new developments in prediction, prevention and management of PLF, in light of novel insights into the aetiology of this complex syndrome.

  5. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  6. Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

  7. Chemotherapy-associated liver injury: impact on surgical management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kneuertz, Peter J; Maithel, Shishir K; Staley, Charles A; Kooby, David A

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy is integral to the management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer liver metastases. Due to their improved efficacy, modern regimens can sometimes convert unresectable disease to a resectable state. As chemotherapy is often administered prior to hepatic resection, adverse effects on the liver are increasingly being recognized. Investigators have identified a wide spectrum of effects on the underlying liver parenchyma, ranging from mild forms of steatosis to severe steatohepatitis and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. As the histopathologic definitions of these changes evolve, studies have identified specific patterns of hepatic injury related to the various chemotherapeutic agents. The impact of these changes on perioperative outcome after partial hepatectomy remains controversial. Timing and duration of chemotherapy may play a key role and account for discrepancies in outcomes seen among studies. In this review, we provide an overview of the spectrum of chemotherapy-associated liver injury and discuss its relevance to perioperative management of patients undergoing hepatic resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

  8. Whole-liver CT texture analysis in colorectal cancer: Does the presence of liver metastases affect the texture of the remaining liver?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Lambregts, Doenja MJ; Schnerr, Roald S; van Ommen, Wenzel; van Nijnatten, Thiemo JA; Martens, Milou H; Heijnen, Luc A; Backes, Walter H; Verhoef, Cornelis; Zeng, Meng-Su; Beets, Geerard L

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver metastases limit survival in colorectal cancer. Earlier detection of (occult) metastatic disease may benefit treatment and survival. Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential of whole-liver CT texture analysis of apparently disease-free liver parenchyma for discriminating between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with and without hepatic metastases. Methods The primary staging CT examinations of 29 CRC patients were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without liver metastases (n = 15), with synchronous liver metastases (n = 10) and metachronous liver metastases within 18 months following primary staging (n = 4). Whole-liver texture analysis was performed by delineation of the apparently non-diseased liver parenchyma (excluding metastases or other focal liver lesions) on portal phase images. Mean grey-level intensity (M), entropy (E) and uniformity (U) were derived with no filtration and different filter widths (0.5 = fine, 1.5 = medium, 2.5 = coarse). Results Mean E1.5 and E2.5 for the whole liver in patients with synchronous metastases were significantly higher compared with the non-metastatic patients (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01). Mean U1.5 and U2.5 were significantly lower in the synchronous metastases group compared with the non-metastatic group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Texture parameters for the metachronous metastases group were not significantly different from the non-metastatic group or synchronous metastases group (p > 0.05), although – similar to the synchronous metastases group – there was a subtle trend towards increased E1.5, E2.5 and decreased U1.5, U2.5 values. Areas under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of synchronous metastatic disease based on the texture parameters E1.5,2.5 and U1.5,2.5 ranged between 0.73 and 0.78. Conclusion Texture analysis of the apparently non-diseased liver holds promise to differentiate between CRC

  9. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... throwing up blood or your vomit looks like coffee grounds Long or heavy periods (women) Headaches that do not go away or are very bad Blurry or double vision Abdominal pains Alternative Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow ...

  10. Liver and Other Gastrointestinal Cancers Are Frequent in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Garza, Ariana L; Vatcheva, Kristina P; Pan, Jen-Jung; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Fallon, Michael B; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2016-03-01

    Disease patterns in Mexican American health-disparity populations differ from larger US populations. This study is aimed to determine frequency of gastrointestinal cancers in Mexican Americans. We analyzed self-reported data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort where we find high rates of risk factors for cancer: obesity (48.5 %) and diabetes (30.7 %). Participants provided cancer histories about themselves and first- and second-degree relatives. Logistic regression models assessed risk factors. Frequencies of cancer sites were ranked and validated using concurrent age local cancer registry data. Among 9,249 individuals (participants and their relatives), there were 1,184 individuals with reports of cancer. Among cohort participants under 70 years of age, the most significant risk factor for all-cause cancers was diabetes (OR 3.57, 95 % CI 1.32, 9.62). Participants with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to report cancer in relatives [1.73 (95 % CI 1.26, 2.37]. Among cancers in fathers, liver cancer was ranked third, stomach fourth, colorectal sixth, and pancreas tenth. In mothers, stomach was third, liver fourth, colorectal seventh, and pancreas eleventh. The unusual prominence of these cancers in Mexican Americans, including liver cancer, was supported by age-adjusted incidence in local registry data. Gastrointestinal system cancers, particularly, liver cancer, in a Mexican American health disparity cohort and their relatives rank higher than in other ethnicities and are associated with high rates of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Effective prevention of diabetes and low-tech, high-quality screening strategies for gastrointestinal cancers are needed in health disparity communities.

  11. Aggressive surgical resection for concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Choi, Gi Hong; Choi, Jin Sub

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases. PMID:27621747

  12. Nutritional assessment and treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Soto-Solís, Rodrigo; Hernández-Cortés, Juan; Torre, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis, is increasing worldwide. The nutritional state assessment in these patients is complicated, and besides anthropometry is based on several other tools in order to be more accurate. Specific dietary recommendations are needed in patients with chronic liver diseases in order to help prevent and treat liver decompensation because malnutrition is an independent predictor of mortality. This review focuses on essential aspects in the nutritional assessment of cirrhotic patients and some general recommendations for their treatment.

  13. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  14. A Comprehensive Method for Predicting Fatal Liver Failure of Patients With Liver Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangfa; Lei, Biao; Nie, Xingju; Lin, Linku; Tahir, Syed Abdul; Shi, Wuxiang; Jin, Junfei; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are many methods to assess liver function, but none of them has been verified as fully effective. The purpose of this study is to establish a comprehensive method evaluating perioperative liver reserve function (LRF) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC). In this study, 310 PLC patients who underwent liver resection were included. The cohort was divided into a training set (n = 235) and a validation set (n = 75). The factors affecting postoperative liver dysfunction (POLD) during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The equation for calculating the preoperative liver functional evaluation index (PLFEI) was established; the cutoff value of PLFEI determined through analysis by receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to predict postoperative liver function. The data showed that body mass index, international normalized ratio, indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes (ICGR15), ICG elimination rate, standard remnant liver volume (SRLV), operative bleeding volume (OBV), blood transfusion volume, and operative time were statistically different (all P < 0.05) between 2 groups of patients with and without POLD. The relationship among PLFEI, ICGR15, OBV, and SRLV is expressed as an equation of “PLFEI = 0.181 × ICGR15 + 0.001 × OBV − 0.008 × SRLV.” The cutoff value of PLFEI to predict POLD was −2.16 whose sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 73.5%, respectively. However, when predicting fatal liver failure (FLF), the cutoff value of PLFEI was switched to −1.97 whose sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 68.8%, respectively. PLFEI will be a more comprehensive, sensitive, and accurate index assessing perioperative LRF in liver cancer patients who receive liver resection. And keeping PLFEI <−1.97 is a safety margin for preventing FLF in PLC patients who underwent liver resection. PMID:25929924

  15. A comprehensive method for predicting fatal liver failure of patients with liver cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangfa; Lei, Biao; Nie, Xingju; Lin, Linku; Tahir, Syed Abdul; Shi, Wuxiang; Jin, Junfei; He, Songqing

    2015-05-01

    There are many methods to assess liver function, but none of them has been verified as fully effective. The purpose of this study is to establish a comprehensive method evaluating perioperative liver reserve function (LRF) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC).In this study, 310 PLC patients who underwent liver resection were included. The cohort was divided into a training set (n = 235) and a validation set (n = 75). The factors affecting postoperative liver dysfunction (POLD) during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The equation for calculating the preoperative liver functional evaluation index (PLFEI) was established; the cutoff value of PLFEI determined through analysis by receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to predict postoperative liver function.The data showed that body mass index, international normalized ratio, indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes (ICGR15), ICG elimination rate, standard remnant liver volume (SRLV), operative bleeding volume (OBV), blood transfusion volume, and operative time were statistically different (all P < 0.05) between 2 groups of patients with and without POLD. The relationship among PLFEI, ICGR15, OBV, and SRLV is expressed as an equation of "PLFEI = 0.181 × ICGR15 + 0.001 × OBV - 0.008 × SRLV." The cutoff value of PLFEI to predict POLD was -2.16 whose sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 73.5%, respectively. However, when predicting fatal liver failure (FLF), the cutoff value of PLFEI was switched to -1.97 whose sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 68.8%, respectively.PLFEI will be a more comprehensive, sensitive, and accurate index assessing perioperative LRF in liver cancer patients who receive liver resection. And keeping PLFEI <-1.97 is a safety margin for preventing FLF in PLC patients who underwent liver resection.

  16. Chemotherapy or liver transplantation for nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Dueland, Svein; Guren, Tormod K; Hagness, Morten; Glimelius, Bengt; Line, Pål-Dag; Pfeiffer, Per; Foss, Aksel; Tveit, Kjell M

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with nonresectable liver-only metastases treated by liver transplantation or chemotherapy. CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide. About 50% of patients will develop metastatic disease primarily to the liver and the lung. The majority of patients with liver metastases receive palliative chemotherapy, with a median OS of trial patients of about 2 years, and less than 10% are alive at 5 years. Patients with nonresectable liver-only CRC metastases underwent liver transplantation in the SECA study (n = 21). Disease-free survival (DFS) and OS of patients included in the SECA study were compared with progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a similar cohort of CRC patients with liver-only disease included in a first-line chemotherapy study, the NORDIC VII study (n = 47). PFS/DFS and OS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. DFS/PFS in both groups were 8 to 10 months. However, a dramatic difference in OS was observed. The 5-year OS rate was 56% in patients undergoing liver transplantation compared with 9% in patients starting first-line chemotherapy. The reason for the large difference in OS despite similar DFS/PFS is likely different metastatic patterns at relapse/progression. Relapse in the liver transplantation group was often detected as small, slowly growing lung metastases, whereas progression of nonresectable liver metastases was observed in the chemotherapy group. Compared with chemotherapy, liver transplantation resulted in a marked increased OS in CRC patients with nonresectable liver-only metastases.

  17. Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Bile duct cancer (also called cholangiocarcinoma) can occur in the bile ducts in the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (perihilar or distal extrahepatic). Learn about the types of bile duct cancer, risk factors, clinical features, staging, and treatment for bile duct cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality in Mayak workers

    PubMed Central

    Sokolnikov, Mikhail E.; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Preston, Dale L.; Ron, Elaine; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Khokhryakov, Victor V.; Vasilenko, Evgeny K.; Koshurnikova, Nina A.

    2014-01-01

    Workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in the Russian Federation offer the only adequate human data for evaluating cancer risks from exposure to plutonium. Risks of mortality from cancers of the lung, liver and bone, the organs receiving the largest doses from plutonium, were evaluated in a cohort of 17,740 workers initially hired 1948–1972 using, for the first time, recently improved individual organ dose estimates. Excess relative risk (ERR) models were used to evaluate risks as functions of internal (plutonium) dose, external (primarily gamma) dose, gender, attained age and smoking. By December 31, 2003, 681 lung cancer deaths, 75 liver cancer deaths and 30 bone cancer deaths had occurred. Of these 786 deaths, 239 (30%) were attributed to plutonium exposure. Significant plutonium dose-response relationships (p < 0.001) were observed for all 3 endpoints, with lung and liver cancer risks reasonably described by linear functions. At attained age 60, the ERRs per Gy for lung cancer were 7.1 for males and 15 for females; the averaged-attained age ERRs for liver cancer were 2.6 and 29 for males and females, respectively; those for bone cancer were 0.76 and 3.4. This study is the first to present and compare dose-response analyses for cancers of all 3 organs. The unique Mayak cohort with its high exposures and well characterized doses has allowed quantification of the plutonium dose-response for lung, liver and bone cancer risks based on direct human data. These results will play an important role in plutonium risk assessment. PMID:18528867

  19. [Examination of percutaneous microwave coagulation and radiofrequency ablation therapy for metastatic liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Shinichi; Hirokawa, Satoru; Masaki, Takahiro; Miyakawa, Kaoru; Tarao, Kazuo; Akaike, Makoto; Sugimasa, Yukio; Takemiya, Shoji; Sairenji, Motonori; Motohashi, Hisahiko

    2002-11-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) and radio frequency ablation therapy (RFA) as treatments for metastatic liver cancer were examined. PMCT or RFA was administered for 18 metastatic liver cancer lesions (primary lesion: 11 colon rectal cancer, one esophagus cancer, one thyroid cancer, one pancreatic cancer, one pheochromocytoma) in 16 patients from July 1999 to March 2002. RFA was performed 1 time for 12 minutes in principle, using a Cool-tip RF system from Radionics. Patients had a mean age of 58.8 years and the mean diameter of the neoplasms was about 22 mm. Critical complications were not seen. The rate of partial recurrence was 35.3% as of March, 2002, in an average observation period of 7.3 months. On the other hand, with the medical treatment for the hepatocellular carcinoma provided during this period, the rate of partial recurrence was 14.8%. The treatment of metastatic liver cancer by PMCT and RFA is associated with a high rate of a recurrence as compared with hepatocellular carcinoma, and needs to be examined to discover ways of adaptation and improvement of the technology.

  20. PDGFRα in Liver Pathophysiology: Emerging Roles in Development, Regeneration, Fibrosis, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Alexander; Monga, Satdarshan Pal

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) is an isoform of the PDGFR family of tyrosine kinase receptors involved in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and growth. In this review, we highlight the role of PDGFRα and the current evidence of its expression and activities in liver development, regeneration, and pathology—including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Studies elucidating PDGFRα signaling in processes ranging from profibrotic signaling, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition point toward PDGFRα as a potential therapeutic target in various hepatic pathologies, including hepatic fibrosis and liver cancer. Furthermore, PDGFRα localization and modulation during liver development and regeneration may lend insight into its potential roles in various pathologic states. We will also briefly discuss some of the current targeted treatments for PDGFRα, including multireceptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and PDGFRα-specific inhibitors. PMID:25700367

  1. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26770688

  2. Late effects of childhood cancer treatment: severe hypertriglyceridaemia, central obesity, non alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes as complications of childhood total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, R; Abu, E; Fadl, A; Byrne, C D

    2013-08-01

    Childhood cancer survivors may develop a number of endocrine complications linked to organ failure, such as hypogonadism, diabetes and growth hormone deficiency. However, increasing evidence now suggests that total body irradiation treatment, specifically, is linked with future risk of insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and dyslipidaemia, possibly because total body irradiation affects adipocyte differentiation and impairs subcutaneous adipose tissue depot expansion during times of positive energy balance. We describe a 20-year-old woman who developed pancreatitis with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (serum triglycerides > 300 mmol/l) that required plasmapheresis. She had received total body irradiation prior to her bone marrow transplant at age 6 years for relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. She developed ovarian failure at age 12 years. At age 15 years she was noted to have hyperglycaemia, increased blood pressure, hepatic steatosis and mild hypertriglyceridaemia. She presented with severe hypertriglyceridaemia and eruptive xanthoma, and developed pancreatitis 12 h after admission. She was treated with plasmapheresis and intravenous insulin and made an excellent recovery. We implicate and discuss total body irradiation as the major contributing factor to her severe hypertriglyceridaemia, compounded by worsening glycaemic control, oestrogen deficiency and a changing adult lifestyle. Children who have received total body irradiation are at risk of diabetes and an exaggerated form of the metabolic syndrome with hypertriglyceridaemia, which can be life-threatening. We suggest that survivors of total body irradiation treatment require careful lifelong monitoring of their metabolic status. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  3. Listening to the consumer voice: developing multilingual cancer information resources for people affected by liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Robotin, Monica C; Porwal, Mamta; Hopwood, Max; Nguyen, Debbie; Sze, Minglo; Treloar, Carla; George, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    In Australia, liver cancer incidence is rising, particularly among people born in hepatitis B-endemic countries. We sought to build an understanding of the information needs of people affected by liver cancer, to inform the design of in-language consumer information resources. We searched the World Wide Web for available in-language consumer information and conducted a literature search on consumers' information needs and their preferred means of accessing it. Qualitative data collection involved bilingual researchers conducting focus group discussions (26 participants) and in-depth interviews (22 participants) with people affected by liver cancer in English, Vietnamese, Cantonese and Mandarin. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. The key themes and salient findings informed the development of in-language multimedia information resources. Many consumer resources did not cater for people with low literacy levels. The participants wanted more information on cancer diagnostic and treatment options, nutrition and Chinese Medicine and experienced communication challenges speaking to health professionals. While Vietnamese speakers relied entirely on information provided by their doctors, other participants actively searched for additional treatment information and commonly used the Internet to source it. We developed multilingual, multimedia consumer information resources addressing identified consumer information needs through an iterative process, in collaboration with our multilingual consumer panel. These resources are available in four languages, as separate modules accessible online and in DVD format. This process enabled the development of user-friendly patient resources, which complement health-care provider information and supports informed patient decision making. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genetics in Common Liver Diseases: From Pathophysiology to Precise Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lammert, Frank

    In the past 2 decades, advances in genetics have improved our understanding of liver disease and physiology. Firstly, developments in genomic technologies drove the identification of genes responsible for monogenic (Mendelian) liver diseases. Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies allowed for the dissection of the genetic susceptibility to complex liver diseases such as fatty liver disease and drug-induced liver injury, in which environmental co-factors play critical roles. The findings have allowed the identification and elaboration of pathophysiological processes, have indicated the need for reclassification of liver diseases and risk factors and have already pointed to new disease treatments. This is illustrated by the interaction of alcohol, overnutrition and the PNPLA3 gene, which represents an 'infernal triangle' for the liver. In the future, genetics will allow further stratification of liver diseases and contribute to personalized (precision) medicine, offering novel opportunities for translational research and clinical care of our patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. A Phase I trial using local regional treatment, nonlethal irradiation, intratumoral and systemic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid polylysine carboxymethylcellulose to treat liver cancer: in search of the abscopal effect.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Andrew N; Contractor, Sohail; Castaneda, Ismael; Cathcart, Charles S; Razdan, Dolly; Klyde, David; Kisza, Piotr; Gonzales, Sharon F; Salazar, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    To determine the safety of an approach to immunologically enhance local treatment of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) by combining nonlethal radiation, local regional therapy with intratumoral injection, and systemic administration of a potent Toll-like receptor (TLR) immune adjuvant. Patients with HCC not eligible for liver transplant or surgery were subject to: 1) 3 fractions of 2-Gy focal nonlethal radiation to increase tumor antigen expression, 2) intra-/peri-tumoral (IT) injection of the TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid polylysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), to induce an immunologic "danger" response in the tumor microenvironment with local regional therapy, and 3) systemic boosting of immunity with intramuscular poly-ICLC. Primary end points were safety and tolerability; secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Eighteen patients with HCC not eligible for surgery or liver transplant were treated. Aside from 1 embolization-related severe adverse event, all events were ≤grade II. PFS was 66% at 6 months, 39% at 12 months, and 28% at 24 months. Overall 1-year survival was 69%, and 2-year survival 38%. In patients <60 years old, 2-year survival was 62.5% vs. 11.1% in patients aged >60 years (P<0.05). Several patients had prolonged PFS and OS. Intra-tumoral injection of the TLR3 agonist poly-ICLC in patients with HCC is safe and tolerable when combined with local nonlethal radiation and local regional treatment. Further work is in progress to evaluate if this approach improves survival compared to local regional treatment alone and characterize changes in anticancer immunity.

  6. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki; Hosaka, Kayoko; Seki, Takahiro; Andersson, Patrik; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Nakamura, Masaki; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Cao, Renhai; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Chen, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yongtian; Nie, Guohui; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes of the fenestrated endothelium and loss of VE-cadherin. The drug cessation caused highly leaky hepatic vasculatures permit tumour cell intravasation and extravasation. Discontinuation of an anti-VEGF antibody-based drug and sunitinib markedly promotes liver metastasis. Mechanistically, host hepatocyte, but not tumour cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is responsible for cancer metastasis. Deletion of hepatocyte VEGF markedly ablates the ‘off-drug'-induced metastasis. These findings provide mechanistic insights on anti-VEGF cessation-induced metastasis and raise a new challenge for uninterrupted and sustained antiangiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers. PMID:27580750

  7. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki; Hosaka, Kayoko; Seki, Takahiro; Andersson, Patrik; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Nakamura, Masaki; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Cao, Renhai; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Chen, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yongtian; Nie, Guohui; Cao, Yihai

    2016-09-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes of the fenestrated endothelium and loss of VE-cadherin. The drug cessation caused highly leaky hepatic vasculatures permit tumour cell intravasation and extravasation. Discontinuation of an anti-VEGF antibody-based drug and sunitinib markedly promotes liver metastasis. Mechanistically, host hepatocyte, but not tumour cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is responsible for cancer metastasis. Deletion of hepatocyte VEGF markedly ablates the 'off-drug'-induced metastasis. These findings provide mechanistic insights on anti-VEGF cessation-induced metastasis and raise a new challenge for uninterrupted and sustained antiangiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers.

  8. Impact of liver-directed therapy in colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gabriela M; Parmar, Abhishek D; Sheffield, Kristin M; Tamirisa, Nina P; Brown, Kimberly M; Riall, Taylor S

    2014-09-01

    There is a paucity of data on the current management and outcomes of liver-directed therapy (LDT) in older patients presenting with stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the study was to evaluate treatment patterns and outcomes in use of LDT in the setting of improved chemotherapy. We used Cancer Registry and linked Medicare claims to identify patients aged ≥66 y undergoing surgical resection of the primary tumor and chemotherapy after presenting with stage IV CRC (2001-2007). LDT was defined as liver resection and/or ablation-embolization. We identified 5500 patients. LDT was used in 34.9% of patients; liver resection was performed in 1686 patients (30.7%), and ablation-embolization in 554 patients (10.1%), with 322 patients having both resection and ablation-embolization. Use of LDT was negatively associated with increasing year of diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-0.99), age >85 y (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.82), and poor tumor differentiation (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.83). LDT was associated with improved survival (median 28.4 versus 21.1 mo, P < 0.0001); however, survival improved for all patients over time. We found a significant interaction between LDT and period of diagnosis and noted a greater survival improvement with LDT for those diagnosed in the late (2005-2007) period. Older patients with stage IV CRC are experiencing improved survival over time, independent of age, comorbidity, and use of LDT. However, many older patients deemed to be appropriate candidates for resection of the primary tumor and receipt of systemic chemotherapy did not receive LDT. Our data suggest that improved patient selection may be positively impacting outcomes. Early referral and optimal selection of patients for LDT has the potential to further improve survival in older patients presenting with advanced colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of PRDM14 expression in pancreatic cancer suppresses cancer stem-like properties and liver metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chiharu; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Imai, Kohzoh

    2017-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, with aggressive properties characterized by metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. Cancer stem cells are considered to be responsible for these properties. PRDM14, a transcriptional regulator that maintains pluripotency in embryonic stem cells, is overexpressed in some cancers. Here, we assessed PRDM14 expression and the effects of PRDM14 knockdown on cancer stem-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer. We observed that PRDM14 protein was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with normal pancreatic tissues. Using lentiviral shRNA-transduced pancreatic cancer cells, we found that PRDM14 knockdown decreased sphere formation, number of side population and cell surface marker-positive cells and subcutaneous xenograft tumors and liver metastasis in mice. This was accompanied by upregulation of some microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-125a-3p. miR-125a-3p, a tumor suppressor that is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer, has been suggested to regulate the expression of the Src-family kinase, Fyn. In PRDM14-knockdown cells, Fyn was expressed at lower levels and downstream proteins were less activated. These changes were considered to cause suppression of the above cancer phenotypes. In addition, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy targeting PRDM14 in a mouse model of liver metastasis induced using MIA-PaCa2 cells, and this treatment significantly decreased metastasis and in vitro migration. Taken together, these results suggest that targeting the overexpression of PRDM14 suppresses cancer stem-like phenotypes, including liver metastasis, via miRNA regulation and siRNA-based therapy targeting it shows promise as a treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Complete Resolution of an Alveolar Echinococcosis Liver Lesion Following Percutaneous Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Koroglu, Mert Akhan, Okan; Gelen, Mustafa Tekinalp; Koroglu, Banu Kale; Yildiz, Harun; Kerman, Gonul; Oyar, Orhan

    2006-06-15

    Herein we present a 63-year-old male patient with a solid hepatic alveolar echinococcosis diagnosed by surgical biopsy. His liver lesion, which was infected, was drained by percutaneous catheterization. The lesion surprisingly disappeared completely after the treatment. The patient was followed-up without any symptoms for 20 months after the drainage. As alveolar echinococcosis of the liver behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer, the disappearance of our patient's lesion was a very unusual and rare outcome, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been published in the literature.

  11. Advances in non-surgical management of primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Mei; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There have been great improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC in recent years, but the problems, including difficult diagnosis at early stage, quick progression, and poor prognosis remain unsolved. Surgical resection is the mainstay of the treatment for HCC. However, 70%-80% of HCC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage when most are ineligible for potentially curative therapies such as surgical resection and liver transplantation. In recent years, non-surgical management for unrespectable HCC, such as percutaneous ethanol injection, percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy, percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biotherapy, and hormonal therapy have been developed. These therapeutic options, either alone or in combination, have been shown to control tumor growth, prolong survival time, and improve quality of life to some extent. This review covers the current status and progress of non-surgical management for HCC. PMID:25469032

  12. Systemic chemotherapy as a main strategy for liver metastases from gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Yu, Y; Fang, Y; Wang, Y; Cui, Y; Shen, K; Liu, T

    2015-11-01

    Liver metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy have been reported to be effective in gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM). However, the best strategy for GCLM has not been established. From May 2009 to July 2014, a consecutive series of GCLM patients in Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University were studied. Treatment strategies were evaluated with regard to different extents of metastases. A total of 163 patients were included. The overall survival was 10.1 months. Active treatment significantly prolongs the survival of GCLM patients. The overall survival time for patients with liver-limited metastases and extra-hepatic liver metastases was 11.6 mo and 8.7 mo, respectively (P = 0.012). The median survival time for liver-limited disease of H1, H2 and H3 was 14.2, 15.8, and 8.5 months, respectively (H3 vs H2, P = 0.001; H3 vs H1, P = 0.000; H1 vs H2, P = 0.900). Systemic chemotherapy was chosen as the main strategy for the 'extensive' patients with extra-hepatic metastases and H3 type liver-limited metastases. Patients' survival was benefited by multi-line chemotherapy. No differences were shown between systemic chemotherapy and curative resection or palliative resection in H1 and H2 liver-limited metastases (16.0 mo vs 12.0 mo, P = 0.711; 16.0 vs 18.8 months, P = 0.654). Systemic chemotherapy was the main treatment for gastric cancer patients with liver metastases. Curative resection could be considered for highly selected patients.

  13. Photothermal treatment of liver cancer with albumin-conjugated gold nanoparticles initiates Golgi Apparatus-ER dysfunction and caspase-3 apoptotic pathway activation by selective targeting of Gp60 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells based on a simple gold nanoparticle (GNP) carrier system such as serum albumin (Alb), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy compared with normal hepatocyte cells. HepG2 or hepatocytes were treated with Alb-GNPs at various concentrations and various incubation times, and further irradiated using a 2 W, 808 nm laser. Darkfield microscopy and immunochemical staining was used to demonstrate the selective internalization of Alb-GNPs inside the HepG2 cells via Gp60 receptors targeting. The postirradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with Alb-GNPs ranged from 25.8% (for 5 μg/mL) to 48.2% (for 50 μg/mL) at 60 seconds, while at 30 minutes the necrotic rate increased from 35.7% (5 μg/mL) to 52.3% (50 μg/mL), P-value <0.001. Significantly lower necrotic rates were obtained when human hepatocytes were treated with Alb-GNPs in a similar manner. We also showed by means of immunocytochemistry that photothermal treatment of Alb-conjugated GNPs in liver cancer initiates Golgi apparatus-endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction with consequent caspase-3 apoptotic pathway activation and cellular apoptosis. The presented results may become a new method of treating cancer cells by selective therapeutic vectors using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

  14. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer liver metastasis accompanied by multiple liver abscesses].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masakazu; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Uemura, Hisashi; Okada, Kaoru; Nakane, Shigeru; Higaki, Naozumi; Hayashida, Hirohito; Oka, Yoshio; Nezu, Riichiro

    2014-11-01

    We describe the case of a patient with sigmoid colon cancer liver metastasis accompanied by multiple liver abscesses. The 59-year-old female patient presented with a fever at a body temperature of 39.0°C. On abdominal computed tomography (CT), multiple liver abscesses were detected, and percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage (PTAD) was performed. The day after the PTAD, the patient's fever subsided and her inflammatory response abated. A lower gastrointestinal examination, performed to identify the origin of her symptoms, revealed a type 1 tumor in the sigmoid colon. A biopsy indicated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Prior to surgery, a second abdominal CT scan was performed, and a single liver metastasis was detected. Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and partial liver resection were simultaneously performed. The histopathological diagnosis of the colon cancer was tub2, pN1, pH1, P0, ly1, v1, stage IV. To date, the patient remains free from hepatic abscess and colon cancer recurrence. Gastrointestinal examinations should be performed as early as possible to identify the cause of hepatic abscesses. Moreover, therapeutic decisions should only be made after imaging and examinations have been performed, which will be sufficient to identify the presence of liver metastases.

  15. Tooth loss and liver cancer incidence in a Finnish cohort.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baiyu; Petrick, Jessica L; Abnet, Christian C; Graubard, Barry I; Murphy, Gwen; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    Periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss in adults, may have systemic effects and has been associated with higher risk of several cancer types. However, the associations of periodontal disease or tooth loss with liver cancer have only been examined prospectively in two studies, neither of which had sufficient statistical power. In addition, no studies assessed the potential confounding by viral hepatitis or Helicobacter pylori infection status. In this study, we examined the association between tooth loss and primary liver cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Finnish male smokers (n = 29,096). We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. As a sensitivity analysis, we conducted a nested case-control study within the original cohort to assess confounding by hepatitis B or C virus infection and seropositivity of H. pylori. A total of 213 incident primary liver cancers occurred during a mean follow-up of 17 years. Among these cases, having 11-31 permanent teeth lost (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.98) or all 32 teeth lost (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.10) was each associated with higher risk of liver cancer, compared to those having 0-10 teeth lost. Adjusting for H. pylori seropositivity yielded a small attenuation of the effect estimate. Greater number of teeth lost was associated with higher risk of primary liver cancer in our study. The role of periodontal infection in the development of liver cancer warrants further investigation.

  16. Peri-operative chemotherapy for the treatment of resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of peri-operative chemotherapy in patients with resected stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be defined. This study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of peri-operative chemotherapy in patients with resected stage IV CRC by performing a meta-analysis of relevant trials. Methods We performed a literature search to identify trials comparing patients with stage IV CRC receiving peri-operative chemotherapy and surgery with patients undergoing surgery alone. The hazard ratio (HR) was estimated to assess any survival advantage of peri-operative chemotherapy. Results Eight trials conducted on a total of 1174 patients were identified by a literature search. In these trials, HR estimates suggested that peri-operative chemotherapy yielded no survival advantage over surgery alone (HR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.8-1.10; p = 0.43). In a subset analysis on intra-arterial chemotherapy alone, no survival benefit was evident (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.84-1.21; p = 0.96; I2 = 30%), whereas in the trials involving systemic chemotherapy, the difference between the groups approached statistical significance (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.04; p = 0.08; I2 = 0%). Both peri-operative treatment groups had a significant recurrence-free survival benefit (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.95; P = 0.01 for hepatic arterial infusion; and HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91; p = 0.003 for systemic therapy). The toxicities of chemotherapy were acceptable in most trials. Conclusions This is the first meta-analysis demonstrating the importance of peri-operative chemotherapy in the treatment of resected stage IV CRC. Although the results must be carefully interpreted because of some limitations, critical issues were identified that must be resolved by future studies. PMID:20565923

  17. Chronic viral hepatitis and its association with liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Tu, Thomas; Bühler, Sandra; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2017-07-26

    Chronic infection with hepatitis viruses represents the major causative factor for end-stage liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC). In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the hepatocarcinogenesis associated with chronic hepatitis virus infections. While chronic inflammation (associated with a persistent, but impaired anti-viral immune response) plays a major role in HCC initiation and progression, hepatitis viruses can also directly drive liver cancer. The mechanisms by which hepatitis viruses induce HCC include: hepatitis B virus DNA integration into the host cell genome; metabolic reprogramming by virus infection; induction of the cellular stress response pathway by viral gene products; and interference with tumour suppressors. Finally, we summarise the limitations of hepatitis virus-associated HCC model systems and the development of new techniques to circumvent these shortcomings.

  18. [Multi-modarity treatment for colon liver metastases using biliary stent-report of a case].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kensuke; Kitagawa, Dai; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Shohji, Fumihiro; Kabashima, Akira; Teramoto, Seiichi; Funahashi, Wataru; Kitamura, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old male patient with diagnoses of sigmoid colon cancer, ascending colon cancer, and metastatic liver cancer. We performed sigmoidectomy, right hemicolectomy, and central venous port placement. Because the liver metastasis was multifocal, chemotherapy was first initiated and then hepatic resection was performed. However, during chemotherapy, ileus, with a peritoneal dissemination to the small intestine, developed. Small intestine resection and radiation therapy to the pelvic region of the transition were further performed. Thereafter, obstructive jaundice due to obstruction of the bile duct in the hilar area developed, and therefore, we inserted a biliary stent. However, 2 years 9 months after the first medical examination, this patient died of colon cancer. The guidelines above, still chemotherapy developed, treatment policy of recurrent colorectal cancer, have recommended surgical resection with respect to what resectable as local therapy. This case shows that combination therapy with chemotherapy, surgical therapy, radiation therapy, and local therapy such as biliary stenting, is useful.

  19. Is Liver Transplantation an Option in Colorectal Cancer Patients with Nonresectable Liver Metastases and Progression on All Lines of Standard Chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Dueland, Svein; Hagness, Morten; Line, Pål-Dag; Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Foss, Aksel

    2015-07-01

    About 50 % of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) will develop metastatic disease with liver as primary metastatic site. The majority of CRC patients has nonresectable disease and receives palliative chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) from time of progression on last line of chemotherapy in metastatic CRC is about 5 months. CLM have been considered a contraindication for liver transplantation. However, we have previously reported 5-year OS of 60 % after liver transplantation for nonresectable CLM. There were six patients who had progressive disease (PD) on last line of standard chemotherapy at the time of liver transplantation; here we report the outcome for these six patients. Patients with nonresectable liver-only CLM received liver transplantation in the SECA study, a subgroup of six patients whose disease had progressed on all standard lines of chemotherapy. These patients with nonresectable disease and PD on the last line of standard chemotherapy at time of liver transplantation had 8-35 metastatic lesions in the liver with the largest diameter at 2.8-13.0 cm. All patients had a relapse within 2.1-12.4 months after liver transplantation. Some patients received treatment with curative intent at the time of relapse, and median OS after transplantation was 41 months with a Kaplan-Meier calculated 5-year OS of 44 %. Liver transplantation in nonresectable CLM patients with extensive tumor load and PD on the last line of chemotherapy had extended OS compared with any other treatment option reported in the literature.

  20. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  1. Portal venous gas following chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zalinski, S; Scatton, O; Jacqmin, S; Tacher, V; Brézault, C; Soubrane, O

    2009-05-01

    The standard of care for patients with colorectal liver metastases is a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. New chemotherapy regimens with biologic agents (cetuximab, bevacizumab) have been shown to increase tumor response rates. Although this might be beneficial and this is an expected endpoint, it should be noted that patients with synchronous colorectal and liver metastases are at risk of septic complications. We recently encountered a case of hepatic portal venous gas after two cycles of chemotherapy in a patient with right colon cancer liver metastases. Complete necrosis of the liver metastasis subsequently turned into a liver abscess, which fistulized in the right portal vein. Infection of the necrotized metastasis was thought to be promoted by the colic tumor. Although this is a dramatic situation, it does not contraindicate a curative surgical resection.

  2. Biology and clinical implications of CD133{sup +} liver cancer stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Stephanie

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, accounting for 80%–90% of all liver cancers. The disease ranks as the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is the third leading cause of all cancer-associated deaths. Although advances in HCC detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of a cure at early stages of the disease, HCC remains largely incurable because of late presentation and tumor recurrence. Only 25% of HCC patients are deemed suitable for curative treatment, with the overall survival at just a few months for inoperable patients. Apart from surgical resection, loco-regional ablation and liver transplantation, current treatment protocols include conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. But due to the highly resistant nature of the disease, the efficacy of the latter regimen is limited. The recent emergence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept lends insight into the explanation of why treatment with chemotherapy often may seem to be initially successful but results in not only a failure to eradicate the tumor but also possibly tumor relapse. Commonly used anti-cancer drugs in HCC work by targeting the rapidly proliferating and differentiated liver cancer cells that constitute the bulk of the tumor. However, a subset of CSCs exists within the tumor, which are more resistant and are able to survive and maintain residence after treatment, thus, growing and self-renewing to generate the development and spread of recurrent tumors in HCC. In the past few years, compelling evidence has emerged in support of the hierarchic CSC model for solid tumors, including HCC. And in particular, CD133 has drawn significant attention as a critical liver CSC marker. Understanding the characteristics and function of CD133{sup +} liver CSCs has also shed light on HCC management and treatment, including the implications for prognosis, prediction and treatment resistance. In this review, a detailed summary of the recent progress

  3. MBD3 inhibits formation of liver cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruizhi; He, Qihua; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Liu, Jinwen; Su, Ming; Wei, Shiruo; Wang, Xuan; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer cells can be reprogrammed into induced cancer stem cells (iCSCs) by exogenous expression of the reprogramming transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (OSKM). The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is essential for reprogramming somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the function of NuRD in the induction of liver CSCs. We showed that suppression of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3 (MBD3), a core subunit of the NuRD repressor complex, together with OSKM transduction, induces conversion of liver cancer cells into stem-like cells. Expression of the transcription factor c-JUN is increased in MBD3-depleted iCSCs, and c-JUN activates endogenous pluripotent genes and regulates iCSC-related genes. These results indicate that MBD3/NuRD inhibits the induction of iCSCs, while c-JUN facilitates the generation of CSC-like properties. The iCSC reprogramming approach devised here provides a novel platform for dissection of the disordered signaling in liver CSCs. In addition, our results indicate that c-JUN may serve as a potential target for liver cancer therapy. PMID:27894081

  4. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  6. [Liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer in terms of differences in their clinical parameters].

    PubMed

    Liška, V; Emingr, M; Skála, M; Pálek, R; Troup, O; Novák, P; Vyčítal, O; Skalický, T; Třeška, V

    2016-02-01

    From the clinical point of view, rectal cancer and colon cancer are clearly different nosological units in their progress and treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse and clarify the differences between the behaviour of liver metastases from colon and rectal cancer. The study of these factors is important for determining an accurate prognosis and indication of the most effective surgical therapy and oncologic treatment of colon and rectal cancer as a systemic disease. 223 patients with metastatic disease of colorectal carcinoma operated at the Department of Surgery, University Hospital in Pilsen between January 1, 2006 and January 31, 2012 were included in our study. The group of patients comprised 145 men (65%) and 117 women (35%). 275 operations were performed. Resection was done in 177 patients and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the total of 98 cases. Our sample was divided into 3 categories according to the location of the primary tumor to C (colon), comprising 58 patients, S (c. sigmoideum) in 61 patients, and R (rectum), comprising 101 patients. Significance analysis of the studied factors (age, gender, staging [TNM classification], grading, presence of mucinous carcinoma, type of operation) was performed using ANOVA test. Overall survival (OS), disease-free interval (DFI) or no evidence of disease (NED) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, which were compared with the log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. As regards the comparison of primary origin of colorectal metastases in liver regardless of their treatment (resection and RFA), our study indicated that rectal liver metastases showed a significantly earlier recurrence than colon liver metastases (shorter NED/DFI). Among other factors, a locally advanced finding, further R2 resection of liver metastases and positivity of lymph node metastases were statistically significant for the prognosis of an early recurrence of the primary colon and sigmoid tumor. Furthermore, we proved that in patients with

  7. Epigenetic silencing of glutaminase 2 in human liver and colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutaminase 2 (Gls2) is a p53 target gene and is known to play an important role in energy metabolism. Gls2 has been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for its downregulation is still unclear. Here, we investigated Gls2 expression and its promoter methylation status in human liver and colon cancers. Methods mRNA expression of Gls2 was determined in human liver and colon cancer cell lines and HCC tissues by real-time PCR and promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and validated by bisulfite genome sequencing (BGS). Cell growth was determined by colony formation assay and MTS assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs test or non-parametric t test. Results First, we observed reduced Gls2 mRNA level in a selected group of liver and colon cancer cell lines and in the cancerous tissues from 20 HCC and 5 human colon cancer patients in comparison to their non-cancerous counter parts. Importantly, the lower level of Gls2 in cancer cells was closely correlated to its promoter hypermethylation; and chemical demethylation treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Aza) increased Gls2 mRNA level in both liver and colon cancer cells, indicating that direct epigenetic silencing suppressed Gls2 expression by methylation. Next, we further examined this correlation in human HCC tissues, and 60% of primary liver tumor tissues had higher DNA methylation levels when compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Detailed methylation analysis of 23 CpG sites at a 300-bp promoter region by bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed its methylation. Finally, we examined the biological function of Gls2 and found that restoring Gls2 expression in cancer cells significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and colony formation ability through induction of cell cycle arrest. Conclusions We provide evidence showing that epigenetic silencing of Gls2 via promoter

  8. Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rat livers sensitize colon cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, E; Chen, J; Ouyang, N; Wang, M; Exton, M S; Heemann, U

    2001-05-04

    Metastasis of colorectal carcinomas rarely occurs in cirrhotic livers. Our study investigated the influence of activated Kupffer cells from cirrhotic rat livers on hepatic colonization and FasR-mediated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. A rat colon cancer cell line, RCN-9, was used to inoculate rat livers. Treatment with conditioned media of Kupffer cells isolated from CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rat livers (cirrhotic KCM) significantly reduced the incidence of hepatic colonization of RCN-9 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) on RCN-9 cells was evaluated using [(3)H]-release assay. RCN-9 cells were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by cirrhotic Kupffer cells, but were sensitized to TIL-mediated killing after treatment with cirrhotic KCM. The specific killing induced by TILs was FasR-mediated, as it was inhibited by ZB4, an antagonistic anti-FasR antibody. In agreement, cirrhotic KCM increased recombinant Fas ligand-induced apoptosis of RCN-9 cells, and up-regulated FasR expression on RCN-9 cells as evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells in cirrhotic livers sensitize metastatic colon cancer cells to FasR-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating the receptors, which thus prepare them to be eliminated by infiltrating lymphocytes.

  9. Evaluation of the anti-neoplastic effect of sorafenib on liver cancer through bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qian; Ye, Jinzuo; Du, Yang; Chi, Chongwei; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most important leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of sorafenib on hepatocellular carcinoma through bioluminescence tomography (BLT) based on Micro-CT/BLT multi-modal system. Initially, the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2-Red-FLuc, which was transfected with luciferase gene, was cultured. And then, the orthotopic liver tumor mouse model was established on 4 5 weeks old athymic male Balb/c nude mice by inoculating the HepG2-Red-FLuc cell suspension into the liver lobe under isoflurane anesthesia. 15 20 days after tumor cells implantation, the mice were divided into two groups including the sorafenib treatment group and the control group. The mice in the treatment group were treated with sorafenib with dosage of 62 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for continuous 14 days, and the mice in the control group were treated with sterile water at equal volume. The tumor growth and drug treatment efficacy were dynamically monitored through BLT. The results in this study showed that the growth of liver cancer can be dynamically monitored from very early stage, and also the sorafenib treatment efficacy can be reliably and objectively assessed using BLT imaging method. Our experimental result demonstrated sorafenib can inhibit the tumor growth effectively. BLT enabled the non-invasive and reliable assessment of anti-neoplastic drug efficacy on liver cancer.

  10. Comprehensive genome sequencing of the liver cancer genome.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, comprehensive whole genome and exome sequencing analyses for HCC revealed new cancer-associated genes and a variety of genomic alterations. In particular, frequent genetic alterations of the chromatin remodeling genes were observed, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target for HCC. Sequencing analysis has further identified the molecular complexities of multicentric lesions and intratumoral heterogeneity. Detailed analyses of the somatic substitution pattern of the cancer genome and the HBV virus genome integration sites by using whole-genome sequencing will elucidate the molecular basis and diverse etiological factors involved in liver cancer development.

  11. Particulate matter air pollution and liver cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiyu; Eckel, Sandrah P; Liu, Lihua; Lurmann, Frederick W; Cockburn, Myles G; Gilliland, Frank D

    2017-08-15

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been associated with cancer incidence and mortality especially with lung cancer. The liver is another organ possibly affected by PM due to its role in detoxifying xenobiotics absorbed from PM. Various studies have investigated the mechanistic pathways between inhaled pollutants and liver damage, cancer incidence, and tumor progression. However, little is known about the effects of PM on liver cancer survival. Twenty thousand, two hundred and twenty-one California Cancer Registry patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were used to examine the effect of exposure to ambient PM with diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) on HCC survival. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) relating PM2.5 to all-cause and liver cancer-specific mortality linearly and nonlinearly-overall and stratified by stage at diagnosis (local, regional and distant)-adjusting for potential individual and geospatial confounders.PM2.5 exposure after diagnosis was statistically significantly associated with HCC survival. After adjustment for potential confounders, the all-cause mortality HR associated with a 1 standard deviation (5.0 µg/m(3) ) increase in PM2.5 was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.16-1.20); 1.31 (95% CI:1.26-1.35) for local stage, 1.19 (95% CI:1.14-1.23) for regional stage, and 1.05 (95% CI:1.01-1.10) for distant stage. These associations were nonlinear, with substantially larger HRs at higher exposures. The associations between liver cancer-specific mortality and PM2.5 were slightly attenuated compared to all-cause mortality, but with the same patterns.Exposure to elevated PM2.5 after the diagnosis of HCC may shorten survival, with larger effects at higher concentrations. © 2017 UICC.

  12. ABC transporters, bile acids, and inflammatory stress in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renxue; Sheps, Jonathan A; Ling, Victor

    2011-04-01

    The biliary secretion of bile acids is critical for multiple liver functions including digesting fatty nutrients and driving bile flow. When this process is impaired, the accumulating bile acids cause inflammatory liver injury. Multiple ABC transporters in the liver are key players to safeguard the hepatocyte and avoid toxicity due to bile acid over-accumulation. BSEP provides for efficient secretion of bile acids across the canalicular membrane against a steep concentration gradient. MDR3/Mdr2 and ABCG5/G8 secrete phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, respectively, in coordination with BSEP-mediated bile acid secretion to mask the detergent/toxic effects of bile acids in the bile ductular space. Several lines of evidence indicate that when these critical steps are compromised, bile acid toxicity in vivo leads to inflammatory liver injury and liver cancer. In bsep-/- mice, liver cancer is rare. These mice display greatly increased expression of alternative bile acid transporters, such as Mdr1a/1b, Mrp3 and Mrp4. We believe these alternative transport systems provide an additional safeguard to avoid bile acid overload in liver. Such backup systems appear to be under-utilized in humans, as defects in BSEP and MDR3 lead to severe, often fatal childhood diseases. It is possible, therefore, that targeting ABC transporters and modulating the toxicity of the bile acid pool could be vital interventions to alleviate chronic inflammation and reduce the incidence of liver cancer in high-risk populations. The combination of an alternative ABC transporter with a novel substrate may prove an effective chemo-preventive or therapeutic strategy.

  13. Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Epileptic Seizures After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-09-01

    After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile.

  14. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  15. After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... staffCancer: End-of-Life Issues for the CaregiverRead Article >>Cancer: End-of-Life Issues for the CaregiverJuly 2017June ... Started Related ArticlesUnderstanding Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening ... Cancer Screening ResultsIf you received abnormal cervical cancer screening ...

  16. Hepatic resection beyond barcelona clinic liver cancer indication: When and how

    PubMed Central

    Garancini, Mattia; Pinotti, Enrico; Nespoli, Stefano; Romano, Fabrizio; Gianotti, Luca; Giardini, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main common primary tumour of the liver and it is usually associated with cirrhosis. The barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) classification has been approved as guidance for HCC treatment algorithms by the European Association for the Study of Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. According to this algorithm, hepatic resection should be performed only in patients with small single tumours of 2-3 cm without signs of portal hypertension (PHT) or hyperbilirubinemia. BCLC classification has been criticised and many studies have shown that multiple tumors and large tumors, as wide as those with macrovascular infiltration and PHT, could benefit from liver resection. Consequently, treatment guidelines should be revised and patients with intermediate/advanced stage HCC, when technically resectable, should receive the opportunity to be treated with radical surgical treatment. Nevertheless, the surgical treatment of HCC on cirrhosis is complex: The goal to be oncologically radical has always to be balanced with the necessity to minimize organ damage. The aim of this review was to analyze when and how liver resection could be indicated beyond BCLC indication. In particular, the role of multidisciplinary approach to assure a proper indication, of the intraoperative ultrasound for intra-operative restaging and resection guidance and of laparoscopy to minimize surgical trauma have been enhanced. PMID:27099652

  17. Enhanced colorectal cancer metastases in the alcohol-injured liver.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Ashley M; Gould, John J; Kubik, Jacy L; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Casey, Carol A; Thomas, Peter; Tuma, Dean J; McVicker, Benita L

    2017-02-01

    Metastatic liver disease is a major cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Alcohol consumption is a noted risk factor for secondary cancers yet the role of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is not defined. This work evaluated tumor cell colonization in the alcoholic host liver using a novel preclinical model of human CRC liver metastases. Immunocompromised Rag1-deficient mice were fed either ethanol (E) or isocaloric control (C) diets for 4 weeks prior to intrasplenic injection of LS174T human CRC cells. ALD and CRLM were evaluated 3 or 5 weeks post-LS174T cell injection with continued C/E diet administration. ALD was confirmed by increased serum transaminases, hepatic steatosis and expression of cytochrome P4502E1, a major ethanol-metabolizing enzyme. Alcohol-mediated liver dysfunction was validated by impaired endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), indicators of hepatocellular injury and progressive CRC disease, respectively. Strikingly, the rate and burden of CRLM was distinctly enhanced in alcoholic livers with metastases observed earlier and more severely in E-fed mice. Further, alcohol-related increases (1.5-3.0 fold) were observed in the expression of hepatic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10) and other factors noted to be involved in the colonization of CRC cells including ICAM-1, CCL-2, CCL-7, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Also, alcoholic liver injury was associated with altered hepatic localization as well as increased circulating levels of CEA released from CRC cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that the alcoholic liver provides a permissive environment for the establishment of CRLM, possibly through CEA-related inflammatory mechanisms.

  18. Mechanism of action of novel piperazine containing a toxicant against human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, MS; Haerian, Batoul Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potential of a novel piperazine derivative (PCC) against human liver cancer cells. SNU-475 and 423 human liver cancer cell lines were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on liver cancer cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 µM and 7.76 ± 0.45 µM against SNU-475 and SNU-423 respectively after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. Results of this study suggest that PCC is a potent anti-cancer agent inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. PMID:27019772

  19. Safety and efficacy of FOLFOX followed by cetuximab for metastatic colorectal cancer with severe liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsoueidi, Raymond; Craig, Jessica; Mourad, Hesham; Richa, Elie M

    2014-02-01

    Both 5-FU and oxaliplatin have been used as single agents in patients with colorectal cancer and severe liver dysfunction, but the combination of these drugs has not yet been investigated. A 67-year-old man diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2008 presented in April 2011 to Appalachian Regional Healthcare Cancer Center with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Imaging studies were compatible with a liver mass and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. A liver biopsy confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer. Because his total bilirubin level was 23.1 mg/dL, a percutaneous catheter was placed in May 2011. His total bilirubin level decreased to 5.9 mg/dL, but then increased to 9.4 mg/dL in June 2011. He was started on a FOLFOX regimen, with a 50% dose reduction of 5-FU bolus (200 mg/m(2)) and continuous infusion (1200 mg/m(2)) over 46 hours, and a 15% dose reduction of oxaliplatin (75 mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks. He tolerated this regimen very well, with normalization of his bilirubin level, a significant decrease in his tumor markers, and a partial response seen on PET/CT scan. His only significant toxicity was a grade 2 stomatitis. He received 21 cycles of FOLFOX, and was later switched to cetuximab treatment after disease progression. These findings suggest that FOLFOX might be effective in metastatic colon cancer with severe liver dysfunction, with minimal toxicity, and deserves further investigation.

  20. [Role of probiotics in treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Wang, M C; Ni, R; Wang, J; Wang, L; Wang, G N; Zhang, L Y

    2017-01-20

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases in China and manifests as simple fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies have shown that intestinal flora can affect the development and progression of NAFLD via the "gut-liver axis" . Probiotics are active microorganisms with beneficial effects on the host, and more and more studies have found that probiotics play a positive role in improving NAFLD. They are cheaper, less harmful, and safer compared with antibiotics and surgery, and therefore, it may become a new method for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. This article reviews the research advances in probiotics in the treatment of NAFLD, in order to provide a basis for the treatment of NAFLD using probiotics.

  1. Prospects for the temporary treatment of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Hein B A C; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2002-02-01

    At present, the most successful treatment of acute liver failure is orthotopic liver transplantation, with survival rates ranging from 70% to 85%. However, mortality rates for liver failure remain high because of the shortage of available donor organs. Therefore, there has been renewed interest in temporary treatment methods for patients with acute liver failure to either allow liver regeneration or await liver transplantation. It is thought that the function of the liver can only be replaced with the biological substrate, e.g. liver cells or a whole liver specimen, which requires the availability of liver tissue from xenogeneic or human sources. In this review, existing temporary liver support techniques are summarized and the potential hazards are described. These include the immunological implications of these techniques, e.g. the host versus graft reaction, which may influence the effectivity of the support system, and in the long run may sensitize the patient to subsequent allogeneic transplantation. The graft versus host reaction is also considered. At present, one of the major concerns is the threat of pig-to-human transmission of activated endogenous retrovirus present in the pig genome. An overview is given of literature concerning the transmission of retrovirus particles in vitro and in vivo. Finally, new solutions for the development of ex vivo systems for temporary treatment of patients with acute liver failure are discussed. These include the use of new immortalized human cell lines and human fetal hepatocytes, and the possibility of isolating, expanding and genetically manipulating stem cells in order to have stable differentiated and committed cells.

  2. Resection after preoperative chemotherapy versus synchronous liver resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan W.; Lee, Jong L.; Yoon, Yong S.; Park, In J.; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang S.; Kim, Tae W.; Kim, Jin C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the prognostic effects of preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CLM). We retrospectively evaluated 2 groups of patients between January 2006 and August 2012. A total of 53 patients who had ≥3 hepatic metastases underwent resection after preoperative chemotherapy (preoperative chemotherapy group), whereas 96 patients who had ≥3 hepatic metastases underwent resection with a curative intent before chemotherapy for CLM (primary resection group). A propensity score (PS) model was used to compare the both groups. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 31.7% and 20.4% in the preoperative chemotherapy and primary resection groups, respectively (log-rank = 0.015). Analyzing 32 PS matched pairs, we found that the DFS rate was significantly higher in the preoperative chemotherapy group than in the primary resection group (3-year DFS rates were 34.2% and 16.8%, respectively [log-rank = 0.019]). Preoperative chemotherapy group patients had better DFSs than primary resection group patients in various multivariate analyses, including crude, multivariable, average treatment effect with inverse probability of treatment weighting model and PS matching. Responses to chemotherapy are as important as achieving complete resection in cases of multiple hepatic metastases. Preoperative chemotherapy may therefore be preferentially considered for patients who experience difficulty undergoing complete resection for multiple hepatic metastases. PMID:28207557

  3. Safe eating during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal radiation - discharge After chemotherapy - discharge Bleeding during cancer treatment Bone marrow transplant - discharge Brain radiation - discharge Breast radiation - discharge Chemotherapy - what to ask your doctor ...

  4. Quercetin nanoparticles display antitumor activity via proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke-Wei; Li, Ya-Hua; Wu, Gang; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Lu, Hui-Bin; Li, Zong-Ming; Han, Xin-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a potent cancer therapeutic agent and dietary antioxidant present in fruit and vegetables. Quercetin prevents tumor proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and is a well known cancer therapeutic agent and autophagy mediator. Recent studies showed that drug delivery by nanoparticles have enhanced efficacy with reduced side effects. In this regard, gold-quercetin into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was examined. In this study, we explored the role and possible underlying mechanisms of quercetin nanoparticle in regulation of antitumor activity in liver cancer cells. Treatment with quercetin nanoparticle effectively inhibited the liver cancer cell proliferation, cell migration and colony formation, thus suppressing liver cancer progression. Quercetin nanoparticle also upregulated apoptosis markedly. Further study suggested that quercetin nanoparticle accelerated the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and induced the up-releasing of cytochrome c (Cyto-c), contributing to apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Quercetin nanoparticles also promoted telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) inhibition through reducing AP-2β expression and decreasing its binding to hTERT promoter. In addition, quercetin nanoparticle had an inhibitory role in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) via suppressing the NF-κB nuclear translocation and its binding to COX-2 promoter. Quercetin nanoparticle also inactivated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggested that quercetin nanoparticle had an antitumor effect by inactivating caspase/Cyto-c pathway, suppressing AP-2β/hTERT, inhibiting NF-κB/COX-2 and impeding Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our results provided new mechanistic basis for further investigation of quercetin nanoparticles to find potential therapeutic strategies and possible targets for liver cancer inhibition.

  5. Moderate swimming suppressed the growth and metastasis of the transplanted liver cancer in mice model: with reference to nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q-B; Zhang, B-H; Zhang, K-Z; Meng, X-T; Jia, Q-A; Zhang, Q-B; Bu, Y; Zhu, X-D; Ma, D-N; Ye, B-G; Zhang, N; Ren, Z-G; Sun, H-C; Tang, Z-Y

    2016-08-04

    Physical activity has been shown to suppress tumor initiation and progression. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is closely related to movement and exhibits antitumor properties. However, whether the suppressive effects of physical activity on tumors was mediated by the nervous system via increased DA level remains unknowns. Here we show that regular moderate swimming (8 min/day, 9 weeks) raised DA levels in the prefrontal cortex, serum and tumor tissue, suppressed growth, reduced lung metastasis of transplanted liver cancer, and prolonged survival in a C57BL/6 mouse model, while overload swimming (16 and 32 min/day, 9 weeks) had the opposite effect. In nude mice that were orthotopically implanted with human liver cancer cell lines, DA treatment significantly suppressed growth and lung metastasis by acting on the D2 receptor (DR2). Furthermore, DR2 blockade attenuated the suppressive effect of moderate swimming on liver cancer. Both moderate swimming and DA treatment suppressed the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of transplanted liver cancer cells. At the molecular level, DR2 signaling inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and expression of TGF-β1 in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrated a novel mechanism by which the moderate exercise suppressed liver cancer through boosting DR2 activity, while overload exercise had the opposite effect, highlighting the possible importance of the dopaminergic system in tumor growth and metastasis of liver cancer.

  6. Pancreatic cancer: diagnosis and treatments.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Yu; Cui, Zhong-Min; Chen, Jiang; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Ying-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with exceptionally high mortality. Despite the relatively low incidence rate (10th), it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in most developed countries. To improve the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and strengthen the standardized comprehensive treatment are still the main focus of pancreatic cancer research. Here, we summarized the rapid developments in the diagnosis and treatments of pancreatic cancer. Regarding diagnosis, we reviewed advances in medical imaging technology, tumor markers, molecular biology (e.g., gene mutation), and proteomics. Moreover, great progress has also been made in the treatments of this disease, including surgical resection, chemotherapy, targeted radiotherapy, targeted minimally invasive treatment, and molecular targeted therapy. Therefore, we also recapitulated the development, advantages, and disadvantages of each of the treatment methods in this review.

  7. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  8. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  9. Codelivery of doxorubicin and curcumin with lipid nanoparticles results in improved efficacy of chemotherapy in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Chen, Qi; Liu, Wei; Li, Yusang; Tang, Hebin; Liu, Xuhan; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The combination therapy of cytotoxic and chemosensitizing agents loaded in nanoparticles has been highlighted as an effective treatment for different cancers. However, such studies in liver cancer remain very limited. In our study, we aim to develop a novel lipid nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (an effective drug for liver cancer) and curcumin (Cur) (a chemosensitizer) simultaneously, and we examined the efficacy of chemotherapy in liver cancer. DOX and Cur codelivery lipid nanoparticles (DOX/Cur-NPs) were successfully prepared using a high-pressure microfluidics technique, showing a mean particle size of around 90 nm, a polydispersity index <0.3, and a zeta potential <−10 mV. The encapsulation efficacy was >90% for both DOX and Cur. The blank lipid nanoparticles were nontoxic, as determined by a cell cytotoxicity study in human normal liver cells L02 and liver cancer cells HepG2. In vitro DOX release studies revealed a sustained-release pattern until 48 hours in DOX/Cur-NPs. We found enhanced cytotoxicity and decreased inhibitory concentration (IC)50 in HepG2 cells and reduced cytotoxicity in L02 cells treated with DOX/Cur-NPs, suggesting the synergistic effects of DOX/Cur-NPs compared with free DOX and DOX nanoparticles (NPs). The optimal weight ratio of DOX and Cur was 1:1. Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining showed enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells treated with DOX/Cur-NPs compared with free DOX and DOX-NPs. An in vivo experiment showed the synergistic effect of DOX/Cur-NPs compared with DOX-NPs on liver tumor growth inhibition. Taken together, the simultaneous delivery of DOX and Cur by DOX/Cur-NPs might be a promising treatment for liver cancer. PMID:25565818

  10. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Xin; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-09-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponin (RPS) had been regarded as the main active components responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. In the present research, we set up a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatoma to evaluate antitumor effect of RPS. After 20 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed to perform histopathological examinations, liver function tests, oxidative stress assays and so forth. As a result, DEN-induced hepatoma formation. RPS alleviated levels of liver injury through inhibiting liver tissues of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, increasing superoxide dismutases (SOD) production, and up-regulating expression of GST-α/μ/π in DEN-induced rats. All in all, RPS would be a potent agent inhibiting chemically induced liver cancer in the prospective application.

  11. Erythema, papules, and arthralgia associated with liver cancer: report of a rare case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Mei, Jun-Hua; Xia, Jin; Hao, Quan-Shui; Cheng, Li-Ping; Wu, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) associated with liver carcinoma. A 36-year-old man who had been diagnosed as having liver carcinoma for 2 years presented with a 2-month history of multiple papulonodules on the face, ears, neck, and upper chest, accompanied by progressive polyarthralgia of the hands, wrists, elbows and knee joints without fever or chills. Skin histology revealed well defined dermal infiltrate consisting of multinucleated giant cells and macrophages having abundant eosinophilic finely granular cytoplasm with ground glass appearance. Further immunohistochemical studies characterized the lesions as positive for CD68, CD45 and Vimentin. A diagnosis of MRH that was associated with liver cancer was made. Treatment with prednisolone for 2 months resulted in a significant improvement of the skin and joint symptoms, but was discontinued due to his significant enlargement and extensive metastases of the liver carcinoma. PMID:26045857

  12. Streptococcus intermedius liver abscesses and colon cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J J; McKendrick, A I; Drelichman, V S

    2005-10-01

    Certain species of bacteria are known to be associated with colorectal cancer. We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with bacteraemia and liver abscesses due to Streptococcus intermedius. The isolation of this organism should prompt investigation for colorectal neoplasm, which may be present but asymptomatic, without metastases, and therefore at a curative stage.

  13. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  14. Survey of thorotrast-associated liver cancers in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Hosoda, S.; Tateno, H.; Kido, C.; Takahashi, S.

    1983-01-01

    Data on 93 autopsy cases (group A) of thorotrast-associated liver cancers were obtained from the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1958 to 1979, and data on 78 autopsy cases (group B) of thorotrast-associated liver cancers were obtained from the Japanese literature from 1953 to 1980. Cholangiocarcinoma (CLC) constituted 58% of group A and 55% of group B. The curve of the cumulative numbers of patients with CLC versus year in group A was almost linear, showing an increasing risk per surviving patients with advancing time. Angiosarcoma (AGS) occurred in 25% of group A and 24% of group B. The number of patients with AGS increased significantly after 1969 in both groups (P less than 0.05). In group B, age and years after thorotrast injection of patients with AGS were statistically higher than those of patients with CLC (age: P less than 0.05; years after thorotrast injection: P less than 0.0001). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HPC) accounted for 17 and 21% of groups A and B, respectively. When yearly distribution, age, and time after thorotrast injection of patients with HPC were correlated with those of patients with other liver cancers, the only statistically significant difference between patients with HPC and patients with CLC (P less than 0.02) was in the years after thorotrast administration. Since 1977 multiple primary liver cancers including AGS developed in thorotrast-administered patients in both groups.

  15. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  16. S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE IN LIVER HEALTH, INJURY, AND CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shelly C.; Mato, José M.

    2013-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet, also known as SAM and SAMe) is the principal biological methyl donor synthesized in all mammalian cells but most abundantly in the liver. Biosynthesis of AdoMet requires the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). In mammals, two genes, MAT1A that is largely expressed by normal liver and MAT2A that is expressed by all extrahepatic tissues, encode MAT. Patients with chronic liver disease have reduced MAT activity and AdoMet levels. Mice lacking Mat1a have reduced hepatic AdoMet levels and develop oxidative stress, steatohepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In these mice, several signaling pathways are abnormal that can contribute to HCC formation. However, injury and HCC also occur if hepatic AdoMet level is excessive chronically. This can result from inactive mutation of the enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT). Children with GNMT mutation have elevated liver transaminases, and Gnmt knockout mice develop liver injury, fibrosis, and HCC. Thus a normal hepatic AdoMet level is necessary to maintain liver health and prevent injury and HCC. AdoMet is effective in cholestasis of pregnancy, and its role in other human liver diseases remains to be better defined. In experimental models, it is effective as a chemopreventive agent in HCC and perhaps other forms of cancer as well. PMID:23073625

  17. Antiviral Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Tamura, Sumihito; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2010-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develop liver cirrhosis and complications of end-stage liver disease over two to three decades and require liver transplantation, however, reinfection is common and leads to further adverse events under immunosuppression. Pretransplant antiviral or preemptive therapy is limited to mildly decompensated patients due to poor tolerance. The mainstay of management represents directed antiviral therapy after evidence of recurrence of chronic hepatitis C. Combined pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy is the current standard treatment with sustained viral response rates of 25% to 45%. The rate is lower than that in the immunocompetent population, partly due to the high prevalence of intolerability. To date, there is no general consensus regarding the antiviral treatment modality, timing, or dosing for HCV in patients with advanced liver disease and after liver transplantation. New anti-HCV drugs to delay disease progression or to enhance viral clearance are necessary. PMID:21151523

  18. [A Case of Metachronous Liver Metastases of Gall Bladder Cancer Successfully Treated by Liver Resection].

    PubMed

    Asai, Kensuke; Murata, Masaru; Saso, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Moyuru; Sawami, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Rei; Fukunaga, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2016-11-01

    A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with gall bladder cancer by contrast enhanced CT images.The tumor was detected at the fundus of the gall bladder and enhanced heterogeneously.She underwent radical cholecystectomy including Japanese D2 lymph node dissection for gall bladder cancer.After 4 courses of oral S-1(80mg/m2 administered for 4 weeks and then stopped for 2 weeks)as adjuvant chemotherapy, a liver metastasis at segment 5 appeared 11 months postoperatively.It showed a ring enhanced tumor on contrast enhanced CT images.FDG accumulated in a similar lesion on PET-CT images.The patient successfully underwent partial hepatectomy of segment 5 of the liver.However, another liver metastasis at segment 7 appeared 5 months after the second operation, but it was resected successfully.The primary lesion and both liver metastases showed similar microscopic appearances.Seven courses of gemcitabine therapy(gemcitabine 1,000mg/m2 once every week for 3 weeks and then stopped for 1 week)were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy.She is now doing well without any sign of recurrence 2 years after the initial operation and 14 months after the secondary liver resection.

  19. [Treatment of hepatitis C before and after liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Llovet, Laura-Patricia; Rodríguez-Tajes, Sergio; Londoño, María-Carlota

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation is universal and increases morbidity and mortality in these patients. The development of new direct antiviral agents against the hepatitis C virus is a major treatment advance. Pre-transplant treatment avoids graft infection and sometimes improves liver function, allowing the patient to be withdrawn from the transplant waiting list. Delaying treatment until the postpostransplant period may be advisable in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Generally, antiviral therapy after liver transplantation is provided in patients with histological evidence of the disease. In these patients, treatment is more effective in the initial stages of the disease. The choice of antiviral therapy in these patients is based on the degree of liver function, the presence of renal failure, and potential drug-drug interactions.

  20. Accuracy of Robotic Radiosurgical Liver Treatment Throughout the Respiratory Cycle.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jeff D; Wong, Raimond; Swaminath, Anand; Chow, Tom

    2015-11-15

    To quantify random uncertainties in robotic radiosurgical treatment of liver lesions with real-time respiratory motion management. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 27 liver cancer patients treated with robotic radiosurgery over 118 fractions. The robotic radiosurgical system uses orthogonal x-ray images to determine internal target position and correlates this position with an external surrogate to provide robotic corrections of linear accelerator positioning. Verification and update of this internal-external correlation model was achieved using periodic x-ray images collected throughout treatment. To quantify random uncertainties in targeting, we analyzed logged tracking information and isolated x-ray images collected immediately before beam delivery. For translational correlation errors, we quantified the difference between correlation model-estimated target position and actual position determined by periodic x-ray imaging. To quantify prediction errors, we computed the mean absolute difference between the predicted coordinates and actual modeled position calculated 115 milliseconds later. We estimated overall random uncertainty by quadratically summing correlation, prediction, and end-to-end targeting errors. We also investigated relationships between tracking errors and motion amplitude using linear regression. The 95th percentile absolute correlation errors in each direction were 2.1 mm left-right, 1.8 mm anterior-posterior, 3.3 mm cranio-caudal, and 3.9 mm 3-dimensional radial, whereas 95th percentile absolute radial prediction errors were 0.5 mm. Overall 95th percentile random uncertainty was 4 mm in the radial direction. Prediction errors were strongly correlated with modeled target amplitude (r=0.53-0.66, P<.001), whereas only weak correlations existed for correlation errors. Study results demonstrate that model correlation errors are the primary random source of uncertainty in Cyberknife liver treatment and, unlike prediction errors, are not

  1. FIRST BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES. MODULE 1: PRE-TREATMENT EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    COIMBRA, Felipe José Fernandez; RIBEIRO, Heber Salvador de Castro; MARQUES, Márcio Carmona; HERMAN, Paulo; CHOJNIAK, Rubens; KALIL, Antonio Nocchi; WIERMANN, Evanius Garcia; CAVALLERO, Sandro Roberto de Araújo; COELHO, Fabricio Ferreira; FERNANDES, Paulo Henrique de Souza; SILVESTRINI, Anderson Arantes; ALMEIDA, Maria Fernanda Arruda; de ARAÚJO, Antônio Luis Eiras; PITOMBO, Marcos; TEIXEIRA, Heberton Medeiros; WAECHTER, Fábio Luiz; FERREIRA, Fábio Gonçalves; DINIZ, Alessandro Landskron; D'IPPOLITO, Giuseppe; BEGNAMI, Maria Dirlei F. de Sousa; PROLLA, Gabriel; BALZAN, Silvio Márcio Pegoraro; de OLIVEIRA, Thiago Bueno; SZULTAN, Luís Arnaldo; LENDOIRE, Javier; TORRES, Orlando Jorge Martins

    2015-01-01

    Background : Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are frequent and potentially fatal event in the evolution of patients with these tumors. Aim : In this module, was contextualized the clinical situations and parameterized epidemiological data and results of the various treatment modalities established. Method: Was realized deep discussion on detecting and staging metastatic colorectal cancer, as well as employment of imaging methods in the evaluation of response to instituted systemic therapy. Results : The next step was based on the definition of which patients would have their metastases considered resectable and how to expand the amount of patients elegible for modalities with curative intent. Conclusion : Were presented clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic factors, validated to be taken into account in clinical practice. PMID:26734788

  2. Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in patients with liver metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).

    PubMed

    Kałużna, Małgorzata; Gołąb, Monika; Czepczyński, Rafał; Dworacki, Grzegorz; Bręborowicz, Danuta; Orłowski, Marcin; Katulska, Katarzyna; Klimowicz, Aleksandra; Gryczyńska, Maria; Ruchała, Marek; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common type of thyroid cancer (TC) and accounts for approximately 10% of all TC cases. Liver metastases are a rare presentation in 0.5-1% of follicular thyroid cancers, usually occurring in the setting of widely disseminated FTC disease, and their presence is associated with poor prognosis. Until now, there have been only 30 cases of FTC liver metastases described in the literature. Herein, we review publications and describe diagnostic tools that may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of FTC metastases to the liver, including biopsy and imaging techniques like US, CT, MRI, SPECT, PET, and radioiodine scintigraphy. We also present and discuss current methods of treatment, e.g. TSH suppressive therapy with levothyroxine, surgery, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), transarterial embolisation (TAE), liver transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE), chemotherapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin, treatment with Indium- 111-octreotide (or its analogues), and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib, sunitinib). At the end we describe the course, results of diagnostics, and treatment in a patient with large multiple FTC metastases to the liver. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (3): 332-347).

  3. Nutrition for the Person with Cancer during Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Nutrition for the Person With Cancer During Treatment Nutrition is an important part of cancer treatment. Eating ... good nutrition during cancer treatment Cancer and cancer treatment affect nutrition Before treatment begins Once treatment starts Managing eating ...

  4. [Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumors].

    PubMed

    Elias, D; De Baere, T

    2001-04-01

    Radiofrequency is performed with thin electrodes that are placed in the center of a tumor under ultrasonographic guidance. Radiofrequency waves induce ionic agitation which destroys neighboring tissues by heat. The most recent equipment can produce necrosis of 4-cm diameter areas. Efficacy is enhanced by blocking intrahepatic blood flow which naturally refreshes the liver parenchyma. The technique has the advantage of minimal invasion and of sparing liver parenchymal tissue. radiofrequency can be performed percutaneously or by laparoscopi or laparotomy. results in most reported series have been good with low morbidity. rapid improvment of material and of new associated procedures (vascular clamping, cooling infusion of the bile ducts, transplaeurodiaphragmatic approach, combination with other new approaches in liver surgery) are continuously modifying performance levels and potential indications curently under validation. radiofrequency, like other tools for local tumor destruction, will greatly change our therapeutic strategies in the neat future.

  5. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Min; Song, Yang; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xingyi; Cui, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC) in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group). IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day) were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies. PMID:27187454

  6. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Min; Song, Yang; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xingyi; Cui, Lianhua

    2016-05-12

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC) in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group). IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day) were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies.

  7. Curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy for residual breast cancer liver metastasis after systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kagara, Naofumi; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Ami; Inatome, Junichi; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Kim, Chiwan; Danno, Katsuki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kanoh, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Ohnishi, Tadashi; Tono, Takeshi; Monden, Takushi; Imaoka, Shingi; Kagawa, Kazufumi

    2014-11-01

    Liver metastases from breast cancer are generally treated with systemic therapy such as chemotherapy or hormonotherapy. However, local treatment options such as resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and radiotherapy can also be considered to treat oligometastases. We report the case of a 45-year-old female treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) after chemotherapy against a solitary liver metastasis from primary breast cancer. A liver metastasis with diameter of 35 mm developed 3.5 years after surgery for primary breast cancer in 2004. Fourteen courses of triweekly docetaxel treatments considerably decreased the metastatic lesion, but there still remained a tiny lesion radiographically. Chemotherapy was stopped because of the side-effects of docetaxel, and then SBRT was selected for additional treatment, aiming at complete cure of metastasis. X-ray irradiation (52.8 Gy/4 fractions) was applied to the remaining metastatic lesion, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no evidence of residual tumor 4 months after irradiation. Neither regrowth nor recurrences have been found until now, 24 months after SBRT. SBRT for oligometastases of breast cancer may be one of the possible curative-intent options, being less invasive than surgical resection or RFA.

  8. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Kidney Cancer After Treatment Living as a Kidney Cancer Survivor For some people with kidney cancer, ... Medical Records . Can I lower my risk of kidney cancer coming back? Most people want to know ...

  9. Relationship between histology and aetiological factors in primary liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N C

    1980-04-01

    A review of 205 primary hepatic cancers from different geographic areas reveals that HCC which forms the vast majority (86%) of these, commonly presents as the trabecular variety (76%). The compact and pseudoglandular forms are rare (18% and 6%). Relatively fewer cases of undifferentiated cancer, hepatoblastoma and cholangiocarcinoma are encountered. HCC is often associated with the presence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in the liver. This is particularly true of the trabecular variety (81%). A proportion of the compact variety as well as undifferentiated cancers do not appear to be related to HBV infection. Cholangio carcinomas are considered to be related to infection by liver flukes. Hepatoblastomas occur in infancy and childhood and show no known aetiologic association. Aflatoxin may be aetiologically related to same cases of HCC. Continued use of oral contraceptives can occasionally induce HCC.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of an electric current to kill cancer cells. New types of treatment are being tested in clinical ... in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. ... attack specific cancer cells. Targeted therapies usually cause less harm to normal ...

  11. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  12. Discrimination of liver cancer in cellular level based on backscatter micro-spectrum with PCA algorithm and BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Gan; Dong, Xiaona

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of the primary liver cancer are very high and its postoperative metastasis and recurrence have become important factors to the prognosis of patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTC), as a new tumor marker, play important roles in the early diagnosis and individualized treatment. This paper presents an effective method to distinguish liver cancer based on the cellular scattering spectrum, which is a non-fluorescence technique based on the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. Combining the principal component analysis (PCA) with back propagation (BP) neural network were utilized to establish an automatic recognition model for backscatter spectrum of the liver cancer cells from blood cell. PCA was applied to reduce the dimension of the scattering spectral data which obtained by the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. After dimensionality reduction by PCA, a neural network pattern recognition model with 2 input layer nodes, 11 hidden layer nodes, 3 output nodes was established. We trained the network with 66 samples and also tested it. Results showed that the recognition rate of the three types of cells is more than 90%, the relative standard deviation is only 2.36%. The experimental results showed that the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer combining with the algorithm of PCA and BP neural network can automatically identify the liver cancer cell from the blood cells. This will provide a better tool for investigating the metastasis of liver cancers in vivo, the biology metabolic characteristics of liver cancers and drug transportation. Additionally, it is obviously referential in practical application.

  13. Cancer Treatment Scams

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer the hot new thing, old-fashioned snake oil, or something in between? All cancers are different, ... Like Comparing Products Online Generic Drugs and Low-Cost Prescriptions Buying Health Products and Services Online Search ...

  14. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  15. Treatment Experience of Severe Abdominal Infection after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-G; Wu, J-S; Jiang, B; Wang, J-H; Liu, C-P; Peng, C; Tian, B-Z

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the causes and treatment experience of severe abdominal infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed in perioperative severe abdominal infection of 186 orthotopic liver transplantation cases from March 2004 to November 2011. Among the 186 patients, 16 cases had severe abdominal infection: five cases had bile duct anastomotic leakage-inducing massive hydrops and infection under liver interstice, 10 cases had extensive bleeding of surgical wound leading to massive haematocele and infection around the liver, and one case had postoperative lower oesophageal fistula leakage causing massive hydrops and infection under the left diaphragm. After definite diagnosis, 12 cases underwent surgery within three days, with no death. Among the four cases that underwent surgery three days after diagnosis, one case died of multiple-organ failure five days after abdominal cavity exploration, which was performed 21 days after liver transplantation. Severe abdominal infections after liver transplantation were the most common causes of death in perioperative liver transplantation. Comprehensive treatment with efficacious antibiotics, multiple-organ support, controlled surgical removal of the lesion, and adequate drainage establishment was the key to the entire treatment.

  16. [Treatment of liver cirrhosis - actually possibility of ambulant internist].

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Jiří; Aiglová, Květa; Konečný, Michal; Procházka, Vlastimil; Vrzalová, Drahomíra

    There are 40 000-60 000 patients with cirrhosis in the Czech Republic. 2 000 die of this disease yearly. This group of patients needs a complex treatment and it is mostly an internist cooperating with other specialists. The most important for an ambulant internist is to diagnose the disease as soon as possible and start with treatment of chronic liver disease that could lead to a cirrhosis. It means especially chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic steatosis/steatohepatitis, auto-immune liver damage and metabolic disease. The next step is to diagnose the cirrhosis in time when it is in no manifest stage. The third step is to diagnose and treat the liver decompensation. It means consequences of the portal hypertension, it is ascit, esophageal or gastric varices, hepatorenal syndrome. Next there are consequences of the metabolic insufficiency, it is icterus, coagulopathy and hepatic encephalopathy. It is necessary to diagnose and cure cholestasis from the very first extrahepatic causes. For a successful treatment of the hepatocellular carcinoma originated almost exclusively in the grounds of the cirrhosis must be early diagnosed. The ambulant internist respective hepatologist must diagnose the stage of the cirrhosis and decide when a hospitalization is necessary. Also a close cooperation with other specialists is urgent if it is about a liver transplantation. The treatment of successive stages of the cirrhosis is a topic of the showed educational article. compensated/decompensated liver cirrhosis - diet/nutrition in liver cirrhosis - etiology and diagnose of liver cirrhosis - treatment of liver insufficiency/failure - treatment of portal hypertension and its complications.

  17. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, T.S.; Robertson, J.M.; Anscher, M.S.

    1995-03-30

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. There has been a renewed interest in hepatic irradiation because of two significant advances in cancer treatment; three dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning and bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation. RILD resulting from liver radiation can usually be distinguished clinically from the resulting from the preparative regime associated with bone marrow transplantation. However, both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion; veno-occlusive disease. Recent evidence suggests that elevated transforming growth factor {beta} levels may play a role in the development of veno-occlusive disease. Three dimensional treatment planning offers the potential to determine the radiation dose and volume dependence of RILD, permitting the safe delivery of high doses of radiation to parts of the liver. The chief therapy for RILD is diuretics, although some advocate steroids of severe cases. The characteristics of RILD permit the development of a grading system modeled after the NCI Acute Common Toxicity Criteria, which incorporates standard criteria of hepatic dysfunction. 64 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards. PMID:19695098

  19. Gene Expression Patterns in Human Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Cheung, Siu Tim; So, Samuel; Fan, Sheung Tat; Barry, Christopher; Higgins, John; Lai, Kin-Man; Ji, Jiafu; Dudoit, Sandrine; Ng, Irene O.L.; van de Rijn, Matt; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Using cDNA microarrays to characterize patterns of gene expression in HCC, we found consistent differences between the expression patterns in HCC compared with those seen in nontumor liver tissues. The expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguished from those associated with tumors metastatic to liver. The global gene expression patterns intrinsic to each tumor were sufficiently distinctive that multiple tumor nodules from the same patient could usually be recognized and distinguished from all the others in the large sample set on the basis of their gene expression patterns alone. The distinctive gene expression patterns are characteristic of the tumors and not the patient; the expression programs seen in clonally independent tumor nodules in the same patient were no more similar than those in tumors from different patients. Moreover, clonally related tumor masses that showed distinct expression profiles were also distinguished by genotypic differences. Some features of the gene expression patterns were associated with specific phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the tumors, including growth rate, vascular invasion, and p53 overexpression. PMID:12058060

  20. Liver cancer cells are sensitive to Lanatoside C induced cell death independent of their PTEN status.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Irem; Guven, Ebru Bilget; Ersahin, Tulin; Ozturk, Mehmet; Calis, Ihsan; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul

    2016-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second deadliest cancer with limited treatment options. Loss of PTEN causes the P13K/Akt pathway to be hyperactive which contributes to cell survival and resistance to therapeutics in various cancers, including the liver cancer. Hence molecules targeting this pathway present good therapeutic strategies for liver cancer. It was previously reported that Cardiac glycosides possessed antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis of multiple cancer cells through oxidative stress. However, whether Cardiac glycoside Lanatoside C can induce oxidative stress in liver cancer cells and induce cell death both in vitro and in vivo remains unknown. Cell viability was measured by SRB assay. Cell death analysis was investigated by propidium iodide staining with flow cytometry and PARP cleavage. DCFH-DA staining and cytometry were used for intracellular ROS measurement. Protein levels were analyzed by western blot analysis. Antitumor activity was investigated on mice xenografts in vivo. In this study, we found that Cardiac glycosides, particularly Lanatoside C from Digitalis ferruginea could significantly inhibit PTEN protein adequate Huh7 and PTEN deficient Mahlavu human liver cancer cell proliferation by the induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest in the cells. Lanatoside C was further shown to induce oxidative stress and alter ERK and Akt pathways. Consequently, JNK1 activation resulted in extrinsic apoptotic pathway stimulation in both cells while JNK2 activation involved in the inhibition of cell survival only in PTEN deficient cells. Furthermore, nude mice xenografts followed by MRI showed that Lanatoside C caused a significant decrease in the tumor size. In this study apoptosis induction by Lanatoside C was characterized through ROS altered ERK and Akt pathways in both PTEN adequate epithelial and deficient mesenchymal liver cancer cells. The results indicated that Lanatoside C could be contemplated in liver cancer therapeutics, particularly in PTEN

  1. Dietary factors can protect against liver cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Koumbi, Lemonica

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. Most HCC patients are also suffering from chronic liver disease (CLD). Evidence is emerging that the composition of diet plays an important role in HCC and CLD development and may also have a chemoprotective role. In contrast to other types of cancer, there are few studies investigating the role of diet in hepatocarcinogenesis. From the available data it is evident that high intakes of red meat and dietary sugar positively correlate with HCC occurrence. On the contrary, high consumption of white meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and cereals are inversely associated with HCC risk. This letter discusses the potential role of dietary interventions in the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis. The increasing HCC incidence and its high fatality are making HCC prevention an urgent matter. Dietary modifications are found to offer protection against HCC, however, new studies from well-designed and large prospective trials are required to confirm these results. PMID:28217247

  2. [Family history of liver cancer increases the risk of liver cancer incidence: a 20-year prospective cohort study in Qidong, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Tu, Hong; Lu, Peixin; Wang, Jinbing; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qinan; Qian, Gengsun; Chen, Taoyang

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate whether first-degree family history of liver cancer plays a role in liver cancer incidence by prospective evaluation of a patient cohort in Qidong, China over a 20-year period. In May 1992, 708 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers and 730 HBsAg-negadve controls from Qidong city were enrolled for participation in a prospective cohort study ending in November 2012.Follow-up was carried out every 6 to 12 months, and evaluations included serum assays to measure concentrations of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), HBsAg and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as abdominal ultrasound to assess liver disease.The relationship between baseline (study entry) information of patients with first-degree family history of liver cancer and liver cancer incidence during the two decades of study was statistically assessed. There were 172 newly diagnosed liver cancer cases in the cohort during 25 753 person-years (py) of follow-up, representing an incidence of 667.88/100 000 py.The incidence rates of liver cancer among participants with or without liver cancer family history were 1 244.36/100 000 py and 509.70/100 000 py respectively, and the between-group difference reached the threshold for statistical significance (P less than 0.01, Relative Risk (RR):2.44, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.80-3.31).The incidence rates of liver cancer among participants who had a sibling with liver cancer and participants who had a parent with liver cancer were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but the liver cancer incidence among participants who had a mother with liver cancer was significantly higher than that of participants who had a father with liver cancer (P < 0.05, RR:1.86, 95% CI:1.03-3.36). Among the participants with liver cancer family history, 56.52% (39/69) were diagnosed before 50 years old, and this rate was significantly higher than that of participants without a family history of liver cancer (40.78%, 42/103, P less than 0.05).The incidence rate of liver cancer

  3. Pseudocirrhosis caused by regorafenib in an advanced rectal cancer patient with multiple liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Kensuke; Endo, Shungo; Isohata, Noriyuki; Nirei, Azuma; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Saito, Takuro; Togashi, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    A 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with unresectable advanced rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases, received oxaliplatin-based treatment with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy and irinotecan-based treatment with bevacizumab as second-line chemotherapy for a total of 17 months. The patient was treated with regorafenib (160 mg/day for 3 weeks) as third-line chemotherapy. Following completion of one course of regorafenib treatment, the patient complained of abdominal distension. Computed tomography (CT) examination identified liver atrophy and massive ascites, while no such symptoms were observed prior to the regorafenib treatment. Blood testing revealed increases in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. The patient was admitted to the Aizu Medical Center (Aizuwakamatsu, Japan). Approximately 2,000 ml of ascitic fluid were aspirated daily for 1 week by abdominal puncture. The patient was administered oral diuretics, including 20 mg/day of furosemide and 25 mg/day of spironolactone. Albumin was administered to correct the albumin deficit. The levels of AST, ALT and ALP were decreased from the peak value reported on admission and the patient was discharged from our hospital 16 days following treatment initiation. The CT examination after 1 month revealed that the volume of the liver had been restored and the ascites had disappeared. Furthermore, almost all the liver metastases were reduced in size. The carcinoembryonic antigen level, which was elevated prior to regorafenib treatment, also decreased to normal. PMID:28123730

  4. I BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES. MODULE 2: APPROACH TO RESECTABLE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Héber Salvador de Castro; TORRES, Orlando Jorge Martins; MARQUES, Márcio Carmona; HERMAN, Paulo; KALIL, Antonio Nocchi; FERNANDES, Eduardo de Souza Martins; de OLIVEIRA, Fábio Ferreira; CASTRO, Leonaldson dos Santos; HANRIOT, Rodrigo; OLIVEIRA, Suilane Coelho Ribeiro; BOFF, Marcio Fernando; da COSTA, Wilson Luiz; GIL, Roberto de Almeida; PFIFFER, Tulio Eduardo Flesch; MAKDISSI, Fabio Ferrari; ROCHA, Manoel de Souza; do AMARAL, Paulo Cezar Galvão; COSTA, Leonardo Atem Gonçalves de Araújo; ALOIA, Tomas A.; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; COIMBRA, Felipe José Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are frequent and potentially fatal event in the evolution of patients. Aim: In the second module of this consensus, management of resectable liver metastases was discussed. Method: Concept of synchronous and metachronous metastases was determined, and both scenarius were discussed separately according its prognostic and therapeutic peculiarities. Results: Special attention was given to the missing metastases due to systemic preoperative treatment response, with emphasis in strategies to avoid its reccurrence and how to manage disappeared lesions. Conclusion: Were presented validated ressectional strategies, to be taken into account in clinical practice. PMID:27120731

  5. Hepatic Stellate Cells Alter Liver Immune Environment to Promote Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer, accounting for up to 90 percent of cases, and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide according to the World Health Organization’s 2014 World Cancer Report. Even when caught early, HCC often recurs, either from intra-liver metastases or new primary tumors, and recurrence is the leading cause of death for patients with HCC. The liver microenvironment is an important contributor to HCC initiation and progression and also likely plays a role in tumor recurrence. Xin Wei Wang, Ph.D., of CCR’s Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, and his colleagues wondered whether activated hepatic stellate cells (A-HSCs), stromal cells in the liver known to participate in repair following injury and in the development of fibrosis, contribute directly to HCC recurrence.

  6. Radiographically occult intrasinusoidal liver metastases leading to hepatic failure in a case of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Seema; Khurana, Sachin; Shet, Tanuja; Gupta, Sudeep

    2016-02-15

    The liver is one of the commonest sites of metastatic involvement in breast cancer, usually evident as focal lesions on imaging tests. Rarely, the pattern of metastatic spread is so diffuse that it remains radiologically occult. Such patients usually present with signs of hepatic insufficiency without any focal lesions on liver imaging. In such cases, liver biopsy is required to make a definitive diagnosis. We report a case of a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with metastatic breast cancer who presented with subacute progressive liver failure. Repeated imaging of the liver was normal or non-descript. Liver biopsy finally established the diagnosis of intrasinusoidal metastases from breast cancer.

  7. Shizukaol D, a Dimeric Sesquiterpene Isolated from Chloranthus serratus, Represses the Growth of Human Liver Cancer Cells by Modulating Wnt Signalling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lisha; Zhu, Hengrui; Yang, Xianmei; Xie, Fang; Peng, Jingtao; Jiang, Deke; Xie, Jun; Qi, Meiyan; Yu, Long

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have become sources of developing new drugs for the treatment of cancer. To seek candidate compounds that inhibit the growth of liver cancer, components of Chloranthus serratus were tested. Here, we report that shizukaol D, a dimeric sesquiterpene from Chloranthus serratus, exerted a growth inhibition effect on liver cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We demonstrated that shizukaol D induced cells to undergo apoptosis. More importantly, shizukaol D attenuated Wnt signalling and reduced the expression of endogenous Wnt target genes, which resulted in decreased expression of β-catenin. Collectively, this study demonstrated that shizukaol D inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by modulating Wnt pathway.

  8. Immunotoxin Targeting Glypican-3 Effective against Liver Tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Worldwide, liver cancer is the fifth most common malignancy, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes up about two-thirds of those cases. Unfortunately, surgery is still the most effective treatment for HCC but is only available to patients diagnosed at early stages. HCC is known for being particularly drug resistant, sorafenib being the only FDA-approved chemotherapy currently available. Thus, new strategies for treating the disease are urgently needed.

  9. [Clinical features and symptomatic treatment of liver metastasis in the terminally ill patient].

    PubMed

    De Conno, F; Polastri, D

    1996-01-01

    The incidence of liver metastasis is quite frequent in patients with advanced cancer. Some patients are asintomatic, but more often a correlation can be present between the clinical observation and the anatomic and functional alteration of the liver provoked by metastasis. Hepatomegaly may cause pain, dyspnea, hiccup. Biliary obstruction generates jaundice and itching. Portal hypertension may cause ascitis, encephalopathy, varices of the esophagus. Hepatic failure may produce symptoms like sopor, dysrasic oedema, coagulation problems, jaundice. The treatment of the symptoms listed above is crucial for the quality of life of these patients, and must be the mainstay of the therapeutic approach. This paper describes the palliative treatment of the clinical complications related to liver metastasis.

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Review: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aijaz; Wong, Robert J; Harrison, Stephen A

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of abnormal serum aminotransferase levels in both developed and developing countries. Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subset of NAFLD, are at risk for progressive liver disease and in need of effective treatment options. A practical approach may be pursued by identifying patients with NAFLD with the highest likelihood for histologic evidence of NASH. Despite decades of clinical trials, no single treatment can be recommended to all patients with NASH. Importantly, there is no evidence that pioglitazone or vitamin E improves fibrosis. Bariatric surgeries may improve hepatic histology in morbidly obese patients with NASH, although randomized clinical trials are lacking. Currently, NASH is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. The primary and secondary prevention of NAFLD may require aggressive strategies for managing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Laparoscopic combined colorectal and liver resections for primary colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Takorov, Ivelin; Lukanova, Tsonka; Atanasov, Boiko; Dzharov, Georgi; Djurkov, Ventzeslav; Odisseeva, Evelina; Vladov, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Synchronous liver metastases (SLMs) are found in 15-25% of patients at the time of diagnosis with colorectal cancer, which is limited to the liver in 30% of patients. Surgical resection is the most effective and potentially curative therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of the liver. The comparison of simultaneous resection of primary CRC and synchronous liver metastases with staged resections is the subject of debate with respect to morbidity. Laparoscopic surgery improves postoperative recovery, diminishes postoperative pain, reduces wound infections, shortens hospitalization, and yields superior cosmetic results, without compromising the oncological outcome. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate our initial experience with simultaneous laparoscopic resection of primary CRC and SLM. Methods Currently, laparoscopic resection of primary CRC is performed in more than 53% of all patients in our surgical department. Twenty-six patients with primary CRC and a clinical diagnosis of SLM underwent combined laparoscopic colorectal and liver surgery. Six of them underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection combined with major laparoscopic liver resection. Results The surgical approaches were total laparoscopic (25 patients) or hybrid technique (1 patients). The incision created for the extraction of the specimen varied between 5 and 8cm. The median operation time was 223 minutes (100 to 415 min.) with a total blood loss of 180 ml (100-300 ml). Postoperative hospital stay was 6.8 days (6-14 days). Postoperative complications were observed in 6 patients (22.2%). Conclusions Simultaneous laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection appears to be safe, feasible, and with satisfying short-term results in selected patients with CRC and SLM. PMID:28261695

  12. Pharmacokinetic variations in cancer patients with liver dysfunction: applications and challenges of pharmacometabolomics.

    PubMed

    Aboel Dahab, Ali; El-Hag, Dhia; Moutamed, Gamal M; Aboel Dahab, Sarah; Abuknesha, Ramadan; Smith, Norman W

    2016-09-01

    In cancer patients, pharmacokinetic variations between individuals and within individuals due to impairments in organs' function and other reasons such as genetic polymorphisms represent a major problem in disease management, which can result in unpredictable toxicity and variable antineoplastic effects. Addressing pharmacokinetic variations in cancer patients with liver dysfunction and their implications on anticancer and analgesic drugs, in addition to the use of advanced analytical techniques such as metabolomics and pharmacometabolomics, to monitor altered kinetic and discover metabolic biomarkers during therapeutic intervention will help in understanding and reducing pharmacokinetic variations of drugs in cancer patients as a step forward towards personalised medicine. Reviewing published literature addressing and/or related to complications resulting from altered pharmacokinetics (PKs) in cancer patients with liver dysfunction, anticancer and analgesic drugs, evaluating recent advances of pharmacokinetic detection using metabolomics/pharmacometabolomics and the challenges that are currently facing these techniques. The current situation presents a pressing need to reduce pharmacokinetic variations of drugs in cancer patients. Although most of the omics technologies are not entirely focussed on the study of pharmacokinetic variations and some studies are met with uncertainty, the use of pharmacometabolomics combined with other omics technology such as pharmacogenomics can provide clues to personalised cancer treatments by providing useful information about the cancer patient's response to medical interventions via identification of patients' dependent variables, understanding of correlations between individuals and population PKs, and therapy outcomes to achieve optimum therapeutic effects with minimum toxicity. We also propose an approach for PKs' evaluation using pharmacometabolomics.

  13. Complete pathological response of multiple huge liver metastases of colon cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Keishi; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Emi, Manabu; Omori, Ichiro; Kohashi, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Mayumi; Ohdan, Hideki; Hirabayashi, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    We report a case of a pathological complete response (pCR) with chemotherapy for multiple huge liver metastases from colon cancer. A 59-year-old woman presented with anorexia and weight loss. Laboratory tests revealed elevated liver enzyme levels and tumor markers. A computed tomography/positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed a transverse colon tumor and unresectable liver masses measuring 9.0 cm in maximum diameter in segments 7 and 8, with another mass in segment 6. She underwent laparoscopic colectomy and was administered FOLFOX + BV. After 11-cycles of chemotherapy, the liver masses became resectable with a partial response, so hepatectomy was performed. On the final histopathological analysis, all lesions were fibrotic without any viable cancer cells. The patient is alive without recurrence 2 years after resection. We believe this is the largest tumor of unresectable colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) that has ever resulted in pCR with chemotherapy. FOLFOX + Bev was thus found to be an effective treatment for unresectable CRLM.

  14. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO2/FiO2), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (P<0.05), of which TBIL and ALT were decreased more significantly (P<0.01) in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups. Only changes in the PE+HP+CVVHDF and PE+CVVHDF groups were statistically significant after prothrombin time and albumin treatment (P<0.05). The difference between the decrease in TBIL in the PE+HP+CVVHDF group and that in the HP+CVVHDF group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment of the 61 patients using the artificial liver support system yielded a survival rate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure. PMID:28105119

  15. Liver failure posthepatectomy and biliary fistula: multidisciplinar treatment.

    PubMed

    Calleja Kempin, Javier; Colón Rodríguez, Arturo; Machado Liendo, Pedro; Acevedo, Agustín; Martín Gil, Jorge; Sánchez Rodríguez, Teresa; Zorrilla Matilla, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The main cause of morbimor-mortality after major liver surgery is the development of liver failure posthepatectomy(LFPH). Treatment must involve multiple options and will be aggressive from the beginning. We report a case of a patient with cholangiocarcinoma perihilar treated with surgery: right hepatectomy extended to sI + IVb with develop of LFPH and biliary fistula and being management successfully in a multidisciplinary way.

  16. Plasma for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  17. Treatment of osteoporosis in patients with chronic liver disease and in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Naim M; Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of osteoporosis in chronic liver disease and post-liver transplantation is complex and heterogeneous. The development of hepatic osteodystrophy may be related to both increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. Available medical treatments can be broadly classified into antiresorptive and bone-stimulating agents. Most published studies on the treatment of osteoporosis in patients with liver disease have used the commonly prescribed antiosteoporosis drugs approved for postmenopausal osteoporosis. These studies have included a small number of subjects and used bone mineral density (BMD) changes rather than fracture occurrence as an endpoint because of the short follow-up. Although the increases in BMD are promising, no intervention is proven to have antifracture efficacy in hepatic osteodystrophy. The natural history of bone disease following liver transplantation has not been fully investigated, although studies suggest that bone mineral loss is transient and generally reverses within a year following transplantation. The approach to treatment in liver transplant recipients should be targeted at preventing the early bone loss without interfering with the later recovery. Based on the available data, no single available agent can be considered as first-line therapy. In our opinion, the best treatment approach involves the elucidation of modifiable risk factors and the selection of agents targeted at the underlying derangements.

  18. Effects of respiratory motion on in-vivo HIFU treatments: a comparative study in the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Miller, N. R.; Bamber, J. C.; Chapelon, J. Y.; Melodelima, D.

    2010-03-01

    Current development of HIFU strategies for the treatment of localized abdominal tumors are limited by organ motion during respiration. In preliminary studies, a numerical model simulated the effects of in-vivo movements on HIFU treatments in the liver. It was shown that a HIFU treatment performed during respiration with juxtaposition of millimetrics lesions is modified in shape and homogeneity. Here, we report recent results from a comparative study which evaluated in simulation and in in-vivo experiments, the interest of using, during respiratory, a toroidal-shaped HIFU device developed for the treatment of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer. These experiments were performed during an open procedure, on 9 pigs divided into 3 groups. On the first group, a spherical HIFU transducer was used to juxtapose 49 millimetrics lesions in the liver during respiration. The second group was treated during respiration with a 3 MHz toroidal-shaped HIFU transducer. The last group (control) was treated during apnea. For each animal, sequences of ultrasound images were acquired in the liver. Then, a combined method of modeling based on ultrasound speckle tracking and BHTE equation resolution, was used to quantify liver motion and to simulate HIFU treatments during breathing. Liver motions were mainly encountered in the cranial-caudal direction with a frequency comparable to the respiratory frequency (f = 0.2 Hz). Magnitude of the motion was 8.2-10.0 mm. Results of the modeling were well fitted to the observations made on in-vivo gross samples. In vivo lesions created with the spherical device were stretched by 64% and then were split in the tissues. The toroidal-shaped HIFU strategy allowed the generation of homogeneous lesions (12% stretching). These results provide a preliminary validation of the method for modeling liver motion effects. This method was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a new HIFU device which shows promise for HIFU therapy during respiration.

  19. Primary cancer of the liver in Kenyan children.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, H. M.; Warwick, G. P.

    1977-01-01

    In 9 years in Kenya, 34 examples of primary liver cancer wer diagnosed in patients in the first two decades of life. This represents 4.7% of all liver cancers during this period. The larger proportion (29) were hepatocellular carcinoma. In the second decade, there was a notable association with macronodular cirrhosis. Analogy with experimental work suggests that cells in mitotic cycle may be more vulnerable to the effect of environmental carcinogens. Five examples of hepatoblastoma were identified at ages from 2 months to 14 years; none showed the features of "mixed" tumours. The ratio of hepatoblastoma to hepatocellular carcinoma was the reverse of that found in other large series of juvenile hepatic tumours. The histopathological features of these tumours are described and problems of their classification are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:202298

  20. Obesity, autophagy and the pathogenesis of liver and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Aghajan, Mariam; Li, Ning; Karin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Liver and pancreatic cancers are both highly lethal diseases with limited to no therapeutic options for patients. Recent studies suggest that deregulated autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases by perturbing cellular homeostasis and laying the foundation for disease development. While accumulation of p62 upon impaired autophagy has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma, its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains less clear. This review will focus on recent studies illustrating the role of autophagy in liver and pancreatic cancers. The relationships between autophagy, nuclear factor-κB signaling and obesity in hepatocellular carcinoma will be discussed, as well as the dual role of autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Oxaliplatin-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, JUNG-HYE; WON, YOUNG-WOONG; KIM, HYUN SUNG; OH, YOUNG-HA; LIM, SANGHYEOK; KIM, HAN-JOON

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, it may cause liver injury, particularly sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Although SOS does not usually present with focal lesions on radiological images, the present study describes the case of a 22-year-old woman with oxaliplatin-induced SOS mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver. An abdominal computed tomography revealed a novel 1 cm, low-density lesion in segment 1 of the liver following the administration of the fourth round of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. Since the lesion was indistinguishable from metastasis, even with detailed imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, an isolated caudate lobectomy was planned. The cut surface of the resected liver showed a localized reddish congested lesion measuring 1.4 cm in diameter. The adjacent hepatic parenchyma also demonstrated diffuse sinusoidal congestion with a nutmeg-like appearance. Histologically, the lesion exhibited severe sinusoidal congestion with peliosis hepatis-like features. The widened sinusoidal space was outlined by markedly attenuated hepatic cords and filled with erythrocytes. The final diagnosis was oxaliplatin-induced SOS. The patient recovered completely and was relapse-free at the time of writing. PMID:27073565

  2. Outcomes of microwave ablation for colorectal cancer liver metastases: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Eng, Oliver S; Tsang, Ashley T; Moore, Dirk; Chen, Chunxia; Narayanan, Sumana; Gannon, Christopher J; August, David A; Carpizo, Darren R; Melstrom, Laleh G

    2015-03-15

    Surgical management of colorectal cancer liver metastases continues to evolve to optimize oncologic outcomes while maximizing parenchymal preservation. Long-term data after intraoperative microwave ablation are limited. This study investigates outcomes and patterns of recurrence in patients who underwent intraoperative microwave ablation. A retrospective analysis of 33 patients who underwent intraoperative microwave ablation of colorectal cancer liver metastases from 2009 to 2013 at our institution was performed. Perioperative and long-term data were reviewed to determine outcomes and patterns of recurrence. A total of 49 tumors were treated, ranging 0.5-5.5 cm in size. Median Clavien-Dindo classification was one. Median follow-up was 531 days, with 13 (39.4%) patients presenting with a recurrence. Median time to first recurrence was 364 days. In those patients, 1 (7.8%) presented with an isolated local recurrence in the liver. Only 1 of 7 ablated tumors greater than 3 cm recurred (14.3%). Overall survival was 35.2% at 4 years, with a 19.3% disease-free survival at 3.5 years. No perioperative variables predicted systemic or local recurrence. Intraoperative microwave ablation is a safe and effective modality for use in the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases in tumors as large as 5.5 cm in size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection for unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei-qun; Yu, Nan-rong; Liu, Hai-ying

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection in patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Clinical data of 23 patients with multiple liver metastases form colorectal cancer in the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College between January 2005 and December 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 15 males and 8 females with average age of 52.2 years. All the patients underwent hepatectomy combined with ultrasound-guided cryoablation and ethanol injection intraoperatively. Among 98 lesions in 23 patients, 45 were removed intraoperatively and 53 were treated by cryoablation and ethanol injection. Operative time for liver lesions ranged from 27 to 96 minutes and intraoperative blood loss 50 to 450 ml. One patient developed pleural effusion and 1 myoglobinuria after operation. All the patients were followed up with a median follow-up time of 34 months(8 to 70 months). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 83.2%, 45.5% and 37.6% respectively. Hepatectomy combined with cryoablation and ethanol injection is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with unresectable multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

  4. Treatment of addictive behaviors in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Lucey, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    Very little addiction treatment research has been done concerning smoking cessation, illicit drugs, or even alcohol abuse in liver transplant patients. Our data suggest that a surprising number of patients who are awaiting a liver transplant for alcohol-related end-stage liver disease will return to drinking before transplantation. We found that motivational enhancement therapy afforded no marked benefit over treatment as usual for drinking, smoking, mood, or general health outcomes in alcoholics awaiting liver transplantation. Stably abstinent methadone-maintained opiate-dependent patients should not be tapered off methadone; are generally good candidates for liver transplant; show low relapse rates into illicit use of opiates; and may be at risk for more medical complications than their counterparts. Pre- and posttransplantation smoking rates are high and cause marked morbidity and mortality. Transplant teams should encourage smoking cessation treatments.Marijuana use in liver transplant recipients is not uncommon, and apart from the risk of developing aspergillosis, additional health risks have not yet been identified.

  5. Non-viral causes of liver cancer: does obesity led inflammation play a role?

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Badr; Iseli, Tristan J; Hebbard, Lionel W

    2014-04-10

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for around 90% of primary liver cancers. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are two of most common causes of liver cancer. However, there are non-viral factors that are associated with liver cancer development. Numerous population studies have revealed strong links between obesity and the development of liver cancer. Obesity can alter hepatic pathology, metabolism and promote inflammation, leading to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the progression to the more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterised by prominent steatosis and inflammation, and can lead to HCC. Here, we discuss the role of obesity in inflammation and the principal signalling mechanisms involved in HCC formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis B testing for liver cancer control among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Maxwell, Annette E; Jo, Angela M

    2007-01-01

    In Los Angeles County, Koreans surpass all other groups with respect to liver cancer incidence and mortality. An estimated 80%-85% of all liver cancer is etiologically related to chronic hepatitis B viral infection. Hepatitis B serologic testing of adult immigrants from highly endemic areas such as Asia is recommended as the first step in the control of hepatitis B infection and associated morbidities including liver cancer. To collect pilot data to obtain an initial understanding of hepatitis B serologic testing and vaccination rates and associated knowledge and beliefs in a community sample of Korean adults (N=141, 85% foreign born, mean age 45 years) in the greater Los Angeles area. Cross-sectional survey. Five Korean Christian churches and one Korean-serving primary care clinic. The hepatitis B serologic testing rate in our sample was 56%. Approximately one quarter of those tested reported that they were either chronic carriers or were immune as a result of a previous infection. Of those who remained susceptible to future infections, only 38% reported having been vaccinated. Constructs from our conceptual model, the Health Behavior Framework, were significant predictors of serologic testing, including hepatitis B knowledge, barriers to testing, and receipt of a physician's recommendation to get tested. Findings suggest that intervention research is urgently needed to increase hepatitis B awareness and testing among Korean American adults with subsequent vaccination and followup as indicated.

  7. Practice guidelines for the pathological diagnosis of primary liver cancer: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wen-Ming; Bu, Hong; Chen, Jie; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Yu-Yao; Feng, Long-Hai; Chen, Jun; Committee, Guideline

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a panel of Chinese pathologists reported the first expert consensus for the pathological diagnosis of primary liver cancers to address the many contradictions and inconsistencies in the pathological characteristics and diagnostic criteria for PLC. Since then considerable clinicopathological studies have been conducted globally, prompting us to update the practice guidelines for the pathological diagnosis of PLC. In April 18, 2014, a Guideline Committee consisting of 40 specialists from seven Chinese Societies (including Chinese Society of Liver Cancer, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Liver Cancer Study Group, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Digestive Disease Group, Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Surgery, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Pathological Group of Hepatobiliary Tumor and Liver Transplantation, Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Medical Association) was created for the formulation of the first guidelines for the standardization of the pathological diagnosis of PLC, mainly focusing on the following topics: gross specimen sampling, concepts and diagnostic criteria of small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC), microvascular invasion (MVI), satellite nodules, and immunohistochemical and molecular diagnosis. The present updated guidelines are reflective of current clinicopathological studies, and include a novel 7-point baseline sampling protocol, which stipulate that at least four tissue specimens should be sampled at the junction of the tumor and adjacent liver tissues in a 1:1 ratio at the 12, 3, 6 and 9 o’clock reference positions. For the purposes of molecular pathological examination, at least one specimen should be sampled at the intratumoral zone, but more specimens should be sampled for tumors harboring different textures or colors

  8. Practice guidelines for the pathological diagnosis of primary liver cancer: 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wen-Ming; Bu, Hong; Chen, Jie; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Yu-Yao; Feng, Long-Hai; Chen, Jun; Committee, Guideline

    2016-11-14

    In 2010, a panel of Chinese pathologists reported the first expert consensus for the pathological diagnosis of primary liver cancers to address the many contradictions and inconsistencies in the pathological characteristics and diagnostic criteria for PLC. Since then considerable clinicopathological studies have been conducted globally, prompting us to update the practice guidelines for the pathological diagnosis of PLC. In April 18, 2014, a Guideline Committee consisting of 40 specialists from seven Chinese Societies (including Chinese Society of Liver Cancer, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Liver Cancer Study Group, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Digestive Disease Group, Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Surgery, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Pathological Group of Hepatobiliary Tumor and Liver Transplantation, Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Medical Association) was created for the formulation of the first guidelines for the standardization of the pathological diagnosis of PLC, mainly focusing on the following topics: gross specimen sampling, concepts and diagnostic criteria of small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC), microvascular invasion (MVI), satellite nodules, and immunohistochemical and molecular diagnosis. The present updated guidelines are reflective of current clinicopathological studies, and include a novel 7-point baseline sampling protocol, which stipulate that at least four tissue specimens should be sampled at the junction of the tumor and adjacent liver tissues in a 1:1 ratio at the 12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock reference positions. For the purposes of molecular pathological examination, at least one specimen should be sampled at the intratumoral zone, but more specimens should be sampled for tumors harboring different textures or colors

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed by surgery. If the cancer has spread, palliative treatment can improve the patient's quality of life ... and cannot be removed, the following types of palliative surgery may be done to relieve symptoms and ...

  10. Alcohol, nutrition and liver cancer: Role of Toll-like receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    French, Samuel W; Oliva, Joan; French, Barbara A; Li, Jun; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence that ties the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the natural immune pro-inflammatory response to chronic liver disease, with a focus on the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling as the mechanism of liver stem cell/progenitor transformation to HCC. Two exemplary models of this phenomenon are reviewed in detail. One model applies chronic ethanol/lipopolysaccharide feeding to the activated TLR4 signaling pathway. The other applies chronic feeding of a carcinogenic drug, in which TLR2 and 4 signaling pathways are activated. In the drug-induced model, two major methyl donors, S-adenosylmethionine and betaine, prevent the upregulation of the TLR signaling pathways and abrogate the stem cell/progenitor proliferation response when fed with the carcinogenic drug. This observation supports a nutritional approach to liver cancer prevention and treatment. The observation that upregulation of the TLR signaling pathways leads to liver tumor formation gives evidence to the popular concept that the chronic pro-inflammatory response is an important mechanism of liver oncogenesis. It provides a nutritional approach, which could prevent HCC from developing in many chronic liver diseases. PMID:20238401

  11. Managing synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a multidisciplinary international consensus.

    PubMed

    Adam, René; de Gramont, Aimery; Figueras, Joan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kunstlinger, Francis; Loyer, Evelyne; Poston, Graeme; Rougier, Philippe; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Sobrero, Alberto; Teh, Catherine; Tejpar, Sabine; Van Cutsem, Eric; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Påhlman, Lars

    2015-11-01

    An international panel of multidisciplinary experts convened to develop recommendations for managing patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (CRCLM). A modified Delphi method was used. CRCLM is defined as liver metastases detected at or before diagnosis of the primary CRC. Early and late metachronous metastases are defined as those detected ⩽12months and >12months after surgery, respectively. To provide information on potential curability, use of high-quality contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) before chemotherapy is recommended. Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used preoperatively to aid detection of subcentimetric metastases, and alongside CT in difficult situations. To evaluate operability, radiology should provide information on: nodule size and number, segmental localization and relationship with major vessels, response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, non-tumoral liver condition and anticipated remnant liver volume. Pathological evaluation should assess response to preoperative chemotherapy for both the primary tumour and metastases, and provide information on the tumour, margin size and micrometastases. Although the treatment strategy depends on the clinical scenario, the consensus was for chemotherapy before surgery in most cases. When the primary CRC is asymptomatic, liver surgery may be performed first (reverse approach). When CRCLM are unresectable, the goal of preoperative chemotherapy is to downsize tumours to allow resection. Hepatic resection should not be denied to patients with stable disease after optimal chemotherapy, provided an adequate liver remnant with inflow and outflow preservation remains. All patients with synchronous CRCLM should be evaluated by a hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team.

  12. Overview: Where does radiation therapy fit in the spectrum of liver cancer local-regional therapies?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Laura A

    2011-10-01

    Experience with radiation therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastases has increased rapidly in the past decade. This is principally because of advances in imaging and radiation techniques that can conform high doses to focal cancers and to a better understanding of how to avoid radiation-induced liver toxicity. Guidelines on how to use radiation therapy safely are becoming more clearly established, and reports of tumor control at 2 to 5 years show the potential for cure after radiation therapy for early-stage HCC and liver metastases. For both HCC and liver metastases, the best outcomes after radiation therapy are found in patients with fewer than 3 lesions that are <6 cm in size, with intact liver function and no extrahepatic metastases. There is a strong rationale for using radiation therapy in patients unsuitable for or with expected poor outcomes after standard local-regional therapies. These patients tend to have advanced tumors (large, multifocal, or invading vessels) and/or impaired liver function, reducing the chance of cure and increasing the chance of toxicity. In these patients, the benefits of radiation therapy over systemic therapy or best supportive therapy should be established in randomized trials.

  13. Treatment of resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Johan L.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Coit, Daniel G.; Shah, Manish A.; Verheij, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, despite its declining overall incidence. Although there are differences in incidence, etiology and pathological factors, most studies do not separately analyze cardia and noncardia gastric cancer. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for advanced, resectable gastric cancer, but locoregional relapse rate is high with a consequently poor prognosis. To improve survival, several preoperative and postoperative treatment strategies have been investigated. Whereas perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) are considered standard therapy in the Western world, in Asia postoperative monochemotherapy with S-1 is often used. Several other therapeutic options, although generally not accepted as standard treatment, are postoperative combination chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and preoperative radiotherapy and CRT. Postoperative combination chemotherapy does show a statistically significant but clinically equivocal survival advantage in several meta-analyses. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is mainly performed in Asia and is associated with a higher postoperative complication rate. Based on the currently available data, the use of postoperative radiotherapy alone and the use of intraoperative radiotherapy should not be advised in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Western randomized trials on gastric cancer are often hampered by slow or incomplete accrual. Reduction of toxicity for preoperative and especially postoperative treatment is essential for the ongoing improvement of gastric cancer care. PMID:22282708

  14. Somatic microsatellite variability as a predictive marker for colorectal cancer and liver cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Vaksman, Zalman; Garner, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites (MSTs) are short tandem repeated genetic motifs that comprise ~3% of the genome. MST instability (MSI), defined as acquired/lost primary alleles at a small subset of microsatellite loci (e.g. Bethesda markers), is a clinically relevant marker for colorectal cancer. However, these markers are not applicable to other types of cancers, specifically, for liver cancer which has a high mortality rate. Here we show that somatic MST variability (SMV), defined as the presence of additional, non-primary (aka minor) alleles at MST loci, is a complementary measure of MSI, and a genetic marker for colorectal and liver cancer. Re-analysis of Illumina sequenced exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas indicates that SMV may distinguish a subpopulation of African American patients with colorectal cancer, which represents ~33% of the population in this study. Further, for liver cancer, a higher rate of SMV may be indicative of an earlier age of onset. The work presented here suggests that classical MSI should be expanded to include SMV, going beyond alterations of the primary alleles at a small number of microsatellite loci. This measure of SMV may represent a potential new diagnostic for a variety of cancers and may provide new information for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25691061

  15. [Value of spectral CT-based quantitative analysis in differential diagnosis of liver cancer and liver abscess].

    PubMed

    Gao, H Q; Hu, C H; Yu, Y X; Hu, S; Shi, C; Wang, X M; Guo, L

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To investigate the value of spectral CT-based quantitative analysis in the differential diagnosis of liver cancer and liver abscess. Methods: A total of 70 patients with space-occupying lesions in the liver(45 with liver cancer and 25 with liver abscess)underwent spectral CT scans to obtain spectral images in the arterial phase and portal venous phase. The solid constituents of lesions and the iodine and water concentrations in necrotic or cystic parts of lesions, normal hepatic tissue, and abdominal aorta in the arterial phase and portal venous phase were measured, and the normalized iodine concentration(NIC)and lesion-to-normal hepatic tissue ratio(LNR)of iodine concentration were calculated. The two samples t-test and the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve analysis were performed for the quantitative indices above. Results: The patients with liver cancer had higher NIC and LNR in solid constituents in the arterial phase than those with liver abscess(NIC: 0.15±0.06 mg/ml vs 0.14±0.02 mg/ml, P > 0.05; LNR: 2.78±0.65 vs 1.45±0.88, P < 0.001). The patients with liver abscess had significantly higher NIC and LNR in solid constituents in the portal venous phase than those with liver cancer(NIC: 0.65±0.08 mg/ml vs 0.52±0.08 mg/ml, P≤0.001; LNR: 1.22±0.23 vs 0.95±0.15, P≤0.001). There were no significant differences in NIC in the arterial phase or NIC and LNR in the portal venous phase in necrotic or cystic parts of lesions between the patients with liver cancer and liver abscess(P > 0.05). The optimal quantitative value for the differential diagnosis of liver cancer and liver abscess was LNR in arterial phase, and the cut-off value of 1.53 had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 92%. Conclusion: Quantitative iodine concentration analysis in spectral CT imaging has a certain value in the differential diagnosis of liver cancer and liver abscess and can improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  17. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lymph and help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast ... the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller. Small clusters of cancer cells (larger than 0.2 millimeter ...

  18. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... before they spread. How Having Cancer Increases Infection Risk As part of your immune system, your white ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  19. Eribulin in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Umang; Shah, Umang; Goel, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Halichondrin B is a complex, natural, polyether macrolide derived from marine sponges. Eribulin is a structurally-simplified, synthetic, macrocyclic ketone analogue of Halichondrin B. Eribulin was approved by United States Food and Drug Administration in 2010 as a third-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer patients who have previously been treated with an anthracycline and a taxane. It has a unique microtubule dynamics inhibitory action. Phase III studies have either been completed or are currently ongoing in breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Phase I and II studies in multiple cancers and various combinations are currently ongoing. This article reviews the available information on eribulin with respect to its clinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, metabolism, preclinical studies, and with special focus on clinical trials. PMID:26262627

  20. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of hypopharyngeal cancer include a sore throat and ear pain. These and other signs and ... A change in voice. Tests that examine the throat and neck are used to help detect (find) ...

  1. Nek2 siRNA therapy using a portal venous port-catheter system for liver metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kokuryo, Toshio; Hibino, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazushi; Watanabe, Katsutaka; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato; Senga, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2016-09-01

    Nek2 (NIMA-related kinase 2) is a serine-threonine kinase and human homolog of the mitotic regulator NIMA of Aspergillus nidulan. We reported the efficiency of Nek2 siRNA in several cancer xenograft models using cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to treat due to its rapid progression and resistance to chemotherapy. Novel treatments are urgently required to improve survival in pancreatic cancer, and siRNA are a promising therapeutic option. However, finding an in vivo drug delivery system of siRNA remains a major problem for clinical application. In this study, the overexpression of Nek2 was identified in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Nek2 siRNA inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer, prolonged the survival time in an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model and efficiently prevented the progression of liver metastasis using a portal venous port-catheter system. Taken together, Nek2 is an effective therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. An adequate delivery system is considered important in treating advanced pancreatic cancer, such as peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis. Further investigations are required on the safety and side effects of the portal venous port-catheter system. We hope that Nek2 siRNA will be a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination.

  2. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F.; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C.; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining–based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining–aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  3. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F; Dela Rosa, Mira Anne C; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining-based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining-aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  4. [A Case of Rectal Cancer with Unresectable Liver Metastasis Responding to Rechallenge with FOLFIRI].

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Mariko; Yoneyama, Katsuya; Doi, Yuki; Shirai, Junya; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Hatori, Shinsuke; Yamada, Takanobu; Sato, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Naoto; Oshima, Takashi; Yukawa, Norio; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2016-11-01

    A 63-year-old man underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer.A synchronous liver metastasis located in segment 8 was 12 cm in diameter and unresectable due to its proximity to the inferior vena cava(IVC).The postoperative pathological findings revealed a T3(SS), N0, M1(liver)Stage IV tumor, and wild type K-RAS was expressed.We chose FOLFIRI plus cetuximab(Cmab)for first-line chemotherapy.After 6 courses, we changed the molecular target drug from Cmab to bevacizumab( Bmab)because the liver metastasis remained unresectable.The patient had long-term stable disease(SD)for approximately 30 months with the FOLFIRI-based regimen.We then changed the regimen to mFOLFOX6 plus Bmab for second-line, Cmab for third-line, and trifluridine/tipiracil hydrochloride for fourth-line chemotherapy to treat progressive disease(PD).After treatment with these chemotherapies, the patient wished to continue treatment.We restarted FOLFIRI plus Bmab for fifth-line chemotherapy as his general condition was still good.Consequently, his tumor markers levels decreased with stabilization of the disease on CT scans, and he continued therapy for 6 months while maintaining a good quality of life.This case suggested that rechallenge with anti-cancer agents could be effective and improve the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients after using all key drugs.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Small Intestine Cancer Treatment Research Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  6. Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of liver transplantation in adults. Although the recurrence of HCV infection after liver transplantation is nearly universal, the recent advances in direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents have revolutionized the management of HCV infection in the posttransplant setting. A number of these agents have been evaluated in recent clinical trials and have shown high sustained virologic response rates, shorter durations of treatment, and decreased adverse events when compared with the previous treatment of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This article will review the current literature on the efficacy, tolerability, and potential drug interactions of various DAA agents in patients with recurrent HCV infection posttransplant.

  7. Liver resection for ovarian cancer liver metastases as part of cytoreductive surgery is safe and may bring survival benefit.

    PubMed

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Dima, Simona; Brasoveanu, Vladislav; David, Leonard; Balescu, Irina; Purnichescu-Purtan, Raluca; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether hepatic resections of ovarian cancer liver metastases provide a benefit in terms of survival as part of primary, secondary, tertiary, and even quaternary cytoreductive surgery. Data of patients submitted to surgery for ovarian cancer liver metastases at Fundeni Clinical Institute between January 2002 and April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Liver lesions were classified according to their origin in parenchymal and peritoneal lesions. A total of 31 patients were identified: 11 of them underwent liver resection as part of primary cytoreduction, 15 at secondary cytoreduction, 3 at tertiary cytoreduction, and 2 at the time of quaternary cytoreduction. The survival of patients with primary cytoreduction including liver resection was significantly higher compared with that of patients with secondary cytoreductive surgery including liver resection (15.63 versus 6.63 months, log-rank p=0.057, 90% CI). The median survival of patients with hepatectomy for liver metastases from peritoneal seeding was higher than that of patients with hepatectomy for liver metastases from hematogenous origin (16.08 versus 12.66 months, log-rank p=0.523). Hepatectomy in ovarian cancer liver metastases is a safe and effective procedure; however, a benefit in terms of survival in favor of peritoneal seeding has been systematically observed.

  8. Low doses of paclitaxel enhance liver metastasis of breast cancer cells in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Ma, Zhuang; Liu, Yinhua; Kan, Xiaoxi; Wang, Changjun; Su, Bingnan; Li, Yuchen; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Pingzhang; Luo, Yang; Na, Daxiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhang, Guoying; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lu

    2016-08-01

    Paclitaxel is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment. In addition to its well-known cytotoxic effects, recent studies have shown that paclitaxel has tumor-supportive activities. Importantly, paclitaxel levels are not maintained at the effective concentration through one treatment cycle; rather, the concentration decreases during the cycle as a result of drug metabolism. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of paclitaxel's effects requires insight into the dose-specific activities of paclitaxel and their influence on cancer cells and the host microenvironment. Here we report that a low dose of paclitaxel enhances metastasis of breast cancer cells to the liver in mouse models. We used microarray analysis to investigate gene expression patterns in invasive breast cancer cells treated with low or clinically relevant high doses of paclitaxel. We also investigated the effects of low doses of paclitaxel on cell migration, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that low doses of paclitaxel promoted inflammation and initiated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which enhanced tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. These effects could be reversed by inhibiting NF-κB. Furthermore, low doses of paclitaxel promoted liver metastasis in mouse xenografts, which correlated with changes in estrogen metabolism in the host liver. Collectively, these findings reveal the paradoxical and dose-dependent effects of paclitaxel on breast cancer cell activity, and suggest that increased consideration be given to potential adverse effects associated with low concentrations of paclitaxel during treatment. Gene expression microarray data are available in the GEO database under accession number GSE82048. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  9. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Labine, Meaghan A.; Green, Chris; Mak, Giselle; Xue, Lin; Nowatzki, Janet; Griffith, Jane; Minuk, Gerald Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada. PMID:26633441

  10. Dual-contrast MR imaging of liver cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-03-01

    MR contrast agents increase hepatic tumor conspicuity, as measured in terms of contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios. With an animal model of hepatic metastases from breast cancer, IV administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) shows a biphasic time response, transiently increasing the signal intensity of liver relative to tumor, with C/N ratio magnitudes increasing from -5.7 to -16.3 (SE 250/20); after a delay, the signal intensity of tumor increases relative to liver with a reversal of the C/N sign from negative to positive and an increase in the C/N magnitude to +25.0. IV administration of ferrite particles (0.05 mmol Fe/kg) shows a monophasic time response, increasing signal intensity of tumor relative to liver from +1.5 to +49.5 (SE 500/30). When both contrast agents were administered together (dual-contrast technique), the tumor-liver C/N magnitude reached a maximum of +67.8 (SE 500/30) 12 min after drug infusion. Analysis of individual contrast and noise factors contributing to this technique revealed a strong correlation between the signal intensity of liver and the signal intensity of ghost artifacts, which increase after administration of Gd-DTPA (r = .89) and decrease after administration of ferrite (r = 1.0). Dual-contrast imaging shows a synergistic addition of contrast and suppression of noise from ghost artifacts, maximizing the C/N and increasing the conspicuity of focal liver lesions.

  11. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy.

  12. Secondary radiation doses of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton beam therapy in patients with lung and liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonkyu; Min, Byung Jun; Yoon, Myonggeun; Kim, Jinsung; Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Sungkoo; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2011-03-01

    To compare the secondary radiation doses following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) in patients with lung and liver cancer. IMRT and PBT were planned for three lung cancer and three liver cancer patients. The treatment beams were delivered to phantoms and the corresponding secondary doses during irradiation were measured at various points 20-50 cm from the beam isocenter using ion chamber and CR-39 detectors for IMRT and PBT, respectively. The secondary dose per Gy (i.e., a treatment dose of 1Gy) from PBT for lung and liver cancer, measured 20-50 cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.17 to 0.086 mGy. The secondary dose per Gy from IMRT, however, ranged between 5.8 and 1.0 mGy, indicating that PBT is associated with a smaller dose of secondary radiation than IMRT. The internal neutron dose per Gy from PBT for lung and liver cancer, 20-50 cm from the isocenter, ranged from 0.03 to 0.008 mGy. The secondary dose from PBT is less than or compatible to the secondary dose from conventional IMRT. The internal neutron dose generated by the interaction between protons and body material is generally much less than the external neutron dose from the treatment head. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  14. PAIR as percutaneous treatment of hydatid liver cysts.

    PubMed

    Peláez, V; Kugler, C; Correa, D; Del Carpio, M; Guangiroli, M; Molina, J; Marcos, B; Lopez, E

    2000-03-25

    Hydatid disease of the liver remains an important and challenging problem in rural areas; although, surgery is considered the treatment of choice, percutaneous treatment of hydatid cysts is relatively new, and the data related to it are limited. The purpose of the study was to present the results of percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts. Thirty-four patients (13 male and 21 female), ranging in age between 14 and 80 years, with 55 liver hydatid cysts underwent percutaneous treatment with albendazole prophylaxis. Cysts were treated with a one-stage procedure that consisted of puncture of the cysts under guidance with computed tomography, aspiration of fluid, injection of hypertonic saline solution as scolicidal agent and reaspiration. Follow-up examinations showed progressive reduction and solidification of the cysts. The mean reduction in volume was 72%. No mortality, abdominal dissemination, or tract seeding occurred. Minor complications were urticaria with pruritus in two patients. One patient had a subcapusular hematoma without problem. Hospitalization courses varied from ambulatory procedures to 15 days of in-patient, mean hospital stay was 1.82 days. The results of percutaneous liver hydatid cyst treatment, indicating that the procedure is efficient and safe and offers complete cure in selected patients with a short hospitalization and that this technique should be considered an alternative to surgery.

  15. [A Case of Colon Cancer with Multiple Liver Metastases Successfully Treated with Capecitabine/Oxaliplatin plus Bevacizumab].

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Yuki; Ishibashi, Yuji; Hiratsuka, Miyuki; Suda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Miyuki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Omori, Keita; Morita, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman was diagnosed with descending colon cancer with multiple liver metastases, and a left hemicolectomy was performed. The patient was treated with capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CapeOX) plus bevacizumab (Bmab). After 5 courses of chemotherapy, the number and size of liver metastases remarkably reduced, and after the 12th course, because of peripheral neuropathy, a "stop-and-go"fashion of administering oxaliplatin (L-OHP) was initiated. After 14 courses, the liver metastases had disappeared. After the 33rd course of L-OHP treatment, the patient started receiving capecitabine therapy. The patient is recurrence-free 3 years after surgery, 14 months after achieving a complete response (CR). We report a case of long-term CR after surgery for descending colon cancer with multiple liver metastases, followed by a "stop-and-go" method of administering L-OHP or CapeOX plus Bmab therapy.

  16. [Two Cases of Effective Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Liver Metastases of Colon Cancer Resistant to Systemic Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Date, Yusaku; Hisaka, Toru; Takahashi, Kenjiro; Nakayama, Goichi; Akashi, Masanori; Kawahara, Ryuichi; Sakai, Hisamune; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Yasunaga, Masafumi; Uchida, Shinji; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Koji; Matsunaga, Mototsugu; Miwa, Keisuke; Akagi, Yoshito

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old man underwent right hemicolectomy for ascending colon cancer with liver metastases. Postoperative systemic chemotherapy did not reduce the metastases, and therefore, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAI) was administered. The metastases decreased in size after 26 rounds of therapy, and the patient underwent resection. He is recurrence-free 63 months after the primary operation. A 57-year-old man underwent Hartmann's operation for sigmoid colon cancer with liver metastases. He underwent hepatic left lobe resection after metastases reduction by systemic chemotherapy. However, multiple liver metastases were detected 2 months later. Because the disease progressed despite the administration of systemic chemotherapy, HAI was utilized instead. The metastases decreased in size remarkably, and resection was performed. The patient is surviving 52 months after the primary operation while being continuously treated with HAI, resection, and systemic chemotherapy for re-recurrence. HAI is a potential alternative treatment for patients with colorectal liver metastases resistant to systemic chemotherapy.

  17. [Liver rupture in a newborn infant; diagnosis, treatment and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Westerik, A R; Umans-Eckenhausen, M A; Madern, G C; Robben, S G; van den Anker, J N

    1993-11-20

    Between August 1989 and August 1992 four neonates with rupture of the liver were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Sophia Children's Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two neonates were born after breech delivery, two after caesarean section because of foetal distress. All four patients had Apgar scores < 5 after 1 minute and of < 8 after 5 minutes and required artificial ventilation for a prolonged period. All infants collapsed within 6 hours after birth. Surgical treatment was not considered because of the poor clinical condition. All patients were treated conservatively. Clinical signs were: rapid onset pallor, hypotension, tachycardia and abdominal distension. Ultrasonography of the abdomen confirmed the clinical diagnosis of rupture of the liver. Despite rapid diagnosis and maximal non-surgical treatment mortality was 75%. Surgical intervention is indicated in neonatal liver rupture with significant intra-abdominal bleeding.

  18. Irreversible electroporation in the treatment of locally advanced pancreas and liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wichtowski, Mateusz; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Kocur, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Irreversible electroporation is a new, non-thermal ablation technique in the treatment of parenchymal organ tumors which uses short high voltage pulses of electricity in order to induce apoptosis of targeted cells. In this paper the application of this method of treatment in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and liver cancer is analyzed. Material and methods Between 04.2014 and 09.2014 two patients with LAPC and one with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) were qualified for treatment with irreversible electroporation. Both patients remained under constant observation and control. PubMed/Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched and eight original reports on irreversible electroporation of pancreatic and liver tumors based on the biggest groups of patients were found. Results Two patients with LAPC and one with CRLM were qualified for ablation with irreversible electroporation. In all three patients a successful irreversible electroporation (IRE) procedure of the whole tumor was conducted. In the minimum seven-month follow-up 100% local control was achieved – without progression. In the literature review the local response to treatment ranged from 41% to 100%. The event-free survival rate in six-month observation was 94%. Conclusions Ablation with irreversible electroporation is a new non-thermal ablation technique which has been demonstrated, both in the previously published studies and in the cases described in this paper, as a safe and efficient therapeutic method for patients with LAPC and CRLM. PMID:27095938

  19. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. PMID:20661557

  20. Computational particle-haemodynamics analysis of liver radioembolization pretreatment as an actual treatment surrogate.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    Liver radioembolization (RE) is a treatment option for patients with unresectable and chemorefractory primary and metastatic liver tumours. RE consists of intra-arterially administering via catheter radioactive microspheres that locally attack the tumours, sparing healthy tissue. Prior to RE, the standard practice is to conduct a treatment-mimicking pretreatment assessment via the infusion of (99m) Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin microparticles. The usefulness of this pretreatment has been debated in the literature, and thus, the aim of the present study is to shed light on this issue by numerically simulating the liver RE pretreatment and actual treatment particle-haemodynamics in a patient-specific hepatic artery under two different literature-based cancer scenarios and two different placements of a realistic end-hole microcatheter in the proper hepatic artery. The parameters that are analysed are the following: microagent quantity and size (accounting for RE pretreatment and treatment), catheter-tip position (near the proper hepatic artery bifurcation and away from it), and cancer burden (10% and 30% liver involvement). The conclusion that can be reached from the simulations is that when it comes to mimicking RE in terms of delivering particles to tumour-bearing segments, the catheter-tip position is much more important (because of the importance of local haemodynamic pattern alteration) than the infused microagents (i.e. quantity and size). Cancer burden is another important feature because the increase in blood flow rate to tumour-bearing segments increases the power to drag particles. These numerical simulation-based conclusions are in agreement with clinically observed events reported in the literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Obesity and liver cancer mortality in Asia: the Asia Pacific Cohort Study Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Chang, Charissa Y.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jamrozik, Konrad; Whitlock, Gary; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Fang, Xianghua; Lam, Tai H.; Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    While obesity is associated with liver cancer in studies from western societies, the paucity of data from Asia limits insights into its aetiological role in this population. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and liver cancer using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. In 309,203 Asian study members, four years of follow-up gave rise to 11,135 deaths from all causes, 420 of which were ascribed to liver cancer. BMI, whether categorised according to current guidelines for Asian groups or World Health Organisation recommendations, was not associated with liver cancer in any of our analyses. PMID:19900847

  2. Chinese Herbal Formulation PHY906 and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Advanced Liver Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage B Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage C Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  3. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  4. Tackling ageism in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Evidence shows that older patients are discriminated against when it comes to cancer treatment. A pilot project was commissioned by the Department of Health in partnership with Macmillan Cancer Support and Age UK. The project involved staff, including nurses, from five cancer networks in England examining ways to improve care for this patient group. Drawing on approaches used in geriatric medicine, patients' needs in accessing treatment were explored by conducting assessments and, for example, providing taxis for hospital appointments and practical support from voluntary organisations. Challenges for nurses included lack of training in patient screening and the extra workload caused by the assessments. The report on the pilot project concluded that involving elderly care specialists and using comprehensive geriatric assessments were useful approaches in the care of older cancer patients.

  5. EMT and Treatment Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaianigo, Nicola; Melisi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the third leading cause of adult cancer mortality in the United States. The poor prognosis for patients with PC is mainly due to its aggressive course, the limited efficacy of active systemic treatments, and a metastatic behavior, demonstrated throughout the evolution of the disease. On average, 80% of patients with PC are diagnosed with metastatic disease, and the half of those who undergo surgery and adjuvant therapy develop liver metastasis within two years. Metastatic dissemination is an early event in PC and is mainly attributed to an evolutionary biological process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This innate mechanism could have a dual role during embryonic growth and organ differentiation, and in cancer progression, cancer stem cell intravasation, and metastasis settlement. Many of the molecular pathways decisive in EMT progression have been already unraveled, but little is known about the causes behind the induction of this mechanism. EMT is one of the most distinctive and critical features of PC, occurring even in the very first stages of tumor development. This is known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and leads to early dissemination, drug resistance, and unfavorable prognosis and survival. The intention of this review is to shed new light on the critical role assumed by EMT during PC progression, with a particular focus on its role in PC resistance. PMID:28895920

  6. Cytotoxic and antimigratory effects of Cratoxy formosum extract against HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buranrat, Benjaporn; Mairuae, Nootchanat; Kanchanarach, Watchara

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Cratoxylum formosum (CF) Dyer-induced cancer cell death and antimigratory effects in HepG2 liver cancer cells. The cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of CF leaf extract on human liver cancer HepG2 cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B, colony formation, and wound healing assays. In addition, apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated via reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, caspase 3 activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) disruption. Gene expression and apoptosis-associated protein levels were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. CF induced HepG2 cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 219.03±9.96 and 124.90±6.86 µg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Treatment with CF caused a significant and dose-dependent decrease in colony forming ability and cell migration. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that CF induced ROS formation, increased caspase 3 activities, decreased the ΔΨm, and caused HepG2 apoptosis. CF marginally decreased the expression level of the cell cycle regulatory protein, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) and the downstream protein, cyclin dependent kinase 6. Additionally, CF significantly enhanced p21 levels, reduced cyclin D1 protein levels and triggered cancer cell death. CF leaf extracts induced cell death, stimulated apoptosis and inhibited migration in HepG2 cells. Thus, CF may be useful for developing an anticancer drug candidate for the treatment of liver cancer.

  7. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  8. FXR blocks the growth of liver cancer cells through inhibiting mTOR-s6K pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiongfei; Zeng, Yeting; Wang, Xinrui; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qianqian; Li, Ningbo; Su, Hongying; Huang, Wendong

    2016-05-27

    The nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is likely a tumor suppressor in liver tissue but its molecular mechanism of suppression is not well understood. In this study, the gene expression profile of human liver cancer cells was investigated by microarray. Bioinformatics analysis of these data revealed that FXR might regulate the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. This was confirmed by altering the expression level of FXR in liver cancer cells. Overexpression of FXR prevented the growth of cells and induced cell cycle arrest, which was enhanced by the mTOR/S6K inhibitor rapamycin. FXR upregulation also intensified the inhibition of cell growth by rapamycin. Downregulation of FXR produced the opposite effect. Finally, we found that ectopic expression of FXR in SK-Hep-1 xenografts inhibits tumor growth and reduces expression of the phosphorylated protein S6K. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that FXR suppresses proliferation of human liver cancer cells via the inhibition of the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. FXR expression can be used as a biomarker of personalized mTOR inhibitor treatment assessment for liver cancer patients. -- Highlights: •FXR inhibits the proliferation of liver cancer cells by prolonging G0/G1 phase. •Microarray results indicate that mTOR-S6k signaling is involved in cellular processes in which FXR plays an important role. •FXR blocks the growth of liver cancer cells via the inhibition of the mTOR/S6K signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Peroxiredoxin II Is Essential for Maintaining Stemness by Redox Regulation in Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taeho; Bak, Yesol; Park, Young-Ho; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Nyun; Bak, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Man; Yoon, Do-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2016-05-01

    Redox regulation in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is viewed as a good target for cancer therapy because redox status plays an important role in cancer stem-cell maintenance. Here, we investigated the role of Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II), an antioxidant enzyme, in association with maintenance of liver CSCs. Our study demonstrates that Prx II overexpressed in liver cancer cells has high potential for self-renewal activity. Prx II expression significantly corelated with expression of epithelial-cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and cytokerain 19 in liver cancer tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Downregulation of Prx II in Huh7 cells with treatment of siRNA reduced expression of EpCAM and CD133 as well as Sox2 in accordance with increased ROS and apoptosis, which were reversed in Huh7-hPrx II cells. Huh7-hPrx II cells exhibited strong sphere-formation activity compared with mock cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exposure enhanced sphere formation, cell-surface expression of EpCAM and CD133, and pSTAT3 along with activation of VEGF receptor 2 in Huh7-hPrx II cells. The result also emerged in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) and SK-HEP-1-H-ras(G12V) cells with high-level expression of Prx II. Prx II was involved in regulation of VEGF driving cancer stem cells through VEGFR-2/STAT3 signaling to upregulate Bmi1 and Sox2. In addition, knockdown of Prx II in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) cells showed significant reduction in cell migration in vitro and in tumorigenic potential in vivo. Taken together, all the results demonstrated that Prx II plays a key role in the CSC self-renewal of HCC cells through redox regulation. Stem Cells 2016;34:1188-1197.

  10. Obesity: an epidemiological perspective from Asia and its relationship to gastrointestinal and liver cancers.

    PubMed

    Goh, Li-Yen; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is major health problem in the Asia-Pacific region. The proportion of people who are overweight and obese in the region has increased dramatically and is closely linked to the increasing affluence in the region. While the body mass index has been used as a yardstick in many published studies, it has been noted that Asian patients have a greater percentage body fat for a given body mass index and especially abdominal or visceral obesity. The association of obesity and cancers is intriguing and worrisome at the same time, as obesity is rising exponentially throughout the world especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Evidence of its association with gastrointestinal cancers is well documented and is reported with cardioesophageal, colorectal, liver, pancreatic, and gallbladder cancers. The strength of association varies between individual cancers but is of particular concern with colorectal cancer, which is perhaps the fastest emerging cancer in this region. Biological mechanisms for obesity-related carcinogenesis have been described, which includes insulin resistance and secretion of adipokines and chronic inflammation. A "dose-response" relationship between severity of excess body weight and risks of cancer has been reported. However, there is a paucity of data looking at a decrease in incidence of these cancers with a decrease in body weight with treatment, for example, bariatric surgery. Such studies will be difficult to perform and which would require a long period of longitudinal follow-up. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The impact of pulmonary metastasectomy in patients with previously resected colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Johannes; Wagner, Johanna; Kunzmann, Volker; Baur, Johannes; Walles, Thorsten; Dietz, Ulrich; Loeb, Stefan; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Steger, Ulrich; Klein, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Background 40–50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) will develop liver metastases (CRLM) during the course of the disease. One third of these patients will additionally develop pulmonary metastases. Methods 137 consecutive patients with CRLM, were analyzed regarding survival data, clinical, histological data and treatment. Results were stratified according to the occurrence of pulmonary metastases and metastases resection. Results 39% of all patients with liver resection due to CRLM developed additional lung metastases. 44% of these patients underwent subsequent pulmonary resection. Patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy showed a significantly better five-year survival compared to patients not qualified for curative resection (5-year survival 71.2% vs. 28.0%; p = 0.001). Interestingly, the 5-year survival of these patients was even superior to all patients with CRLM, who did not develop pulmonary metastases (77.5% vs. 63.5%; p = 0.015). Patients, whose pulmonary metastases were not resected, were more likely to redevelop liver metastases (50.0% vs 78.6%; p = 0.034). However, the rate of distant metastases did not differ between both groups (54.5 vs.53.6; p = 0.945). Conclusion The occurrence of colorectal lung metastases after curative liver resection does not impact patient survival if pulmonary metastasectomy is feasible. Those patients clearly benefit from repeated resections of the liver and the lung metastases. PMID:28328956

  12. Histologic analysis of rabbit liver cancer treated by bulk ultrasound ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chandra Priya; Rudich, Steven M.; Alqadah, Amel; Burgess, Mark T.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    VX2 rabbit liver cancer, treated in vivo using bulk ultrasound ablation by miniaturized image-ablate arrays, was histologically analyzed using TTC vital stain and DAPI nucleic acid stain. VX2 cells were implanted into rabbit liver lobes and allowed to grow for 11-21 days. Liver lobes containing solid VX2 tumors were then treated with 4.8 MHz, 22.5-38.5 W/cm2 in situ intensity, unfocused ultrasound for exposure times of 20-120 s. After animal sacrifice, thermal lesions were bisected along the imaging/treatment plane, one face stained with TTC, and the other with DAPI. Levels of TTC uptake (no uptake, partial uptake, and complete uptake) in liver parenchyma corresponded to three discrete regions of tan, pink and red color. By processing images of DAPI-stained parenchymal tissue from these three regions, cellular damage was quantified. A viability index parameter incorporating the size and shape of DAPI-stained nuclei correlated significantly with levels of TTC uptake, and thus with local tissue viability. For ablation of normal liver, viability indices for parenchymal regions of no TTC uptake and partial TTC uptake were significantly different from those for viable tissue. For ablation of VX2 tumor, differences in viability index between regions of no TTC uptake and complete TTC uptake were smaller, but significant overall.

  13. [The treatment of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Pretorius, H L; Falkson, G

    1986-04-12

    Advances in the field of medical oncology were spurred by the development of cytostatic drugs, and cancer is today one of the most treatable (and most curable) of the chronic diseases. Because of the diversity of neoplastic diseases, classification, staging and the important individual patient discriminants must be taken into account more than ever before because of the availability of drugs that can cure or palliate many forms of cancer. The results obtained in advanced disease acted as an impetus to start chemotherapy at an earlier stage. In highly malignant neoplasms and especially in children with cancer, drug treatment has become of increasing importance, and when given appropriately complements surgery and radiotherapy.

  14. Hepatic Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy after Multiple Metastasectomy in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma Metastatic to the Liver: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) Phase II Study, 92-46-521

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, John S.; O’Connell, Michael J.; Mahoney, Michelle R.; Farr, Gist H.; Fitch, Tom R.; Maples, William J.; Nagorney, David M.; Rubin, Joseph; Fuloria, Jyotsna; Steen, Preston D.; Alberts, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer are at high risk of recurrence after resection. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) alternating with systemic therapy after surgical resection may improve survival following surgery. METHODS Patients with liver-only metastases from colorectal cancer amenable to resection/cryoablation were eligible. Prior adjuvant chemotherapy for a completely resected primary was allowed. Alternating courses of HAI and systemic therapy included floxuridine (FUDR) via HAI. Systemic chemotherapy consisted of bolus leucovorin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). RESULTS 49 patients were able to undergo complete resection of their liver metastases with 44% having more than 4 hepatic metastases and 78% having bilobar disease. 36 patients were able to initiate HAI FUDR alternating with systemic therapy. Patients received a median of 3.5 cycles (range 1–4) and 3 cycles (range 0–6) of therapy with HAI FUDR and systemic therapy, respectively. At the time of the final analysis the estimated median disease-free survival and hepatic disease-free survival are 1.2 years (95% CI: 0.9–2.1) and 1.8 years (95% CI: 1.8-NA), respectively. Eleven patients (31%) are alive. All surviving patients have a minimum of 5.5 years of follow-up CONCLUSIONS This trial of adjuvant chemotherapy in completely resected patients with unfavorable characteristics demonstrates apparent improvement in outcome compared to historical series treated with surgery alone. However, the results of this trial and other randomized trials of HAI do not appear to support its use at this time due to the development of more effective systemic options. PMID:21729678

  15. Adjuvant treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R reduces recurrence and increases survival after liver metastasis resection in an orthotopic nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-12-08

    Colon cancer liver metastasis is often the lethal aspect of this disease. Well-isolated metastases are candidates for surgical resection, but recurrence is common. Better adjuvant treatment is therefore needed to reduce or prevent recurrence. In the present study, HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used to establish liver metastases in nude mice. Mice with a single liver metastasis were randomized into bright-light surgery (BLS) or the combination of BLS and adjuvant treatment with tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R. Residual tumor fluorescence after BLS was clearly visualized at high magnification by fluorescence imaging. Adjuvant treatment with S. typhimurium A1-R was highly effective to increase survival and disease-free survival after BLS of liver metastasis. The results suggest the future clinical potential of adjuvant S. typhimurium A1-R treatment after liver metastasis resection.

  16. Penile Cancer: What Happens After Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... material. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy . After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Penile Cancer? Long-Term Side Effects of Penile Cancer Treatment Seeing a New Doctor ...

  17. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  18. Novel piperazine core compound induces death in human liver cancer cells: possible pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Nima; Muniandy, Sekaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Raja Azudin, Raja Elina

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel piperazine derivate designated as PCC against human liver cancer cells. In this context, human liver cancer cell lines, SNU-475 and 243, human monocyte/macrophage cell line, CRL-9855, and human B lymphocyte cell line, CCL-156, were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on SNU-475 and SNU-423 cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 μg/ml and 7.76 ± 0.45 μg/ml respectively, after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-ƙB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. This study suggests that PCC is a simultaneous inducer of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. PMID:27072064

  19. Grey zone in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification for hepatocellular carcinoma: Surgeons’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tian; Lau, Wan-Yee; Zhang, Han; Huang, Bin; Lu, Jun-Hua; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification has been endorsed as the optimal staging system and treatment algorithm for HCC by the European Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. However, in real life, the majority of patients who are not considered ideal candidates based on the BCLC guideline still were performed hepatic resection nowadays, which means many hepatic surgeons all around the world do not follow the BCLC guidelines. The accuracy and application of the BCLC classification has constantly been challenged by many clinicians. From the surgeons’ perspectives, we herein put forward some comments on the BCLC classification concerning subjectivity of the assessment criteria, comprehensiveness of the staging definition and accuracy of the therapeutic recommendations. We hope to further discuss with peers and colleagues with the aim to make the BCLC classification more applicable to clinical practice in the future. PMID:26217077

  20. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in male smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lai, G Y; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; McGlynn, K A; Virtamo, J; Sinha, R; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease as reported in previous studies, including prospective ones conducted in Asian populations where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) and hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) are the dominant risk factors. Yet, prospective studies in Western populations with lower HBV and HCV prevalence are sparse. Also, although preparation methods affect coffee constituents, it is unknown whether different methods affect disease associations. Methods: We evaluated the association of coffee intake with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in 27 037 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69, in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, who recorded their coffee consumption and were followed up to 24 years for incident liver cancer or chronic liver disease mortality. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Coffee intake was inversely associated with incident liver cancer (RR per cup per day=0.82, 95% CI: 0.73–0.93; P-trend across categories=0.0007) and mortality from chronic liver disease (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63; P-trend<0.0001). Inverse associations persisted in those without diabetes, HBV- and HCV-negative cases, and in analyses stratified by age, body mass index, alcohol and smoking dose. We observed similar associations for those drinking boiled or filtered coffee. Conclusion: These findings suggest that drinking coffee may have benefits for the liver, irrespective of whether coffee was boiled or filtered. PMID:23880821

  1. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in male smokers.

    PubMed

    Lai, G Y; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; McGlynn, K A; Virtamo, J; Sinha, R; Freedman, N D

    2013-09-03

    Coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease as reported in previous studies, including prospective ones conducted in Asian populations where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) and hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) are the dominant risk factors. Yet, prospective studies in Western populations with lower HBV and HCV prevalence are sparse. Also, although preparation methods affect coffee constituents, it is unknown whether different methods affect disease associations. We evaluated the association of coffee intake with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in 27,037 Finnish male smokers, aged 50-69, in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, who recorded their coffee consumption and were followed up to 24 years for incident liver cancer or chronic liver disease mortality. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Coffee intake was inversely associated with incident liver cancer (RR per cup per day=0.82, 95% CI: 0.73-0.93; P-trend across categories=0.0007) and mortality from chronic liver disease (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.48-0.63; P-trend<0.0001). Inverse associations persisted in those without diabetes, HBV- and HCV-negative cases, and in analyses stratified by age, body mass index, alcohol and smoking dose. We observed similar associations for those drinking boiled or filtered coffee. These findings suggest that drinking coffee may have benefits for the liver, irrespective of whether coffee was boiled or filtered.

  2. Bio-responsive chitin-poly(L-lactic acid) composite nanogels for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Arunraj, T R; Sanoj Rejinold, N; Ashwin Kumar, N; Jayakumar, R

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancer and its treatment has been considered a therapeutic challenge. Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment for liver cancer. However, the efficacy of Dox therapy is restricted by the dose-dependent toxic side effects. To overcome the cardiotoxicity of Dox as well as the current problems of conventional modality treatment of HCC, we developed a locally injectable, biodegradable, and pH sensitive composite nanogels for site specific delivery. Both control and Dox loaded composite nanogel systems were analyzed by DLS, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA. The size ranges of the control composite nanogels and their drug loaded counterparts were found to be 90±20 and 270±20 nm, respectively. The control chitin-PLA CNGs and Dox-chitin-PLA CNGs showed higher swelling and degradation in acidic pH. Drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release studies were carried out and showed a higher drug release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. Cellular internalization of the nanogel systems was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the composite nanogels was analyzed toward HepG2 (human liver cancer) cell lines. Furthermore, the results of in vitro hemolytic assay and coagulation assay substantiate the blood compatibility of the system. Overall Dox-chitin-PLA CNGs system could be a promising anticancer drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hoteit, Maarouf A; Anania, Frank A

    2007-03-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver disorders in North America. The mechanism of liver injury in NASH involves insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as cytokine release. Therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing insulin sensitivity or reducing oxidative stress have been studied. The role of peptide hormones secreted by adipose tissue--adipocytokines--in the potential pathogenesis of NASH is an area of intense research. As the function of adipokines in modulating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis is elucidated, the potential for novel treatment strategies in patients with NASH is likely to be realized.

  4. Treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morales, A.

    1980-01-01

    Most patients with bladder cancer initially present with localized, potentially curable tumours. Endoscopic surgery offers the best opportunity to eliminate these early lesions, but the rate of tumour recurrence after adequate resection is high (around 70%). Conventional methods of treatment have a place in the management of early bladder neoplasms, but their success rate is still unsatisfactory and they frequently fail to decrease the risk of recurrence. New drugs and more effective forms of administration have enhanced the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Fundamentally different approaches, such as specific immunotherapy, the use of laser energy and photodynamic therapy, are emerging as valuable approaches in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and the prevention of recurrence. Randomized trials to assess their value and a concerted multidisciplinary effort with combined treatment give hope for effective control of early bladder cancer. PMID:6770987

  5. Treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Morales, A

    1980-05-24

    Most patients with bladder cancer initially present with localized, potentially curable tumours. Endoscopic surgery offers the best opportunity to eliminate these early lesions, but the rate of tumour recurrence after adequate resection is high (around 70%). Conventional methods of treatment have a place in the management of early bladder neoplasms, but their success rate is still unsatisfactory and they frequently fail to decrease the risk of recurrence. New drugs and more effective forms of administration have enhanced the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Fundamentally different approaches, such as specific immunotherapy, the use of laser energy and photodynamic therapy, are emerging as valuable approaches in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and the prevention of recurrence. Randomized trials to assess their value and a concerted multidisciplinary effort with combined treatment give hope for effective control of early bladder cancer.

  6. [Present status of cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Larraín, C

    1991-10-01

    Cancer is the second cause of mortality in Chile: 12,000 deaths and 27,000 admissions were registered during 1982. Gastric and pulmonary cancer account for the highest mortality rates (23.2 and 9.7/100,000). Cancer prognosis has improved in thyroid, uterus and testes cancers, melanoma, Hodgkin's Disease etc, with 67 to 92% 5-year survival rates, while results are not as good in lung, gastric, colorectal, kidney, pancreas, etc, with only 3 to 52% 5-year survival rates. Treatment failure is attributed to cellular mutations and early metastases. At present, surgery is less aggressive and is associated to radiotherapy and chemotherapy; megavoltage radiation equipment and the use of radiosensitizers allow double radiation dose; chemotherapy complications are avoided with hematopoietic growth factors. It is possible to improve the prognosis of lung cancer avoiding the use of tobacco and of colorectal cancer reducing fats in the diet of these pts. Early detection and better chemotherapy have improved the prognosis of breast and uterus cancer. With these measures a 20 to 50% reduction in cancer rates is expected in the USA for the year 2000. Their application is urgent in our country.

  7. Cetuximab strongly enhances immune cell infiltration into liver metastatic sites in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuka; Hazama, Shoichi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Tokumitsu, Yukio; Kanekiyo, Shinsuke; Tomochika, Shinobu; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Tokuhisa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Michihisa; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Shigeru; Ueno, Tomio; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Nagano, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    Cetuximab has activity against colorectal cancers. Recent studies demonstrated that cetuximab induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity via immune cells, and a new immune-related mechanism of inducing immunogenic cell death. This study aimed to evaluate the immune responses induced by cetuximab in tumor microenvironments at liver metastasis sites of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We assessed immune cell infiltration in the liver metastatic sites of 53 colorectal cancer patients. These patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment before operation: chemotherapy with cetuximab, chemotherapy without cetuximab, and no chemotherapy. The inflammatory cells in the liver metastatic sites were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, focusing on the invasive margin. The overall inflammatory reaction and number of lymphoid cells were assessed with a four-point scoring system. We then assessed immune cell infiltration (CD3, CD8 and CD56) in 15 liver metastatic sites. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated more inflammatory cells in the chemotherapy with cetuximab group than in the other groups (P < 0.001). Of note, inflammatory cells were found in intratumoral areas, and the destruction of cancer cell foci was observed in the chemotherapy with cetuximab group. Moreover, a higher infiltration of CD3+ (P = 0.003), CD8+ (P = 0.003) and CD56+ (P = 0.001) cells was observed in the chemotherapy with cetuximab group than in the other groups. These results suggest that cetuximab might have an immune-enhancing effect. As such, the immune-related mechanism of action of cetuximab may enhance the efficacy of combination therapy, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy using therapeutic peptides.

  8. Association of serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lai, G Y; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; Virtamo, J; McGlynn, K A; Freedman, N D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients may influence the development or progression of liver cancer and liver disease. We evaluated the association of serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality in a prospective cohort of middle-aged Finnish male smokers. Methods: Baseline and 3-year follow-up serum were available from 29 046 and 22 805 men, respectively. After 24 years of follow-up, 208 men were diagnosed with liver cancer and 237 died from CLD. Hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for highest vs lowest quartiles from multivariate proportional hazards models. Results: Higher β-carotene and retinol levels were associated with less liver cancer (β-carotene: 0.35, 0.22–0.55, P-trend <0.0001; retinol: 0.58, 0.39–0.85, P-trend=0.0009) and CLD mortality (β-carotene: 0.47, 0.30–0.75, P-trend=0.001; retinol: 0.55, 0.38–0.78, P-trend=0.0007). α-Tocopherol was associated with CLD mortality (0.63, 0.40–0.99, P-trend=0.06), but not with liver cancer (1.06, 0.64–1.74, P-trend=0.77). Participants with higher levels of β-carotene and retinol, but not α-tocopherol, at both baseline and year 3 had lower risk of each outcome than those with lower levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of β-carotene and retinol are associated with incident liver cancer and CLD. However, such data do not indicate that supplementation should be considered for these diseases. PMID:25314058

  9. [The aflatoxins and liver cancer in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    1992-05-01

    The AFB1 intake and the AFM1 excretion of 81 households in 10 villages, Guanxi were investigated using the ELISA method. The results showed that there was positive correlation between PLC mortality and AFB1 intake from corn and peanut oil, but not from rice. The results of stepwise regression showed that main factors were AFB1 intake of males, AFM1 excretion of females and consumption of corn. The results showed that aflatoxins were correlated with mortality rates of liver cancer. Further investigation needs to be carried out in case-control and cohort studies.

  10. Treatment of bladder cancer. Oncology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Surgical treatment of common bladder cancers; Radiation therapy of common bladder cancers; Chemotherapy of common bladder cancers; Immunotherapy of common bladder cancers; Multimodal treatment of common bladder cancers; Other treatment modalities of common bladder cancers; Treatment of less common bladder cancers; Reviews of treatment of bladder cancers.

  11. Epigenetic changes in the rat livers induced by pyrazinamide treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, V.M.; Bagnyukova, T.V.; Sergienko, O.V.; Bondarenko, L.B.; Shayakhmetova, G.M.; Matvienko, A.V.; Pogribny, I.P.

    2007-12-15

    Drug-induced liver injury, including drug-induced hepatotoxicity during the treatment of tuberculosis infection, is a major health problem with increasingly significant challenges to modern hepatology. Therefore, the assessment and monitoring of the hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis drugs for prevention of liver injury are great concerns during disease treatment. The recently emerged data showing the ability of toxicants, including pharmaceutical agents, to alter cellular epigenetic status, open a unique opportunity for early detection of drug hepatotoxicity. Here we report that treatment of male Wistar rats with antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide at doses of 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day body weight for 45 days leads to an early and sustained decrease in cytosine DNA methylation, progressive hypomethylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1), and aberrant promoter hypermethylation of placental form glutathione-S-transferase (GSTP) and p16{sup INK4A} genes in livers of pyrazinamide-treated rats, while serum levels of bilirubin and activity of aminotransferases changed modestly. The early occurrence of these epigenetic alterations and their association with progression of liver injury specific pathological changes indicate that alterations in DNA methylation may be useful predictive markers for the assessment of drug hepatotoxicity.

  12. Pathophysiology, epidemiology, classification and treatment options for polycystic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Wasel, Bassam; Walsh, Caolan; Keough, Valerie; Molinari, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLD) represent a group of genetic disorders in which cysts occur in the liver (autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease) or in combination with cysts in the kidneys (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). Regardless of the genetic mutations, the natural history of these disorders is alike. The natural history of PLD is characterized by a continuous increase in the volume and the number of cysts. Both genders are affected; however, women have a higher prevalence. Most patients with PLD are asymptomatic and can be managed conservatively. Severe symptoms can affect 20% of patients who develop massive hepatomegaly with compression of the surrounding organs. Rrarely, patients with PLD suffer from acute complications caused by the torsion of hepatic cysts, intraluminal cystic hemorrhage and infections. The most common methods for the diagnosis of PLD are cross sectional imaging studies. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography are the two most frequently used investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive and specific, and it is a valuable test for patients with intravenous contrast allergies or renal dysfunction. Different treatment modalities are available to physicians caring for these patients. Medical treatment has been ineffective. Percutaneous sclerotherapy, trans-arterial embolization, cyst fenestration, hepatic resection and liver transplantation are indicated to specific groups of patients and have to be tailored according to the extent of disease. This review outlines the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment strategies of PLD. PMID:24124322

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Nuket; Tasci, Ilker; Comert, Bilgin; Ocal, Ramazan; Mas, Mehmet Refik

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day) for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system. RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. PMID:18286695

  14. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-yuan; Cao, Hong-yan; Cheng, Gen-hong; Sun, Ming-yu

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions. PMID:24963489

  15. [Gene transfer as treatment for metabolic inherited liver diseases

    PubMed

    Godoy, J L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study gene transfer looking for its future clinical application in the treatment of metabolic inherited liver diseases. METHODS: Bibliographic review about the subject. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Gene transfer into the liver would be an alternative to liver transplantation to treat some inherited metabolic diseases. Various vectors have been employed for gene transfer, including retrovirus vectors, whose integration into the chromosomal DNA would allow stable long term expression of the transgene. The integration of retrovirus vectors into the genoma of the target cell is only possible during mitosis. Therefore, these vectors must be delivered during hepatic regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy, for example. Another obstacle to be overcome is the extra hepatic dissemination of retrovirus, in particular to the germinals cells, due to the risk of changing the genetical heritage of the progeniture.

  16. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  17. [Orthotopic liver transplant in rats. Surgical technique, complications and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lausada, Natalia R; Gondolesi, G E; Ortiz, E; Dreizzen, E; Raimondi, J C

    2002-01-01

    The orthotopic rat liver transplant model is a widely used technique in transplantation research. It has many advantages over other animal transplant models because of its availability and low cost. However, it must be emphasized that success with the rat model requires thorough training. The aim of this paper is to describe the microsurgical technique involved in 60 rat liver transplants and to discuss the complications and their treatments. Forty-nine liver transplants were performed at the Experimental Laboratory of the University Hospital, Ontario, Canada (ELUH) and 11 were performed at the Laboratorio de Trasplante de Organos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Argentina (LTO). Among the transplants performed at the ELUH, the observed complications were haemorrhage (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 1), anastomotic failure (n = 15), bile leak (n = 3), and bile duct necrosis (n = 9). The remaining 17 rats at the ELUH were healthy at day 7 after surgery. Animal survival immediately postop, at 24 hours postop and at 7 days postop was achieved with the 9th, 20th and 21st transplants respectively. At the LTO, 3 rats died as a result of anaesthetic complications. Seven-day animal survival was achieved with the 11th transplant. We beleive that the description of the orthotopic rat liver transplantation technique, as well as the discussion regarding complications and their management, can be useful for researchers interested in performing liver transplantation in rats.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Associated with Streptococcus anginosus Bacteremia and Liver Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Umair; Sharma, Anuj; Lowe, Dhruv; Khan, Rashad; Manocha, Divey

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. Their ability to cause abscesses is very unique and sets them apart from the rest of the streptococci groups. While an association of group D streptococcus bacteremia and endocarditis with colorectal carcinoma is well established, S. anginosus infections are rarely implicated with colonic malignancy. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to the hospital with fatigue and generalized abdominal pain. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple liver abscesses and rectal thickening. Blood cultures were found to grow S. anginosus bacteria. Colonoscopy revealed a rectal mass which was later confirmed to be rectal adenocarcinoma. This case presents an association between S. anginosus bacteremia and presence of colorectal cancer which has been highlighted in only a few case reports in literature. This should prompt clinicians to screen for colorectal cancer in patients with S. anginosus bacteremia. PMID:28100999

  19. Molecular profiles suggest two types of liver cancer should be treated as one | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A comprehensive molecular analysis of two types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), has identified common molecular subtypes that can be found among patients with either disease. Although HCC and ICC are considered separate diseases, the finding suggests that a unified clinical approach could benefit patients with both types of liver cancer.  Read more...

  20. Multicentre study of liver metastases from colorectal cancer in pathological livers.

    PubMed

    Ramia, Jose M; López-Andujar, Rafael; Torras, Jaume; Falgueras, Laia; Gonzalez, Jose Antonio; Sanchez, Belinda; Figueras, Joan

    2011-05-01

    Resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases (LM) in pathological liver (PL) patients (with cirrhosis or hepatopathy) is extremely rare. The aim of this study was to perform a multicentre, retrospective analysis of epidemiology, surgical techniques and outcomes in patients with PL who underwent hepatic resection for CRC-LM. A retrospective, multicentre questionnaire was distributed to 15 hepatopancreatobiliary surgical units. Only six of 15 (40%) HPB units reported any experience in the surgical resection of CRC-LM in patients with PL. Of the 20 patients identified, 10 had underlying cirrhosis and 10 had chronic hepatopathy. Their median age was 66 years (range: 49-81 years). Thirteen patients were male. Liver dysfunction was known preoperatively in 18 patients. All patients had Child-Pugh class A disease. Six patients had synchronous disease. There were a total of 38 lesions among the 20 patients, distributed at a median of one lesion per patient (range: 1-4 lesions). The median size of the lesions was 3.0 cm (range: 1.5-9.0 cm). Preoperative median carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was 32.3 ng/ml (range: 1-184 ng/ml). The surgical procedures performed included: sub-segmentectomy (n= 12); left lateral sectionectomy (n= 6); segmentectomy (n= 4); radiofrequency ablation (n= 3), and exploratory laparotomy (n= 4). Morbidity occurred in four patients (Clavien grades I [n= 1], II [n= 2] and IVa [n= 1]). Mortality was nil. An R0 resection margin was achieved in 15 of 16 patients. Twelve patients did not receive chemotherapy. In resected patients, 10 presented with relapse. The median disease-free and overall survival periods were 12.2 and 22.3 months, respectively. When feasible, liver resection is the best option for CRC-LM in PL patients. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  1. Liver abscess in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma after sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Kak; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Hyun Hwa; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yun Soo; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2014-01-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a critical global health issue and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The majority of patients who present HCC are already at an advanced stage and their tumors are unresectable. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and was recently introduced as a therapy for advanced HCC. Furthermore, studies have shown that oral sorafenib has beneficial effects on survival. However, many patients experience diverse side effects, and some of these are severe. Liver abscess development has not been previously documented to be associated with sorafenib administration in HCC. Here, we report the case of a HCC patient that developed a liver abscess while being treated with sorafenib.

  2. Radio frequency ablation for primary liver cancer: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of radio frequency ablation (RFA) compared with other treatments for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Ontario. Liver cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer globally, although it is most prevalent in Asia and Africa. The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in the Western world, primarily because of an increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Data from Cancer Care Ontario from 1998 to 2002 suggest that the age-adjusted incidence of liver cancer in men rose slightly from 4.5 cases to 5.4 cases per 100,000 men. For women, the rates declined slightly, from 1.8 cases to 1.4 cases per 100,000 women during the same period. Most people who present with symptoms of liver cancer have a progressive form of the disease. The rates of survival in untreated patients in the early stage of the disease range from 50% to 82% at 1 year and 26% to 32% at 2 years. Patients with more advanced stages have survival rates ranging from 0% to 36% at 3 years. Surgical resection and transplantation are the procedures that have the best prognoses; however, only 15% to 20% of patients presenting with liver cancer are eligible for surgery. Resection is associated with a 50% survival rate at 5 years. RADIO FREQUENCY ABLATION RFA is a relatively new technique for the treatment of small liver cancers that cannot be treated with surgery. This technique applies alternating high-frequency electrical currents to the cancerous tissue. The intense heat leads to thermal coagulation that can kill the tumour. RFA is done under general or local anesthesia and can be done percutaneously (through the skin with a small needle), laparoscopically (microinvasively, using a small video camera), or intraoperatively. Percutaneous RFA is usually a day procedure. The leading international organizations for health technology assessments, including the Canadian

  3. Facilitation of liver cancer SMCC7721 cell aging by sirtuin 4 via inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Xia, X-H; Xiao, C-J; Shan, H

    2017-03-01

    Liver cancer severely threatens public health. Molecular targeted treatment is the further of cancer treatment. The functional role of Sir-related enzymes 4 (sirtuin 4) in treating liver cancer still requires further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of sirtuin 4 on aging of SMCC7721 liver cancer cell line, to underlying molecular mechanism and potential application in clinics. Adriamycin-induced aging model was established on SMCC7721 liver cancer cell line. Sirtuin 4 over-expression or siRNA plasmid was transfected. Cell aging was measured by β-galactosidase approach. Aging-related proteins P53 and P16 were quantified in Western blot, which also examined activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signal pathway. CP-690550 was used to suppress JAK2 signal pathway for measuring aging status of SMCC7721 cells. In aged SMCC7721 cells, sirtuin 4 was up-regulated, whilst P53 and P16 protein levels were elevated, in accompanied with JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway. Transfection of sirtuin 4 over-expression plasmid or siRNA increased or decreased sirtuin 4 expression. Adriamycin-induced aging was enhanced or suppressed, accompanied with inhibited or potentiated JAK2 signal pathway in sirtuin 4 up-regulation or down-regulation cells, respectively. The usage of JAK2 signal inhibitor, CP-690550, enhanced Adriamycin-induced cell aging. Sirtuin 4 facilitates Adriamycin-induced aging of SMCC7721 liver cancer cells via inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway, thus providing one novel anti-cancer strategy.

  4. The correlation analysis of primary liver cancer with Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Su, Q; Sun, F; Li, J; Zhang, H; Wang, M; Zhou, H; Qiao, L

    2015-12-01

    To explore the relationship between Type 2 diabetes and primary liver cancer. In the period from December 2008 to December 2014, all blood sugar data of patients in our hospital was collected, and the total number is 18213. Except for repeatedly hospitalized diabetic person, newborn stress status, or venous transfusion blood glucose, gestational diabetes, etc., By retrieving the medical record information of patients in the hospital, and using telephone or letter follow-up the patients, we collected 127 people with type 1 diabetes and found no liver cancer patients; Type 2 diabetes, 10,794 cases of patient information, 59 with primary liver cancer. For data analysis, Stata11.0 ratio was used as the main analysis indicators, using Chi-square test and statistical analysis. About 10,794 Type 2 diabetes cases with 59 primary liver cancer, the incidence is 54.66/10,000, men liver cancer incidence (92.78/10,000) than women (27.13/10,000), with significant difference (χ2 = 26.621, P < 0.001). As the growth of the age, the possibility of liver cancer in patients with diabetes increased significantly (χ2 = 19.961, P = 0.001). The rate was highest for 50-60-year-old men, and the women at age 70, and older incidence is highest. Irrespective of men or women with diabetes as the growth of the age, the possibility of liver cancer had significantly increased (P = 0.001, P = 0.002). Hepatitis B or hepatitis C incidence was 2.94%, but diabetes incidence of hepatitis men (3.98%) and women (2.01%) did not find significant differences (χ2 = 0.3361, P = 0.562). Three hundred and seventeen cases of Type 2 diabetes with hepatitis, the incidence of primary liver cancer was 11.67%, the liver cancer incidence of diabetes patients with hepatitis men (17.78%) than women (3.97%), with significant difference (χ2 = 37.429, P < 0.001). With the growth of age, the overall risk of getting liver cancer (χ2 =15.023, P = 0.01) of diabetes and hepatitis patients is significantly increased, and

  5. Treatment of Liver Trauma: Operative or Conservative Management

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Carmen Garcia; Fuster, Josep; Bombuy, Ernest; Sanchez, Santiago; Ferrer, Joana; Loera, Marco Antonio; Marti, Josep; Fondevila, Constantino; Zavala, Elizabet; Garcia-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background The liver is one of the most frequently damaged organs when abdominal trauma occurs. Currently, a conservative management constitutes the treatment of choice in patients with hemodynamic stability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of an operative and conservative management of 143 patients with liver injury treated in a single institution. Methods A retrospective study of the patients admitted with the diagnosis of liver trauma was performed from 1992-2008. The patients were classified according to the intention to treatment: Group I, operative management; Group II, conservative management. Variables analyzed included demographic data, injury classification, associated lesions, surgical treatment, transfusions, morbi-mortality, and hospital stay. We established two periods (1992-1999; 2000-2008) in order to compare diagnosis and management. Results A total of 143 patients were analyzed. Thirty-one percent correspond to severe injuries. Conservative treatment was followed in 60.8 % with surgery undertaken in 14.9 % of patients from this group due to failure of conservative treatment. Immediate surgery was carried out in 38.2 %. Total mortality was 14 %. Morbidity (35.7-38.5 %) in the group of immediate surgery and failure of conservative management is similar, but not in mortality (28.6-15.4 %). In the second group (2000-2008) there are more patients with conservative treatment, with a low percentage of failure of this treatment and morbi-mortality. Conclusions Conservative treatment is an adequate treatment in a great number of patients. Failure of conservative treatment did not show a higher incidence of complications or mortality but it should be performed in centers with experienced surgeons. PMID:27956979

  6. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  7. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25995680

  8. Treatment of depression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Depression occurs in about 15% of the general population and is at least two to three times more common in patients with cancer. Depression is often difficult to diagnose in these patients because of the complexity and constraints of cancer care, patient and family reluctance to acknowledge distress, and the presence of multiple other symptoms. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy are effective in treating depression in patients with cancer, much like in patients with other significant medical problems. Precise assessments of the benefits of treating depression in these patients are important in weighing them against the costs and potential adverse effects. Such estimates are limited by a paucity of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and methodological problems in the existing studies that reflect some of the clinical difficulties in case-finding, treatment, and follow-up of patients with cancer. The existing body of research about depression in cancer patients is extremely limited in terms of the number of studies published and the number of total patients reported over the last 30 years. Moreover, these limited data may not generalize well because of high rates of patient dropout and the very limited enrollment of children, adolescents, older adults, and minority groups. There is an emerging trend toward simplifying the assessment of depression in outpatient cancer care settings and studying depression therapies in cohorts of patients with cancer other than those with fully characterized depressive disorders.

  9. Patterns of recurrence after liver transplantation for nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagness, Morten; Foss, Aksel; Egge, Tor Skatvedt; Dueland, Svein

    2014-04-01

    Surgical resection is the only curative modality for colorectal liver metastases (CLM), and the pattern of recurrences after resection affects survival. In a prospective study of liver transplantation (Lt) for nonresectable CLM we have shown a 5-year overall survival rate of 60 %, but 19 of 21 experienced recurrence. This study reports the pattern of recurrences after Lt for CLM and the effect on survival. Characterization of metastatic lesions in a prospective study for Lt for nonresectable CLM was performed (n = 21). The study included reexamination of chest computed tomographic scans taken before Lt. At the time of first recurrence, 16 were a single site, and three were multiple sites. Thirteen of the single sites were pulmonary recurrences. The pulmonary recurrences appeared early and were slow growing, and several were accessible to surgical treatment. When chest computed tomographic scans were reexamined, seven patients had pulmonary nodules at the time of Lt without an effect on survival. There was no first single-site hepatic recurrence. Six of the seven patients who developed metastases to the transplanted liver died from metastatic disease. The pulmonary recurrences after Lt for CLM were of an indolent character, even those that were present at the time of Lt. This contrasts with the finding of metastases to the transplanted liver, which was prognostically adverse. The lack of single hepatic first-site recurrences and hepatic metastases only as part of disseminated disease is different from the pattern of recurrence after liver resection. This suggests two distinct mechanisms for hepatic recurrences after resection for CLM.

  10. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  11. Nonthermal Plasma-Mediated Cancer Cell Death; Targeted Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byul-Bora; Choi, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Koo; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    Non-thermal air plasma can kill cancer cells. However, there is no selectivity between normal and cancer cells. Therefore, cancer specific antibody conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) was pretreated before plasma irradiation. Stimulation of antibody conjugated GNP by plasma treatment resulted in a significant decrease in viability of cancer cells. This technology shows the feasibility of using plasma therapy for killing cancer cells selectively.

  12. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Jens U.; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Camacho, Lucrecia O. Arreguin; Pinna, Federico; Lee, Yun-Han; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Domínguez, Mayrel Palestino; Castven, Darko; Breuhahn, Kai; Conner, Elizabeth A.; Galle, Peter R.; Andersen, Jesper B.; Factor