Science.gov

Sample records for liver cancer treatment

  1. What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Liver Cancer After Treatment Living as a Liver Cancer Survivor Completing treatment can be both stressful ... back, this could happen. Follow-up after a liver transplant A liver transplant can be very effective ...

  2. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  4. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? Because there are only ... other larger studies before it is widely used. Liver transplant Only a small portion of patients with ...

  5. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  6. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  7. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  8. Surgical treatment of double primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aijun; Ma, Senlin; Pawlik, Timothy; Wu, Bin; Yang, Xiaoyu; Cui, Longjiu; Wu, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Double primary liver cancer (DPLC) is a special type of clinical situation. As such, a detailed analysis of the surgical management and prognosis of patients with DPLC is lacking. The objective of the current study was to define the management and outcome of patients undergoing surgery for DPLC at a major hepatobiliary center. A total of 87 patients treated by surgical resection at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from January 1st, 2007 to October 31st, 2013 who had DPLC demonstrated by final pathological diagnosis were identified. Among these, 50 patients had complete clinical and prognostic data. Demographic and tumor characteristics as well as the prognosis were analyzed. The proportion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) (+), HBsAg (+), and HBeAg (−) hepatocirrhosis in all patients was 21.84%, 67.82%, and 63.22%, respectively. Incidental findings accounted for 58.62% of patients; among those who had symptoms, the main symptom was abdominal pain (31.03%). Nonanatomic wedge resection was the main operative approach (62.07%). Postoperatively, the main complications included seroperitoneum (11.49%), hypoproteinemia (10.34%), and pleural effusion (8.05%). Factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) tumor size (P = 0.002) and use of postoperative prophylactic transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment (P = 0.015). Meanwhile, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) size (P = 0.045), ICC size (P < 0.001), and liver function (including aspartate aminotransferase [P = 0.001] and r-glutamyl transferase [P < 0.001]) were associated with overall survival (OS). Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis or cirrhosis is also an important factor in the pathogenesis of DPLC and surgical treatment is safe for it with low complication rates. In addition, it is effective to prolong DFS that DPLC patients undergo postoperative

  9. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  10. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  11. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  12. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  13. Glypican-3 Targeting Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Bryan D.; Ho, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer, yet no effective therapeutics exist. This review provides an overview of the recent development of recombinant immunotoxins for the treatment of glypican-3 (GPC3) expressing HCC. GPC3 is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is overexpressed in HCC, but is absent from normal adult human tissues. Treatment of HCC with anti-GPC3 immunotoxins represents a new therapeutic option. Using phage display and hybridoma technologies, three high affinity antibodies (HN3, HS20 and YP7) have been generated against GPC3. Two of these antibodies (HN3 and HS20) have demonstrated the ability to inhibit Wnt/Yap signaling, leading to a reduction in liver cancer cell proliferation. By combining the HN3 antibody capable of inhibiting Wnt/Yap signaling with the protein synthesis inhibitory domain of the Pseudomonas exotoxin, a recombinant immunotoxin that exhibits a dual inhibitory mechanism was generated. This immunotoxin was found to be highly effective in the treatment of human HCCs in mouse xenograft models. Engineering of the toxin fragment to reduce the level of immunogenicity is currently being explored. The development of immunotoxins provides opportunities for novel liver cancer therapies. PMID:27669301

  14. Treatment advances in liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Steven R; Poston, Graeme J

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several decades advances in the management and treatment of patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) has changed a disease with a dismal prognosis to one with a potential for cure in some patients. Advances have been made through coordinated management of patients by surgeons, medical oncologists, radiologists, and other health care professionals coupled with advances in treatment options. Although these advances have clearly impacted patient outcomes, it is clear that the benefit of traditional surgical approaches and the use of cytoxic chemotherapy are reaching a plateau. Continued research to develop new and more active therapies, including targeted or biologic agents, is needed. This review discusses the advances made in management of patients with liver-limited metastatic disease.

  15. Web site construction for information and treatment on liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Sotiris; Ponirou, Paraskevi; Bizopoulou, Zoi; Diomidous, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer requires a considerable attention of health care scientists worldwide. A holistic treatment includes patient information about risk factors, education on pragmatic evaluation of the symptoms, as well as presentation of best and individualized treatment methods. In this direction, Internet seems to be a powerful tool that has an essential role. The aim of this study is the development of a web site in order to inform and present treatment options on liver cancer, it consists of four parts. In the first part, the presentation of the disease's knowledge base is attempted, whereas in the second part this knowledge base is organized in two conceptual entities: (a) information and (b) treatment. In the third part the importance of internet in the health care sector is highlighted. In the fourth and last part the web site is presented and a brief illustration of several relevant theories and specific implementation tools. The critical success factor of the implementation phase is considered to be the selection of the appropriate methods and development tools. Finally, the constant need for ongoing site maintenance is discussed and thus, is proposed to formulate one of the main aspects for further research, along with several issues concerning site usability.

  16. Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide. PMID:26020028

  17. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  18. Targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer using specific binding peptide

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianfeng; Tan, Gewen; Sheng, Nengquan; You, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks the first in China among all gastrointestinal cancers in terms of incidence, and liver metastasis is the leading cause of death for patients with advanced gastric cancer. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine commonly chosen as the target for gene therapy against cancers. The specific binding peptide pd20 of gastric cancer cells with a high potential for liver metastasis was fused with human TNF to obtain the pd20-TNF gene using DNA recombinant technique. The expression of the fusion protein was induced and the protein was purified. In vitro activity test showed that the fusion protein greatly improved the membrane permeability of liver cells in nude mice with liver metastasis from gastric cancer. The tumor implantation experiment in nude mice showed that the fusion protein effectively mitigated the cancer lesions. The results provide important clues for developing the drugs for targeted treatment of liver metastasis from gastric cancer. PMID:27347305

  19. Global Proteome Changes in Liver Tissue 6 Weeks after FOLFOX Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Urdzik, Jozef; Vildhede, Anna; Wiśniewski, Jacek R.; Duraj, Frans; Haglund, Ulf; Artursson, Per; Norén, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    (1) Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis is associated with sinusoidal injury of liver parenchyma. The effects of oxaliplatin-induced liver injury on the protein level remain unknown. (2) Protein expression in liver tissue was analyzed—from eight patients treated with FOLFOX (combination of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) and seven controls—by label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Recursive feature elimination–support vector machine and Welch t-test were used to identify classifying and relevantly changed proteins, respectively. Resulting proteins were analyzed for associations with gene ontology categories and pathways. (3) A total of 5891 proteins were detected. A set of 184 (3.1%) proteins classified the groups with a 20% error rate, but relevant change was observed only in 55 (0.9%) proteins. The classifying proteins were associated with changes in DNA replication (p < 0.05) through upregulation of the minichromosome maintenance complex and with the innate immune response (p < 0.05). The importance of DNA replication changes was supported by the results of Welch t-test (p < 0.05). (4) Six weeks after FOLFOX treatment, less than 1% of identified proteins showed changes in expression associated with DNA replication, cell cycle entry, and innate immune response. We hypothesize that the changes remain after recovery from FOLFOX treatment injury. PMID:28248240

  20. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Liver Cancer If you have some of the signs ... Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  1. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  2. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  3. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  4. [Multi-modal treatment of patients with multiple liver metastases caused by sigmoid cancer].

    PubMed

    Sawada, S; Nagata, K; Kato, T; Oshima, T; Yoshida, M; Kawa, S; Harima, K; Tanaka, Y; Nakamura, H

    1989-05-01

    A case of sigmoid cancer with multiple liver metastases (S2PON3 + H3) who was treated by multi-modal treatment was reported. The multi-modal treatment is including intra-arterial administration of anti-cancer drugs as a pre-surgery treatment, intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy lasting for three to five weeks (three times), hyperthermia treatment combined with intra-arterial administration of anti-cancer drugs and intra-arterial expandable metalic stent. The patients lived for 2 years and 4 months in good condition.

  5. Combining Angiogenesis-Targeted Treatments for Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who are ineligible for a liver transplant or other local therapies will be given oral sorafenib at the standard approved dose and intravenous TRC105.

  6. Treatment of Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer: Medico-Surgical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Essadi, Ismail; Sbitti, Yassir; Fetohi, Mohamed; Slimani, Khaoula Alaoui; Essadi, Meryam; Tazi, Elmehdi; Ichou, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background The management of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer can be understood only as part of a multidisciplinary strategy. Progress experienced by medical treatment, surgical techniques and ways of imaging, has improved the prognosis of patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancers. This work displays the experience of Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, 60 patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer, synchronous or metachronous were supported in the Medical Oncology unit at the Military training hospital in Rabat. Results Liver metastases were synchronous in 41 (68%) patients and metachronous in 19 (32%). Patients were classified into 3 categories according to their resectability: 14 (22%) were resectable at the outset, 28 (47%) were unresectable and 18 (31%) were considered uncertain resectability. Thirty-five patients (58%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgical gesture, 25 (42%) received chemotherapy after resection of primary tumor. This chemotherapy enabled the resection of liver metastases in 5 patients initially deemed uncertain resectability. The average objective responses to chemotherapy were in the range of 59% with 4 complete responses and one confirmed histologically. Twenty-three patients (38%) underwent surgery including 15 liver resections with R0 (25%). The median progression-free survival in this series was 15.5 months. Some minor side effects were noted, which have not entered the prognosis of patients. Conclusions Hepatic resection remains the only potentially curative treatment of liver metastases of colorectal cancers. Perioperative chemotherapy is a promising standard, which has improved the prognosis of patients historically associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:27942326

  7. [Role of loco-regional treatments for patients with breast cancer liver metastases].

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Cristina; Danova, Marco; Chatzileontiadou, Sofia; Palmeri, Laura; Vercelli, Alessandro; Palmeri, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    Breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) are not uncommon (about 18% of cases): although some patients have been reported as still living after 25 months, median survival after hormonal- or chemotherapy is 6-14 months. In recent years, new chemotherapy regimens and molecular targeted therapies have given medical oncologists reason to believe that metastatic disease can be eradicated, or at least controlled for prolonged periods. In an attempt to improve survival, consideration has also been given to loco-regional treatments such as hepatic resection and radio-frequency ablation, which have been associated with better outcomes in selected patients. This review considers the role of two loco-regional approaches in a multidisciplinary perspective in the treatment of single or multiple breast cancer metastases limited to the liver. An expanded role for hepatic resection and ablation is being investigated. We assessed available data in the literature to determine their role on survival outcomes. They suggest that loco-regional treatments might be of significant benefit in a selected group of women with BCLM, but the role of these local treatments in multimodality treatment of liver metastases remains controversial. It can generally be said that loco-regional treatments can improve overall survival, with no mortality and less than 20% morbidity in patients at low surgical risk; however, they should only be considered cytoreductive treatments and, as such, always need to be integrated with systemic therapy.

  8. MCNP simulation of the dose distribution in liver cancer treatment for BNC therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Zoran; Markovic, Vladimir; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Urosevic, Vlade

    2014-10-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy ( BNCT) is based on selective uptake of boron in tumour tissue compared to the surrounding normal tissue. Infusion of compounds with boron is followed by irradiation with neutrons. Neutron capture on 10B, which gives rise to an alpha particle and recoiled 7Li ion, enables the therapeutic dose to be delivered to tumour tissue while healthy tissue can be spared. Here, therapeutic abilities of BNCT were studied for possible treatment of liver cancer using thermal and epithermal neutron beam. For neutron transport MCNP software was used and doses in organs of interest in ORNL phantom were evaluated. Phantom organs were filled with voxels in order to obtain depth-dose distributions in them. The result suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for liver cancer treatment.

  9. MCNP simulation of the dose distribution in liver cancer treatment for BNC therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Zoran; Markovic, Vladimir; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Urosevic, Vlade

    2014-10-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective uptake of boron in tumour tissue compared to the surrounding normal tissue. Infusion of compounds with boron is followed by irradiation with neutrons. Neutron capture on 10B, which gives rise to an alpha particle and recoiled 7Li ion, enables the therapeutic dose to be delivered to tumour tissue while healthy tissue can be spared. Here, therapeutic abilities of BNCT were studied for possible treatment of liver cancer using thermal and epithermal neutron beam. For neutron transport MCNP software was used and doses in organs of interest in ORNL phantom were evaluated. Phantom organs were filled with voxels in order to obtain depth-dose distributions in them. The result suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for liver cancer treatment.

  10. Induction of an altered lipid phenotype by two cancer promoting treatments in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Riedel, S; Abel, S; Swanevelder, S; Gelderblom, W C A

    2015-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been associated with tumor promotion in rat liver. Similarities and differences of lipid parameters were investigated using the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) and the 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (AAF/PH) treatments as cancer promoters in rat liver. A typical lipid phenotype was observed, including increased membranal phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cholesterol content, increased levels of C16:0 and monounsaturated fatty acids in PE and phosphatidylcholine (PC), as well as a decrease in C18:0 and long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PC fraction. The observed lipid changes, which likely resulted in changes in membrane structure and fluidity, may represent a growth stimulus exerted by the cancer promoters that could provide initiated cells with a selective growth advantage. This study provided insight into complex lipid profiles induced by two different cancer promoting treatments and their potential role in the development of hepatocyte nodules, which can be used to identify targets for the development of chemopreventive strategies against cancer promotion in the liver.

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation for Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Interventional ablative technologies aided by imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have been crucial in managing patients with primary liver cancer and liver metastases over the past 20 years. Several ablative technologies have been used to treat liver cancer; however, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has emerged as the most common ablative therapy for hepatic lesions, both in the United States and globally. RFA is the treatment of choice for patients who cannot have surgical resection of the liver. This article focuses on the role of imaging in RFA treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic lesions.

  12. Practical questions in liver metastases of colorectal cancer: general principles of treatment

    PubMed Central

    González, Héctor Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are currently treated by multidisciplinary teams using strategies that combine chemotherapy, surgery and ablative techniques. Many patients classically considered non-resectable can now be rescued by neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection, with similar results to those obtained in initial resections. While many of those patients will recur, repeat resection is a feasible and safe approach if the recurrence is confined to the liver. Several factors that until recently were considered contraindications are now recognized only as adverse prognostic factors and no longer as contraindications for surgery. The current evaluation process to select patients for surgery is no longer focused on what is to be removed but rather on what will remain. The single most important objective is to achieve a complete (R0) resection within the limits of safety in terms of quantity and quality of the remaining liver. An increasing number of patients with synchronous liver metastases are treated by simultaneous resection of the primary and the liver metastatic tumours. Multilobar disease can also be approached by staged procedures that combine neoadjuvant chemotherapy, limited resections in one lobe, embolization or ligation of the contralateral portal vein and a major resection in a second procedure. Extrahepatic disease is no longer a contraindication for surgery provided that an R0 resection can be achieved. A reverse surgical staged approach (liver metastases first, primary second) is another strategy that has appeared recently. Provided that a careful selection is made, elderly patients can also benefit from surgical treatment of liver metastases. PMID:18345300

  13. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  14. Liver metastases from colorectal cancer: regional intra-arterial treatment following failure of systemic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cyjon, A; Neuman-Levin, M; Rakowsky, E; Greif, F; Belinky, A; Atar, E; Hardoff, R; Brenner, B; Sulkes, A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to determine response rate, survival and toxicity associated with combination chemotherapy delivered intra-arterially to liver in patients with hepatic metastases of colorectal origin refractory to standard systemic treatment. A total of 28 patients who failed prior systemic treatment with fluoropyrimidines received a median of 5 cycles of intra-arterial treatment consisting of 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/m2/d, leucovorin 120 mg/m2/d, and cisplatin 20 mg/m2/d for 5 consecutive days. Cycles were repeated at intervals of 5–6 weeks. A major response was achieved in 48% of patients: complete response in 8% and partial response in 40%. The median duration of response was 11.5 months. Median survival was 12 months at a median follow up of 12 months. On multivariate analysis, the only variables with a significant impact on survival were response to treatment and performance status. Toxicity was moderate: grades III–IV neutropenia occurred in 29% of patients. Most of the patients complained of fatigue lasting for a few days following each cycle. There were no cases of hepatobiliary toxicity. These findings indicate that regional intra-arterial treatment should be considered in selected patients with predominantly liver disease following failure of standard treatment. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11506487

  15. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  16. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer? Although several risk factors for hepatocellular cancer ... Cancer? Can Liver Cancer Be Prevented? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  17. Activation of the mTOR Pathway by Oxaliplatin in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min; Zessin, Amelia S.; Glover, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background Standard of care treatment for colorectal cancer liver metastasis consists of a cytotoxic chemotherapy in combination with a targeted agent. Clinical trials have guided the use of these combinatory therapies, but it remains unclear what the optimal combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy with a targeted agent are. Methods Using a genomic based approach, gene expression profiling was obtained from tumor samples of patient with colorectal cancer liver metastasis who received an oxaliplatin based therapy. Early passaged colorectal cancer liver metastasis cell lines and patient derived xenografts of colorectal cancer liver metastasis were then treated with oxaliplatin and a mTOR inhibitor. Results Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the mTOR pathway was activated in patients receiving oxaliplatin based therapy. Treatment of early passaged colorectal cancer lines and patient derived xenografts with oxaliplatin resulted in activation of the mTOR pathway. Combination therapy with oxaliplatin and a mTOR inhibitor resulted in a synergistic effect both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Our findings suggest a genomic based approach can be used to identify optimal combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy with a targeted agent and that these observations can be validated both in vitro and in vivo using patient derived colorectal cancer cell lines and patient derived xenografts prior to clinical use. PMID:28060954

  18. The changing role of surgery in the treatment of primary liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z Y; Yu, Y Q; Zhou, X D

    1986-01-01

    For decades, the role of surgery in the treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) was important but limited. However, a comparison of pathologically proven PLC during the three periods 1958-1966, 1967-1975, and 1976-1984 revealed that as a result of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) serosurvey, changing concepts in surgical oncology, and introduction of new surgical modalities, the role of surgery has become greater. The increasing proportion of subclinical PLC (0, 7.2, and 21.2%) has favored the increasing series resection rate (16.1, 34.7, and 39.6%) and palliative surgery (13.7, 17.0, and 29.8%). The results indicated that early resection, reoperation for subclinical recurrence, resection of huge PLC in stages, and combination of palliative surgery other than resection might be responsible for the increasing 5-year survival rate (1.7, 7.1, and 19.5%) in the entire series.

  19. Drug-Loaded Microspheres for the Treatment of Liver Cancer: Review of Current Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kettenbach, Joachim Stadler, Alfred; Katzler, Isabella v.; Schernthaner, Ruediger; Blum, Melanie; Lammer, Johannes; Rand, Thomas

    2008-05-15

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) involves the emulsification of a chemotherapeutic agent in a viscous drug carrier, delivered intra-arterially to liver tumor for maximum effect. TACE reduces arterial inflow, diminishes washout of the chemotherapeutic agent, and decreases systemic exposure. Despite evidence of some clinical success with TACE, a new type of microspheres with drug-eluting capabilities may offer a precisely controlled and sustainable release of the chemotherapeutic agent into the tumor bed. In animal trials tumor necrosis (approaching 100%) was greatest at 7 days, with significantly lower plasma concentrations of doxorubicin than in control animals treated with doxorubicin intra-arterially. Clinically, drug-eluting microspheres loaded with doxorubicin, either at 75 mg/m{sup 2} or at a fixed dose of 150 mg, were used recently and no severe disorders of the hepatic function were observed postprocedure, while a substantial reduction of the fetoprotein levels occurred. An interim analysis of the first 15 patients from the Hong Kong group at 3 months showed an objective response rate of 61.54% and 53.84% according to EASL criteria and RECIST criteria, respectively, and a survival rate of 93.3%. In this paper we present how to use microspheres loaded with doxorubicin and review their clinical value and preliminary performance for treatment of unresectable liver cancer.

  20. [A case with liver resection of metastasis from rectal cancer after FOLFOX4+bevacizumab treatment].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Taiki; Matsui, Takanori; Uemura, Takanori; Fujimitsu, Yasunobu; Kure, Narihiro; Kojima, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    We report a 59-year-old woman with rectal cancer who underwent low anterior resection in March 2007. After curative operation at Stage IIIb(pT3N2M0), multiple liver metastasis was diagnosed in May 2007. Chemotherapy with FOLFOX4+bevacizumab was performed from June to August in 2007, and liver resection(left lobectomy and partial resection)was performed in September 2007. Bevacizumab was newly available from June 2007 in Japan, and liver resection after bevacizumab administration was safely performed.

  1. Treatment of Neuroendocrine Cancer Metastatic to the Liver: The Role of Ablative Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Atwell, T.D. Charboneau, J.W.; Que, F.G.; Rubin, J.; Lewis, B.D.; Nagorney, D.M.; Callstrom, M.R.; Farrell, M.A.; Pitot, H.C.; Hobday, T.J.

    2005-05-15

    Carcinoid tumors and islet cell neoplasms are neuroendocrine neoplasms with indolent patterns of growth and association with bizarre hormone syndromes. These tumors behave in a relatively protracted and predictable manner, which allows for multiple therapeutic options. Even in the presence of hepatic metastases, the standard of treatment for neuroendocrine malignancy is surgery, either with curative intent or for tumor cytoreduction, i.e., resection of 90% or more of the tumor volume. Image-guided ablation, as either an adjunct to surgery or a primary treatment modality, can be used to treat neuroendocrine cancer metastatic to the liver. Image-guided ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation, alcohol injection, and cryoablation, can be used in selected patients to debulk hepatic tumors and improve patient symptoms. Although long-term follow-up data are not available, the surgical literature indicates that significant ablative debulking may improve patient survival. In this review, we discuss metastatic neuroendocrine disease and its treatment options, especially image-guided ablative techniques.

  2. Evaluation of the Medicinal Herb Graptopetalum paraguayense as a Treatment for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Huang, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Wu, Li-Chen; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Lai, Jin-Mei; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Sorafenib is the only drug for patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that has been shown to confer a survival benefit to patients with HCC; however, it has many side effects. Thus, alternate therapeutic strategies with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy for the management of HCC should be developed. Methods and Findings We demonstrate that an extract of Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP) down-regulated the expression levels of several onco-proteins, including AURKA, AURKB, and FLJ10540, in HCC cells. To isolate the active components in the GP extracts, we prepared extracts fractions and assessed their effects on the expression of onco-proteins in HCC cells. The fraction designated HH-F3 was enriched in active ingredients, exhibited cytotoxic effects, and suppressed the expression of the onco-proteins in HCC cells. The structure of the main active compound in HH-F3 was found to be similar to that of the proanthocyanidin compounds derived from Rhodiola rosea. In addition, a distinct new compound rich in 3, 4, 5-trihydroxy benzylic moieties was identified in the HH-F3 preparations. Mechanistic studies indicated that HH-F3 induced apoptosis in HCC cells by promoting the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the production of reactive oxygen species. HH-F3 also enhanced PTEN expression and decreased AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in a concentration-dependent manner in HCC cells. Moreover combination of GP or HH-F3 and sorafenib synergistically inhibits the proliferation of Huh7 cells. The treatment of a rat model with diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer with extracts of GP and HH-F3 decreased hepatic collagen contents and inhibited tumor growth. Conclusions These results indicate that GP extracts and HH-F3 can protect the liver by suppressing tumor growth; consequently, these compounds

  3. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  4. Cetuximab as treatment for head and neck cancer patients with a previous liver transplant: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Francia; Rubió-Casadevall, Jordi; Saigi, Maria; Marruecos, Jordi; Taberna, Miren; Tobed, Marc; Maños, Manuel; Mesía, Ricard

    2016-07-05

    Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor useful in the treatment of patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma combined with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Its pharmacokinetics are not influenced by hepatic status and there are no specific warnings concerning its indication in patients with impaired hepatic function. Patients with a previous liver transplant are at risk for hepatic toxicity and use immunosupressants to avoid rejection that can interact with other drugs. We present two cases of patients with a previous liver transplant in which cetuximab was administered to treat head and neck cancer.

  5. Role of functional imaging in treatment plan optimization of stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Berardino; Jumeau, Raphael; Deantonio, Letizia; Adib, Salim; Godin, Sarah; Zeverino, Michele; Moeckli, Raphael; Bourhis, Jean; Prior, John O; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-10-13

    We report the first known instance of the clinical use of 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for the optimization of radiotherapy treatment planning and for the follow-up of acute toxicity in a patient undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. In our experience, HBS allowed the identification and the sparing of more functioning liver areas, thus potentially reducing the risk of radiation-induced liver toxicity.

  6. Gel dosimetry in the BNCT facility for extra-corporeal treatment of liver cancer at the HFR Petten.

    PubMed

    Gambarini, G; Daquino, G G; Moss, R L; Carrara, M; Nievaart, V A; Vanossi, E

    2007-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of the dose inside a specially designed and built facility for extra-corporeal treatment of liver cancer by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten (The Netherlands) is the necessary step before animal studies can start. The absorbed doses are measured by means of gel dosemeters, which help to validate the Monte Carlo simulations of the spheroidal liver holder that will contain the human liver for irradiation with an epithermal neutron beam. These dosemeters allow imaging of the dose due to gammas and to the charged particles produced by the (10)B reaction. The thermal neutron flux is extrapolated from the boron dose images and compared to that obtained by the calculations. As an additional reference, Au, Cu and Mn foil measurements are performed. All results appear consistent with the calculations and confirm that the BNCT liver facility is able to provide an almost homogeneous thermal neutron distribution in the liver, which is a requirement for a successful treatment of liver metastases.

  7. Optimal dose of gemcitabine for the treatment of biliary tract or pancreatic cancer in patients with liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takashi; Ebata, Tomoki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Shimokata, Tomoya; Maeda, Osamu; Mitsuma, Ayako; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Nagino, Masato; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    A clear consensus does not exist about whether the initial dose of gemcitabine, an essential anticancer antimetabolite, should be reduced in patients with liver dysfunction. Adult patients with biliary tract or pancreatic cancer were divided into three groups according to whether they had mild, moderate, or severe liver dysfunction, evaluated on the basis of serum bilirubin and liver transaminase levels at baseline. As anticancer treatment, gemcitabine at a dose of 800 or 1000 mg/m(2) was given as an i.v. infusion once weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. The patients were prospectively evaluated for adverse events during the first cycle, and the pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine and its inactive metabolite, difluorodeoxyuridine, were studied to determine the optimal initial dose of gemcitabine as monotherapy according to the severity of liver dysfunction. A total of 15 patients were studied. Liver dysfunction was mild in one patient, moderate in six, and severe in eight. All 15 patients had been undergoing biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice when they received gemcitabine. Grade 3 cholangitis developed in one patient with moderate liver dysfunction who received gemcitabine at the dose level of 1000 mg/m(2). No other patients had severe treatment-related adverse events resulting in the omission or discontinuation of gemcitabine treatment. The plasma concentrations of gemcitabine and difluorodeoxyuridine were similar among the groups. An initial dose reduction of gemcitabine as monotherapy for the treatment of biliary tract or pancreatic cancers is not necessary for patients with hyperbilirubinemia, provided that obstructive jaundice is well managed. (Clinical trial registration no. UMIN000005363.)

  8. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer Who Have Undergone a Liver Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-25

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer

  10. Microwave Ablation (MWA) for the Treatment of a Solitary, Chemorefractory Testicular Cancer Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Violari, Elena G. Petre, Elena N.; Feldman, Darren R.; Erinjeri, Joseph P. Brown, Karen T. Solomon, Stephen B.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2015-04-15

    We present a case of a patient with stage IIIC metastatic seminoma with a persistent chemorefractory liver lesion. The patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate due to the tumor’s aggressive biology with numerous other liver lesions treated with chemotherapy and a relatively high probability for additional recurrences. Further chemotherapy with curative intent was not a feasible option due to the fact that the patient had already received second-line high-dose chemotherapy and four cycles of third-line treatment complicated by renal failure, refractory thrombocytopenia, and debilitating neuropathy. After initial failure of laser, microwave ablation of the chemorefractory liver metastasis resulted in prolonged local tumor control and rendered the patient disease-free for more than 35 months, allowing him to regain an improved quality of life.

  11. Plectin deficiency in liver cancer cells promotes cell migration and sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Chao, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chen-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    2017-02-17

    Plectin involved in activation of kinases in cell signaling pathway and plays important role in cell morphology and migration. Plectin knockdown promotes cell migration by activating focal adhesion kinase and Rac1-GTPase activity in liver cells. Sorafenib is a multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor that improves patient survival on hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the expression of plectin and cell migration as well as the sensitivity of hepatoma cell lines exposing to sorafenib. Hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 were used to examine the level of plectin expression and cell migration in comparison with Chang liver cell line. In addition, sensitivity of the 3 cell lines to sorafenib treatment was also measured. Expression of plectin was lower in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 hepatoma cells than that of Chang liver cells whereas HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells exhibit higher rate of cell migration in trans-well migration assay. Immunohistofluorecent staining on E-cadherin revealed the highest rate of collective cell migration in HepG2 cells and the lowest was found in Chang liver cells. Likewise, HepG2 cell line was most sensitive to sorafenib treatment and Chang liver cells exhibited the least sensitivity. The drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment showed inverse correlation with the expression of plectin. We suggest that plectin deficiency and increased E-cadherin in hepatoma cells were associated with higher rates of cell motility, collective cell migration as well as higher drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

  12. A technique using {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for radiotherapy treatment planning for liver cancers or metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Sui; Jacob, Rojymon; Bender, Luvenia W.; Duan, Jun; Spencer, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) requires a sufficient functional liver volume to tolerate the treatment. The current study extended the work of de Graaf et al. (2010) [3] on the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin imaging for presurgery planning to radiotherapy planning for liver cancer or metastases. Patient was immobilized and imaged in an identical position on a single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) system and a radiotherapy simulation CT system. {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT was registered to the planning CT through image registration of noncontrast CT from SPECT-CT system to the radiotherapy planning CT. The voxels with higher uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin were transferred to the planning CT as an avoidance structure in optimizing a 2-arc RapidArc plan for SBRT delivery. Excellent dose coverage to the target and sparing of the healthy remnant liver volume was achieved. This report illustrated a procedure for the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for optimizing radiotherapy for liver cancers and metastases.

  13. The value of 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging in the treatment of liver cancer with argon-helium cryoablation

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yinggang; Jin, Yurong; Yan, Qiaohuan; Yuan, Dingling; Wang, Yanling; Li, Xianping; Shen, Yanfeng

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effectiveness of using 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CT) and perfusion imaging to guide argon-helium cryoablation treatment of liver cancer. In total, 60 cases of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma before surgery treated with argon-helium cryoablation were inlcuded in the present study. Retrospective summary of the 60 cases of metaphase and advanced liver cancer were used as the control group. The control group were treated using cryoablation with argon-helium knife. We used enhanced scanning with 64-slice spiral CT to define the extent of their lesions and prepared a plan of percutaneous cryoablation for the treatment. Intraoperatively, we used the dynamics of CT perfusion imaging to observe the frozen ablation range and decreased the rate of complications. After surgery, the patients were followed-up regularly by 64-slice CT. We used conventional X-ray, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative lateralization. Intraoperative X-ray or ultrasound guidance and follow-up with CT or MTI were added to determine the clinical effectiveness and prognosis. The results showed that the total effective rate was improved significantly and incidence rate of overall complications decreased markedly in the observation group. Following treatment, AFP decreased significantly while the total freezing area and time were reduced significantly. The median survival time was increased significantly in the observation group. The numeric values of hepatic arterial perfusion, portal vein perfusion and hepatic arterial perfusion index were all markedly lowered after treatment. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, the use of 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging may considerably improve the effects of liver cancer treatment using the argon-helium cryoablation. It extended the survival time and reduced complications. PMID:28105165

  14. Liquid biopsy in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Labgaa, Ismail; Villanueva, Augusto

    2015-04-01

    Liver cancer has become the second cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most patients are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stage, where potentially curative treatment options are not recommended. Unlike other solid tumors, there are no validated oncogenic addiction loops and the only systemic agent to improve survival in advanced disease is sorafenib. All phase 3 clinical trials testing molecular therapies after sorafenib have been negative, none of which selected patients based on predictive biomarkers of response. Theoretically, analysis of circulating cancer byproducts (e.g., circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids), namely "liquid biopsy," could provide easy access to molecular tumor information, improve patients' stratification and allow to assess tumor dynamics over time. Recent technical developments and preliminary data from other malignancies indicate that liquid biopsy might have a role in the future management of cancer patients.

  15. Lipids changes in liver cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing-ting; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wu, Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism. Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs, these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed. Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide, and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases, which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo. In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer. PMID:17565510

  16. Current Medical Treatment of Patients with Non-Colorectal Liver Metastases: Primary Tumor Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Cornelia; Kolberg, Hans-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background (Metastatic) breast cancer is a heterogeneous entity in which every disease subtype requires an individualized systemic treatment approach. Methods We reviewed the currently available data regarding systemic therapy of breast cancer and present a review of historical and current treatment approaches, with the publications cited covering a time span from 1896 to the last ASCO 2015. Results Systemic therapy of metastatic breast cancer may include chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and targeted therapies (e.g. antibody-based approaches). Based on the patient's breast cancer subtype, these agents may be employed alone or in combination. Therefore, characterization of the phenotype of the disease is necessary and may include biopsy of the metastatic site. Novel therapeutic approaches include immunologic therapies as well as PARP, PI3K and CDK 4/6 inhibitors, which are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Conclusion Systemic therapy of metastatic breast cancer requires complex and individualized treatment approaches that are best offered in an interdisciplinary setting. PMID:26889146

  17. Successful Multidisciplinary Treatment with Secondary Metastatic Liver Resection after Downsizing by Palliative Second-Line Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: A Curative Option

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Axel; Siebler, Jürgen; Goertz, Ruediger; Wolff, Kerstin; Ostermeier, Nicola; Busse, Dagmar; Kremer, Andreas E.; Koch, Franz; Hagel, Alexander; Farnbacher, Michael; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Neurath, Markus F.; Gruetzmann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prognostic outcome following progression after palliative first-line treatment for patients suffering from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma is generally poor. Long-term relapse-free survival with palliative second-line treatment may be achieved in only a limited number of individual cases. Case Report A 37-year-old patient presented with bilobar liver metastases of colon cancer confirmed by histology with wild-type K-RAS (exon 2). Due to progressive disease after eight cycles of first-line therapy with FOLFIRI plus cetuximab, second-line chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX4 (mFOLFOX4) plus bevacizumab was initiated. During four cycles of mFOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab (2 months), no higher-grade toxicity occurred. Liver MRI with contrast medium revealed downsizing of the segment II/III metastases, as well as regressive, small, faint, hardly definable lesions in segments VI and IVb. The interdisciplinary tumor board of the University of Erlangen thus decided to perform resection of the liver metastases. Segments II and III were resected, and the liver metastases in segments IVa and VI were excised (R0). Histopathology confirmed three of the R0-resected metastases to be completely necrotic, with residual scarring. As perioperative therapy, four additional cycles of mFOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab were administered postoperatively. No higher-grade toxicity was observed. Three years after the initial diagnosis, the patient is relapse free, professionally fully reintegrated, and has an excellent performance status. Conclusion Patients suffering from metastatic colorectal cancer may benefit from multidisciplinary treatment with secondary metastatic liver resection after downsizing by palliative second-line treatment. In individual cases, patients may even have a curative treatment option, provided that close interdisciplinary collaboration exists. PMID:27489542

  18. The impact of respiratory motion and treatment technique on stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q. Jackie; Thongphiew, Danthai; Wang Zhiheng; Chankong, Vira; Yin Fangfang

    2008-04-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which delivers a much higher fractional dose than conventional treatment in only a few fractions, is an effective treatment for liver metastases. For patients who are treated under free-breathing conditions, however, respiration-induced tumor motion in the liver is a concern. Limited clinical information is available related to the impact of tumor motion and treatment technique on the dosimetric consequences. This study evaluated the dosimetric deviations between planned and delivered SBRT dose in the presence of tumor motion for three delivery techniques: three-dimensional conformal static beams (3DCRT), dynamic conformal arc (DARC), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Five cases treated with SBRT for liver metastases were included in the study, with tumor motions ranging from 0.5 to 1.75 cm. For each case, three different treatment plans were developed using 3DCRT, DARC, and IMRT. The gantry/multileaf collimator (MLC) motion in the DARC plans and the MLC motion in the IMRT plans were synchronized to the patient's respiratory motion. Retrospectively sorted four-dimensional computed tomography image sets were used to determine patient-organ motion and to calculate the dose delivered during each respiratory phase. Deformable registration, using thin-plate-spline models, was performed to encode the tumor motion and deformation and to register the dose-per-phase to the reference phase images. The different dose distributions resulting from the different delivery techniques and motion ranges were compared to assess the effect of organ motion on dose delivery. Voxel dose variations occurred mostly in the high gradient regions, typically between the target volume and normal tissues, with a maximum variation up to 20%. The greatest CTV variation of all the plans was seen in the IMRT technique with the largest motion range (D99: -8.9%, D95: -8.3%, and D90: -6.3%). The greatest variation for all 3DCRT plans was less

  19. Ganetespib radiosensitization for liver cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Malek, Reem; Annadanam, Anvesh; Nugent, Katriana M.; Kato, Yoshinori; Wang, Hailun; Cades, Jessica A.; Taparra, Kekoa; Belcaid, Zineb; Ballew, Matthew; Manmiller, Sarah; Proia, David; Lim, Michael; Anders, Robert A.; Herman, Joseph M.; Tran, Phuoc T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Therapies for liver cancer particularly those including radiation are still inadequate. Inhibiting the stress response machinery is an appealing anti-cancer and radiosensitizing therapeutic strategy. Heat-shock-protein-90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is a prominent effector of the stress response machinery and is overexpressed in liver cancer cells. HSP90 client proteins include critical components of pathways implicated in liver cancer cell survival and radioresistance. The effects of a novel non-geldanamycin HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, combined with radiation were examined on 3 liver cancer cell lines, Hep3b, HepG2 and HUH7, using in vitro assays for clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, γH2AX foci kinetics and client protein expression in pathways important for liver cancer survival and radioresistance. We then evaluated tumor growth delay and effects of the combined ganetespib-radiation treatment on tumor cell proliferation in a HepG2 hind-flank tumor graft model. Nanomolar levels of ganetespib alone exhibited liver cancer cell anti-cancer activity in vitro as shown by decreased clonogenic survival that was associated with increased apoptotic cell death, prominent G2-M arrest and marked changes in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MAPK client protein activity. Ganetespib caused a supra-additive radiosensitization in all liver cancer cell lines at low nanomolar doses with enhancement ratios between 1.33–1.78. These results were confirmed in vivo, where the ganetespib-radiation combination therapy produced supra-additive tumor growth delay compared with either therapy by itself in HepG2 tumor grafts. Our data suggest that combined ganetespib-radiation therapy exhibits promising activity against liver cancer cells, which should be investigated in clinical studies. PMID:26980196

  20. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-22

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  1. First human study in treatment of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer with irinotecan-loaded beads (DEBIRI)

    PubMed Central

    EICHLER, K.; ZANGOS, S.; MACK, M.G.; HAMMERSTINGL, R.; GRUBER-ROUH, T.; GALLUS, C.; VOGL, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this pilot clinical study was to assess the safety, technical feasibility, pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and tumour response of DC Bead™ with irinotecan (DEBIRI™) delivered by intra-arterial embolisation for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Eleven patients with unresectable liver metastases from CRC, tumour burden <30% of liver volume, adequate haematological, liver and renal function, performance status of <2 were included in this study. Patients received up to 4 sessions of TACE with DEBIRI at 3-week intervals. Feasibility of the procedure, safety and tumour response were assessed after each cycle. PK was measured after the first cycle. Patients were followed up to 24 weeks. Only mild to moderate adverse events were observed. DEBIRI is a technically feasibile procedure; no technical complications were observed. Average Cmax for irinotecan and SN-38 was 194 ng/ml and 16.7 ng/ml, respectively, with average t½ of 4.6 h and 12.4 h following administration of DEBIRI. Best overall response during the study showed disease control in 9 patients (2 patients with partial response and 7 with stable disease, overall response rate of 18%). Our study shows that transarterial chemoembolisation with irinotecan-loaded DC beads (DEBIRI) is safe, technically feasible and effective with a good PK profile. PMID:22842404

  2. Intrahepatic therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Kerlijne; Prenen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, the liver is the most common site of metastatic disease. In patients with liver-dominant disease, consideration needs to be given to locoregional treatments such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolisation and selective internal radiation therapy because hepatic metastases are a major cause of liver failure especially in chemorefractory disease. In this review we provide insights on the published literature for locoregional treatment of liver metastases in metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26380058

  3. Weekly epirubicin for breast cancer with liver metastases and abnormal liver biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Twelves, C. J.; O'Reilly, S. M.; Coleman, R. E.; Richards, M. A.; Rubens, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-six consecutive patients with breast cancer and liver metastases with abnormal liver biochemistry were treated with epirubicin 25 mg m-2 i.v. weekly. No dose modification was made for abnormal liver biochemistry, but dose intensity was adjusted by delaying treatment according to myelosuppression. The UICC overall response rate according to UICC criteria was 11/36 (30%) and median response duration was 27 weeks. Liver biochemistry improved in a further seven patients. Treatment was well tolerated. Epirubicin given in this way is effective in patients with breast cancer and liver metastases. An initial deterioration in liver biochemistry may occur before there is a response to epirubicin. PMID:2605102

  4. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  5. Treatment of liver cancer of middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection combined with radiofrequency ablation: A clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XUE; LI, RU; ZHANG, BOTAO; YANG, YUEJIE; CUI, ZHIFEI

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is a malignancy of the digestive system and has a high morbidity and mortality rate. Local intervention has become a viable option in identifying liver treatment. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical effects of treating liver cancer in middle and advanced stages using ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in tumors combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). A total of 100 patients with stage III–IV liver cancers were selected to participate in the study. Patients were divided into groups. In group A, treatment was initiated with PEI and after 1–2 weeks RFA was applied while in group B treatment was initiated with RFA and after 1–2 weeks PEI was applied. Patients in group C received PEI and RFA simultaneously. The clinical effects in the 3 groups were compared after 6-month follow ups. The volume of tumor ablation necrosis in group A was significantly greater than that in the groups B and C, while the size was significantly smaller compared to groups B and C after ablation. For group A, the complete ablation rate was significantly higher than that in groups B and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Liver damage indices, including raising levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and total bilirubin, were significantly decreased in group A (P<0.05). The survival rate in group A was also significantly higher than in groups B and C (P<0.05). In conclusion, for patients with liver cancer in middle and advanced stages, the treatment method using PEI followed by RFA was more beneficial in terms of improving the tumor ablation rate, alleviating liver damages and increasing survival rates. PMID:26998128

  6. Heterogeneity of liver cancer and personalized therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an extraordinarily heterogeneous malignant disease among the tumors that have so far been identified. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises most frequently in the setting of chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis, and takes a variety of course in individual patients to process to tumor. The risk factors such as HBV and/or HCV infections, aflatoxin infection, abuse alcohol intake, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are closely related to the environmental and genetic susceptibilities to HCC. The consequent resulting genomic instability, molecular and signal transduction network disorders and microenvironmental discrepancies are characterized by the extraordinary heterogeneity of liver cancer. The histology-based definition of the morphological heterogeneity of liver cancer has been modified and refined to treat patients with targeted therapies, but this still cannot solve all the problems. Lack of consistent outcome for anticancer agents and conventional therapies in liver cancer treatment calls for assessing the benefits of new molecularly targeted drugs and combined therapy, under the heterogeneity condition of tumor. The present review article will provide the complex mechanism and phenotype of liver cancer heterogeneity, and help us to execute precision medicine in a really personalized manner.

  7. Malnutrition, liver damage, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P

    1981-01-01

    There is no clear indication that malnutrition, per se, is a principal cause of cancer in man, but the prevalence of liver cancer in areas where malnutrition exists supports this hypothesis. Liver damage and liver cancer have been induced in laboratory rats by diets consisting of peanut meal and proteins deficient in some essential amino acids. However, liver damage, but not cancer, was produced when the diets contained no peanut meal but consisted of a mixture of amino acids deficient in methionine and cysteine, so that it is possible that aflatoxin, a contaminant of peanut meal, may have been responsible for the malignancies seen in the earlier experiments. Liver cancer developes in a high proportion of mice allowed to feed ad libitum or given a diet containing a high proportion of fat (groundnut oil) or protein (casein). Dietary restriction reduced the incidences of this cancer. This findings lends some support to current thinking that diet may be a factor in the development of cancer in man.

  8. Delivery of sFIT-1 engineered MSCs in combination with a continuous low-dose doxorubicin treatment prevents growth of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jian; Wang, Yue; Wang, Ji; Liu, Bin; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    One important process in liver cancer growth and progression is angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has the significant role in liver cancer angiogenesis. sFlt1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) is the promising inhibitor of VEGF and can be used as the new method of inhibiting angiogenesis. MSCs (Mesenchymal stem cells) can infiltrate into tumor tissue and function as the efficient transgene delivery mediator. Here, we engineered murine MSCs to express sFlt1 and examined the anti-tumor effect of MSC- sFlt1 in combination with continues low-dose doxorubicin treatment. We found that this combination therapy significantly inhibited liver cancer cells proliferation. Above all, HepG2 xenografts treated with this combination therapy went into remission. It is of note that this inhibition effect was not p53 binding and by increasing caspase8. This study suggests that this combination treatment has novel therapeutic potential for liver cancer because of significantly inhibiting cancer cells growth and anti-angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28039440

  9. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Grapefruit-derived nanovectors deliver miR-18a for treatment of liver metastasis of colon cancer by induction of M1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yun; Mu, Jingyao; Hu, Xin; Samykutty, Abhilash; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Deng, Zhongbin; Zhang, Lifeng; Cao, Pengxiao; Yan, Jun; Miller, Donald; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2016-05-03

    Liver metastasis accounts for many of the cancer deaths in patients. Effective treatment for metastatic liver tumors is not available. Here, we provide evidence for the role of miR-18a in the induction of liver M1 (F4/80+interferon gamma (IFNγ)+IL-12+) macrophages. We found that miR-18a encapsulated in grapefruit-derived nanovector (GNV) mediated inhibition of liver metastasis that is dependent upon the induction of M1 (F4/80+IFNγ+IL-12+) macrophages; depletion of macrophages eliminated its anti-metastasis effect. Furthermore, the miR-18a mediated induction of macrophage IFNγ by targeting IRF2 is required for subsequent induction of IL-12. IL-12 then activates natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells for inhibition of liver metastasis of colon cancer. This conclusion is supported by the fact that knockout of IFNγ eliminates miR-18a mediated induction of IL-12, miR-18a treatment has an anti-metastatic effects in T cell deficient mice but there is no anti-metastatic effect on NK and NKT deficient mice. Co-delivery of miR-18a and siRNA IL-12 to macrophages did not result in activation of co-cultured NK and NKT cells. Taken together our results indicate that miR-18a can act as an inhibitor for liver metastasis through induction of M1 macrophages.

  11. Cancer and liver cirrhosis: implications on prognosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Matthias; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Sieghart, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis, the end-stage of every chronic liver disease, is not only the major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma but also a limiting factor for anticancer therapy of liver and non-hepatic malignancies. Liver cirrhosis may limit surgical and interventional approaches to cancer treatment, influence pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs, increase side effects of chemotherapy, render patients susceptible for hepatotoxicity, and ultimately result in a competitive risk for morbidity and mortality. In this review, we provide a concise overview about the impact of liver cirrhosis on the management and prognosis of patients with primary liver cancer or non-hepatic malignancies. PMID:27843598

  12. Evaluation of Important Treatment Parameters in Supraphysiological Thermal Therapy of Human Liver Cancer HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bhavik

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at simulating the effect of various treatment parameters like heating rate (HR), peak temperature (PT) and hold/total treatment time on the viability of human liver cancer HepG2 cells subjected to different thermal therapy conditions. The problem was approached by investigating the injury kinetics obtained using experimentally measured viability of the cells, heated to temperatures of 50–70°C for 0–9 min at HRs of 100, 200, 300 and 525°C min−1. An empirical expression obtained between the activation energy (E) and HR was extended to obtain the E values over a broad range of HRs from 5 to 600°C min−1 that mimic the actual conditions encountered in a typical thermal therapy protocol. Further, the effect of the HR (5–600°C min−1) and PT (50–85°C) on the cell survival was studied over a range of hold times. A significant drop in survival from 90% to 0% with the simultaneous increase in HR and PT was observed as the hold time increased from 0 to 5 min. For complete cell death, the hold time increased with the increase in the HR for a given PT, while the total time showed presence of minima for 60, 65 and 70°C at HRs of 50, 100 and 200°C min−1, respectively. PMID:17031593

  13. BMS-247550 in Treating Patients With Liver or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  14. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S.; Xing, Lei

    2015-09-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems. The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours. The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  15. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengwang; Liu, Li; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei

    2015-10-07

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  16. Predictive Models of Liver Cancer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictive models of chemical-induced liver cancer face the challenge of bridging causative molecular mechanisms to adverse clinical outcomes. The latent sequence of intervening events from chemical insult to toxicity are poorly understood because they span multiple levels of bio...

  17. [Primary cancer of the liver].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiologic and pathogenic aspects of primary hepatic malignancies are discussed. The role of viruses in the etiology of the disease is stressed. Imageology methods have a preponderant role for diagnosis and treatment options. Liver resection has a one years survival between 60 and 80% and a five years survival of 20 to 40%. A good surgical results is expected for tumors with no more than 5 cm in diameter, encapsulated and without vascular invasion non-cirrhotic livers, large tumors can also be removed. Surgical resection margin should be of 1 cm. For cirrhotic livers, a good liver function is needed (Child A-B) and no safe major resection can be done. History of bleeding portal hypertension has a negative role in the outcome. Liver transplantation should be limited to selected case, in which the tumors are small and asymptomatic (incidental). For larger tumors, long term results are not good with invariable recurrency of the tumor.

  18. Contrast-Enhanced Three Dimensional Ultrasonography supporting HIFU treatment of Small Liver Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohto, Masao; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryu; Shinohara, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Akio; Karasawa, Eii

    2009-04-01

    HIFU was carried out in the 12 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (small HCC) as a extracorporeal ablation therapy, and clinical availability was studied from the results. In carrying out the HIFU therapy, contrast enhanced (CE) three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging played an important role to clarify the tumor nature , to monitor the sonication procedure and to assess the tumor ablation and was almost indispensable for the treatment. All the patient had no serious side effects and they are all alive with no local tumor progression for 3 to 14 months after the treatment. Ultrasound supporting HIFU therapy could be usefully available for the treatment of small HCC.

  19. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  20. Agonistic anti-CD137 antibody treatment leads to antitumor response in mice with liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Gauttier, Vanessa; Judor, Jean-Paul; Le Guen, Valentin; Cany, Jeannette; Ferry, Nicolas; Conchon, Sophie

    2014-12-15

    Immunotherapy is a promising strategy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We assessed the therapeutic effects of stimulating CD137, a member of the TNF receptor family, with agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Agonistic anti-CD137 mAb treatment was tested on two in situ models of HCC in immunocompetent mice. We also studied the mediators involved at different time points. In an orthotopic HCC the treatment consistently leads to complete tumor regression in 40-60% of animals. The protection is long lasting in the animals responding to the treatment, which can reject a second tumor challenge more than 3 months after treatment and eradication of the first malignancy. The main mediators of the effect are T lymphocytes and NK cells, demonstrated through depletion experiments. In addition, adoptive transfer of splenocytes prepared from anti-CD137 mAb-treated and -cured mice to naive mice allowed them to, in turn, reject the tumor. The efficacy of anti-CD137 mAb treatment is associated with early, sustained recruitment of iNOS-positive macrophages within tumor nodules. Moreover, in the absence of treatment, tumor development is accompanied by infiltration by myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T lymphocytes. In mice responding to the anti-CD137 mAb treatment, this infiltration is very limited, and a combination treatment with a depletion of MDSC leads to the recovery of 80% of the mice. These results demonstrate that agonistic anti-CD137 mAb is a promising therapeutic strategy for anti-tumor immunity stimulation against HCC.

  1. The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesoloras, Geraldine

    Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best

  2. Development of a liver-specific Tet-on inducible system for AAV vectors and its application in the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Vanrell, Lucia; Di Scala, Marianna; Blanco, Laura; Otano, Itziar; Gil-Farina, Irene; Baldim, Victor; Paneda, Astrid; Berraondo, Pedro; Beattie, Stuart G; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Lilianne; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2011-07-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are effective gene delivery vehicles that can mediate long-lasting transgene expression. However, tight regulation and tissue-specific transgene expression is required for certain therapeutic applications. For regulatable expression from the liver we designed a hepatospecific bidirectional and autoregulatory tetracycline (Tet)-On system (Tet(bidir)Alb) flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We characterized the inducible hepatospecific system in comparison with an inducible ubiquitous expression system (Tet(bidir)CMV) using luciferase (luc). Although the ubiquitous system led to luc expression throughout the mouse, luc expression derived from the hepatospecific system was restricted to the liver. Interestingly, the induction rate of the Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly higher than that of Tet(bidir)CMV, whereas leakage of Tet(bidir)Alb was significantly lower. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this vector, an AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) was tested in a murine model for hepatic colorectal metastasis. The vector induced dose-dependent levels of IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), showing no significant toxicity. AAV-Tet(bidir)-Alb-IL-12 was highly efficient in preventing establishment of metastasis in the liver and induced an efficient T-cell memory response to tumor cells. Thus, we have demonstrated persistent, and inducible in vivo expression of a gene from a liver-specific Tet-On inducible construct delivered via an AAV vector and proved to be an efficient tool for treating liver cancer.

  3. CD133+CD54+CD44+ circulating tumor cells as a biomarker of treatment selection and liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cun; Huang, Qiaorong; Meng, Wentong; Yu, Yongyang; Yang, Lie; Peng, Zhihai; Hu, Jiankun; Li, Yuan; Mo, Xianming; Zhou, Zongguang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver is the most common site of distant metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment selection decides overall prognosis of patients. However, current diagnostic measures were basically imaging but not functional. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) known as hold the key to understand the biology of metastatic mechanism provide a novel and auxiliary diagnostic strategy for CRC with liver metastasis (CRC-LM). Results The expression of CD133+ and CD133+CD54+CD44+ cellular subpopulations were higher in the peripheral blood of CRC-LM patients when compared with those without metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis proved the association between the expression of CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation and the existence of CRC-LM (P<0.001). The combination of abdominal CT/MRI, CEA and the CD133+CD44+CD54+ cellular subpopulation showed increased detection and discrimination rate for liver metastasis, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.4%. Meanwhile, it also show accurate predictive value for liver metastasis (OR=2.898, 95% C.I.1.374–6.110). Materials and Method Flow cytometry and multivariate analysis was performed to detect the expression of cancer initiating cells the correlation between cellular subpopulations and liver metastasis in patients with CRC. The receiver operating characteristic curves combined with the area under the curve were generated to compare the predictive ability of the cellular subpopulation for liver metastasis with current CT and MRI images. Conclusions The identification, expression and application of CTC subpopulations will provide an ideal cellular predictive marker for CRC liver metastasis and a potential marker for further investigation. PMID:27764803

  4. Rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases: Do we have a clear direction?

    PubMed

    Pathak, S; Nunes, Q M; Daniels, I R; Smart, N J; Poston, G J; Påhlman, L

    2015-12-01

    Rectal cancer is a common entity and often presents with synchronous liver metastases. There are discrepancies in management guidelines throughout the world regarding the treatment of advanced rectal cancer, which are further compounded when it presents with synchronous liver metastases. The following article examines the evidence regarding treatment options for patients with synchronous rectal liver metastases and suggests potential treatment algorithms.

  5. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  6. Transcatheter intra-arterial infusion of doxorubicin loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters with iodinated oil for the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Jeong; Gordon, Andrew C; Larson, Andrew C; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    A promising strategy for liver cancer treatment is to deliver chemotherapeutic agents with multifunctional carriers into the tumor tissue via intra-arterial (IA) transcatheter infusion. These carriers should release drugs within the target tissue for prolonged periods and permit intra-procedural multi-modal imaging of selective tumor delivery. This targeted transcatheter delivery approach is enabled via the arterial blood supply to liver tumors and utilized in current clinical practice which is called chemoembolization or radioembolization. During our study, we developed Doxorubicin (Dox) loaded porous magnetic nano-clusters (Dox-pMNCs). The porous structure and carboxylic groups on the MNCs achieved high-drug loading efficiency and sustained drug release, along with magnetic properties resulting in high MRI T2-weighted image contrast. Dox-pMNC within iodinated oil, Dox-pMNCs, and Dox within iodinated oil were infused via hepatic arteries to target liver tumors in a rabbit model. MRI and histological evaluations revealed that the long-term drug release and retention of Dox-pMNCs within iodinated oil induced significantly enhanced liver cancer cell death.

  7. Radio Frequency Ablation for Primary Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of radio frequency ablation (RFA) compared with other treatments for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Ontario. Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer globally, although it is most prevalent in Asia and Africa. The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in the Western world, primarily because of an increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C. Data from Cancer Care Ontario from 1998 to 2002 suggest that the age-adjusted incidence of liver cancer in men rose slightly from 4.5 cases to 5.4 cases per 100,000 men. For women, the rates declined slightly, from 1.8 cases to 1.4 cases per 100,000 women during the same period. Most people who present with symptoms of liver cancer have a progressive form of the disease. The rates of survival in untreated patients in the early stage of the disease range from 50% to 82% at 1 year and 26% to 32% at 2 years. Patients with more advanced stages have survival rates ranging from 0% to 36% at 3 years. Surgical resection and transplantation are the procedures that have the best prognoses; however, only 15% to 20% of patients presenting with liver cancer are eligible for surgery. Resection is associated with a 50% survival rate at 5 years. The Technology: Radio Frequency Ablation RFA is a relatively new technique for the treatment of small liver cancers that cannot be treated with surgery. This technique applies alternating high-frequency electrical currents to the cancerous tissue. The intense heat leads to thermal coagulation that can kill the tumour. RFA is done under general or local anesthesia and can be done percutaneously (through the skin with a small needle), laparoscopically (microinvasively, using a small video camera), or intraoperatively. Percutaneous RFA is usually a day procedure. Methods The leading international

  8. Focused ultrasound as a local therapy for liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Krisztina; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw; Jolesz, Ferenc A

    2010-01-01

    Conventional surgical treatments of liver cancer are invasive (including minimally invasive) with a high incidence of new metastasis and poor success, even after multiple resections or ablations. These limitations motivated research into new, less invasive solutions for liver cancer treatment.Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), or high-intensity focused ultrasound, has been recognized as a noninvasive technology for benign and malignant tumor treatment. Previously, FUS was guided with ultrasound that has limited target definition and monitoring capability of the ablation process. Combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with multiple-element phased-array transducers to create MRI-guided focused ultrasound thermal therapy provides more accurate targeting and real-time temperature monitoring. This treatment is hindered by the ribcage that limits the acoustic windows to the liver and the respiratory motion of the liver. New advances in MRI and transducer design will likely resolve these limitations and make MRI-guided FUS a powerful tool in local liver cancer therapy. This article reviews this technology and advances that can expand its use for cancer treatment in general and liver cancer in particular.

  9. Treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic liver cancer with yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere): assessment of hepatic arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kent; Lewandowski, Robert J; Bui, James T; Omary, Reed; Hunter, Russell D; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary; Liu, David; Chrisman, Howard; Resnick, Scott; Nemcek, Albert A; Vogelzang, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and Europe, yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere); MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) are a primary treatment option for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We present data from 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease treated with TheraSphere from a single academic institution to evaluate the angiographically evident embolization that follows treatment. Seven interventional radiologists from one treatment center compared pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms. The reviewers were blinded to the timing of the studies. The incidence of postembolization syndrome (PES) was determined as well as objective tumor response rates by the World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. There were 420 independent angiographic observations that were assessed using the chi-squared statistic. The pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms could not be correctly identified on average more than 43% of the time (p = 0.0004). The postprocedure arterial patency rate was 100%. The objective tumor response rates for all patients were 24%, 31%, and 72% for WHO, RECIST, and EASL criteria, respectively. All of the patients tolerated the procedure without complications and were treated on an outpatient basis, and four patients had evidence of PES. This treatment method does not result in macroscopic embolization of the hepatic arteries, thereby maintaining hepatic tissue perfusion. These data support the principle that the favorable response rates reported with TheraSphere are likely due to radiation and microscopic embolization rather than flow-related macroscopic embolization and ischemia.

  10. Genistein-loaded nanoparticles of star-shaped diblock copolymer mannitol-core PLGA-TPGS for the treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binquan; Liang, Yong; Tan, Yi; Xie, Chunmei; Shen, Jin; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Xinkuang; Yang, Lixin; Zhang, Fujian; Liu, Liang; Cai, Shuyu; Huai, De; Zheng, Donghui; Zhang, Rongbo; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Ke; Tang, Xiaolong; Sui, Xuemei

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop nanoparticles (NPs) of star-shaped copolymer mannitol-functionalized PLGA-TPGS for Genistein delivery for liver cancer treatment, and evaluate their therapeutic effects in liver cancer cell line and hepatoma-tumor-bearing nude mice in comparison with the linear PLGA nanoparticles and PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. The Genistein-loaded M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (MPTN), prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation method, were observed by FESEM and TEM to be near-spherical shape with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles were further characterized in terms of their size, size distribution, surface charge, drug-loading content, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release profiles. The data showed that the M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles were found to be stable, showing almost no change in particle size and surface charge during 3-month storage of their aqueous solution. In vitro Genistein release from the nanoparticles exhibited biphasic pattern with burst release at the initial 4days and sustained release afterwards. The cellular uptake efficiency of fluorescent M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was 1.25-, 1.22-, and 1.29-fold higher than that of the PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles at the nanoparticle concentrations of 100, 250, and 500μg/mL, respectively. In the MPTN group, the ratio of apoptotic cells increased with the drug dose increased, which exhibited dose-dependent effect and a significant difference compared with Genistein solution group (p<0.05). The data also showed that the Genistein-loaded M-PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have higher antitumor efficacy than that of linear PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and PLGA nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the star-shaped copolymer M-PLGA-TPGS could be used as a potential and promising bioactive material for nanomedicine development for liver cancer treatment.

  11. [Second cancer after starting treatment for prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Mikata, Noriharu; Imao, Sadao; Fukasawa, Ritu

    2002-08-01

    The subjects for the present study were 270 patients with prostate cancer who underwent initial treatment at our hospital over the 14 years from 1986 to 1999. They were investigated to assess the relationship between their treatment and metachronous tumors. Sixteen patients (5.9%) developed cancer of other organs after starting treatment for prostate cancer. These metachronous tumors included gastric cancer in six patients as well as lung cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, and mediastinal adenocarcinoma. Treatment for prostate cancer other than surgery included radiotherapy in eight patients, administration of estramustine phosphate sodium in nine patients, and LH-RH analogues in six patients. The chi-square test showed no significant difference in the incidence of metachronous cancer in relation to the presence/absence of these three therapies. The present study therefore ruled out the possible induction of other tumors by treatment for prostate cancer.

  12. Quercetin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles for the targeted treatment of liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xin; Gao, Meng; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chenghong; Liu, Hongyan; Lv, Li; Deng, Sa; Gao, Dongyan; Tian, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Utilization of quercetin (QT) in clinics is limited by its instability and poor solubility. To overcome these disadvantages, we prepared QT as QT-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (QPTN) and examined its properties and therapeutic efficacy for liver cancer. QT-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (QPN) and QT/coumarin-6-loaded PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles (QCPTN) with coumarin-6 as a fluorescent marker were also prepared to investigate the cellular uptake by HepG2 and HCa-F cells using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), and their effects on apoptosis of HepG2 cells were assessed with flow cytometry. The results measured using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and size analyses indicated that QPTN were stably dispersed sphere with diameter in the range of 100-200 nm. It indicated that the QT loading and encapsulation efficiency in QPTN reached 21.63% and 93.74%, respectively, and the accumulative drug release of QPTN was 85.8%, the QCPTN uptake in HCa-F and HepG2 cells were 50.87% and 61.09% using HPLC analysis, respectively. The results determined using an Annexin-PI flow cytometry indicated that QPTN could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. The results of histological examination and HPLC analysis confirmed that QPTN was targeted to liver cells. In vivo analysis using solid tumor-bearing mouse model indicated that QPTN could suppress tumor growth by 59.07%. Moreover, all the studied properties of QPTN were more desirable than those of QT-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (QPN). In conclusion, QPTN could be used as a potential intravenous dosage form for the treatment of liver cancer owing to the enhanced pharmacological effects of QT with increased liver targeting.

  13. Liver cell cancer--intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Linsell, C A

    1981-01-01

    The field studies leading to possible intervention procedures are reviewed. Currently the most promising form of intervention is the prevention of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuffs. It is essential that these are monitored and their efficacy in lowering the incidence of liver cancer measured. The association of liver cancer with hepatitis B infection may be a confounding factor and the impact of this on the study population must also be considered. The imminent production of vaccines for hepatitis B infection may provide an alternative or additional mode of intervention. The possibilities for intervention in liver cell cancer appear one of the brighter prospects for primary prevention of a cancer.

  14. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  15. Cancer treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer. This helps your body get rid of cancer cells. Immunotherapy works by: Stopping or slowing the growth of ... to seek and attack certain parts of a cancer cell. Some have toxins or radioactive substances attached to them. Immunotherapy is given by a shot or IV. Hormonal ...

  16. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  17. Sci—Sat AM: Stereo — 09: Accuracy of Liver Cancer Treatment on Cyberknife® with Synchrony™ Optical Tracking Throughout the Respiratory Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.; Chow, T; Wong, R.

    2014-08-15

    The Cyberknife® robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy system is well-suited for treating liver lesions over the respiratory cycle as it includes room-mounted orthogonal x-ray tracking of internal fiducial markers and optical tracking of external markers. The Synchrony™ software generates a model of internal target positions during patient respiration and correlates it to the external optical tracking system for real-time optical-based position corrections of the linear accelerator during beam delivery. Although clinical studies have provided preliminary outcomes for liver lesions treated with the Cyberknife system, to date, there is little data demonstrating the ability of the Synchrony software to track targets in the liver, which deforms throughout the respiratory cycle. In this study, we investigated the respiratory motion model performance for predicting tumour motion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of fifteen liver cancer patients treated on the Cyberknife using the Synchrony optical tracking system. We analyzed Cyberknife tracking information stored in the log files to extract the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) correlation errors between the model-predicted position and the internal fiducial centroid position determined by x-ray imaging. Only translational tracking and corrections were applied during treatment. Overall, the correlation errors were greatest in the SI direction. We calculated radial correlation errors, and determined that the 95{sup th}, 98{sup th} and 99{sup th} percentile errors were 3.4 mm, 4.4 mm and 5.1 mm, respectively. Based on translational correlation tracking errors we expect the clinical target volume will be within 3.4 mm of the planning target volume for 95 % of beam delivery time.

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  19. Lymphatic drainage of the liver and its implications in the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Paye, François; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirolla; Herman, Paulo

    2014-12-01

    The liver is the most common site of distant metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Surgery represents the mainstream for curative treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) with long-term survival up to 58 and 36 % at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Despite advances on diagnosis, staging and surgical strategies, 60-70 % of patients will develop recurrence of the disease even after R0 resection of CRCLM. Tumor staging, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches for cancer are most often based on the extent of involvement of regional lymph nodes (LNs) and, to a lesser extent, on the invasion of regional lymphatic vessels draining the primary tumor. For CRCLM, the presence of intra hepatic lymphatic and blood vascular dissemination has been associated with an increased risk of intra hepatic recurrence, poorer disease-free and overall survival after liver resection. Also, several studies have reviewed the role of surgery in the patient with concomitant CRCLM and liver pedicle LN metastasis. Although pedicle LN involvement is related to worst survival rates, it does not differentiate patients that will relapse from those that will not. This review aims to briefly describe the anatomy of the liver's lymphatic drainage, the incidence of intrahepatic lymphatic invasion and hilar lymph node involvement, as well as their clinical impact in CRCLM. A better understanding of the role of liver lymphatic metastasis might, in the near future, impact the strategy of systemic therapies after liver resection as for primary colorectal tumors.

  20. [The significance of a combination of hepatic artery pump reservoir and new immunotherapy for cancer (NITC) in the treatment of colorectal liver metastasis].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Shoji; Yagita, Akikuni; Sukegawa, Yasushi

    2004-10-01

    Infusion of anti-cancer agents through a hepatic artery pump reservoir has been reported as a relatively useful means of treating multiple liver metastases but its mechanism of action remains to be clarified. We thought that immune responses might be involved in the mechanism of action of this therapy and attempted to test this assumption in patients with colorectal liver metastases. When the patients were divided into two groups by survival period (the 24-week or longer survival group and the less than 24-week survival group), the 24-week or longer survival group had significantly higher Th1 cytokine levels (p<0.001-0.05) and significantly lower VEGF levels (p<0.01) than the less than 24-week survival group. The survival rate tended to be higher in patients for whom intra-arterial infusion therapy was combined with NITC. These results suggest that the combined therapy induces some kind of immune reaction closely related to tumor size reduction and prolonged patient survival. It seems necessary to compare immune activity during intra-arterial infusion therapy alone with activity during intra-arterial infusion treatment in combination with a new immunotherapy.

  1. Immune-Mediated Therapies for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has gained renewed interest as an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumors. Its premise is based on harnessing the power of the host immune system to destroy tumor cells. Development of immune-mediated therapies, such as vaccines, adoptive transfer of autologous immune cells, and stimulation of host immunity by targeting tumor-evasive mechanisms have advanced cancer immunotherapy. In addition, studies on innate immunity and mechanisms of immune evasion have enhanced our understanding on the immunology of liver cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies with immune-mediated therapies have shown potential benefits in patients with liver cancer. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and recent developments in tumor immunology by focusing on two main primary liver cancers: hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:28218682

  2. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients. PMID:25598674

  3. Enhanced laser thermal ablation for the in vitro treatment of liver cancer by specific delivery of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian; Bele, Constantin; Orza, Anamaria Ioana; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Catoi, Cornel; Stiufiuc, Rares; Stir, Ariana; Matea, Cristian; Iancu, Dana; Agoston-Coldea, Lucia; Zaharie, Florin; Mocan, Teodora

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this investigation was to develop and test a new method of treatment for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We present a method of carbon nanotube-enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line) based on a simple multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) carrier system, such as human serum albumin (HSA), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy compared with normal hepatocyte cells. Both HepG2 cells and hepatocytes were treated with HSA–MWCNTs at various concentrations and at various incubation times and further irradiated using a 2 W, 808 nm laser beam. Transmission electron, phase contrast, and confocal microscopy combined with immunochemical staining were used to demonstrate the selective internalization of HSA–MWCNTs via Gp60 receptors and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inside HepG2 cells. The postirradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with HSA–MWCNTs ranged from 88.24% (for 50 mg/L) at 60 sec to 92.34% (for 50 mg/L) at 30 min. Significantly lower necrotic rates were obtained when human hepatocytes were treated with HSA–MWCNTs in a similar manner. Our results clearly show that HSA–MWCNTs selectively attach on the albondin (aka Gp60) receptor located on the HepG2 membrane, followed by an uptake through a caveolin-dependent endocytosis process. These unique results may represent a major step in liver cancer treatment using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating. PMID:21289990

  4. [Liver Atrophy and Failure Associated with Paclitaxel and Bevacizumab Combination Therapy for Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mari; Ikeda, Masahiko; Kubo, Shinichiro; Tsukioki, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Shougo

    2016-07-01

    We managed 6 cases of severe liver atrophy and failure associated with paclitaxel and bevacizumab combination therapy (PB therapy)for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. In this case-controlstudy, we examined the records of these 6 patients to investigate past treatment, medication history, and degree of atrophy, and compared their data with that of 67 patients without liver atrophy. The degree of the liver atrophy used SYNAPSE VINCENT®of the image analysis software. The results showed that patients with liver atrophy had a longer pretreatment period than those without liver atrophy(33.5 months vs 15.5 months), and they also experienced a longer median time to treatment failure with PB therapy than other patients(11 months vs 6 months). The ratio of individuals presenting with diffuse liver metastasis among patients with liver metastasis was 80% with liver atrophy, compared to 8% without liver atrophy. The degree of liver atrophy was an average of 67%in terms of volume ratio before/after PB therapy(57-82%). The individualwith the greatest extent of liver atrophy died of liver failure, not as a result of breast cancer progression. The direct causal link between bevacizumab and liver atrophy and failure is unclear, but the individuals in this study had a long previous history of treatment, and diffuse liver metastases may develop in patients undergoing long periods of PB therapy, which may also cause liver atrophy; therefore, the possibility of liver failure should be considered in such cases.

  5. Multisciplinary management of patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Greef, Kathleen; Rolfo, Christian; Russo, Antonio; Chapelle, Thiery; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Coelho, Andreia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Peeters, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been till now the main therapeutic strategies for disease control and improvement of the overall survival. Twenty-five per cent (25%) of CRC patients have clinically detectable liver metastases at the initial diagnosis and approximately 50% develop liver metastases during their disease course. Twenty-thirty per cent (20%-30%) are CRC patients with metastases confined to the liver. Some years ago various studies showed a curative potential for liver metastases resection. For this reason some authors proposed the conversion of unresectable liver metastases to resectable to achieve cure. Since those results were published, a lot of regimens have been studied for resectability potential. Better results could be obtained by the combination of chemotherapy with targeted drugs, such as anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However an accurate selection for patients to treat with these regimens and to operate for liver metastases is mandatory to reduce the risk of complications. A multidisciplinary team approach represents the best way for a proper patient management. The team needs to include surgeons, oncologists, diagnostic and interventional radiologists with expertise in hepatobiliary disease, molecular pathologists, and clinical nurse specialists. This review summarizes the most important findings on surgery and systemic treatment of CRC-related liver metastases. PMID:27621569

  6. Multisciplinary management of patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    De Greef, Kathleen; Rolfo, Christian; Russo, Antonio; Chapelle, Thiery; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Coelho, Andreia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Peeters, Marc

    2016-08-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been till now the main therapeutic strategies for disease control and improvement of the overall survival. Twenty-five per cent (25%) of CRC patients have clinically detectable liver metastases at the initial diagnosis and approximately 50% develop liver metastases during their disease course. Twenty-thirty per cent (20%-30%) are CRC patients with metastases confined to the liver. Some years ago various studies showed a curative potential for liver metastases resection. For this reason some authors proposed the conversion of unresectable liver metastases to resectable to achieve cure. Since those results were published, a lot of regimens have been studied for resectability potential. Better results could be obtained by the combination of chemotherapy with targeted drugs, such as anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However an accurate selection for patients to treat with these regimens and to operate for liver metastases is mandatory to reduce the risk of complications. A multidisciplinary team approach represents the best way for a proper patient management. The team needs to include surgeons, oncologists, diagnostic and interventional radiologists with expertise in hepatobiliary disease, molecular pathologists, and clinical nurse specialists. This review summarizes the most important findings on surgery and systemic treatment of CRC-related liver metastases.

  7. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staging What Should You Ask Your Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? As you cope with liver ... have honest, open discussions with your cancer care team . Ask any question, no matter how small it ...

  8. Quercetin Potentiates Doxorubicin Mediated Antitumor Effects against Liver Cancer through p53/Bcl-xl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanyu; Sharma, Sherven; Dong, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Background The dose-dependent toxicities of doxorubicin (DOX) limit its clinical applications, particularly in drug-resistant cancers, such as liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of quercetin on the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells and its ability to provide protection against DOX-mediated liver damage in mice. Methodology and Results The MTT and Annexin V/PI staining assay demonstrated that quercetin selectively sensitized DOX-induced cytotoxicity against liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. The increase in DOX-mediated apoptosis in hepatoma cells by quercetin was p53-dependent and occurred by downregulating Bcl-xl expression. Z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor), or overexpressed Bcl-xl decreased the effects of quercetin on DOX-mediated apoptosis. The combined treatment of quercetin and DOX significantly reduced the growth of liver cancer xenografts in mice. Moreover, quercetin decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase that were increased in DOX-treated mice. Quercetin also reversed the DOX-induced pathological changes in mice livers. Conclusion and Significance These results indicate that quercetin potentiated the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. Therefore, the development of quercetin may be beneficial in a combined treatment with DOX for increased therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer. PMID:23240061

  9. [A Case of Brain Metastasis from Rectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver and Lung Metastases after Multimodality Treatment--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Masaru; Tominaga, Ben; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Yuuya; Watanabe, Shuuichi; Adikrisna, Rama; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yabata, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of brain metastasis from rectal cancer a long time after the initial resection. A 62-year-old woman, diagnosed with lower rectal cancer with multiple synchronous liver and lung metastases, underwent abdominoperineal resection after preoperative radiochemotherapy (40 Gy at the pelvis, using the de Gramont regimen FL therapy: 1 kur). The histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Various regimens of chemotherapy for unresectable and metastatic colorectal cancer were administered, and a partial response was obtained; thereby, the metastatic lesions became resectable. The patient underwent partial resection of the liver and lung metastases. Pathological findings confirmed that both the liver and lung lesions were metastases from the rectal cancer. A disease-free period occurred for several months; however, there were recurrences of the lung metastases, so we started another round of chemotherapy. After 8 months, she complained of vertigo and dizziness. A left cerebellar tumor about 3 cm in diameter was revealed by MRI and neurosurgical excision was performed. Pathological findings confirmed a cerebellar metastasis from the rectal cancer. Twenty months after resection of the brain tumor, the patient complained of a severe headache. A brain MRI showed hydrocephalia, and carcinomatous meningitis from rectal cancer was diagnosed by a spinal fluid cytology test. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted, but the cerebrospinal pressure did not decreased and she died 20 months after the first surgery. Although brain metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, the number of patients with brain metastasis is thought to increase in the near future. Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is effective enough to prolong the survival period even if multiple metastases have occurred. However, after a long survival period with lung metastases such as in our case, there is a high probability of developing brain metastases.

  10. [Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-09-27

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed.

  11. Hyaluronic acid co-functionalized gold nanoparticle complex for the targeted delivery of metformin in the treatment of liver cancer (HepG2 cells).

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Senthil; Raja, M D; Sundar, D Sathish; Gover Antoniraj, M; Ruckmani, K

    2015-09-05

    In this study, green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was achieved using the extract of eggplant as a reducing agent. Hyaluronic acid (HA) serves as a capping and targeting agent. Metformin (MET) was successfully loaded on HA capped AuNPs (H-AuNPs) and this formulation binds easily on the surface of the liver cancer cells. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, HR-TEM, particle size analyser and zeta potential measurement. Toxicity studies of H-AuNPs in zebra fish confirmed the in vivo safety of the AuNPs. The in vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the amount of MET-H-AuNPs enough to achieve 50% inhibition (IC50) was much lower than free MET. Flow cytometry analysis showed the significant reduction in G2/M phase after treatment with MET-H-AuNPs, and molecular level apoptosis were studied using western blotting. The novelty of this study is the successful synthesis of AuNPs with a higher MET loading and this formulation exhibited better targeted delivery as well as increased regression activity than free MET in HepG2 cells.

  12. Radioembolization with 90Y glass microspheres for the treatment of unresectable metastatic liver disease from chemotherapy-refractory gastrointestinal cancers: final report of a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kerlan, Robert K.; Hawkins, Randall A.; Pampaloni, Miguel; Taylor, Andrew G.; Kohi, Maureen P.; Kolli, K. Pallav; Atreya, Chloe E.; Bergsland, Emily K.; Kelley, R. Kate; Ko, Andrew H.; Korn, W. Michael; Van Loon, Katherine; McWhirter, Ryan M.; Luan, Jennifer; Johanson, Curt; Venook, Alan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background This prospective pilot single-institution study was undertaken to document the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of radioembolization of liver-dominant metastatic gastrointestinal cancer using 90Y glass microspheres. Methods Between June 2010 and October 2013, 42 adult patients (26 men, 16 women; median age 60 years) with metastatic chemotherapy-refractory unresectable colorectal (n=21), neuroendocrine (n=11), intrahepatic bile duct (n=7), pancreas (n=2), and esophageal (n=1) carcinomas underwent 60 lobar or segmental administrations of 90Y glass microspheres. Data regarding clinical and laboratory adverse events (AE) were collected prospectively for up to 5.5 years after radioembolization. Radiographic responses were evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1. Time to maximum response, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS) (hepatic and extrahepatic), and overall survival (OS) were measured. Results Median target dose and activity were 109.4 Gy and 2.6 GBq per treatment session, respectively. Majority of clinical AE were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Patients with colorectal cancer had hepatic objective response rate (ORR) of 25% and a hepatic disease control rate (DCR) of 80%. Median PFS and OS were 1.0 and 4.4 months, respectively. Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) had hepatic ORR and DCR of 73% and 100%, respectively. Median PFS was 8.9 months for this cohort. DCR and median PFS and OS for patients with cholangiocarcinoma were 86%, 1.1 months, and 6.7 months, respectively. Conclusions 90Y glass microspheres device has a favorable safety profile, and achieved prolonged disease control of hepatic tumor burden in a subset of patients, including all patients enrolled in the neuroendocrine cohort. PMID:28078110

  13. Neoplasms of the Stomach, Liver & Pancreas: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment among High-Risk Populations | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Agenda - Day 1, September 18, 2015 08:00 am - Registration 08:30 am - Welcome remarks and overview of the Conference Dr. Leslie Ford (NCI) – 5 min Dr. Edgar Colon (RCM and UPRCCC) - 5 min Luz Maria Rodriguez – Conference objectives & structure  Global Cancer Burden: An Overview and State of the Problem Moderators: Dr. Luz Maria Rodriguez and Dr. Victor Jose Carlo (PR Gastroenterology Association) |

  14. Anal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ... cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. ... options. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ...

  15. [Treatment of parasitic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Lecuna, V

    1989-01-01

    Most of primary and secondary parasitic liver diseases, at present can be property treated with drugs. Venezuelan pharmaceutic market has some peculiarities that have determined the disappearance from the market of many drugs such as emetine, thiabendazole, quinacrine and niclosamide. Diloxanide never appeared. Venezuela has no commercial international treatises that protect international patents in the pharmaceutical area. In addition, government regulation of cost of drugs is very strict. This is particularly true with old drugs (such as emetine or quinacrine) which had such a low price that is non-commercial for the maker of the drug, usually a large transnational, and is withdrawn from the market. Flexibility of prices is quite easy for new antibiotics which are very expensive. Frequently small national companies import the drug from Italy and Japan which sell the drug independently from international treats. Such companies frequently produce the drug for the government social system, but are unreliable and also frequently they withdraw the drug a variable period of time. The government, through the Ministry of Public Health administer free treatment with drugs for malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy. The severe economic crisis of the country has severely impaired the preventive programs and there is an increase of malaria due to gold mining in the south of the country and falciparum chloroquine resistance and an increase of schistosomiasis in a previous free area. Also administration of drugs for malaria has been severely impaired, mainly for economic reasons. The establishment of a National Government Laboratory is an old (as far as 1946) political goal, but has remained in the political intention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Results of surgical and nonsurgical treatment for small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas: a retrospective and nationwide survey in Japan. The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan.

    PubMed

    Arii, S; Yamaoka, Y; Futagawa, S; Inoue, K; Kobayashi, K; Kojiro, M; Makuuchi, M; Nakamura, Y; Okita, K; Yamada, R

    2000-12-01

    Hepatic resection (HX), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), and transcatheter arterial embolization (TCAE) have all been used in the treatment of patients with small-sized hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, the indications for these therapeutic modalities remain unclear. Therefore, the first step to minimize the debate on these indications is to review the standard results from each treatment based on an extensive survey. The participants in this study were patients with HCCs less than 5 cm in diameter who were enrolled in The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. The survival rates in the HX (n = 8,010), PEI (n = 4,037), and TCAE (n = 841) groups were calculated in relation to the number of tumors and the clinical stage. In the clinical stage I cases with a solitary tumor less than 2 cm in diameter and in all clinical stages with a solitary tumor greater than 2 cm and in the clinical stage II cases with 2 tumors greater than 2 cm, the HX group showed higher survival rates than the nonsurgical groups. The HX group had a higher male/female ratio and a younger mean age than the PEI or TCAE group. The ratio of HBs antigen-positive cases/hepatitis C virus antibody-positive cases in the PEI group was lower than that in the corresponding HX group. In contrast, the PIVKA-II values in the HX group tended to be higher than in the PEI group. In conclusion, these findings will provide useful information for selection of a therapeutic modality for small-sized HCCs.

  17. After Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... they stop taking the drugs. Some men experience impotence after surgery for prostate cancer. Your doctor can ... changes, emotional concerns, follow-up appointments, hormone therapy, impotence, radiotherapy, sex and cancer, sexual treatment, side effects, ...

  18. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  19. Clinical course of breast cancer patients with liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Zinser, J W; Hortobagyi, G N; Buzdar, A U; Smith, T L; Fraschini, G

    1987-05-01

    Between June 1973 and November 1980, 1,171 patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with various doxorubicin-containing regimens at our institution (M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston). Retrospective analysis of all 233 cases (20%) with liver metastases was done to correlate various clinical and biochemical characteristics with response to treatment, survival, and causes of death. A similar analysis was performed for 58 consecutive patients with liver metastases treated at this hospital between December 1955 and December 1957 with hormone therapy or single-agent chemotherapy. Objective responses were observed in 132 of 233 patients (57%) treated with combination chemotherapy. The median survival was 14 months in the 1970s and 5 months in the 1950s. Among patients who had liver metastases at the time of initial diagnosis of breast cancer, survival was longer for the group treated with combination chemotherapy. All cases were classified according to the number of organ sites involved by metastases. Patients with only liver metastases, or liver plus bone lesions had the longest survival. Other clinical and biochemical factors that correlated significantly with longer survival were: no prior chemotherapy, performance status of 1 to 2, absence of ascites, normal bilirubin and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), SGOT less than or equal to 2 times normal and albumin greater than 4.5 g/dL. The main cause of death was multiorgan failure, with only 20% of patients dying of liver failure. The present study shows that the presence of liver metastases in breast cancer is not by itself an ominous factor. Most patients respond to therapy, and significant palliation with extended survival is possible for several prognostic subgroups. Further improvement in length and quality of survival is expected with earlier diagnosis.

  20. Surgical management of breast cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Cassera, Maria A; Hammill, Chet W; Ujiki, Michael B; Wolf, Ronald F; Swanström, Lee L; Hansen, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Selected patients with isolated breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) may benefit from surgical management; however, indications remain unclear and the risks may outweigh the benefits in patients with a generally poor prognosis. Methods Between 1998 and 2006, 17 patients diagnosed with BCLM were considered for surgical management (<4 tumours, tumour <4 cm in diameter and no/stable extrahepatic metastases). Peri-operative and outcomes data were analysed and compared. Results Eight patients were found to have extensive or untreatable disease on staging laparoscopy and intra-operative ultrasound (SL/IOUS). The remaining nine patients underwent surgical management [seven laparoscopic radiofrequency ablations (RFA) and two hepatic resections]. Median length of follow-up for patients treated surgically was 40.0 months, median disease-free survival (DFS) was 32.2 months and median time to disease progression was 17.7 months. Of the eight patients not amenable to surgery, median length of follow-up was 21.8 months. Conclusion SL/IOUS prevented unnecessary laparotomy in half of the patients taken to the operating room for surgical treatment of BCLM. In patients with BCLM, SL/IOUS should be considered standard of care before surgical intervention. The small number of patients and short follow-up may be inadequate to determine the true value of surgical management in this group of patients with BCLM. PMID:21418133

  1. Therapeutic potential of octreotide in the treatment of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Davies, N; Cooke, T G; Jenkins, S A

    1996-01-01

    Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of somatostatin that has clear inhibitory effects on the growth of many animal and human cell lines, including colorectal cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver is clinically important, both in terms of the number of patients affected and the lack of any effective treatment for the majority of patients. Octreotide inhibits the growth of colorectal liver tumour in a number of experimental models and, in at least three tumour types, inhibits the growth of established micro-metastases. The precise mechanism of action is not known. However, the drug is likely to be most beneficial in the treatment of liver metastases when the tumour burden is relatively small. The available evidence, although experimental, suggests that octreotide may also have a beneficial effect on the development of liver metastases when used as an adjuvant to surgery in colorectal cancer and this area warrants urgent clinical investigation. The cytotoxics which are currently used as an adjuvant to surgery for colorectal cancer have unpleasant side effects which can be life-threatening. There will also be a proportion of patients who have undergone a truly curative resection of their tumour and will thus be treated unnecessarily. The potential benefits of octreotide in the adjuvant setting, although promising, remain speculative, but octreotide has an acceptably low incidence of side effects and can be administered safely for a prolonged period of time.

  2. [Treatment of liver failure using tissue engineering techniques].

    PubMed

    Pokrywczyńska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz

    2007-07-01

    Liver transplantation is the only efficient method of treatment of liver failure. Short time between liver end-stage insufficiency and transplantation procedure is the main problem limiting the number of liver transplants. In this paper the methods of liver support in patients awaiting a liver transplant using tissue engineering techniques were introduced. The methods of liver support using bioartificial liver and isolated hepatocytes transplantation were described.

  3. Metformin use improves survival of diabetic liver cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Zheng, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Yan-Ni; Tan, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Metformin has garnered considerable interest as a chemo-preventive and chemo-therapeutic agent given the increased risk of liver cancer among diabetic patients. This work was performed to illustrate the association between metformin use and survival of diabetic liver cancer patients. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Cochrane Library from inception to 12 May 2016. Meta-analyses were performed using Stata (version 12.0), with hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as effect measures. Eleven cohort studies involving 3452 liver cancer patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses showed that metformin use was associated with better survival (HR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.83; p = 0.002) of liver cancer patients, and the beneficial effect persisted (HR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.97; p = 0.035) when the population was restricted to diabetic liver cancer patients. After adjusting for age, etiology, index of tumor severity and treatment of liver cancer, the association between metformin use and better survival of liver cancer patients was stable, pooled HR ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. The results indicated that metformin use improved survival of diabetic liver cancer patients. However, the results should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding. Further prospective studies are still needed to confirm the prognostic benefit of metformin use. PMID:27494848

  4. Investigation of the roles of exosomes in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Ding, Xiaoling; Nan, Lijuan; Wang, Yiting; Wang, Jing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jihong; Zhu, Wei; Ni, Bing; Dong, Suzhen; Yu, Lei

    2015-05-01

    The leading cause of death among cancer patients is tumor metastasis. Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging as mediators of metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that exosomes play a pivotal role in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer. First, a nude mouse model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis was established and characterized. Then, we demonstrated that exosomes from a highly liver metastatic colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29) could significantly increase the metastatic tumor burden and distribution in the mouse liver of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells, which ordinarily exhibit poor liver metastatic potential. We further investigated the mechanisms by which HT-29-derived-exosomes influence the liver metastasis of colorectal cancer and found that mice treated with HT-29-derived exosomes had a relatively higher level of CXCR4 in the metastatic microenvironment, indicating that exosomes may promote colorectal cancer metastasis by recruiting CXCR4-expressing stromal cells to develop a permissive metastatic microenvironment. Finally, the migration of Caco-2 cells was significantly increased following treatment with HT-29-derived exosomes in vitro, further supporting a role for exosomes in modulating colorectal tumor-derived liver metastasis. The data from the present study may facilitate further translational medicine research into the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  5. Diagnosis of Primary Cancer of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kew, M. C.; Dos Santos, H. A.; Sherlock, Sheila

    1971-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary cancer of the liver was reviewed in 75 patients. A definitive diagnosis was made during life in 63% and in a further 20% this condition was suspected though histological confirmation was obtained only at necropsy. The most common presenting complaints were abdominal pain and weight loss and the most frequent findings hepatomegaly and ascites. Less than one-half of the patients were jaundiced and when present it was usually mild. An arterial bruit was heard over the liver in 25% of the patients. A sudden and unexplained deterioration in a patient known to have cirrhosis or haemochromatosis should raise the possibility of a primary hepatic tumour; this occurred in 24% of our patients. Alpha-fetoprotein was found in the serum of 11 out of 18 cases. The presence of a mass in the liver was frequently confirmed by liver scan, portal venography, or hepatic arteriography, but these showed no features diagnostic of a primary tumour. Liver scan also proved useful in localizing the lesion for biopsy purposes. Definitive diagnosis is dependent on the histological demonstration of the features of the tumour. This can frequently be achieved by percutaneous needle biopsy, which was positive in 38 out of 57 patients. Wedge biopsies were positive in a further nine patients. PMID:5124443

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Recurrent Hepatitis B after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Maiwall, Rakhi; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem that leads to development of various complications, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure requiring liver transplantation. The recurrence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) post-liver transplantation is a major cause of allograft dysfunction, cirrhosis of the allograft, and graft failure. Patients with high viral load at the time of transplantation, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, or those with a history of anti-viral drug resistance are considered as high-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation, while patients with low viral load, including HBeAg negative status, acute liver failure, and hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection are considered to be at low-risk for recurrent HBV post-liver transplantation. Antivirals for patients awaiting liver transplantation(LT) cause suppression of HBV replication and reduce the risk of recurrent HBV infection of the allograft and, therefore, all HBV patients with decompensated cirrhosis should be treated with potent antivirals with high genetic barrier to resistance (entecavir or tenofovir) prior to liver transplantation. Prevention of post-liver transplantation recurrence should be done using a combination of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and antivirals in patients at high risk of recurrence. Low dose HBIG, HBIG-free protocols, and monoprophylaxis with high potency antivirals can still be considered in patients at low risk of recurrence. Even, marginal grafts from anti-HBc positive donors can be safely used in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, preferably in anti-hepatitis B core (HBc)/anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) positive recipients. In this article, we aim to review the mechanisms and risk factors of HBV recurrence post-LT in addition to the various treatment strategies proposed for the prevention of recurrent HBV infection PMID:27047773

  7. Updated options for liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are common in patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of metastatic disease or at the time of recurrence. Without treatment, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the metastases might provide long-term benefit.; however, the size, number, or location of the metastases can limit the ability to perform a resection. The use of chemotherapy, both systemic and via hepatic artery infusion, in patients undergoing surgery for liver metastases from CRC has augmented the long-term survival benefits and even the cure obtained in some patients with surgery. Chemotherapy might also convert a portion of patients with initially unresectable liver metastases to resectable. A growing body of literature is helping to define the role of chemotherapy for potentially resectable liver metastases and for initially unresectable liver metastases. The introduction of newer agents such as oxaliplatin and irinotecan, and targeted agents such as cetuximab and bevacizumab, has led to meaningful improvements in response rates and survival over those previously achieved with 5-fluorouracil. Further trials are needed to refine the use of chemotherapy and targeted agents in the management of patients with liver metastases.

  8. [Clinical effect of ultrasound-guided injection of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-Fe3O4 in situ implant for magnetic thermal ablation in treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Zuo, G Q; Zheng, Y Y; He, S; Zuo, D Y

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To prepare the Fe3O4-loaded biodegradable liquid-solid phase inversion poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in situ implant for ultrasound-guided injection into nude mouse tumor model, and to investigate its clinical effect in thermomagnetic treatment of nude mice with human liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells in an alternating magnetic field. Methods: An in situ implant containing 10% Fe3O4 was prepared, and 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP gel was injected into the subcutaneous tissue of Kunming mice. The degradation of this material was observed for 2 consecutive months, and the changes in body weight were recorded. HE staining and Prussian blue staining were performed for the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of Kunming mice. Fresh ex vivo bovine liver was taken and cut into cubes with a dimension of 2 cm×2 cm×2 cm and then 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP gel was injected; after phase inversion, the cubes of ex vivo bovine liver were heated for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes, respectively, and then cut open for observing the range of ablation; HE staining was also performed. Micro-CT scan was performed after ultrasound-guided injection of 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA gel into the tumors of the nude mice, and then the nude mice were divided into treatment group and control group. The mice in the treatment group were given thermomagnetic treatment for 3 minutes, and tumor growth was observed daily. Results: The biodegradation of Fe3O4-PLGA-NMP implant showed that the subcutaneously injected material was gradually metabolized at 2 weeks after injection and that the nude mice were in good condition. The bovine liver ablation experiment showed that the range of ablation of 50 μl Fe3O4-PLGA implant reached 1.46 ± 0.11 cm. HE staining showed that part of bovine liver had coagulative necrosis. The phase inversion experiment of Fe3O4-PLGA gel showed quick liquid-solid phase inversion of the material after injection into the tumor, and the process of liquid-solid phase inversion could be

  9. Cardiotoxicity Following Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, AR; Harbinson, MT; Hanna, GG

    2017-01-01

    More than half of those born after 1960 will develop cancer during their lifetime. Fortunately, owing to improved diagnosis and treatment, cure rates have risen steadily over the last three decades. With an increased survivorship, more will experience adverse effects of cancer therapeutics on the heart. As the oncologist’s focus begins to encompass the issues of cancer survivorship, awareness of the management of cardiac toxicity would be prudent for all physicians looking after patients with cancer. PMID:28298705

  10. Liver cancer oncogenomics: opportunities and dilemmas for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches. Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could contribute to new therapeutic approaches. Importantly, these investigations indicate that a classical oncogene addiction cannot be assumed for primary liver cancer. Therefore, hepatocarcinogenesis can be considered a paradigm suitable for individualized medicine. PMID:26257864

  11. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  12. Synergistic inhibition of autophagy and neddylation pathways as a novel therapeutic approach for targeting liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Hu, Tao; Liang, Yupei; Jiang, Yanan; Pan, Yongfu; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongping; Li, Pei; Jeong, Lak Shin; Chu, Yiwei; Qi, Hui; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M; Dong, Ziming; Jia, Lijun

    2015-04-20

    Liver cancer is the second-most frequent cause of cancer death in the world and is highly treatment resistant. We reported previously that inhibition of neddylation pathway with specific NAE inhibitor MLN4924, suppressed the malignant phenotypes of liver cancer. However, during the process, MLN4924 induces pro-survival autophagy as a mechanism of drug resistance. Here, we report that blockage of autophagy with clinically-available autophagy inhibitors (e.g. chloroquine) significantly enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 on liver cancer cells by triggering apoptosis. Mechanistically, chloroquine enhanced MLN4924-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. NOXA) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins. Importantly, the down-regulation of NOXA expression via siRNA silencing substantially attenuated apoptosis of liver cancer cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that blockage of autophagy augmented MLN4924-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The elimination of DNA damage or blockage of ROS production significantly reduced the expression of NOXA, and thereby attenuated apoptosis and reduced growth inhibition of liver cancer cells. Moreover, blockage of autophagy enhanced the efficacy of MLN4924 in an orthotopic model of human liver cancer, with induction of NOXA and apoptosis in tumor tissues. These findings provide important preclinical evidence for clinical investigation of synergistic inhibition of neddylation and autophagy in liver cancer.

  13. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation.

    PubMed

    Segkos, Konstantinos; Schmidt, Carl; Nabhan, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC.

  14. Isolated Liver Metastasis in Hürthle Cell Thyroid Cancer Treated with Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hürthle cell thyroid cancer (HCTC) is a less common form of differentiated thyroid cancer. It rarely metastasizes to the liver, and when it does, the metastasis is almost never isolated. Here we report a 62-year-old male with widely invasive Hürthle cell thyroid cancer, who underwent total thyroidectomy and received adjuvant treatment with I-131 with posttreatment scan showing no evidence of metastatic disease. His thyroglobulin however continued to rise after that and eventually an isolated liver metastasis was identified. He underwent laparoscopic microwave ablation of the liver metastasis, with dramatic decline in thyroglobulin and no structural disease identified to date. This case highlights the rare occurrence of isolated liver metastasis from HCTC and also illustrates the utility of thermoablation as an alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of small isolated liver metastases from HCTC. PMID:28163939

  15. Liver cancer in Wisconsin: The potential for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, I.R.; Remington, P.L.; Moss, M.; Anderson, H. )

    1990-02-01

    In this study liver cancer deaths that could be attributed to certain risk factors were calculated. Applying population attributable risk methodology, the attributable risk of liver cancer was estimated for alcohol use, hepatitis B viral exposure, and occupational and industrial exposures. We found that these three risk factors accounted for 38% of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin; 29% was attributable to alcohol consumption, 7% to occupational exposures, and 2% to hepatitis B viral infection. More than half of liver cancer mortality, however, was not accounted for by the three risk factors studied.

  16. Oxidative Stress and Liver Cancer: Etiology and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Zhuonan; Ye, Yanshuo; Xie, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that oxidative stress (OS) is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Normally, OS occurs when the body receives any danger signal—from either an internal or external source—and further induces DNA oxidative damage and abnormal protein expression, placing the body into a state of vulnerability to the development of various diseases such as cancer. There are many factors involved in liver carcinogenesis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The relationship between OS and HCC has recently been attracting increasing attention. Therefore, elucidation of the impact of OS on the development of liver carcinogenesis is very important for the prevention and treatment of liver cancer. This review focuses mainly on the relationship between OS and the development of HCC from the perspective of cellular and molecular mechanisms and the etiology and therapeutic targets of HCC. PMID:27957239

  17. Early Dose Response to Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatment of Metastatic Liver Cancer by a Patient-Specific Method Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Janice M. Wong, C. Oliver; Muzik, Otto; Marples, Brian; Joiner, Michael; Burmeister, Jay

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a patient-specific single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based method of dose calculation for treatment planning of yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT). Methods and Materials: Fourteen consecutive {sup 90}Y SIRTs for colorectal liver metastasis were retrospectively analyzed. Absorbed dose to tumor and normal liver tissue was calculated by partition methods with two different tumor/normal liver vascularity ratios: an average 3:1 and a patient-specific ratio derived from pretreatment technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT. Tumor response was quantitatively evaluated from fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans. Results: Positron emission tomography showed a significant decrease in total tumor standardized uptake value (average, 52%). There was a significant difference in the tumor absorbed dose between the average and specific methods (p = 0.009). Response vs. dose curves fit by linear and linear-quadratic modeling showed similar results. Linear fit r values increased for all tumor response parameters with the specific method (+0.20 for mean standardized uptake value). Conclusion: Tumor dose calculated with the patient-specific method was more predictive of response in liver-directed {sup 90}Y SIRT.

  18. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Siebler, Juergen; Galle, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause for elevated liver enzymes in the developed nations. Beyond prevention programs which are of particular interest because of the increasing number of overweight children, treatment should be focussed on the most important risk factors, obesity and insulin resistance. As a consequence of elucidating the pathomechanisms of NAFLD, the number of potential therapeutic options increased. However, many studies investigating the therapeutic effect show shortcomings in at least one of the following points: lack of a serial liver biopsy, short term of treatment and limited number of included patients. The second generation insulin sensitizer pioglitazone and rosiglitazone show the most promising improvements in NAFLD, but weight gain and potential hepatotoxicity calls for attention. In conclusion, a general recommendation for the application of specific drugs cannot be given. Besides controlled clinical trials, weight reduction and physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in obese patients should be the priority objective. PMID:16610015

  19. Stop feeding cancer: pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Lawless, Matthew W

    2013-12-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the world with an estimated over half a million new cases diagnosed every year. Due to the difficulty in early diagnosis and lack of treatment options, the prevalence of liver cancer continues to climb with a 5-year survival rate of between 6% and 11%. Coinciding with the rise of liver cancer, the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased over the past two decades. Evidence from epidemiological studies demonstrates a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in obese individuals. Obesity is recognised as a low-grade inflammatory disease, this is of particular relevance as inflammation has been proposed as the seventh hallmark of cancer development with abdominal visceral adiposity considered as an important source of pro-inflammatory stimuli. Emerging evidence points towards the direct role of visceral adipose tissue rather than generalised body fat in carcinogenesis. Cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α secreted from visceral adipose tissue have been demonstrated to induce a chronic inflammatory condition predisposing the liver to a protumourigenic milieu. This review focuses on excess visceral adiposity rather than simple obesity; particularly adipokines and their implications for chronic inflammation, lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and angiogenesis. Evidence of molecular signalling pathways that may give rise to the onset and progression of HCC in this context are depicted. Delineation of the pro-inflammatory role of visceral adiposity in liver cancer and its targeting will provide better rational and therapeutic approaches for HCC prevention and elimination. The concept of a central role for metabolism in cancer is the culmination of an effort that began with one of the 20th century's leading biochemists and Nobel laureate of 1931, Otto Warburg.

  20. [Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy with CyberKnife®for Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Koki; Kaihara, Masaki; Sunahori, Sayaka; Yamashiro, Naotsugu; Nishiya, Shin; Ito, Yasuhiro; Funakoshi, Kazuto; Egawa, Tomohisa; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Nagashima, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    For treatment of colorectal liver metastases, liver resection is recommended for resectable cases in the clinical guidelines for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, there are currently no data supporting the efficacy of radiation therapy as a topical treatment, and this treatment can therefore not presently be recommended. With CyberKnife®, it is possible to perform stereotactic radiation therapy using a linear accelerator with high accuracy, even for lesions in the trunk area such as liver metastases. Between December 2009 and September 2014 in our hospital, we performed radiation treatment using CyberKnife® for 14 cases with 22 colorectal liver metastases. As a result, we obtained response and local control rates of 76.2%and 81.0%, respectively. Moreover, no advanced adverse events were observed. Thus, we consider that CyberKnife® treatment for colorectal liver metastases is effective as a topical treatment, with low invasiveness and high safety.

  1. Working during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... working through cancer easier on you and your co-workers. Schedule treatments late in the day so ... Consider letting your co-workers know you have cancer. It might be easier to work if you do not have to make excuses ...

  2. Evidence-based medical oncology and interventional radiology paradigms for liver-dominant colorectal cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Sag, Alan Alper; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Mandel, Nil Molinas

    2016-03-21

    Colorectal cancer metastasizes predictably, with liver predominance in most cases. Because liver involvement has been shown to be a major determinant of survival in this population, liver-directed therapies are increasingly considered even in cases where there is (limited) extrahepatic disease. Unfortunately, these patients carry a known risk of recurrence in the liver regardless of initial therapy choice. Therefore, there is a demand for minimally invasive, non-surgical, personalized cancer treatments to preserve quality of life in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of cancer therapy. This report aims to review evidence-based conceptual, pharmacological, and technological paradigm shifts in parenteral and percutaneous treatment strategies as well as forthcoming evidence regarding next-generation systemic, locoregional, and local treatment approaches for this patient population.

  3. Evidence-based medical oncology and interventional radiology paradigms for liver-dominant colorectal cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Alan Alper; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Mandel, Nil Molinas

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer metastasizes predictably, with liver predominance in most cases. Because liver involvement has been shown to be a major determinant of survival in this population, liver-directed therapies are increasingly considered even in cases where there is (limited) extrahepatic disease. Unfortunately, these patients carry a known risk of recurrence in the liver regardless of initial therapy choice. Therefore, there is a demand for minimally invasive, non-surgical, personalized cancer treatments to preserve quality of life in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of cancer therapy. This report aims to review evidence-based conceptual, pharmacological, and technological paradigm shifts in parenteral and percutaneous treatment strategies as well as forthcoming evidence regarding next-generation systemic, locoregional, and local treatment approaches for this patient population. PMID:27003990

  4. Treatment of Unresectable Primary and Metastatic Liver Cancer with Yttrium-90 Microspheres (TheraSphere (registered) ): Assessment of Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kent; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Bui, James T.; Omary, Reed; Hunter, Russell D.; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary; Liu, David; Chrisman, Howard; Resnick, Scott; Nemcek, Albert A.; Vogelzang, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2006-08-15

    In Canada and Europe, yttrium-90 microspheres (TheraSphere); MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) are a primary treatment option for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. We present data from 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver disease treated with TheraSphere from a single academic institution to evaluate the angiographically evident embolization that follows treatment. Seven interventional radiologists from one treatment center compared pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms. The reviewers were blinded to the timing of the studies. The incidence of postembolization syndrome (PES) was determined as well as objective tumor response rates by the World Health Organization (WHO), Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. There were 420 independent angiographic observations that were assessed using the chi-squared statistic. The pretreatment and posttreatment angiograms could not be correctly identified on average more than 43% of the time (p = 0.0004). The postprocedure arterial patency rate was 100%. The objective tumor response rates for all patients were 24%, 31%, and 72% for WHO, RECIST, and EASL criteria, respectively. All of the patients tolerated the procedure without complications and were treated on an outpatient basis, and four patients had evidence of PES. This treatment method does not result in macroscopic embolization of the hepatic arteries, thereby maintaining hepatic tissue perfusion. These data support the principle that the favorable response rates reported with TheraSphere are likely due to radiation and microscopic embolization rather than flow-related macroscopic embolization and ischemia.

  5. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not go away. Tests that examine the head, neck, and the inside of the mouth are used ... team of doctors who are experts in treating head and neck cancer. Your treatment will be overseen by a ...

  6. What Happens After Treatment for Bone Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Bone Cancer? For some people with bone cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Bone Cancer Stops Working More In Bone Cancer About Bone Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer? For some people with stomach cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Stomach Cancer Stops Working More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  8. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Kidney Cancer? For some people with kidney cancer, treatment can ... Treatment for Kidney Cancer Stops Working More In Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. Ultrasound-guided interventional PDT of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chaoying; Yang, Dong; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Muyin; Chen, Ji; Lu, Guorong

    1996-09-01

    Thirty patients with advanced liver cancer were treated by interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT). These included 28 hepatocellular carcinoma and two adenocarcinoma, 19 primary tumors and 11 recurred follow other treatments. The diameter of tumors were 7-10cm in 13 cases and 10-16cm in 17 cases. In this study, an argon laser pumped dye laser system was used to give a CW laser beam at 630 nm which was split and coupled into there optical fibers. The patients were injected intravenously with photosensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight 48 hours before PDT. Then the fibers were inserted into tumor by ultrasound- guided percutaneous puncture. The inserted irradiation points were spaced in entire tumor with the light release power 300mW and the irradiation time 12 minutes per point. Total 52 treatments were performed in 30 patients. Among them, 14 cases were treated only one time and 16 cases via 2-3 times. The follow-up was carried out in 25 cases for 12- 24 months. The results show that significant remission was 22 percent in those patients by only one treatment and 62 percent in those via 2 to 3 treatments. The shrink rate of tumor size was over 90 percent in five of six cases after treatment 3. The survival time has been over one year in 12 cases. No obvious change to be found for all patients in liver function test, renal function test and blood routine examination. The level of AFP indicated a descending trend after PDT. This work indicate that PDT is effective and safe for the treatment of large liver cancers including those recurred follow hepatic resection and those failed in hepatic artery infusion embolic chemotherapy.

  11. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity includes efforts to identify individual toxicity risks and prevention strategies support the National Cancer Insitute's goal of reducing the burden of cancer diagnoses and treatment outcomes.

  12. Current treatment for colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Misiakos, Evangelos P; Karidis, Nikolaos P; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Surgical resection offers the best opportunity for survival in patients with colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver, with five-year survival rates up to 58% in selected cases. However, only a minority are resectable at the time of diagnosis. Continuous research in this field aims at increasing the percentage of patients eligible for resection, refining the indications and contraindications for surgery, and improving overall survival. The use of surgical innovations, such as staged resection, portal vein embolization, and repeat resection has allowed higher resection rates in patients with bilobar disease. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy allows up to 38% of patients previously considered unresectable to be significantly downstaged and eligible for hepatic resection. Ablative techniques have gained wide acceptance as an adjunct to surgical resection and in the management of patients who are not surgical candidates. Current management of colorectal liver metastases requires a multidisciplinary approach, which should be individualized in each case. PMID:22039320

  13. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  14. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p < 0.05 to all). Significant decrease in hepatic artery perfusion was also observed in pericancerous liver tissue, but other parameters kept constant. CT perfusion imaging is able to detect decrease in blood perfusion of liver cancer post-argon-helium knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy.

  15. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  16. Radioembolization for primary and metastatic liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Riaz, Ahsun; Mulcahy, Mary F; Salem, Riad

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing. Most patients present beyond potentially curative options and are usually affected by underlying cirrhosis. In this scenario, trans-arterial therapies, such as radioembolization, are rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Radioembolization is a catheter-based liver-directed therapy that involves injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous transarterial techniques. Cancer cells are preferentially supplied by arterial blood and normal hepatocytes by portal venous blood; radioembolization therefore specifically targets tumor cells with a high dose of lethal radiation and spares healthy hepatocytes. The antitumor effect mostly comes from radiation rather than embolization. The most commonly used radioisotope is Yttrium-90. The commercially available devices are TheraSphere® (glass-based) and SIR-Sphere® (resin-based). The procedure is performed on outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is generally less than other locoregional therapies and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, gastrointestinal ulcers and vascular injury. However, these can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection and adequate dosimetry. This article focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of radioembolization with emphasis on patient selection, uses and complications. PMID:21939859

  17. Pilot clinical trial of 5-[{sup 125}I] iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine in the treatment of colorectal cancer metastic to the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Macapinlac, H.A.; Kemeny, N.; Daghighian, F.

    1996-04-01

    The thymidine analog, 5-iodo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine (IUdR), is incorporated in the DNA of cell sin the S phase. When incorporated in the DNA, short-range Auger electrons emitted by {sup 125}I-labeled IUdR can cause double-strand breaks, delivering a lethal radiation dose to the cell. We conducted therapeutic trial to evaluate [{sup 125}I/{sup 131}I]IUdR pharmacokinetics in liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Dosimetry, safety, and therapeutic potential were assessed. Four patients were each infused with 5 mCi [{sup 125}I]IUdR and 10 mCi [{sup 131}I]IUdR through the sideport of a hepatic artery pump. Iodine-131 images were quantitated and used for pharmacokinetic studies. The radioactivity in the DNA of biopsy samples of tumor, normal liver and bone marrow, obtained 24 or 48 hr after injection, was counted. All patients had [{sup 125}I]IUdR and [{sup 131}I]IUdR uptake in tumor, with a biexponential clearance. Repeat injections in individual patients showed little variation in tumor uptake, especially in the slow clearance component. On planar images, no long-term retention was seen in bone marrow or other activity dividing normal tissues. Radioactivity in the DNA of one marrow sample taken at 24 hr was above background, but in another taken at 48 hr it was equal to background levels. No side effects were noted, no hematologic toxicity was observed in any patients and no tumor responses were seen. There is persisten uptake of [{sup 125}I]IUdR in hepatic tumors, thereby making hepatic artery infusion a suitable mode of delivery for therapy. Repeat injections will be needed because only 15%-50% of tumor cells are in the S phase. Based on results from this pilot study, a therapeutic regimen is being planned. 43 refs. 2 figs.

  18. EASL HCC summit: liver cancer management.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Rodolfo; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Galati, Giovanni; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mazza, GianCarlo; Cabibbo, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    EASL HCC Summit, Geneva, Switzerland, 13-16 February 2014. The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) organized the 2014 EASL HCC Summit in Geneva, Switzerland. We discuss here the most interesting and provocative contents from the clinical program of the summit. The objective of this segment was to provide an in-depth review on the different management issues related to early detection, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, and, in addition, to highlight the ways of dealing with such an important and rapidly involving field.

  19. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G; Hsu, Brian E; Tam, Christine E; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M

    2015-04-20

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.

  20. Multivariate analysis of a personal series of 247 consecutive patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. I. Treatment by hepatic resection.

    PubMed

    Fortner, J G; Silva, J S; Golbey, R B; Cox, E B; Maclean, B J

    1984-03-01

    In the United States, there are an estimated 5000 to 6000 new patients annually who might be candidates for major hepatic resection to treat their recurrent colon cancer. Since 1971, the program reported here has evaluated various factors that might influence the curative potential of such an approach. Sixty-five patients had a major hepatic resection from March 1971 through May 1982. Using a stepwise proportional hazard analysis, all data that had been stored in CLINFO (a data analysis system by Bolt, Beranek and Newman; Boston, MA) were evaluated for the effect of multiple variables on the survival of patients with resected hepatic metastases. Twenty-seven had a right hepatic lobectomy; 14 had extended right hepatectomy with one having the caudate lobe also removed; ten had left lobectomy, nine had left lateral segmentectomy; and five had a major hepatic resection with three-dimensional wedge excision of a metastatic deposit in the contralateral lobe. The 30-day operative mortality rate was 7% (4/58) for patients undergoing the standard major hepatic resection. It was 14% for seven patients in whom the isolation-hypothermic perfusion technique was used early in the series. In ten patients, wedge excision only was required to remove the tumor. Stage I disease is defined as tumor confined to the resected portion of the liver without invasion of major intrahepatic vessels or bile ducts. Stage II disease is regional spread and Stage III disease is metastasis to lymph nodes or extraregional sites. The 3-year survival estimate was 66% for the 37 patients with Stage I disease. The 3-year survival estimate for 13 patients with Stage II disease was 58%. Five of the nine patients with Stage III disease are presently alive from 3 to 23 months; one of the other four died at 35 months of disease. The stage of liver disease was the most significant variable in this survival analysis (p = 0.02); Dukes' classification of colorectal primary was significant at p less than 0

  1. Glypican-3 antibodies: a new therapeutic target for liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mingqian Feng, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an emerging therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even though the biological function of GPC3 remains elusive. Currently human (MDX-1414 and HN3) and humanized mouse (GC33 and YP7) antibodies that target GPC3 for HCC treatment are under different stages of preclinical or clinical development. Humanized mouse antibody GC33 is being evaluated in a phase II clinical trial. Human antibodies MDX-1414 and HN3 are under different stages of preclinical evaluation. Here, we summarize current evidence for GPC3 as a new target in liver cancer, discuss both its oncogenic function and its mode of actions for current antibodies, and evaluate potential challenges for GPC3-targeted anti-cancer therapies. PMID:24140348

  2. Targeting autophagy for the treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong-Min; Williams, Jessica A; Yang, Hua; Shi, Ying-Hong; Fan, Jia; Ding, Wen-Xing

    2012-12-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that can degrade bulk cytoplasm and superfluous or damaged organelles, such as mitochondria, to maintain cellular homeostasis. It is now known that dysregulation of autophagy can cause pathogenesis of numerous human diseases. Here, we discuss the critical roles that autophagy plays in the pathogenesis of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver, drug-induced liver injury, protein aggregate-related liver diseases, viral hepatitis, fibrosis, aging and liver cancer. In particular, we discuss the emerging therapeutic potential by pharmacological modulation of autophagy for these liver diseases.

  3. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Delgado, Teresa C.; García-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Fernández-Ramos, David; Buqué, Xabier; Cano, Ainara; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Fernández-Domínguez, Itziar; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Boix, Loreto; Bruix, Jordi; Villa, Erica; Castro, Azucena; Lu, Shelly C.; Aspichueta, Patricia; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mato, José M.; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María L.

    2015-01-01

    The current view of cancer progression highlights that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational regulation and metabolic reprogramming to progress in an unfriendly environment. In here, the importance of neddylation modification in liver cancer was investigated. We found that hepatic neddylation was specifically enriched in liver cancer patients with bad prognosis. In addition, the treatment with the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 in Phb1-KO mice, an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma showing elevated neddylation, reverted the malignant phenotype. Tumor cell death in vivo translating into liver tumor regression was associated with augmented phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the PEMT pathway, known as a liver-specific tumor suppressor, and restored mitochondrial function and TCA cycle flux. Otherwise, in protumoral hepatocytes, neddylation inhibition resulted in metabolic reprogramming rendering a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and concomitant tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, Akt and LKB1, hallmarks of proliferative metabolism, were altered in liver cancer being new targets of neddylation. Importantly, we show that neddylation-induced metabolic reprogramming and apoptosis were dependent on LKB1 and Akt stabilization. Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25650664

  4. Stabilization of LKB1 and Akt by neddylation regulates energy metabolism in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Delgado, Teresa C; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Zubiete-Franco, Imanol; Fernández-Ramos, David; Buqué, Xabier; Cano, Ainara; Gutiérrez-de Juan, Virginia; Fernández-Domínguez, Itziar; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Fernández-Tussy, Pablo; Boix, Loreto; Bruix, Jordi; Villa, Erica; Castro, Azucena; Lu, Shelly C; Aspichueta, Patricia; Xirodimas, Dimitris; Varela-Rey, Marta; Mato, José M; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María L

    2015-02-10

    The current view of cancer progression highlights that cancer cells must undergo through a post-translational regulation and metabolic reprogramming to progress in an unfriendly environment. In here, the importance of neddylation modification in liver cancer was investigated. We found that hepatic neddylation was specifically enriched in liver cancer patients with bad prognosis. In addition, the treatment with the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 in Phb1-KO mice, an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma showing elevated neddylation, reverted the malignant phenotype. Tumor cell death in vivo translating into liver tumor regression was associated with augmented phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the PEMT pathway, known as a liver-specific tumor suppressor, and restored mitochondrial function and TCA cycle flux. Otherwise, in protumoral hepatocytes, neddylation inhibition resulted in metabolic reprogramming rendering a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and concomitant tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, Akt and LKB1, hallmarks of proliferative metabolism, were altered in liver cancer being new targets of neddylation. Importantly, we show that neddylation-induced metabolic reprogramming and apoptosis were dependent on LKB1 and Akt stabilization. Overall, our results implicate neddylation/signaling/metabolism, partly mediated by LKB1 and Akt, in the development of liver cancer, paving the way for novel therapeutic approaches targeting neddylation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. Feature statistic analysis of ultrasound images of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shuqin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, a specific feature analysis of liver ultrasound images including normal liver, liver cancer especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other hepatopathy is discussed. According to the classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), primary carcinoma is divided into four types. 15 features from single gray-level statistic, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM) are extracted. Experiments for the discrimination of each type of HCC, normal liver, fatty liver, angioma and hepatic abscess have been conducted. Corresponding features to potentially discriminate them are found.

  6. Manipulation of autophagy by MIR375 generates antitumor effects in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Lin, Jusheng; Tsung, Allan

    2012-12-01

    The exploration into the roles of autophagy in tumorigenesis, either as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter, has led to a great increase in the knowledge of cancer development, progression and treatment. However, there is currently no consensus on how to manipulate autophagy to improve antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in established liver cancer cells in response to hypoxia. Hypoxia not only is the most pervasive microenvironmental stress in solid tumors but is also a canonical stimulus for autophagy. The involvement of dysregulated microRNAs in hypoxia-induced autophagy and their therapeutic potential in advanced liver cancer were examined.

  7. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  8. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  9. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  10. [Current management of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: recommendations of the São Paulo Liver Club].

    PubMed

    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Perini, Marcos Vinicius; Lobo, Edson José; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo; Lopes, Gaspar de Jesus; Herman, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of patients with colorectal cancer present with liver metastases during the course of their disease, which directly affect prognosis and is responsible for two thirds of deaths related to the disease. In the last two decades the treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRCLM) provided significant gain in survival when all treatment options are available to the patient. In this context, surgical treatment remains as the only chance of cure, with five-year survival rates of 25-58%. However, only 1/4 of the patients have resectable disease at diagnosis. For this reason, one of the key points in the current management of patients with CRCLM is the development of strategies that facilitate complete resection of liver lesions. The advent and refinement of ablative methods have expanded the possibilities of surgical therapy. The emergence of new chemotherapy regimens and the introduction of targeted therapies has provided high response rates and has permanently altered the management of these patients. The multimodal therapy and the involvement of different medical specialties has increasingly enabled CRCLM treatment to approached the ideal treatment, i.e., an individualized one. Based on an extensive review of literature and on experience from some of the most important specialized centers of Brazil, the São Paulo Liver Club began a process of multi-institutional discussions that resulted in the recommendations that follow. These recommendations, however, are not intended to be absolute, but useful tools in the therapeutic decision process for this complex group of patients.

  11. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... throwing up blood or your vomit looks like coffee grounds Long or heavy periods (women) Headaches that do not go away or are very bad Blurry or double vision Abdominal pains Alternative Names Cancer treatment - bleeding; Chemotherapy - bleeding; Radiation - bleeding; Bone marrow ...

  12. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  13. Silencing of WWP2 inhibits adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong; Xu, Sheng-Qian; Pan, De-Biao; Ye, Guan-Xiong; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Shi; Wang, Chao-Jun; Jiang, Jin-Yan; Fu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The role and clinical implication of the WWP2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in liver cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the expression level of WWP2 and its functions in cell adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer. We used real-time PCR to detect the expression of WWP2 in liver cancer and adjacent samples from the People's Hospital of Lishui and also analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq data by bioinformatics. Migration and invasion were detected by transwell analysis. We detected a strong WWP2 expression in tumor tissues of the People's Hospital of Lishui, and the survival rate was significantly higher in patients with lower WWP2-expressing tumors. WWP2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus stably infected cells (shWWP2), Huh7, showed slower growth speed compared with scramble control-infected cells in a xenograft mouse model. Knockdown of WWP2 Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells demonstrated a reduction in adhesion, invasion, and migration. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that WWP2 is positively correlated to cancer-related pathways including the chemokine signaling pathway. WWP2 also regulated MMP-9, caspase-9, CXCR3, and CCR5 expression in liver cancer cells. In addition, knockdown of CXCR3 and CCR5 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration in Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells. Our data suggest that targeting of WWP2 may be a therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment.

  14. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Otto K-W; Cheng, Alfred S-L

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  15. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Otto K.-W.; Cheng, Alfred S.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management. PMID:27703473

  16. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  17. Oncogenic role of the Notch pathway in primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, JIE; XIA, YUJING; CHEN, KAN; ZHENG, YUANYUAN; WANG, JIANRONG; LU, WENXIA; YIN, QIN; WANG, FAN; ZHOU, YINGQUN; GUO, CHUANYONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer, which includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and fibrolamellar HCC, is one of the most common malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, worldwide. Despite the development of novel therapies, the prognosis of liver cancer patients remains extremely poor. Thus, investigation of the genetic background and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this disease has gained significant attention. The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial determinant of cell fate during development and disease in several organs. In the liver, Notch signaling is involved in biliary tree development and tubulogenesis, and is also significant in the development of HCC and ICC. These findings suggest that the modulation of Notch pathway activity may have therapeutic relevance. The present review summarizes Notch signaling during HCC and ICC development and discusses the findings of recent studies regarding Notch expression, which reveal novel insights into its function in liver cancer progression. PMID:27347091

  18. Ayahuasca and cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensively review the evidence regarding the use of ayahuasca, an Amerindian medicine traditionally used to treat many different illnesses and diseases, to treat some types of cancer. Methods: An in-depth review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, books, institutional magazines, conferences and online texts in nonprofessional sources regarding the biomedical knowledge about ayahuasca in general with a specific focus in its possible relations to the treatment of cancer. Results: At least nine case reports regarding the use of ayahuasca in the treatment of prostate, brain, ovarian, uterine, stomach, breast, and colon cancers were found. Several of these were considered improvements, one case was considered worse, and one case was rated as difficult to evaluate. A theoretical model is presented which explains these effects at the cellular, molecular, and psychosocial levels. Particular attention is given to ayahuasca’s pharmacological effects through the activity of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at intracellular sigma-1 receptors. The effects of other components of ayahuasca, such as harmine, tetrahydroharmine, and harmaline, are also considered. Conclusion: The proposed model, based on the molecular and cellular biology of ayahuasca’s known active components and the available clinical reports, suggests that these accounts may have consistent biological underpinnings. Further study of ayahuasca’s possible antitumor effects is important because cancer patients continue to seek out this traditional medicine. Consequently, based on the social and anthropological observations of the use of this brew, suggestions are provided for further research into the safety and efficacy of ayahuasca as a possible medicinal aid in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26770688

  19. Liver resection for cancer: New developments in prediction, prevention and management of postresectional liver failure.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Kim M C; Schaap, Frank G; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Olde Damink, Steven W M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatic failure is a feared complication that accounts for up to 75% of mortality after extensive liver resection. Despite improved perioperative care, the increasing complexity and extensiveness of surgical interventions, in combination with an expanding number of resections in patients with compromised liver function, still results in an incidence of postresectional liver failure (PLF) of 1-9%. Preventive measures aim to enhance future remnant liver size and function. Numerous non-invasive techniques to assess liver function and predict remnant liver volume are being developed, along with introduction of novel surgical strategies that augment growth of the future remnant liver. Detection of PLF is often too late and treatment is primarily symptomatic. Current therapeutic research focuses on ([bio]artificial) liver function support and regenerative medicine. In this review we discuss the current state and new developments in prediction, prevention and management of PLF, in light of novel insights into the aetiology of this complex syndrome.

  20. Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

  1. Aggressive surgical resection for concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Choi, Gi Hong; Choi, Jin Sub

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases. PMID:27621747

  2. Chemotherapy-associated liver injury: impact on surgical management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kneuertz, Peter J; Maithel, Shishir K; Staley, Charles A; Kooby, David A

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy is integral to the management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer liver metastases. Due to their improved efficacy, modern regimens can sometimes convert unresectable disease to a resectable state. As chemotherapy is often administered prior to hepatic resection, adverse effects on the liver are increasingly being recognized. Investigators have identified a wide spectrum of effects on the underlying liver parenchyma, ranging from mild forms of steatosis to severe steatohepatitis and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. As the histopathologic definitions of these changes evolve, studies have identified specific patterns of hepatic injury related to the various chemotherapeutic agents. The impact of these changes on perioperative outcome after partial hepatectomy remains controversial. Timing and duration of chemotherapy may play a key role and account for discrepancies in outcomes seen among studies. In this review, we provide an overview of the spectrum of chemotherapy-associated liver injury and discuss its relevance to perioperative management of patients undergoing hepatic resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

  3. Andrographolide induces autophagic cell death in human liver cancer cells through cyclophilin D-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Feng, Lina; Nie, Hao; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2012-11-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide and about half of the patients with liver cancer require adjuvant therapy after surgical resection. Therefore, development of novel agents to eradicate cancer cells may constitute a viable approach to treat patients with liver cancer. Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone isolated from Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of andrographolide on human liver cancer cells and explored the cell death mechanism. Andrographolide induced a cell death distinct from apoptosis in multiple human liver cancer cells. The death was characterized by autophagy as evidenced by the accumulation of LC3 II and autophagosomes, and the formation of puncta GFP-LC3. This autophagy as well as cytotoxicity caused by andrographolide could be effectively prevented by 3-methyladenine (a chemical inhibitor of autophagy). Mechanistic study indicated that andrographolide induced autophagic cell death by disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and elevation of reactive oxygen species, which were correlated with mitochondrial permeability transition pore Inhibition of cyclophilin D (a component of MPTP) by cyclosporin A or abrogation of its expression by small interfering RNA significantly suppressed the cytotoxicity of andrographolide, suggesting that cyclophilin D may play an important role in mediating andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of drug action by andrographolide in liver cancer cells and suggest that andrographolide may represent a promising novel agent in the treatment of liver cancer.

  4. Whole-liver CT texture analysis in colorectal cancer: Does the presence of liver metastases affect the texture of the remaining liver?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Lambregts, Doenja MJ; Schnerr, Roald S; van Ommen, Wenzel; van Nijnatten, Thiemo JA; Martens, Milou H; Heijnen, Luc A; Backes, Walter H; Verhoef, Cornelis; Zeng, Meng-Su; Beets, Geerard L

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver metastases limit survival in colorectal cancer. Earlier detection of (occult) metastatic disease may benefit treatment and survival. Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential of whole-liver CT texture analysis of apparently disease-free liver parenchyma for discriminating between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with and without hepatic metastases. Methods The primary staging CT examinations of 29 CRC patients were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without liver metastases (n = 15), with synchronous liver metastases (n = 10) and metachronous liver metastases within 18 months following primary staging (n = 4). Whole-liver texture analysis was performed by delineation of the apparently non-diseased liver parenchyma (excluding metastases or other focal liver lesions) on portal phase images. Mean grey-level intensity (M), entropy (E) and uniformity (U) were derived with no filtration and different filter widths (0.5 = fine, 1.5 = medium, 2.5 = coarse). Results Mean E1.5 and E2.5 for the whole liver in patients with synchronous metastases were significantly higher compared with the non-metastatic patients (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01). Mean U1.5 and U2.5 were significantly lower in the synchronous metastases group compared with the non-metastatic group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Texture parameters for the metachronous metastases group were not significantly different from the non-metastatic group or synchronous metastases group (p > 0.05), although – similar to the synchronous metastases group – there was a subtle trend towards increased E1.5, E2.5 and decreased U1.5, U2.5 values. Areas under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of synchronous metastatic disease based on the texture parameters E1.5,2.5 and U1.5,2.5 ranged between 0.73 and 0.78. Conclusion Texture analysis of the apparently non-diseased liver holds promise to differentiate between CRC

  5. [Examination of percutaneous microwave coagulation and radiofrequency ablation therapy for metastatic liver cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Shinichi; Hirokawa, Satoru; Masaki, Takahiro; Miyakawa, Kaoru; Tarao, Kazuo; Akaike, Makoto; Sugimasa, Yukio; Takemiya, Shoji; Sairenji, Motonori; Motohashi, Hisahiko

    2002-11-01

    Percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) and radio frequency ablation therapy (RFA) as treatments for metastatic liver cancer were examined. PMCT or RFA was administered for 18 metastatic liver cancer lesions (primary lesion: 11 colon rectal cancer, one esophagus cancer, one thyroid cancer, one pancreatic cancer, one pheochromocytoma) in 16 patients from July 1999 to March 2002. RFA was performed 1 time for 12 minutes in principle, using a Cool-tip RF system from Radionics. Patients had a mean age of 58.8 years and the mean diameter of the neoplasms was about 22 mm. Critical complications were not seen. The rate of partial recurrence was 35.3% as of March, 2002, in an average observation period of 7.3 months. On the other hand, with the medical treatment for the hepatocellular carcinoma provided during this period, the rate of partial recurrence was 14.8%. The treatment of metastatic liver cancer by PMCT and RFA is associated with a high rate of a recurrence as compared with hepatocellular carcinoma, and needs to be examined to discover ways of adaptation and improvement of the technology.

  6. A Comprehensive Method for Predicting Fatal Liver Failure of Patients With Liver Cancer Resection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangfa; Lei, Biao; Nie, Xingju; Lin, Linku; Tahir, Syed Abdul; Shi, Wuxiang; Jin, Junfei; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are many methods to assess liver function, but none of them has been verified as fully effective. The purpose of this study is to establish a comprehensive method evaluating perioperative liver reserve function (LRF) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC). In this study, 310 PLC patients who underwent liver resection were included. The cohort was divided into a training set (n = 235) and a validation set (n = 75). The factors affecting postoperative liver dysfunction (POLD) during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The equation for calculating the preoperative liver functional evaluation index (PLFEI) was established; the cutoff value of PLFEI determined through analysis by receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to predict postoperative liver function. The data showed that body mass index, international normalized ratio, indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes (ICGR15), ICG elimination rate, standard remnant liver volume (SRLV), operative bleeding volume (OBV), blood transfusion volume, and operative time were statistically different (all P < 0.05) between 2 groups of patients with and without POLD. The relationship among PLFEI, ICGR15, OBV, and SRLV is expressed as an equation of “PLFEI = 0.181 × ICGR15 + 0.001 × OBV − 0.008 × SRLV.” The cutoff value of PLFEI to predict POLD was −2.16 whose sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 73.5%, respectively. However, when predicting fatal liver failure (FLF), the cutoff value of PLFEI was switched to −1.97 whose sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 68.8%, respectively. PLFEI will be a more comprehensive, sensitive, and accurate index assessing perioperative LRF in liver cancer patients who receive liver resection. And keeping PLFEI <−1.97 is a safety margin for preventing FLF in PLC patients who underwent liver resection. PMID:25929924

  7. A comprehensive method for predicting fatal liver failure of patients with liver cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangfa; Lei, Biao; Nie, Xingju; Lin, Linku; Tahir, Syed Abdul; Shi, Wuxiang; Jin, Junfei; He, Songqing

    2015-05-01

    There are many methods to assess liver function, but none of them has been verified as fully effective. The purpose of this study is to establish a comprehensive method evaluating perioperative liver reserve function (LRF) in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC).In this study, 310 PLC patients who underwent liver resection were included. The cohort was divided into a training set (n = 235) and a validation set (n = 75). The factors affecting postoperative liver dysfunction (POLD) during preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods were confirmed by logistic regression analysis. The equation for calculating the preoperative liver functional evaluation index (PLFEI) was established; the cutoff value of PLFEI determined through analysis by receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to predict postoperative liver function.The data showed that body mass index, international normalized ratio, indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes (ICGR15), ICG elimination rate, standard remnant liver volume (SRLV), operative bleeding volume (OBV), blood transfusion volume, and operative time were statistically different (all P < 0.05) between 2 groups of patients with and without POLD. The relationship among PLFEI, ICGR15, OBV, and SRLV is expressed as an equation of "PLFEI = 0.181 × ICGR15 + 0.001 × OBV - 0.008 × SRLV." The cutoff value of PLFEI to predict POLD was -2.16 whose sensitivity and specificity were 90.3% and 73.5%, respectively. However, when predicting fatal liver failure (FLF), the cutoff value of PLFEI was switched to -1.97 whose sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 68.8%, respectively.PLFEI will be a more comprehensive, sensitive, and accurate index assessing perioperative LRF in liver cancer patients who receive liver resection. And keeping PLFEI <-1.97 is a safety margin for preventing FLF in PLC patients who underwent liver resection.

  8. Nutritional assessment and treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Velázquez, Carlos; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Soto-Solís, Rodrigo; Hernández-Cortés, Juan; Torre, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis, is increasing worldwide. The nutritional state assessment in these patients is complicated, and besides anthropometry is based on several other tools in order to be more accurate. Specific dietary recommendations are needed in patients with chronic liver diseases in order to help prevent and treat liver decompensation because malnutrition is an independent predictor of mortality. This review focuses on essential aspects in the nutritional assessment of cirrhotic patients and some general recommendations for their treatment.

  9. Ulinastatin reduces the resistance of liver cancer cells to epirubicin by inhibiting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Bian, Qi; Shao, Cheng Hao; Li, Gang; Liu, An An; Jing, Wei; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Yi-Jie; Zhou, Ying-Qi; Hu, Xian-Gui; Jin, Gang

    2015-01-01

    During chemotherapy, drug resistance caused by autophagy remains a major challenge to successful treatment of cancer patients. The purpose of this study is to show that ulinastatin (UTI), a trypsin inhibitor, could reduce the resistance of liver cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agent epirubicin (EPI). We achieved this conclusion by analyzing the effect of EPI alone or UTI plus EPI on SMMC-7721 and MHCC-LM3 liver cancer cells. We also generated an EPI-resistant liver cancer cell line (MHCC-LM3er cells), and found that UTI could sensitize the LM3er cells to EPI. Autophagy usually functions to protect cancer cells during chemotherapy. Our study showed that UTI inhibited the autophagy induced by EPI in liver cancer cells, which promoted apoptosis, and therefore, reduced the resistance of the cancer cells to EPI. Further studies showed that the UTI-mediated inhibition on autophagy was achieved by inhibiting transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. To verify our results in vivo, we injected MHCC-LM3 liver cancer cells or EPI-resistant LM3er cells into mice, and found that EPI could only effectively inhibit the growth of tumor in MHCC-LM3 cell-injected mice, but not in LM3er cell-injected mice. However, when UTI was also administered, the growth of tumor was inhibited in the MHCC-LM3er cell-injected mice as well. Our results suggest that UTI may be used in combination with anti-cancer drugs, such as EPI, to improve the outcome of cancer therapy.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ... cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. ... options. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ...

  11. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki; Hosaka, Kayoko; Seki, Takahiro; Andersson, Patrik; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Nakamura, Masaki; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Cao, Renhai; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Chen, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yongtian; Nie, Guohui; Cao, Yihai

    2016-09-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes of the fenestrated endothelium and loss of VE-cadherin. The drug cessation caused highly leaky hepatic vasculatures permit tumour cell intravasation and extravasation. Discontinuation of an anti-VEGF antibody-based drug and sunitinib markedly promotes liver metastasis. Mechanistically, host hepatocyte, but not tumour cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is responsible for cancer metastasis. Deletion of hepatocyte VEGF markedly ablates the 'off-drug'-induced metastasis. These findings provide mechanistic insights on anti-VEGF cessation-induced metastasis and raise a new challenge for uninterrupted and sustained antiangiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers.

  12. Discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy promotes metastasis through a liver revascularization mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yin; Iwamoto, Hideki; Hosaka, Kayoko; Seki, Takahiro; Andersson, Patrik; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Nakamura, Masaki; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Cao, Renhai; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Chen, Fang; Chen, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yongtian; Nie, Guohui; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    The impact of discontinuation of anti-VEGF cancer therapy in promoting cancer metastasis is unknown. Here we show discontinuation of anti-VEGF treatment creates a time-window of profound structural changes of liver sinusoidal vasculatures, exhibiting hyper-permeability and enlarged open-pore sizes of the fenestrated endothelium and loss of VE-cadherin. The drug cessation caused highly leaky hepatic vasculatures permit tumour cell intravasation and extravasation. Discontinuation of an anti-VEGF antibody-based drug and sunitinib markedly promotes liver metastasis. Mechanistically, host hepatocyte, but not tumour cell-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is responsible for cancer metastasis. Deletion of hepatocyte VEGF markedly ablates the ‘off-drug'-induced metastasis. These findings provide mechanistic insights on anti-VEGF cessation-induced metastasis and raise a new challenge for uninterrupted and sustained antiangiogenic therapy for treatment of human cancers. PMID:27580750

  13. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given ... of a special probe with tiny electrodes that kill cancer cells . Sometimes the probe is inserted directly ...

  15. Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms Check with your healthcare provider if you have ...

  16. Treatment of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Treating Breast Cancer During Pregnancy If you are diagnosed with breast ... treatment more complicated. Is it safe to treat breast cancer during pregnancy? Pregnant women can get treatment for ...

  17. Photothermal treatment of liver cancer with albumin-conjugated gold nanoparticles initiates Golgi Apparatus-ER dysfunction and caspase-3 apoptotic pathway activation by selective targeting of Gp60 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian; Tabaran, Flaviu A; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    We present a method of enhanced laser thermal ablation of HepG2 cells based on a simple gold nanoparticle (GNP) carrier system such as serum albumin (Alb), and demonstrate its selective therapeutic efficacy compared with normal hepatocyte cells. HepG2 or hepatocytes were treated with Alb-GNPs at various concentrations and various incubation times, and further irradiated using a 2 W, 808 nm laser. Darkfield microscopy and immunochemical staining was used to demonstrate the selective internalization of Alb-GNPs inside the HepG2 cells via Gp60 receptors targeting. The postirradiation apoptotic rate of HepG2 cells treated with Alb-GNPs ranged from 25.8% (for 5 μg/mL) to 48.2% (for 50 μg/mL) at 60 seconds, while at 30 minutes the necrotic rate increased from 35.7% (5 μg/mL) to 52.3% (50 μg/mL), P-value <0.001. Significantly lower necrotic rates were obtained when human hepatocytes were treated with Alb-GNPs in a similar manner. We also showed by means of immunocytochemistry that photothermal treatment of Alb-conjugated GNPs in liver cancer initiates Golgi apparatus-endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction with consequent caspase-3 apoptotic pathway activation and cellular apoptosis. The presented results may become a new method of treating cancer cells by selective therapeutic vectors using nanolocalized thermal ablation by laser heating.

  18. Complete Resolution of an Alveolar Echinococcosis Liver Lesion Following Percutaneous Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Koroglu, Mert Akhan, Okan; Gelen, Mustafa Tekinalp; Koroglu, Banu Kale; Yildiz, Harun; Kerman, Gonul; Oyar, Orhan

    2006-06-15

    Herein we present a 63-year-old male patient with a solid hepatic alveolar echinococcosis diagnosed by surgical biopsy. His liver lesion, which was infected, was drained by percutaneous catheterization. The lesion surprisingly disappeared completely after the treatment. The patient was followed-up without any symptoms for 20 months after the drainage. As alveolar echinococcosis of the liver behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer, the disappearance of our patient's lesion was a very unusual and rare outcome, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been published in the literature.

  19. [A case of sigmoid colon cancer liver metastasis accompanied by multiple liver abscesses].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masakazu; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Uemura, Hisashi; Okada, Kaoru; Nakane, Shigeru; Higaki, Naozumi; Hayashida, Hirohito; Oka, Yoshio; Nezu, Riichiro

    2014-11-01

    We describe the case of a patient with sigmoid colon cancer liver metastasis accompanied by multiple liver abscesses. The 59-year-old female patient presented with a fever at a body temperature of 39.0°C. On abdominal computed tomography (CT), multiple liver abscesses were detected, and percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage (PTAD) was performed. The day after the PTAD, the patient's fever subsided and her inflammatory response abated. A lower gastrointestinal examination, performed to identify the origin of her symptoms, revealed a type 1 tumor in the sigmoid colon. A biopsy indicated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Prior to surgery, a second abdominal CT scan was performed, and a single liver metastasis was detected. Laparoscopic sigmoidectomy and partial liver resection were simultaneously performed. The histopathological diagnosis of the colon cancer was tub2, pN1, pH1, P0, ly1, v1, stage IV. To date, the patient remains free from hepatic abscess and colon cancer recurrence. Gastrointestinal examinations should be performed as early as possible to identify the cause of hepatic abscesses. Moreover, therapeutic decisions should only be made after imaging and examinations have been performed, which will be sufficient to identify the presence of liver metastases.

  20. [Multi-modarity treatment for colon liver metastases using biliary stent-report of a case].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kensuke; Kitagawa, Dai; Nakamura, Toshihiko; Shohji, Fumihiro; Kabashima, Akira; Teramoto, Seiichi; Funahashi, Wataru; Kitamura, Masayuki

    2013-11-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old male patient with diagnoses of sigmoid colon cancer, ascending colon cancer, and metastatic liver cancer. We performed sigmoidectomy, right hemicolectomy, and central venous port placement. Because the liver metastasis was multifocal, chemotherapy was first initiated and then hepatic resection was performed. However, during chemotherapy, ileus, with a peritoneal dissemination to the small intestine, developed. Small intestine resection and radiation therapy to the pelvic region of the transition were further performed. Thereafter, obstructive jaundice due to obstruction of the bile duct in the hilar area developed, and therefore, we inserted a biliary stent. However, 2 years 9 months after the first medical examination, this patient died of colon cancer. The guidelines above, still chemotherapy developed, treatment policy of recurrent colorectal cancer, have recommended surgical resection with respect to what resectable as local therapy. This case shows that combination therapy with chemotherapy, surgical therapy, radiation therapy, and local therapy such as biliary stenting, is useful.

  1. Biology and clinical implications of CD133{sup +} liver cancer stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Stephanie

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, accounting for 80%–90% of all liver cancers. The disease ranks as the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is the third leading cause of all cancer-associated deaths. Although advances in HCC detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of a cure at early stages of the disease, HCC remains largely incurable because of late presentation and tumor recurrence. Only 25% of HCC patients are deemed suitable for curative treatment, with the overall survival at just a few months for inoperable patients. Apart from surgical resection, loco-regional ablation and liver transplantation, current treatment protocols include conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. But due to the highly resistant nature of the disease, the efficacy of the latter regimen is limited. The recent emergence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept lends insight into the explanation of why treatment with chemotherapy often may seem to be initially successful but results in not only a failure to eradicate the tumor but also possibly tumor relapse. Commonly used anti-cancer drugs in HCC work by targeting the rapidly proliferating and differentiated liver cancer cells that constitute the bulk of the tumor. However, a subset of CSCs exists within the tumor, which are more resistant and are able to survive and maintain residence after treatment, thus, growing and self-renewing to generate the development and spread of recurrent tumors in HCC. In the past few years, compelling evidence has emerged in support of the hierarchic CSC model for solid tumors, including HCC. And in particular, CD133 has drawn significant attention as a critical liver CSC marker. Understanding the characteristics and function of CD133{sup +} liver CSCs has also shed light on HCC management and treatment, including the implications for prognosis, prediction and treatment resistance. In this review, a detailed summary of the recent progress

  2. Portal venous gas following chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zalinski, S; Scatton, O; Jacqmin, S; Tacher, V; Brézault, C; Soubrane, O

    2009-05-01

    The standard of care for patients with colorectal liver metastases is a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. New chemotherapy regimens with biologic agents (cetuximab, bevacizumab) have been shown to increase tumor response rates. Although this might be beneficial and this is an expected endpoint, it should be noted that patients with synchronous colorectal and liver metastases are at risk of septic complications. We recently encountered a case of hepatic portal venous gas after two cycles of chemotherapy in a patient with right colon cancer liver metastases. Complete necrosis of the liver metastasis subsequently turned into a liver abscess, which fistulized in the right portal vein. Infection of the necrotized metastasis was thought to be promoted by the colic tumor. Although this is a dramatic situation, it does not contraindicate a curative surgical resection.

  3. MBD3 inhibits formation of liver cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruizhi; He, Qihua; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Liu, Jinwen; Su, Ming; Wei, Shiruo; Wang, Xuan; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer cells can be reprogrammed into induced cancer stem cells (iCSCs) by exogenous expression of the reprogramming transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (OSKM). The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex is essential for reprogramming somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the function of NuRD in the induction of liver CSCs. We showed that suppression of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3 (MBD3), a core subunit of the NuRD repressor complex, together with OSKM transduction, induces conversion of liver cancer cells into stem-like cells. Expression of the transcription factor c-JUN is increased in MBD3-depleted iCSCs, and c-JUN activates endogenous pluripotent genes and regulates iCSC-related genes. These results indicate that MBD3/NuRD inhibits the induction of iCSCs, while c-JUN facilitates the generation of CSC-like properties. The iCSC reprogramming approach devised here provides a novel platform for dissection of the disordered signaling in liver CSCs. In addition, our results indicate that c-JUN may serve as a potential target for liver cancer therapy. PMID:27894081

  4. Epigenetic silencing of glutaminase 2 in human liver and colon cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutaminase 2 (Gls2) is a p53 target gene and is known to play an important role in energy metabolism. Gls2 has been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for its downregulation is still unclear. Here, we investigated Gls2 expression and its promoter methylation status in human liver and colon cancers. Methods mRNA expression of Gls2 was determined in human liver and colon cancer cell lines and HCC tissues by real-time PCR and promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and validated by bisulfite genome sequencing (BGS). Cell growth was determined by colony formation assay and MTS assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs test or non-parametric t test. Results First, we observed reduced Gls2 mRNA level in a selected group of liver and colon cancer cell lines and in the cancerous tissues from 20 HCC and 5 human colon cancer patients in comparison to their non-cancerous counter parts. Importantly, the lower level of Gls2 in cancer cells was closely correlated to its promoter hypermethylation; and chemical demethylation treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Aza) increased Gls2 mRNA level in both liver and colon cancer cells, indicating that direct epigenetic silencing suppressed Gls2 expression by methylation. Next, we further examined this correlation in human HCC tissues, and 60% of primary liver tumor tissues had higher DNA methylation levels when compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Detailed methylation analysis of 23 CpG sites at a 300-bp promoter region by bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed its methylation. Finally, we examined the biological function of Gls2 and found that restoring Gls2 expression in cancer cells significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and colony formation ability through induction of cell cycle arrest. Conclusions We provide evidence showing that epigenetic silencing of Gls2 via promoter

  5. What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Eye Cancer? For many people with eye cancer, treatment ... manage them. Follow-up after treatment of uveal (eye) melanoma Your doctor will most likely want to ...

  6. Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rat livers sensitize colon cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, E; Chen, J; Ouyang, N; Wang, M; Exton, M S; Heemann, U

    2001-05-04

    Metastasis of colorectal carcinomas rarely occurs in cirrhotic livers. Our study investigated the influence of activated Kupffer cells from cirrhotic rat livers on hepatic colonization and FasR-mediated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. A rat colon cancer cell line, RCN-9, was used to inoculate rat livers. Treatment with conditioned media of Kupffer cells isolated from CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rat livers (cirrhotic KCM) significantly reduced the incidence of hepatic colonization of RCN-9 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) on RCN-9 cells was evaluated using [(3)H]-release assay. RCN-9 cells were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by cirrhotic Kupffer cells, but were sensitized to TIL-mediated killing after treatment with cirrhotic KCM. The specific killing induced by TILs was FasR-mediated, as it was inhibited by ZB4, an antagonistic anti-FasR antibody. In agreement, cirrhotic KCM increased recombinant Fas ligand-induced apoptosis of RCN-9 cells, and up-regulated FasR expression on RCN-9 cells as evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells in cirrhotic livers sensitize metastatic colon cancer cells to FasR-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating the receptors, which thus prepare them to be eliminated by infiltrating lymphocytes.

  7. Obesity, autophagy and the pathogenesis of liver and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Aghajan, Mariam; Li, Ning; Karin, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Liver and pancreatic cancers are both highly lethal diseases with limited to no therapeutic options for patients. Recent studies suggest that deregulated autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases by perturbing cellular homeostasis and laying the foundation for disease development. While accumulation of p62 upon impaired autophagy has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma, its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains less clear. This review will focus on recent studies illustrating the role of autophagy in liver and pancreatic cancers. The relationships between autophagy, nuclear factor-κB signaling and obesity in hepatocellular carcinoma will be discussed, as well as the dual role of autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Comprehensive genome sequencing of the liver cancer genome.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recently, comprehensive whole genome and exome sequencing analyses for HCC revealed new cancer-associated genes and a variety of genomic alterations. In particular, frequent genetic alterations of the chromatin remodeling genes were observed, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target for HCC. Sequencing analysis has further identified the molecular complexities of multicentric lesions and intratumoral heterogeneity. Detailed analyses of the somatic substitution pattern of the cancer genome and the HBV virus genome integration sites by using whole-genome sequencing will elucidate the molecular basis and diverse etiological factors involved in liver cancer development.

  9. Chemoembolization Using Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Liver Metastases From Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-10

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes , or other places in the body). Whether ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads ...

  11. Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes , or other places in the body). Whether ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads ...

  12. Mechanism of action of novel piperazine containing a toxicant against human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, MS; Haerian, Batoul Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potential of a novel piperazine derivative (PCC) against human liver cancer cells. SNU-475 and 423 human liver cancer cell lines were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on liver cancer cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 µM and 7.76 ± 0.45 µM against SNU-475 and SNU-423 respectively after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. Results of this study suggest that PCC is a potent anti-cancer agent inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. PMID:27019772

  13. Safety and efficacy of FOLFOX followed by cetuximab for metastatic colorectal cancer with severe liver dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsoueidi, Raymond; Craig, Jessica; Mourad, Hesham; Richa, Elie M

    2014-02-01

    Both 5-FU and oxaliplatin have been used as single agents in patients with colorectal cancer and severe liver dysfunction, but the combination of these drugs has not yet been investigated. A 67-year-old man diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2008 presented in April 2011 to Appalachian Regional Healthcare Cancer Center with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Imaging studies were compatible with a liver mass and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. A liver biopsy confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer. Because his total bilirubin level was 23.1 mg/dL, a percutaneous catheter was placed in May 2011. His total bilirubin level decreased to 5.9 mg/dL, but then increased to 9.4 mg/dL in June 2011. He was started on a FOLFOX regimen, with a 50% dose reduction of 5-FU bolus (200 mg/m(2)) and continuous infusion (1200 mg/m(2)) over 46 hours, and a 15% dose reduction of oxaliplatin (75 mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks. He tolerated this regimen very well, with normalization of his bilirubin level, a significant decrease in his tumor markers, and a partial response seen on PET/CT scan. His only significant toxicity was a grade 2 stomatitis. He received 21 cycles of FOLFOX, and was later switched to cetuximab treatment after disease progression. These findings suggest that FOLFOX might be effective in metastatic colon cancer with severe liver dysfunction, with minimal toxicity, and deserves further investigation.

  14. Hepatic resection beyond barcelona clinic liver cancer indication: When and how

    PubMed Central

    Garancini, Mattia; Pinotti, Enrico; Nespoli, Stefano; Romano, Fabrizio; Gianotti, Luca; Giardini, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main common primary tumour of the liver and it is usually associated with cirrhosis. The barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) classification has been approved as guidance for HCC treatment algorithms by the European Association for the Study of Liver and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. According to this algorithm, hepatic resection should be performed only in patients with small single tumours of 2-3 cm without signs of portal hypertension (PHT) or hyperbilirubinemia. BCLC classification has been criticised and many studies have shown that multiple tumors and large tumors, as wide as those with macrovascular infiltration and PHT, could benefit from liver resection. Consequently, treatment guidelines should be revised and patients with intermediate/advanced stage HCC, when technically resectable, should receive the opportunity to be treated with radical surgical treatment. Nevertheless, the surgical treatment of HCC on cirrhosis is complex: The goal to be oncologically radical has always to be balanced with the necessity to minimize organ damage. The aim of this review was to analyze when and how liver resection could be indicated beyond BCLC indication. In particular, the role of multidisciplinary approach to assure a proper indication, of the intraoperative ultrasound for intra-operative restaging and resection guidance and of laparoscopy to minimize surgical trauma have been enhanced. PMID:27099652

  15. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  16. Quercetin nanoparticles display antitumor activity via proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke-Wei; Li, Ya-Hua; Wu, Gang; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Lu, Hui-Bin; Li, Zong-Ming; Han, Xin-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a potent cancer therapeutic agent and dietary antioxidant present in fruit and vegetables. Quercetin prevents tumor proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and is a well known cancer therapeutic agent and autophagy mediator. Recent studies showed that drug delivery by nanoparticles have enhanced efficacy with reduced side effects. In this regard, gold-quercetin into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was examined. In this study, we explored the role and possible underlying mechanisms of quercetin nanoparticle in regulation of antitumor activity in liver cancer cells. Treatment with quercetin nanoparticle effectively inhibited the liver cancer cell proliferation, cell migration and colony formation, thus suppressing liver cancer progression. Quercetin nanoparticle also upregulated apoptosis markedly. Further study suggested that quercetin nanoparticle accelerated the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and induced the up-releasing of cytochrome c (Cyto-c), contributing to apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Quercetin nanoparticles also promoted telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) inhibition through reducing AP-2β expression and decreasing its binding to hTERT promoter. In addition, quercetin nanoparticle had an inhibitory role in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) via suppressing the NF-κB nuclear translocation and its binding to COX-2 promoter. Quercetin nanoparticle also inactivated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggested that quercetin nanoparticle had an antitumor effect by inactivating caspase/Cyto-c pathway, suppressing AP-2β/hTERT, inhibiting NF-κB/COX-2 and impeding Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our results provided new mechanistic basis for further investigation of quercetin nanoparticles to find potential therapeutic strategies and possible targets for liver cancer inhibition.

  17. Resection after preoperative chemotherapy versus synchronous liver resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chan W.; Lee, Jong L.; Yoon, Yong S.; Park, In J.; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang S.; Kim, Tae W.; Kim, Jin C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine the prognostic effects of preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CLM). We retrospectively evaluated 2 groups of patients between January 2006 and August 2012. A total of 53 patients who had ≥3 hepatic metastases underwent resection after preoperative chemotherapy (preoperative chemotherapy group), whereas 96 patients who had ≥3 hepatic metastases underwent resection with a curative intent before chemotherapy for CLM (primary resection group). A propensity score (PS) model was used to compare the both groups. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 31.7% and 20.4% in the preoperative chemotherapy and primary resection groups, respectively (log-rank = 0.015). Analyzing 32 PS matched pairs, we found that the DFS rate was significantly higher in the preoperative chemotherapy group than in the primary resection group (3-year DFS rates were 34.2% and 16.8%, respectively [log-rank = 0.019]). Preoperative chemotherapy group patients had better DFSs than primary resection group patients in various multivariate analyses, including crude, multivariable, average treatment effect with inverse probability of treatment weighting model and PS matching. Responses to chemotherapy are as important as achieving complete resection in cases of multiple hepatic metastases. Preoperative chemotherapy may therefore be preferentially considered for patients who experience difficulty undergoing complete resection for multiple hepatic metastases. PMID:28207557

  18. Levetiracetam in the Treatment of Epileptic Seizures After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Chao-Long; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Nai-Ching; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-09-01

    After liver transplantation, patients may develop seizures or epilepsy due to a variety of etiologies. The ideal antiepileptic drugs for these patients are those with fewer drug interactions and less hepatic toxicity. In this study, we present patients using levetiracetam to control seizures after liver transplantation. We retrospectively enrolled patients who received levetiracetam for seizure control after liver transplantation. We analyzed the etiology of liver failure that required liver transplantation, etiology of the seizures, outcomes of seizure control, and the condition of the patient after follow-up at the outpatient department. Hematological and biochemical data before and after the use of levetiracetam were also collected. Fifteen patients who received intravenous or oral levetiracetam monotherapy for seizure control after liver transplantation were enrolled into this study. All of the patients remained seizure-free during levetiracetam treatment. Two patients died during the follow-up, and the other 13 patients were alive at the end of the study period and all were seizure-free without neurological sequelae that interfered with their daily activities. No patients experienced liver failure or rejection of the donor liver due to ineffective immunosuppressant medications. The dosage of immunosuppressants did not change before and after levetiracetam treatment, and there were no changes in hematological and biochemical data before and after treatment. Levetiracetam may be a suitable antiepileptic drug for patients who undergo liver transplantation due to fewer drug interactions and a favorable safety profile.

  19. Codelivery of doxorubicin and curcumin with lipid nanoparticles results in improved efficacy of chemotherapy in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Chen, Qi; Liu, Wei; Li, Yusang; Tang, Hebin; Liu, Xuhan; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The combination therapy of cytotoxic and chemosensitizing agents loaded in nanoparticles has been highlighted as an effective treatment for different cancers. However, such studies in liver cancer remain very limited. In our study, we aim to develop a novel lipid nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) (an effective drug for liver cancer) and curcumin (Cur) (a chemosensitizer) simultaneously, and we examined the efficacy of chemotherapy in liver cancer. DOX and Cur codelivery lipid nanoparticles (DOX/Cur-NPs) were successfully prepared using a high-pressure microfluidics technique, showing a mean particle size of around 90 nm, a polydispersity index <0.3, and a zeta potential <−10 mV. The encapsulation efficacy was >90% for both DOX and Cur. The blank lipid nanoparticles were nontoxic, as determined by a cell cytotoxicity study in human normal liver cells L02 and liver cancer cells HepG2. In vitro DOX release studies revealed a sustained-release pattern until 48 hours in DOX/Cur-NPs. We found enhanced cytotoxicity and decreased inhibitory concentration (IC)50 in HepG2 cells and reduced cytotoxicity in L02 cells treated with DOX/Cur-NPs, suggesting the synergistic effects of DOX/Cur-NPs compared with free DOX and DOX nanoparticles (NPs). The optimal weight ratio of DOX and Cur was 1:1. Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining showed enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells treated with DOX/Cur-NPs compared with free DOX and DOX-NPs. An in vivo experiment showed the synergistic effect of DOX/Cur-NPs compared with DOX-NPs on liver tumor growth inhibition. Taken together, the simultaneous delivery of DOX and Cur by DOX/Cur-NPs might be a promising treatment for liver cancer. PMID:25565818

  20. Inhibition of diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer in rats by Rhizoma paridis saponin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Man, Shuli; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Xin; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-09-01

    Rhizoma Paridis saponin (RPS) had been regarded as the main active components responsible for the anti-tumor effects of the herb Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz. In the present research, we set up a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatoma to evaluate antitumor effect of RPS. After 20 weeks treatment, rats were sacrificed to perform histopathological examinations, liver function tests, oxidative stress assays and so forth. As a result, DEN-induced hepatoma formation. RPS alleviated levels of liver injury through inhibiting liver tissues of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) formation, increasing superoxide dismutases (SOD) production, and up-regulating expression of GST-α/μ/π in DEN-induced rats. All in all, RPS would be a potent agent inhibiting chemically induced liver cancer in the prospective application.

  1. Erythema, papules, and arthralgia associated with liver cancer: report of a rare case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Mei, Jun-Hua; Xia, Jin; Hao, Quan-Shui; Cheng, Li-Ping; Wu, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) associated with liver carcinoma. A 36-year-old man who had been diagnosed as having liver carcinoma for 2 years presented with a 2-month history of multiple papulonodules on the face, ears, neck, and upper chest, accompanied by progressive polyarthralgia of the hands, wrists, elbows and knee joints without fever or chills. Skin histology revealed well defined dermal infiltrate consisting of multinucleated giant cells and macrophages having abundant eosinophilic finely granular cytoplasm with ground glass appearance. Further immunohistochemical studies characterized the lesions as positive for CD68, CD45 and Vimentin. A diagnosis of MRH that was associated with liver cancer was made. Treatment with prednisolone for 2 months resulted in a significant improvement of the skin and joint symptoms, but was discontinued due to his significant enlargement and extensive metastases of the liver carcinoma. PMID:26045857

  2. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  3. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  4. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  5. Streptococcus intermedius liver abscesses and colon cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J J; McKendrick, A I; Drelichman, V S

    2005-10-01

    Certain species of bacteria are known to be associated with colorectal cancer. We report a case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with bacteraemia and liver abscesses due to Streptococcus intermedius. The isolation of this organism should prompt investigation for colorectal neoplasm, which may be present but asymptomatic, without metastases, and therefore at a curative stage.

  6. Survey of thorotrast-associated liver cancers in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Hosoda, S.; Tateno, H.; Kido, C.; Takahashi, S.

    1983-01-01

    Data on 93 autopsy cases (group A) of thorotrast-associated liver cancers were obtained from the Annual of Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1958 to 1979, and data on 78 autopsy cases (group B) of thorotrast-associated liver cancers were obtained from the Japanese literature from 1953 to 1980. Cholangiocarcinoma (CLC) constituted 58% of group A and 55% of group B. The curve of the cumulative numbers of patients with CLC versus year in group A was almost linear, showing an increasing risk per surviving patients with advancing time. Angiosarcoma (AGS) occurred in 25% of group A and 24% of group B. The number of patients with AGS increased significantly after 1969 in both groups (P less than 0.05). In group B, age and years after thorotrast injection of patients with AGS were statistically higher than those of patients with CLC (age: P less than 0.05; years after thorotrast injection: P less than 0.0001). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HPC) accounted for 17 and 21% of groups A and B, respectively. When yearly distribution, age, and time after thorotrast injection of patients with HPC were correlated with those of patients with other liver cancers, the only statistically significant difference between patients with HPC and patients with CLC (P less than 0.02) was in the years after thorotrast administration. Since 1977 multiple primary liver cancers including AGS developed in thorotrast-administered patients in both groups.

  7. Microsphere priming facilitates induction of potent therapeutic T-cell immune responses against autochthonous liver cancers.

    PubMed

    Brinkhoff, Benjamin; Ostroumov, Dmitrij; Heemcke, Jessica; Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Manns, Michael P; Longerich, Thomas; Zender, Lars; Harty, John T; Kubicka, Stefan; Kühnel, Florian; Wirth, Thomas C

    2014-04-01

    Immunotherapy of solid tumors is often hampered by the low frequency of tumor-specific T cells elicited by current vaccination strategies. Here, we describe a prime-boost vaccination protocol based on the administration of antigen conjugated to poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres followed by booster vaccination with Listeria monocytogenes vectors, which rapidly generates potent immune responses within two weeks. Compared with conventional vaccination with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells, the use of PLGA microspheres resulted in immune responses of significantly higher magnitude, which could be further enhanced via coinjection of TLR 3 agonists. In an immunocompetent model of subcutaneous hepatocellular carcinoma, PLGA/Listeria vaccination resulted in complete remission of established tumors and prolonged survival. To further test the efficacy of the novel vaccination for the treatment of solid tumors, we developed an orthotopic liver cancer model based on the injection of transposon-flanked plasmids expressing oncogenes and model antigens. In this transgenic mouse model of liver cancer, PLGA/Listeria vaccination resulted in eradication of liver tumors, long-term survival of animals and establishment of stable cancer-specific memory CD8(+) T-cell populations. Therefore, combined PLGA/Listeria vaccination holds promise as a novel immunotherapeutic option for the treatment of solid cancers and as a means to boost the therapeutic efficacy of established cancer vaccines.

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  9. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels ...

  10. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish . ... the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in ...

  11. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Min; Song, Yang; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xingyi; Cui, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC) in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group). IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day) were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies. PMID:27187454

  12. FIRST BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES. MODULE 1: PRE-TREATMENT EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    COIMBRA, Felipe José Fernandez; RIBEIRO, Heber Salvador de Castro; MARQUES, Márcio Carmona; HERMAN, Paulo; CHOJNIAK, Rubens; KALIL, Antonio Nocchi; WIERMANN, Evanius Garcia; CAVALLERO, Sandro Roberto de Araújo; COELHO, Fabricio Ferreira; FERNANDES, Paulo Henrique de Souza; SILVESTRINI, Anderson Arantes; ALMEIDA, Maria Fernanda Arruda; de ARAÚJO, Antônio Luis Eiras; PITOMBO, Marcos; TEIXEIRA, Heberton Medeiros; WAECHTER, Fábio Luiz; FERREIRA, Fábio Gonçalves; DINIZ, Alessandro Landskron; D'IPPOLITO, Giuseppe; BEGNAMI, Maria Dirlei F. de Sousa; PROLLA, Gabriel; BALZAN, Silvio Márcio Pegoraro; de OLIVEIRA, Thiago Bueno; SZULTAN, Luís Arnaldo; LENDOIRE, Javier; TORRES, Orlando Jorge Martins

    2015-01-01

    Background : Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are frequent and potentially fatal event in the evolution of patients with these tumors. Aim : In this module, was contextualized the clinical situations and parameterized epidemiological data and results of the various treatment modalities established. Method: Was realized deep discussion on detecting and staging metastatic colorectal cancer, as well as employment of imaging methods in the evaluation of response to instituted systemic therapy. Results : The next step was based on the definition of which patients would have their metastases considered resectable and how to expand the amount of patients elegible for modalities with curative intent. Conclusion : Were presented clinical, pathological and molecular prognostic factors, validated to be taken into account in clinical practice. PMID:26734788

  13. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, T.S.; Robertson, J.M.; Anscher, M.S.

    1995-03-30

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. There has been a renewed interest in hepatic irradiation because of two significant advances in cancer treatment; three dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning and bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation. RILD resulting from liver radiation can usually be distinguished clinically from the resulting from the preparative regime associated with bone marrow transplantation. However, both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion; veno-occlusive disease. Recent evidence suggests that elevated transforming growth factor {beta} levels may play a role in the development of veno-occlusive disease. Three dimensional treatment planning offers the potential to determine the radiation dose and volume dependence of RILD, permitting the safe delivery of high doses of radiation to parts of the liver. The chief therapy for RILD is diuretics, although some advocate steroids of severe cases. The characteristics of RILD permit the development of a grading system modeled after the NCI Acute Common Toxicity Criteria, which incorporates standard criteria of hepatic dysfunction. 64 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in patients with liver metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).

    PubMed

    Kałużna, Małgorzata; Gołąb, Monika; Czepczyński, Rafał; Dworacki, Grzegorz; Bręborowicz, Danuta; Orłowski, Marcin; Katulska, Katarzyna; Klimowicz, Aleksandra; Gryczyńska, Maria; Ruchała, Marek; Ziemnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common type of thyroid cancer (TC) and accounts for approximately 10% of all TC cases. Liver metastases are a rare presentation in 0.5-1% of follicular thyroid cancers, usually occurring in the setting of widely disseminated FTC disease, and their presence is associated with poor prognosis. Until now, there have been only 30 cases of FTC liver metastases described in the literature. Herein, we review publications and describe diagnostic tools that may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of FTC metastases to the liver, including biopsy and imaging techniques like US, CT, MRI, SPECT, PET, and radioiodine scintigraphy. We also present and discuss current methods of treatment, e.g. TSH suppressive therapy with levothyroxine, surgery, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), transarterial embolisation (TAE), liver transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE), chemotherapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin, treatment with Indium- 111-octreotide (or its analogues), and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (sorafenib, sunitinib). At the end we describe the course, results of diagnostics, and treatment in a patient with large multiple FTC metastases to the liver. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (3): 332-347).

  15. [Treatment of hepatitis C before and after liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Llovet, Laura-Patricia; Rodríguez-Tajes, Sergio; Londoño, María-Carlota

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation is universal and increases morbidity and mortality in these patients. The development of new direct antiviral agents against the hepatitis C virus is a major treatment advance. Pre-transplant treatment avoids graft infection and sometimes improves liver function, allowing the patient to be withdrawn from the transplant waiting list. Delaying treatment until the postpostransplant period may be advisable in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Generally, antiviral therapy after liver transplantation is provided in patients with histological evidence of the disease. In these patients, treatment is more effective in the initial stages of the disease. The choice of antiviral therapy in these patients is based on the degree of liver function, the presence of renal failure, and potential drug-drug interactions.

  16. Discrimination of liver cancer in cellular level based on backscatter micro-spectrum with PCA algorithm and BP neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Gan; Dong, Xiaona

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of the primary liver cancer are very high and its postoperative metastasis and recurrence have become important factors to the prognosis of patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTC), as a new tumor marker, play important roles in the early diagnosis and individualized treatment. This paper presents an effective method to distinguish liver cancer based on the cellular scattering spectrum, which is a non-fluorescence technique based on the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. Combining the principal component analysis (PCA) with back propagation (BP) neural network were utilized to establish an automatic recognition model for backscatter spectrum of the liver cancer cells from blood cell. PCA was applied to reduce the dimension of the scattering spectral data which obtained by the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. After dimensionality reduction by PCA, a neural network pattern recognition model with 2 input layer nodes, 11 hidden layer nodes, 3 output nodes was established. We trained the network with 66 samples and also tested it. Results showed that the recognition rate of the three types of cells is more than 90%, the relative standard deviation is only 2.36%. The experimental results showed that the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer combining with the algorithm of PCA and BP neural network can automatically identify the liver cancer cell from the blood cells. This will provide a better tool for investigating the metastasis of liver cancers in vivo, the biology metabolic characteristics of liver cancers and drug transportation. Additionally, it is obviously referential in practical application.

  17. [Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumors].

    PubMed

    Elias, D; De Baere, T

    2001-04-01

    Radiofrequency is performed with thin electrodes that are placed in the center of a tumor under ultrasonographic guidance. Radiofrequency waves induce ionic agitation which destroys neighboring tissues by heat. The most recent equipment can produce necrosis of 4-cm diameter areas. Efficacy is enhanced by blocking intrahepatic blood flow which naturally refreshes the liver parenchyma. The technique has the advantage of minimal invasion and of sparing liver parenchymal tissue. radiofrequency can be performed percutaneously or by laparoscopi or laparotomy. results in most reported series have been good with low morbidity. rapid improvment of material and of new associated procedures (vascular clamping, cooling infusion of the bile ducts, transplaeurodiaphragmatic approach, combination with other new approaches in liver surgery) are continuously modifying performance levels and potential indications curently under validation. radiofrequency, like other tools for local tumor destruction, will greatly change our therapeutic strategies in the neat future.

  18. Plasma for cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidar, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that grew from research in application of low-temperature (or cold) atmospheric plasmas in bioengineering. One of the most promising applications of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is cancer therapy. Convincing evidence of CAP selectivity towards the cancer cells has been accumulated. This review summarizes the state of the art of this emerging field, presenting various aspects of CAP application in cancer such as the role of reactive species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen), cell cycle modification, in vivo application, CAP interaction with cancer cells in conjunction with nanoparticles, and computational oncology applied to CAP.

  19. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  20. Dietary factors can protect against liver cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Koumbi, Lemonica

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. Most HCC patients are also suffering from chronic liver disease (CLD). Evidence is emerging that the composition of diet plays an important role in HCC and CLD development and may also have a chemoprotective role. In contrast to other types of cancer, there are few studies investigating the role of diet in hepatocarcinogenesis. From the available data it is evident that high intakes of red meat and dietary sugar positively correlate with HCC occurrence. On the contrary, high consumption of white meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and cereals are inversely associated with HCC risk. This letter discusses the potential role of dietary interventions in the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis. The increasing HCC incidence and its high fatality are making HCC prevention an urgent matter. Dietary modifications are found to offer protection against HCC, however, new studies from well-designed and large prospective trials are required to confirm these results. PMID:28217247

  1. Gene Expression Patterns in Human Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Cheung, Siu Tim; So, Samuel; Fan, Sheung Tat; Barry, Christopher; Higgins, John; Lai, Kin-Man; Ji, Jiafu; Dudoit, Sandrine; Ng, Irene O.L.; van de Rijn, Matt; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Using cDNA microarrays to characterize patterns of gene expression in HCC, we found consistent differences between the expression patterns in HCC compared with those seen in nontumor liver tissues. The expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguished from those associated with tumors metastatic to liver. The global gene expression patterns intrinsic to each tumor were sufficiently distinctive that multiple tumor nodules from the same patient could usually be recognized and distinguished from all the others in the large sample set on the basis of their gene expression patterns alone. The distinctive gene expression patterns are characteristic of the tumors and not the patient; the expression programs seen in clonally independent tumor nodules in the same patient were no more similar than those in tumors from different patients. Moreover, clonally related tumor masses that showed distinct expression profiles were also distinguished by genotypic differences. Some features of the gene expression patterns were associated with specific phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the tumors, including growth rate, vascular invasion, and p53 overexpression. PMID:12058060

  2. Shizukaol D, a Dimeric Sesquiterpene Isolated from Chloranthus serratus, Represses the Growth of Human Liver Cancer Cells by Modulating Wnt Signalling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lisha; Zhu, Hengrui; Yang, Xianmei; Xie, Fang; Peng, Jingtao; Jiang, Deke; Xie, Jun; Qi, Meiyan; Yu, Long

    2016-01-01

    Natural products have become sources of developing new drugs for the treatment of cancer. To seek candidate compounds that inhibit the growth of liver cancer, components of Chloranthus serratus were tested. Here, we report that shizukaol D, a dimeric sesquiterpene from Chloranthus serratus, exerted a growth inhibition effect on liver cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We demonstrated that shizukaol D induced cells to undergo apoptosis. More importantly, shizukaol D attenuated Wnt signalling and reduced the expression of endogenous Wnt target genes, which resulted in decreased expression of β-catenin. Collectively, this study demonstrated that shizukaol D inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by modulating Wnt pathway.

  3. Pseudocirrhosis caused by regorafenib in an advanced rectal cancer patient with multiple liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Kensuke; Endo, Shungo; Isohata, Noriyuki; Nirei, Azuma; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Saito, Takuro; Togashi, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    A 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with unresectable advanced rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases, received oxaliplatin-based treatment with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy and irinotecan-based treatment with bevacizumab as second-line chemotherapy for a total of 17 months. The patient was treated with regorafenib (160 mg/day for 3 weeks) as third-line chemotherapy. Following completion of one course of regorafenib treatment, the patient complained of abdominal distension. Computed tomography (CT) examination identified liver atrophy and massive ascites, while no such symptoms were observed prior to the regorafenib treatment. Blood testing revealed increases in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. The patient was admitted to the Aizu Medical Center (Aizuwakamatsu, Japan). Approximately 2,000 ml of ascitic fluid were aspirated daily for 1 week by abdominal puncture. The patient was administered oral diuretics, including 20 mg/day of furosemide and 25 mg/day of spironolactone. Albumin was administered to correct the albumin deficit. The levels of AST, ALT and ALP were decreased from the peak value reported on admission and the patient was discharged from our hospital 16 days following treatment initiation. The CT examination after 1 month revealed that the volume of the liver had been restored and the ascites had disappeared. Furthermore, almost all the liver metastases were reduced in size. The carcinoembryonic antigen level, which was elevated prior to regorafenib treatment, also decreased to normal. PMID:28123730

  4. Pseudocirrhosis caused by regorafenib in an advanced rectal cancer patient with multiple liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Kensuke; Endo, Shungo; Isohata, Noriyuki; Nirei, Azuma; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Saito, Takuro; Togashi, Kazutomo

    2017-01-01

    A 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with unresectable advanced rectal cancer with multiple liver metastases, received oxaliplatin-based treatment with bevacizumab as first-line chemotherapy and irinotecan-based treatment with bevacizumab as second-line chemotherapy for a total of 17 months. The patient was treated with regorafenib (160 mg/day for 3 weeks) as third-line chemotherapy. Following completion of one course of regorafenib treatment, the patient complained of abdominal distension. Computed tomography (CT) examination identified liver atrophy and massive ascites, while no such symptoms were observed prior to the regorafenib treatment. Blood testing revealed increases in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. The patient was admitted to the Aizu Medical Center (Aizuwakamatsu, Japan). Approximately 2,000 ml of ascitic fluid were aspirated daily for 1 week by abdominal puncture. The patient was administered oral diuretics, including 20 mg/day of furosemide and 25 mg/day of spironolactone. Albumin was administered to correct the albumin deficit. The levels of AST, ALT and ALP were decreased from the peak value reported on admission and the patient was discharged from our hospital 16 days following treatment initiation. The CT examination after 1 month revealed that the volume of the liver had been restored and the ascites had disappeared. Furthermore, almost all the liver metastases were reduced in size. The carcinoembryonic antigen level, which was elevated prior to regorafenib treatment, also decreased to normal.

  5. Treatment Experience of Severe Abdominal Infection after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-G; Wu, J-S; Jiang, B; Wang, J-H; Liu, C-P; Peng, C; Tian, B-Z

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the causes and treatment experience of severe abdominal infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Clinical data were retrospectively analysed in perioperative severe abdominal infection of 186 orthotopic liver transplantation cases from March 2004 to November 2011. Among the 186 patients, 16 cases had severe abdominal infection: five cases had bile duct anastomotic leakage-inducing massive hydrops and infection under liver interstice, 10 cases had extensive bleeding of surgical wound leading to massive haematocele and infection around the liver, and one case had postoperative lower oesophageal fistula leakage causing massive hydrops and infection under the left diaphragm. After definite diagnosis, 12 cases underwent surgery within three days, with no death. Among the four cases that underwent surgery three days after diagnosis, one case died of multiple-organ failure five days after abdominal cavity exploration, which was performed 21 days after liver transplantation. Severe abdominal infections after liver transplantation were the most common causes of death in perioperative liver transplantation. Comprehensive treatment with efficacious antibiotics, multiple-organ support, controlled surgical removal of the lesion, and adequate drainage establishment was the key to the entire treatment.

  6. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  8. Radiographically occult intrasinusoidal liver metastases leading to hepatic failure in a case of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Seema; Khurana, Sachin; Shet, Tanuja; Gupta, Sudeep

    2016-02-15

    The liver is one of the commonest sites of metastatic involvement in breast cancer, usually evident as focal lesions on imaging tests. Rarely, the pattern of metastatic spread is so diffuse that it remains radiologically occult. Such patients usually present with signs of hepatic insufficiency without any focal lesions on liver imaging. In such cases, liver biopsy is required to make a definitive diagnosis. We report a case of a 56-year-old postmenopausal woman with metastatic breast cancer who presented with subacute progressive liver failure. Repeated imaging of the liver was normal or non-descript. Liver biopsy finally established the diagnosis of intrasinusoidal metastases from breast cancer.

  9. Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards. PMID:19695098

  10. I BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON MULTIMODAL TREATMENT OF COLORECTAL LIVER METASTASES. MODULE 2: APPROACH TO RESECTABLE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Héber Salvador de Castro; TORRES, Orlando Jorge Martins; MARQUES, Márcio Carmona; HERMAN, Paulo; KALIL, Antonio Nocchi; FERNANDES, Eduardo de Souza Martins; de OLIVEIRA, Fábio Ferreira; CASTRO, Leonaldson dos Santos; HANRIOT, Rodrigo; OLIVEIRA, Suilane Coelho Ribeiro; BOFF, Marcio Fernando; da COSTA, Wilson Luiz; GIL, Roberto de Almeida; PFIFFER, Tulio Eduardo Flesch; MAKDISSI, Fabio Ferrari; ROCHA, Manoel de Souza; do AMARAL, Paulo Cezar Galvão; COSTA, Leonardo Atem Gonçalves de Araújo; ALOIA, Tomas A.; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; COIMBRA, Felipe José Fernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver metastases of colorectal cancer are frequent and potentially fatal event in the evolution of patients. Aim: In the second module of this consensus, management of resectable liver metastases was discussed. Method: Concept of synchronous and metachronous metastases was determined, and both scenarius were discussed separately according its prognostic and therapeutic peculiarities. Results: Special attention was given to the missing metastases due to systemic preoperative treatment response, with emphasis in strategies to avoid its reccurrence and how to manage disappeared lesions. Conclusion: Were presented validated ressectional strategies, to be taken into account in clinical practice. PMID:27120731

  11. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... when lymph nodes are not involved, called node-negative breast cancer. These shorter schedules are becoming more ... patients with a smaller, less-aggressive, and node-negative tumor. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Intensity-modulated radiation ...

  12. Prostate cancer - treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... well. Proton therapy is another kind of radiation therapy used to treat prostate cancer. Proton beams target the tumor precisely, so there is less damage to the surrounding tissue. This therapy is not widely accepted or used. Prostate Brachytherapy ...

  13. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... before they spread. How Having Cancer Increases Infection Risk As part of your immune system, your white ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  14. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat cancer: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) lasers, argon lasers, and neodymium: yttrium -aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) ... can be used with endoscopes. CO 2 and argon lasers can cut the skin’s surface without going ...

  15. Oxaliplatin-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, JUNG-HYE; WON, YOUNG-WOONG; KIM, HYUN SUNG; OH, YOUNG-HA; LIM, SANGHYEOK; KIM, HAN-JOON

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, it may cause liver injury, particularly sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Although SOS does not usually present with focal lesions on radiological images, the present study describes the case of a 22-year-old woman with oxaliplatin-induced SOS mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver. An abdominal computed tomography revealed a novel 1 cm, low-density lesion in segment 1 of the liver following the administration of the fourth round of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. Since the lesion was indistinguishable from metastasis, even with detailed imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, an isolated caudate lobectomy was planned. The cut surface of the resected liver showed a localized reddish congested lesion measuring 1.4 cm in diameter. The adjacent hepatic parenchyma also demonstrated diffuse sinusoidal congestion with a nutmeg-like appearance. Histologically, the lesion exhibited severe sinusoidal congestion with peliosis hepatis-like features. The widened sinusoidal space was outlined by markedly attenuated hepatic cords and filled with erythrocytes. The final diagnosis was oxaliplatin-induced SOS. The patient recovered completely and was relapse-free at the time of writing. PMID:27073565

  16. Laparoscopic combined colorectal and liver resections for primary colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Takorov, Ivelin; Lukanova, Tsonka; Atanasov, Boiko; Dzharov, Georgi; Djurkov, Ventzeslav; Odisseeva, Evelina; Vladov, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Synchronous liver metastases (SLMs) are found in 15-25% of patients at the time of diagnosis with colorectal cancer, which is limited to the liver in 30% of patients. Surgical resection is the most effective and potentially curative therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of the liver. The comparison of simultaneous resection of primary CRC and synchronous liver metastases with staged resections is the subject of debate with respect to morbidity. Laparoscopic surgery improves postoperative recovery, diminishes postoperative pain, reduces wound infections, shortens hospitalization, and yields superior cosmetic results, without compromising the oncological outcome. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate our initial experience with simultaneous laparoscopic resection of primary CRC and SLM. Methods Currently, laparoscopic resection of primary CRC is performed in more than 53% of all patients in our surgical department. Twenty-six patients with primary CRC and a clinical diagnosis of SLM underwent combined laparoscopic colorectal and liver surgery. Six of them underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection combined with major laparoscopic liver resection. Results The surgical approaches were total laparoscopic (25 patients) or hybrid technique (1 patients). The incision created for the extraction of the specimen varied between 5 and 8cm. The median operation time was 223 minutes (100 to 415 min.) with a total blood loss of 180 ml (100-300 ml). Postoperative hospital stay was 6.8 days (6-14 days). Postoperative complications were observed in 6 patients (22.2%). Conclusions Simultaneous laparoscopic colorectal and liver resection appears to be safe, feasible, and with satisfying short-term results in selected patients with CRC and SLM. PMID:28261695

  17. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Review: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aijaz; Wong, Robert J; Harrison, Stephen A

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of abnormal serum aminotransferase levels in both developed and developing countries. Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subset of NAFLD, are at risk for progressive liver disease and in need of effective treatment options. A practical approach may be pursued by identifying patients with NAFLD with the highest likelihood for histologic evidence of NASH. Despite decades of clinical trials, no single treatment can be recommended to all patients with NASH. Importantly, there is no evidence that pioglitazone or vitamin E improves fibrosis. Bariatric surgeries may improve hepatic histology in morbidly obese patients with NASH, although randomized clinical trials are lacking. Currently, NASH is the second leading etiology of liver disease among adults awaiting liver transplantation in the United States. The primary and secondary prevention of NAFLD may require aggressive strategies for managing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Non-viral causes of liver cancer: does obesity led inflammation play a role?

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Badr; Iseli, Tristan J; Hebbard, Lionel W

    2014-04-10

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for around 90% of primary liver cancers. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are two of most common causes of liver cancer. However, there are non-viral factors that are associated with liver cancer development. Numerous population studies have revealed strong links between obesity and the development of liver cancer. Obesity can alter hepatic pathology, metabolism and promote inflammation, leading to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the progression to the more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterised by prominent steatosis and inflammation, and can lead to HCC. Here, we discuss the role of obesity in inflammation and the principal signalling mechanisms involved in HCC formation.

  19. Practice guidelines for the pathological diagnosis of primary liver cancer: 2015 update

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wen-Ming; Bu, Hong; Chen, Jie; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Yu-Yao; Feng, Long-Hai; Chen, Jun; Committee, Guideline

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a panel of Chinese pathologists reported the first expert consensus for the pathological diagnosis of primary liver cancers to address the many contradictions and inconsistencies in the pathological characteristics and diagnostic criteria for PLC. Since then considerable clinicopathological studies have been conducted globally, prompting us to update the practice guidelines for the pathological diagnosis of PLC. In April 18, 2014, a Guideline Committee consisting of 40 specialists from seven Chinese Societies (including Chinese Society of Liver Cancer, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Liver Cancer Study Group, Chinese Society of Hepatology, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Digestive Disease Group, Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Surgery, Chinese Medical Association; Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology, Chinese Anti-Cancer Association; Pathological Group of Hepatobiliary Tumor and Liver Transplantation, Chinese Society of Pathology, Chinese Medical Association) was created for the formulation of the first guidelines for the standardization of the pathological diagnosis of PLC, mainly focusing on the following topics: gross specimen sampling, concepts and diagnostic criteria of small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC), microvascular invasion (MVI), satellite nodules, and immunohistochemical and molecular diagnosis. The present updated guidelines are reflective of current clinicopathological studies, and include a novel 7-point baseline sampling protocol, which stipulate that at least four tissue specimens should be sampled at the junction of the tumor and adjacent liver tissues in a 1:1 ratio at the 12, 3, 6 and 9 o’clock reference positions. For the purposes of molecular pathological examination, at least one specimen should be sampled at the intratumoral zone, but more specimens should be sampled for tumors harboring different textures or colors

  20. Somatic microsatellite variability as a predictive marker for colorectal cancer and liver cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Vaksman, Zalman; Garner, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites (MSTs) are short tandem repeated genetic motifs that comprise ~3% of the genome. MST instability (MSI), defined as acquired/lost primary alleles at a small subset of microsatellite loci (e.g. Bethesda markers), is a clinically relevant marker for colorectal cancer. However, these markers are not applicable to other types of cancers, specifically, for liver cancer which has a high mortality rate. Here we show that somatic MST variability (SMV), defined as the presence of additional, non-primary (aka minor) alleles at MST loci, is a complementary measure of MSI, and a genetic marker for colorectal and liver cancer. Re-analysis of Illumina sequenced exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas indicates that SMV may distinguish a subpopulation of African American patients with colorectal cancer, which represents ~33% of the population in this study. Further, for liver cancer, a higher rate of SMV may be indicative of an earlier age of onset. The work presented here suggests that classical MSI should be expanded to include SMV, going beyond alterations of the primary alleles at a small number of microsatellite loci. This measure of SMV may represent a potential new diagnostic for a variety of cancers and may provide new information for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25691061

  1. Clinical observation on the treatment of acute liver failure by combined non-biological artificial liver

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maoqin; Sun, Jingxi; Li, Jiaqiong; Shi, Zaixiang; Xu, Jiyuan; Lu, Bo; Cheng, Shuli; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of different combinations of non-bio artificial liver in the treatment of acute liver failure was examined. A total of 61 cases were selected under blood purification treatment from the patients with severe acute liver failure admitted to the severe disease department of the hospital from December, 2010 to December, 2015. Three types of artificial liver combinations were observed, i.e., plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion plus continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (PE+HP+CVVHDF), PE+CVVHDF and HP+CVVHDF. The heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory index (PaO2/FiO2), liver and kidney function indicator, as well as platelet and coagulation function were compared. A comparison before and after the treatment using the three methods, showed improvement in the HRs, MAPs, PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubins (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT) (P<0.05), of which TBIL and ALT were decreased more significantly (P<0.01) in the PE+CVVHDF and PE+HP+CVVHDF groups. Only changes in the PE+HP+CVVHDF and PE+CVVHDF groups were statistically significant after prothrombin time and albumin treatment (P<0.05). The difference between the decrease in TBIL in the PE+HP+CVVHDF group and that in the HP+CVVHDF group was statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment of the 61 patients using the artificial liver support system yielded a survival rate of 62.3% (38/61), and a viral survival rate of 35.0% (7/20); with the non-viral survival rate being 75.6% (31/41). In conclusion, following the treatment of three types of artificial livers, the function was improved to varying degrees, with the PE+HP+CVVHDF and the PE+CVVHDF method being better. By contrast, after the treatment of non-viral liver failure, the survival rate was significantly higher than the patients with viral liver failure. PMID:28105119

  2. Late effects of treatment of cancer in infancy

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, G.; Antonelli, R.; Fine, W.; Li, F.P.; Sallan, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Eighty-six children were diagnosed with cancer in infancy, followed for at lest 5 years, and assessed for late effects of disease and therapy. One child subsequently died from respiratory failure and 3 died from second primary cancers. Another patient survived second primary cancers of the skin. The high frequency of new cancers (4 observed, 0.09 expected) was attributable to host susceptibility factors and treatment effects. Kyphoscoliosis was diagnosed in 44 patients, 40 of whom had received radiotherapy to the spine. Other patients had neurologic deficits, pulmonary fibrosis, hypoplastic breasts, bowel adhesions, thyroid nodules, musculoskeletal defects, and liver fibrosis associated with tumor therapy. Sequelae of cancer were more common after treatment in infancy than in later childhood. Improved treatments and knowledge of natural history can reduce adverse effects of therapy.

  3. Managing synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer: a multidisciplinary international consensus.

    PubMed

    Adam, René; de Gramont, Aimery; Figueras, Joan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kunstlinger, Francis; Loyer, Evelyne; Poston, Graeme; Rougier, Philippe; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Sobrero, Alberto; Teh, Catherine; Tejpar, Sabine; Van Cutsem, Eric; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Påhlman, Lars

    2015-11-01

    An international panel of multidisciplinary experts convened to develop recommendations for managing patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (CRCLM). A modified Delphi method was used. CRCLM is defined as liver metastases detected at or before diagnosis of the primary CRC. Early and late metachronous metastases are defined as those detected ⩽12months and >12months after surgery, respectively. To provide information on potential curability, use of high-quality contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) before chemotherapy is recommended. Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly being used preoperatively to aid detection of subcentimetric metastases, and alongside CT in difficult situations. To evaluate operability, radiology should provide information on: nodule size and number, segmental localization and relationship with major vessels, response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, non-tumoral liver condition and anticipated remnant liver volume. Pathological evaluation should assess response to preoperative chemotherapy for both the primary tumour and metastases, and provide information on the tumour, margin size and micrometastases. Although the treatment strategy depends on the clinical scenario, the consensus was for chemotherapy before surgery in most cases. When the primary CRC is asymptomatic, liver surgery may be performed first (reverse approach). When CRCLM are unresectable, the goal of preoperative chemotherapy is to downsize tumours to allow resection. Hepatic resection should not be denied to patients with stable disease after optimal chemotherapy, provided an adequate liver remnant with inflow and outflow preservation remains. All patients with synchronous CRCLM should be evaluated by a hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team.

  4. Overview: Where does radiation therapy fit in the spectrum of liver cancer local-regional therapies?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Laura A

    2011-10-01

    Experience with radiation therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver metastases has increased rapidly in the past decade. This is principally because of advances in imaging and radiation techniques that can conform high doses to focal cancers and to a better understanding of how to avoid radiation-induced liver toxicity. Guidelines on how to use radiation therapy safely are becoming more clearly established, and reports of tumor control at 2 to 5 years show the potential for cure after radiation therapy for early-stage HCC and liver metastases. For both HCC and liver metastases, the best outcomes after radiation therapy are found in patients with fewer than 3 lesions that are <6 cm in size, with intact liver function and no extrahepatic metastases. There is a strong rationale for using radiation therapy in patients unsuitable for or with expected poor outcomes after standard local-regional therapies. These patients tend to have advanced tumors (large, multifocal, or invading vessels) and/or impaired liver function, reducing the chance of cure and increasing the chance of toxicity. In these patients, the benefits of radiation therapy over systemic therapy or best supportive therapy should be established in randomized trials.

  5. Treatment of addictive behaviors in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Lucey, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    Very little addiction treatment research has been done concerning smoking cessation, illicit drugs, or even alcohol abuse in liver transplant patients. Our data suggest that a surprising number of patients who are awaiting a liver transplant for alcohol-related end-stage liver disease will return to drinking before transplantation. We found that motivational enhancement therapy afforded no marked benefit over treatment as usual for drinking, smoking, mood, or general health outcomes in alcoholics awaiting liver transplantation. Stably abstinent methadone-maintained opiate-dependent patients should not be tapered off methadone; are generally good candidates for liver transplant; show low relapse rates into illicit use of opiates; and may be at risk for more medical complications than their counterparts. Pre- and posttransplantation smoking rates are high and cause marked morbidity and mortality. Transplant teams should encourage smoking cessation treatments.Marijuana use in liver transplant recipients is not uncommon, and apart from the risk of developing aspergillosis, additional health risks have not yet been identified.

  6. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  7. Nek2 siRNA therapy using a portal venous port-catheter system for liver metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kokuryo, Toshio; Hibino, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazushi; Watanabe, Katsutaka; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Nagino, Masato; Senga, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2016-09-01

    Nek2 (NIMA-related kinase 2) is a serine-threonine kinase and human homolog of the mitotic regulator NIMA of Aspergillus nidulan. We reported the efficiency of Nek2 siRNA in several cancer xenograft models using cholangiocarcinoma, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to treat due to its rapid progression and resistance to chemotherapy. Novel treatments are urgently required to improve survival in pancreatic cancer, and siRNA are a promising therapeutic option. However, finding an in vivo drug delivery system of siRNA remains a major problem for clinical application. In this study, the overexpression of Nek2 was identified in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Nek2 siRNA inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer, prolonged the survival time in an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model and efficiently prevented the progression of liver metastasis using a portal venous port-catheter system. Taken together, Nek2 is an effective therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer. An adequate delivery system is considered important in treating advanced pancreatic cancer, such as peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis. Further investigations are required on the safety and side effects of the portal venous port-catheter system. We hope that Nek2 siRNA will be a novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer with liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination.

  8. Molecular imaging in cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    The success of cancer therapy can be difficult to predict, as its efficacy is often predicated upon characteristics of the cancer, treatment, and individual that are not fully understood or are difficult to ascertain. Monitoring the response of disease to treatment is therefore essential and has traditionally been characterized by changes in tumor volume. However, in many instances, this singular measure is insufficient for predicting treatment effects on patient survival. Molecular imaging allows repeated in vivo measurement of many critical molecular features of neoplasm, such as metabolism, proliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, and apoptosis, which can be employed for monitoring therapeutic response. In this review, we examine the current methods for evaluating response to treatment and provide an overview of emerging PET molecular imaging methods that will help guide future cancer therapies. PMID:20661557

  9. Locally ablative therapies for primary and metastatic liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Madoff, David C

    2014-08-01

    Locally ablative therapies have an increasing role in the effective multidisciplinary approach towards the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. In patients who are not considered surgical candidates and have low volume disease, these therapies have now become established into consensus practice guidelines. A large range of therapeutic options exist including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), cryoablation, percutaneous laser ablation (PLA), irreversible electroporation (IRE), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU); each having benefits and drawbacks. The greatest body of evidence supporting clinical utility in the liver currently exists for RFA, with PEI having fallen out of favor. MWA, IRE, SBRT and HIFU are relatively nascent technologies, and outcomes data supporting their use is promising. Future directions of ablative therapies include tandem approaches to improve efficacy in the treatment of liver tumors.

  10. Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronic hepatitis B. For more information visit http://liver.stanford.edu » Get Vaccinated If both your HBsAg ... vaccine is so effective at preventing HBV and liver cancer that it is called “the first anti- ...

  11. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F.; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C.; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining–based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining–aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  12. Testicular Cancer Treatments: Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... are TC clean, and your first line of defense are these testing regimens. If you do all the tests, this is not a risky choice. Click on this to go back to the TCRC main page: This page was last updated on Dec 05, 2012 Copyright © 1997 - 2012 The Testicular Cancer Resource Center , All Rights Reserved

  13. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... seen at the time of the surgery, some patients may be given radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that ... palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the patient's quality of ... therapy with radiosensitizers , with or without chemotherapy . A clinical ...

  14. Tackling ageism in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Duffin, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Evidence shows that older patients are discriminated against when it comes to cancer treatment. A pilot project was commissioned by the Department of Health in partnership with Macmillan Cancer Support and Age UK. The project involved staff, including nurses, from five cancer networks in England examining ways to improve care for this patient group. Drawing on approaches used in geriatric medicine, patients' needs in accessing treatment were explored by conducting assessments and, for example, providing taxis for hospital appointments and practical support from voluntary organisations. Challenges for nurses included lack of training in patient screening and the extra workload caused by the assessments. The report on the pilot project concluded that involving elderly care specialists and using comprehensive geriatric assessments were useful approaches in the care of older cancer patients.

  15. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Labine, Meaghan A.; Green, Chris; Mak, Giselle; Xue, Lin; Nowatzki, Janet; Griffith, Jane; Minuk, Gerald Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada. PMID:26633441

  16. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  17. Dual-contrast MR imaging of liver cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-03-01

    MR contrast agents increase hepatic tumor conspicuity, as measured in terms of contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios. With an animal model of hepatic metastases from breast cancer, IV administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) shows a biphasic time response, transiently increasing the signal intensity of liver relative to tumor, with C/N ratio magnitudes increasing from -5.7 to -16.3 (SE 250/20); after a delay, the signal intensity of tumor increases relative to liver with a reversal of the C/N sign from negative to positive and an increase in the C/N magnitude to +25.0. IV administration of ferrite particles (0.05 mmol Fe/kg) shows a monophasic time response, increasing signal intensity of tumor relative to liver from +1.5 to +49.5 (SE 500/30). When both contrast agents were administered together (dual-contrast technique), the tumor-liver C/N magnitude reached a maximum of +67.8 (SE 500/30) 12 min after drug infusion. Analysis of individual contrast and noise factors contributing to this technique revealed a strong correlation between the signal intensity of liver and the signal intensity of ghost artifacts, which increase after administration of Gd-DTPA (r = .89) and decrease after administration of ferrite (r = 1.0). Dual-contrast imaging shows a synergistic addition of contrast and suppression of noise from ghost artifacts, maximizing the C/N and increasing the conspicuity of focal liver lesions.

  18. Treatment of bladder cancer. Oncology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Surgical treatment of common bladder cancers; Radiation therapy of common bladder cancers; Chemotherapy of common bladder cancers; Immunotherapy of common bladder cancers; Multimodal treatment of common bladder cancers; Other treatment modalities of common bladder cancers; Treatment of less common bladder cancers; Reviews of treatment of bladder cancers.

  19. What Will Happen After Treatment for Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment What Will Happen After Treatment for Ovarian Cancer? For some people with ovarian cancer, treatment may ... If Ovarian Cancer Treatment Stops Working More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. Chinese Herbal Formulation PHY906 and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Advanced Liver Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage B Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage C Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  1. Irreversible electroporation in the treatment of locally advanced pancreas and liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wichtowski, Mateusz; Nowaczyk, Piotr; Kocur, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Irreversible electroporation is a new, non-thermal ablation technique in the treatment of parenchymal organ tumors which uses short high voltage pulses of electricity in order to induce apoptosis of targeted cells. In this paper the application of this method of treatment in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) and liver cancer is analyzed. Material and methods Between 04.2014 and 09.2014 two patients with LAPC and one with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) were qualified for treatment with irreversible electroporation. Both patients remained under constant observation and control. PubMed/Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched and eight original reports on irreversible electroporation of pancreatic and liver tumors based on the biggest groups of patients were found. Results Two patients with LAPC and one with CRLM were qualified for ablation with irreversible electroporation. In all three patients a successful irreversible electroporation (IRE) procedure of the whole tumor was conducted. In the minimum seven-month follow-up 100% local control was achieved – without progression. In the literature review the local response to treatment ranged from 41% to 100%. The event-free survival rate in six-month observation was 94%. Conclusions Ablation with irreversible electroporation is a new non-thermal ablation technique which has been demonstrated, both in the previously published studies and in the cases described in this paper, as a safe and efficient therapeutic method for patients with LAPC and CRLM. PMID:27095938

  2. Psorinum Therapy in Treating Stomach, Gall Bladder, Pancreatic, and Liver Cancers: A Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aradeep; Biswas, Jaydip; Chatterjee, Ashim; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Mukhopadhyay, Bishnu; Mandal, Syamsundar

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively studied the clinical efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment “Psorinum Therapy” in treating stomach, gall bladder, pancreatic and liver cancers. Our study was observational, open level and single arm. The participants' eligibility criteria included histopathology/cytopathology confirmation of malignancy, inoperable tumor, and no prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The primary outcome measures of the study were (i) to assess the radiological tumor response (ii) to find out how many participants survived at least 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and finally 5 years after the beginning of the study considering each type of cancer. Psorinum-6x was administered orally to all the participants up to 0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day for 2 years along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares. 158 participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gall bladder, 44 of pancreatic, 32 of liver) were included in the final analysis of the study. Complete tumor response occurred in 28 (17.72%) cases and partial tumor response occurred in 56 (35.44%) cases. Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted for further scientific exploration of this alternative cancer treatment. PMID:21197093

  3. Computational particle-haemodynamics analysis of liver radioembolization pretreatment as an actual treatment surrogate.

    PubMed

    Aramburu, Jorge; Antón, Raúl; Rivas, Alejandro; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Sangro, Bruno; Bilbao, José Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    Liver radioembolization (RE) is a treatment option for patients with unresectable and chemorefractory primary and metastatic liver tumours. RE consists of intra-arterially administering via catheter radioactive microspheres that locally attack the tumours, sparing healthy tissue. Prior to RE, the standard practice is to conduct a treatment-mimicking pretreatment assessment via the infusion of (99m) Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin microparticles. The usefulness of this pretreatment has been debated in the literature, and thus, the aim of the present study is to shed light on this issue by numerically simulating the liver RE pretreatment and actual treatment particle-haemodynamics in a patient-specific hepatic artery under two different literature-based cancer scenarios and two different placements of a realistic end-hole microcatheter in the proper hepatic artery. The parameters that are analysed are the following: microagent quantity and size (accounting for RE pretreatment and treatment), catheter-tip position (near the proper hepatic artery bifurcation and away from it), and cancer burden (10% and 30% liver involvement). The conclusion that can be reached from the simulations is that when it comes to mimicking RE in terms of delivering particles to tumour-bearing segments, the catheter-tip position is much more important (because of the importance of local haemodynamic pattern alteration) than the infused microagents (i.e. quantity and size). Cancer burden is another important feature because the increase in blood flow rate to tumour-bearing segments increases the power to drag particles. These numerical simulation-based conclusions are in agreement with clinically observed events reported in the literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. Information about clinical trials is available from ... want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. For some patients, taking part in a ...

  5. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  6. Peroxiredoxin II Is Essential for Maintaining Stemness by Redox Regulation in Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taeho; Bak, Yesol; Park, Young-Ho; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Nyun; Bak, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Man; Yoon, Do-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2016-05-01

    Redox regulation in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is viewed as a good target for cancer therapy because redox status plays an important role in cancer stem-cell maintenance. Here, we investigated the role of Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II), an antioxidant enzyme, in association with maintenance of liver CSCs. Our study demonstrates that Prx II overexpressed in liver cancer cells has high potential for self-renewal activity. Prx II expression significantly corelated with expression of epithelial-cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and cytokerain 19 in liver cancer tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Downregulation of Prx II in Huh7 cells with treatment of siRNA reduced expression of EpCAM and CD133 as well as Sox2 in accordance with increased ROS and apoptosis, which were reversed in Huh7-hPrx II cells. Huh7-hPrx II cells exhibited strong sphere-formation activity compared with mock cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exposure enhanced sphere formation, cell-surface expression of EpCAM and CD133, and pSTAT3 along with activation of VEGF receptor 2 in Huh7-hPrx II cells. The result also emerged in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) and SK-HEP-1-H-ras(G12V) cells with high-level expression of Prx II. Prx II was involved in regulation of VEGF driving cancer stem cells through VEGFR-2/STAT3 signaling to upregulate Bmi1 and Sox2. In addition, knockdown of Prx II in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) cells showed significant reduction in cell migration in vitro and in tumorigenic potential in vivo. Taken together, all the results demonstrated that Prx II plays a key role in the CSC self-renewal of HCC cells through redox regulation. Stem Cells 2016;34:1188-1197.

  7. [Liver rupture in a newborn infant; diagnosis, treatment and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Westerik, A R; Umans-Eckenhausen, M A; Madern, G C; Robben, S G; van den Anker, J N

    1993-11-20

    Between August 1989 and August 1992 four neonates with rupture of the liver were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Sophia Children's Hospital in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Two neonates were born after breech delivery, two after caesarean section because of foetal distress. All four patients had Apgar scores < 5 after 1 minute and of < 8 after 5 minutes and required artificial ventilation for a prolonged period. All infants collapsed within 6 hours after birth. Surgical treatment was not considered because of the poor clinical condition. All patients were treated conservatively. Clinical signs were: rapid onset pallor, hypotension, tachycardia and abdominal distension. Ultrasonography of the abdomen confirmed the clinical diagnosis of rupture of the liver. Despite rapid diagnosis and maximal non-surgical treatment mortality was 75%. Surgical intervention is indicated in neonatal liver rupture with significant intra-abdominal bleeding.

  8. Nonthermal Plasma-Mediated Cancer Cell Death; Targeted Cancer Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byul-Bora; Choi, Yeon-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Koo; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    Non-thermal air plasma can kill cancer cells. However, there is no selectivity between normal and cancer cells. Therefore, cancer specific antibody conjugated gold nanoparticle (GNP) was pretreated before plasma irradiation. Stimulation of antibody conjugated GNP by plasma treatment resulted in a significant decrease in viability of cancer cells. This technology shows the feasibility of using plasma therapy for killing cancer cells selectively.

  9. [Medical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Lobel, B; Cipolla, B; Labrador, J

    1994-03-01

    Hormone dependence of prostate cancer is well known. In 80% of cases with metastases, hormone suppression leads to the reduction of tumour volume and related disorders. However the treatment is generally palliative because malignant process recurs after about around 16 months. Mean survival is less than 3 years in these forms. Lack of response come always together with a poor prognosis, and there is 90% mortality at 2 years. Advanced prostatic cancer should not be treated with hormones if the patient has few symptoms and his quality of life is satisfactory. Symptomatic forms require hormone manipulation. Orchidectomy or LH-RH are recommended. Total androgen ablation (combined treatment) leads rapidly to more relief of symptoms, but its drawbacks and especially high cost indicate that its use should be weighed individually. Estramustine is not a first-lune treatment. Presently, there is no criteria to predict response to treatment.

  10. Novel piperazine core compound induces death in human liver cancer cells: possible pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Nima; Muniandy, Sekaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Raja Azudin, Raja Elina

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel piperazine derivate designated as PCC against human liver cancer cells. In this context, human liver cancer cell lines, SNU-475 and 243, human monocyte/macrophage cell line, CRL-9855, and human B lymphocyte cell line, CCL-156, were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on SNU-475 and SNU-423 cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 μg/ml and 7.76 ± 0.45 μg/ml respectively, after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-ƙB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. This study suggests that PCC is a simultaneous inducer of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. PMID:27072064

  11. Grey zone in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Classification for hepatocellular carcinoma: Surgeons’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tian; Lau, Wan-Yee; Zhang, Han; Huang, Bin; Lu, Jun-Hua; Wu, Meng-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification has been endorsed as the optimal staging system and treatment algorithm for HCC by the European Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. However, in real life, the majority of patients who are not considered ideal candidates based on the BCLC guideline still were performed hepatic resection nowadays, which means many hepatic surgeons all around the world do not follow the BCLC guidelines. The accuracy and application of the BCLC classification has constantly been challenged by many clinicians. From the surgeons’ perspectives, we herein put forward some comments on the BCLC classification concerning subjectivity of the assessment criteria, comprehensiveness of the staging definition and accuracy of the therapeutic recommendations. We hope to further discuss with peers and colleagues with the aim to make the BCLC classification more applicable to clinical practice in the future. PMID:26217077

  12. Histologic analysis of rabbit liver cancer treated by bulk ultrasound ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chandra Priya; Rudich, Steven M.; Alqadah, Amel; Burgess, Mark T.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    VX2 rabbit liver cancer, treated in vivo using bulk ultrasound ablation by miniaturized image-ablate arrays, was histologically analyzed using TTC vital stain and DAPI nucleic acid stain. VX2 cells were implanted into rabbit liver lobes and allowed to grow for 11-21 days. Liver lobes containing solid VX2 tumors were then treated with 4.8 MHz, 22.5-38.5 W/cm2 in situ intensity, unfocused ultrasound for exposure times of 20-120 s. After animal sacrifice, thermal lesions were bisected along the imaging/treatment plane, one face stained with TTC, and the other with DAPI. Levels of TTC uptake (no uptake, partial uptake, and complete uptake) in liver parenchyma corresponded to three discrete regions of tan, pink and red color. By processing images of DAPI-stained parenchymal tissue from these three regions, cellular damage was quantified. A viability index parameter incorporating the size and shape of DAPI-stained nuclei correlated significantly with levels of TTC uptake, and thus with local tissue viability. For ablation of normal liver, viability indices for parenchymal regions of no TTC uptake and partial TTC uptake were significantly different from those for viable tissue. For ablation of VX2 tumor, differences in viability index between regions of no TTC uptake and complete TTC uptake were smaller, but significant overall.

  13. The impact of pulmonary metastasectomy in patients with previously resected colorectal cancer liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Johannes; Wagner, Johanna; Kunzmann, Volker; Baur, Johannes; Walles, Thorsten; Dietz, Ulrich; Loeb, Stefan; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Steger, Ulrich; Klein, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Background 40–50% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) will develop liver metastases (CRLM) during the course of the disease. One third of these patients will additionally develop pulmonary metastases. Methods 137 consecutive patients with CRLM, were analyzed regarding survival data, clinical, histological data and treatment. Results were stratified according to the occurrence of pulmonary metastases and metastases resection. Results 39% of all patients with liver resection due to CRLM developed additional lung metastases. 44% of these patients underwent subsequent pulmonary resection. Patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy showed a significantly better five-year survival compared to patients not qualified for curative resection (5-year survival 71.2% vs. 28.0%; p = 0.001). Interestingly, the 5-year survival of these patients was even superior to all patients with CRLM, who did not develop pulmonary metastases (77.5% vs. 63.5%; p = 0.015). Patients, whose pulmonary metastases were not resected, were more likely to redevelop liver metastases (50.0% vs 78.6%; p = 0.034). However, the rate of distant metastases did not differ between both groups (54.5 vs.53.6; p = 0.945). Conclusion The occurrence of colorectal lung metastases after curative liver resection does not impact patient survival if pulmonary metastasectomy is feasible. Those patients clearly benefit from repeated resections of the liver and the lung metastases. PMID:28328956

  14. Adjuvant treatment with tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R reduces recurrence and increases survival after liver metastasis resection in an orthotopic nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-12-08

    Colon cancer liver metastasis is often the lethal aspect of this disease. Well-isolated metastases are candidates for surgical resection, but recurrence is common. Better adjuvant treatment is therefore needed to reduce or prevent recurrence. In the present study, HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used to establish liver metastases in nude mice. Mice with a single liver metastasis were randomized into bright-light surgery (BLS) or the combination of BLS and adjuvant treatment with tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R. Residual tumor fluorescence after BLS was clearly visualized at high magnification by fluorescence imaging. Adjuvant treatment with S. typhimurium A1-R was highly effective to increase survival and disease-free survival after BLS of liver metastasis. The results suggest the future clinical potential of adjuvant S. typhimurium A1-R treatment after liver metastasis resection.

  15. Cetuximab strongly enhances immune cell infiltration into liver metastatic sites in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuka; Hazama, Shoichi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Tokumitsu, Yukio; Kanekiyo, Shinsuke; Tomochika, Shinobu; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Tokuhisa, Yoshihiro; Iida, Michihisa; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Shigeru; Ueno, Tomio; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Nagano, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    Cetuximab has activity against colorectal cancers. Recent studies demonstrated that cetuximab induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity via immune cells, and a new immune-related mechanism of inducing immunogenic cell death. This study aimed to evaluate the immune responses induced by cetuximab in tumor microenvironments at liver metastasis sites of metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We assessed immune cell infiltration in the liver metastatic sites of 53 colorectal cancer patients. These patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment before operation: chemotherapy with cetuximab, chemotherapy without cetuximab, and no chemotherapy. The inflammatory cells in the liver metastatic sites were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, focusing on the invasive margin. The overall inflammatory reaction and number of lymphoid cells were assessed with a four-point scoring system. We then assessed immune cell infiltration (CD3, CD8 and CD56) in 15 liver metastatic sites. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated more inflammatory cells in the chemotherapy with cetuximab group than in the other groups (P < 0.001). Of note, inflammatory cells were found in intratumoral areas, and the destruction of cancer cell foci was observed in the chemotherapy with cetuximab group. Moreover, a higher infiltration of CD3+ (P = 0.003), CD8+ (P = 0.003) and CD56+ (P = 0.001) cells was observed in the chemotherapy with cetuximab group than in the other groups. These results suggest that cetuximab might have an immune-enhancing effect. As such, the immune-related mechanism of action of cetuximab may enhance the efficacy of combination therapy, such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy using therapeutic peptides.

  16. [The aflatoxins and liver cancer in Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    1992-05-01

    The AFB1 intake and the AFM1 excretion of 81 households in 10 villages, Guanxi were investigated using the ELISA method. The results showed that there was positive correlation between PLC mortality and AFB1 intake from corn and peanut oil, but not from rice. The results of stepwise regression showed that main factors were AFB1 intake of males, AFM1 excretion of females and consumption of corn. The results showed that aflatoxins were correlated with mortality rates of liver cancer. Further investigation needs to be carried out in case-control and cohort studies.

  17. Association of serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lai, G Y; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; Virtamo, J; McGlynn, K A; Freedman, N D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients may influence the development or progression of liver cancer and liver disease. We evaluated the association of serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol with incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality in a prospective cohort of middle-aged Finnish male smokers. Methods: Baseline and 3-year follow-up serum were available from 29 046 and 22 805 men, respectively. After 24 years of follow-up, 208 men were diagnosed with liver cancer and 237 died from CLD. Hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for highest vs lowest quartiles from multivariate proportional hazards models. Results: Higher β-carotene and retinol levels were associated with less liver cancer (β-carotene: 0.35, 0.22–0.55, P-trend <0.0001; retinol: 0.58, 0.39–0.85, P-trend=0.0009) and CLD mortality (β-carotene: 0.47, 0.30–0.75, P-trend=0.001; retinol: 0.55, 0.38–0.78, P-trend=0.0007). α-Tocopherol was associated with CLD mortality (0.63, 0.40–0.99, P-trend=0.06), but not with liver cancer (1.06, 0.64–1.74, P-trend=0.77). Participants with higher levels of β-carotene and retinol, but not α-tocopherol, at both baseline and year 3 had lower risk of each outcome than those with lower levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of β-carotene and retinol are associated with incident liver cancer and CLD. However, such data do not indicate that supplementation should be considered for these diseases. PMID:25314058

  18. Discovery – Methotrexate: Chemotherapy Treatment for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the 1950s, treatment for the majority of cancers was limited to either surgery or the use of radiation. The discovery of the use of methotrexate in curing a rare cancer marked the first time a cancer had been cured. This led to the development of many of today’s common cancer treatments.

  19. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  20. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25995680

  1. Colorectal Cancer Associated with Streptococcus anginosus Bacteremia and Liver Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Umair; Sharma, Anuj; Lowe, Dhruv; Khan, Rashad; Manocha, Divey

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. Their ability to cause abscesses is very unique and sets them apart from the rest of the streptococci groups. While an association of group D streptococcus bacteremia and endocarditis with colorectal carcinoma is well established, S. anginosus infections are rarely implicated with colonic malignancy. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to the hospital with fatigue and generalized abdominal pain. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple liver abscesses and rectal thickening. Blood cultures were found to grow S. anginosus bacteria. Colonoscopy revealed a rectal mass which was later confirmed to be rectal adenocarcinoma. This case presents an association between S. anginosus bacteremia and presence of colorectal cancer which has been highlighted in only a few case reports in literature. This should prompt clinicians to screen for colorectal cancer in patients with S. anginosus bacteremia. PMID:28100999

  2. Treatment of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hoteit, Maarouf A; Anania, Frank A

    2007-03-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver disorders in North America. The mechanism of liver injury in NASH involves insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as cytokine release. Therapeutic interventions aimed at enhancing insulin sensitivity or reducing oxidative stress have been studied. The role of peptide hormones secreted by adipose tissue--adipocytokines--in the potential pathogenesis of NASH is an area of intense research. As the function of adipokines in modulating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis is elucidated, the potential for novel treatment strategies in patients with NASH is likely to be realized.

  3. Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Immunotherapy Treatment Immunotherapy: Disrupting the Cancer Treatment World Jun 16, 2014 This story is part of ... Research We Conduct Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. ...

  4. Breast cancer: Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ariel, I.M.; Clearly, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This is a publication about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with an appeal for unified reporting of end results. Nine chapters cover historical reviews, risk factors, pathology-receptors-immunology, detection and diagnosis, treatment of the potentially curable patient, and treatment of the patient with advanced disease. The three concluding chapters discuss reconstruction, special clinical situations, and support for the patient. The role of radiation therapy is presented well. The current status of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and combined therapies is also addressed by authoritative authors.

  5. Epigenetic changes in the rat livers induced by pyrazinamide treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, V.M.; Bagnyukova, T.V.; Sergienko, O.V.; Bondarenko, L.B.; Shayakhmetova, G.M.; Matvienko, A.V.; Pogribny, I.P.

    2007-12-15

    Drug-induced liver injury, including drug-induced hepatotoxicity during the treatment of tuberculosis infection, is a major health problem with increasingly significant challenges to modern hepatology. Therefore, the assessment and monitoring of the hepatotoxicity of antituberculosis drugs for prevention of liver injury are great concerns during disease treatment. The recently emerged data showing the ability of toxicants, including pharmaceutical agents, to alter cellular epigenetic status, open a unique opportunity for early detection of drug hepatotoxicity. Here we report that treatment of male Wistar rats with antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide at doses of 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day body weight for 45 days leads to an early and sustained decrease in cytosine DNA methylation, progressive hypomethylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1), and aberrant promoter hypermethylation of placental form glutathione-S-transferase (GSTP) and p16{sup INK4A} genes in livers of pyrazinamide-treated rats, while serum levels of bilirubin and activity of aminotransferases changed modestly. The early occurrence of these epigenetic alterations and their association with progression of liver injury specific pathological changes indicate that alterations in DNA methylation may be useful predictive markers for the assessment of drug hepatotoxicity.

  6. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Jens U.; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Camacho, Lucrecia O. Arreguin; Pinna, Federico; Lee, Yun-Han; Kitade, Mitsuteru; Domínguez, Mayrel Palestino; Castven, Darko; Breuhahn, Kai; Conner, Elizabeth A.; Galle, Peter R.; Andersen, Jesper B.; Factor, Valentina M.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important therapeutic implications for multi-resistant cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the key pathways frequently activated in liver CSCs is NF-kB signaling. Methods We evaluated the CSCs-depleting potential of NF-kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western blotting. Results HCC cell lines exposed to curcumin exhibited differential responses to curcumin and were classified as sensitive and resistant. In sensitive lines, curcumin-mediated induction of cell death was directly related to the extent of NF-kB inhibition. The treatment also led to a selective CSC-depletion as evidenced by a reduced SP size, decreased sphere formation, down-regulation of CSC markers and suppressed tumorigenicity. Similarly, NF-kB inhibition by SN50 and siRNA against p65 suppressed tumor cell growth. In contrast, curcumin-resistant cells displayed a paradoxical increase in proliferation and expression of CSC markers. Mechanistically, an important component of the CSC-depleting activity of curcumin could be attributed to a NF-kB-mediated HDAC inhibition. Co-administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor trichostatine sensitized resistant cells to curcumin. Further, integration of a predictive signature of curcumin sensitivity with human HCC database indicated that HCCs with poor prognosis and progenitor features are most likely to benefit from NF-kB inhibition. Conclusions These results demonstrate that blocking NF-kB can specifically target CSC populations and suggest a potential for combined inhibition of NF-kB and HDAC signaling for treatment of liver cancer patients with poor prognosis. PMID:25937435

  7. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  8. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-yuan; Cao, Hong-yan; Cheng, Gen-hong; Sun, Ming-yu

    2014-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions. PMID:24963489

  9. Pyogenic liver abscesses associated with nonmetastatic colorectal cancers: An increasing problem in Eastern Asia

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Kai; Liu, Chang; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Tian, Feng; Wei, Ji-Chao; Tai, Ming-Hui; Zhou, Lei; Meng, Fan-Di; Wang, Rui-Tao; Xu, Xin-Sen

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To elaborate the clinicopathologic features of colorectal cancer-related pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). METHODS: Reported cases of colorectal cancer-related PLAs were collected from the literature published up to October 2011 and evaluated for their clinicopathologic features. Data of collected cases included demographics, clinical presentation, microbial findings and treatment. Categorical variables were compared by χ2 analysis and continuous variables were evaluated using Student’s t test. RESULTS: A total 96 cases of colorectal cancer-related PLA were collected from the previous literature. Most patients (60%) were male and 40% cases occurred in the age group of 61-70 years. Apart from some special types of PLA, there were significant differences in the microbiological spectrum between Eastern Asia and non-Eastern Asian countries, which implied different risk factors and courses of the disease. Gram negative bacteria especially Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA was predominant in Eastern Asia (80.0%) in contrast to non-Eastern Asian countries (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, most of the Eastern Asian patients exhibited smaller size of liver abscess and atypical presentation. Sigmoid colon and rectum (72.73%) were the main sites of tumor in Eastern Asian patients, whereas tumor sites were uneven among most of the non-Easter Asian PLA patients. CONCLUSION: K. pneumoniae PLA was strongly associated with colorectal cancer, especially those occurring in sigmoid colon and rectum, in elderly Eastern Asian male patients. PMID:22736918

  10. Glycycoumarin exerts anti-liver cancer activity by directly targeting T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xinhua; Yin, Shutao; Zhang, Enxiang; Fan, Lihong; Ye, Min; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a major bioactive coumarin compound isolated from licorice and the anti-cancer activity of GCM has not been scientifically addressed. In the present study, we have tested the anti-liver cancer activity of GCM using both in vitro and in vivo models and found for the first time that GCM possesses a potent activity against liver cancer evidenced by cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro and tumor reduction in vivo. Mechanistically, GCM was able to bind to and inactivate oncogenic kinase T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), which in turn led to activation of p53 pathway. Our findings supported GCM as a novel active compound that contributed to the anti-cancer activity of licorice and TOPK could be an effective target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. PMID:27582549

  11. Liver abscess in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma after sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Kak; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Hyun Hwa; Kwon, Oh Sang; Kim, Yun Soo; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2014-01-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a critical global health issue and the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The majority of patients who present HCC are already at an advanced stage and their tumors are unresectable. Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and was recently introduced as a therapy for advanced HCC. Furthermore, studies have shown that oral sorafenib has beneficial effects on survival. However, many patients experience diverse side effects, and some of these are severe. Liver abscess development has not been previously documented to be associated with sorafenib administration in HCC. Here, we report the case of a HCC patient that developed a liver abscess while being treated with sorafenib.

  12. [Orthotopic liver transplant in rats. Surgical technique, complications and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lausada, Natalia R; Gondolesi, G E; Ortiz, E; Dreizzen, E; Raimondi, J C

    2002-01-01

    The orthotopic rat liver transplant model is a widely used technique in transplantation research. It has many advantages over other animal transplant models because of its availability and low cost. However, it must be emphasized that success with the rat model requires thorough training. The aim of this paper is to describe the microsurgical technique involved in 60 rat liver transplants and to discuss the complications and their treatments. Forty-nine liver transplants were performed at the Experimental Laboratory of the University Hospital, Ontario, Canada (ELUH) and 11 were performed at the Laboratorio de Trasplante de Organos de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Argentina (LTO). Among the transplants performed at the ELUH, the observed complications were haemorrhage (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 1), anastomotic failure (n = 15), bile leak (n = 3), and bile duct necrosis (n = 9). The remaining 17 rats at the ELUH were healthy at day 7 after surgery. Animal survival immediately postop, at 24 hours postop and at 7 days postop was achieved with the 9th, 20th and 21st transplants respectively. At the LTO, 3 rats died as a result of anaesthetic complications. Seven-day animal survival was achieved with the 11th transplant. We beleive that the description of the orthotopic rat liver transplantation technique, as well as the discussion regarding complications and their management, can be useful for researchers interested in performing liver transplantation in rats.

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on human colorectal cancer liver metastasis in orthotopic nude-mouse models.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Yong; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-10-13

    Liver metastasis is the most frequent cause of death from colon and other cancers. Generally, liver metastasis is recalcitrant to treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on liver metastasis in orthotopic mouse models. HT-29 human colon cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were used in the present study. S. typhimurium A1-R infected HT-29 cells in a time-dependent manner, inhibiting cancer-cell proliferation in vitro. S. typhimurium A1-R promoted tumor necrosis and inhibited tumor growth in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model of HT-29-RFP. In orthotopic mouse models, S. typhimurium A1-R targeted liver metastases and significantly reduced their growth. The results of this study demonstrate the future clinical potential of S. typhimurium A1-R targeting of liver metastasis.

  14. Treatment of Liver Trauma: Operative or Conservative Management

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Carmen Garcia; Fuster, Josep; Bombuy, Ernest; Sanchez, Santiago; Ferrer, Joana; Loera, Marco Antonio; Marti, Josep; Fondevila, Constantino; Zavala, Elizabet; Garcia-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background The liver is one of the most frequently damaged organs when abdominal trauma occurs. Currently, a conservative management constitutes the treatment of choice in patients with hemodynamic stability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of an operative and conservative management of 143 patients with liver injury treated in a single institution. Methods A retrospective study of the patients admitted with the diagnosis of liver trauma was performed from 1992-2008. The patients were classified according to the intention to treatment: Group I, operative management; Group II, conservative management. Variables analyzed included demographic data, injury classification, associated lesions, surgical treatment, transfusions, morbi-mortality, and hospital stay. We established two periods (1992-1999; 2000-2008) in order to compare diagnosis and management. Results A total of 143 patients were analyzed. Thirty-one percent correspond to severe injuries. Conservative treatment was followed in 60.8 % with surgery undertaken in 14.9 % of patients from this group due to failure of conservative treatment. Immediate surgery was carried out in 38.2 %. Total mortality was 14 %. Morbidity (35.7-38.5 %) in the group of immediate surgery and failure of conservative management is similar, but not in mortality (28.6-15.4 %). In the second group (2000-2008) there are more patients with conservative treatment, with a low percentage of failure of this treatment and morbi-mortality. Conclusions Conservative treatment is an adequate treatment in a great number of patients. Failure of conservative treatment did not show a higher incidence of complications or mortality but it should be performed in centers with experienced surgeons. PMID:27956979

  15. Factors predicting early postoperative liver cirrhosis-related complications after lung cancer surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Takashi; Inoue, Kiyotoshi; Nishiyama, Noritoshi; Nagano, Koshi; Izumi, Nobuhiro; Tsukioka, Takuma; Hanada, Shoji; Suehiro, Shigefumi

    2007-12-01

    We aimed to determine the factors predicting liver cirrhosis-related complications in the early postoperative period after lung cancer surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent curative surgery for primary lung cancer in our institute from January 1990 to March 2007, finding 37 cases with comorbid liver cirrhosis. These patients were divided into two groups, according to whether liver failure, bleeding, and critical infection had occurred postoperatively. Various clinical parameters were analyzed statistically between the bigeminal groups. Liver cirrhosis-related complications occurred in seven of the 37 patients (18.9%). Transient liver failure occurred in two patients (5.4%) after pulmonary resection. Acute intrathoracic bleeding occurred in four cases (10.8%). Two patients died (5.4%) in both cases due to sepsis. Preoperative total bilirubin (P<0.05), and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (P<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with liver failure. Only serum value of total bilirubin was an independent risk factor (P<0.05) by multivariate analysis. In predicting death from infection, only preoperative nutritional status was a significant risk factor (P<0.05). To avoid postoperative cirrhosis-related complications, preoperative preparation to improve their liver function and nutrition status is essential.

  16. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Patients With Advanced Breast or Pancreatic Cancer With Metastases to the Liver or Lung

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-28

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Liver Metastases; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  17. Autophagy-related cell death by pan-histone deacetylase inhibition in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Fazio, Pietro; Waldegger, Petra; Jabari, Samir; Lingelbach, Susanne; Montalbano, Roberta; Ocker, Matthias; Slater, Emily P; Bartsch, Detlef K; Illig, Romana; Neureiter, Daniel; Wissniowski, Thaddeus T

    2016-05-17

    Autophagy is a homeostatic, catabolic degradation process and cell fate essential regulatory mechanism. Protracted autophagy triggers cell death; its aberrant function is responsible for several malignancies. Panobinostat, a potent pan-deacetylase inhibitor, causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of autophagy in deacetylase inhibitor-triggered liver cancer cell death.HepG2 (p53wt) and Hep3B (p53 null) liver cancer cell lines were exposed to panobinostat. RT-qPCR and western blot confirmed autophagic factor modulation. Immuno-fluorescence, -precipitation and -histochemistry as well as transmission electron microscopy verified autophagosome formation. The cytotoxicity of panobinostat and autophagy modulators was detected using a real time cell viability assay.Panobinostat induced autophagy-related factor expression and aggregation. Map1LC3B and Beclin1 were significantly over-expressed in HepG2 xenografts in nude mice treated with panobinostat for 4 weeks. Subcellular distribution of Beclin1 increased with the appearance of autophagosomes-like aggregates. Cytosolic loss of p53, in HepG2, and p73, in Hep3B cells, and a corresponding gain of their nuclear level, together with modulation of DRAM1, were observed. Autophagosome aggregation was visible after 6 h of treatment. Treatment of cells stably expressing GFP-RFPtag Map1LC3B resulted in aggregation and a fluorescence switch, thus confirming autophagosome formation and maturation. Tamoxifen, an inducer of autophagy, caused only a block in cell proliferation; but in combination with panobinostat it resulted in cell death.Autophagy triggers cell demise in liver cancer. Its modulation by the combination of tamoxifen and panobinostat could be a new option for palliative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation versus Liver Resection for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yue; Yan, Dong; Xu, Fei; Li, Xiao; Cai, Jian-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Controversial results about the therapeutic value of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver resection (LR) in the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) have been reported. Thus, we performed the present meta-analysis to summarize the related clinical evidences. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, for all years up to April 2016. Pooled analyses of the overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and morbidity rates were performed. Results: A total of 14 studies were finally enrolled in the meta-analysis. Patients treated by LR gained a longer OS and PFS than those of patients treated by RFA. Patients in the RFA group had lower morbidity rates than those of patients in the LR group. Publication bias analysis revealed that there was no significant publication bias in the meta-analysis. Conclusions: Patients with CRCLM gained much more survival benefits from LR than that from RFA. RFA rendered lower rates of morbidities. More well-designed randomized controlled trails comparing the therapeutic value of LR and RFA are warranted. PMID:27958231

  19. Evaluation of Bufadienolides as the Main Antitumor Components in Cinobufacin Injection for Liver and Gastric Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuefei; Zhao, Haiyu; Yang, Jian; Wang, Hongjie; Wang, Lianmei; Han, Linyu; Bian, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Background Cinobufacin injection, also known as huachansu, is a preparation form of Cinobufacini made from Cinobufacin extract liquid. Despite that Cinobufacin injection is shown to shrink liver and gastric tumors, improving patient survival and life quality, the effective components in Cinobufacin remain elusive. In this study, we aim to screen antitumor components from Cinobufacin injection to elucidate the most effective antitumor components for treatment of liver and gastric cancers. Materials and Methods High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to separate and determine the components in Cinobufacin injection. Inhibition rates of various components in Cinobufacin injection on liver and gastric cancer cells were determined with MTT assay; Hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer models were used to assess the antitumor effect of the compounds in vivo. Results The major constituents in Cinobufacin injection include peptides, nucleic acids, tryptamines and bufotalins. MTT assay revealed that bufadienolides had the best antitumor activity, with peptides being the second most effective components. Bufadienolides showed significant inhibition rates on gastric and hepatocellular tumour growth in vivo. Conclusion Bufadienolides are the most effective components in Cinobufacini injection for the treatment of liver and gastric cancers. This discovery can greatly facilitate further research in improving the therapeutic effects of Cinobufacin injection, meanwhile reducing its adverse reaction. PMID:28081155

  20. Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Sulaiman; Mackillop, William J.; Wei, Xuejiao; Booth, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (LM) is gaining interest. We describe management and outcomes of patients undergoing simultaneous resection in the general population. Methods All patients with CRC who underwent surgical resection of LM between 2002 and 2009 were identified using the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry and linked electronic treatment records. Synchronous disease was defined as having resection of CRCLM within 12 weeks of surgery for the primary tumour. Results During the study period, 1310 patients underwent resection of CRCLM. Of these, 226 (17%) patients had synchronous disease; 100 (44%) had a simultaneous resection and 126 (56%) had a staged resection. For the simultaneous and the staged groups, the mean number of liver lesions resected was 1.6 and 2.3, respectively (p < 0.001); the mean size of the largest lesion was 3.1 and 4.8 cm, respectively (p < 0.001); and the major hepatic resection rate was 21% and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). Postoperative mortality for simultaneous cases at 90 days was less than 5%. Five-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival for patients with simultaneous resection was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 26%–45%) and 37% (95% CI 25%–50%), respectively. Simultaneous resections are common in the general population. A more conservative approach is being adopted for simultaneous resections by limiting the extent of liver resection. Postoperative mortality and long-term survival in this patient population is similar to that reported in other contemporary series. Conclusion Compared with a staged approach, patients undergoing simultaneous resections had fewer and smaller liver metastases and underwent less aggressive resections. One-third of these patients achieved long-term survival. PMID:28234215

  1. The chemokines CCR1 and CCRL2 have a role in colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Israa G; Georges, Rania; Hielscher, Thomas; Adwan, Hassan; Berger, Martin R

    2016-02-01

    C-C chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1) and chemokine C-C motif receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) have not yet been sufficiently investigated for their role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we investigated their expression in rat and human CRC samples, their modulation of expression in a rat liver metastasis model, as well as the effects on cellular properties resulting from their knockdown. One rat and five human colorectal cancer cell lines were used. CC531 rat colorectal cells were injected via the portal vein into rats and re-isolated from rat livers after defined periods. Following mRNA isolation, the gene expression was investigated by microarray. In addition, all cell lines were screened for mRNA expression of CCR1 and CCRL2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell lines with detectable expression were used for knockdown experiments; and the respective influence was determined on the cells' proliferation, scratch closure, and colony formation. Finally, specimens from the primaries of 50 patients with CRC were monitored by quantitative RT-PCR for CCR1 and CCRL2 expression levels. The microarray studies showed peak increases of CCR1 and CCRL2 in the early phase of liver colonization. Knockdown was sufficient at mRNA but only moderate at protein levels and resulted in modest but significant inhibition of proliferation (p < 0.05), scratch closure, and colony formation (p < 0.05). All human CRC samples were positive for CCR1 and CCRL2 and showed a significant pairwise correlation (p < 0.0004), but there was no correlation with tumor stage or age of patients. In summary, the data point to an important role of CCR1 and CCRL2 under conditions of organ colonization and both chemokine receptors qualify as targets of treatment during early colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  2. Transcatheter embolization therapy in liver cancer: an update of clinical evidences

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, Thierry; Idée, Jean-Marc; Ballet, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a form of intra-arterial catheter-based chemotherapy that selectively delivers high doses of cytotoxic drug to the tumor bed combining with the effect of ischemic necrosis induced by arterial embolization. Chemoembolization and radioembolization are at the core of the treatment of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who cannot receive potentially curative therapies such as transplantation, resection or percutaneous ablation. TACE for liver cancer has been proven to be useful in local tumor control, to prevent tumor progression, prolong patients’ life and control patient symptoms. Recent evidence showed in patients with single-nodule HCC of 3 cm or smaller without vascular invasion, the 5-year overall survival (OS) with TACE was similar to that with hepatic resection and radiofrequency ablation. Although being used for decades, Lipiodol® (Lipiodol® Ultra Fluid®, Guerbet, France) remains important as a tumor-seeking and radio-opaque drug delivery vector in interventional oncology. There have been efforts to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors. Drug-eluting bead (DEB) is a relatively novel drug delivery embolization system which allows for fixed dosing and the ability to release the anticancer agents in a sustained manner. Three DEBs are available, i.e., Tandem® (CeloNova Biosciences Inc., USA), DC-Beads® (BTG, UK) and HepaSphere® (BioSphere Medical, Inc., USA). Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) technique has been developed, and proven to be efficient and safe in advanced liver cancers and those with vascular complications. Two types of radioembolization microspheres are available i.e., SIR-Spheres® (Sirtex Medical Limited, Australia) and TheraSphere® (BTG, UK). This review describes the basic procedure of TACE, properties and efficacy of some chemoembolization systems and radioembolization agents which are commercially available and/or currently under clinical evaluation. The key

  3. Constitutive expression of Wnt/β‑catenin target genes promotes proliferation and invasion of liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yu-Wei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhang, Tong; Fu, Bin-Sheng; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Nan

    2016-04-01

    Wnt/β‑catenin is an important signaling pathways involved in the tumorgenesis, progression and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the present study, the role of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in CSC‑mediated tumorigenesis and invasion in liver CSCs was investigated. A small population of cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells (3.6%) from liver cancer samples were identified. The cells were highly resistant to drug treatment due to the enhanced expression of drug efflux pumps, such as ABC subfamily G member 2, multidrug resistance protein 1 and ATP‑binding cassette subfamily B member 5. Furthermore, using TOPflash and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, Wnt/β‑catenin signaling and the transcriptional regulation of Wnt/β‑catenin target genes including dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 1, axis inhibition protein 2 and cyclin D1 were observed to be markedly upregulated in liver cancer SP cells. As a consequence, SP cells possessed infinite cell proliferation potential and the ability to generating tumor spheres. In addition, upon reducing Wnt/β‑catenin signaling, the rates of proliferation, tumor sphere formation and tumor invasion of SP cells were markedly reduced. Therefore, these data suggest that Wnt/β‑catenin signaling is a potential therapeutic target to reduce CSC‑mediated tumorigenicity and invasion in liver cancer.

  4. Microbiota-based treatments in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hotaik; Kim, Seung Woo; Hong, Meegun; Suk, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consumption of alcohol leads to increased gut permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and enteric dysbiosis. These factors contribute to the increased translocation of microbial products to the liver via the portal tract. Subsequently, bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide, in association with the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway, induce a gamut of damaging immune responses in the hepatic milieu. Because of the close association between deleterious inflammation and ALD-induced microbiota imbalance, therapeutic approaches that seek to reestablish gut homeostasis should be considered in the treatment of alcoholic patients. To this end, a number of preliminary studies on probiotics have confirmed their effectiveness in suppressing proinflammatory cytokines and improving liver function in the context of ALD. In addition, there have been few studies linking the administration of prebiotics and antibiotics with reduction of alcohol-induced liver damage. Because these preliminary results are promising, large-scale randomized studies are warranted to elucidate the impact of these microbiota-based treatments on the gut flora and associated immune responses, in addition to exploring questions about optimal delivery. Finally, fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be an effective method of modulating gut microbiota and deserve further investigation as a potential therapeutic option for ALD. PMID:27547010

  5. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for Treatment of Enlarged Polycystic Liver.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takashi; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Kawada, Masahiro; Imafuku, Aya; Hayami, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2016-02-01

    Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and polycystic liver disease (PLD) often have elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat biliary tract diseases, but its effect on PLD remains unclear. UDCA was administered for 1 year at a dose of 300 mg daily to seven PLD patients with elevated ALP or GGT levels who were selected for this treatment by experienced clinicians. Laboratory data and liver volumes were compared among three time points: 1 year before UDCA treatment, at the start of UDCA therapy, and 1 year after the start of therapy. Median GGT did not show a significant change between 1 year before UDCA (180 IU/L) and the start of UDCA therapy (209 IU/L), but it decreased significantly to 98 IU/L after 1 year of UDCA therapy (P = 0.015 vs. the start of therapy). ALP showed a significant increase from 1 year before UDCA (456 IU/L) to the start of UDCA therapy (561 IU/L), and then decreased significantly after 1 year of UDCA therapy (364 IU/L). Median liver volume did not show any significant changes among these three time points of assessment. UDCA may be effective for reducing biliary enzyme levels and inhibiting the growth of liver cysts in patients with PLD.

  6. The role of focal liver ablation in the treatment of unresectable primary and secondary malignant liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Christopher J; Curley, Steven A

    2005-10-01

    Surgical resection is often the first-line treatment option for primary and select metastatic hepatic malignancies. A minority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergo potentially curative resection. Similarly, patients with liver-only metastasis are candidates for resection less than 15% of the time because of bilobar disease in which resection would sacrifice too great a volume of hepatic parenchyma, tumor proximity to major vascular or biliary structures thus preventing adequate margins, or unfavorable tumor biology. Ablative techniques directed at tumor elimination while minimizing injury to the surrounding functional hepatic parenchyma may be offered to select patients with unresectable cancers. Radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, transarterial chemoembolization, cryoablation, microwave coagulation, and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy all offer potential local tumor control and occasionally achieve long-term disease-free survival. This review focuses on the indications, anticipated benefits, and limitations of these ablative techniques.

  7. Studying liver cancer metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Gu, Zhengqin; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wei, Xunbin

    2009-11-01

    Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) is associated with liver cirrhosis 60-80% of the time. Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. About 80% of people with primary liver cancer are male. Although two-thirds of people have advanced liver disease when they seek medical help, one third of the patients have cancer that has not progressed beyond the liver. HCC may metastasize to the lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of HCC cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern liver tumor cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo with real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess liver tumor cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating liver tumor cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  8. Treatment of liver hydatidosis: How to treat an asymptomatic carrier?

    PubMed Central

    Frider, Bernardo; Larrieu, Edmundo

    2010-01-01

    Liver hydatidosis is the most common clinical presentation of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Ultrasonographic mass surveys have demonstrated the true prevalence, including the asymptomatic characteristic of the majority of cases, providing new insight into the natural history of the disease. This raises the question of whether to treat or not to treat these patients, due to the high and unsuspected prevalence of CE. The high rate of liver/lung frequencies of cyst localization, the autopsy findings, and the involution of cysts demonstrated in long time follow-up of asymptomatic carriers contribute to this discussion. The decision to treat an asymptomatic patient by surgery, albendazole, or puncture aspiration injection and reaspiration or to wait and watch, is based on conflicting reports in the literature, the lack of complications in untreated patients over time, and the spontaneous disappearance and involution of cysts. All these points contribute to difficulties of individual clinical decisions. The patients should be informed of the reasons and the risks of watchful/waiting without treatment, the possibility of complications, and the risks of the other options. As more information on the natural history of liver hydatidosis is acquired, selection of the best treatment will be come easier. Without this knowledge it would be very difficult to establish definitive rules of treatment. At present, it is possible to manage these patients over time and to wait for the best moment for treatment. Follow-up studies must be conducted to achieve this objective. PMID:20806427

  9. Advances in paediatric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Saletta, Federica; Seng, Michaela S; Lau, Loretta M S

    2014-04-01

    Four out of five children diagnosed with cancer can be cured with contemporary cancer therapy. This represents a dramatic improvement since 50 years ago when the cure rate of childhood cancer was <25% in the pre-chemotherapy era. Over the past ten years, while improvement in overall survival (OS) has been marginal, progress in pediatric oncology lies with adopting risk-adapted therapeutic approach. This has been made possible through identifying clinical and biologic prognostic factors with rigorous research and stratifying patients using these risk factors, and subsequently modifying therapy according to risk group assignment. This review provides a perspective for eight distinct pediatric malignancies, in which significant advances in treatment were made in the last decade and are leading to changes in standard of care. This includes four hematologic malignancies [acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)] and four solid tumors [medulloblastoma (MB), low grade glioma (LGG), neuroblastoma (NB) and Ewing sarcoma (ES)]. Together, they comprise 60% of childhood cancer. Improved patient outcome is not limited to better survival, but encompasses reducing both short and long-term treatment-related complications which is as important as cure, given the majority of childhood cancer patients will become long-term survivors. Risk-adapted approach allows treatment intensification in the high-risk cohort while therapy can be de-escalated in the low-risk to minimize toxicity and late sequelae without compromising survival. Advances in medical research technology have also led to a rapid increase in the understanding of the genetics of childhood cancer in the last decade, facilitating identification of molecular targets that can potentially be exploited for therapeutic benefits. As we move into the era of targeted therapeutics, searching for novel agents that target specific genetic lesions becomes a

  10. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Understanding the Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Soldera, Jonathan; Balbinot, Silvana Sartori; Balbinot, Raul Angelo; Cavalcanti, Andreza Gautério

    2016-01-01

    Each year, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in more than half a million people worldwide and it is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh most common cancer in women. This article reviews the Barcelona-Clínic Liver Cancer protocol for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of this disease, and four cases are presented for the discussion of the therapeutic approach. Understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease is essential, especially if we keep in mind the quintessential basics of prevention and early detection. PMID:27812296

  11. The role of autophagy in liver cancer: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianzhou; Gong, Zhiyuan; Shen, Han-Ming

    2013-08-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved pathway for degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles via lysosome. Proteins coded by the autophagy-related genes (Atgs) are the core molecular machinery in control of autophagy. Among the various biological functions of autophagy identified so far, the link between autophagy and cancer is probably among the most extensively studied and is often viewed as controversial. Autophagy might exert a dual role in cancer development: autophagy can serve as an anti-tumor mechanism, as defective autophagy (e.g., heterozygous knockdown Beclin 1 and Atg7 in mice) promotes the malignant transformation and spontaneous tumors. On the other hand, autophagy functions as a protective or survival mechanism in cancer cells against cellular stress (e.g., nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and DNA damage) and hence promotes tumorigenesis and causes resistance to therapeutic agents. Liver cancer is one of the common cancers with well-established etiological factors including hepatitis virus infection and environmental carcinogens such as aflatoxin and alcohol exposure. In recent years, the involvement of autophagy in liver cancer has been increasingly studied. Here, we aim to provide a systematic review on the close cross-talks between autophagy and liver cancer, and summarize the current status in development of novel liver cancer therapeutic approaches by targeting autophagy. It is believed that understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the autophagy modulation and liver cancer development may provoke the translational studies that ultimately lead to new therapeutic strategies for liver cancer.

  12. Cancer Incidence among Heart, Kidney, and Liver Transplant Recipients in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwai-Fong; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wu, Sheng-Tang; Ke, Hung-Yen; Lin, Yi-Chang; Lin, Feng-Yen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Tsai, Chien-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Population-based evidence of the relative risk of cancer among heart, kidney, and liver transplant recipients from Asia is lacking. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to conduct a population-based cohort study of transplant recipients (n = 5396), comprising 801 heart, 2847 kidney, and 1748 liver transplant recipients between 2001 and 2012. Standardized incidence ratios and Cox regression models were used. Compared with the general population, the risk of cancer increased 3.8-fold after heart transplantation, 4.1-fold after kidney transplantation and 4.6-fold after liver transplantation. Cancer occurrence showed considerable variation according to transplanted organs. The most common cancers in all transplant patients were cancers of the head and neck, liver, bladder, and kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Male recipients had an increased risk of cancers of the head and neck and liver, and female kidney recipients had a significant risk of bladder and kidney cancer. The adjusted hazard ratio for any cancer in all recipients was higher in liver transplant recipients compared with that in heart transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 1.5, P = .04). Cancer occurrence varied considerably and posttransplant cancer screening should be performed routinely according to transplanted organ and sex. PMID:27196400

  13. TLR4-dependent immune response promotes radiation-induced liver disease by changing the liver tissue interstitial microenvironment during liver cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhi-Feng, Wu; Le-Yuan, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Zhou; Ya-Bo, Gao; Jian-Ying, Zhang; Yong, Hu; Zhao-Chong, Zeng

    2014-12-01

    Liver tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) a special microenvironment around liver cells, which may play a vital role in cell communication during liver injury. Moreover, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important trigger of the immune response that may also play a role in liver injuries, including radiation-induced liver disease (RILD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the roles of the TLR4-dependent immune response and TIFs in RILD after radiation therapy (RT) for liver cancer. This study consisted of two phases, and in the primary phase, the livers of TLR4 mutant (TLR4(-)) and normal (TLR4(+)) mice were irradiated with 30 Gy. TIF was then obtained from mouse livers and assessed by cytokine array analysis 20 days after irradiation, and cytokines in the TIFs, TLR4 and RILD were analyzed. In the second or validation phase, hepatocytes were isolated from TLR4(+) or TLR4(-) mice irradiated with 8 Gy and were co-cultured with TIFs from mouse livers, apoptosis of the hepatocytes was then measured using flow cytometry. We found that severe RILD was accompanied by higher expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2(VEGFR-2) in liver TIFs, from in TLR4(+) mice compared with TLR4(-) mice (P < 0.05). In both TLR4(+) and TLR4(-) hepatocytes, apoptosis after irradiaton was increased significantly after co-culture in TIFs from TLR4(+) mice that had their livers irradiated, compared with TIFs from TLR4(-) mice that had their livers irradiated or TIFs from unirradiated mice (P < 0.05). In summary, these findings indicate that the TLR4-dependent immune response may promote RILD by enhancing the expression of GM-CSF, VEGFR-2 and TRAIL in liver TIFs.

  14. Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of liver transplantation in adults. Although the recurrence of HCV infection after liver transplantation is nearly universal, the recent advances in direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents have revolutionized the management of HCV infection in the posttransplant setting. A number of these agents have been evaluated in recent clinical trials and have shown high sustained virologic response rates, shorter durations of treatment, and decreased adverse events when compared with the previous treatment of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This article will review the current literature on the efficacy, tolerability, and potential drug interactions of various DAA agents in patients with recurrent HCV infection posttransplant. PMID:27330501

  15. Anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangqian; Jiang, Kai; Liang, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-02-01

    Xanthohumol may prevent and cure diabetes and atherosis, have oxidation resistance and antiviral function as well as anticancer effect preventing cancer cell metastasis. We investigate whether the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. Human liver cancer HepG2 cell were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 40 µM xanthohumol for 48 h. The present study showed that the anticancer effect of xanthohumol was effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity of human liver cancer HepG2 cells was increased by xanthohumol. In addition, 48-h treatment with xanthohumol suppressed NF-κB expression and promoted p53, cleaved PARP, AIF and cytochrome c expression and downregulated XIAP and Bcl-2/Bax expression in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Therefore, the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway.

  16. Anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, XIANGQIAN; JIANG, KAI; LIANG, BIN; HUANG, XIAOQIANG

    2016-01-01

    Xanthohumol may prevent and cure diabetes and atherosis, have oxidation resistance and antiviral function as well as anticancer effect preventing cancer cell metastasis. We investigate whether the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. Human liver cancer HepG2 cell were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 40 µM xanthohumol for 48 h. The present study showed that the anticancer effect of xanthohumol was effective in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the caspase-3 activity of human liver cancer HepG2 cells was increased by xanthohumol. In addition, 48-h treatment with xanthohumol suppressed NF-κB expression and promoted p53, cleaved PARP, AIF and cytochrome c expression and downregulated XIAP and Bcl-2/Bax expression in human liver cancer HepG2 cells. Therefore, the anticancer effect of xanthohumol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of human liver cancer through the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway. PMID:26718026

  17. MicroRNAs and liver cancer associated with iron overload: therapeutic targets unravelled.

    PubMed

    Greene, Catherine M; Varley, Robert B; Lawless, Matthew W

    2013-08-28

    Primary liver cancer is a global disease that is on the increase. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for most primary liver cancers and has a notably low survival rate, largely attributable to late diagnosis, resistance to treatment, tumour recurrence and metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are regulatory RNAs that modulate protein synthesis. miRNAs are involved in several biological and pathological processes including the development and progression of HCC. Given the poor outcomes with current HCC treatments, miRNAs represent an important new target for therapeutic intervention. Several studies have demonstrated their role in HCC development and progression. While many risk factors underlie the development of HCC, one process commonly altered is iron homeostasis. Iron overload occurs in several liver diseases associated with the development of HCC including Hepatitis C infection and the importance of miRNAs in iron homeostasis and hepatic iron overload is well characterised. Aberrant miRNA expression in hepatic fibrosis and injury response have been reported, as have dysregulated miRNA expression patterns affecting cell cycle progression, evasion of apoptosis, invasion and metastasis. In 2009, miR-26a delivery was shown to prevent HCC progression, highlighting its therapeutic potential. Several studies have since investigated the clinical potential of other miRNAs with one drug, Miravirsen, currently in phase II clinical trials. miRNAs also have potential as biomarkers for the diagnosis of HCC and to evaluate treatment efficacy. Ongoing studies and clinical trials suggest miRNA-based treatments and diagnostic methods will have novel clinical applications for HCC in the coming years, yielding improved HCC survival rates and patient outcomes.

  18. Hematoporphyrin-Augmented Phototherapy: Dosimetric Studies In Experimental Liver Cancer In The Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimstone, N. R.; Horner, I. J.; Shaylor-Billings, J.; Gandhi, S. N.

    1982-12-01

    log of incident light energy (joules/sq cm). 3) The photodynamic effect of red coherent light (545-625 nm) from a tunable dye pulse laser system was no different from that of red light from a continuous noncoherent (Tungsten) source. 4) There was a logarithmic relationship between the dose of HP administered and the depth of liver necrosis. 5) If one interposed a photoopaque shield between the incident laser light and the liver, a considerable back scattering of light caused tissue necrosis behind the shield. However, when the diameter of the shield was greater than 1.3 mm, there always was a surviving island of tissue which escaped destruction. 6) The depth of necrosis in liver (mms) was significantly less than adjacent non-pigment tumor (cms) which suggests that the optical density of the tissue is a major factor in determining effective light penetration. We conclude that measurement of tissue porphyrin, and optical density with reference to the liver, will allow precise calculation potentially of major clinical importance in the treatment of skin and mucosal cancers.

  19. Genomic characterization of liver metastases from colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Sayagués, José María; Corchete, Luís Antonio; Gutiérrez, María Laura; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia; del Mar Abad, María; Bengoechea, Oscar; Fermiñán, Encarna; Anduaga, María Fernanda; del Carmen, Sofia; Iglesias, Manuel; Esteban, Carmen; Angoso, María; Alcazar, Jose Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination is the most frequent cause of death of sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) patients. Genomic abnormalities which are potentially characteristic of such advanced stages of the disease are complex and so far, they have been poorly described and only partially understood. We evaluated the molecular heterogeneity of sCRC tumors based on simultaneous assessment of the overall GEP of both coding mRNA and non-coding RNA genes in primary sCRC tumor samples from 23 consecutive patients and their paired liver metastases. Liver metastases from the sCRC patients analyzed, systematically showed deregulated transcripts of those genes identified as also deregulated in their paired primary colorectal carcinomas. However, some transcripts were found to be specifically deregulated in liver metastases (vs. non-tumoral colorectal tissues) while expressed at normal levels in their primary tumors, reflecting either an increased genomic instability of metastatic cells or theiradaption to the liver microenvironment. Newly deregulated metastatic transcripts included overexpression of APOA1, HRG, UGT2B4, RBP4 and ADH4 mRNAS and the miR-3180-3p, miR-3197, miR-3178, miR-4793 and miR-4440 miRNAs, together with decreased expression of the IGKV1-39, IGKC, IGKV1-27, FABP4 and MYLK mRNAS and the miR-363, miR-1, miR-143, miR-27b and miR-28-5p miRNAs. Canonical pathways found to be specifically deregulated in liver metastatic samples included multiple genes related with intercellular adhesion and the metastatic processes (e.g., IGF1R, PIK3CA, PTEN and EGFR), endocytosis (e.g., the PDGFRA, SMAD2, ERBB3, PML and FGFR2), and the cell cycle (e.g., SMAD2, CCND2, E2F5 and MYC). Our results also highlighted the activation of genes associated with the TGFβ signaling pathway, -e.g. RHOA, SMAD2, SMAD4, SMAD5, SMAD6, BMPR1A, SMAD7 and MYC-, which thereby emerge as candidate genes to play an important role in CRC tumor metastasis. PMID:27662660

  20. Preclinical study of using multiphoton microscopy to diagnose liver cancer and differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Gang; Wu, Xiufeng; Zhou, Dong; Xie, Shusen; Jiang, Jiahao; Ying, Mingang; Jia, Fan; Chen, Jianxin; Zhou, Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the miniaturized multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and multiphoton probe allow the clinical use of multiphoton endoscopy for diagnosing cancer via ``optical biopsy''. The purpose of this study was to establish MPM optical diagnostic features for liver cancer and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM optical diagnosis. Firstly, we performed a pilot study to establish the MPM diagnostic features by investigating 60 surgical specimens, and found that high-resolution MPM images clearly demonstrated apparent differences between benign and malignant liver lesions in terms of their tissue architecture and cell morphology. Cancer cells, characterized by irregular size and shape, enlarged nuclei, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, were identified by MPM images, which were comparable to hematoxylin-eosin staining images. Secondly, we performed a blinded study to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM optical diagnosis by investigating another 164 specimens, and found that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPM diagnosis was 96.32%, 96.43%, and 96.34%, respectively. In conclusion, it is feasible to use MPM to diagnose liver cancer and differentiate benign and malignant liver lesions. This preclinical study provides the groundwork for further using multiphoton endoscopy to perform real-time noninvasive ``optical biopsy'' for liver lesions in the near future.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH/NCI NCI: 70 Years of Excellence in Cancer Research Welcome to this special section on cancer research and treatment. August 5 of this year marks ... creation of what has become the world's preeminent cancer research organization, the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Our nation ...

  2. Lymph node-independent liver metastasis in a model of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Ida B; Good, Zinaida; Jubb, Adrian M; Fuh, Germaine; Wang, Xi; Junttila, Melissa R; Jackson, Erica L; Leong, Kevin G

    2014-03-26

    Deciphering metastatic routes is critically important as metastasis is a primary cause of cancer mortality. In colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unknown whether liver metastases derive from cancer cells that first colonize intestinal lymph nodes, or whether such metastases can form without prior lymph node involvement. A lack of relevant metastatic CRC models has precluded investigations into metastatic routes. Here we describe a metastatic CRC mouse model and show that liver metastases can manifest without a lymph node metastatic intermediary. Colorectal tumours transplanted onto the colonic mucosa invade and metastasize to specific target organs including the intestinal lymph nodes, liver and lungs. Importantly, this metastatic pattern differs from that observed following caecum implantation, which invariably involves peritoneal carcinomatosis. Anti-angiogenesis inhibits liver metastasis, yet anti-lymphangiogenesis does not impact liver metastasis despite abrogating lymph node metastasis. Our data demonstrate direct hematogenous spread as a dissemination route that contributes to CRC liver malignancy.

  3. TRAIL-secreting mesenchymal stem cells promote apoptosis in heat-shock-treated liver cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Q; Zhang, Z; Feng, X; Li, T; Liu, N; Lai, J; Shuai, L; Xiong, Q; Fu, C; Zou, H; Wang, Y; Li, X; Ma, K; Bie, P

    2014-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the top six leading causes of cancer-related death. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important means of treating liver cancer. Residual cancer after RFA is the most frequent cause of recurrence in cases of liver cancer. The main difference between residual cancer cells and ordinary liver cancer cells is that residual cancer cells experience heat shock. The secretable form of trimeric human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (stTRAIL) induces apoptosis in a variety of human cancers but not in normal tissues. It has shown potent cancer-selective killing activity and has drawn considerable attention as a possible cancer therapy. In the present work, the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy was evaluated in hepatocellular carcinoma subjected to RFA. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were isolated and transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding stTRAIL (stTRAIL-MSCs, T-MSCs). Cells treated with heat treatment at 43 °C for 45 min served as simulated residual cancer cells. After treatment with T-MSCs, apoptosis in heat-shock-treated liver cancer cells increased significantly, and caspase-3 was upregulated. When T-MSCs were subcutaneously injected into nude mice, they localized to the tumors and inhibited tumor growth, significantly increasing survival. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that BM-MSC can provide a steady source of stTRAIL and may be suitable for use in the prevention of the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after RFA with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

  4. Stem cells for the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Allen, K J; Buck, N E; Williamson, R

    2005-12-01

    Stem cells tantalise. They alone have the capacity to divide exponentially, recreate the stem cell compartment as well as create differentiated cells to build tissues. They should be the natural candidates to provide a renewable source of cells for transplantation. Does the reality support the promise of this exciting alternative to conventional therapies for metabolic and degenerative liver disease? Can techniques be developed to provide the large number of cells that could be required? Must there be "space" in the liver to accept the cells? To what extent is the liver immunoprivileged, and is immunosuppression necessary for stem cell therapy? Is it better to use haematopoietic stem cells, fetal stem cells, mesenchymal cells, embryonic stem cells, hepatocytes or all of the above, but for different disease indications? This paper discusses why the exploration of stem cells for the treatment of liver disease is of great potential, and delineates some of the hurdles that need to be overcome before patients see benefits from laboratory-based research into stem cell transplantation and function.

  5. Gynaecological cancer pathway for faster cancer treatment: a clinical audit.

    PubMed

    Askew, Catherine; Gangji, Anand

    2016-10-28

    Gynaecological cancers make up 10% of cancer cases and 10% of female cancer deaths in New Zealand. The services for investigation and treatment of these women are regionally specific rather than centrally organised; hence we need appropriate standards of service and clear pathways for communication and management of these patients to ensure consistent care that is in line with the Ministry of Health goals for faster cancer treatment.

  6. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men? For many men with breast cancer, ... Breast Cancer in Men Stops Working More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  7. What Happens After Treatment for Bile Duct Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Bile Duct Cancer? For some people with bile duct cancer, ... Bile Duct Cancer Stops Working More In Bile Duct Cancer About Bile Duct Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, ...

  8. Claudin-2 promotes breast cancer liver metastasis by facilitating tumor cell interactions with hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Dupuy, Fanny; Dong, Zhifeng; Monast, Anie; Annis, Matthew G; Spicer, Jonathan; Ferri, Lorenzo E; Omeroglu, Atilla; Basik, Mark; Amir, Eitan; Clemons, Mark; Siegel, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    We previously identified claudin-2 as a functional mediator of breast cancer liver metastasis. We now confirm that claudin-2 levels are elevated in liver metastases, but not in skin metastases, compared to levels in their matched primary tumors in patients with breast cancer. Moreover, claudin-2 is specifically expressed in liver-metastatic breast cancer cells compared to populations derived from bone or lung metastases. The increased liver tropism exhibited by claudin-2-expressing breast cancer cells requires claudin-2-mediated interactions between breast cancer cells and primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the reduction of the claudin-2 expression level, either in cancer cells or in primary hepatocytes, diminishes these heterotypic cell-cell interactions. Finally, we demonstrate that the first claudin-2 extracellular loop is essential for mediating tumor cell-hepatocyte interactions and the ability of breast cancer cells to form liver metastases in vivo. Thus, during breast cancer liver metastasis, claudin-2 shifts from acting within tight-junctional complexes to functioning as an adhesion molecule between breast cancer cells and hepatocytes.

  9. Selenium chemoprevention of liver cancer in animals and possible human applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, S Y; Chu, Y J; Li, W G

    1988-01-01

    An inverse correlation between geographic distribution of liver cancer incidence and the selenium (Se) contents of whole blood and grains was observed in Qidong county, Jiangsu province, a high liver cancer area of the People's Republic of China. Animal experiments demonstrated that supplementation of Se reduced the incidence of liver cancer in rats exposed to aflatoxin B1. Se was also shown to inhibit the growth of transplanted tumors. A lower incidence of liver preneoplastic alterations and reduction of hepatitis B virus infection in ducks by Se-supplementation was observed, and three pilot studies for a Se-intervention trial on human liver cancer were carried out on the residents of Qidong county. A protective effect on the cellular DNA damage induced by aflatoxin B1 was observed in lympocytes from human with Se-supplements.

  10. Systems approach to characterize the metabolism of liver cancer stem cells expressing CD133

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Wonhee; Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Hyun Uk; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Eun Byul; Lee, Sang Yup; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have attracted attention because they cause therapeutic resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Understanding the metabolism of LCSCs can be a key to developing therapeutic strategy, but metabolic characteristics have not yet been studied. Here, we systematically analyzed and compared the global metabolic phenotype between LCSCs and non-LCSCs using transcriptome and metabolome data. We also reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) for LCSC and non-LCSC to comparatively examine differences in their metabolism at genome-scale. We demonstrated that LCSCs exhibited an increased proliferation rate through enhancing glycolysis compared with non-LCSCs. We also confirmed that MYC, a central point of regulation in cancer metabolism, was significantly up-regulated in LCSCs compared with non-LCSCs. Moreover, LCSCs tend to have less active fatty acid oxidation. In this study, the metabolic characteristics of LCSCs were identified using integrative systems analysis, and these characteristics could be potential cures for the resistance of liver cancer cells to anticancer treatments. PMID:28367990

  11. IDH mutations in liver cell plasticity and biliary cancer.

    PubMed

    Saha, Supriya K; Parachoniak, Christine A; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive cancer associated with the bile ducts within the liver. These tumors are characterized by frequent gain-of-function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes-that are also common in subsets of neural, haematopoietic and bone tumors, but rare or absent in the other types of gastrointestinal malignancy. Mutant IDH acts through a novel mechanism of oncogenesis, producing high levels of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with the function of α-ketoglutarate-dependent enzymes that regulate diverse cellular processes including histone demethylation and DNA modification. Recently, we used in vitro stem cell systems and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to demonstrate that mutant IDH promotes ICC formation by blocking hepatocyte differentiation and increasing pools of hepatic progenitors that are susceptible to additional oncogenic hits leading to ICC. We found that silencing of HNF4A-encoding a master transcriptional regulator of hepatocyte identity and quiescence-was critical to mutant IDH-mediated inhibition of liver differentiation. In line with these findings, human ICC with IDH mutations are characterized by a hepatic progenitor cell transcriptional signature suggesting that they are a distinct ICC subtype as compared to IDH wild type tumors. The role of mutant IDH in controlling hepatic differentiation state suggests the potential of newly developed inhibitors of the mutant enzyme as a form of differentiation therapy in a solid tumor.

  12. Role of Phytosterols in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Awad, Atif B

    2015-01-01

    Plant sterols or phytosterols have been shown to be effective in improving blood lipid profile and thereby protective against cardiovascular disease. In addition to their cardioprotective effects, phytosterols have gained more insight for their protective effect against various forms of cancer. Phytosterols have been reported to alleviate cancers of breast, prostate, lung, liver, stomach and ovary. Reductions in growth of various cancer cells including liver, prostate and breast by phytosterols treatment have been demonstrated. Although exact mechanisms of phytosterols for their anticancer effects are not very well delineated, there have been several mechanisms proposed such as inhibition of carcinogen production, cancer cell growth and multiplication, invasion and metastasis and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Other mechanisms including reduction of angiogenesis, invasion and adhesion of cancer cells and production of reactive oxygen species have also been suggested. However, cancer therapy using phytosterol formulations have yet to be designed, largely due to the gap in the literature with regards to mode of action. Furthermore, most of the studies on anticancer effects of phytosterols were conducted in vitro and animal studies and need to be confirmed in humans.

  13. Surgical treatments for esophageal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Allum, William H.; Bonavina, Luigi; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; Dong, Zhao Ming; Felix, Valter Nilton; Figueredo, Edgar; Gatenby, Piers A.C.; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ibraev, Maksat A.; Krasna, Mark J.; Lambert, René; Langer, Rupert; Lewis, Michael P.N.; Nason, Katie S.; Parry, Kevin; Preston, Shaun R.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Schaheen, Lara W.; Tatum, Roger P.; Turkin, Igor N.; van der Horst, Sylvia; van der Peet, Donald L.; van der Sluis, Peter C.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Wormald, Justin C.R.; Wu, Peter C.; Zonderhuis, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the role of the nurse in preparation of esophageal resection (ER); the management of patients who develop high-grade dysplasia after having undergone Nissen fundoplication; the trajectory of care for the patient with esophageal cancer; the influence of the site of tumor in the choice of treatment; the best location for esophagogastrostomy; management of chylous leak after esophagectomy; the optimal approach to manage thoracic esophageal leak after esophagectomy; the choice for operational approach in surgery of cardioesophageal crossing; the advantages of robot esophagectomy; the place of open esophagectomy; the advantages of esophagectomy compared to definitive chemoradiotherapy; the pathologist report in the resected specimen; the best way to manage patients with unsuspected positive microscopic margin after ER; enhanced recovery after surgery for ER: expedited care protocols; and long-term quality of life in patients following esophagectomy. PMID:25266029

  14. [New frontiers in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Tortora, Giampaolo; Daniele, Gennaro

    2006-12-01

    The knowledge acquired in the past few years on the regulatory mechanisms of cancer growth and spreading have started to be translated in the development of a new therapeutic modality directed against previously defined molecular targets, now defined as "target therapy", thus introducing a truly revolutionary concept in the anticancer therapeutic strategies. The novel molecular targeted drugs are usually integrated in therapeutic regimens that combine such novel agents with the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and several studies have now demonstrated their efficacy in the clinical practice. The future goal of cancer therapy will be the tailoring of treatments based on the specific molecular features of the tumor of each patient, with the aim to obtain the maximum therapeutic efficacy with the lowest toxicity.

  15. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Lung Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Breast Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Usefulness of the mini nutritional assessment in predicting the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Hsu, Wei-Chung; Chan, Shu-Ching; Chang, Tusi-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Liver cancer patients are confronted with the additional risk of malnutrition because the disease is often associated with hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and metabolic disturbances. Nutritional intervention can improve treatment outcome, but early detection is important. This study aimed to determine whether the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) could effectively rate the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer in Taiwan. A total of 300 patients were evaluated for nutritional status with two modified versions of the MNA in short and long forms. MNA-Taiwan Version 1 adopted population-specific anthropometric cutpoints, whereas Version 2 replaced mid-arm and calf circumferences in place of body mass index. Predicted statuses were compared to results predicted by the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and analyzed for correlations with biochemical or cancer status parameters. Results showed that both versions of the MNA were effective in predicting nutritional status, and predictions by the short forms agreed well with those by the long forms. The nutritional scores correlated well with hemoglobin, serum albumin, C-reactive protein, r-glutamyl transpeptidase, TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) staging, and severity of cirrhosis. These results suggest that the MNA can be an effective tool for assessing the nutritional status of patients with liver cancer.

  3. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Staging The extent (stage) of breast cancer needs to be determined to help choose the ...

  4. Tolvaptan for the treatment of liver cirrhosis oedema.

    PubMed

    Sakaida, Isao

    2014-07-01

    No alternative therapeutic option exists if liver cirrhosis patients have insufficient response to conventional diuretics and/or experience conventional diuretic-related adverse events. In 2013, tolvaptan (7.5 mg/day), an arginine vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, was approved in Japan for the treatment of liver cirrhosis with oedema. Short-term use of tolvaptan produced decreases in body weight, reduction in ascites volume and increases in urine volume when compared to placebo, despite the use of conventional diuretics. Additionally, approximately 60% of patients with oedema-related symptoms improved. Low-dose tolvaptan, 3.75 mg, was also efficacious. Even in patients with low serum albumin (<2.5 g/dL), decrease in body weight was greater with tolvaptan than with placebo. For future research, the efficacy and safety of lower tolvaptan doses for the treatment of liver cirrhosis patients with oedema should be confirmed in Japan. The results of this research could be used as an indicator or a guideline for physicians around the world.

  5. Correlation between liver cancer pain and the HIF-1 and VEGF expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Geng; Feng, Gui-Yin; Guo, Yan-Ru; Liang, Dong-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Hai-Lun

    2017-01-01

    A possible correlation between liver cancer pain and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression levels was examined. From January, 2015 to January, 2016, 30 patients suffering from liver cancer with pain, 30 patients with liver cancer without pain and 30 hepatitis patients with pain were enrolled in the study. Pain level was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA were determined by RT-PCR and the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF proteins were examined by ELISA. Before intervention, the VAS in the hepatitis group was significantly higher than that of the liver cancer pain group. However, after intervention the VAS in the two groups was reduced. HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA expression levels in the liver cancer pain group were significantly higher than those in the liver cancer group before and after intervention. The expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA in the hepatitis group were the lowest. The expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA in the liver cancer pain group considerably increased after intervention. The expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA in the other two groups showed no changes before or after intervention. Before and after the intervention, VAS in the liver cancer pain group was positively correlated to the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF. Thus, pain occurrence and the pain level in liver cancer patients were correlated with the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF. As the regular three-step medicine analgesic ladder is ineffective in these cases, verification of HIF-1 and VEGF expression levels may be considered the new target for pain release. PMID:28123525

  6. What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Nasopharyngeal Cancer About Nasopharyngeal Cancer What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... the world where this cancer is common. Treatment New surgical techniques Advances in the field of skull ...

  7. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Eye Cancer About Eye Cancer What’s New in Eye Cancer Research and Treatment? Many medical ... high risk group. Using genes to help find new treatments Identifying gene changes in eye cancer cells ...

  8. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  9. Label-free detection of liver cancer cells by aptamer-based microcantilever biosensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuejuan; Pan, Yangang; Liu, Huiqing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Bailin

    2016-05-15

    Liver cancer is one of the most common and highly malignant cancers in the world. There are no effective therapeutic options if an early liver cancer diagnosis is not achieved. In this work, detection of HepG2 cells by label-free microcantilever array aptasensor was developed. The sensing microcantilevers were functionalized by HepG2 cells-specific aptamers. Meanwhile, to eliminate the interferences induced by the environment, the reference microcantilevers were modified with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol self-assembled monolayers. The aptasensor exhibits high specificity over not only human liver normal cells, but also other cancer cells of breast, bladder, and cervix tumors. The linear relation ranges from 1×10(3) to 1×10(5)cells/mL, with a detection limit of 300 cells/mL (S/N=3). Our work provides a simple method for detection of liver cancer cells with advantages in terms of simplicity and stability.

  10. [One staged laparoscopic surgery of colon cancer with liver metastasis in the Guillermo Almenara Hospital, Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Núñez Ju, Juan José; Coronado3, Cesar Carlos; Anchante Castillo, Eduardo; Sandoval Jauregui, Javier; Arenas Gamio, José

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who was diagnosed sigmoid colon cancer associated with liver metastases in segment III. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery where the sigmoid colon resection and hepatic metastasectomy were performed in a “one staged” surgical procedure. The pathological results showed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma in sigmoid colon, tubular adenocarcinoma metastases also in liver. Oncological surgical results were obtained with free edges of neoplasia, R0 Surgery, T3N0M1. After the optimal surgical results, the patient is handled by oncology for adjuvant treatment. We report here the sequence of events and a review of the literature.

  11. [Detection of early gastric cancer facilitated by surveillance for a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius].

    PubMed

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Tamura, Tomohiro; Ozawa, Shun-Ichiro; Matsuo, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Suzuki, Michihiro; Itoh, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of early gastric cancer that was detected during surveillance of a pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius, an oral microbiota. Treatment with proton pump inhibitors can result in the alteration of gastric bacterial flora by altering intragastric acidity. This can place immunocompromised patients, such as those with diabetes mellitus and the elderly, at an increased risk for disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract to be a route of bacterial transmission. In this case, the patient developed a pyogenic liver abscess.

  12. Thermal ablation of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: radiofrequency, microwave and laser ablation therapies.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas J; Farshid, Parviz; Naguib, Nagy N N; Darvishi, Abbas; Bazrafshan, Babak; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Burkhard, Thorsten; Zangos, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Surgery is currently considered the treatment of choice for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) when resectable. The majority of these patients can also benefit from systemic chemotherapy. Recently, local or regional therapies such as thermal ablations have been used with acceptable outcomes. We searched the medical literature to identify studies and reviews relevant to radiofrequency (RF) ablation, microwave (MW) ablation and laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) in terms of local progression, survival indexes and major complications in patients with CRLM. Reviewed literature showed a local progression rate between 2.8 and 29.7 % of RF-ablated liver lesions at 12-49 months follow-up, 2.7-12.5 % of MW ablated lesions at 5-19 months follow-up and 5.2 % of lesions treated with LITT at 6-month follow-up. Major complications were observed in 4-33 % of patients treated with RF ablation, 0-19 % of patients treated with MW ablation and 0.1-3.5 % of lesions treated with LITT. Although not significantly different, the mean of 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates for RF-, MW- and laser ablated lesions was (92.6, 44.7, 31.1 %), (79, 38.6, 21 %) and (94.2, 61.5, 29.2 %), respectively. The median survival in these methods was 33.2, 29.5 and 33.7 months, respectively. Thermal ablation may be an appropriate alternative in patients with CRLM who have inoperable liver lesions or have operable lesions as an adjunct to resection. However, further competitive evaluation should clarify the efficacy and priority of these therapies in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases.

  13. [Radiolabeled antibodies for cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-François; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The first treatment ever by radio-immunotherapy (RIT) was performed by William H. Beierwaltes in 1951 and was a success. Fifty years later, the main question is to find ways of extending the success of radiolabelled anti-CD20 antibodies in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to other forms of cancer. Solid tumours are much more radioresistant than lymphomas, but they respond to RIT if the lesions are small. Clinical situations of residual or minimal disease are thus the most likely to benefit from RIT in the adjuvant or consolidation settings. For disseminated disease, like leukemias or myelomas, the problem is different: beta- particles emitted by the radioactive atoms classically used for cancer treatment (iodine-131 or yttrium-90) disperse their energy in large volumes (ranges 1 mm to 1 cm) and are not very effective against isolated cells. Advances in RIT progress in two directions. One is the development of pretargeting strategies in which the antibody is not labelled but used to provide binding sites to small molecular weight radioactivity vectors (biotin, haptens). These techniques have been shown to increase tumour to non-target uptake ratios and anti-tumour efficacy has been demonstrated in the clinic. The other approach is the use of radionuclides adapted to the various clinical situations. Lutetium-177 or copper-67, because of the lower energy of their emission, their relatively long half-life and good gamma emission, may significantly improve RIT efficacy and acceptability. Beyond that, radionuclides emitting particles such as alpha particles or Auger electrons, much more efficient to kill isolated tumour cells, are being tested for RIT in the clinic. Finally, RIT should be integrated with other cancer treatment approaches in multimodality protocols. Thus RIT, now a mature technology, should enter a phase of well designed and focused clinical developments that may be expected to afford significant therapeutic advances.

  14. Probiotics and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Treatment and Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengyuan; Duan, Kangmin; Wang, Cuiling; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed. PMID:26839540

  15. [Giant haemangioma of the liver: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Lisette T; Bieze, Matthanja; Erdogan, Deha; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Beuers, Ulrich H W; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    A liver haemangioma is a benign, usually small tumour comprised of blood vessels, which is often discovered coincidentally; giant haemangiomas are defined as haemangiomas larger than 5 cm. The differential diagnosis includes other hypervascular tumours, such as hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastasis of a neuro-endocrine tumour or renal cell carcinoma.- The diagnosis is based on abdominal ultrasonography and can be confirmed by a CT or MR scan. A wait-and-see approach is justified in patients without symptoms or with minimal symptoms, even in the presence of a giant haemangioma. Surgical resection of a giant haemangioma is only necessary when the preoperative diagnosis is inconclusive, or when the haemangioma leads to mechanical symptoms or complications. Extirpation is the only effective form of treatment of the giant haemangioma; enucleation is preferred over partial liver resection. A known complication of a giant haemangioma is the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, the Kasabach-Merritt syndrome; intervention is then demanded.

  16. [New antibodies in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Pestalozzi, B C; Knuth, A

    2004-09-22

    Since the development of hybridoma technology in 1975 monoclonal antibodies with pre-defined specificity can be produced. Only twenty years later did it become possible to make therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in oncology. To this end it was necessary to attach the antigen-binding site of a mouse antibody onto the scaffold of a human antibody molecule. Such chimeric or "humanized" antibodies may be used in passive immunotherapy without eliciting an immune response. Rituximab and trastuzumab are such humanized antibodies. They are used today routinely in the treatment of malignant lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. These antibodies are usually used in combination with conventional cytostatic anticancer drugs.

  17. The Link Between Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer: The Asian American Community

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Moon Chen, Professor of the Department of Internal Medicine and Associate Director of Cancer Control at the University of California-Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, speaks about Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer as a more prevalent problem in the Asian American community.

  18. Liver Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Improves Detection of Liver Metastases in Patients with Pancreatic or Periampullary Cancer.

    PubMed

    Taimr, Pavel; Jongerius, Vivian L; Pek, Chulja J; Krak, Nanda C; Hansen, Bettina E; Janssen, Harry L A; Metselaar, Herold J; van Eijck, Casper H J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a diagnostic performance evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting liver metastases in patients with suspected of pancreatic or periampullary cancer. Computed tomography (CT) is often insufficient for detection of liver metastases, but their presence plays a crucial role in the choice of therapy. Eighty-nine patients with suspected pancreatic or periampullary cancer were included in this prospective study with retrospective analysis. Patients underwent an abdominal CT and CEUS. Fifteen patients had liver metastases. The CT sensitivity was 73.3% (11/15), the specificity 93.2% (69/74), the positive predictive value (PPV) 68.8% (11/16) and the negative predictive value (NPV) 94.6% (69/73). Based on CEUS, the sensitivity was 80% (12/15), specificity 98.6% (73/74), PPV 92.3% (12/13) and NPV 96.1% (73/76). CEUS improved characterization of liver lesions in patients with suspected pancreatic or periampullary cancer compared with CT. CEUS can better detect benign liver lesions and distinguish false-positive or indeterminate CT results.

  19. SU-E-T-402: Y-90 Microspheres (SIR Spheres) for Treatment of Liver Metastasis : Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the radiation safety and dosimetric technique used for the therapeutic procedure using Y-90 microspheres through intra -arterial administration on patients with liver metastasis Methods: The radiation dosimetry, technique and safety aspects of 14 patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer, treated with Y-90 microsphere (SIR spheres) are discussed. The liver and tumor volumes were determined using the CT and MR scans . The images were imported into the treatment planning system and the liver and tumor volumes and the volume of the liver affected were outlined and the volume calculation was performed using the software. The lung shunt fraction (LSF) and tumor to liver uptake ratio (TLR) were determined using the nuclear medicine SPECT imaging with Tc-99m MAA. The absorbed dose to the target volume in liver was calculated using the following equation:Dose ? (Gy) = C x E? x 5.92 x 10-6 (Gy/s) x T(1/2)(days) x 1.44 x 8.64 x 104 (s) The distribution of activity in the tumor bed was confirmed by post Y-90 administration imaging using the Bremsstrahlung peak at 30% window. The patient and the procedure room were surveyed and radiation safety instructions were given to the patient Results: The tumor volume ranged from 77 cc to 700 cc, tumor to liver uptake ranged from 3 to 12. The lung shunt fraction varied from 1.08% to 9.0%. The activity administered ranged from 1.0GBq to 2.5 GBq, . The radiation survey in contact with the patient ranged from 1.8 mR/hr to 2.5 mR/hr and reading at 1 meter was less than 0.2 mR/hr Conclusion: The technique for radiation dosimetry and radiation safety for Y-90 microsphere therapy is established. The post treatment imaging helped to confirm the distribution of Y-90 microspheres inside the tumor bed.

  20. Thrombocytosis of Liver Metastasis from Colorectal Cancer as Predictive Factor.

    PubMed

    Jósa, Valéria; Krzystanek, Marcin; Vass, Tamás; Lang, Tamás; Juhász, Viktória; Szilágyi, Kamilla; Tihanyi, Balázs; Harsányi, László; Szállási, Zoltán; Salamon, Ferenc; Baranyai, Zsolt

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that thrombocytosis is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis formation. It was shown in several solid tumor types that thrombocytosis prognosticates cancer progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative thrombocytosis as a potential prognostic biomarker in isolated metastases, in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (mCRC). Clinicopathological data of 166 patients with mCRC who had surgical resection between 2001 and 2011 were collected retrospectively. All primary tumors have been already resected. The platelet count was evaluated based on the standard preoperative blood profile. The patients were followed-up on average for 28 months. Overall survival (OS) of patients with thrombocytosis was significantly worse both in univariate (HR = 3.00, p = 0.03) and in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.68, p = 0.056) when adjusted for gender, age, tumor size and surgical margin. Thrombocytosis was also a good prognosticator of disease-free survival (DFS) with HR = 2.7, p = 0.018 and nearly significant in multivariate setting (HR = 2.26, p = 0.073). The platelet count is a valuable prognostic marker for the survival in patients with mCRC.

  1. Analysis of liver-directed therapies in U.S. cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Alese, O.B.; Kim, S.; Chen, Z.; Ramalingam, S.S.; Owonikoko, T.K.; El-Rayes, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The liver is a common site of primary and metastatic cancer. Liver-directed therapies are commonly used to treat cancer involving the liver. We report on the patterns, predictors, and outcomes of liver-directed therapies in hospitalized cancer patients in the United States. Methods Data were obtained from all U.S. states that contributed to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and multivariate testing was used to identify factors significantly associated with patient outcome. Results For the 5-year period of interest, 12,540 patient discharges were identified. Mean age in the sample was 60 years. Primary liver lesions (n = 8840) made up 26.9% of the sample; the remaining cases were metastases. Most procedures were performed in large (79%) urban (98%) hospitals and in patients with insurance (97.9%). The most common intervention was partial hepatectomy (42.7%), followed by open (9.9%), percutaneous (7.2%), and laparoscopic (5.04%) ablation of liver lesions; embolization (9.8%); and liver transplantation (2.64%). The incidence of in-hospital mortality was very low (2.4%), and the complication rate was 12.2%. Complications such as acute liver necrosis, ascites, hepatic coma, hepatorenal syndrome, liver abscess, and high number of comorbid illnesses (>8) accounted for 60% of the in-hospital mortality. Conclusions The low rate of morbidity and mortality associated with liver-directed therapies in hospitalized cancer patients supports the continuing utility of such procedures in the management of primary and metastatic liver cancer. The patterns of health disparities observed with respect to the use of liver-directed therapies are concerning. PMID:26715883

  2. Cancer cachexia, mechanism and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that half of all patients with cancer eventually develop a syndrome of cachexia, with anorexia and a progressive loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Cancer cachexia is characterized by systemic inflammation, negative protein and energy balance, and an involuntary loss of lean body mass. It is an insidious syndrome that not only has a dramatic impact on patient quality of life, but also is associated with poor responses to chemotherapy and decreased survival. Cachexia is still largely an underestimated and untreated condition, despite the fact that multiple mechanisms are reported to be involved in its development, with a number of cytokines postulated to play a role in the etiology of the persistent catabolic state. Existing therapies for cachexia, including orexigenic appetite stimulants, focus on palliation of symptoms and reduction of the distress of patients and families rather than prolongation of life. Recent therapies for the cachectic syndrome involve a multidisciplinary approach. Combination therapy with diet modification and/or exercise has been added to novel pharmaceutical agents, such as Megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, ghrelin, omega-3-fatty acid among others. These agents are reported to have improved survival rates as well as quality of life. In this review, we will discuss the emerging understanding of the mechanisms of cancer cachexia, the current treatment options including multidisciplinary combination therapies, as well an update on new and ongoing clinical trials. PMID:25897346

  3. [A case of long-term survival of liver metastasis of breast cancer successfully treated with chemotherapy and endocrine therapy].

    PubMed

    Shiba, E; Koyama, H; Sasaki, Y; Iwanaga, T; Terasawa, T; Wada, A

    1985-09-01

    A 42-year-old woman was diagnosed as having hepatic metastasis two years after radical mastectomy for breast cancer. She was initially treated with oophorectomy and cytotoxic chemotherapy, which resulted in complete regression of the lesion within two years after the start of the treatment. She remained free of the disease until the fifth year thereafter, when she again developed a metastatic lesions in her liver. Since then, she has been treated sequentially with various kinds of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy with a certain degree of response to each treatment. She has survived 12 years and three months after the development of liver metastasis. This patient is the longest survivor of hepatic metastasis from breast cancer in the Japaneses literature.

  4. Long-term survival of a breast cancer patient with extensive liver metastases upon immune and virotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Volker; Stücker, Wilfried; Lulei, Maria; Bihari, Akos-Sigmund; Sprenger, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Liver metastases in breast cancer are associated with a poor prognosis. We report long-term survival of a patient with breast cancer and liver metastases. After operation the patient declined further standard therapy. Instead, she was treated with local hyperthermia, Newcastle disease virus and dendritic cell vaccination at the Immunological and Oncological Center Cologne (IOZK), Germany. A continuous high quality of life was reported and the patient survived more than 66 months after initial diagnosis. No recurrence or further metastases developed under treatment. Following treatment, a long-lasting tumor-reactive memory T-cell responsiveness could be documented. This possibly explains the favorable course of disease. Since this combination of therapies is not restricted to a particular tumor type, further exploration is warranted.

  5. [Surgical treatment of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Salinas-Aragón, L E; Camacho-Mauries, D; Medina-Franco, H

    2010-01-01

    Rectal affection accounts for 30% of colorectal cancer. The standard of treatment is surgical resection, which often is curative. For superior and middle-rectal involvement, low anterior resection (LAR) is the preferred procedure. For tumors involving the lower portion of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection (APR) or LAR are the options of treatment, depending on sphincter involvement. The main surgical objective is to achieve a R0 resection with an appropriated total mesorrectal excision, greater number of lymph nodes and negative distal and radial margins. These surgical parameters have been used as quality indicators and have prognostic implications in terms of overall and disease-free survival. Total mesorectal excision with preservation of hypogastric nerves has shown a reduction in rates of sexual and bladder dysfunction as well as lower local recurrence. At specialized centers such procedures are performed by minimal invasive surgery; however the number of meta-analysis is scarce.

  6. Role of PXR in Hepatic Cancer: Its Influences on Liver Detoxification Capacity and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kotiya, Deepak; Jaiswal, Bharti; Ghose, Sampa; Kaul, Rachna; Datta, Kasturi; Tyagi, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The role of nuclear receptor PXR in detoxification and clearance of xenobiotics and endobiotics is well-established. However, its projected role in hepatic cancer is rather illusive where its expression is reported altered in different cancers depending on the tissue-type and microenvironment. The expression of PXR, its target genes and their biological or clinical significance have not been examined in hepatic cancer. In the present study, by generating DEN-induced hepatic cancer in mice, we report that the expression of PXR and its target genes CYP3A11 and GSTa2 are down-regulated implying impairment of hepatic detoxification capacity. A higher state of inflammation was observed in liver cancer tissues as evident from upregulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α along with NF-κB and STAT3. Our data in mouse model suggested a negative correlation between down-regulation of PXR and its target genes with that of higher expression of inflammatory proteins (like IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB). In conjunction, our findings with relevant cell culture based assays showed that higher expression of PXR is involved in reduction of tumorigenic potential in hepatic cancer. Overall, the findings suggest that inflammation influences the expression of hepatic proteins important in drug metabolism while higher PXR level reduces tumorigenic potential in hepatic cancer. PMID:27760163

  7. Role of PXR in Hepatic Cancer: Its Influences on Liver Detoxification Capacity and Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Kotiya, Deepak; Jaiswal, Bharti; Ghose, Sampa; Kaul, Rachna; Datta, Kasturi; Tyagi, Rakesh K

    2016-01-01

    The role of nuclear receptor PXR in detoxification and clearance of xenobiotics and endobiotics is well-established. However, its projected role in hepatic cancer is rather illusive where its expression is reported altered in different cancers depending on the tissue-type and microenvironment. The expression of PXR, its target genes and their biological or clinical significance have not been examined in hepatic cancer. In the present study, by generating DEN-induced hepatic cancer in mice, we report that the expression of PXR and its target genes CYP3A11 and GSTa2 are down-regulated implying impairment of hepatic detoxification capacity. A higher state of inflammation was observed in liver cancer tissues as evident from upregulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α along with NF-κB and STAT3. Our data in mouse model suggested a negative correlation between down-regulation of PXR and its target genes with that of higher expression of inflammatory proteins (like IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB). In conjunction, our findings with relevant cell culture based assays showed that higher expression of PXR is involved in reduction of tumorigenic potential in hepatic cancer. Overall, the findings suggest that inflammation influences the expression of hepatic proteins important in drug metabolism while higher PXR level reduces tumorigenic potential in hepatic cancer.

  8. Numerical design of RF ablation applicator for hepatic cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmadi, Aditya; Basari

    2017-02-01

    Currently, cancer has become one of health problems that is difficult to be overcomed. This disease is not only difficult to be cured, but also to be detected and may cause death. For this reason, RF ablation treatment method is proposed to cure cancer. RF ablation therapy is a method in which an applicator is inserted into the body to kill cancer cells by heating the cells. The cancer cells are exposed to the temperature more than 60°C in short duration (few second to few minutes) so thus cell destruction occurs locally. For the sake of the successful treatment, a minimally invasive method is selected in order for perfect local temperature distribution in cancer cells can be achieved. In this paper, a coax-fed dipole-type applicator with interstitial irradiation technique is proposed aimed at RF ablation into hepatic cells. Numerical simulation is performed to obtain a suitable geometric dimension at operating frequency around 2.45 GHz, in order to localize the ablation area. The proposed applicator is inserted into a simple phantom representing an adult human body model in which normal and cancerous liver cells. The simulated results show that the proposed applicator is able to operate at center frequency of 2.355 GHz with blood droplet-type ablation zone and the temperature around the cancer cell by 60°C can be achieved.

  9. Liver disease in menopause.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  10. What is the optimal neo-adjuvant treatment for liver metastasis?

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsdottir, Sigurdis; Wu, Christina; Bloomston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the Western population and has a 5-year overall survival of 5–10% when metastatic. Approximately 30% of the patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have limited disease apparently isolated to the liver and, if this can be resected, the 5-year overall survival is improved to 30–60%. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who have both resectable disease and those with initially unresectable tumors who can potentially be downsized with chemotherapy to allow resection. First-line doublet chemotherapy regimens lead to response rates of 50–60%, triplet chemotherapy regimens may result in a response rate of up to 70%, and biological agents may add to responses or induce morphologic changes that facilitate disease resection. Surgical advances in recent years have also increased resectability rates and have challenged prior rules of resectability. Local therapies including ablation and radiation, often performed in conjunction with resection, may further aid in control of disease. The aim of this article is to focus on the role of neoadjuvant therapy in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases. PMID:23858331

  11. Pregnancy associated breast cancer and pregnancy after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Doğer, Emek; Calışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and radiotherapy after delivery. Even though early stage breast cancers have similar prognosis, advanced stage breast cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation have poorer prognosis than similar stage breast cancers diagnosed in non-pregnant women. Women who desire to become pregnant after treatment of breast cancer will have many conflicts. Although the most common concern is recurrence of breast cancer due to pregnancy, the studies conducted showed that pregnancy has no negative effect on breast cancer prognosis. In this review we search for the frequency of breast cancer during pregnancy, the histopathological findings, risk factor, diagnostic and treatment modalities. We reviewed the literature for evidence based findings to help consult the patients on the outcome of breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy and lactation, and also inform the patients who desire to become pregnant after breast cancer according to current evidences.

  12. Active targeting docetaxel-PLA nanoparticles eradicate circulating lung cancer stem-like cells and inhibit liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Jiang, Yao; Zhang, Huifeng; Sun, Bo; Hou, Chunying; Zheng, Ji; Liu, Yanyong; Zuo, Pingping

    2015-01-05

    Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer related lethality worldwide, and metastasis to distant organs is the pivotal cause of death for the vast majority of lung cancer patients. Accumulated evidence indicates that lung cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) play important roles in metastagenesis, and these circulating CSLCs may be important targets to inhibit the subsequent metastasis. The present study was aimed at establishing CSLC-targeting polylactic acid (PLA) encapsulated docetaxel nanoparticles for antimetastatic therapy. Cyclic binding peptides were screened on CSLCs in vitro and the peptide CVKTPAQSC exhibiting high specific binding ability to pulmonary adenocarcinoma tissue was subsequently conjugated to the nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel (NDTX). Antimetastatic effect of CSLC-targeting nanoparticles loaded with docetaxel (TNDTX) was evaluated in a nude mouse model of liver metastasis. Results showed that, in the absence of targeting peptide, NDTX hardly exhibited any antimetastatic effect. However, TNDTX treatment significantly decreased the metastatic tumor area in the nude mouse liver. Histopathological and serological results also confirmed the antimetastatic efficacy of TNDTX. To our knowledge, this is the first report on establishing a CSLC-based strategy for lung cancer metastatic treatment, and we hope this will offer a potential therapeutic approach for management of metastatic lung cancer.

  13. Treatment approach in patients with hyperbilirubinemia secondary to liver metastases in gastrointestinal malignancies: a case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Quidde, Julia; Azémar, Marc; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Arnold, Dirk; Stein, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of patients with severe liver dysfunction including hyperbilirubinemia secondary to liver metastases of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is challenging. Regimen of oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine (FP)/folinic acid (FA) ± a monoclonal antibody (moAb), represents a feasible option considering the pharmacokinetics. Clinical data on the respective dosage and tolerability are limited and no recommendations are available. Methods: Consecutive patients with severe hyperbilirubinemia [>2 × upper limit of the normal range (ULN) and >2.4 mg/dl] due to liver metastases of GI cancer without options for drainage receiving oxaliplatin, FP/FA ± moAb were analyzed. To collect further data a review of the literature was performed. Results: A total of 12 patients were identified between 2011 and 2015. At treatment start, median bilirubin level was 6.1 mg/dl (>5 × ULN, range 2.7–13.6). The majority of patients (n = 11) received dose-reduced regimen with oxaliplatin (60–76%) and FP/FA (0–77%), rapidly escalating to full dose regimen. During treatment, bilirubin levels dropped more than 50% within 8 weeks or normalized within 12 weeks in 6 patients (responders). Median overall survival was 5.75 months (range 1.0–16.0 months) but was significantly prolonged in responders compared to nonresponders [9.7 and 3.0 months, p = 0.026 (two-sided test); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–10.22]. In addition, case reports or series comprising a further 26 patients could be identified. Based on the obtained data a treatment algorithm was developed. Conclusion: Treatment with oxaliplatin, FP/FA ± moAb is feasible and may derive relevant benefits in patients with severe liver dysfunction caused by GI cancer liver metastases without further options of drainage. PMID:27239232

  14. A potential treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with SIRT1 activators.

    PubMed

    Colak, Yasar; Yesil, Atakan; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Caklili, Ozge Telci; Ulasoglu, Celal; Senates, Ebubekir; Takir, Mumtaz; Kostek, Osman; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Yilmaz Enc, Feruze; Tasan, Guralp; Tuncer, Ilyas

    2014-09-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are members of the silent information regulator-2 family and act as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylases. The de-acetylation of proteins and histones results in an up- or down-regulation of gene transcription and protein function. In recent years, the regulatory action of the deacetylation activity of SIRT1 has been shown to have a positive impact on the pathophysiological mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Among the effects of SIRT1 are: its healing activity on insulin sensitivity, thereby ameliorating glycemic regulation; its mimetic activity on calorie restriction; its antihyperlipidemic activity on lipid homeostasis via the liver, adipose tissues and skeletal muscles; its anti-inflammatory activities; its protective effects against cardiovascular events and endothelial dysfunction; its positive influence on autophagy, apoptosis and cancer; and finally, its anti-aging activity. The current approach for the treatment of NAFLD involves the treatment of etiological factors and recommendation of life-style changes including more physical activity and a low-calorie diet. However, there is no specific medical treatments for NAFLD. The therapeutic potential of SIRT1 activity in the treatment of NAFLD discovered in humans has been presented in this article. In this review, the potential effects of SIRT1 activation on NAFLD-related pathophysiological mechanisms and on the treatment of NAFLD are discussed.

  15. Induction of autophagy and senescence by knockdown of ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to suppress the growth of liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Li, L; Liu, H; Wu, L; Luo, Z; Li, H; Zheng, S; Gao, H; Chu, Y; Sun, Y; Liu, J; Jia, L

    2013-02-01

    Regulator of Cullins-1 (ROC1) or RING box protein-1 (RBX1) is an essential RING component of Cullin-RING ligase (CRL). Our previous studies showed that ROC1 is required for the growth of several cancer cell lines while ROC1 siRNA silencing inactivates CRL, leading to cell cycle arrest, cell senescence and/or apoptosis. However, it is completely unknown whether ROC1 knockdown triggers autophagic response by inactivating CRL. Moreover, the role of ROC1 in liver cancer remains elusive. In this study, we reported that ROC1 knockdown significantly inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by sequentially and independently inducing autophagy and p21-dependent cell senescence. Mechanism analysis revealed that ROC1 silencing triggered autophagy by inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity due to accumulation of mTOR-inhibitory protein Deptor, a substrate of CRL. Consistently, Deptor knockdown significantly blocked autophagy response upon ROC1 silencing. Biologically, autophagy response upon ROC1 silencing was a survival signal, and blockage of autophagy pathway sensitized cancer cells to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that ROC1 was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas, which is associated with poor prognosis of liver cancer patients. These findings suggest that ROC1 is an appealing drug target for liver cancer and provide a proof-of-concept evidence for a novel drug combination of ROC1 inhibitor and an autophagy inhibitor for effective treatment of liver cancer by enhancing apoptosis.

  16. Targeting delivery of lipocalin 2-engineered mesenchymal stem cells to colon cancer in order to inhibit liver metastasis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Harati, Mozhgan Dehghan; Amiri, Fatemeh; Jaleh, Fatemeh; Mehdipour, Ahmad; Harati, Mitra Dehghan; Molaee, Sedigheh; Bahadori, Marzieh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Jalili, Mohammad Ali; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi

    2015-08-01

    One of the major obstacles in cancer therapy is the lack of anticancer agent specificity to tumor tissues. The strategy of cell-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for cancer treatment. The specific tumor-oriented migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) makes them a useful vehicle to deliver anticancer agents. In this study, we genetically manipulated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with their lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) in order to inhibit liver metastasis of colon cancer in nude mice. Lcn2 was successfully overexpressed in transfected MSCs. The PCR results of SRY gene confirmed the presence of MSCs in cancer liver tissue. This study showed that Lcn2-engineered MSCs (MSC-Lcn2) not only inhibited liver metastasis of colon cancer but also downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the liver. Overall, MSCs by innate tropism toward cancer cells can deliver the therapeutic agent, Lcn2, and inhibit cancer metastasis. Hence, it could be a new modality for efficient targeted delivery of anticancer agent to liver metastasis.

  17. Prognostic significance of B7-H4 expression in matched primary pancreatic cancer and liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yun; Sang, Yiwen; Wang, Frederick X.C.; Hong, Bo; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Xinhui; Weng, Tianhao; Wu, Zhigang; Zheng, Min; Zhang, Hong; Yao, Hangping

    2016-01-01

    Liver metastasis development in pancreatic cancer patients is common and confers a poor prognosis. Clinical relevance of biomarker analysis in metastatic tissue is necessary. B7-H4 has an inhibitory effect on T cell mediated response and may be involved in tumor development. Although B7-H4 expression has been detected in pancreatic cancer, its expression in liver metastases from pancreatic cancer is still unknown. In this study, overall 43 pancreatic cancer liver metastases (with matched primaries in 15/43 cases) and 57 pancreatic cancer cases without liver metastases or other distant metastases were analyzed for their expression of B7-H4 by immunohistochemistry. Survival curves and log-rank tests were used to test the association of B7-H4 expression with survival. B7-H4 was highly expressed in 28 (65.1%) of the 43 liver metastases and 9 (60.0%) of the 15 matched primary tumors. The expression of B7-H4 in liver metastases was significantly higher than in the matched primary tumors (p < 0.05). Patients with high B7-H4 expression in their primary pancreatic cancer had higher risk of developing liver metastases (p < 0.05). In univariate analysis, B7-H4 expression was significantly associated with the risk of death (p < 0.05). And the multivariate analysis identified that B7-H4 was an independent prognostic indicator (p < 0.05). Our results revealed B7-H4 to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. B7-H4 may promote pancreatic cancer metastasis and was promising to be a potential prognostic indicator of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27750217

  18. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  19. Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-17

    Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Malignant Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Malignant Pancreatic Insulinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Somatostatinoma; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  20. Cancer treatment: dealing with pain

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative - cancer pain ... The pain from cancer can have a few different causes: The cancer. When a tumor grows it can press ... nerves, bones, organs, or the spinal cord, causing pain. Medical tests. Some medical tests, such as a ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage II endometrial cancer. Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside ... uterus. In stage II , cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix , but has not spread outside ...

  2. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and carnitine treatment on rat liver.

    PubMed

    Battelli, D; Bellei, M; Kneer, N; Contri, M B; Ronchetti, I P; Bobyleva, V; Lardy, H A

    1994-08-01

    It is well established that DHEA treatment is associated in the rat to an increase in fatty acids metabolism. This condition would require levels of L-carnitine much higher than those physiologically present in the liver. The possibility thus exist that during DHEA treatment the concentration of L-carnitine may become a limiting factor for fatty acids oxidation and therefore responsible of some of the effects observed after administration of the hormone. The present experiments were designed to test this hypothesis. The results show that the increase in the levels of peroxisomal enzymes induced in hepatocytes by DHEA, is greatly reduced by parallel administration of L-carnitine. Furthermore, L-carnitine administration counteracts the effect of DHEA on mitochondrial structure. On the contrary, carnitine has no significant effect on the reduction in weight gain observed upon short- or long-term treatment with DHEA.

  3. Prospective and randomized trial of lipiodol-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison of epirubicin and doxorubicin (second cooperative study). The Cooperative Study Group for Liver Cancer Treatment of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, S; Tani, M; Okamura, J; Ogawa, M; Ohashi, Y; Monden, M; Hayashi, S; Inoue, J; Kawarada, Y; Kusano, M; Kubo, Y; Kuroda, C; Sakata, Y; Shimamura, Y; Jinno, K; Takahashi, A; Takayasu, K; Tamura, K; Nagasue, N; Nakanishi, Y; Makino, M; Masuzawa, M; Yumoto, Y; Mori, T; Oda, T

    1997-04-01

    A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of epirubicin (EPI) and doxorubicin (DOX) in Lipiodol (Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle Cedex, France)-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization as a treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. One hundred ninety-two hospitals participated, and 415 patients were enrolled in the study during the period between October 1989 and December 1990. The patients were randomly allocated to group A (EPI) or group B (DOX) by a centralized telephone registration. The actual doses of EPI and DOX were 72 mg/body and 48 mg/body, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were, respectively, 69%, 44%, and 33% for group A and 73%, 54%, and 37% for group B. There were no statistically significant differences (P = .2296, log-rank test). When each group of patients was classified retrospectively into high-risk and low-risk subgroups based on the severity index calculated by the Cox regression model from the significant prognostic factors (the pretreatment tumor size, the pretreatment serum alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor encroachment, and Child's classification), the survival curve of the low-risk DOX subgroup was significantly superior to that of the low-risk EPI subgroup (P = .0182). However, there was no significant difference between the high-risk subgroups (P = .4606). The change in the serum alpha-fetoprotein level, the extent of Lipiodol accumulation in the tumor, and the extent of tumor reduction after the treatment did not show any significant differences between the groups. The white blood cell count in group B showed a tendency to decrease slightly more than in group A at 3 weeks after Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. In conclusion, there was no statistically significant difference between the survival curves of the EPI and DOX groups in Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. [A clinical study of the surgical treatment of liver metastases].

    PubMed

    Napolitano, A M; Innocenti, P; Costantini, R; Napolitano, L; Gargano, E

    1992-01-01

    It is emphasized that currently only surgery offers a real hope of improving the prognosis of patients suffering from liver metastases and many data from the Literature supporting this contention are reported. Indications and prognostic factors for the surgical treatment of these lesions are evaluated. A series of 36 patients operated on for hepatic metastases and the relative technical procedures are presented. In 33 cases the primary tumor was a colorectal carcinoma. Two right lobectomies and 34 minor resections or segmentectomies were performed. No peroperative mortality was observed. The survival rate was 70% after 1 year, 51% after 2 years, and 27% after 3 years.

  5. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Chemotherapy - dry mouth; Radiation therapy - dry mouth; Transplant - dry mouth; Transplantation - dry mouth ... National Cancer Institute. Chemotherapy and you: support for people with cancer. Updated May 2007. ... ...

  6. What's New in Kidney Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What’s New in Kidney Cancer Research and Treatment? Research on ... can also be used to develop new treatments. New approaches to local treatment High-intensity focused ultrasound ( ...

  7. The Tower of Babel of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: are we ready for one language?

    PubMed

    Bittoni, Alessandro; Scartozzi, Mario; Giampieri, Riccardo; Faloppi, Luca; Maccaroni, Elena; Del Prete, Michela; Bianconi, Maristella; Cascinu, Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Advances in surgical and medical treatments have significantly changed the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLMs). In particular, new drugs and modern combination chemotherapy regimens, together with the improvement of surgical techniques, allow a potentially curative approach in an increasing number of patients. Nevertheless, there is no strong evidence for an optimal treatment strategy for CRCLMs, mainly because of the extensive heterogeneity in the patients. In fact, although we consider them a population, they represent different clinical and biological subtypes requiring different approaches. Furthermore, results from different studies in this setting may be difficult to interpret, also because the definitions of different patient subgroups are unclear and overlapping. In this review we discuss the results of clinical trials evaluating the role of chemotherapy in the multimodal management of CRCLMs, in either the pre- or postoperative setting. Then we identify three main categories of CRCLM patients, providing clinical recommendations for each.

  8. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk.

  9. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  10. HBV infection decreases risk of liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Li-Yi; Zeng, Zhao-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Luo, Hui-Yan; Keshari, Rajiv Prasad; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on liver metastasis of colorectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 1298 colorectal cancer patients were recruited from January 2001 to March 2005 in this study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test serum HBV markers for colorectal cancer. Patients were divided into study (infection) group and control (non-infection) group. Clinical features of patients in two groups were compared. RESULTS: Liver metastasis was found in 319 out of the 1298 colorectal cancer patients. The incidence of liver metastasis was significantly lower in study group than in control group (14.2% vs 28.2%, P < 0.01). HBV infection significantly decreased the risk of liver metastasis [hazard ratio (HR): 0.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.38-0.66], but the incidence of extrahepatic metastasis was significantly higher in study group than in control group (31.9% vs 17.0%, P < 0.01). The HR was the lowest in chronic hepatitis B group (HR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.12-0.72). The number of liver metastatic lesions was significantly less in study group than in control group with a higher surgical resection rate. However, no significant difference was found in survival rate between the two groups (P = 0.95). CONCLUSION: HBV infection decreases the risk of liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer and elevates the surgical resection rate of liver metastatic lesions. PMID:21390153

  11. Liver-targeting Resibufogenin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticles for liver cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Qiuchen; Xu, Hong; Gao, Meng; Guan, Xin; Liu, Hongyan; Deng, Sa; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Kexin; Tian, Yan; Ma, Xiaochi

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer remains a major problem around the world. Resibufogenin (RBG) is a major bioactive compound that was isolated from Chansu (also called toad venom or toad poison), which is a popular traditional Chinese medicine that is obtained from the skin secretions of giant toads. RBG has strong antitumor effects, but its poor aqueous solubility and its cardiotoxicity have limited its clinical use. The aim of this study was to formulate RBG-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RPTN) to enhance the treatment of liver cancer. RPTN, RBG-loaded PLGA nanoparticle (RPN), and RBG/coumarin-6-loaded PLGA-d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate nanoparticle (RCPTN) were prepared. The cellular uptake of RCPTN by HepG2 and HCa-F cells was analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Apoptosis was induced in HepG2 cells by RPTN, RBG solution (RS), and 5-fluorouracil solution (used as the negative controls), as assayed using flow cytometry. LD50 (median lethal dose) values were determined for RS and RPTN, and the liver-targeting properties were determined for RCPTN in intravenously injected mice. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats, and the in vivo therapeutic effects of RPTN, RPN, and RS were examined in a mouse tumor model. The results showed that RCPTN simultaneously delivered both coumarin-6 and RBG into HepG2 and HCa-F cells. The ratio of apoptotic cells was increased in the RPTN group. The LD50 for RPTN was 2.02-fold higher than the value for RS. Compared to RS, RPTN and RPN both showed a significant difference in vivo not only in the pharmacodynamic study but also in anticancer efficacy, and RPTN performed much better than RPN. The detection indexes for drug concentration and fluorescence inversion microscopy images both demonstrated that RCPTN was much better at targeting the liver than RS. The liver-targeting RPTN, which displayed enhanced pharmacological effects and

  12. Cancer Treatment 1975-85: The Use of Breakthrough Treatments for Seven Types of Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    O-RIOS 636 CANCER TREATMENT 1975-65: THE USE OF BREAKCTHROUGH / I TREATMENTS FOR SEVEN TYPES OF CANCER(U) GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC...all breakthrouqhs in cancer treatment that met the followinq criteria: 1I B-226468 -they occurred by 1982 (so as to allow us to determine patterns of

  13. Positive Feedback Loop of OCT4 and c-JUN Expedites Cancer Stemness in Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Lee, King-Teh; Chen, Ker-Kong; Yang, Ya-Han; Lin, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Ming-Ho; Wuputra, Kenly; Lee, Yen-Liang; Ku, Chia-Chen; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Saito, Shigeo; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin; Eckner, Richard; Steve Lin, Chen-Lung; Wang, Sophie S-W; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Chang-Shen; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2016-06-24

    The network of stemness genes and oncogenes in human patient-specific reprogrammed cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains elusive, especially in liver cancer. HepG2-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-like cells (HepG2-iPS-like cells) were generated by introducing Yamanaka factors and the knockdown vector shTP53. They exhibited features of stemness and a higher tumorigenesis after xenograft transplantation compared with HepG2 cells. The cancerous mass of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice derived from one colony was dissected and cultured to establish reprogrammed HepG2-derived CSC-like cells (designated rG2-DC-1C). A single colony exhibited 42% occurrence of tumors with higher proliferation capacities. rG2-DC-1C showed continuous expression of the OCT4 stemness gene and of representative tumor markers, potentiated chemoresistance characteristics, and invasion activities. The sphere-colony formation ability and the invasion activity of rG2-DC-1C were also higher than those of HepG2 cells. Moreover, the expression of the OCT4 gene and the c-JUN oncogene, but not of c-MYC, was significantly elevated in rG2-DC-1C, whereas no c-JUN expression was observed in HepG2 cells. The positive-feedback regulation via OCT4-mediated transactivation of the c-JUN promoter and the c-JUN-mediated transactivation of the OCT4 promoter were crucial for promoting cancer development and maintaining cancer stemness in rG2-DC-1C. Increased expression of OCT4 and c-JUN was detected in the early stage of human liver cancer. Therefore, the positive feedback regulation of OCT4 and c-JUN, resulting in the continuous expression of oncogenes such as c-JUN, seems to play a critical role in the determination of the cell fate decision from iPS cells to CSCs in liver cancer. Stem Cells 2016.

  14. Measurement of response to treatment in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, M. J.; Burke, D.; Earlam, S.; Fordy, C.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of tumour response to chemotherapy is important when assessing efficacy of treatment and comparing differing therapeutic regimens. Percentage hepatic replacement (PHR) is commonly used to assess response to treatment of colorectal hepatic metastases. PHR is dependent not only on tumour volume, but also on hepatic parenchymal volume. The effect of tumour growth on hepatic parenchymal volume is unclear but is of importance owing to its effect on PHR. We assessed tumour and hepatic parenchymal weights in an animal tumour model using dissection, and tumour and hepatic parenchymal volumes in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases using CT scanning, in order to establish how hepatic parenchyma varied with change in metastasis size. There was no significant correlation between tumour and liver parenchyma in either the animal model (r = -0.03, P > 0.05) or the patient study (r = 0.3, P < 0.05). This suggests that hepatic parenchymal volume was preserved in the presence of increasing tumour volume. In a further study of computerised tomographic (CT) scans before and after treatment in patients whose tumours either responded to chemotherapy or continued to grow, change in PHR (median proportion of PHR change = 0.40) significantly (P = 0.04) underestimated the change in tumour volume (median proportion of tumour volume change = 0.56), particularly at higher (> 400 ml) volumes. There was good correlation between change in tumour volume and WHO criteria in assigning patients to tumour growth, stable disease or tumour response categories. This study suggests that, in clinical trials comparing colorectal liver metastasis treatments, metastasis volume and not PHR should be used to assess extent of disease and the effect of treatment. PMID:7710957

  15. Gastrin: from pathophysiology to cancer prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Maddalo, Gemma; Spolverato, Ylenia; Rugge, Massimo; Farinati, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    Gastrin has been identified as the principal effector of gastric secretion, but several studies have demonstrated its role as a biomarker of cancer risk and as a growth factor for colorectal, stomach, liver, and pancreatic cancer. Hypergastrinemia characterizes autoimmune gastritis, with body and fundic gland atrophy and increased risk for both gastric adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. Gastric type I carcinoids develop in the context of autoimmune gastritis because of the stimulus exerted by gastrin on enterochromaffin-like cells and remain gastrin-sensitive for long durations because the removal of hypergastrinemia leads to tumor regression. The treatment of gastric carcinoid is still open to debate, but when the disease frequently relapses, or is multicentric or infiltrating, surgery is advocated or, in the alternative, a costly and long-lasting treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogues is prescribed. A technology allowing the preparation of an immunogen eliciting an immune system response with generation of antibodies against G17 has been developed. This vaccine has been tested in patients with colorectal, pancreatic or advanced gastric cancer. The vaccine has also been used in the treatment of gastric type I carcinoids, and the administration of G17DT in patients harboring these lesions leads to carcinoid regression. Antigastrin vaccination in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer obviously needs validation, but this immunotherapy may well represent a simple, inexpensive, and active 'adjuvant' treatment.

  16. Arsenic levels in drinking water and mortality of liver cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Jung; Sung, Tzu-I; Chen, Chi-Yi; Guo, How-Ran

    2013-11-15

    The carcinogenic effect of arsenic is well documented, but epidemiologic data on liver cancer were limited. To evaluate the dose-response relationship between arsenic in drinking water and mortality of liver cancer, we conducted a study in 138 villages in the southwest coast area of Taiwan. We assessed arsenic levels in drinking water using data from a survey conducted by the government and reviewed death certificates from 1971 to 1990 to identify liver cancer cases. Using village as the unit, we conducted multi-variate regression analyses and then performed post hoc analyses to validate the findings. During the 20-year period, 802 male and 301 female mortality cases of liver cancer were identified. After adjusting for age, arsenic levels above 0.64 mg/L were associated with an increase in the liver cancer mortality in both genders, but no significant effect was observed for lower exposure categories. Post hoc analyses and a review of literature supported these findings. We concluded that exposures to high arsenic levels in drinking water are associated with the occurrence of liver cancer, but such an effect is not prominent at exposure levels lower than 0.64 mg/L.

  17. Green Tea Consumption and the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chen-Xu; Gong, Hong; Liu, Ying; Qi, Yang; Jiang, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in Asia and has been suggested to have anticarcinogenic properties. To date, epidemiological evidence of the effect of green tea consumption on liver cancer risk remains ambiguous. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between green tea consumption and the risk of liver cancer. The summary relative risk for the highest consumption (≥5 cups/day) of green tea on liver cancer incidence compared with nondrinkers was 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.49-0.79). We also found a trend that the incidence of liver cancer was reduced with the increasing years of green tea intake (significance at >20 yr). A significant dose-response association was found between green tea drinking and liver cancer risk. The downward trend was most obvious when the consumption of green tea increased up to about 4 cups/day. The results showed that the increasing green tea intake may have a preventive effect against liver cancer.

  18. Application of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer therapeutic strategy and impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Camba, Alejandro; Turnes, Juan; Ramos, Luis Martin; Arranz, Laura; Mera, José; Crespo, Javier; Quintero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has proved useful in the management of HCC patients. However, BCLC-recommended first-line treatment is not always applicable in clinical practice. Objective We performed a multicentre retrospective analysis of reasons for deviation from first-line treatment in 2008–2012. Methods One to three-year survival data were analysed using Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 407 consecutive HCC patients (66.6 ± 3 years, 83% male) with cirrhosis were included. Tumours were detected during surveillance in 53% of patients, grouped as Child-Pugh A (67%), B (25%) and C (8%); and BCLC A (including stage 0, 44%), B (26%), C (15%) and D (15%). In 31% of patients, first-line treatment was not feasible (51% in early stages) due to: technical reasons (74%); patient non-conformity (20%); medical decision (3%); and disease progression (3%). One to three-year survival of patients not receiving the recommended first-line treatment was similar to that of patients treated according to BCLC recommendations (log-rank, p = 0.229). Conclusion In real-life practice one-third of HCC patients could not receive first-line BCLC treatment. In our cohort of patients, similar short and medium-term survival was observed. Long-term prospective studies are required to determine the best alternative treatment option when BCLC first-line treatment is not feasible. PMID:26279838

  19. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Anal Cancer About Anal Cancer What’s New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... cancer cells is expected to help scientists develop new drugs to fight this disease. Early detection Ongoing ...

  20. What's New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thymus Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What’s New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? There ... treating thymomas is still being explored. In addition, new treatments are being developed and tested. Researchers are ...

  1. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... RAI) therapy. Doctors and researchers are looking for new ways to treat thyroid cancer that are more ...

  2. A Portal Vein Injection Model to Study Liver Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Erica T.; Fischer, Jacob; Schedin, Pepper

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Liver metastasis is involved in upwards of 30% of cases with breast cancer metastasis, and results in poor outcomes with median survival rates of only 4.8 - 15 months. Current rodent models of breast cancer metastasis, including primary tumor cell xenograft and spontaneous tumor models, rarely metastasize to the liver. Intracardiac and intrasplenic injection models do result in liver metastases, however these models can be confounded by concomitant secondary-site metastasis, or by compromised immunity due to removal of the spleen to avoid tumor growth at the injection site. To address the need for improved liver metastasis models, a murine portal vein injection method that delivers tumor cells firstly and directly to the liver was developed. This model delivers tumor cells to the liver without complications of concurrent metastases in other organs or removal of the spleen. The optimized portal vein protocol employs small injection volumes of 5 - 10 μl, ≥ 32 gauge needles, and hemostatic gauze at the injection site to control for blood loss. The portal vein injection approach in Balb/c female mice using three syngeneic mammary tumor lines of varying metastatic potential was tested; high-metastatic 4T1 cells, moderate-metastatic D2A1 cells, and low-metastatic D2.OR cells. Concentrations of ≤ 10,000 cells/injection results in a latency of ~ 20 - 40 days for development of liver metastases with the higher metastatic 4T1 and D2A1 lines, and > 55 days for the less aggressive D2.OR line. This model represents an important tool to study breast cancer metastasis to the liver, and may be applicable to other cancers that frequently metastasize to the liver including colorectal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:28060292

  3. Oestradiol reduces liver receptor homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Kyren A; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C; To, Sarah Q; Chand, Ashwini L; Clyne, Colin D

    2013-08-30

    The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E2), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER- cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER- cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER- breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER- compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E2, showed increased mRNA stability in ER- versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E2 treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER- cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER- cells as well as ER- tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER- tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER- and ER+ breast cancer.

  4. The application of antitumor drug-targeting models on liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Chen, Ningbo; Wang, Yunbing; Wang, Ke

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocarcinoma animal models, such as the induced tumor model, transplanted tumor model, gene animal model, are significant experimental tools for the evaluation of targeting drug delivery system as well as the pre-clinical studies of liver cancer. The application of antitumor drug-targeting models not only furnishes similar biological characteristics to human liver cancer but also offers guarantee of pharmacokinetic indicators of the liver-targeting preparations. In this article, we have reviewed some kinds of antitumor drug-targeting models of hepatoma and speculated that the research on this field would be capable of attaining a deeper level and expecting a superior achievement in the future.

  5. [Specific treatment situations in metastatic colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Arnold, Dirk; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Hauke; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Ridwelski, Karsten; Trarbach, Tanja; Staib, Ludger; Kirchner, Thomas; Geissler, Michael; Seufferlein, Thomas; Amthauer, Holger; Riess, Hanno; Schlitt, Hans J; Piso, Pompiliu

    2010-01-01

    As far as the management of primary resectable liver metastases is concerned, three approaches are currently competing with each other: surgery alone, surgery with pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, and surgery with postoperative chemotherapy alone. The core of the argument for pre- and postoperative chemotherapy in these patients is the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 40983 study, which concluded that, in comparison with surgery alone, perioperative chemotherapy improved the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) by 7 months. In contrast to this, there are two smaller studies--at a somewhat lower strength of evidence-- indicating that adjuvant chemotherapy extends PFS by 9.1 months compared with surgery alone. In Germany, the adjuvant approach continues to be favored in many places; this can also be seen in the formulation of the S3 guideline. In patients with unresectable liver metastases--with the associated difficulty of classification due to the lack of clear and definitive criteria--preoperative systemic therapy to induce 'conversion' is indicated, in order to allow secondary resection. In KRAS wild-type tumors, high response rates (in terms of a reduction in size of the metastases, such as according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors)) and a high conversion rate are achieved using a cetuximab/chemotherapy combination. Triple chemotherapy combinations with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin and irinotecan also produce high response rates. Bevacizumab/chemotherapy combinations have led to a high number of complete and partial pathohistological remissions in phase II studies; these seem to correlate with long survival times. In the absence of long-term survival data, it therefore seems to remain unclear as to what is the best parameter to use in order to assess the success of preoperative treatment. Lung metastases, too, or local peritoneal carcinomatosis can nowadays be operated on in selected patients

  6. Long Term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis With earlier cancer diagnosis among older cancer patients, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have long lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose and properly manage the long term toxicities of cancer treatment, in order to maintain quality of life of older cancer survivors PMID:26614861

  7. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors.

  8. The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  9. Endoglin for targeted cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Lee S; Gordon, Michael S; Robert, Francisco; Matei, Daniela E

    2014-02-01

    Endoglin is a homodimeric cell membrane glycoprotein receptor for transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic proteins. Endoglin is essential for angiogenesis, being densely expressed on proliferating endothelial cells and upregulated during hypoxia. Its expression is implicated in development of resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition. TRC105 is an antibody that binds endoglin and prevents endothelial cell activation. Targeting endoglin and the VEGF pathway concurrently improves treatment in vitro and appears to reverse resistance to bevacizumab in some refractory cancer patients. Randomized trials are under way to assess the clinical benefit of adding TRC105 therapy to bevacizumab therapy. Further trials are under way to assess the activity of TRC105 with small-molecule inhibitors of the VEGF pathway in renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma. Stratification of soft tissue sarcomas based on endoglin expression levels is proposed to identify patients most likely to benefit from TRC105 treatment. The development of a TRC105 antibody-drug conjugate is also described.

  10. Therapeutics targeting CD90-integrin-AMPK-CD133 signal axis in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ching; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Huang, Hau-Lun; Cho, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chih-Yang; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Lai, Po-Ting; Chen, Ching-Shih; Lin, Yih-Jyh; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2015-12-15

    CD90 is used as a marker for cancer stem cell in liver cancer. We aimed to study the mechanism by which CD90 promoted liver cancer progression and identify the new therapeutic targets on CD90 signal pathway. Ectopic expression of CD90 in liver cancer cell lines enhanced anchorage-independent growth and tumor progression. Furthermore, CD90 promoted sphere formation in vitro and upregulated the expression of the cancer stem cell marker CD133. The CD133 expression was higher in CD45-CD90+ cells in liver cancer specimen. The natural carcinogenic molecules TGF-β-1, HGF, and hepatitis B surface antigen increased the expression of CD90 and CD133. Inhibition of CD90 by either shRNA or antibody attenuated the induction of CD133 and anchorage-independent growth. Lentiviral delivery of CD133 shRNA abolished the tumorigenicity induced by CD90. Ectopic expression of CD90 induced mTOR phosphorylation and AMPK dephosphorylation. Mutation of integrin binding-RLD domain in CD90 attenuated the induction of CD133 and anchorage-independent growth. Similar results were observed after silencing β3 integrin. Signaling analyses revealed that AMPK/mTOR and β3 integrin were required for the induction of CD133 and tumor formation by CD90. Importantly, the energy restriction mimetic agent OSU-CG5 reduced the CD90 population in fresh liver tumor sample and repressed the tumor growth. In contrast, sorafenib did not decrease the CD90+ population. In conclusion, the signal axis of CD90-integrin-mTOR/AMPK-CD133 is critical for promoting liver carcinogenesis. Molecules inhibiting the signal axis, including OSU-CG5 and other inhibitors, may serve as potential novel cancer therapeutic targets in liver cancer.

  11. Association of Fasciola hepatica Infection with Liver Fibrosis, Cirrhosis, and Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Machicado, Claudia; Machicado, Jorge D.; Maco, Vicente; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis has been sporadically associated with chronic liver disease on previous studies. In order to describe the current evidence, we carried out a systematic review to assess the association between fascioliasis with liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, and Scielo) was conducted from June to July 2015 and yielded 1,557 published studies. Among 21 studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 studies explored the association of F. hepatica with liver fibrosis, 4 with liver cirrhosis, and 5 with cancer. Globally these studies suggested the ability of F. hepatica to promote liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The role of F. hepatica in cancer is unknown. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Conclusions Future high-quality studies are needed to determine the role of F. hepatica on the development of liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, and cancer in humans. PMID:27681524

  12. SRC-2-mediated coactivation of anti-tumorigenic target genes suppresses MYC-induced liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Comerford, Sarah A.; York, Brian; O’Donnell, Kathryn A.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid tumor in the world and the third leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. A Sleeping Beauty-mediated transposon mutagenesis screen previously identified mutations that cooperate with MYC to accelerate liver tumorigenesis. This revealed a tumor suppressor role for Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2/Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2 (Src-2/Ncoa2) in liver cancer. In contrast, SRC-2 promotes survival and metastasis in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a tissue-specific and context-dependent role for SRC-2 in tumorigenesis. To determine if genetic loss of SRC-2 is sufficient to accelerate MYC-mediated liver tumorigenesis, we bred Src-2-/- mice with a MYC-induced liver tumor model and observed a significant increase in liver tumor burden. RNA sequencing of liver tumors and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a set of direct target genes that are bound by SRC-2 and exhibit downregulated expression in Src-2-/- liver tumors. We demonstrate that activation of SHP (Small Heterodimer Partner), DKK4 (Dickkopf-4), and CADM4 (Cell Adhesion Molecule 4) by SRC-2 suppresses tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that SRC-2 may exhibit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity depending on the target genes and nuclear receptors that are expressed in distinct tissues and illuminate the mechanisms of tumor suppression by SRC-2 in liver. PMID:28273073

  13. Recommendations for Diagnosis, Referral for Liver Biopsy, and Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the primary cause of chronic liver disease in the United States, afflicting an estimated 80 to 100 million Americans. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of liver diseases composed of nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although nonalcoholic fatty liver has a negligible risk of progression, patients with NASH often develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Although liver biopsy is required to diagnose NASH, only patients with a high risk of NASH or advanced fibrosis require this evaluation. Despite the high prevalence of NAFLD, well-defined screening recommendations are currently lacking. In this review, suggestions for screening, diagnosis, and initial work-up of NAFLD are given on the basis of established guidelines and recent publications. Proposed drug treatments of NASH are also discussed, highlighting the study outcomes, as well as proposed uses and limitations of these drugs. The literature was searched in PubMed using search terms nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, with filters of "English language." A date range of January 1, 2000, to May 1, 2015, was used for the search. The bibliographies of key references were also searched manually, and seminal publications before the year 2000 were included.

  14. How I Do It: Cone-Beam CT during Transarterial Chemoembolization for Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tacher, Vania; Radaelli, Alessandro; Lin, MingDe

    2015-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging technique that provides computed tomographic (CT) images from a rotational scan acquired with a C-arm equipped with a flat panel detector. Utilizing CBCT images during interventional procedures bridges the gap between the world of diagnostic imaging (typically three-dimensional imaging but performed separately from the procedure) and that of interventional radiology (typically two-dimensional imaging). CBCT is capable of providing more information than standard two-dimensional angiography in localizing and/or visualizing liver tumors (“seeing” the tumor) and targeting tumors though precise microcatheter placement in close proximity to the tumors (“reaching” the tumor). It can also be useful in evaluating treatment success at the time of procedure (“assessing” treatment success). CBCT technology is rapidly evolving along with the development of various contrast material injection protocols and multiphasic CBCT techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the principles of CBCT imaging, including purpose and clinical evidence of the different techniques, and to introduce a decision-making algorithm as a guide for the routine utilization of CBCT during transarterial chemoembolization of liver cancer. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25625741

  15. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Fazlul H. Banerjee, Sanjeev; Li, Yiwei

    2007-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-{kappa}B pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-{kappa}B, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  16. Comprehensive treatment of a functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with multifocal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Seeruttun, Sharvesh Raj; Fang, Cheng; Zhou, Zhiwei

    2014-08-01

    A 64-year-old man was admitted to the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with chief complaints of recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea for about 3 years and with a history of surgical repair for intestinal perforation owing to stress ulcer. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a primary tumor on the pancreatic tail with multifocal liver metastases. Pathological and immunohistochemistry staining revealed the lesion to be a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). According to the latest World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) classification, the tumor was classified as stage IV functional G1 pNET. After referral to the multidisciplinary treatment board (MDT), the patient was started on periodic dose of omeprazole, somatostatin analogues and Interferon α (IFNα) and had scanning follow-ups. Based upon the imaging results, CT-guided radioactive iodine-125 ((125)I) seeds implantation therapy, radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA) or microwave ablation technique were chosen for the treatment of the primary tumor. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), RFA and microwave ablation techniques were decided upon for liver metastases. The patient showed beneficial response to the treatment with clinically manageable low-grade side effects and attained partial remission (RECIST criteria) with a good quality of life.

  17. Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... layers of tissue , including mucous membrane , muscle, and connective tissue . Esophageal cancer starts on the inside lining of ... and spread into the muscle layer or the connective tissue layer of the esophagus wall. The cancer cells ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels ...

  20. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  1. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer and the stage (extent) of the disease. In general, patients with early-stage head and neck cancers (particularly those limited to the site of origin) are treated with one modality—either radiation therapy ...

  2. DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action in human liver cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Obara, Akio; Fujita, Yoshihito; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fukushima, Toru; Oguri, Yasuo; Ogura, Masahito; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2015-05-15

    Metformin, one of the most commonly used drugs for patients with type 2 diabetes, recently has received much attention regarding its anti-cancer action. It is thought that the suppression of mTOR signaling is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action. Although liver cancer is one of the most responsive types of cancer for reduction of incidence by metformin, the molecular mechanism of the suppression of mTOR in liver remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation using human liver cancer cells. Metformin suppressed phosphorylation of p70-S6 kinase, and ribosome protein S6, downstream targets of mTOR, and suppressed cell proliferation. We found that DEPTOR, an endogenous substrate of mTOR suppression, is involved in the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in human liver cancer cells. Metformin increases the protein levels of DEPTOR, intensifies binding to mTOR, and exerts a suppressing effect on mTOR signaling. This increasing effect of DEPTOR by metformin is regulated by the proteasome degradation system; the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation is in a DEPTOR-dependent manner. Furthermore, metformin exerts a suppressing effect on proteasome activity, DEPTOR-related mTOR signaling, and cell proliferation in an AMPK-dependent manner. We conclude that DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action in liver, and could be a novel target for anti-cancer therapy. - Highlights: • We elucidated a novel pathway of metformin's anti-cancer action in HCC cells. • DEPTOR is involved in the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling. • Metformin increases DEPTOR protein levels via suppression of proteasome activity. • DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action.

  3. Cross-talk between the thyroid and liver: a new target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue-Ye; Gusdon, Aaron M; Qu, Shen

    2013-12-07

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as the most common liver metabolic disease, and it is also a burgeoning health problem that affects one-third of adults and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance now. Thyroid hormone (TH) and its receptors play a fundamental role in lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation in the liver. It is found that thyroid receptor and its isoforms exhibit tissue-specific expression with a variety of functions. TRβ1 is predominantly expressed in the brain and adipose tissue and TRβ2 is the major isoform in the liver, kidney and fat. They have different functions and play important roles in lipid metabolism. Recently, there are many studies on the treatment of NAFLD with TH and its analogues. We review here that thyroid hormone and TR are a potential target for pharmacologic treatments. Lipid metabolism and lipid accumulation can be regulated and reversed by TH and its analogues.

  4. The Nedd8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 induces autophagy and apoptosis to suppress liver cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongguang; Yu, Guangyang; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Li, Lihui; Wang, Lingyan; Yang, Dongqin; Pan, Yongfu; Ding, Chan; Qian, Jing; Wu, Lijun; Chu, Yiwei; Yi, Jing; Wang, Xiangdong; Sun, Yi; Jeong, Lak Shin; Liu, Jie; Jia, Lijun

    2012-07-01

    Posttranslational neddylation of cullins in the Cullin-Ring E3 ligase (CRL) complexes is needed for proteolytic degradation of CRL substrates, whose accumulation induces cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. The Nedd8-activating enzyme (NAE) is critical for neddylation of CRL complexes and their growth-promoting function. Recently, the anticancer small molecule MLN4924 currently in phase I trials was determined to be an inhibitor of NAE that blocks cullin neddylation and inactivates CRL, triggering an accumulation of CRL substrates that trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence in cancer cells. Here, we report that MLN4924 also triggers autophagy in response to CRL inactivation and that this effect is important for the ability of MLN4924 to suppress the outgrowth of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MLN4924-induced autophagy was attributed partially to inhibition of mTOR activity, due to accumulation of the mTOR inhibitory protein Deptor, as well as to induction of reactive oxygen species stress. Inhibiting autophagy enhanced MLN4924-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy is a survival signal triggered in response to CRL inactivation. In a xenograft model of human liver cancer, MLN4924 was well-tolerated and displayed a significant antitumor effect characterized by CRL inactivation and induction of autophagy and apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Together, our findings support the clinical investigation of MLN4924 for liver cancer treatment and provide a preclinical proof-of-concept for combination therapy with an autophagy inhibitor to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy through a Port-Catheter System as Preoperative Initial Therapy in Patients with Advanced Liver Dysfunction due to Synchronous and Unresectable Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Arai, Yasuaki; Inaba, Yoshitaka Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Miyazaki, Masaya; Shimamoto, Hiroshi

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. We retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of preoperative initial hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) through a port-catheter system in patients with liver dysfunction due to synchronous and unresectable liver metastases. The aim of HAIC was to improve patients' clinical condition for later surgical removal of primary colorectal cancer. Methods. Port-catheter systems were placed radiologically in 21 patients (mean age 58.6 {+-} 8.1 years) with liver dysfunction due to synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Initial HAIC of 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil was administered weekly as a 5 hr continuous infusion through this system. Surgical removal of the primary lesion was planned after HAIC improved the liver function. Results. Port-catheter system placement was successful in all patients without severe complications. Patients were followed up for a median of 309 days (range 51-998 days). After starting HAIC, no severe adverse events that caused drug loss and treatment postponement or suspension were observed in any of the patients. HAIC was performed a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.0 times and the liver function improved in all patients. Curative (n = 18) or palliative (n = 1) surgical removal of the primary lesion was performed. The remaining 2 patients died because extrahepatic metastases developed and their performance status worsened; thus, surgery could not be performed. The median survival times of all patients and the operated patients were 309 and 386 days, respectively. Conclusion. Initial HAIC administration is a safe and efficacious method for improving liver function prior to operative resection of primary colorectal cancer in patients with liver dysfunction due to synchronous and unresectable liver metastases.

  6. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdulkareem, I H; Zurmi, I B

    2012-01-01

    This critical review focuses on the role of steroid hormones and their receptors in the development and treatment of breast cancer, with special reference to estrogen receptors, as well as mechanisms of receptor-ligand interactions, response or resistance to hormonal therapy against breast cancer, in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. Tamoxifen is used in hormonal treatment of breast cancer for up to five years, depending on the presentation. However, there have been recent developments in hormonal therapy of breast cancer in the last ten years, with the introduction of many different alternative therapies for this condition. A critical review of published articles in Pubmed/Medline, Athens, AJOL, NHS Evidence, Science Direct and Google, relating to hormonal treatment of breast cancer, was undertaken, in order to evaluate the mechanisms of estrogen receptor-ligand interactions, their involvement in the etio-pathogenesis of breast cancer, resistance of breast cancer cells to anti-hormonal agents, as well as ways of treating breast cancer using anti-hormone drugs like tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and suggest other novel alternative hormonal therapies that can be tried, which may overtake tamoxifen in the future. We also seek to emphasize that hormonal therapy has a definite place in the treatment of breast cancer along with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as the disease is often considered to be multi-systemic even from the beginning.

  7. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  8. Magnesium in drinking water and liver cancer morbidity--a possible relation?

    PubMed

    Tukiendorf, A

    2002-12-01

    The paper presents results of a research on liver cancer morbidity in Opole province, Poland, in relation to magnesium exposure in drinking water. Based on the extensive empirical materials of cancer registry information and water quality, the well known statistical approach using BUGS software was applied in the study. The results support a hypothesis of a possible association between the deficiency of magnesium in drinking water and the increase of liver cancer morbidity in the population exposed. The outcomes were presented in a table and graphically in histograms, scatterplots and maps.

  9. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Endoscopic resection (ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with “standard” criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet “expanded” criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer. PMID:26380052

  10. The MAP30 protein from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds promotes apoptosis in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Zhang, Chris Zhi Yi; Wong, Jack Ho; Shen, Jia Yun; Li, Chuan Hao; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-11-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells and Hep G2-bearing mice were used as in vitro and in vivo models to assess the efficacy and safety of MAP30, a natural component from Momordica charantia, as an anticancer agent against liver cancer. Molecular studies disclosed the contribution of both caspase-8 regulated extrinsic and caspase-9 regulated intrinsic caspase cascades in MAP30-induced cell apoptosis. The antitumor potential was also effective in Hep G2-bearing nude mice. Since bitter gourd is a staple in many Asian countries, MAP30 would serve as a novel and relatively safe agent for prophylaxis and treatment of liver cancer.

  11. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  12. Anti-VEGF therapy induces ECM remodeling and mechanical barriers to therapy in colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Kedrin, Dmitriy; Incio, Joao; Liu, Hao; Ho, William W; Nia, Hadi T; Edrich, Christina M; Jung, Keehoon; Daubriac, Julien; Chen, Ivy; Heishi, Takahiro; Martin, John D; Huang, Yuhui; Maimon, Nir; Reissfelder, Christoph; Weitz, Jurgen; Boucher, Yves; Clark, Jeffrey W; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Duda, Dan G; Jain, Rakesh K; Fukumura, Dai

    2016-10-12

    The survival benefit of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients is limited to a few months because of acquired resistance. We show that anti-VEGF therapy induced remodeling of the extracellular matrix with subsequent alteration of the physical properties of colorectal liver metastases. Preoperative treatment with bevacizumab in patients with colorectal liver metastases increased hyaluronic acid (HA) deposition within the tumors. Moreover, in two syngeneic mouse models of CRC metastasis in the liver, we show that anti-VEGF therapy markedly increased the expression of HA and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs), without significantly changing collagen deposition. The density of these matrix components correlated with increased tumor stiffness after anti-VEGF therapy. Treatment-induced tumor hypoxia appeared to be the driving force for the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In preclinical models, we show that enzymatic depletion of HA partially rescued the compromised perfusion in liver mCRCs after anti-VEGF therapy and prolonged survival in combination with anti-VEGF therapy and chemotherapy. These findings suggest that extracellular matrix components such as HA could be a potential therapeutic target for reducing physical barriers to systemic treatments in patients with mCRC who receive anti-VEGF therapy.

  13. Impairment of liver synthetic function and the production of plasma proteins in primary breast cancer patients on doxorubicincyclophosphamide (AC) protocol.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Zikria; Ahmad, Mobasher; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Saeed, Hamid; Aziz, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-09-01

    Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC protocol) combination is usually considered as a first line therapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Thus, a retrospective observational study was conducted to monitor the effect of AC protocol on liver synthetic functions and production of plasma proteins in breast cancer patients, reporting to specialized cancer care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 75 patients (n=75) on AC protocol with breast cancer were observed in this study. The patient data including age, gender, body surface area, dosage, disease status and laboratory biochemical values were recorded by reviewing historical treatment records. Pre-treatment values were taken as baseline values for albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio and total proteins. The baseline values were compared after each cycle of by applying ANOVA using statistical tool SPSS® version 21. The plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein and globulin dropped significantly (p<0.05) in patients of all age groups. However, the albumin levels were not significantly changed (p>0.05). The A/G ratio level increased (p<0.05) as a result of reduction in globulin levels. Significant changes in plasma protein levels were observed in the elderly patients (50 to 65 years) than patients between 20 to 50 years of age. AC protocol impairs liver synthetic functions as observed by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma protein levels.

  14. Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Paprottka, Philipp M. Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 is a potent growth inhibitor of hepatocellular carcinoma and reduces the liver cancer stem cells population

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Woo; Yoon, So-Mi; Kim, Subin; Jeon, Yun-Hui; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Yang, Su-Geun; Kim, Min Kyoung; Choe, Senyon; Kuo, Mario Meng-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    The biological role of BMP-9 signaling in liver cancer remains dubious. To explore the potential use of BMP-9 signaling for anti-cancer therapy, we used recombinant human BMP-9, which we referred to as MB109, to study the effect on growth of fifteen hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. MB109 effectively inhibits the proliferation of nine HCC cells in vitro. The anti-proliferative effect was found to be induced by turning on p21 signaling, which caused survivin suppression and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. ID3 was identified to be the mediator of the MB109-induced p21 expression. Blocking the activity of p38 MAPK diminished ID3 and p21 expression, indicating that MB109 signals through a p38 MAPK/ID3/p21 pathway to arrest cell cycle progression. Moreover, prolonged MB109 treatment suppressed the expression of five prominent liver cancer stem cell (LCSC) markers, including CD44, CD90, AFP, GPC3 and ANPEP. Xenograft model confirmed the anti-tumor and LCSC-suppression capability of MB109 in vivo. Contrary to ongoing efforts of suppressing BMP-9 signaling to inhibit angiogenesis of cancer tissue, these results demonstrate an unexpected therapeutic potential of MB109 to stimulate BMP-9 signaling for anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27650540

  16. Cripto: A Target for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0165 TITLE: Cripto: A, Target for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Eileen D. Adamson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Cripto: A Target for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0165 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Target for Breast Cancer Treatment " As reported fully in June 2004, the IDEA grant was not successful in the original mission of finding a peptide that

  17. Oestradiol reduces Liver Receptor Homolog-1 mRNA transcript stability in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, Kyren A.; Zhao, Zhe; Knower, Kevin C.; To, Sarah Q.; Chand, Ashwini L.; Clyne, Colin D.

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates tumor proliferation. •In breast cancer, high mRNA expression is associated with ER+ status. •In ER−ve cells, despite very low mRNA, we found abundant LRH-1 protein. •Our data show distinctly different LRH-1 protein isoforms in ER− and ER+ breast cancer cells. •This is due to differences in LRH-1 mRNA and protein stability rates. -- Abstract: The expression of orphan nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (LRH-1) is elevated in breast cancer and promotes proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. LRH-1 expression is regulated by oestrogen (E{sub 2}), with LRH-1 mRNA transcript levels higher in oestrogen receptor α (ERα) positive (ER+) breast cancer cells compared to ER− cells. However, the presence of LRH-1 protein in ER− cells suggests discordance between mRNA transcript levels and protein expression. To understand this, we investigated the impact of mRNA and protein stability in determining LRH-1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. LRH-1 transcript levels were significantly higher in ER+ versus ER− breast cancer cells lines; however LRH-1 protein was expressed at similar levels. We found LRH-1 mRNA and protein was more stable in ER− compared to ER+ cell lines. The tumor-specific LRH-1 variant isoform, LRH-1v4, which is highly responsive to E{sub 2}, showed increased mRNA stability in ER− versus ER+ cells. In addition, in MCF-7 and T47-D cell lines, LRH-1 total mRNA stability was reduced with E{sub 2} treatment, this effect mediated by ERα. Our data demonstrates that in ER− cells, increased mRNA and protein stability contribute to the abundant protein expression levels. Expression and immunolocalisation of LRH-1 in ER− cells as well as ER− tumors suggests a possible role in the development of ER− tumors. The modulation of LRH-1 bioactivity may therefore be beneficial as a treatment option in both ER− and ER+ breast cancer.

  18. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    ScienceCinema

    Gray, Joe

    2016-07-12

    August 4, 2009 Berkeley Lab lecture: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  19. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe

    2009-08-07

    August 4, 2009 Berkeley Lab lecture: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  20. Targeting Dysbiosis for the Treatment of Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Anand, Gobind; Zarrinpar, Amir; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-02-01

    The gut microbiome is composed of a vast number of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract, which benefit host metabolism, aid in digestion, and contribute to normal immune function. Alterations in microbial composition can result in intestinal dysbiosis, which has been implicated in several diseases including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and liver diseases. Over the past several years, significant interactions between the intestinal microbiota and liver have been discovered, with possible mechanisms for the development as well as progression of liver disease and promising therapeutic targets to either prevent or halt the progression of liver disease. In this review the authors examine mechanisms of dysbiosis-induced liver disease; highlight current knowledge regarding the role of dysbiosis in nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis; and discuss potential therapeutic targets.

  1. The efficacy and safety of statins for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Baratta, Francesco; Pani, Arianna; Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is an emerging liver disease in Western countries and the most frequent cause of incidental elevation of serum liver enzymes. Dyslipidaemia is frequently observed in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and treatment of dyslipidaemia plays a critical role in the overall management of these patients. Moreover, coronary artery disease remains the most common cause of death. Statins are effective lipid-lowering agents, associated with a lowering the risk of cardiovascular events in several interventional randomized clinical trials. However, statins are often underused in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and many physicians are concerned about the prescription of statins to patients with unexplained persistent elevation of liver enzymes or active liver disease. Based on currently available data, statin therapy, at low-to-moderate doses, seems to be safe and has low liver toxicity. Treatment of dyslipidaemia in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is recommended and may also improve liver function tests. In these patients, the risks of not taking statins could outweigh the risks of taking the drug. Conversely, the usefulness of statins for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is still a matter of debate and randomized clinical trials of adequate size and duration are required.

  2. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kimberly D; Siegel, Rebecca L; Lin, Chun Chieh; Mariotto, Angela B; Kramer, Joan L; Rowland, Julia H; Stein, Kevin D; Alteri, Rick; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    The number of cancer survivors continues to increase because of both advances in early detection and treatment and the aging and growth of the population. For the public health community to better serve these survivors, the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute collaborate to estimate the number of current and future cancer survivors using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries. In addition, current treatment patterns for the most prevalent cancer types are presented based on information in the National Cancer Data Base and treatment-related side effects are briefly described. More than 15.5 million Americans with a history of cancer were alive on January 1, 2016, and this number is projected to reach more than 20 million by January 1, 2026. The 3 most prevalent cancers are prostate (3,306,760), colon and rectum (724,690), and melanoma (614,460) among males and breast (3,560,570), uterine corpus (757,190), and colon and rectum (727,350) among females. More than one-half (56%) of survivors were diagnosed within the past 10 years, and almost one-half (47%) are aged 70 years or older. People with a history of cancer have unique medical and psychosocial needs that require proactive assessment and management by primary care providers. Although there are a growing number of tools that can assist patients, caregivers, and clinicians in navigating the various phases of cancer survivorship, further evidence-based resources are needed to optimize care. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:271-289. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. [Selenium and cancer: from prevention to treatment].

    PubMed

    Brozmanová, J

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for all animals, including human beings, that is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of its anticancer action is not yet fully understood, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection through selenoenzymes, stimulation of DNA repair, and apoptosis in tumor prestages have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last "SELECT" trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se has been demonstrated in a majority of epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment, where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation it may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as a prooxidant rather than an antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, inorganic Se compounds, having high redox potency, represent a promising option in cancer therapy.

  4. A Successfully Resected Case of Recurrent Lung and Liver Metastases of Rectal Cancer Treated with XELIRI + Bevacizumab Therapy.

    PubMed

    Aisu, Naoya; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Ishii, Fuminori; Miyake, Toru; Tanimura, Shu; Wada, Yoshito; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that many colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with synchronous or metachronous liver metastases underwent surgery subsequent to neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX). However, there are very few reports of the use of capecitabine and irinotecan (XELIRI). We herein report a successfully resected case of recurrent lung and liver metastases of rectal cancer treated with combination chemotherapy with XELIRI + bevacizumab (BV) therapy. A 63-year-old male developed recurrence of a solitary nodule in the right lower lobe of the lung and multiple liver metastases after low anterior resection for rectal cancer 1 year previously. Partial resection of the right lower lobe of the lung was performed and treatment with XELIRI + BV was initiated. A computed tomography scan revealed a reduction in tumor size without any new lesions after four cycles of XELIRI + BV therapy. Partial hepatectomy of S1, S5, and S7 was safely performed. The patient is now undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and has been free from recurrence for 18 months following surgery. There are only few studies with relatively low patient numbers reporting on the outcome after resection of both pulmonary and hepatic metastases of CRC. We therefore report a patient who underwent sequential resection of pulmonary and hepatic metastases with XELIRI + BV therapy.

  5. Several microRNAs could predict survival in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Ye; Xinghui, Zhao; Chao, Wu; Yi, Zhao; Jinwen, Chen; Ruifang, Gao; Chao, Zhang; Min, Zhao; Chunlei, Guo; Yan, Fang; Lingfang, Du; Long, Shen; Wenzhi, Shen; Xiaohe, Luo; Rong, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs as biomarkers play an important role in the tumorigenesis process, including hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). In this paper, we used The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to mine hepatitis B-related liver cancer microRNAs that could predict survival in patients with hepatitis B-related liver cancer. There were 93 cases of HBV-HCC and 49 cases of adjacent normal controls included in the study. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis of a liver cancer group versus a normal control group of differentially expressed genes identified eight genes with statistical significance. Compared with the normal liver cell line, hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines had high expression of 8 microRNAs, albeit at different levels. A Cox proportional hazards regression model for multivariate analysis showed that four genes had a significant difference. We established classification models to distinguish short survival time and long survival time of liver cancers. Eight genes (mir9-3, mir10b, mir31, mir519c, mir522, mir3660, mir4784, and mir6883) were identified could predict survival in patients with HBV-HCC. There was a significant correlation between mir10b and mir31 and clinical stages (p < 0.05). A random forests model effectively estimated patient survival times. PMID:28322348

  6. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-01-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment. PMID:26165830

  7. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  8. Prospective Longitudinal Assessment of Quality of Life for Liver Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jonathan; Dawson, Laura A.; Jiang, Haiyan; Kim, John; Dinniwell, Rob; Brierley, James; Wong, Rebecca; Lockwood, Gina; Ringash, Jolie

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate quality of life (QoL), an important outcome owing to poor long-term survival, after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to the liver. Methods and Materials: Patients (n=222) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver metastases, or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and Child-Pugh A liver function received 24-60 Gy of 6-fraction image-guided SBRT. Prospective QoL assessment was completed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) and/or Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary (FACT-Hep, version 4) questionnaires at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Ten HCC patients with Child-Pugh B liver function were also treated. Results: The QLQ-C30 was available for 205 patients, and 196 completed the FACT-Hep. No difference in baseline QoL (P=.17) or overall survival (P=.088) was seen between the HCC, liver metastases, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients. Appetite loss and fatigue measured by the QLQ-C30 clinically and statistically worsened by 1 month after treatment but recovered by 3 months. At 3 and 12 months after treatment, respectively, the FACT-Hep score had improved relative to baseline in 13%/19%, worsened in 36%/27%, and remained stable in 51%/54%. Using the QLQ-C30 Global Health score, QoL improved in 16%/23%, worsened in 34%/39%, and remained stable in 50%/38% at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Median survival was 17.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3-19.8 months). Higher baseline scores on both FACT-Hep and QLQ-C30 Global Health were associated with improved survival. Hazard ratios for death, per 10-unit decrease in QoL, were 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98; P=.001) and 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.95; P=.001), respectively. Tumor size was inversely correlated with survival. Conclusions: Liver SBRT temporarily worsens appetite and fatigue, but not overall QoL. Stereotactic body radiation therapy is well tolerated and warrants

  9. A history of prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Denmeade, Samuel R.; Isaacs, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The increased incidence of prostate cancer has led to remarkable changes in diagnosis and treatment over the past century. What were the first ways in which prostate cancer was treated, and how did these evolve into the variety of therapeutic strategies from which patients have to choose today? PMID:12044015

  10. Lung cancer: Biology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Hassan, Omer Ui; Yang, Yi-Wei; Buchanan, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still unsatisfactory. The responses to current standard therapies are poor except for the most localized cancers. However, a better understanding of the biology pertinent to these challenging malignancies, might lead to the development of more efficacious and perhaps more specific drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation.

  11. Adapting conventional cancer treatment for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jian; Liu, Zhida; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2016-05-01

    The efficacy of directly killing tumors by conventional cancer therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, has been for several decades well established. But, a suppressed immune response might become a lethal side effect after repeated cycles of intensive treatment. Recently, achievements in immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive T cell-mediated immunotherapies have resulted in changes in frontline management of advanced cancer diseases. However, accumulated evidence indicates that immunotherapeutic and conventional strategies alone are often ineffective to eradicate big tumors or metastasis. To improve the outcomes of treatment for advanced cancer diseases, the combination of conventional cancer treatment with various immunotherapeutic approaches has been attempted and has shown potential synergistic effects. Recent studies have unexpectedly demonstrated that some strategies of conventional cancer treatment can regulate the immune response positively, thus the understanding of how to adapt conventional treatment for immunotherapy is crucial to the design of effective combination therapy of conventional treatment with immunotherapy. Here, we review both experimental and clinical studies on the therapeutic effect and its mechanisms of combining conventional therapy with immunotherapy in treatment of cancer.

  12. Polyphenic trait promotes liver cancer in a model of epigenetic instability.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Marco; Offner, Sandra; Planet, Evarist; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Jang, Suk Min; Henry, Hugues; Geuking, Markus B; Mooser, Catherine; McCoy, Kathy D; Macpherson, Andrew J; Trono, Didier

    2017-03-30

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the fifth most common form of cancer worldwide and carries a high mortality rate due to lack of effective treatment. Males are eight times more likely to develop HCC than females, an effect largely driven by sex hormones, albeit through still poorly understood mechanisms. We previously identified TRIM28 (tripartite protein 28), a scaffold protein capable of recruiting a number of chromatin modifiers, as a crucial mediator of sexual dimorphism in the liver. Trim28(hep-/-) mice display sex-specific transcriptional deregulation of a wide range of bile and steroid metabolism genes and development of liver adenomas in males. We now demonstrate that obesity and ageing precipitate alterations of TRIM28-dependent transcriptional dynamics, leading to a metabolic infection state responsible for highly penetrant male-restricted hepatic carcinogenesis. Molecular analyses implicate aberrant androgen receptor stimulation, biliary acid disturbances and altered responses to gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Trim28(hep-/-) -associated HCC. Correspondingly, androgen deprivation markedly attenuates the frequency and severity of tumors, and raising animals under axenic conditions completely abrogates their abnormal phenotype, even upon high-fat diet challenge.

  13. The interaction of bacterial magnetosomes and human liver cancer cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pingping; Chen, Chuanfang; Chen, Changyou; Li, Yue; Pan, Weidong; Song, Tao

    2017-04-01

    As the biogenic magnetic nanomaterial, bacterial magnetic nanoparticles, namely magnetosomes, provide many advantages for potential biomedical applications. As such, interactions among magnetosomes and target cells should be elucidated to develop their bioapplications and evaluate their biocompatibilities. In this study, the interaction of magnetosomes and human liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. Prussian blue staining revealed numerous stained particles in or on the cells. Intracellular iron concentrations, measured through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, increased with the increasing concentration of the magnetosomes. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that magnetosomes could be internalized in cells, mainly encapsulated in membrane vesicles, such as endosomes and lysosomes, and partly found as free particles in the cytosol. Some of the magnetosomes on cellular surfaces were encapsulated through cell membrane ruffling, which is the initiating process of endocytosis. Applying low temperature treatment and using specific endocytic inhibitors, we validated that macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in magnetosome uptake by HepG2 cells. Consequently, we revealed the interaction and intrinsic endocytic mechanisms of magnetosomes and HepG2 cells. This study provides a basis for the further research on bacterial magnetosome applications in liver diseases.

  14. The effect of radiotherapy in liver-confined but non-resectable Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C large hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong In; Jung, Inkyung; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Clinical trials to determine the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in liver-confined but non-resectable Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are scarce. We aimed to determine the benefit of RT in such tumors and investigated large HCC tumors. Methods HCC data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry recorded from 2008 to 2010 were used. A total of 593 patients met our inclusion criteria; 67 were treated with RT while the remainder made up the non-RT group. Fifty-two RT recipients underwent combination treatments within 4 weeks after the first RT treatment, and were defined as the combination RT group. We performed propensity score matching (PSM) to compare the RT or combination RT groups with the non-RT group. The endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results Median follow-up time for surviving patients was 48 months. After PSM, there was no difference in OS between the RT and non-RT groups or between the combination RT and non-RT groups. However, the combination RT group had a longer median survival time (MST) (10.7 vs. 6.9 months, respectively). Next, we conducted PSM between the combination RT and non-RT groups in patients with tumor sizes ≥10 cm; MST was significantly longer in the former group (10.1 vs. 5.4 months, respectively; bootstrap 95% confidence interval of the difference in MST: 0.2-11.8). Conclusions As a combined modality, RT is a plausible therapeutic option for liver-confined but non-resectable BCLC stage C large HCC patients. PMID:27486881

  15. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles: in vitro liver cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutfy, Samah A.; Alam El-Din, Hanaa M.; Elberry, Mostafa H.; Allam, Nanis G.; Hasanin, M. T. M.; Abdellah, Ahmed M.

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on an in vitro human liver cancer cell model (HepG2) and their possible application as a drug delivery system, we synthesized water-soluble CS-NPs, investigated their properties and extensively evaluated their cytotoxic activity on the cellular and molecular levels. A human liver cancer cell line was used as a model of human liver cancer. The CS-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and zeta analysis. The cytotoxic effects of the CS-NPs on HepG2 cells were monitored by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assays for cytotoxicity screening and flow cytometric analysis. Molecular investigations including DNA fragmentation and the expression of some apoptotic genes on the transcriptional RNA level were conducted. Treatment of HepG2 with different concentrations of 150 nm diameter CS-NPs did not show alteration of cell morphology after 24 h of cell exposure. Also, when cells were treated with 100 μg ml-1 of CS-NPs, 12% of them were killed and IC50 reached 239 μg ml-1 after 48 h of cell exposure. Flow cytometry evaluation of the CS-NPs revealed mild accumulation in the G2/M phase followed by cellular DNA fragmentation after 48 h of cell exposure. Extensive evaluation of the cytotoxic effect of the CS-NPs showed messenger RNA (mRNA) apoptotic gene expression (p53, Bak, Caspase3) after 24 h of cell exposure with no expression of the mRNA of the caspase 3 gene after 48 h of cell exposure, suggesting the involvement of an intrinsic apoptotic caspase-independent pathway by increasing the exposure time of 100 μg ml-1 of the CS-NPs. The engineered CS-NPs were controlled to a 150 nm size and charges of 40 mV and a concentration of 100 μg ml-1 revealed a genotoxic effect on HepG2 after 48 h of cell exposure through intrinsic apoptotic caspase-independent mechanisms. Further quantitative analysis on the molecular and protein levels is still required

  16. New Tools in Experimental Cellular Therapy for the Treatment of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jennifer R.; Chokechanachaisakul, Attasit; Wertheim, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    The current standard of care for end stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Through improvement in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and general medical care, liver transplantation has become an effective treatment over the course of the last half-century. Unfortunately, due to the limited availability of donor organs, there is a finite limit to the number of patients who will benefit from this therapy. This review will discuss current research in experimental cellular therapies for acute, chronic, and metabolic liver failure that may be appropriate when liver transplantation is not an immediate option. PMID:26317066

  17. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for neoadjuvant treatment of gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Knab, Brian; Rash, Carla; Farrey, Karl; Jani, Ashesh B. . E-mail: jani@rover.uchicago.edu

    2006-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral role in the treatment of gastric cancer in the postsurgery setting, the inoperable/palliative setting, and, as in the case of the current report, in the setting of neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. Typically, anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP/PA) or 3-field techniques are used. In this report, we explore the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment in a patient whose care was transferred to our institution after 3-field radiotherapy (RT) was given to a dose of 30 Gy at an outside institution. If the 3-field plan were continued to 50 Gy, the volume of irradiated liver receiving greater than 30 Gy would have been unacceptably high. To deliver the final 20 Gy, an opposed parallel AP/PA plan and an IMRT plan were compared to the initial 3-field technique for coverage of the target volume as well as dose to the kidneys, liver, small bowel, and spinal cord. Comparison of the 3 treatment techniques to deliver the final 20 Gy revealed reduced median and maximum dose to the whole kidney with the IMRT plan. For this 20-Gy boost, the volume of irradiated liver was lower for both the IMRT plan and the AP/PA plan vs. the 3-field plan. Comparing the IMRT boost plan to the AP/PA boost-dose range (<10 Gy) in comparison to the AP/PA plan; however, the IMRT plan irradiated a smaller liver volume within the higher dose region (>10 Gy) in comparison to the AP/PA plan. The IMRT boost plan also irradiated a smaller volume of the small bowel compared to both the 3-field plan and the AP/PA plan, and also delivered lower dose to the spinal cord in comparison to the AP/PA plan. Comparison of the composite plans revealed reduced dose to the whole kidney using IMRT. The V20 for the whole kidney volume for the composite IMRT plan was 30% compared to approximately 60% for the composite AP/PA plan. Overall, the dose to the liver receiving greater than 30 Gy was lower for the composite IMRT plan and was well below acceptable limits

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not go away. Tests that examine the head, neck, and the inside of the mouth are used ... team of doctors who are experts in treating head and neck cancer. Your treatment will be overseen by a ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Salivary Gland Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not go away. Tests that examine the head, neck, and the inside of the mouth are used ... team of doctors who are experts in treating head and neck cancer. Your treatment will be overseen by a ...

  20. Clinical Considerations of Focal Drug Delivery In Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jamie; Chiu, Bill

    2017-02-24

    According to the US Center for Disease Control, cancer deaths are the second most common cause of mortality in both adults and children. Definitive treatment of solid tumors involves surgical resection with or without systemic chemotherapy and radiation. The advent of local drug delivery presents a unique treatment modality that can offer substantial benefits in cancer management. Local drug delivery offers targeted drug delivery to cancer tissues while minimizing side effects of the medications. Three main phases in solid tumor management exist for the treating physician: initial diagnosis with tissue biopsy, surgical resection with or without chemotherapy, and management of metastatic disease. Image guided studies, using modalities such as MRI, computerized tomography, and ultrasound to sample tumors have been described. The initial diagnosis phase offers a treatment window for local drug delivery with the aid of image guidance. After the diagnosis of malignancy is made, surgical resection can become an important part of tumor management. Currently, FDA approved local drug delivery systems are being used in concert with resection for intracranial glioma. Many other applications of implantation of local drug delivery at the time of surgery in other tumors, including breast and neuroblastoma, are being investigated. Finally, for patients who present with or progress to single sites of metastatic disease, such as brain or liver metastasis, studies have shown potential applications for local drug delivery as well. This review will discuss the current state of local drug delivery in the treatment of solid tumors and possible future directions.

  1. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  2. Metallated DNA Aptamers For Prostate Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    including a polydA tail in one aptamer complex and a polydT tail in a second aptamer complex, with dimerization occurring by Watson - Crick base pair...by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-10-1-0132 Metallated DNA Aptamers for Prostate Cancer Treatment Dr. William Gmeiner Wake Forest University Winston...efficacious for prostate cancer treatment. Significant progress has been made on refining novel Zn2+-binding DNA motifs that utilize FdU

  3. Cancer in pregnancy: disentangling treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Zagouri, Flora; Dimitrakakis, Constantine; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Tsigginou, Alexandra; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated cancer constitutes an uncommon and difficult to manage clinical situation. It is defined as the cancer diagnosed from the first day of childbearing to 1 year post partum. Coexistence of cancer with pregnancy adds complexity to treatment recommendations, as both the mother and the fetus may be affected. The optimal therapeutic management of pregnant women with cancer diagnosis should take into account, apart from medical factors, a host of other parameters (ethical, psychological, religious, legal, etc). Unfortunately, this situation becomes more complex as more women delay childbearing, and consequently the incidence of cancer during pregnancy is constantly increasing. This manuscript summarises the general principles in managing pregnant patients with cancer and gives detailed instructions in the management of pregnant patients with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma, lymphoma, lung cancer, soft-tissue sarcoma and cervical cancer. Of note, management of pregnant women with cancer diagnosis should be performed in specialised centres with experience and all cases should be discussed in multidisciplinary meetings composed of multiple specialists (medical oncologists, obstetricians, surgeons, radiologists and paediatricians). PMID:27843602

  4. Musashi2 as a novel predictive biomarker for liver metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhen; Zhou, Taicheng; Rao, Liangjun; Jiang, Zhipeng; Li, Yingru; Hou, Zehui; Yang, Bin; Han, Fanghai; Chen, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant expression of musashi2 (MSI-2) has been detected in several malignancies. However, its role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. Our study was designed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of MSI-2 protein in patients with colorectal cancer. The expression of MSI-2 was detected in 164 patients' colorectal cancer and control specimens by the tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between MSI-2 expression and clinicopathological variables including overall survival were analyzed. The prognostic value of liver metastasis is evaluated by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MSI-2 was highly expressed in 32.9% (54/164) of the colorectal cancer. Overexpression of MSI-2 was associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, liver metastasis, Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) clinical stage, and Carcinoembryonicantigen (CEA) level (P = 0.040, 0.014, <0.001, <0.001, 0.003, and 0.002, respectively). In the Cox multivariate test, MSI-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were found to be the independent prognostic factors (P = 0.027, 0.010, and 0.001, respectively). Further logistic regression suggested that TNM stage and MSI-2 high expression were related to liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Conclusively, our study indicates that MSI-2 overexpression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis and may be a potential biomarker for liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.

  5. An integrated genomic and epigenomic approach predicts therapeutic response to zebularine in human liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jesper B; Factor, Valentina M; Marquardt, Jens U; Raggi, Chiara; Lee, Yun-Han; Seo, Daekwan; Conner, Elizabeth A; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2010-10-20

    Epigenomic changes such as aberrant hypermethylation and subsequent atypical gene silencing are characteristic features of human cancer. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of epigenomic modulation caused by zebularine, an effective DNA methylation inhibitor, in human liver cancer. Using transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling, we identified a zebularine response signature that classified liver cancer cell lines into two major subtypes with different drug responses. In drug-sensitive cell lines, zebularine caused inhibition of proliferation coupled with increased apoptosis, whereas drug-resistant cell lines showed up-regulation of oncogenic networks (for example, E2F1, MYC, and TNF) that drive liver cancer growth in vitro and in preclinical mouse models. Assessment of zebularine-based therapy in xenograft mouse models demonstrated potent therapeutic effects against tumors established from zebularine-sensitive but not zebularine-resistant liver cancer cells, leading to increased survival and decreased pulmonary metastasis. Integration of the zebularine gene expression and demethylation response signatures allowed differentiation of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma according to their survival and disease recurrence. This integrated signature identified a subclass of patients within the poor-survivor group that is likely to benefit from therapeutic agents that target the cancer epigenome.

  6. Combination of internal radiation therapy and hyperthermia to treat liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, E.D.; McLaren, J.; Auda, S.P.; McGinley, P.H.

    1983-09-01

    Sixteen patients were treated for liver cancer (primary and metastatic) by a combination of internal radiation therapy with intra-arterial yttrium 90 microspheres and regional hyperthermia with electromagnetic radiation. Four patients have their liver disease apparently controlled; two had a partial regression of more than 50%; and two had a partial regression of less than 50%. The complications consisted of one case of radiation hepatitis and one of peptic ulcer.

  7. Targeted therapy of SMMC-7721 liver cancer in vitro and in vivo with carbon nanotubes based drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zongfei; Lin, Gaofeng; Lu, Qinghua; Meng, Lingjie; Shen, Xizhong; Dong, Ling; Fu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2012-01-01

    A new type of drug delivery system (DDS) involved chitosan (CHI) modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for controllable loading/release of anti-cancer doxorubicin (DOX) was constructed. CHI was non-covalently wrapped around SWNTs, imparting water-solubility and biocompatibility to the nanotubes. Folic acid (FA) was also bounded to the outer CHI layer to realize selective killing of tumor cells. The targeting DDS could effectively kill the HCC SMMC-7721 cell lines and depress the growth of liver cancer in nude mice, showing superior pharmaceutical efficiency to free DOX. The results of the blood routine and serum biochemical parameters, combined with the histological examinations of vital organs, demonstrating that the targeting DDS had negligible in vivo toxicity. Thus, this DDS is promising for high treatment efficacy and low side effects for future cancer therapy.

  8. Posthepatectomy liver failure after simultaneous versus staged resection of colorectal cancer and synchronous hepatic metastases*

    PubMed Central

    PATRONO, D.; PARALUPPI, G.; PERINO, M.; PALISI, M.; MIGLIARETTI, G.; BERCHIALLA, P.; ROMAGNOLI, R.; SALIZZONI, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is the third most frequent complication and the major cause of postoperative mortality after resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM). In case of synchronous resectable CRLM, it is still unclear if surgical strategy (simultaneous versus staged resection of colorectal cancer and hepatic metastases) influences the incidence and severity of PHLF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of surgical strategy on PHLF and on the early and long-term outcome. Patients and Methods Retrospective study on 106 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy for synchronous CRLM between 1997 and 2012. Results Of 106 patients, 46 underwent simultaneous resection and 60 had staged hepatectomy. The rate of PHLF was similar between groups (16.7% vs 15.2%; p=1) and subgroup analysis restricted to patients undergoing major hepatectomy confirmed this observation (31.8% vs 23.8%; p=0.56). Propensity-score analysis showed that pre-operative total bilirubin level and the amount of intra-operative blood transfusion were independently associated with an increased risk of PHLF. Nevertheless, the risk of severe PHLF (grade B – C) was increased in patients who underwent simultaneous resection and major hepatectomy (OR: 4.82; p=0.035). No significant differences were observed in severe (Dindo – Clavien 3 – 4) postoperative morbidity (23.9% vs 20.0%; p=0.64) and survival (3 and 5-year survival: 55% and 34% vs 56% and 33%; p=0.83). Conclusions The risk of PHLF is not associated with surgical strategy in the treatment of synchronous CRLM. Nevertheless, the risk of severe PHLF is increased in patients undergoing simultaneous resection and major hepatectomy. PMID:24841686

  9. What's New in Esophageal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Esophagus Cancer About Esophagus Cancer What’s New in Cancer of the Esophagus Research and Treatment? ... people with Barrett’s esophagus. This may lead to new tests for finding the people who are likely ...

  10. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Gallbladder Cancer About Gallbladder Cancer What’s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... Chemotherapy and radiation therapy Researchers are looking at new ways of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy . ...

  11. What's New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Bone Cancer About Bone Cancer What’s New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment? Research on ... from growing for a time. Some are testing new chemo drugs. Targeted therapy Targeted therapy drugs work ...

  12. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  13. What's New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypopharyngeal Cancer About Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer What’s New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers Research and Treatment? ... to better tests for early detection and to new targeted treatments. Chemoprevention Chemoprevention is the use of ...

  14. What's New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer What’s New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? Research is ... Chemotherapy drugs and combinations Some studies are testing new ways to combine drugs already known to be ...

  15. Antisense oligonucleotide treatment ameliorates alpha-1 antitrypsin–related liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuling; Booten, Sheri L.; Aghajan, Mariam; Hung, Gene; Zhao, Chenguang; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gattis, Danielle; Watt, Andrew; Freier, Susan M.; Teckman, Jeffery H.; McCaleb, Michael L.; Monia, Brett P.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that results from mutations in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene. The mutant AAT protein aggregates and accumulates in the liver leading to AATD liver disease, which is only treatable by liver transplant. The PiZ transgenic mouse strain expresses a human AAT (hAAT) transgene that contains the AATD-associated Glu342Lys mutation. PiZ mice exhibit many AATD symptoms, including AAT protein aggregates, increased hepatocyte death, and liver fibrosis. In the present study, we systemically treated PiZ mice with an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against hAAT (AAT-ASO) and found reductions in circulating levels of AAT and both soluble and aggregated AAT protein in the liver. Furthermore, AAT-ASO administration in these animals stopped liver disease progression after short-term treatment, reversed liver disease after long-term treatment, and prevented liver disease in young animals. Additionally, antisense oligonucleotide treatment markedly decreased liver fibrosis in this mouse model. Administration of AAT-ASO in nonhuman primates led to an approximately 80% reduction in levels of circulating normal AAT, demonstrating potential for this approach in higher species. Antisense oligonucleotides thus represent a promising therapy for AATD liver disease. PMID:24355919

  16. Antisense oligonucleotide treatment ameliorates alpha-1 antitrypsin-related liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuling; Booten, Sheri L; Aghajan, Mariam; Hung, Gene; Zhao, Chenguang; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gattis, Danielle; Watt, Andrew; Freier, Susan M; Teckman, Jeffery H; McCaleb, Michael L; Monia, Brett P

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that results from mutations in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene. The mutant AAT protein aggregates and accumulates in the liver leading to AATD liver disease, which is only treatable by liver transplant. The PiZ transgenic mouse strain expresses a human AAT (hAAT) transgene that contains the AATD-associated Glu342Lys mutation. PiZ mice exhibit many AATD symptoms, including AAT protein aggregates, increased hepatocyte death, and liver fibrosis. In the present study, we systemically treated PiZ mice with an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against hAAT (AAT-ASO) and found reductions in circulating levels of AAT and both soluble and aggregated AAT protein in the liver. Furthermore, AAT-ASO administration in these animals stopped liver disease progression after short-term treatment, reversed liver disease after long-term treatment, and prevented liver disease in young animals. Additionally, antisense oligonucleotide treatment markedly decreased liver fibrosis in this mouse model. Administration of AAT-ASO in nonhuman primates led to an approximately 80% reduction in levels of circulating normal AAT, demonstrating potential for this approach in higher species. Antisense oligonucleotides thus represent a promising therapy for AATD liver disease.

  17. miR-493 induction during carcinogenesis blocks metastatic settlement of colon cancer cells in liver

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Koji; Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Ohata, Hirokazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Naoto; Sato, Ai; Sakai, Hiroaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Liver metastasis is a major lethal complication associated with colon cancer, and post-intravasation steps of the metastasis are important for its clinical intervention. In order to identify inhibitory microRNAs (miRNAs) for these steps, we performed ‘dropout' screens of a miRNA library in a mouse model of liver metastasis. Functional analyses showed that miR-493 and to a lesser extent miR-493* were capable of inhibiting liver metastasis. miR-493 inhibited retention of metastasized cells in liver parenchyma and induced their cell death. IGF1R was identified as a direct target of miR-493, and its inhibition partially phenocopied the anti-metastatic effects. High levels of miR-493 and miR-493*, but not pri-miR-493, in primary colon cancer were inversely related to the presence of liver metastasis, and attributed to an increase of miR-493 expression during carcinogenesis. We propose that, in a subset of colon cancer, upregulation of miR-493 during carcinogenesis prevents liver metastasis via the induction of cell death of metastasized cells. PMID:22373578

  18. Current treatment options for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Melanie D

    2012-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of liver disease in western society. It is a cause of end-stage liver disease, with increased mortality secondary to cirrhosis and its complications. It is also recognized that cardiovascular disease is a significant cause of death in these patients. Significant work evaluating various treatments has been performed in recent years; however, to date, no ideal therapy exists. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of management. The present article reviews the current status of various treatment modalities evaluated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches ... spleen , and bile ducts . Tests that examine the pancreas are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rate, body temperature, and how quickly food is changed into energy ( metabolism ). Control the amount of calcium ... test has been developed that can find the changed gene before medullary thyroid cancer appears. The patient ...