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Sample records for liver cells survival

  1. Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor (hHGF)-Modified Hepatic Oval Cells Improve Liver Transplant Survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Ran, Jiang-Hua; Li, Xue-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Liu, Gui-Jie; Gao, Yan-Chao; Zhang, Xue-Li; Sun, Hiu-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Despite progress in the field of immunosuppression, acute rejection is still a common postoperative complication following liver transplantation. This study aims to investigate the capacity of the human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) in modifying hepatic oval cells (HOCs) administered simultaneously with orthotopic liver transplantation as a means of improving graft survival. HOCs were activated and isolated using a modified 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) model in male Lewis rats. A HOC line stably expressing the HGF gene was established following stable transfection of the pBLAST2-hHGF plasmid. Our results demonstrated that hHGF-modified HOCs could efficiently differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells in vitro. Administration of HOCs at the time of liver transplantation induced a wider distribution of SRY-positive donor cells in liver tissues. Administration of hHGF-HOC at the time of transplantation remarkably prolonged the median survival time and improved liver function for recipients compared to these parameters in the other treatment groups (P<0.05). Moreover, hHGF-HOC administration at the time of liver transplantation significantly suppressed elevation of interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels while increasing the production of IL-10 and TGF-β1 (P<0.05). HOC or hHGF-HOC administration promoted cell proliferation, reduced cell apoptosis, and decreased liver allograft rejection rates. Furthermore, hHGF-modified HOCs more efficiently reduced acute allograft rejection (P<0.05 versus HOC transplantation only). Our results indicate that the combination of hHGF-modified HOCs with liver transplantation decreased host anti-graft immune responses resulting in a reduction of allograft rejection rates and prolonging graft survival in recipient rats. This suggests that HOC-based cell transplantation therapies can be developed as a means of treating severe liver injuries. PMID

  2. Identification of Annexin A4 as a hepatopancreas factor involved in liver cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danhua; Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Han, Wenlong; Correa, Ricardo G.; Zhou, Ying; Lee, Sunyoung; Strongin, Alex Y.; Dong, P. Duc Si

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into liver and pancreas development, we investigated the target of 2F11, a monoclonal antibody of unknown antigen, widely used in zebrafish studies for labeling hepatopancreatic ducts. Utilizing mass spectrometry and in vivo assays, we determined the molecular target of 2F11 to be Annexin A4 (Anxa4), a calcium binding protein. We further found that in both zebrafish and mouse endoderm, Anxa4 is broadly expressed in the developing liver and pancreas, and later becomes more restricted to the hepatopancreatic ducts and pancreatic islets, including the insulin producing β-cells. Although Anxa4 is a known target of several monogenic diabetes genes and its elevated expression is associated with chemoresistance in malignancy, its in vivo role is largely unexplored. Knockdown of Anxa4 in zebrafish leads to elevated expression of caspase 8 and Δ113p53, and liver bud specific activation of Caspase 3 and apoptosis. Mosaic knockdown reveal that Anxa4 is required cell-autonomously in the liver bud for cell survival. This finding is further corroborated with mosaic anxa4 knockout studies using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Collectively, we identify Anxa4 as a new, evolutionarily conserved hepatopancreatic factor that is required in zebrafish for liver progenitor viability, through inhibition of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. A role for Anxa4 in cell survival may have implications for the mechanism of diabetic β-cell apoptosis and cancer cell chemoresistance. PMID:25176043

  3. Beta-catenin regulates vitamin C biosynthesis and cell survival in murine liver.

    PubMed

    Nejak-Bowen, Kari N; Zeng, Gang; Tan, Xinping; Cieply, Benjamin; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2009-10-09

    Because the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays multiple roles in liver pathobiology, it is critical to identify gene targets that mediate such diverse effects. Here we report a novel role of beta-catenin in controlling ascorbic acid biosynthesis in murine liver through regulation of expression of regucalcin or senescence marker protein 30 and L-gulonolactone oxidase. Reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry demonstrate decreased regucalcin expression in beta-catenin-null livers and greater expression in beta-catenin overexpressing transgenic livers, HepG2 hepatoma cells (contain constitutively active beta-catenin), regenerating livers, and in hepatocellular cancer tissues that exhibit beta-catenin activation. Interestingly, coprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies also demonstrate an association of beta-catenin and regucalcin. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified a functional TCF-4-binding site located between -163 and -157 (CTTTGCA) on the regucalcin promoter to be critical for regulation by beta-catenin. Significantly lower serum ascorbate levels were observed in beta-catenin knock-out mice secondary to decreased expression of regucalcin and also of L-gulonolactone oxidase, the penultimate and last (also rate-limiting) steps in the synthesis of ascorbic acid, respectively. These mice also show enhanced basal hepatocyte apoptosis. To test if ascorbate deficiency secondary to beta-catenin loss and regucalcin decrease was contributing to apoptosis, beta-catenin-null hepatocytes or regucalcin small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2 cells were cultured, which exhibited significant apoptosis that was alleviated by the addition of ascorbic acid. Thus, through regucalcin and L-gulonolactone oxidase expression, beta-catenin regulates vitamin C biosynthesis in murine liver, which in turn may be one of the mechanisms contributing to the role of beta-catenin in cell survival.

  4. Knockdown of microRNA-155 in Kupffer cells results in immunosuppressive effects and prolongs survival of mouse liver allografts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinzheng; Gong, Junhua; Li, Peizhi; Li, Min; Liu, Yiming; Liang, Shaoyong; Gong, Jianping

    2014-03-27

    Our previous studies have shown that Kupffer cells (KCs) play a crucial role in postoperative pathologic changes. Recent reports have demonstrated that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is associated with inflammation and upregulation of proinflammatory mediators in the peripheral blood and allografts of transplant patients. However, the precise mechanism for this remains unknown. KCs isolated from BALB/c mice were transfected with miR-155 mimic or inhibitor. Levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1/Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (SOCS1/JAK/STAT) proteins and surface molecules (MHC-II, CD40, and CD86) were then measured. T-cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated in mixed lymphocyte reactions. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in mice after miR-155 short hairpin RNA lentivirus treatment, and postoperative survival, liver function and histology, and mRNA and protein expression were analyzed. miR-155 knockdown in KCs decreased MHC-II, CD40, and CD86 expression, suppressed antigen-presenting function, and affected SOCS1/JAK/STAT inflammatory pathways. In addition, KCs transfected with miR-155 inhibitor and cocultured with T lymphocytes showed reduced T-cell responses but a greater number of apoptotic T cells. Finally, miR-155 suppression in graft liver prolonged liver allograft survival and improved liver function. The changes were closely associated with the levels of T helper 1 and 2 (Th1/Th2) cytokines and T-cell apoptosis, but a direct mechanistic link in vivo was not established. These data suggest miR-155 regulates the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and the maturation and function of KCs in mice. miR-155 repression in KCs positively regulates KC function toward immunosuppression and prolongs liver allograft survival.

  5. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    PubMed

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved survival of mice bearing liver metastases of colon cancer cells treated with a combination of radioimmunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yokoyama, Kunihiko; Koshida, Kiyoshi; Mori, Hirofumi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Naoto; Shuke, Noriyuki; Bai, Jingming; Michigishi, Takatoshi; Tonami, Norihisa

    2004-07-01

    We attempted to determine whether the combined regimen of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and antiangiogenic therapy would favorably affect the survival of animals bearing liver metastases of colon cancer cells. Daily antiangiogenic therapy with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), 75 mg/kg, was initiated at 3 days following intrasplenic cell inoculation of LS180 colon cancer cells. RIT with 7 MBq of (131)I-A7, an IgG1 anti-colorectal monoclonal antibody, or (131)I-HPMS-1, an irrelevant IgG1, was conducted at 7 days. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by LS180 cells was assessed in vitro. All nontreated mice died by 31 days following cell inoculation ( n=5). Monotherapy comprising 2-ME treatment resulted in slightly better survival of mice ( n=8) ( P<0.05). (131)I-A7 RIT displayed a marked therapeutic effect ( n=8) ( P<0.001); however, all animals eventually died due to metastases by 99 days. The combined regimen of (131)I-A7 RIT and antiangiogenic therapy demonstrated a superior therapeutic effect in comparison to monotherapy consisting of either RIT or antiangiogenic therapy ( n=10) ( P<0.05); three mice survived the entire 160-day observation period. The combination of antiangiogenic therapy and (131)I-HPMS-1 RIT failed to provide an appreciable benefit ( n=5). Treatment with 2-ME decreased VEGF production by LS180 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, a combination regimen comprising RIT and antiangiogenic therapy initiated at the early stage of metastasis would be of great benefit in terms of improvement of the therapeutic efficacy with respect to liver metastases.

  7. THE EFFECT OF SAMe AND BETAINE ON HEPA 1-6, C34 AND E47 LIVER CELL SURVIVAL IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Joan; Zhong, Jin; Buslon, Virgil S.; French, Samuel W.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, methyl one-carbon metabolism has received a great deal of attention because the disruption of methyl balance in a variety of genetically modified mice is associated with the development of various forms of liver injury, namely fatty liverdisease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, patients with liver disease often have an abnormal expression of key genes involved in methionine metabolism as well as elevated serum levels of methionine and homocysteine (Hcy). S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) has rapidly moved from being a methyl donor to a key metabolite that regulates hepatocyte proliferation, necrosis and differentiation. Biosynthesis of SAMe occurs in all mammalian cells as the first step in methionine catabolism in a reaction catalyzed by methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Decreased hepatic SAMe biosynthesis is a consequence of numerous forms of chronic liver injury. In an animal model of chronic liver SAMe deficiency, the liver is predisposed to further injury and develops spontaneous steatohepatitis and HCC. SAMe treatment in experimental animal models of liver injury shows that its hepatoprotective properties. Meta-analyses also showed that it is effective in the treatment of patients with cholestatic liver diseases. We studied the survival of liver cells treated with SAMe and betaine using Hepa 1–6 and E47/C34 cell lines. We showed that exogenous SAMe decreased the number of Hepa 1–6 and E47/C34 cells, and increased the number of dead cells in vitro. Betaine had no significant effect on the number of surviving cells and the number of dead cells. The combination of both methyl donors significantly increased the survival of liver cells and reduced necrosis, compare to SAMe alone. This study showed the inhibition of the proliferatino and increased necrosis in response to SAMe on liver cancer cell lines Hepa 1–6 and C34. PMID:22032937

  8. Long survival and immunologic reconstitution following transplantation with syngeneic or allogeneic fetal liver and neonatal spleen cells. [X radiation, mice

    SciT

    Yunis, E.J.; Fernandes, G.; Smith, J.

    1976-12-01

    Spleen cells from newborn syngeneic and allogeneic mice that lack fully differentiated T lymphocytes can be used as a hematopoietic source to reconstitute both hematopoietic and lymphoid systems of lethally irradiated mice without producing a GVHR. Fetal liver cells from syngeneic and allogeneic mice that lack postthymic T lymphocytes can also be used for hematopoietic and immunologic reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice without producing GVHR. Immunologic deficiency is observed in some experiments in mice given supralethal irradiation (1000 R) and fetal liver as reconstituting hematopoietic tissue. The findings suggest that T cells, at an early stage of differentiation, are moremore » susceptible to tolerance induction than are T lymphocytes at later stages of differentiation and do not, in general, produce GVHR. It is postulated that hematopoietic cells, free of postthymic lymphoid cells, can be used for hematopoietic or immunologic reconstitution and celular engineering without producing GVHD.« less

  9. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  10. Survival Outcomes After Intracranial Hemorrhage in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Carlito; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Azzam, Daniel; Sheppard, John P; Chen, Cheng Hao Jacky; Ong, Vera; Nguyen, Thien; Prashant, Giyarpuram N; Niu, Tianyi; Tucker, Alexander M; Kim, Won; Kaldas, Fady M; Pouratian, Nader; Busuttil, Ronald W; Yang, Isaac

    2018-05-15

    Survival outcomes for patients with liver disease who suffer an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) have not been thoroughly investigated. To understand survival outcomes for 3 groups: (1) patients with an admission diagnosis of liver disease (end-stage liver disease [ESLD] or non-ESLD) who developed an ICH in the hospital, (2) patients with ESLD who undergo either operative vs nonoperative management, and (3) patients with ESLD on the liver transplant waitlist who developed an ICH in the hospital. We retrospectively reviewed hospital charts from March 2006 through February 2017 of patients with liver disease and an ICH evaluated by the neurosurgery service at a single academic medical center. The primary outcome was survival. We included a total of 53 patients in this study. The overall survival for patients with an admission diagnosis of liver disease who developed an ICH (n = 29, 55%) in the hospital was 22%. Of those patients with an admission diagnosis of liver disease, 27 patients also had ESLD. Kaplan-Meier analysis found no significant difference in survival for ESLD patients (n = 33, 62%) according to operative status. There were 11 ESLD patients on the liver transplant waitlist. The overall survival for patients with ESLD on the liver transplant waitlist who suffered an in-hospital ICH (n = 7, 13%) was 14%. ICH in the setting of liver disease carries a grave prognosis. Also, a survival advantage for surgical hematoma evacuation in ESLD patients is not clear.

  11. Innate Immune Cells in Liver Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liaskou, Evaggelia; Wilson, Daisy V.; Oo, Ye H.

    2012-01-01

    Innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens that is critical for the overall survival of the host. Human liver is characterised by a dual blood supply, with 80% of blood entering through the portal vein carrying nutrients and bacterial endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver is thus constantly exposed to antigenic loads. Therefore, pathogenic microorganism must be efficiently eliminated whilst harmless antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract need to be tolerized in the liver. In order to achieve this, the liver innate immune system is equipped with multiple cellular components; monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells which coordinate to exert tolerogenic environment at the same time detect, respond, and eliminate invading pathogens, infected or transformed self to mount immunity. This paper will discuss the innate immune cells that take part in human liver inflammation, and their roles in both resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:22933833

  12. Xenotransplantation of neonatal porcine liver cells.

    PubMed

    Garkavenko, O; Emerich, D F; Muzina, M; Muzina, Z; Vasconcellos, A V; Ferguson, A B; Cooper, I J; Elliott, R B

    2005-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine liver cell types may provide a means of overcoming the shortage of suitable donor tissues to treat hepatic diseases characterized by inherited inborn errors of metabolism or protein production. Here we report the successful isolation, culture, and xenotransplantation of liver cells harvested from 7- to 10-day-old piglets. Liver cells were isolated and cultured immediately after harvesting. Cell viability was excellent (>90%) over the duration of the in vitro studies (3 weeks) and the cultured cells continued to significantly proliferate. These cells also retained their normal secretory and metabolic capabilities as determined by continued release of albumin, factor 8, and indocyanin green (ICG) uptake. After 3 weeks in culture, porcine liver cells were loaded into immunoisolatory macro devices (Theracyte devices) and placed into the intraperitoneal cavity of immunocompetant CD1 mice. Eight weeks later, the devices were retrieved and the cells analyzed for posttransplant determinations of survival and function. Post mortem analysis confirmed that the cell-loaded devices were biocompatible, and were well-tolerated without inducing any notable inflammatory reaction in the tissues immediately surrounding the encapsulated cells. Finally, the encapsulated liver cells remained viable and functional as determined by histologic analyses and ICG uptake/release. The successful harvesting, culturing, and xenotransplantation of functional neonatal pig liver cells support the continued development of this approach for treating a range of currently undertreated or intractable hepatic diseases.

  13. Cystic Fibrosis Associated with Worse Survival After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Black, Sylvester M; Woodley, Frederick W; Tumin, Dmitry; Mumtaz, Khalid; Whitson, Bryan A; Tobias, Joseph D; Hayes, Don

    2016-04-01

    Survival in cystic fibrosis patients after liver transplantation and liver-lung transplantation is not well studied. To discern survival rates after liver transplantation and liver-lung transplantation in patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried from 1987 to 2013. Univariate Cox proportional hazards, multivariate Cox models, and propensity score matching were performed. Liver transplant and liver-lung transplant were performed in 212 and 53 patients with cystic fibrosis, respectively. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression identified lower survival in cystic fibrosis after liver transplant compared to a reference non-cystic fibrosis liver transplant cohort (HR 1.248; 95 % CI 1.012, 1.541; p = 0.039). Supplementary analysis found graft survival was similar across the 3 recipient categories (log-rank test: χ(2) 2.68; p = 0.262). Multivariate Cox models identified increased mortality hazard among cystic fibrosis patients undergoing liver transplantation (HR 2.439; 95 % CI 1.709, 3.482; p < 0.001) and liver-lung transplantation (HR 2.753; 95 % CI 1.560, 4.861; p < 0.001). Propensity score matching of cystic fibrosis patients undergoing liver transplantation to non-cystic fibrosis controls identified a greater mortality hazard in the cystic fibrosis cohort using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on matched pairs (HR 3.167; 95 % CI 1.265, 7.929, p = 0.014). Liver transplantation in cystic fibrosis is associated with poorer long-term patient survival compared to non-cystic fibrosis patients, although the difference is not due to graft survival.

  14. Recellularization of Rat Liver Scaffolds by Human Liver Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Tableros, Victor; Herrera Sanchez, Maria Beatriz; Figliolini, Federico; Romagnoli, Renato; Tetta, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rat liver acellular scaffolds were used as biological support to guide the differentiation of human liver stem-like cells (HLSC) to hepatocytes. Once recellularized, the scaffolds were maintained for 21 days in different culture conditions to evaluate hepatocyte differentiation. HLSC lost the embryonic markers (alpha-fetoprotein, nestin, nanog, sox2, Musashi1, Oct 3/4, and pax2), increased the expression of albumin, and acquired the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and three subtypes of cytochrome P450. The presence of urea nitrogen in the culture medium confirmed their metabolic activity. In addition, cells attached to tubular remnant matrix structures expressed cytokeratin 19, CD31, and vimentin. The rat extracellular matrix (ECM) provides not only a favorable environment for differentiation of HLSC in functional hepatocytes (hepatocyte like) but also promoted the generation of some epithelial-like and endothelial-like cells. When fibroblast growth factor–epidermal growth factor or HLSC-derived conditioned medium was added to the perfusate, an improvement of survival rate was observed. The conditioned medium from HLSC potentiated also the metabolic activity of hepatocyte-like cells repopulating the acellular liver. In conclusion, HLSC have the potential, in association with the natural ECM, to generate in vitro a functional “humanized liver-like tissue.” PMID:25794768

  15. Liver natural killer cells: subsets and roles in liver immunity

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Wisse, Eddie; Tian, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The liver represents a frontline immune organ that is constantly exposed to a variety of gut-derived antigens as a result of its unique location and blood supply. With a predominant role in innate immunity, the liver is enriched with various innate immune cells, among which natural killer (NK) cells play important roles in host defense and in maintaining immune balance. Hepatic NK cells were first described as ‘pit cells' in the rat liver in the 1970s. Recent studies of NK cells in mouse and human livers have shown that two distinct NK cell subsets, liver-resident NK cells and conventional NK (cNK) cells, are present in this organ. Here, we review liver NK cell subsets in different species, revisiting rat hepatic pit cells and highlighting recent progress related to resident NK cells in mouse and human livers, and also discuss the dual roles of NK cells in liver immunity. PMID:26639736

  16. [Mortality and survival analysis of liver cancer in China].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei; Chen, Wanqing

    2015-09-01

    Based on the cancer registry data to analyze the mortality and survival of liver cancer in China. Liver cancer data of 2011 were retrieved from the National Cancer Registry Database.Liver cancer deaths were estimated using age-specific rate by areas and gender according to the national population in 2011. Mortality data from 22 cancer registries during 2000-2011 were used to analyze the mortality trend, and data from 17 cancer registries during 2003-2005 were used for survival analysis. The estimates of liver cancer deaths were about 322 thousand in 2011 with a crude mortality rate of 23.93/10(5).There was an increasing trend of crude mortality rate of liver cancer during 2000-2011 in 22 Chinese cancer registries with an average annual percentage change of 0.7% (95%CI: 0.2%-1.2%), 1.1% in urban and 0.4% in rural areas. After age standardization with Segi's population, the mortality rate was significantly decreased, with an APC of -2.3%, -1.9% in urban and -2.2% in rural populations. The 5-year age standardized relative survival was 10.1% (95%CI: 9.5% to 10.7%), and the 1-, 3- and the 5-year observed survival rates were 27.2%, 12.7%, and 8.9%, respectively. Liver cancer is a major cancer threatening people's lives and health in China, and the liver cancer burden is still high.

  17. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. RESULTS One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance (r2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation. PMID:27895402

  18. Effect of airplane transport of donor livers on post-liver transplantation survival.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; MacQuillan, Gerry; Adams, Leon A; Garas, George; Collins, Megan; Nwaba, Albert; Mou, Linjun; Bulsara, Max K; Delriviere, Luc; Jeffrey, Gary P

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate the effect of long haul airplane transport of donor livers on post-transplant outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of patients who received a liver transplantation was performed in Perth, Australia from 1992 to 2012. Donor and recipient characteristics information were extracted from Western Australian liver transplantation service database. Patients were followed up for a mean of six years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated and compared between patients who received a local donor liver and those who received an airplane transported donor liver. Predictors of survival were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using cox regression. One hundred and ninety-three patients received a local donor liver and 93 patients received an airplane transported donor liver. Airplane transported livers had a significantly lower alanine transaminase (mean: 45 U/L vs 84 U/L, P = 0.035), higher donor risk index (mean: 1.88 vs 1.42, P < 0.001) and longer cold ischemic time (CIT) (mean: 10.1 h vs 6.4 h, P < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between CIT and transport distance ( r 2 = 0.29, P < 0.001). Mean follow up was six years and 93 patients had graft failure. Multivariate analysis found only airplane transport retained significance for graft loss (HR = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.16-3.17). One year graft survival was 0.88 for those with a local liver and was 0.71 for those with an airplane transported liver. One year graft loss was due to primary graft non-function or associated with preservation injury in 20.8% of recipients of an airplane transported liver compared with 4.6% in those with a local liver ( P = 0.027). Airplane transport of donor livers was independently associated with reduced graft survival following liver transplantation.

  19. Cholestenoic acids regulate motor neuron survival via liver X receptors

    PubMed Central

    Theofilopoulos, Spyridon; Griffiths, William J.; Crick, Peter J.; Yang, Shanzheng; Meljon, Anna; Ogundare, Michael; Kitambi, Satish Srinivas; Lockhart, Andrew; Tuschl, Karin; Clayton, Peter T.; Morris, Andrew A.; Martinez, Adelaida; Reddy, M. Ashwin; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Bassi, Maria T.; Honda, Akira; Mizuochi, Tatsuki; Kimura, Akihiko; Nittono, Hiroshi; De Michele, Giuseppe; Carbone, Rosa; Criscuolo, Chiara; Yau, Joyce L.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Schüle, Rebecca; Schöls, Ludger; Sailer, Andreas W.; Kuhle, Jens; Fraidakis, Matthew J.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Steffensen, Knut R.; Björkhem, Ingemar; Ernfors, Patrik; Sjövall, Jan; Arenas, Ernest; Wang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Cholestenoic acids are formed as intermediates in metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, and the biosynthetic enzymes that generate cholestenoic acids are expressed in the mammalian CNS. Here, we evaluated the cholestenoic acid profile of mammalian cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and determined that specific cholestenoic acids activate the liver X receptors (LXRs), enhance islet-1 expression in zebrafish, and increase the number of oculomotor neurons in the developing mouse in vitro and in vivo. While 3β,7α-dihydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3β,7α-diHCA) promoted motor neuron survival in an LXR-dependent manner, 3β-hydroxy-7-oxocholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3βH,7O-CA) promoted maturation of precursors into islet-1+ cells. Unlike 3β,7α-diHCA and 3βH,7O-CA, 3β-hydroxycholest-5-en-26-oic acid (3β-HCA) caused motor neuron cell loss in mice. Mutations in CYP7B1 or CYP27A1, which encode enzymes involved in cholestenoic acid metabolism, result in different neurological diseases, hereditary spastic paresis type 5 (SPG5) and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), respectively. SPG5 is characterized by spastic paresis, and similar symptoms may occur in CTX. Analysis of CSF and plasma from patients with SPG5 revealed an excess of the toxic LXR ligand, 3β-HCA, while patients with CTX and SPG5 exhibited low levels of the survival-promoting LXR ligand 3β,7α-diHCA. Moreover, 3β,7α-diHCA prevented the loss of motor neurons induced by 3β-HCA in the developing mouse midbrain in vivo.Our results indicate that specific cholestenoic acids selectively work on motor neurons, via LXR, to regulate the balance between survival and death. PMID:25271621

  20. Impact of pretransplant renal function on survival after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gonwa, T A; Klintmalm, G B; Levy, M; Jennings, L S; Goldstein, R M; Husberg, B S

    1995-02-15

    To determine the effect of pretransplant liver function on survival following orthotopic liver transplantation and to quantify the effects of cyclosporine administration on long-term renal function in patients undergoing liver transplant, we performed an analysis of a prospectively maintained database. Data from 569 consecutive patients undergoing liver transplantation alone who were treated with CsA for immunosuppression were used for this study. Actuarial graft and patient survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Glomerular filtration rates, serum creatinine, and the use of various immunosuppressives were analyzed for this study. The initial analysis demonstrated that patients presenting for liver transplant with hepatorenal syndrome have a significantly decreased acturial patient survival after liver transplant at 5 years compared with patients without hepatorenal syndrome (60% vs. 68%, P < 0.03). Patients with hepatorenal syndrome recovered their renal function after liver transplant. Patients who had hepatorenal syndrome were sicker and required longer stays in the intensive care unit, longer hospitalizations, and more dialysis treatments after transplantation compared with patients who did not have hepatorenal syndrome. The incidence of end-stage renal disease after liver transplantation in patients who had hepatorenal syndrome was 7%, compared with 2% in patients who did not have hepatorenal syndrome. To more fully examine the effect of pretransplant renal function on posttransplant survival, the non-hepatorenal syndrome patients were divided into quartiles depending upon their pretransplant renal function. The patients with the lowest pretransplant renal function had the same survival as the patients with the highest pretransplant renal function. In addition, there was no increased incidence of acute or chronic rejection in any of the groups. The patients with the lower pretransplant renal function were treated with more azathioprine to

  1. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and poor patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Hirozumi; Yasuda, Akira; Ochi, Nobuo; Ma, Jiachi; Matsuo, Yoichi; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Funahashi, Hitoshi; Sato, Mikinori; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2008-01-01

    Background The tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important negative regulator of cell-survival signaling. To evaluate the correlation between PTEN expression and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer patients with and without liver metastases, we investigated PTEN expression in primary colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer liver metastases. Methods Sixty-nine pairs of primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastasis specimens were analyzed immunohistochemically, and the correlation between immunohistochemical findings and clinicopathological factors was investigated. Seventy primary colorectal cancer specimens from patients without liver metastases were used as controls. Results PTEN was strongly expressed in 44 (62.9%) colorectal cancer specimens from patients without liver metastases. In contrast, PTEN was weakly expressed in 52 (75.4%) primary colorectal cancer specimens from patients with liver metastases, and was absent in liver metastases. Weak PTEN expression in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly associated with advanced TNM stage (p < 0.01) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). PTEN expression was significantly stronger in primary colorectal cancer specimens from patients without liver metastases. Furthermore, among colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in patients with positive PTEN expression compared to those with negative PTEN expression (p = 0.012). Conclusion Our results suggest that loss of PTEN expression is involved with colorectal cancer aggressive capacity and that diagnostic evaluation of PTEN expression may provide valuable prognostic information to aid treatment strategies for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:19036165

  2. Sirolimus and metformin synergistically inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and improve long-term survival in patients with HCC related to hepatitis B virus induced cirrhosis after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chuan; Peng, Chenghong; Shen, Baiyong; Zhu, Zhecheng; Xu, Ning; Li, Tao; Xie, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents used postoperatively after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) favor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, new effective immunosuppressants are needed. This retrospective study assessed combined sirolimus and metformin on survival of HCC patients after LT. In 2001-2013, 133 HCC patients with LT were divided into four groups: sirolimus and metformin combination (Sir+Met), sirolimus monotherapy (Sir), other immunosuppressants in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients without metformin (No Sir with DM), and other immunosuppressants in patients without DM (No Sir without DM). Kaplan-Meier and Log-rank tests were used to assess survival. Cell proliferation and tumor xenograft assays were performed to disclose the mechanisms underlying the sirolimus and metformin effects. The Sir+Met group showed significantly prolonged survival compared to the other groups. The most significant cytotoxicity was seen in the Sir+Met group, with significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated PI3K, AKT, AMPK, mTOR, 4EBP1 and S6K, compared with the other groups. In agreement, Sir+Met had the highest suppressive effect on tumor growth among all groups (P<0.01). In summary, Sir+Met treatment significantly prolonged survival, likely by suppressing cell proliferation. Therefore, this combination could represent a potential routine-regimen for patients post LT. PMID:27577068

  3. Molecular profiling of subclinical inflammatory lesions in long-term surviving adult liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Londoño, María-Carlota; Souza, Lara Neves; Lozano, Juan-José; Miquel, Rosa; Abraldes, Juan G; Llovet, Laura-Patricia; Quaglia, Alberto; Rimola, Antoni; Navasa, Miquel; Sánchez-Fueyo, Alberto

    2018-04-28

    Subclinical inflammatory changes are commonly described in long-term transplant recipients undergoing protocol liver biopsies. The pathogenesis of these lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the key molecular pathways driving progressive subclinical inflammatory liver allograft damage. All liver recipients followed at Hospital Clínic Barcelona who were >10 years post-transplant were screened for participation in the study. Patients with recurrence of underlying liver disease, biliary or vascular complications, chronic rejection, and abnormal liver function tests were excluded. Sixty-seven patients agreed to participate and underwent blood and serological tests, transient elastography and a liver biopsy. Transcriptome profiling was performed on RNA extracted from 49 out of the 67 biopsies employing a whole genome next generation sequencing platform. Patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years following the index liver biopsy. Median time since transplantation to liver biopsy was 13 years (10-22). The most frequently observed histological abnormality was portal inflammation with different degrees of fibrosis, present in 45 biopsies (67%). Two modules of 102 and 425 co-expressed genes were significantly correlated with portal inflammation, interface hepatitis and portal fibrosis. These modules were enriched in molecular pathways known to be associated with T cell mediated rejection. Liver allografts showing the highest expression levels for the two modules recapitulated the transcriptional profile of biopsies with clinically apparent rejection and developed progressive damage over time, as assessed by non-invasive markers of fibrosis. A large proportion of adult liver transplant recipients who survive long-term exhibit subclinical histological abnormalities. The transcriptomic profile of these patients' liver tissue closely resembles that of T cell mediated rejection and may result in progressive allograft damage. A large

  4. Particulate matter air pollution and liver cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huiyu; Eckel, Sandrah P; Liu, Lihua; Lurmann, Frederick W; Cockburn, Myles G; Gilliland, Frank D

    2017-08-15

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been associated with cancer incidence and mortality especially with lung cancer. The liver is another organ possibly affected by PM due to its role in detoxifying xenobiotics absorbed from PM. Various studies have investigated the mechanistic pathways between inhaled pollutants and liver damage, cancer incidence, and tumor progression. However, little is known about the effects of PM on liver cancer survival. Twenty thousand, two hundred and twenty-one California Cancer Registry patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were used to examine the effect of exposure to ambient PM with diameter <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) on HCC survival. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) relating PM 2.5 to all-cause and liver cancer-specific mortality linearly and nonlinearly-overall and stratified by stage at diagnosis (local, regional and distant)-adjusting for potential individual and geospatial confounders.PM 2.5 exposure after diagnosis was statistically significantly associated with HCC survival. After adjustment for potential confounders, the all-cause mortality HR associated with a 1 standard deviation (5.0 µg/m 3 ) increase in PM 2.5 was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.16-1.20); 1.31 (95% CI:1.26-1.35) for local stage, 1.19 (95% CI:1.14-1.23) for regional stage, and 1.05 (95% CI:1.01-1.10) for distant stage. These associations were nonlinear, with substantially larger HRs at higher exposures. The associations between liver cancer-specific mortality and PM 2.5 were slightly attenuated compared to all-cause mortality, but with the same patterns.Exposure to elevated PM 2.5 after the diagnosis of HCC may shorten survival, with larger effects at higher concentrations. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Hepatic progenitor cells of biliary origin with liver repopulation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, Luke; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Cole, Alicia M; Hay, Trevor; Guest, Rachel V; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Yung; Mackinnon, Alison; Ridgway, Rachel A; Kendall, Timothy; Williams, Michael J; Jamieson, Thomas; Raven, Alex; Hay, David C; Iredale, John P; Clarke, Alan R; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes self renew following liver injury. Following severe injury hepatocytes are increasingly senescent, whether Hepatic Progenitor Cells (HPCs) then contribute to liver regeneration is unclear. Here, we describe a mouse model where Mdm2 is inducibly deleted in over 98% of hepatocytes, causing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence with nearly all hepatocytes expressing p21. This results in florid HPC activation, which is necessary for survival, followed by complete, functional liver reconstitution. HPCs isolated from genetically normal mice, using cell surface markers, were highly expandable and phenotypically stable in vitro. These HPCs were transplanted into adult mouse livers where hepatocyte Mdm2 was repeatedly deleted, creating a non-competitive repopulation assay. Transplanted HPCs contributed significantly to restoration of liver parenchyma, regenerating hepatocytes and biliary epithelia, highlighting their in vivo lineage potency. HPCs are therefore a potential future alternative to hepatocyte or liver transplantation for liver disease. PMID:26192438

  6. Redox Regulation of Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Trachootham, Dunyaporn; Lu, Weiqin; Ogasawara, Marcia A.; Valle, Nilsa Rivera-Del

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play important roles in regulation of cell survival. In general, moderate levels of ROS/RNS may function as signals to promote cell proliferation and survival, whereas severe increase of ROS/RNS can induce cell death. Under physiologic conditions, the balance between generation and elimination of ROS/RNS maintains the proper function of redox-sensitive signaling proteins. Normally, the redox homeostasis ensures that the cells respond properly to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. However, when the redox homeostasis is disturbed, oxidative stress may lead to aberrant cell death and contribute to disease development. This review focuses on the roles of key transcription factors, signal-transduction pathways, and cell-death regulators in affecting cell survival, and how the redox systems regulate the functions of these molecules. The current understanding of how disturbance in redox homeostasis may affect cell death and contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and degenerative disorders is reviewed. We also discuss how the basic knowledge on redox regulation of cell survival can be used to develop strategies for the treatment or prevention of those diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1343–1374. PMID:18522489

  7. Kupffer Cells in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Laura J.; Barnes, Mark; Tang, Hui; Pritchard, Michele T.; Nagy, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Kupffer cells are a critical component of the mononuclear phagocytic system and are central to both the hepatic and systemic response to pathogens. Kupffer cells are reemerging as critical mediators of both liver injury and repair. Kupffer cells exhibit a tremendous plasticity; depending on the local metabolic and immune environment, then can express a range of polarized phenotypes, from the proinflammatory M1 phenotype to the alternative/M2 phenotype. Multiple M2 phenotypes can be distinguished, each involved in the resolution of inflammation and wound healing. Here, we have provided an update on recent research that has contributed to the developing delineation of the contribution of Kupffer cells to different types of liver injury, with an emphasis on alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. These recent advances in our understanding of Kupffer cell function and regulation will likely provide new insights into the potential for therapeutic manipulation of Kupffer cells to promote the resolution of inflammation and enhance wound healing in liver disease. PMID:23720329

  8. Hepatic Dendritic Cells, the Tolerogenic Liver Environment, and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lei; Ono, Yoshihiro; Chen, Yi-Fa; Thomson, Angus W; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2018-05-01

    The unique liver immune microenvironment favors resistance to inflammation that promotes normal physiological function. At the same time, it endows the liver with tolerogenic properties that may promote pathological processes. Hepatic dendritic cells (HDCs) initiate and orchestrate immune responses depending on signals they receive from the local environment and are thought to contribute to liver tolerance. Thus, HDCs facilitate impaired T cell responses that are observed in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma progression, and liver allograft transplantation. HDCs also participate in anti-inflammatory responses in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Moreover, they promote the regression of fibrosis from various fibrogenic liver injuries. These findings suggest that HDCs regulate intrahepatic immune responses, allowing the liver to maintain homeostasis and integrity even under pathological conditions. This review focuses on the tolerogenic properties of HDCs based on recent research and in relation to liver disease pathogenesis and its therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Survival Outcomes in Split Compared to Whole Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Chul; Song, Sanghee; Jwa, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Ok-Kyoung; Hong, Suk Kyun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kim, Myoung Soo; Hwang, Shin; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2018-05-10

    Split liver transplantation (SLT) should be cautiously considered because the right tri-sectional (RTS) graft can be a marginal graft in adult recipients. Herein, we analyzed the outcomes of RTS-SLT in Korea, where > 75% of adult liver transplantations are performed by living donor liver transplantation. Among 2,462 patients who underwent deceased donor liver transplantations (DDLT) from 2005 to 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 86 adult patients (3.4%) who received a RTS graft (RTS-SLT group). The outcomes of the RTS-SLT group were compared to those of 303 recipients of whole liver (WL-DDLT group). Recipients' age, laboratory Model for End-Stage-Liver Disease (L-MELD) score, ischemic time, and donor recipient weight ratio (DRWR) were not different between the two groups (P >0.05). However, malignancy was uncommon (4.7 vs. 36.3%), and donor was younger (25.2 vs. 42.7 years) in the RST-SLT group than in the WL-DDLT group (P <0.05). The technical complication rates and the 5-year graft survival rates (89.0 vs. 92.8%) were not different between the two groups (P >0.05). The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) (63.1%) and graft-failure-free survival rate (63.1%) of the RTS-SLT group were worse than that of the WL-DDLT group (79.3% and 79.3%) (P <0.05). The factors affecting graft survival rates were not definite. However, the factors affecting OS in the RTS-SLT group were L-MELD score >30 and DRWR ≤1.0. In the subgroup analysis, OS was not different between the two groups if the DRWR was >1.0, regardless of the L-MELD score (P >0.05). In conclusion, sufficient volume of the graft estimated from DRWR-matching could lead to better outcomes of adult SLTs with a RTS graft, even in patients with high L-MELD scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Cell Survival Signaling in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis and malignant transformation is driven by overexpression and dominance of cell survival pathways and a lack of normal cellular senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, manipulation of cell survival pathways may decrease the malignant potential of these tumors and provide avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on several facets of cell survival pathways including protein kinases (PI3K, AKT, ALK, and FAK), transcription factors (NF-κB, MYCN and p53), and growth factors (IGF, EGF, PDGF, and VEGF). Modulation of each of these factors decreases the growth or otherwise hinders the malignant potential of neuroblastoma, and many therapeutics targeting these pathways are already in the clinical trial phase of development. Continued research and discovery of effective modulators of these pathways will revolutionize the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:22934706

  11. Clinical uses of liver stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dan, Yock Young

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation offers a definitive cure for many liver and metabolic diseases. However, the complex invasive procedure and paucity of donor liver graft organs limit its clinical applicability. Liver stem cells provide a potentially limitless source of cells that would be useful for a variety of clinical applications. These stem cells or hepatocytes generated from them can be used in cellular transplantation, bioartificial liver devices and drug testing in the development of new drugs. In this chapter, we review the technical aspects of clinical applications of liver stem cells and the progress made to date in the clinical setting. The difficulties and challenges of realizing the potential of these cells are discussed.

  12. Hepatic stem/progenitor cells and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Sei; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Allogeneic liver transplantation is still the only effective treatment available to patients with liver failure. However, because there is a serious shortage of liver donors, an alternative therapeutic approach is needed. Transplantation of mature hepatocytes has been evaluated in clinical trials, but the long-term efficacy remains unclear and the paucity of donor cells limits this strategy. Stem-cell transplantation is a more promising alternative approach. Several studies have provided information about the mechanism underlying the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Moreover, in experimental models of liver disease, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells or hepatocyte-like cells derived from multipotent stem cells led to donor cell-mediated repopulation of the liver and improved survival rates. However, before stem-cell transplantation can be applied in the clinic to treat liver failure in humans, it will be necessary to overcome several difficulties associated with the technique.

  13. ENDOCYTOSIS IN CHANG LIVER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Roger; Rosenberg, Murray; Estensen, Richard

    1971-01-01

    The addition of 0.08 M sucrose to a culture medium containing Chang-strain human liver cells causes intense cytoplasmic vacuolation. Electron microscopy of these cells grown inferritin, time-lapse cinematography, and radioautography reveal that the vacuoles arise by endocytosis and that the sucrose is taken into the cell and localized in the vacuoles. Tracer studies demonstrate that sucrose-3H provides a marker for quantitation of endocytosis and that it neither induces nor stimulates endocytosis. Electron micrographs of vacuolated liver cells show microfilaments in close proximity to the inside of the plasma membrane, in the pseudopodia, and to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane surrounding endocytosis vacuoles. Cytochalasin B (CB), a mold metabolite that inhibits various types of cell motility, has a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the uptake of sucrose-3H by these cells. This inhibition is accompanied by a cessation of the movement of ruffles and pseudopodia on the surface of the cells and the formation of blebs which arise from the cell's surface. These morphological changes are quickly reversible upon removal of CB. Alterations in the appearance and location of microfilaments are also observed in CB-treated cells. PMID:4329157

  14. Determinants of survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parau, Angela; Todor, Nicolae; Vlad, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic factors for survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer identified up to date are quite inconsistent with a great inter-study variability. In this study we aimed to identify predictors of outcome in our patient population. A series of 70 consecutive patients from the oncological hepatobiliary database, who had undergone curative hepatic surgical resection for hepatic metastases of colorectal origin, operated between 2006 and 2011, were identified. At 44.6 months (range 13.7-73), 30 of 70 patients (42.85%) were alive. Patient demographics, primary tumor and liver tumor factors, operative factors, pathologic findings, recurrence patterns, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Clinicopathologic variables were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. The 3-year CSS after first hepatic resection was 54%. Median CSS survival after first hepatic resection was 40.2 months. Median CSS after second hepatic resection was 24.2 months. The 3-year DFS after first hepatic resection was 14%. Median disease free survival after first hepatic resection was 18 months. The 3-year DFS after second hepatic resection was 27% and median DFS after second hepatic resection 12 months. The 30-day mortality and morbidity rate after first hepatic resection was 5.71% and 12.78%, respectively. In univariate analysis CSS was significantly reduced for the following factors: age >53 years, advanced T stage of primary tumor, moderately- poorly differentiated tumor, positive and narrow resection margin, preoperative CEA level >30 ng/ml, DFS <18 months. Perioperative chemotherapy related to metastasectomy showed a trend in improving CSS (p=0.07). Perioperative chemotherapy improved DFS in a statistically significant way (p=0.03). Perioperative chemotherapy and achievement of resection margins beyond 1 mm were the major determinants of both CSS and DFS after first liver resection in multivariate

  15. Survival benefit of liver resection for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Ahn, S W; Hong, S K; Yoon, K C; Kim, H-S; Choi, Y R; Lee, H W; Yi, N-J; Lee, K-W; Suh, K-S

    2017-07-01

    Although transarterial chemoembolization is recommended as the standard treatment for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (BCLC-B HCC), other treatments including liver resection have been used. This study aimed to determine the survival benefit of treatment strategies including resection for BCLC-B HCC compared with non-surgical treatments. The nationwide multicentre database of the Korean Liver Cancer Association was reviewed. Patients with BCLC-B HCC who underwent liver resection as a first or second treatment within 2 years of diagnosis and patients who received non-surgical treatment were selected randomly. Survival outcomes of propensity score-matched groups were compared. Among 887 randomly selected patients with BCLC-B HCC, 83 underwent liver resection as first or second treatment and 597 had non-surgical treatment. After propensity score matching, the two groups were well balanced (80 patients in each group). Overall median survival in the resection group was better than that for patients receiving non-surgical treatment (50·9 versus 22·1 months respectively; P < 0·001). The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates in the resection group were 90, 88, 75 and 63 per cent, compared with 79, 48, 35 and 22 per cent in the no-surgery group (P < 0·001). In multivariable analysis, non-surgical treatment only (hazard ratio (HR) 3·35, 95 per cent c.i. 2·16 to 5·19; P < 0·001), albumin level below 3·5 g/dl (HR 1·96, 1·22 to 3·15; P = 0·005) and largest tumour size greater than 5·0 cm (HR 1·81, 1·20 to 2·75; P = 0·005) were independent predictors of worse overall survival. Treatment strategies that include liver resection offer a survival benefit compared with non-surgical treatments for potentially resectable BCLC-B HCC. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inferior survival in liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving donation after cardiac death liver allografts.

    PubMed

    Croome, Kris P; Wall, William; Chandok, Natasha; Beck, Gavin; Marotta, Paul; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    The impact of ischemia/reperfusion injury in the setting of transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study examined data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients for all recipients of deceased donor liver transplants performed between January 1, 1995 and October 31, 2011. In a multivariate Cox analysis, significant predictors of patient survival included the following: HCC diagnosis (P < 0.01), donation after cardiac death (DCD) allograft (P < 0.001), hepatitis C virus-positive status (P < 0.01), recipient age (P < 0.01), donor age (P < 0.001), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (P < 0.001), recipient race, and an alpha-fetoprotein level > 400 ng/mL at the time of transplantation. In order to test whether the decreased survival seen for HCC recipients of DCD grafts was more than would be expected because of the inferior nature of DCD grafts and the diagnosis of HCC, a DCD allograft/HCC diagnosis interaction term was created to look for potentiation of effect. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for all other covariates, this interaction term was statistically significant (P = 0.049) and confirmed that there was potentiation of inferior survival with the use of DCD allografts in recipients with HCC. In conclusion, patient survival and graft survival were inferior for HCC recipients of DCD allografts versus recipients of donation after brain death allografts. This potentiation of effect of inferior survival remained even after adjustments for the inherent inferiority observed in DCD allografts as well as other known risk factors. It is hypothesized that this difference could reflect an increased rate of recurrence of HCC. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. B cell-mediated maintenance of CD169+ cells is critical for liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Kristina; Zhuang, Yuan; Xu, Haifeng C; Sundaram, Balamurugan; Reich, Maria; Shinde, Prashant V; Huang, Jun; Modares, Nastaran Fazel; Tumanov, Alexei V; Polz, Robin; Scheller, Jürgen; Ware, Carl F; Pfeffer, Klaus; Keitel, Verena; Häussinger, Dieter; Pandyra, Aleksandra A; Lang, Karl S; Lang, Philipp A

    2018-05-09

    The liver has an extraordinary capacity to regenerate via activation of key molecular pathways. However, central regulators controlling liver regeneration remain insufficiently studied. Here we show that B cell-deficient animals failed to induce sufficient liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). Consistently, adoptive transfer of B cells could rescue defective liver regeneration. B cell mediated lymphotoxin beta production promoted recovery from PHx. Absence of B cells coincided with loss of splenic CD169 + macrophages. Moreover, depletion of CD169 + cells resulted in defective liver regeneration and decreased survival, which was associated with reduced hepatocyte proliferation. Mechanistically, CD169 + cells contributed to liver regeneration by inducing hepatic IL-6 production and STAT3 activation. Accordingly, treatment of CD169 + cell depleted animals with IL-6/Il-6R rescued liver regeneration and severe pathology following PHx. In conclusion, we identified CD169 + cells to be a central trigger for liver regeneration, by inducing key signaling pathways important for liver regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function.

  19. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function. PMID:26783413

  20. Cell and Tissue Engineering for Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Underhill, Gregory H.; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Fox, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver’s structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation. PMID:25031271

  1. Low-dose oral rapamycin treatment reduces fibrogenesis, improves liver function, and prolongs survival in rats with established liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Neef, Markus; Ledermann, Monika; Saegesser, Hans; Schneider, Vreni; Reichen, Juerg

    2006-12-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling is central in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the key source of extracellular matrix (ECM) in fibrotic liver. We tested the therapeutic potential of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in advanced cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct-ligation (BDL) or thioacetamide injections (TAA). Rats received oral rapamycin (0.5 mg/kg/day) for either 14 or 28 days. Untreated BDL and TAA-rats served as controls. Liver function was quantified by aminopyrine breath test. ECM and ECM-producing cells were quantified by morphometry. MMP-2 activity was measured by zymography. mRNA expression of procollagen-alpha1, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and beta2 was quantified by RT-PCR. Fourteen days of rapamycin improved liver function. Accumulation of ECM was decreased together with numbers of activated HSCs and MMP-2 activity in both animal models. TGF-beta1 mRNA was downregulated in TAA, TGF-beta2 mRNA was downregulated in BDL. 28 days of rapamycin treatment entailed a survival advantage of long-term treated BDL-rats. Low-dose rapamycin treatment is effectively antifibrotic and attenuates disease progression in advanced fibrosis. Our results warrant the clinical evaluation of rapamycin as an antifibrotic drug.

  2. Genitourinary mast cells and survival

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are ubiquitous in the body, but they have historically been associated with allergies, and most recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation. However, it remains a puzzle why so many MCs are located in the diencephalon, which regulates emotions and in the genitourinary tract, including the bladder, prostate, penis, vagina and uterus that hardly ever get allergic reactions. A number of papers have reported that MCs have estrogen, gonadotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors. Moreover, animal experiments have shown that diencephalic MCs increase in number during courting in doves. We had reported that allergic stimulation of nasal MCs leads to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) activation. Interestingly, anecdotal information indicates that female patients with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome may have increased libido. Preliminary evidence also suggests that MCs may have olfactory receptors. MCs may, therefore, have been retained phylogenetically not only to “smell danger”, but to promote survival and procreation. PMID:26813805

  3. Genitourinary mast cells and survival.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M

    2015-10-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are ubiquitous in the body, but they have historically been associated with allergies, and most recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation. However, it remains a puzzle why so many MCs are located in the diencephalon, which regulates emotions and in the genitourinary tract, including the bladder, prostate, penis, vagina and uterus that hardly ever get allergic reactions. A number of papers have reported that MCs have estrogen, gonadotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors. Moreover, animal experiments have shown that diencephalic MCs increase in number during courting in doves. We had reported that allergic stimulation of nasal MCs leads to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) activation. Interestingly, anecdotal information indicates that female patients with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome may have increased libido. Preliminary evidence also suggests that MCs may have olfactory receptors. MCs may, therefore, have been retained phylogenetically not only to "smell danger", but to promote survival and procreation.

  4. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and Donor Risk Index as predictive models of survival after liver transplantation in 1,006 patients.

    PubMed

    Aranzana, Elisa Maria de Camargo; Coppini, Adriana Zuolo; Ribeiro, Maurício Alves; Massarollo, Paulo Celso Bosco; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    Liver transplantation has not increased with the number of patients requiring this treatment, increasing deaths among those on the waiting list. Models predicting post-transplantation survival, including the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and the Donor Risk Index, have been created. Our aim was to compare the performance of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival and the Donor Risk Index as prognostic models for survival after liver transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 1,270 patients who received a liver transplant from a deceased donor in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between July 2006 and July 2009. All data obtained from the Health Department of the State of São Paulo at the 15 registered transplant centers were analyzed. Patients younger than 13 years of age or with acute liver failure were excluded. The majority of the recipients had Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis (63.5%). Among the 1,006 patients included, 274 (27%) died. Univariate survival analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model showed hazard ratios of 1.02 and 1.43 for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival, respectively (p<0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for the Donor Risk Index were always less than 0.5, whereas those for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival were significantly greater than 0.5 (p<0.001). The cutoff values for the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (≥29.5; sensitivity: 39.1%; specificity: 75.4%) and the Model for Liver Transplantation Survival (≥1.9; sensitivity 63.9%, specificity 54.5%), which were calculated using data available before liver transplantation, were good predictors of survival after liver transplantation (p<0.001). The Model for Liver Transplantation Survival displayed similar death prediction performance to that of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. A simpler model

  5. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Stress and Prolongs Survival in Rats with Advanced Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mifuji-Moroka, Rumi; Hara, Nagisa; Miyachi, Hirohide; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Hideaki; Fujita, Naoki; Gabazza, Esteban C.; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Long-term supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) is associated with prolonged survival and decreased frequency of development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the pharmaceutical mechanism underlying this association is still unclear. We investigated whether continuous BCAA supplementation increases survival rate of rats exposed to a fibrogenic agent and influences the iron accumulation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Further, the effects of BCAA on gluconeogenesis in cultured cells were also investigated. A significant improvement in cumulative survival was observed in BCAA-supplemented rats with advanced cirrhosis compared to untreated rats with cirrhosis (P<0.05). The prolonged survival due to BCAA supplementation was associated with reduction of iron contents, reactive oxygen species production and attenuated fibrosis in the liver. In addition, BCAA ameliorated glucose metabolism by forkhead box protein O1 pathway in the liver. BCAA prolongs survival in cirrhotic rats and this was likely the consequences of reduced iron accumulation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and improved glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:23936183

  6. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  7. Use of octogenarian donors for liver transplantation: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghinolfi, D; Marti, J; De Simone, P; Lai, Q; Pezzati, D; Coletti, L; Tartaglia, D; Catalano, G; Tincani, G; Carrai, P; Campani, D; Miccoli, M; Biancofiore, G; Filipponi, F

    2014-09-01

    Use of very old donors in liver transplantation (LT) is controversial because advanced donor age is associated with a higher risk for graft dysfunction and worse long-term results, especially for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive recipients. This was a retrospective, single-center review of primary, ABO-compatible LT performed between 2001 and 2010. Recipients were stratified in four groups based on donor age (<60 years; 60-69 years; 70-79 years and ≥80 years) and their outcomes were compared. A total of 842 patients were included: 348 (41.3%) with donors <60 years; 176 (20.9%) with donors 60-69 years; 233 (27.7%) with donors 70-79 years and 85 (10.1%) with donors ≥80 years. There was no difference across groups in terms of early (≤30 days) graft loss, and graft survival at 1 and 5 years was 90.5% and 78.6% for grafts <60 years; 88.6% and 81.3% for grafts 60-69 years; 87.6% and 75.1% for grafts 70-79 years and 84.7% and 77.1% for grafts ≥80 years (p = 0.065). In the group ≥80 years, the 5-year graft survival was lower for HCV-positive versus HCV-negative recipients (62.4% vs. 85.6%, p = 0.034). Based on our experience, grafts from donors ≥80 years may provide favorable results but require appropriate selection and allocation policies. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Expression of BCL-2 in liver grafts after adenoviral transfer improves survival following prolonged ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kienle, K; Rentsch, M; Müller, T; Engelhard, N; Vogel, M; Jauch, K W; Beham, A

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis represents a crucial mechanism of ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation. Bcl-2 may inhibit apoptosis. This study investigates the effect on ischemia/reperfusion injury and survival after rat liver transplantation of adenoviral bcl-2 transfer into donor livers. A nonreplicative adenovirus, expressing bcl-2 under control of a tetracyclin-inducible promoter (adv TetOn bcl-2) was used to treat male Lewis rats in combination with a second adenovirus transferring the TetOn repressor protein under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (advCMVRep). Virus induction was achieved by addition of doxycyclin to the drinking water. Controls were pretreated with a control adenovirus (advCMV GFP) or with doxycycline. Liver transplantations were performed after 16-hour graft storage. Bcl-2 expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistology. Survival was monitored for 7 days, and tissue specimens were collected at 24 hours and 7 days post reperfusion. After pretreatment with advTetOn bcl-2/adv CMVRep, intrahepatic bcl-2 expression was evident at 24 hours and 7 days but was absent among controls. Bcl-2 expression was detected in hepatocytes and, to a high degree, in sinusoidal lining cells. TUNEL-positive sinusoidal lining cells were strikingly reduced after bcl-2 transfer (0.1 +/- 0.3 cells/hpf, mean +/- SD) compared to control virus (4.8 +/- 2.3) or doxycyclin-treated grafts (1.3 +/- 0.2); P < .05. After bcl-2 treatment, survival after transplantation was 100%, whereas it was 50% in both control groups (P = .035). The study shows the feasibility of transient, doxycyclin-controlled adenoviral gene transfer in a transplantation model. Bcl-2 expression increased survival after ischemia/reperfusion in rat liver transplantation, potentially through protection of sinusoidal lining cells.

  9. Association Between Plasma Level of Galectin-9 and Survival of Patients With Drug-Induced Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hugo R; Biggins, Scott W; Niki, Toshiro; Gralla, Jane; Hillman, Holly; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Schilsky, Michael; Lee, William M

    2016-04-01

    Fewer than 50% of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) recover spontaneously, and ALF has high mortality without liver transplantation. Kupffer cells have been reported to mediate liver inflammation during drug-induced injury. Galectin-9 is produced by Kupffer cells and has diverse roles in regulating immunity. We investigated whether plasma levels of galectin-9 are associated with outcomes of patients with ALF. We analyzed plasma samples (collected at time of hospital admission) and clinical data from 149 patients included in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from July 2006 through November 2010 (110 had acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and 39 had nonacetaminophen drug-induced liver injury). We compared data with those from all patients enrolled in the study (from July 1, 2006 through October 30, 2013), and from healthy individuals of similar ages with no evidence of liver disease (control subjects). Plasma levels of galectin-9 were measured using a polyclonal antibody and colorimetric assay. Patients with ALF had statistically higher plasma levels of galectin-9 than control subjects, but levels did not differ significantly between patients with acetaminophen-induced liver injury and drug-induced liver injury. A level of galectin-9 above 690 pg/mL was associated with a statistically significant increase in risk for mortality or liver transplantation caused by ALF. Competing risk analyses associated level of galectin-9 with transplant-free survival, independently of Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score or systemic inflammatory response syndrome. A one-time measurement of plasma galectin-9 level can be used to assign patients with ALF to high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. The combination of galectin-9 level and Model For End-Stage Liver Disease score was more closely associated with patient outcome than either value alone. These data might be used to determine patient prognoses and prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Clinical

  10. Complete activation of autophagic process attenuates liver injury and improves survival in septic mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wen; Lo, Steven; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Wu, David Bin-Chia; Lee, Po-Huang; Chang, Ya-Fang; Kuo, Po-Lin; Yu, Ming-Lung; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Hsieh, Ya-Ching

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of autophagosomes in the terminal step of the autophagic process has recently emerged as a potentially maladaptive process in the septic heart and lung. However, the role of autophagy in the septic liver has not been ascertained. This study was investigated by first examining the entire sequence of the autophagic process in the liver of septic mice. Second, a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach was utilized to treat sepsis with autophagy enhancer/inhibitor. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). C57BL/6 mice received autophagy enhancer carbamazepine (CBZ), autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (inhibition of autophagosomal formation), or chloroquine (impairment of autophagosomal clearance). We found that the whole autophagic process was activated at 4 h after CLP; however, it did not proceed to completion during the 4- to 24-h time period, as indicated by accumulated autophagosomes and decreased autophagic flux. Carbamazepine, which induced complete activation of the autophagic process, improved CLP survival. This protective effect was also associated with decreased cell death, inflammatory responses, and hepatic injury. However, disruption of autophagosomal clearance with chloroquine abolished the above protective effects in CBZ-treated CLP mice. 3-Methyladenine, which resulted in inhibition of the autophagosomal formation, did not show any above beneficial effects in CLP mice. Impaired autophagosome-lysome fusion resulting in incomplete activation of autophagy may contribute to sepsis-induced liver injury. Treatment with CBZ may serve a protective role in the septic liver, possibly through the effect of complete activation of autophagic process.

  11. Neonatal liver cell donation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Kathleen; Kish, Mary Z

    2014-01-01

    Traditional organ transplant options for newborns have been rare. There continues to be an increasing need for organs for transplant and a limited number of available organs, especially for small children. Liver cell transplantation is a promising alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation to treat liver-based inborn errors of metabolism.1 The procedure is minimally invasive and can be performed repeatedly. The safety of the procedure has been well established, and the clinical results are encouraging.1 The liver cell donation process is an option for families who experience the loss of a newborn and offers them a legacy for their child by providing life for others. The purpose of this article is to discuss the neonatal liver cell donation process and present a case report of an anencephalic infant whose parents chose to participate in this unique program.

  12. MAIT cells: new guardians of the liver.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, Ayako; Walker, Lucy J; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2016-08-01

    The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the human liver are mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel innate-like T-cell population that can recognize a highly conserved antigen derived from the microbial riboflavin synthesis pathway. MAIT cells are emerging as significant players in the human immune system, associated with an increasing number of clinical diseases of bacterial, viral, autoimmune and cancerous origin. As reviewed here, we are only beginning to investigate the potential role of this dominant T-cell subset in the liver, but the reactivity of MAIT cells to both inflammatory cytokines and riboflavin derivatives suggests that MAIT cells may have an important role in first line of defense as part of the liver firewall. As such, MAIT cells are promising targets for modulating the host defense and inflammation in both acute and chronic liver diseases.

  13. MAIT cells: new guardians of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kurioka, Ayako; Walker, Lucy J; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the human liver are mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel innate-like T-cell population that can recognize a highly conserved antigen derived from the microbial riboflavin synthesis pathway. MAIT cells are emerging as significant players in the human immune system, associated with an increasing number of clinical diseases of bacterial, viral, autoimmune and cancerous origin. As reviewed here, we are only beginning to investigate the potential role of this dominant T-cell subset in the liver, but the reactivity of MAIT cells to both inflammatory cytokines and riboflavin derivatives suggests that MAIT cells may have an important role in first line of defense as part of the liver firewall. As such, MAIT cells are promising targets for modulating the host defense and inflammation in both acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:27588203

  14. Liver recurrence in endometrial cancer: a multi-institutional analysis of factors predictive of postrecurrence survival.

    PubMed

    Toptas, Tayfun; Karalok, Alper; Ureyen, Isin; Tasci, Tolga; Erol, Onur; Bozkurt, Selen; Tulunay, Gokhan; Simsek, Tayup; Turan, Taner

    2016-10-01

    Predictive factors for survival following liver metastasis in endometrial cancer (EC) have not been studied to date. It is expected that patients who initially presented with liver metastasis or developed liver metastasis as the subsequent metastatic site of progressive disease are likely to have poor outcomes. However, patients developing liver metastasis as the first site of recurrence may have a chance of benefiting from the salvage therapies. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors influencing postrecurrence survival in EC patients who developed liver metastasis as the first site of recurrence. Patients with EC who underwent primary surgery at three centers between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed. Liver recurrence was defined as documentation of parenchymal liver metastasis either by radiologically or biopsy, after a disease-free interval of ≥3 months. Patients with liver metastasis at presentation, or liver metastasis as the subsequent metastatic site of progressive disease were excluded. Forty-six patients were identified. Median time to liver recurrence was 12 months, with 91.3 % of recurrences detected within 3 years. Most patients (73.9 %) had liver recurrence concomitant with extra-hepatic disease. Median survival after the diagnosis of liver recurrence was 9 months. While in univariate analysis, time to liver recurrence (p < 0.001) and presence of concomitant extra-hepatic metastasis (p = 0.048) were potential predictors of survival, multivariate analysis revealed that time to liver recurrence (p < 0.001) was the only independent predictor. This criterion may be used as a marker for stratifying patients into different prognostic risk groups and for selection of patients for salvage therapies.

  15. [Hepatic cell transplantation: a new therapy in liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Martínez, Amparo; Vila, Juan José; López, Rafael; Montalvá, Eva; Calzado, Angeles; Mir, José

    2010-07-01

    Liver transplantation has been remarkably effective in the treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, disparity between solid-organ supply and increased demand is the greatest limitation, resulting in longer waiting times and increase in mortality of transplant recipients. This situation creates the need to seek alternatives to orthotopic liver transplantation.Hepatocyte transplantation or liver cell transplantation has been proposed as the best method to support patients. The procedure consists of transplanting individual cells to a recipient organ in sufficient quantity to survive and restore the function. The capacity of hepatic regeneration is the biological basis of hepatocyte transplantation. This therapeutic option is an experimental procedure in some patients with inborn errors of metabolism, fulminant hepatic failure and acute and chronic liver failure, as a bridge to orthotopic liver transplantation. In the Hospital La Fe of Valencia, we performed the first hepatocyte transplantation in Spain creating a new research work on transplant program. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of liver histopathology on islet cell engraftment in the model mimicking autologous islet cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag S; Khan, Khalid M; Ma, Xiaobo; Li, Henghong; Wang, Juan; Fan, Lijuan; Chen, Guoling; Smith, Jill P; Cui, Wanxing

    2017-11-02

    The inflammatory milieu in the liver as determined by histopathology is different in individual patients undergoing autologous islet cell transplantation. We hypothesized that inflammation related to fatty-liver adversely impacts islet survival. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of fatty-liver to determine the outcome of syngeneic islet transplantation after chemical pancreatectomy. Mice (C57BL/6) were fed a high-fat-diet from 6 weeks of age until attaining a weight of ≥28 grams (6-8 weeks) to produce a fatty liver (histologically > 30% fat);steatosis was confirmed with lipidomic profile of liver tissue. Islets were infused via the intra-portal route in fatty-liver and control mice after streptozotocin induction of diabetes. Outcomes were assessed by the rate of euglycemia, liver histopathology, evaluation of liver inflammation by measuring tissue cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α by RT-PCR and CD31 expression by immunohistochemistry. The difference in the euglycemic fraction between the normal liver group (90%, 9/10) and the fatty-liver group (37.5%, 3/8) was statistically significant at the 18 th day post- transplant and was maintained to the end of the study (day 28) (p = 0.019, X 2 = 5.51). Levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were elevated in fatty-liver mice (p = 0.042, p = 0.037). Compared to controls cytokine levels were elevated after islet cell transplantation and in transplanted fatty-liver mice as compared to either fatty- or islet transplant group alone (p = NS). A difference in the histochemical pattern of CD31 could not be determined. Fatty-liver creates an inflammatory state which adversely affects the outcome of autologous islet cell transplantation.

  17. Cell fusion in the liver, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lizier, Michela; Castelli, Alessandra; Montagna, Cristina; Lucchini, Franco; Vezzoni, Paolo; Faggioli, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    There is wide agreement that cell fusion is a physiological process in cells in mammalian bone, muscle and placenta. In other organs, such as the cerebellum, cell fusion is controversial. The liver contains a considerable number of polyploid cells: They are commonly believed to originate by genome endoreplication, although the contribution of cell fusion to polyploidization has not been excluded. Here, we address the topic of cell fusion in the liver from a historical point of view. We discuss experimental evidence clearly supporting the hypothesis that cell fusion occurs in the liver, specifically when bone marrow cells were injected into mice and shown to rescue genetic hepatic degenerative defects. Those experiments-carried out in the latter half of the last century-were initially interpreted to show “transdifferentiation”, but are now believed to demonstrate fusion between donor macrophages and host hepatocytes, raising the possibility that physiologically polyploid cells, such as hepatocytes, could originate, at least partially, through homotypic cell fusion. In support of the homotypic cell fusion hypothesis, we present new data generated using a chimera-based model, a much simpler model than those previously used. Cell fusion as a road to polyploidization in the liver has not been extensively investigated, and its contribution to a variety of conditions, such as viral infections, carcinogenesis and aging, remains unclear. PMID:29527257

  18. Plectin deficiency in liver cancer cells promotes cell migration and sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Chao, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chen-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    2018-01-02

    Plectin involved in activation of kinases in cell signaling pathway and plays important role in cell morphology and migration. Plectin knockdown promotes cell migration by activating focal adhesion kinase and Rac1-GTPase activity in liver cells. Sorafenib is a multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor that improves patient survival on hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the expression of plectin and cell migration as well as the sensitivity of hepatoma cell lines exposing to sorafenib. Hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 were used to examine the level of plectin expression and cell migration in comparison with Chang liver cell line. In addition, sensitivity of the 3 cell lines to sorafenib treatment was also measured. Expression of plectin was lower in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 hepatoma cells than that of Chang liver cells whereas HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells exhibit higher rate of cell migration in trans-well migration assay. Immunohistofluorecent staining on E-cadherin revealed the highest rate of collective cell migration in HepG2 cells and the lowest was found in Chang liver cells. Likewise, HepG2 cell line was most sensitive to sorafenib treatment and Chang liver cells exhibited the least sensitivity. The drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment showed inverse correlation with the expression of plectin. We suggest that plectin deficiency and increased E-cadherin in hepatoma cells were associated with higher rates of cell motility, collective cell migration as well as higher drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

  19. [Liver and lung metastases of colorectal cancer. Long-term survival and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Sponholz, S; Bölükbas, S; Schirren, M; Oguzhan, S; Kudelin, N; Schirren, J

    2016-02-01

    The resection of liver and lung metastases from colorectal cancer has not yet been completely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the overall survival and prognostic factors for patients with liver and lung metastases from colorectal cancer. A retrospective review of a prospective database of 52 patients with liver and lung metastases from colorectal cancer, undergoing metastasectomy with curative intent from 1999-2009 at a single institution was carried out. The mean overall survival (OS) was 64 months. For synchronous liver and lung metastases the mean overall survival was 63 months (5-year survival 54 %) and for metachronous liver and lung metastases 74 months (5-year survival 58 %, p = 0.451). A poor prognostic outcome was observed in cases of localization of the primary tumor in the rectum (OS 81 vs. 38 months, p = 0.004), with multiple lung metastases (≥ 2 metastases, OS 74 vs. 59 months, p = 0.032) and with disease progression after premetastasectomy chemotherapy (OS 74 vs. 63 vs. 15 months, p < 0.001). No influence on overall survival was detected for bilateral lung metastases, thoracic lymph node metastases, disease recurrence and disease-free interval < 36 months. Metastasectomy for liver and lung metastases of colorectal cancer is associated with a good overall survival in selected cases. Patients with liver and lung metastases should not be routinely excluded from metastasectomy and patients with thoracic lymph node metastases should also not be routinely excluded. Negative prognostic factors for survival are localization of the tumor in the rectum, multiple metastases and disease progression after premetastasectomy chemotherapy. Patients with disease progression after premetastasectomy chemotherapy should be excluded from metastasectomy.

  20. Chronic inflammation-elicited liver progenitor cell conversion to liver cancer stem cell with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Cheng; Xiang, Dai-Min; Qu, Le; Sun, Wen; Lu, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Teng-Fei; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Ning, Bei-Fang; Cheng, Zhuo; Xia, Ming-Yang; Shen, Wei-Feng; Yang, Wen; Wen, Wen; Lee, Terence Kin Wah; Cong, Wen-Ming; Wang, Hong-Yang; Ding, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The substantial heterogeneity and hierarchical organization in liver cancer support the theory of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). However, the relationship between chronic hepatic inflammation and LCSC generation remains obscure. Here, we observed a close correlation between aggravated inflammation and liver progenitor cell (LPC) propagation in the cirrhotic liver of rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine. LPCs isolated from the rat cirrhotic liver initiated subcutaneous liver cancers in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, suggesting the malignant transformation of LPCs toward LCSCs. Interestingly, depletion of Kupffer cells in vivo attenuated the LCSC properties of transformed LPCs and suppressed cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive tumor occurrence. Conversely, LPCs cocultured with macrophages exhibited enhanced LCSC properties. We further demonstrated that macrophage-secreted tumor necrosis factor-α triggered chromosomal instability in LPCs through the deregulation of ubiquitin D and checkpoint kinase 2 and enhanced the self-renewal of LPCs through the tumor necrosis factor receptor 1/Src/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which synergistically contributed to the conversion of LPCs to LCSCs. Clinical investigation revealed that cytokeratin 19/Oval cell 6-positive liver cancer patients displayed a worse prognosis and exhibited superior response to sorafenib treatment. Our results not only clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammation-mediated LCSC generation but also provide a molecular classification for the individualized treatment of liver cancer. (Hepatology 2017;66:1934-1951). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Coffee consumption protects against progression in liver cirrhosis and increases long-term survival after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Kilian; Smit, Mark; Wannhoff, Andreas; Rupp, Christian; Scholl, Sabine G; Antoni, Christoph; Dollinger, Matthias; Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Schemmer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic options to treat progression of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) or improve long-term survival after liver transplantation remain scarce. We investigated the impact of coffee consumption under these conditions. We recorded coffee consumption habits of 379 patients with ESLD awaiting liver transplantation and 260 patients after liver transplantation. Survival was analyzed based on coffee intake. One hundred ninety-five patients with ESLD consumed coffee on a daily basis, while 184 patients did not. Actuarial survival was impaired (P = 0.041) in non-coffee drinkers (40.4 ± 4.3 months, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.0-48.9) compared with coffee drinkers (54.9 ± 5.5 months, 95% CI: 44.0-65.7). In subgroup analysis, the survival of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD; P = 0.020) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; P = 0.017) was increased with coffee intake while unaffected in patients with chronic viral hepatitis (P = 0.517) or other liver disease entities (P = 0.652). Multivariate analysis showed that coffee consumption of PSC and ALD patients retained as an independent risk factor (odds ratio [OR]: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.15-3.28; P = 0.013) along with MELD score (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.09-1.17; P = 0.000). Following liver transplantation, long-term survival was longer in coffee drinkers (coffee: 61.8 ± 2.0 months, 95% CI: 57.9-65.8) than non-drinkers (52.3 ± 3.5 months, 95% CI: 45.4-59.3; P = 0.001). Coffee consumption delayed disease progression in ALD and PSC patients with ESLD and increased long-term survival after liver transplantation. We conclude that regular coffee intake might be recommended for these patients. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Adenoviral bcl-2 transfer improves survival and early graft function after ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rentsch, Markus; Kienle, Klaus; Mueller, Thomas; Vogel, Mandy; Jauch, Karl Walter; Püllmann, Kerstin; Obed, Aiman; Schlitt, Hans J; Beham, Alexander

    2005-11-27

    Primary graft dysfunction due to ischemia and reperfusion injury represents a major problem in liver transplantation. The related cell stress may induce apoptosis, which can be suppressed by bcl-2. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of adenoviral bcl-2 gene transfer on early graft function and survival in rat liver transplantation. An adenoviral construct that transfers bcl-2 under the control of a tetracycline inducible promoter was generated (advTetOn bcl-2) and used with a second adenovirus that transfers the repressor protein (advCMV Rep). Forty-eight hours before explantation, donor rats were treated with advTetOn bcl-2/ advCMV Rep (n=7) and doxycyclin, with the control adenoviral construct advCMV GFP (n=8) or with doxycyclin alone (n=8). Liver transplantation was performed following 16 hours of cold storage (UW). Bcl-2 expression and intrahepatic apoptosis was assessed. Bile flow was monitored 90 min posttransplantation. The endpoint for survival was 7 days. Bcl-2 was expressed in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells. This was associated with a significant reduction of apoptotic sinusoidal lining cells and hepatocytes after 24 hours and 7 days. Bile production was significantly higher following bcl-2 pretreatment. Furthermore, bcl-2 transfer resulted in significantly improved survival (100% vs. 50% both control groups). Adenoviral bcl-2 transfer results in protein expression in hepatocytes and sinusoidal lining cells resulting in early graft function and survival enhancement after prolonged ischemia and reperfusion injury. The inhibition of apoptosis in the context of liver transplantation might be a reasonable approach in the treatment of graft dysfunction.

  3. Decoding cell death signals in liver inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Catherine; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Inflammation can be either beneficial or detrimental to the liver, depending on multiple factors. Mild (i.e., limited in intensity and destined to resolve) inflammatory responses have indeed been shown to exert consistent hepatoprotective effects, contributing to tissue repair and promoting the re-establishment of homeostasis. Conversely, excessive (i.e., disproportionate in intensity and permanent) inflammation may induce a massive loss of hepatocytes and hence exacerbate the severity of various hepatic conditions, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, systemic metabolic alterations (e.g., obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disorders), alcoholic hepatitis, intoxication by xenobiotics and infection, de facto being associated with irreversible liver damage, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. Both liver-resident cells (e.g., Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells) and cells that are recruited in response to injury (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells) emit pro-inflammatory signals including - but not limited to - cytokines, chemokines, lipid messengers, and reactive oxygen species that contribute to the apoptotic or necrotic demise of hepatocytes. In turn, dying hepatocytes release damage-associated molecular patterns that-upon binding to evolutionary conserved pattern recognition receptors-activate cells of the innate immune system to further stimulate inflammatory responses, hence establishing a highly hepatotoxic feedforward cycle of inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that account for the most deleterious effect of hepatic inflammation at the cellular level, that is, the initiation of a massive cell death response among hepatocytes. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The CD8 T-cell response during tolerance induction in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yik Chun; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bowen, David G; Bertolino, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that the liver possesses unique tolerogenic properties. Liver allografts can be spontaneously accepted across complete major histocompatibility mismatch in some animal models. In addition, some liver transplant patients can be successfully withdrawn from immunosuppressive medications, developing ‘operational tolerance'. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to be involved in inducing and maintaining alloimmune tolerance associated with liver transplantation. Here, we focus on CD8 T-cell tolerance in this setting. We first discuss how alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell responses are generated against allografts, before reviewing how the liver parenchyma, donor passenger leucocytes and the host immune system function together to attenuate alloreactive CD8 T-cell responses to promote the long-term survival of liver transplants. PMID:27867515

  5. Liver resection for colorectal metastases after chemotherapy: impact of chemotherapy-related liver injuries, pathological tumor response, and micrometastases on long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Luca; Capussotti, Lorenzo; De Rosa, Giovanni; De Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Mentha, Gilles; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the impact of chemotherapy-related liver injuries (CALI), pathological tumor regression grade (TRG), and micrometastases on long-term prognosis in patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal metastases after preoperative chemotherapy. CALI worsen the short-term outcomes of liver resection, but their impact on long-term prognosis is unknown. Recently, a prognostic role of TRG has been suggested. Micrometastases (microscopic vascular or biliary invasion) are reduced by preoperative chemotherapy, but their impact on survival is unclear. Patients undergoing liver resection for colorectal metastases between 1998 and 2011 and treated with oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan-based preoperative chemotherapy were eligible for the study. Patients with operative mortality or incomplete resection (R2) were excluded. All specimens were reviewed to assess CALI, TRG, and micrometastases. A total of 323 patients were included. Grade 2-3 sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was present in 124 patients (38.4%), grade 2-3 steatosis in 73 (22.6%), and steatohepatitis in 30 (9.3%). Among all patients, 22.9% had TRG 1-2 (major response), whereas 55.7% had TRG 4-5 (no response). Microvascular invasion was detected in 37.8% of patients and microscopic biliary infiltration in 5.6%.The higher the SOS grade the lower the pathological response: TRG 1-2 occurred in 16.9% of patients with grade 2-3 SOS versus 26.6% of patients with grade 0-1 SOS (P = 0.032).After a median follow-up of 36.9 months, 5-year survival was 38.6%. CALI did not negatively impact survival. Multivariate analysis showed that grade 2-3 steatosis was associated with better survival than grade 0-1 steatosis (5-year survival rate of 52.5% vs 35.2%, P = 0.002). TRG better than the percentage of viable cells stratified patient prognosis: 5-year survival rate of 60.4% in TRG 1-2, 40.2% in TRG 3, and 29.8% in TRG 4-5 (P = 0.0001). Microscopic vascular and biliary invasion negatively impacted outcome (5-year survival

  6. M-CSF Mediates Host Defense during Bacterial Pneumonia by Promoting the Survival of Lung and Liver Mononuclear Phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Bettina, Alexandra; Zhang, Zhimin; Michels, Kathryn; Cagnina, R Elaine; Vincent, Isaah S; Burdick, Marie D; Kadl, Alexandra; Mehrad, Borna

    2016-06-15

    Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous infection with diminishing treatment options due to increasing antibiotic resistance among causal pathogens. The mononuclear phagocyte system is a heterogeneous group of leukocytes composed of tissue-resident macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocyte-derived cells that are critical in defense against pneumonia, but mechanisms that regulate their maintenance and function during infection are poorly defined. M-CSF has myriad effects on mononuclear phagocytes but its role in pneumonia is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that M-CSF is required for mononuclear phagocyte-mediated host defenses during bacterial pneumonia in a murine model of infection. Genetic deletion or immunoneutralization of M-CSF resulted in reduced survival, increased bacterial burden, and greater lung injury. M-CSF was necessary for the expansion of lung mononuclear phagocytes during infection but did not affect the number of bone marrow or blood monocytes, proliferation of precursors, or recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs. In contrast, M-CSF was essential to survival and antimicrobial functions of both lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia, and its absence resulted in bacterial dissemination to the liver and hepatic necrosis. We conclude that M-CSF is critical to host defenses against bacterial pneumonia by mediating survival and antimicrobial functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs and liver. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. M-CSF mediates host defense during bacterial pneumonia by promoting the survival of lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bettina, Alexandra; Zhang, Zhimin; Michels, Kathryn; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Vincent, Isaah S.; Burdick, Marie D.; Kadl, Alexandra; Mehrad, Borna

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous infection with diminishing treatment options due to increasing antibiotic resistance among causal pathogens. The mononuclear phagocyte system is a heterogeneous group of leukocytes composed of tissue-resident macrophages, dendritic cells and monocyte-derived cells that are critical in defense against pneumonia, but mechanisms that regulate their maintenance and function during infection are poorly defined. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) has myriad effects on mononuclear phagocytes but its role in pneumonia is unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that M-CSF is required for mononuclear phagocyte-mediated host defenses during bacterial pneumonia in a murine model of infection. Genetic deletion or immunoneutralization of M-CSF resulted in reduced survival, increased bacterial burden and greater lung injury. M-CSF was necessary for the expansion of lung mononuclear phagocytes during infection but did not affect the number of bone marrow or blood monocytes, the proliferation of precursors or the recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs. In contrast, M-CSF was essential to survival and anti-microbial functions of both lung and liver mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia and its absence resulted in bacterial dissemination to the liver and hepatic necrosis. We conclude that M-CSF is critical to host defenses against bacterial pneumonia by mediating survival and anti-microbial functions of mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs and liver. PMID:27183631

  8. Preliminary Study on Intrasplenic Implantation of Artificial Cell Bioencapsulated Stem Cells to Increase the Survival of 90% Hepatectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M.S.

    2012-01-01

    We implanted artificial cell bioencapsulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the spleens of 90% hepatectomized (PH) rats. The resulting 14 days survival rate was 91%. This is compared to a survival rate of 21% in 90% hepatectomized rats and 25% for those receiving free MSCs transplanted the same way. Unlike free MSCs, the bioencapsulated MSCs are retained in the spleens and their hepatotrophic factors can continue to drain directly into the liver without dilution resulting in improved hepatic regeneration. In addition, with time the transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells in the spleen renders the spleen as a ectopic liver support. PMID:19132579

  9. Successful Transplantation of Reduced Sized Rat Alcoholic Fatty Livers Made Possible by Mobilization of Host Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hisada, Masayuki; Ota, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Xiuying; Cameron, Andrew M; Gao, Bin; Montgomery, Robert A; Williams, George Melville; Sun, Zhaoli

    2015-01-01

    Livers from Lewis rats fed with 7% alcohol for 5 weeks were used for transplantation. Reduced sized (50%) livers or whole livers were transplanted into normal DA recipients, which, in this strain combination, survive indefinitely when the donor has not been fed alcohol. However, none of the rats survived a whole fatty liver transplant while six of seven recipients of reduced sized alcoholic liver grafts survived long term. SDF-1 and HGF were significantly increased in reduced size liver grafts compared to whole liver grafts. Lineage-negative Thy-1+CXCR4+CD133+ stem cells were significantly increased in the peripheral blood and in allografts after reduced size fatty liver transplantation. In contrast, there were meager increases in cells reactive with anti Thy-1, CXCR4 and CD133 in peripheral blood and allografts in whole alcoholic liver recipients. The provision of plerixafor, a stem cell mobilizer, salvaged 5 of 10 whole fatty liver grafts. Conversely, blocking SDF-1 activity with neutralizing antibodies diminished stem cell recruitment and four of five reduced sized fatty liver recipients died. Thus chemokine insuficiency was associated with transplant failure of whole grafts which was overcome by the increased regenerative requirements promoted by the small grafts and mediated by SDF-1 resulting in stem cell influx. PMID:22994609

  10. ISOLATION AND PROPERTIES OF LIVER CELL NUCLEOLI

    PubMed Central

    Monty, K. J.; Litt, M.; Kay, E. R. M.; Dounce, A. L.

    1956-01-01

    1. The significance of the term nucleolus has been discussed. 2. A detailed method for the isolation of nucleoli from already isolated rat or cat liver nuclei has been presented. 3. The presence of DNA in isolated liver cell nucleoli has been indicated by histochemical methods. 4. The percentages of DNA and RNA in the isolated nucleoli have been determined by chemical analysis. 5. The specific activities of aldolase, arginase, and catalase have been determined for two subnuclear fractions and for the isolated nucleoli of rat and cat liver, and the relative amounts of these enzymes in the same subnuclear fractions and nucleoli of rat liver have been measured. 6. The significance of the above findings has been discussed and consideration has been given to what types of isolated nuclei might best serve as starting material for the isolation of nucleoli. 7. A new hypothesis has been presented that nucleoli of the liver cell type may function primarily in furnishing (directly or indirectly) templates for the synthesis of the particular enzymes that must govern the chemistry of mitosis. PMID:13319377

  11. Isolation and clonal characterization of hematopoietic and liver stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2004-11-01

    Prospective isolation of stem cells is essential to understanding the mechanisms that control their proliferation and differentiation. Using 9 monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we have succeeded in prospectively identifying hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in adult mouse bone marrow. Mouse HSCs were exclusively enriched in CD34 negative, c-Kit Sca-1 Lineage Marker (CD34 KSL) cells representing 0.004% of bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells. When single CD34-KSL cells were transplanted individually into a lethally irradiated mouse, 25% of the recipient mice survived and showed long-term reconstitution of the BM, providing evidence for multipotency and a self-renewal capacity of HSCs. Using a similar approach, we also prospectively identified hepatic stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential and self-renewal capability in the c-Met CD49f c-Kit CD45 Ter119 fraction of cells isolated from day 13.5 fetal mouse liver. On cell transplantation, these cells differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. As an alternative to the antibody based stem cell isolation, Hoechst33342 staining is useful. To understand the mechanism responsible for SP phenotype, we performed an expression cloning and identified bcrp-1/ABCG2 gene, a member of ATP binding-cassette (ABC) transporter family. Bcrp-1 is almost exclusively expressed in CD34 KSL cells among blood cells; however their expression in other tissue specific stem cells remains to be studied. With the use of FACS and monoclonal antibodies, hematopoietic and liver stem cells were prospectively isolated and characterized. HSCs could also be purified by Hoechst 33342 staining. By expression cloning, we identify bcrp-1/ABCG2 transporter as a molecule responsible for SP phenotype. Elucidation of the physiological role of bcrp-1/ABCG2 in HSCs may provide us with clues to understand the molecular mechanisms of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

  12. Identification and differentiation of hepatic stem cells during liver development.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Akihide; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2006-05-01

    Stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of tissues are found in a number of organs. The liver's remarkable capacity to regenerate after hepatectomy or chemical-induced injury does not involve proliferation of stem cells. However, recent studies suggest that liver stem cells exist in both embryonic and adult livers. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and a culture system in which primitive hepatic progenitor cells form colonies, a novel class of cells with the marker profile c-Met(+)CD49f(+/low)c-Kit(-)CD45(-)TER119(-) was found in the developing liver. This class apparently represents the population of cells that form colonies containing distinct hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. When cells in this class are transplanted into the spleen or liver of mice subjected to liver injury, the cells migrate and differentiate into liver parenchymal cells and cholangiocytes that are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from their native counterparts. During mid-gestation, hematopoietic cells migrate into the liver from a region bounded by aorta, gonad, and mesonephros and produce oncostatin M (OSM). In combination with glucocorticoid hormones, OSM induces maturation of liver stem and progenitor cells, including those of the c-Met(+)CD49f(+/low)c-Kit(-)CD45(-)TER119(-) class. The ability to manipulate the proliferation and differentiation of liver stem cells in vitro will greatly aid in analyzing mechanisms of liver development and offers promise in stem cell therapy of liver diseases.

  13. Vascular invasion and survival after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a study from the European Liver Transplant Registry.

    PubMed

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rostved, Andreas A; Adam, René; Thygesen, Lau C; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gómez Bravo, Miguel A; Cherqui, Daniel; Filipponi, Franco; Boudjema, Karim; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Soubrane, Olivier; García-Valdecasas, Juan C; Prous, Joan F; Pinna, Antonio D; O'Grady, John; Karam, Vincent; Duvoux, Christophe; Rasmussen, Allan

    2018-04-02

    Studies suggest that vascular invasion may be a superior prognostic marker compared with traditional selection criteria, e.g. Milan criteria. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of micro and macrovascular invasion in a large database material. Patients liver transplanted for HCC and cirrhosis registered in the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR) database were included. The association between the Milan criteria, Up-to-seven criteria and vascular invasion with overall survival and HCC specific survival was investigated with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Of 23,124 patients transplanted for HCC, 9324 had cirrhosis and data on explant pathology. Patients without microvascular invasion, regardless of number and size of HCC nodules, had a five-year overall survival of 73.2%, which was comparable with patients inside both Milan and Up-to-seven criteria. Patients without macrovascular invasion had an only marginally reduced survival of 70.7% after five years. Patients outside both Milan and Up-to-seven criteria without micro or macrovascular invasion still had a five-year overall survival of 65.8%. Vascular invasion as a prognostic indicator remains superior to criteria based on size and number of nodules. With continuously improving imaging studies, microvascular invasion may be used for selecting patients for transplantation in the future. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prolactin promotes normal liver growth, survival, and regeneration in rodents: effects on hepatic IL-6, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Carranza, Bibiana; Goya-Arce, Maite; Vega, Claudia; Adán, Norma; Triebel, Jakob; López-Barrera, Fernando; Quintanar-Stéphano, Andrés; Binart, Nadine; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a potent liver mitogen and proangiogenic hormone. Here, we used hyperprolactinemic rats and PRL receptor-null mice (PRLR(-/-)) to study the effect of PRL on liver growth and angiogenesis before and after partial hepatectomy (PH). Liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), hepatocyte and sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) proliferation, and hepatic expression of VEGF were measured before and after PH in hyperprolactinemic rats, generated by placing two anterior pituitary glands (AP) under the kidney capsule. Also, LBW and hepatic expression of IL-6, as well as suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), were evaluated in wild-type and PRLR(-/-) mice before and after PH. Hyperprolactinemia increased the LBW, the proliferation of hepatocytes and SECs, and VEGF hepatic expression. Also, liver regeneration was increased in AP-grafted rats and was accompanied by elevated hepatocyte and SEC proliferation, and VEGF expression compared with nongrafted controls. Lowering circulating PRL levels with CB-154, an inhibitor of AP PRL secretion, prevented AP-induced stimulation of liver growth. Relative to wild-type animals, PRLR(-/-) mice had smaller livers, and soon after PH, they displayed an approximately twofold increased mortality and elevated and reduced hepatic IL-6 and SOCS-3 expression, respectively. However, liver regeneration was improved in surviving PRLR(-/-) mice. PRL stimulates normal liver growth, promotes survival, and regulates liver regeneration by mechanisms that may include hepatic downregulation of IL-6 and upregulation of SOCS-3, increased hepatocyte proliferation, and angiogenesis. PRL contributes to physiological liver growth and has potential clinical utility for ensuring survival and regulating liver mass in diseases, injuries, or surgery of the liver.

  15. Hepatitis B Virus Infection Predicts Better Survival In Patients With Colorectal Liver-only Metastases Undergoing Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yujie; Lin, Junzhong; Peng, Jianhong; Deng, Yuxiang; Zhao, Ruixia; Sui, Qiaoqi; Lu, Zhenhai; Wan, Desen; Pan, Zhizhong

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been shown to decrease the risk of liver metastasis in patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of HBV infection in long-term survival of patients with colorectal liver-only metastases (CRLM) after liver resection has not yet been evaluated. This study aims to explore the association between HBV infection and survival in CRLM patients. Methods: A total of 289 CRLM patients undergoing liver resection were recruited at our center from September 1999 to August 2015. Patients were divided into an HBV infection group and a non-HBV infection group. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) related to HBV infection were analyzed using both Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression methods. Results: HBV infection was found in 12.1 %(35/289) of patients. Of these patients, 31.4 %(11/35) had chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 42.9 % (15/35) were inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers (IC) and 25.7 % (9/35) did not undergo HBV DNA detection. HBV infection was associated with more liver metastases (P = 0.025) and larger-sized liver metastases (P = 0.049). The 3-year OS and PFS rates in the HBV infection group were higher than those in the HBV non-infected group (OS: 75.0 % vs 64.8 %, P = 0.031; PFS: 55.9 % vs 39.6 %, P = 0.034). In multivariate Cox analysis, HBV infection was identified as an independent factor for better 3-year OS (hazard ratio (HR), 0.446; 95 %confidence interval (CI), 0.206-0.966; P = 0.041) but not an independent factor for 3-year PFS. Conclusions: HBV-infected CRLM patients survived longer than non-infected patients. In clinical work, therapeutic regimens and follow-up for HBsAg-positive patients may be different from that for HBsAg-negative patients, even though objective prospective studies are still needed. PMID:29760793

  16. Hernia Sac Presence Portends Better Survivability of Isolated Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia with "Liver-Up".

    PubMed

    Grizelj, Ruža; Bojanić, Katarina; Vuković, Jurica; Novak, Milivoj; Weingarten, Toby N; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sprung, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of a hernia sac in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with intrathoracic liver herniation ("liver-up"). Study Design  A retrospective study from the single tertiary center. Isolated "liver-up" CDH neonates referred to our institution between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed for the presence or absence of a hernia sac. Association between the presence of a hernia sac and survival was assessed. Results  Over the study period, there were 29 isolated CDH patients with "liver-up" who were treated, 7 (24%) had a sac, and 22 (76%) did not. Demographics were similar between groups. However, disease acuity, assessed from lower Apgar scores ( p  = 0.044), lower probability of survival ( p  = 0.037), and lower admission oxygenation ( p  = 0.027), was higher in neonates without a sac. Hospital survival was significantly higher for those with sac compared with those without (7/7, 100 vs. 7/22, 32%, p  = 0.002). Conclusion  The presence of a hernia sac may be associated with better survival for isolated "liver-up" CDH. As the presence of sac can be prenatally detected, it may be a useful marker to aid perinatal decision making. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Changes in survival patterns in urban Chinese patients with liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xi-Shan; Chen, Ke-Xin; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Rohan, Tom

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the survival patterns and determinants of primary liver cancer in a geographically defined Chinese population. METHODS: Primary liver cancer cases (n = 13685) diagnosed between 1981 and 2000 were identified by the Tianjin Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates were examined in both males and females. Proportional hazards (Cox) regression was utilized to explore the effects of time of diagnosis, sex, age, occupation, residence, and hospital of diagnosis on survival. RESULTS: Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates in the study period were: 27.4/100000 and 26.3/100000 in males; and 11.5/100000 and 10.4/100000 in females, respectively. Cox regression analyses indicated that there was a significant improvement in survival rates over time. Industrial workers and older people had relatively poor survival rates. The hospital in which the liver cancer was diagnosed was a statistically significant predictor of survival; patients diagnosed in city hospitals were more likely to have better survival than those diagnosed in community/district hospitals. CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed in recent years appeared to have a better outcome than those diagnosed in early times. There were also significant survival disparities with respect to occupation and hospital of diagnosis, which suggest that socioeconomic status may play an important role in determining prognosis. PMID:12800226

  18. Factors Associated With Short- and Long-term Liver Graft Survival in the United Kingdom: Development of a UK Donor Liver Index.

    PubMed

    Collett, David; Friend, Peter J; Watson, Christopher J E

    2017-04-01

    A measure of donor liver quality, the donor liver index, was developed and validated for the UK population of transplant recipients. Unlike previously proposed measures, this index is only based on variables that are available at the point of retrieval, and so does not include cold ischemic time. Indices of liver quality were based on data from the UK Transplant Registry on all 7929 liver transplants between January 2000 and December 2014. The donor liver index (DLI) was based on factors shown to affect graft survival, which included donor age, sex, height, type (donor after brain death or circulatory death), bilirubin, smoking history, and whether the liver was split. A separate index (DLI1) looking at 1-year survival showed donor cardiac disease, black ethnicity, and steatosis to be additional risk factors. A strong association was found between DLI and whether or not a surgeon accepts an offered liver for transplant, with a marked fall in acceptance rates for livers with an index greater than 1.31. Since 2000, there has been a notable reduction in the quality of livers transplanted, coupled with variation between the 7 UK liver transplant centers in risk appetite. The DLI is an index of liver quality which enables analysis of the changing trends in liver quality and center behavior. DLI1 enables identification of factors affecting shorter-term survival, and perhaps identifies a cohort of livers that may benefit from novel preservation technologies.

  19. Identification and isolation of adult liver stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblasts are considered to be liver stem/progenitor cells in the fetus because they propagate and differentiate into two types of liver epithelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In adults, oval cells that emerge in severely injured liver are considered facultative hepatic stem/progenitor cells. However, the nature of oval cells has remained unclear for long time due to the lack of a method to isolate them. It has also been unclear whether liver stem/progenitor cells exist in normal adult liver. Recently, we and others have successfully identified oval cells and adult liver stem/progenitor cells. Here, we describe the identification and isolation of mouse liver stem/progenitor cells by utilizing antibodies against specific cell surface marker molecules.

  20. Adjunctive traditional Chinese medicine therapy improves survival of liver cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yueh-Hsiang; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an alternative treatment for cancer with its effect by stimulating host immune response for cytotoxic activity against liver cancer. No studies evaluated TCM treatment on survival of liver cancer patients. This study determined whether the combination of TCM and conventional cancer treatment affects the survival of liver cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 127 237 newly diagnosed liver cancer patients from 2000 to 2009 in the National Health Insurance Program database. Among these patients, 30 992 (24.36%) used TCM for liver cancer care. All patients were followed up until 2011. The mean follow-up was 5.67 years (SD 1.47) for TCM users and 5.49 years (SD 3.64) for non-TCM users. Compared with patients without TCM use, patients with TCM use were significantly associated with a decreased risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64-0.66] with multivariate adjustment. A similar significant protective effect of TCM use across various subgroups of chronic liver diseases was also observed. Jia Wei Xiao Yao San (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96) and Chai Hu Shu Gan Tang (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.78-0.95) were the most effective TCM agents that improved survival. This cohort study provided information that adjunctive therapy with TCM may improve the survival in liver cancer patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of TCM in HCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transfusion Is Safe and Improves Liver Function in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Ruonan; Lin, Hu; Fu, Junliang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Aimin; Shi, Jianfei; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; He, Weiping; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Liu, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe, life-threatening complication, and new and efficient therapeutic strategies for liver failure are urgently needed. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusions have been shown to reverse fulminant hepatic failure in mice and to improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver diseases. We assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) transfusions for ACLF patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A total of 43 ACLF patients were enrolled for this open-labeled and controlled study; 24 patients were treated with UC-MSCs, and 19 patients were treated with saline as controls. UC-MSC therapy was given three times at 4-week intervals. The liver function, adverse events, and survival rates were evaluated during the 48-week or 72-week follow-up period. No significant side effects were observed during the trial. The UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients; reduced the model for end-stage liver disease scores; increased serum albumin, cholinesterase, and prothrombin activity; and increased platelet counts. Serum total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased after the UC-MSC transfusions. UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients. PMID:23197664

  2. Neutrophil gelatinase‐associated lipocalin level is a prognostic factor for survival in rat and human chronic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Kyoko; Iwasa, Motoh; Kojima, Shinichi; Yoshizawa, Naohiko; Tempaku, Mina; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Norihiko; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Chronic liver disease patients often have complications, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and acute bacterial infection. Model for end‐stage liver disease and Child‐Pugh scores are useful prognostic factors for chronic liver diseases but not for all chronic conditions, such as HCC. Our investigative aim targeted the prognostic abilities of neutrophil gelatinase‐associated lipocalin (NGAL) in rat and human chronic liver diseases. Blood NGAL levels were measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay in rats with cirrhosis and 96 patients with chronic liver disease and HCC. We examined the correlation between blood NGAL levels and liver functions as well as survival. In our rat model, liver NGAL expression was assessed by immunostaining, real‐time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot. In rats with cirrhosis, blood NGAL levels were continuously and significantly elevated in the deceased group and were significantly correlated with liver functions. Liver NGAL, toll‐like receptor 4, and interleukin‐6 levels were increased in the deceased group compared to the survival group. Blood NGAL levels were significantly correlated with liver NGAL levels, indicating blood NGAL was derived from the liver. In patients with chronic liver disease, blood NGAL levels were associated with liver function and renal function. Blood NGAL levels were significantly increased in patients with chronic liver disease with HCC compared to without HCC. For the survival group, 38 out of 96 patients were dead in the average follow‐up period of 9.9 months. The patients with blood NGAL ≤119 ng/mL had significantly longer rates of survival compared to patients with blood NGAL >119 ng/mL. Conclusion: Blood NGAL predicts the survival rate in rat and human chronic liver diseases. Our findings suggest blood NGAL may be prognostic of survival in chronic liver diseases complicated by HCC. (Hepatology Communications 2017;1:946–956) PMID:29404502

  3. Incidence and long-term survival of patients with de novo head and neck carcinoma after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Coordes, Annekatrin; Albers, Andreas E; Lenarz, Minoo; Seehofer, Daniel; Puhl, Gero; Pascher, Andreas; Neuhaus, Ruth; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Andreou, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing de novo malignancies. We conducted a prospective evaluation of clinicopathological data and predictors for overall survival (OS) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after liver transplantation (1988 to 2010). Thirty-three of 2040 patients who underwent liver transplantation (1.6%) developed de novo HNSCC. The incidence of HNSCC in liver transplant recipients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease (26) was 5%. After a median follow-up of 9 years, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year OS rates were 74%, 47%, and 34%, respectively. Tumor size, cervical lymph node metastases, tumor site, and therapy (surgery only vs surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy [RT]/chemoradiotherapy [CRT] vs RT/CRT only; p < .0001) were significantly associated with OS in univariate analysis. However, surgery only predicted OS independently in multivariate analysis. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment of de novo HNSCC are crucial to the outcome. HNSCC risk should be taken into close consideration during posttransplantation follow-up examinations, especially among patients with a positive history of smoking and alcohol consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status].

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaomeng; Wang, Leijie; Yao, Mingjie; Wen, Xiajie; Chen, Xiangmei; You, Hong; Jia, Jidong; Zhao, Jingmin; Lu, Fengmin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in red blood cell count in patients with different liver diseases and the correlation between red blood cell count and degree of liver damage. The clinical data of 1427 patients with primary liver cancer, 172 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 185 patients with hepatitis were collected, and the Child-Pugh class was determined for all patients. The differences in red blood cell count between patients with different liver diseases were retrospectively analyzed, and the correlation between red blood cell count and liver function status was investigated. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, rank sum test, Spearman rank sum correlation test, and chi-square test were performed for different types of data. Red blood cell count showed significant differences between patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cancer, and liver cirrhosis and was highest in patients with chronic hepatitis and lowest in patients with liver cirrhosis (P < 0.05). In the patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count tended to decrease in patients with a higher Child-Pugh class (P < 0.05). For patients with liver cirrhosis, red blood cell count can reflect the degree of liver damage, which may contribute to an improved liver function prediction model for these patients.

  5. Myocilin Regulates Cell Proliferation and Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Myung Kuk; Kwon, Heung Sun; Cojocaru, Radu; Tomarev, Stanislav I.

    2014-01-01

    Myocilin, a causative gene for open angle glaucoma, encodes a secreted glycoprotein with poorly understood functions. To gain insight into its functions, we produced a stably transfected HEK293 cell line expressing myocilin under an inducible promoter and compared gene expression profiles between myocilin-expressing and vector control cell lines by a microarray analysis. A significant fraction of differentially expressed genes in myocilin-expressing cells was associated with cell growth and cell death, suggesting that myocilin may have a role in the regulation of cell growth and survival. Increased proliferation of myocilin-expressing cells was demonstrated by the WST-1 proliferation assay, direct cell counting, and immunostaining with antibodies against Ki-67, a cellular proliferation marker. Myocilin-containing conditioned medium also increased proliferation of unmodified HEK293 cells. Myocilin-expressing cells were more resistant to serum starvation-induced apoptosis than control cells. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were dramatically decreased, and two apoptotic marker proteins, cleaved caspase 7 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, were significantly reduced in myocilin-expressing cells as compared with control cells under apoptotic conditions. In addition, myocilin-deficient mesenchymal stem cells exhibited reduced proliferation and enhanced susceptibility to serum starvation-induced apoptosis as compared with wild-type mesenchymal stem cells. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and its upstream kinases, c-Raf and MEK, was increased in myocilin-expressing cells compared with control cells. Elevated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also observed in the trabecular meshwork of transgenic mice expressing 6-fold higher levels of myocilin when compared with their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that myocilin promotes cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis via the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:24563482

  6. [Effect of Fuzheng Huayu capsules on survival rate of patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Ge, X J; Zhao, C Q; Xu, L M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Fuzheng Huayu capsules on the survival rate of patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of the patients with various types of liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. The data collected for these patients included their basic information, diagnosis and treatment, and results of laboratory examination. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the effect of Fuzheng Huayu capsules on the survival rate of patients with liver cancer. The starting point of observation was the first day of the patient's admission and the ending point of follow-up observation was the date of death or the end of follow-up April 1, 2014. The cut-off value was obtained if the patient did not experience any outcome event (death) at the end of follow-up. With reference to the outcome, the time when the outcome occurred, and the cut-off value, the life-table method was used to calculate survival rates and survival curves were plotted. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to calculate the arithmetic mean of survival time and median survival time, and the log-rank test was used to compare the survival data. Results: A total of 430 patients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled, among whom 191 died and 239 survived or were censored. The average constituent ratio of death was 55.6% and the average constituent ratio of survival was 44.4%. The life-table method showed that the half-, 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival rates were 70%, 64%, 58%, and 48%, respectively. The median survival time was 112.1 weeks for the patients who did not take Fuzheng Huayu capsules and 351.6 weeks for those who did, and there was a significant difference in survival rate between the two groups ( P = 0.000). Among 313 patients who had an etiology of hepatitis B, 164 did not take Fuzheng Huayu

  7. Cytokines and 90Y-Radioembolization: Relation to Liver Function and Overall Survival.

    PubMed

    Seidensticker, Max; Powerski, Maciej; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Damm, Robert; Mohnike, Konrad; Garlipp, Benjamin; Klopffleisch, Maurice; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens; Pech, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the course of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after 90 Y-radioembolization (RE) of liver malignancies and to identify prognosticators for liver-related adverse events and survival. In 34 consecutive patients with secondary or primary liver tumors scheduled for RE, the following cytokines were measured prior to and 2 h, 3 days, and 6 weeks after RE: interleukin (IL) -1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-γ. Liver function impairment was defined as an elevation of liver-related laboratory values as graded by CTCAE ≥ 2 and/or serum bilirubin ≥30 µmol/l and/or development of ascites at 6-week follow-up. Significant changes over time were seen in IL-1 (increase from 0.4 pg/ml (±0.7) at baseline to 1.1 pg/ml (±1.4) 3 days after RE (p = 0.02)), and in IL-6 (increase from 16.8 pg/ml (±21.8) at baseline to 54.6 pg/ml (±78.2) 3 days after RE (p = 0.003)). Baseline values of IL-6 and IL-8 were independently associated with liver function impairment at follow-up as well as decreased survival with an optimal cutoff at 6.53 and 60.8 pg/ml, respectively. Expected changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after RE were shown. Furthermore, baseline values of IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with later liver dysfunction and survival. We hypothesize that these biomarkers are potential prognosticators and might help in patient selection for RE.

  8. Cell Patterning for Liver Tissue Engineering via Dielectrophoretic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, Wan Nurlina Wan; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the most common treatment for patients with end-stage liver failure. However, liver transplantation is greatly limited by a shortage of donors. Liver tissue engineering may offer an alternative by providing an implantable engineered liver. Currently, diverse types of engineering approaches for in vitro liver cell culture are available, including scaffold-based methods, microfluidic platforms, and micropatterning techniques. Active cell patterning via dielectrophoretic (DEP) force showed some advantages over other methods, including high speed, ease of handling, high precision and being label-free. This article summarizes liver function and regenerative mechanisms for better understanding in developing engineered liver. We then review recent advances in liver tissue engineering techniques and focus on DEP-based cell patterning, including microelectrode design and patterning configuration. PMID:24991941

  9. Lipid degradation promotes prostate cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri M; Brown, Michael; Urbanucci, Alfonso; Tredwell, Gregory; Ho Lau, Chung; Barfeld, Stefan; Hart, Claire; Guldvik, Ingrid J; Takhar, Mandeep; Heemers, Hannelore V; Erho, Nicholas; Bloch, Katarzyna; Davicioni, Elai; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Mohler, James L; Clarke, Noel; Swinnen, Johan V; Keun, Hector C; Rekvig, Ole P; Mills, Ian G

    2017-06-13

    Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer and androgen receptor (AR) is the major driver of the disease. Here we show that Enoyl-CoA delta isomerase 2 (ECI2) is a novel AR-target that promotes prostate cancer cell survival. Increased ECI2 expression predicts mortality in prostate cancer patients (p = 0.0086). ECI2 encodes for an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and we use multiple metabolite profiling platforms and RNA-seq to show that inhibition of ECI2 expression leads to decreased glucose utilization, accumulation of fatty acids and down-regulation of cell cycle related genes. In normal cells, decrease in fatty acid degradation is compensated by increased consumption of glucose, and here we demonstrate that prostate cancer cells are not able to respond to decreased fatty acid degradation. Instead, prostate cancer cells activate incomplete autophagy, which is followed by activation of the cell death response. Finally, we identified a clinically approved compound, perhexiline, which inhibits fatty acid degradation, and replicates the major findings for ECI2 knockdown. This work shows that prostate cancer cells require lipid degradation for survival and identifies a small molecule inhibitor with therapeutic potential.

  10. [Acute liver failure in a patient with hairy cell leukemia].

    PubMed

    Valero, Beatriz; Picó Sala, M Dolores; Palazón, José María; Payá, Artemio

    2007-01-01

    Acute liver failure as a manifestation of primary non-Hodkin's lymphoma is a rare phenomenon with a fatal prognosis. Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an uncommon chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, representing about 2 percent of all leukemies. We report a 78-year-old patient with a history of hairy cell leukemia since 10 years, presenting whith fulminant liver failure due to massive liver infiltration. He have reviewed several cases of infiltration of the liver by haematological malignancies, but we only have found after a review in MEDLINE between 1980 and 2006, one case of acute liver failure in a patient with hepatic invasion by hairy cell leukaemia.

  11. Hepatic Resection for Liver Metastases from Cervical Cancer Is Safe and May Have Survival Benefit.

    PubMed

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the single-centre experience with hepatectomy for liver metastases from cervical cancer (CCLM). Fifteen patients who underwent such surgery at the Fundeni Clinical Hospital between January 2002 and April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Liver lesions diagnosed at more than 6 months from cervical cancer diagnosis were classified as metachronous lesions, while lesions occurring within the first 6 months were considered synchronous lesions. Two patients were diagnosed with synchronous CCLM, while the other 13 patients had metachronous. Early postoperative death occurred in a single patient with metachronous liver metastases and pelvic recurrence, but this was not related to liver surgery. The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18 months from the time of liver resection; patients with metachronous lesions had an improved outcome when compared to those with synchronous lesions. In patients with metachronous liver metastases, prognostic factors associated with an improved outcome were the general biological status of the patient, grade of tumoural differentiation and absence of other abdomino-pelvic recurrences. In multivariate analysis, only the grade of differentiation was statistically significant. In conclusion, hepatic resection for liver metastases from cervical cancer can be performed safely, may prove effective, and should be part of the multimodal treatment. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell death and survival

    PubMed Central

    Komissarov, Alexey A.; Rafieva, Lola M.; Kostrov, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic vacuolization (also called cytoplasmic vacuolation) is a well-known morphological phenomenon observed in mammalian cells after exposure to bacterial or viral pathogens as well as to various natural and artificial low-molecular-weight compounds. Vacuolization often accompanies cell death; however, its role in cell death processes remains unclear. This can be attributed to studying vacuolization at the level of morphology for many years. At the same time, new data on the molecular mechanisms of the vacuole formation and structure have become available. In addition, numerous examples of the association between vacuolization and previously unknown cell death types have been reported. Here, we review these data to make a deeper insight into the role of cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell death and survival. PMID:27331412

  13. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Comparison liver resection with transarterial chemoembolization for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma patients on long-term survival after SPSS propensity score matching].

    PubMed

    Ke, Yang; Zhong, Jianhong; Guo, Zhe; Liang, Yongrong; Li, Lequn; Xiang, Bangde

    2014-03-18

    To compare the long-term survival of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing either liver resection or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) after propensity score matching (PSM). One hundred sixty-seven and 70 BCLC-B HCC patients undergoing liver resection and TACE were retrospectively collected. PSM function of SPSS software was conducted to reduce confounding bias between the groups. And then survival analysis was performed for the matched data. Fifty-three pairs of patients were successfully matched. And then survival analysis showed that the median survival periods and their 95% confidence intervals were 35.0 (26.3-43.7)months in the liver resection group versus 20.0(15.0-25.0) months in the TACE group. The 1, 3, 5 and 7-year survival rates were 91.0%, 49.0%, 30.0% and 17.0% in the liver resection group versus 73.0%, 25.0%, 8.0% and 5.0% respectively in the TACE group (P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed that TACE, total bilirubin ≥ 34.2 µmol/L, alpha fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/ml and tumor number ≥ 3 were independent risk factors of survival (hazard ratio >1, P < 0.05). The balance of covariates may be achieved through PSM. And for patients with BCLC-B HCC, liver resection provides better long-term overall survival than TACE.

  15. Burden of Liver Abscess and Survival Risk Score in Thailand: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Pan-ngum, Wirichada; Soonthornworasiri, Ngamphol; Kulrat, Chotipa; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Wilairatana, Polrat; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Kitsahawong, Bubpha; Phaosawasdi, Kamthorn

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, the burden of liver abscess, a life-threatening infectious disease, has not been thoroughly evaluated. We developed a predictive scoring system to estimate survival of patients with liver abscess using information from the 2008–2013 Nationwide Hospital Admission Data to evaluate the burden of liver abscess in Thailand. All patients with primary diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) and amoebic liver abscess (ALA) were included. Epidemiological data, baseline characteristics, hospital course, and survival were analyzed. Overall, 11,296 admissions comprising 8,423 patients from 844 hospitals across Thailand were eligible for analysis. The mean age was 52 ± 17 years and 66.1% of patients were male. ALA was significantly prevalent in southern and western border regions of Thailand, and PLA occurred nationwide. The highest incidence of liver abscess occurred in the rainy season (June–November, P < 0.01). The median length of hospital stay was 8 days (interquartile range = 4–13 days), and mean direct cost of hospitalization was 846 ± 1,574 USD. The overall inhospital mortality rate was 2.8%. Incidence of ALA decreased over the 5-year study period, whereas PLA incidence increased (P < 0.01). Using multivariable Cox regression methods with stepwise variable selection, we developed a final model with five highly significant baseline parameters associated with increased 60-day mortality: older age, PLA, underlying chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Range of estimated probability of 60-day survival was 95–16% at cumulative risk score 0–13. This simplified score is practical, and may help clinicians prioritize patients requiring more intensive care. PMID:27325801

  16. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Survival Outcomes in Liver Transplantation With Elderly Donors: Analysis of Andalusian Transplant Register.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Franco, C; Bernal-Bellido, C; Barrera-Pulido, L; Álamo-Martínez, J M; Ruiz-Matas, J H; Suárez-Artacho, G; Marín-Gómez, L M; Tinoco-González, J; Díaz-Aunión, C; Padillo-Ruiz, F J; Gómez-Bravo, M Á

    2016-11-01

    Recently, there has been a large discrepancy between the number of patients on the waiting list for a liver transplant and the availability of deceased donors, with an increase in annual wait list mortality rates. Elderly donor livers are thought to be marginal grafts; however, in recent years, their utilization has constantly increased. The aim of this study is to evaluate the utilization of elderly donors in Andalusia and post-transplant outcomes. This retrospective observational study of 2408 liver transplants, performed in Andalusia between 2000 and 2014, analyzes the outcomes from donors aged 70 plus (n = 423) in terms of survival rates of the graft and the recipient, the type of transplant, donor age, and D-MELD score (product of donor age and preoperative Model for End-stage Liver Disease score). The most frequent indications for transplant were alcoholic cirrhosis (49.2%), hepatitis C cirrhosis (13%), and hepatocellular carcinoma (12.5%). The overall survival at 5 years was 64%, with a significant fall in survival for recipients with a D-MELD greater than 1500 (57%; P = .045). In the 70-year-old-plus donor group, the overall patient survival was 58.4%. The retransplant rate increased proportionately with donor age. In the alcoholic cirrhosis recipient subgroup, the overall survival at 5 years was 67.6% (P < .05) compared with 33.5% in patients with hepatitis C. Use of elderly donors is a safe strategy to reduce the scarcity of donors, provided that a D-MELD score below 1500 is obtained. Retransplant rates increase progressively with donor age. It is necessary to carefully screen recipients of older organs, taking into account that the best results are obtained for alcoholic cirrhosis, negative viral load hepatitis C, and a D-MELD score below 1500. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver cell therapy and tissue engineering for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vacanti, Joseph P; Kulig, Katherine M

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation remains the only definitive treatment for liver failure and is available to only a tiny fraction of patients with end-stage liver diseases. Major limitations for the procedure include donor organ shortage, high cost, high level of required expertise, and long-term consequences of immune suppression. Alternative cell-based liver therapies could potentially greatly expand the number of patients provided with effective treatment. Investigative research into augmenting or replacing liver function extends into three general strategies. Bioartificial livers (BALs) are extracorporeal devices that utilize cartridges of primary hepatocytes or cell lines to process patient plasma. Injection of liver cell suspensions aims to foster organ regeneration or provide a missing metabolic function arising from a genetic defect. Tissue engineering recreates the organ in vitro for subsequent implantation to augment or replace patient liver function. Translational models and clinical trials have highlighted both the immense challenges involved and some striking examples of success. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Genome multiplication as adaptation to tissue survival: evidence from gene expression in mammalian heart and liver.

    PubMed

    Anatskaya, Olga V; Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the functional significance of genome multiplication in somatic tissues, we performed a large-scale analysis of ploidy-associated changes in expression of non-tissue-specific (i.e., broadly expressed) genes in the heart and liver of human and mouse (6585 homologous genes were analyzed). These species have inverse patterns of polyploidization in cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes. The between-species comparison of two pairs of homologous tissues with crisscross contrast in ploidy levels allows the removal of the effects of species and tissue specificity on the profile of gene activity. The different tests performed from the standpoint of modular biology revealed a consistent picture of ploidy-associated alteration in a wide range of functional gene groups. The major effects consisted of hypoxia-inducible factor-triggered changes in main cellular processes and signaling pathways, activation of defense against DNA lesions, acceleration of protein turnover and transcription, and the impairment of apoptosis, the immune response, and cytoskeleton maintenance. We also found a severe decline in aerobic respiration and stimulation of sugar and fatty acid metabolism. These metabolic rearrangements create a special type of metabolism that can be considered intermediate between aerobic and anaerobic. The metabolic and physiological changes revealed (reflected in the alteration of gene expression) help explain the unique ability of polyploid tissues to combine proliferation and differentiation, which are separated in diploid tissues. We argue that genome multiplication promotes cell survival and tissue regeneration under stressful conditions.

  20. Karnofsky Performance Status Before and After Liver Transplantation Predicts Graft and Patient Survival.

    PubMed

    Thuluvath, Paul J; Thuluvath, Avesh J; Savva, Yulia

    2018-06-05

    The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) has been used for almost 70 years for clinical assessment of patients. Our objective was to determine whether KPS is an independent predictor of post-liver transplant (LT) survival after adjusting for known confounders. Adult patients listed with UNOS from 2006 to 2016 were grouped patients into low (10-40%, n=15,103), intermediate (50-70%, n=22,183) and high (80-100%, n=13,131) KPS based on KPS scores at the time of LT after excluding those on ventilators or life support. We determined the trends in KPS before and after LT, and survival probabilities based on KPS. There was a decline in KPS scores between listing and LT and there was significant improvement after LT. The graft and patient survival differences were significantly lower (p<0.0001) in those with low KPS. After adjusting for other confounders, the hazard ratios (HR) for graft failure were 1.17 (1.12-1.22, p <0.01) for the intermediate and 1.38 (1.31-1.46, p <0.01) for the low group. Similarly, HR for patient failure were 1.18 (1.13-1.24, p <0.01) for the intermediate and 1.43 (1.35-1.52, p <0.01) for the low group. Other independent negative predictors for graft and patient survival were older age, Black ethnicity, presence of hepatic encephalopathy and donor risk index. Those who did not show significant improvements in post-LT KPS scores had poorer outcomes in all three KPS groups, but it was most obvious in the low KPS group with 1-year patient survival of 33%. The KPS, before and after LT, is an independent predictor of graft and patient survival after adjusting for other important predictors of survival. The overall health of liver transplant recipients could be assessed by a simple clinical assessment tool called Karnofsky Performance Status which assess an individual's overall functional status on 11-point scale, in increments of 10, where a score of 0 is considered dead and 100 is considered perfect health. In this study, using a large dataset, we show

  1. Lung cells support osteosarcoma cell migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shibing; Fourman, Mitchell Stephen; Mahjoub, Adel; Mandell, Jonathan Brendan; Crasto, Jared Anthony; Greco, Nicholas Giuseppe; Weiss, Kurt Richard

    2017-01-25

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, with a propensity to metastasize to the lungs. Five-year survival for metastatic OS is below 30%, and has not improved for several decades despite the introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy. Understanding OS cell migration to the lungs requires an evaluation of the lung microenvironment. Here we utilized an in vitro lung cell and OS cell co-culture model to explore the interactions between OS and lung cells, hypothesizing that lung cells would promote OS cell migration and survival. The impact of a novel anti-OS chemotherapy on OS migration and survival in the lung microenvironment was also examined. Three human OS cell lines (SJSA-1, Saos-2, U-2) and two human lung cell lines (HULEC-5a, MRC-5) were cultured according to American Type Culture Collection recommendations. Human lung cell lines were cultured in growth medium for 72 h to create conditioned media. OS proliferation was evaluated in lung co-culture and conditioned media microenvironment, with a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3 T3) in fresh growth medium as controls. Migration and invasion were measured using a real-time cell analysis system. Real-time PCR was utilized to probe for Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH1) expression. Osteosarcoma cells were also transduced with a lentivirus encoding for GFP to permit morphologic analysis with fluorescence microscopy. The anti-OS efficacy of Disulfiram, an ALDH-inhibitor previously shown to inhibit OS cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro, was evaluated in each microenvironment. Lung-cell conditioned medium promoted osteosarcoma cell migration, with a significantly higher attractive effect on all three osteosarcoma cell lines compared to basic growth medium, 10% serum containing medium, and NIH-3 T3 conditioned medium (p <0.05). Lung cell conditioned medium induced cell morphologic changes, as demonstrated with GFP-labeled cells. OS cells cultured in lung cell conditioned medium had increased

  2. Application of the BAR score as a predictor of short- and long-term survival in liver transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    de Campos Junior, Ivan Dias; Stucchi, Raquel Silveira Bello; Udo, Elisabete Yoko; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The balance of risk (BAR) is a prediction system after liver transplantation. To assess the BAR system, a retrospective observational study was performed in 402 patients who had transplant surgery between 1997 and 2012. The BAR score was computed for each patient. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and model calibration. The cutoff value with the best Youden index was selected. Statistical analysis employed the Kaplan-Meier method (log-rank test) for survival, the Mann-Whitney test for group comparison, and multiple logistic regression analysis. 3-month survival was 46% for BAR ≥ 11 and 77% for BAR <11 (p = 0.001); 12-month survival was 44% for BAR ≥ 11 and 69% for BAR <11 (p = 0.001). Factors of survival <3 months were BAR ≥ 11 [odds ratio (OR) 3.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-5.42; p = 0.001] and intrasurgical use of packed red blood cells (RBC) above 6 units (OR 4.49; 95% CI 2.73-7.39; p = 0.001). For survival <12 months, factors were BAR ≥ 11 (OR 2.94; 95% CI 1.67-5.16; p = 0.001) and RBC >6 units (OR 2.99; 95% CI 1.92-4.64; p = 0.001). Our study contributes to the incorporation of the BAR system into Brazilian transplantation centers.

  3. Intention-to-treat survival benefit of liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Quirino; Vitale, Alessandro; Iesari, Samuele; Finkenstedt, Armin; Mennini, Gianluca; Spoletini, Gabriele; Hoppe-Lotichius, Maria; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Manzia, Tommaso M; Nicolini, Daniele; Avolio, Alfonso W; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Graziadei, Ivo; Rossi, Massimo; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Otto, Gerd; Ettorre, Giuseppe M; Tisone, Giuseppe; Vivarelli, Marco; Agnes, Salvatore; Cillo, Umberto; Lerut, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The debate about the best approach to select patients with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) waiting for liver transplantation (LT) is still ongoing. This study aims to identify the best variables allowing to discriminate between "high-" and "low-benefit" patients. To do so, the concept of intention-to-treat (ITT) survival benefit of LT has been created. Data of 2,103 adult HCC patients consecutively enlisted during the period 1987-2015 were analyzed. Three rigorous statistical steps were used in order to create the ITT survival benefit of LT: the development of an ITT LT and a non-LT survival model, and the individual prediction of the ITT survival benefit of LT defined as the difference between the median ITT survival with (based on the first model) and without LT (based on the second model) calculated for each enrolled patient. Four variables (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, alpha-fetoprotein, Milan-Criteria status, and radiological response) displayed a high effect in terms of delta benefit. According to these risk factors, four benefit groups were identified. Patients with three to four factors ("no-benefit group"; n = 405 of 2,103; 19.2%) had no benefit of LT compared to alternative treatments. Conversely, patients without any risk factor ("large-benefit group"; n = 108; 5.1%) yielded the highest benefit from LT reaching 60 months. The ITT transplant survival benefit presented here allows physicians to better select HCC patients waiting for LT. The obtained stratification may lead to an improved and more equitable method of organ allocation. Patients without benefit should be de-listed, whereas patients with large benefit ratio should be prioritized for LT. (Hepatology 2017;66:1910-1919). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours in the liver].

    PubMed

    Ellebæk, Signe Bremholm; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Mandi, Bassam; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-02-23

    The PEComa family is a group of tumours having perivascular epithelioid cells (PEC) as the predominating component. PEComas occur in various organs and are considered to be benign tumours. However, rare cases showing pleomorphic morphology, atypical mitoses or necrosis should be considered malignant sarcomas. The precise incidence is unknown but PEComas are reported with increasing frequency. Standard treatment is surgery but there are no guidelines on further follow-up or treatment. PEComa in the liver is a rare tumour, and to our knowledge this is the first published case from Denmark.

  5. Characterization of cell types during rat liver development.

    PubMed

    Fiegel, Henning C; Park, Jonas J h; Lioznov, Michael V; Martin, Andreas; Jaeschke-Melli, Stefan; Kaufmann, Peter M; Fehse, Boris; Zander, Axel R; Kluth, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic stem cells have been identified in adult liver. Recently, the origin of hepatic progenitors and hepatocytes from bone marrow was demonstrated. Hematopoietic and hepatic stem cells share the markers CD 34, c-kit, and Thy1. Little is known about liver stem cells during liver development. In this study, we investigated the potential stem cell marker Thy1 and hepatocytic marker CK-18 during liver development to identify putative fetal liver stem cell candidates. Livers were harvested from embryonic and fetal day (ED) 16, ED 18, ED 20, and neonatal ED 22 stage rat fetuses from Sprague-Dawley rats. Fetal livers were digested by collagenase-DNAse solution and purified by percoll centrifugation. Magnetic cell sorting (MACS) depletion of fetal liver cells was performed using OX43 and OX44 antibodies. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Thy1, CK-18, and proliferating cell antigen Ki-67 and double labeling for Thy1 and CK-18. Thy1 expression was found at all stages of liver development before and after MACS in immunocytochemistry. Thy1 positive cells were enriched after MACS only in early developmental stages. An enrichment of CK-18 positive cells was found after MACS at all developmental stages. Cells coexpressing Thy1 and CK-18 were identified by double labeling of fetal liver cell isolates. In conclusion, hepatic progenitor cells (CK-18 positive) in fetal rat liver express Thy1. Other progenitors express only CK-18. This indicates the coexistence of different hepatic cell compartments. Isolation and further characterization of such cells is needed to demonstrate their biologic properties.

  6. The emerging role of mast cells in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jarido, Veronica; Kennedy, Lindsey; Hargrove, Laura; Demieville, Jennifer; Thomson, Joanne; Stephenson, Kristen; Francis, Heather

    2017-08-01

    The depth of our knowledge regarding mast cells has widened exponentially in the last 20 years. Once thought to be only important for allergy-mediated events, mast cells are now recognized to be important regulators of a number of pathological processes. The revelation that mast cells can influence organs, tissues, and cells has increased interest in mast cell research during liver disease. The purpose of this review is to refresh the reader's knowledge of the development, type, and location of mast cells and to review recent work that demonstrates the role of hepatic mast cells during diseased states. This review focuses primarily on liver diseases and mast cells during autoimmune disease, hepatitis, fatty liver disease, liver cancer, and aging in the liver. Overall, these studies demonstrate the potential role of mast cells in disease progression.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy for assessment of liver transplantation grafts concerning graft viability and patient survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollet Filho, José D.; da Silveira, Marina R.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Evaluating transplantation grafts at harvest is essential for its success. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) can help monitoring changes in metabolic/structural conditions of tissue during transplantation. The aim of the present study is to correlate LIFSobtained spectra of human hepatic grafts during liver transplantation with post-operative patients' mortality rate and biochemical parameters, establishing a method to exclude nonviable grafts before implantation. Orthotopic liver transplantation, piggyback technique was performed in 15 patients. LIFS was performed under 408nm excitation. Collection was performed immediately after opening donor's abdominal cavity, after cold perfusion, end of back-table period, and 5 min and 1 h after warm perfusion at recipient. Fluorescence information was compared to lactate, creatinine, bilirubin and INR levels and to survival status. LIFS was sensitive to liver changes during transplantation stages. Study-in-progress; initial results indicate correlation between fluorescence and life/death status of patients.

  8. Application of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Wang, Xuehao; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of patients are affected by liver disease worldwide. Many of these patients can benefit from therapy involving hepatocyte transplantation. Liver transplantation is presently the only proven treatment for many medically refractory liver diseases including end-stage liver failure and inherited metabolic liver disease. However, the shortage in transplantable livers prevents over 40% of listed patients per year from receiving a liver transplant; many of these patients die before receiving an organ offer or become too sick to transplant. Therefore, new therapies are needed to supplement whole-organ liver transplantation and reduce mortality on waiting lists worldwide. Furthermore, the remarkable regenerative capacity of hepatocytes in vivo is exemplified by the increasing number of innovative cell-based therapies and animal models of human liver disorders. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have similar properties to those of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but bypass the ethical concerns of embryo destruction. Therefore, generation of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) using iPSC technology may be beneficial for the treatment of severe liver diseases, screening of drug toxicities, basic research of several hepatocytic disorders, and liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize the growing number of potential applications of iPSCs for treatment of liver disease. PMID:26858888

  9. Carvedilol use is associated with improved survival in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rohit; Lockman, Khalida A; Mallawaarachchi, Nethmee; Robertson, Marcus; Plevris, John N; Hayes, Peter C

    2017-07-01

    Carvedilol, a non-selective beta-blocker (NSBB) with additional anti-alpha 1 receptor activity, is a potent portal hypotensive agent and has been used as prophylaxis against variceal bleeding. However, its safety in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and ascites is still disputed. In this study, we examined whether long-term use of carvedilol in patients with ascites is a risk factor for mortality. A single-centre retrospective analysis of 325 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites presenting to our Liver Unit between 1st of January 2009 to 31st August 2012 was carried out. The primary outcome was all-cause and liver-specific mortality in patients receiving or not receiving carvedilol as prophylaxis against variceal bleeding. The final cohort after propensity score matching comprised 264 patients. Baseline ascites severity and UK end-stage liver disease (UKELD) score between carvedilol (n=132) and non-carvedilol (n=132) treated patient groups were comparable. Median follow-up time was 2.3years. Survival at the end of the follow-up was 24% and 2% for the carvedilol and the non-carvedilol groups respectively (log-rank p<0.0001). The long-term survival was significantly better in carvedilol than non-carvedilol group (log-rank p<0.001). The survival difference remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, ascites severity, aetiology of cirrhosis, previous variceal bleed, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis prophylaxis, serum albumin and UKELD with hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44, 0.80; p=0.001), suggesting a 41% reduction in mortality risk. When stratified by the severity of ascites, carvedilol therapy resulted in hazard ratio of 0.47 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.77; p=0.003) in those with mild ascites. Even with moderate or severe ascites, carvedilol use was not associated with increased mortality risk. Long-term carvedilol therapy is not harmful in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. The safety of carvedilol

  10. Development of a 3D cell printed construct considering angiogenesis for liver tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Woo; Choi, Yeong-Jin; Yong, Woon-Jae; Pati, Falguni; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Kang, Kyung Shin; Kang, In-Hye; Park, Jaesung; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-12

    Several studies have focused on the regeneration of liver tissue in a two-dimensional (2D) planar environment, whereas actual liver tissue is three-dimensional (3D). Cell printing technology has been successfully utilized for building 3D structures; however, the poor mechanical properties of cell-laden hydrogels are a major concern. Here, we demonstrate the printing of a 3D cell-laden construct and its application to liver tissue engineering using 3D cell printing technology through a multi-head tissue/organ building system. Polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a framework material because of its excellent mechanical properties. Collagen bioink containing three different types of cells-hepatocytes (HCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells , and human lung fibroblasts--was infused into the canals of a PCL framework to induce the formation of capillary--like networks and liver cell growth. A co-cultured 3D microenvironment of the three types of cells was successfully established and maintained. The vascular formation and functional abilities of HCs (i.e., albumin secretion and urea synthesis) demonstrated that the heterotypic interaction among HCs and nonparenchymal cells increased the survivability and functionality of HCs within the collagen gel. Therefore, our results demonstrate the prospect of using cell printing technology for the creation of heterotypic cellular interaction within a structure for liver tissue engineering.

  11. Susceptibility of human liver cells to porcine endogenous retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinzi; Qi, Lin; Li, Zhiguo; Chi, Hao; Lin, Wanjun; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zesheng; Pan, Mingxin; Gao, Yi

    2013-12-01

    The risk of porcine endogenous retrovirus infection is a major barrier for pig-to-human xenotransplant. Porcine endogenous retrovirus, present in porcine cells, can infect many human and nonhuman primate cells in vitro, but there is no evidence available about in vitro infection of human liver cells. We investigated the susceptibility of different human liver cells to porcine endogenous retrovirus. The supernatant from a porcine kidney cell line was added to human liver cells, including a normal hepatocyte cell line (HL-7702 cells), primary hepatocytes (Phh cells), and a liver stellate cell line (Lx-2 cells), and to human embryonic kidney cells as a reference control. Expression of the porcine endogenous retrovirus antigen p15E in the human cells was evaluated with polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. The porcine endogenous retrovirus antigen p15E was not expressed in any human liver cells (HL-7702, Phh, or Lx-2 cells) that had been exposed to supernatants from porcine kidney cell lines. Porcine endogenous retrovirus-specific fragments were amplified in human kidney cells. Human liver cells tested were not susceptible to infection by porcine endogenous retrovirus. Therefore, not all human cells are susceptible to porcine endogenous retrovirus.

  12. Improvement of Cell Survival During Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Definitive Endoderm Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Luo, Xie; Yao, Li; Lehman, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Definitive endoderm (DE) is a vital precursor for internal organs such as liver and pancreas. Efficient protocol to differentiate human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to DE is essential for regenerative medicine and for modeling diseases; yet, poor cell survival during DE differentiation remains unsolved. In this study, our use of B27 supplement in modified differentiation protocols has led to a substantial improvement. We used an SOX17-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter hESC line to compare and modify established DE differentiation protocols. Both total live cell numbers and the percentages of eGFP-positive cells were used to assess differentiation efficiency. Among tested protocols, three modified protocols with serum-free B27 supplement were developed to generate a high number of DE cells. Massive cell death was avoided during DE differentiation and the percentage of DE cells remained high. When the resulting DE cells were further differentiated toward the pancreatic lineage, the expression of pancreatic-specific markers was significantly increased. Similar high DE differentiation efficiency was observed in H1 hESCs and iPSCs through the modified protocols. In B27 components, bovine serum albumin was found to facilitate DE differentiation and cell survival. Using our modified DE differentiation protocols, satisfactory quantities of quality DE can be produced as primary material for further endoderm lineage differentiation. PMID:26132288

  13. Resection of synchronous liver metastases between radiotherapy and definitive surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer: short-term surgical outcomes, overall survival and recurrence-free survival.

    PubMed

    Labori, K J; Guren, M G; Brudvik, K W; Røsok, B I; Waage, A; Nesbakken, A; Larsen, S; Dueland, S; Edwin, B; Bjørnbeth, B A

    2017-08-01

    There is debate as to the correct treatment algorithm sequence for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer with liver metastases. The aim of the study was to assess safety, resectability and survival after a modified 'liver-first' approach. This was a retrospective study of patients undergoing preoperative radiotherapy for the primary rectal tumour, followed by liver resection and, finally, resection of the primary tumour. Short-term surgical outcome, overall survival and recurrence-free survival are reported. Between 2009 and 2013, 45 patients underwent liver resection after preoperative radiotherapy. Thirty-four patients (76%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 24 (53%) concomitant chemotherapy during radiotherapy and 17 (43%) adjuvant chemotherapy. The median time interval from the last fraction of radiotherapy to liver resection and rectal surgery was 21 (range 7-116) and 60 (range 31-156) days, respectively. Rectal resection was performed in 42 patients but was not performed in one patient with complete response and two with progressive metastatic disease. After rectal surgery three patients did not proceed to a planned second stage liver (n = 2) or lung (n = 1) resection due to progressive disease. Clavien-Dindo ≥Grade III complications developed in 6.7% after liver resection and 19% after rectal resection. The median overall survival and recurrence-free survival in the patients who completed the treatment sequence (n = 40) were 49.7 and 13.0 months, respectively. Twenty of the 30 patients who developed recurrence underwent further treatment with curative intent. The modified liver-first approach is safe and efficient in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and allows initial control of both the primary tumour and the liver metastases. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Hepatic stellate cells in liver development, regeneration, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chunyue; Evason, Kimberley J.; Asahina, Kinji; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells are liver-specific mesenchymal cells that play vital roles in liver physiology and fibrogenesis. They are located in the space of Disse and maintain close interactions with sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic epithelial cells. It is becoming increasingly clear that hepatic stellate cells have a profound impact on the differentiation, proliferation, and morphogenesis of other hepatic cell types during liver development and regeneration. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the recent advances in our understanding of the formation and characteristics of hepatic stellate cells, as well as their function in liver development, regeneration, and cancer. We also discuss how improved knowledge of these processes offers new perspectives for the treatment of patients with liver diseases. PMID:23635788

  15. New physiologically-relevant liver tissue model based on hierarchically cocultured primary rat hepatocytes with liver endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjin; Perry, Guillaume; Komori, Kikuo; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    To develop an in vitro liver tissue equivalent, hepatocytes should be cocultured with liver non-parenchymal cells to mimic the in vivo physiological microenvironments. In this work, we describe a physiologically-relevant liver tissue model by hierarchically organizing layers of primary rat hepatocytes and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (TMNK-1) on an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, which facilitates direct oxygenation by diffusion through the membrane. This in vivo-mimicking hierarchical coculture was obtained by simply proceeding the overlay of TMNK-1 cells on the hepatocyte layer re-formed on the collagen immobilized PDMS membranes. The comparison of hepatic functionalities was achieved between coculture and sandwich culture with Matrigel, in the presence and absence of direct oxygenation. A complete double-layered structure of functional liver cells with vertical contact between hepatocytes and TMNK-1 was successfully constructed in the coculture with direct oxygen supply and was well-maintained for 14 days. The hepatocytes in this hierarchical culture exhibited improved survival, functional bile canaliculi formation, cellular level polarization and maintenance of metabolic activities including Cyp1A1/2 activity and albumin production. By contrast, the two cell populations formed discontinuous monolayers on the same surfaces in the non-oxygen-permeable cultures. These results demonstrate that (i) the direct oxygenation through the PDMS membranes enables very simple formation of a hierarchical structure consisting of a hepatocyte layer and a layer of TMNK-1 and (ii) we may include other non-parenchymal cells in this format easily, which can be widely applicable to other epithelial organs.

  16. Ablation effects of noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia on liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kaiyun; Zhu, Shuguang; Xiang, Guoan; Duan, Xiaopeng; He, Jiwen; Chen, Guihua

    2016-05-01

    To have in-depth analysis of clinical ablation effect of noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia on liver cancer cells, this paper collected liver cancer patients' treatment information from 10 hospitals during January 2010 and December 2011, from which 1050 cases of patients were randomly selected as study object of observation group who underwent noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia treatment; in addition, 500 cases of liver cancer patients were randomly selected as study object of control group who underwent clinical surgical treatment. After treatment was completed, three years of return visit were done, survival rates of the two groups of patients after 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were compared, and clinical effects of radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer were evaluated. Zoom results show that the two groups are similar in terms of survival rate, and the difference is without statistical significance. 125 patients in observation group had varying degrees of adverse reactions, while 253 patients in control group had adverse reactions. There was difference between groups P < 0.05, with significant statistical significance. It can be concluded that radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer is more secure. Therefore, the results of this study fully demonstrate that liver cancer treatment with noninvasive radiofrequency field-induced hyperthermia is with safety effect and satisfactory survival rate, thus with relatively high clinical value in clinical practice.

  17. The Development of Stem Cell-Based Treatment for Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tiantian; Li, Yuwen; Guo, Yusheng; Zhu, Chuanlong

    2017-01-01

    Liver failure is a devastating clinical syndrome with a persistently mortality rate despite advanced care. Orthotopic liver transplantation protected patients from hepatic failure. Yet, limitations including postoperative complications, high costs, and shortages of donor organs defect its application. The development of stem cell therapy complements the deficiencies of liver transplantation, due to the inherent ability of stem cells to proliferate and differentiate. Understand the source of stem cells, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of stem cell therapy. Based on published papers, we discussed the cell sources and therapeutic effect of stem cells. We also summarized the pros and cons, as well as optimization of stem cell-based treatment. Finally outlook future prospects of stem cell therapy. Stem cells may be harvested from a variety of human tissues, and then used to promote the convalescence of hepatocellular function. The emergence of the co-cultured system, tissueengineered technology and genetic modfication has further enhanced the functionality of stem cells. However, the tumorigenicity, the low survival rate and the scarcity of long-term treatment effect are obstacles for the further development of stem cell therapy. In this review, we highlight current research findings and present the future prospects in the area of stem cell-based treatment for liver failure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Equivalent survival following liver transplantation in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with patients with other liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Redden, David; Gray, Stephen; Eckhoff, Devin; Massoud, Omar; McGuire, Brendan; Alkurdi, Basem; Bloomer, Joseph; DuBay, Derek A

    2012-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing in parallel with the obesity epidemic. This study retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of LTs in NASH (n = 129) and non-NASH (n = 775) aetiologies carried out at a single centre between 1999 and 2009. Rates of 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival in NASH (90%, 88% and 85%, respectively) were comparable with those in non-NASH (92%, 86% and 80%, respectively) patients. Mortality within 4 months of LT was twice as high in NASH as in non-NASH patients (8.5% vs. 4.2%; P = 0.04). Compared with non-NASH patients, post-LT mortality in NASH patients was more commonly caused by infectious (38% vs. 26%; P < 0.05) or cardiac (19% vs. 7%; P < 0.05) aetiologies. Five-year survival was lower in NASH patients with a high-risk phenotype (age >60 years, body mass index >30 kg/m(2), with hypertension and diabetes) than in NASH patients without these characteristics (72% vs. 87%; P = 0.02). Subgroup analyses revealed that 5-year overall survival in NASH was equivalent to that in Laennec's cirrhosis (85% vs. 80%; P 0.87), but lower than that in cirrhosis of cryptogenic aetiology (85% vs. 96%; P = 0.04). Orthotopic LT in NASH was associated with increased early postoperative mortality, but 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were equivalent to those in non-NASH patients. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  19. Liver cell-targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Toita, Riki; Murata, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals and is involved in metabolism, detoxification, synthesis of proteins and lipids, secretion of cytokines and growth factors and immune/inflammatory responses. Hepatitis, alcoholic or non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are the most common liver diseases. Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic molecules (drugs, genes or proteins) into the liver is very important to increase the clinical efficacy of these molecules and to reduce their side effects in other organs. Several liver cell-targeted delivery systems have been developed and tested in vivo or ex vivo/in vitro. In this review, we discuss the literature concerning liver cell-targeted delivery systems, with a particular emphasis on the results of in vivo studies.

  20. Differential impact of obesity and diabetes mellitus on survival after liver resection for colorectal cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Amptoulach, Sousana; Gross, Gillis; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2015-12-01

    Data on the potential effect of obesity and diabetes mellitus on survival after liver resection due to colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases are very limited. Patients undergoing liver resection for CRC metastases in a European institution in 2004-2011 were retrospectively enrolled. Relevant data, such as body mass index, extent of resection, chemotherapy, and perioperative outcome, were collected from medical records. The relation of obesity and diabetes mellitus with overall and disease-free survival was assessed using adjusted Cox models. Thirty of 207 patients (14.4%) included in the study were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and 25 (12%) had diabetes mellitus. Major hepatectomy was performed in 46%. Although both obese patients and those with diabetes had higher American Society of Anesthesiologist scores (P < 0.05 for both), neither obesity nor diabetes was significantly related to primary tumor characteristics, liver metastasis features, extent or radicality of resection, extrahepatic disease at hepatectomy, preoperative or postoperative oncologic therapy, or perioperative outcome (P > 0.05 for all). Patients were followed up for a median of 39 mo posthepatectomy (interquartile range, 13-56 mo). After adjustment for confounders, obesity was an independent predictor of improved (hazard ratio, 0.305, 95% confidence interval, 0.103-0.902) and diabetes of worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 3.298, 95% confidence interval, 1.306-8.330). Obese patients with diabetes had also worse disease-free survival compared with the rest of the cohort (P < 0.05). After hepatectomy for CRC metastases, obesity does not seem to be associated to poor outcome while diabetes mellitus has a negative impact on prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IL-2high tissue-resident T cells in the human liver: Sentinels for hepatotropic infection

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jessica; Hansi, Navjyot; Easom, Nicholas J.W.; Burton, Alice R.; Stegmann, Kerstin A.; Schurich, Anna; Swadling, Leo; Male, Victoria; Luong, TuVinh; Davidson, Brian R.; Kennedy, Patrick T.F.

    2017-01-01

    The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)–infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-betloEomesloBlimp-1hiHobitlo T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69+CD103+ CXCR6+CXCR3+). These tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are preferentially expanded in patients with partial immune control of HBV infection and can remain in the liver after the resolution of infection, including compartmentalized responses against epitopes within all major HBV proteins. Sequential IL-15 or antigen exposure followed by TGFβ induces liver-adapted TRM, including their signature high expression of exhaustion markers PD-1 and CD39. We suggest that these inhibitory molecules, together with paradoxically robust, rapid, cell-autonomous IL-2 and IFNγ production, equip liver CD8 TRM to survive while exerting local noncytolytic hepatic immunosurveillance. PMID:28526759

  2. CT texture features of liver parenchyma for predicting development of metastatic disease and overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott J; Zea, Ryan; Kim, David H; Lubner, Meghan G; Deming, Dustin A; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2018-04-01

    To determine if identifiable hepatic textural features are present at abdominal CT in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) prior to the development of CT-detectable hepatic metastases. Four filtration-histogram texture features (standard deviation, skewness, entropy and kurtosis) were extracted from the liver parenchyma on portal venous phase CT images at staging and post-treatment surveillance. Surveillance scans corresponded to the last scan prior to the development of CT-detectable CRC liver metastases in 29 patients (median time interval, 6 months), and these were compared with interval-matched surveillance scans in 60 CRC patients who did not develop liver metastases. Predictive models of liver metastasis-free survival and overall survival were built using regularised Cox proportional hazards regression. Texture features did not significantly differ between cases and controls. For Cox models using all features as predictors, all coefficients were shrunk to zero, suggesting no association between any CT texture features and outcomes. Prognostic indices derived from entropy features at surveillance CT incorrectly classified patients into risk groups for future liver metastases (p < 0.001). On surveillance CT scans immediately prior to the development of CRC liver metastases, we found no evidence suggesting that changes in identifiable hepatic texture features were predictive of their development. • No correlation between liver texture features and metastasis-free survival was observed. • Liver texture features incorrectly classified patients into risk groups for liver metastases. • Standardised texture analysis workflows need to be developed to improve research reproducibility.

  3. Liver transplant center variability in accepting organ offers and its impact on patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; French, Benjamin; Lewis, James D.; Scott, Frank I; Mamtani, Ronac; Gilroy, Richard; Halpern, Scott D.; Abt, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Despite an allocation system designed to give deceased-donor livers to the sickest patients, many transplantable livers are declined by U.S. transplant centers. It is unknown whether centers vary in their propensities to decline organs for the highest-priority patients, and how these decisions directly impact patient outcomes. Methods We analyzed Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) data from 5/1/07-6/17/13, and included all adult liver-alone waitlist candidates offered an organ that was ultimately transplanted. We evaluated acceptance rates of liver offers for the highest-ranked patients and their subsequent waitlist mortality. Results Of the 23,740 unique organ offers, 8,882 (37.4%) were accepted for the first-ranked patient. Despite adjusting for organ quality and recipient severity of illness, transplant centers within and across geographic regions varied strikingly (p<0.001) in the percentage of organ offers they accepted for the highest-priority patients. Among all patients ranked first on waitlists, the adjusted center-specific organ acceptance rates ranged from 15.7% to 58.1%. In multivariable models, there was a 27% increased odds of waitlist mortality for every 5% absolute decrease in a center’s adjusted organ offer acceptance rate (adjusted OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.20–1.32). However, the absolute difference in median 5-year adjusted graft survival was 4% between livers accepted for the first-ranked patient, compared to those declined and transplanted at a lower position. Discussion There is marked variability in center practices regarding accepting livers allocated to the highest-priority patients. Center-level decisions to decline organs substantially increased patients’ odds of dying on the waitlist without a transplant. PMID:26626495

  4. Long-term survival and cure model following liver resection for breast cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Aldrick; Sebagh, Mylène; Wicherts, Dennis A; Castro-Benitez, Carlos; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Paule, Bernard; Castaing, Denis; Vibert, Eric; Cunha, Antonio Sa; Cherqui, Daniel; Morère, Jean-François; Adam, René

    2018-02-20

    Long-term survival is still rarely achieved with current systemic treatment in patients with breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM). Extended survival after hepatectomy was examined in a select group of BCLM patients. Hepatectomy for BCLM was performed in 139 consecutive patients between 1985 and 2012. Patients who survived < 5 years were compared to those who survived ≥ 5 years from first diagnosis of hepatic metastases. Predictive factors for survival were analyzed. Statistically cured, defined as those patients who their hazard rate returned to that of the general population, was analyzed. Of the 139, 43 patients survived ≥ 5 years. Significant differences between patient groups (< 5 vs. ≥ 5 years) were mean time interval between primary tumor and hepatic metastases diagnosis (50 vs. 43 months), mean number of resected tumors (3 vs. 2), positive estrogen receptors (54% vs. 79%), microscopic lymphatic invasion (65% vs. 34%), vascular invasion (63% vs. 37%), hormonal therapy after resection (34% vs. 74%), number of recurrence (40% vs. 65%) and repeat hepatectomy (1% vs. 42%), respectively. The probability of statistical cure was 14% (95% CI 1.4-26.7%) in these patients. Hepatectomy combined with systemic treatment can provide a chance of long-term survival and even cure in selected patients with BCLM. Microscopic vascular/lymphatic invasion appears to be a novel predictor for long-term survival after hepatectomy for BCLM and should be part of the review when discussing multidisciplinary treatment strategies.

  5. Embolotherapy for Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases: Prognostic Factors for Hepatic Progression-Free Survival and Overall Survival

    SciT

    Chen, James X.; Rose, Steven; White, Sarah B.

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate prognostic factors for survival outcomes following embolotherapy for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases.Materials and MethodsThis was a multicenter retrospective study of 155 patients (60 years mean age, 57 % male) with NET liver metastases from pancreas (n = 71), gut (n = 68), lung (n = 8), or other/unknown (n = 8) primary sites treated with conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE, n = 50), transarterial radioembolization (TARE, n = 64), or transarterial embolization (TAE, n = 41) between 2004 and 2015. Patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors were evaluated for prognostic effect on hepatic progression-free survival (HPFS) and overall survival (OS) using unadjusted and propensity score-weighted univariate and multivariate Coxmore » proportional hazards models.ResultsMedian HPFS and OS were 18.5 and 125.1 months for G1 (n = 75), 12.2 and 33.9 months for G2 (n = 60), and 4.9 and 9.3 months for G3 tumors (n = 20), respectively (p < 0.05). Tumor burden >50 % hepatic volume demonstrated 5.5- and 26.8-month shorter median HPFS and OS, respectively, versus burden ≤50 % (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in HPFS or OS between gut or pancreas primaries. In multivariate HPFS analysis, there were no significant differences among embolotherapy modalities. In multivariate OS analysis, TARE had a higher hazard ratio than TACE (unadjusted Cox model: HR 2.1, p = 0.02; propensity score adjusted model: HR 1.8, p = 0.11), while TAE did not differ significantly from TACE.ConclusionHigher tumor grade and tumor burden prognosticated shorter HPFS and OS. TARE had a higher hazard ratio for OS than TACE. There were no significant differences in HPFS among embolotherapy modalities.« less

  6. Advanced Method for Isolation of Mouse Hepatocytes, Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells, and Kupffer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Huang, Xuan; Werner, Melanie; Broering, Ruth; Yang, Dongliang; Lu, Mengji

    2017-01-01

    Separation of pure cell populations from the liver is a prerequisite to study the role of hepatic parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells in liver physiology, pathophysiology, and immunology. Traditional methods for hepatic cell separation usually purify only single cell types from liver specimens. Here, we describe an efficient method that can simultaneously purify populations of hepatocytes (HCs), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and Kupffer cells (KCs) from a single mouse liver specimen. A liberase-based perfusion technique in combination with a low-speed centrifugation and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) led to the isolation and purification of HCs, KCs, and LSECs with high yields and purity.

  7. Subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion reduces endothelial cell and bile duct injury after donation after cardiac death pig liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Boehnert, Markus U; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Louis, Kristine S; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Minkovich, Leonid; Yip, Paul M; Keshavjee, Shaf; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-11-01

    An ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) is a common feature after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD) grafts. We compared sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP; 33°C) with cold storage (CS) for the prevention of ITBS in DCD liver grafts in pig liver transplantation (n = 5 for each group). Liver grafts were stored for 10 hours at 4°C (CS) or preserved with combined 7-hour CS and 3-hour SNEVLP. Parameters of hepatocyte [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), international normalized ratio (INR), factor V, and caspase 3 immunohistochemistry], endothelial cell (EC; CD31 immunohistochemistry and hyaluronic acid), and biliary injury and function [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and bile lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were determined. Long-term survival (7 days) after transplantation was similar between the SNEVLP and CS groups (60% versus 40%, P = 0.13). No difference was observed between SNEVLP- and CS-treated animals with respect to the peak of serum INR, factor V, or AST levels within 24 hours. CD31 staining 8 hours after transplantation demonstrated intact EC lining in SNEVLP-treated livers (7.3 × 10(-4) ± 2.6 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2)) but not in CS-treated livers (3.7 × 10(-4) ± 1.3 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2) , P = 0.03). Posttransplant SNEVLP animals had decreased serum ALP and serum bilirubin levels in comparison with CS animals. In addition, LDH in bile fluid was lower in SNEVLP pigs versus CS pigs (14 ± 10 versus 60 ± 18 μmol/L, P = 0.02). Bile duct histology revealed severe bile duct necrosis in 3 of 5 animals in the CS group but none in the SNEVLP group (P = 0.03). Sequential SNEVLP preservation of DCD grafts reduces bile duct and EC injury after liver transplantation. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Prognostic value of enzymatic liver function for the estimation of short-term survival of liver transplant candidates: a prospective study with the LiMAx test.

    PubMed

    Jara, Maximilian; Malinowski, Maciej; Lüttgert, Katja; Schott, Eckart; Neuhaus, Peter; Stockmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    LiMAx has been recently proposed as a new quantitative liver function test. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability of LiMAx to assess short-term survival in liver transplant candidates and compare its performance to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR). Liver function of 167 chronic liver failure patients without hepatocellular carcinoma was prospectively investigated when they were evaluated for liver transplantation. Primary study endpoints were liver-related death within 6 months of follow-up. Within 6 months of follow-up, 18 patients died and 36 underwent liver transplantation. Median LiMAx results on evaluation day were significantly lower in patients who died (99 μg/kg/h vs. 55 μg/kg/h; P = 0.024), while median ICG-PDR results did not differ within both groups (4.4%/min vs. 3.5%/min; P = 0.159). LiMAx showed a higher negative predictive value (NPV: 0.93) as compared with ICG-PDR (NPV: 0.90) and the MELD (NPV: 0.91) in predicting risk of death within 6 months. In conclusion, LiMAx provides good prognostic information of liver transplant candidates. In particular, patients who are not at risk of death can be identified reliably by measuring actual enzymatic liver function capacity. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  9. Hepatic Progression-free and Overall Survival After Regional Therapy to the Liver for Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrea M; Doepker, Matthew P; Kim, Youngchul; Perez, Matthew C; Gandle, Cassandra; Thomas, Kerry L; Choi, Junsung; Shridhar, Ravi; Zager, Jonathan S

    2017-01-04

    Regional therapy for metastatic melanoma to the liver represents an alternative to systemic therapy. Hepatic progression-free survival (HPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. A retrospective review of patients with liver metastases from cutaneous or uveal melanoma treated with yttrium-90 (Y90), chemoembolization (CE), or percutaneous hepatic perfusion (PHP) was conducted. Thirty patients (6 Y90, 10 PHP, 12 CE, 1 PHP then Y90, 1 CE then PHP) were included. Multivariate analysis showed improved HPFS for PHP versus Y90 (P=0.004), PHP versus CE (P=0.02) but not for CE versus Y90. PFS was also significantly different: Y90 (54 d), CE (52 d), PHP (245 d), P=0.03. PHP treatment and lower tumor burden were significant predictors of prolonged PFS on multivariate analysis. Median OS from time of treatment was longest, but not significant, for PHP at 608 days versus Y90 (295 d) and CE (265 d), P=0.24. Only PHP treatment versus Y90 and lower tumor burden had improved OS on multivariate analysis (P=0.03, 0.03, respectively). HPFS and PFS were significantly prolonged in patients treated with PHP versus CE or Y90. Median OS in PHP patients was over double that seen in Y90 or CE patients but was significant only between PHP and Y90.

  10. Effect of Pre-Transplant Serum Creatinine on the Survival Benefit of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pratima; Schaubel, Douglas E.; Guidinger, Mary K.; Merion, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    More candidates with creatinine ≥2mg/dl have undergone liver transplantation (LT) since implementation of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-based allocation. These candidates have higher post-transplant mortality. This study examined the effect of serum creatinine on survival benefit among candidates undergoing LT. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were analyzed for adult LT candidates listed between September 2001 and December 2006 (n=38,899). The effect of serum creatinine on survival benefit (contrast between waitlist and post-LT mortality rates) was assessed by sequential stratification, an extension of Cox regression. At the same MELD score, serum creatinine at LT was inversely associated with survival benefit within certain defined MELD categories. The survival benefit significantly decreased as creatinine increased for candidates with MELD 15-17 and 24-40 at LT (MELD 15-17, p<0.0001; MELD 24-40, p=0.04). Renal replacement therapy at LT was also associated with significantly decreased LT benefit for patients with MELD scores 21-23 (p=0.04) and 24-26 (p=0.01). In conclusion, serum creatinine at LT significantly affects survival benefit at MELD 15-17 and 24-40. Given the same MELD score, patients with higher creatinine have less benefit on average and the relative ranking of a large number of wait-listed candidates with MELD scores 15-17 and 24-40 would be markedly affected if these findings were incorporated into the allocation policy. PMID:19938142

  11. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. Molecular and functional characterization of CD133+ stem/progenitor cells infused in patients with end-stage liver disease reveals their interplay with stromal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Catani, Lucia; Sollazzo, Daria; Bianchi, Elisa; Ciciarello, Marilena; Antoniani, Chiara; Foscoli, Licia; Caraceni, Paolo; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Baldassarre, Maurizio; Giordano, Rosaria; Montemurro, Tiziana; Montelatici, Elisa; D'Errico, Antonia; Andreone, Pietro; Giudice, Valeria; Curti, Antonio; Manfredini, Rossella; Lemoli, Roberto Massimo

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence supports the therapeutic potential of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem/progenitor cells for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). We recently demonstrated that CD133 + stem/progenitor cell (SPC) reinfusion in patients with ESLD is feasible and safe and improve, albeit transiently, liver function. However, the mechanism(s) through which BM-derived SPCs may improve liver function are not fully elucidated. Here, we characterized the circulating SPCs compartment of patients with ESLD undergoing CD133 + cell therapy. Next, we set up an in vitro model mimicking SPCs/liver microenvironment interaction by culturing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized CD133 + and LX-2 hepatic stellate cells. We found that patients with ESLD show normal basal levels of circulating hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors with impaired clonogenic ability. After G-CSF treatment, patients with ESLD were capable to mobilize significant numbers of functional multipotent SPCs, and interestingly, this was associated with increased levels of selected cytokines potentially facilitating SPC function. Co-culture experiments showed, at the molecular and functional levels, the bi-directional cross-talk between CD133 + SPCs and human hepatic stellate cells LX-2. Human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 showed reduced activation and fibrotic potential. In turn, hepatic stellate cells enhanced the proliferation and survival of CD133 + SPCs as well as their endothelial and hematopoietic function while promoting an anti-inflammatory profile. We demonstrated that the interaction between CD133 + SPCs from patients with ESLD and hepatic stellate cells induces significant functional changes in both cellular types that may be instrumental for the improvement of liver function in cirrhotic patients undergoing cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation-induced autophagy promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell survival via the LKB1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chi; Xie, Conghua

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy is an important treatment modality for esophageal cancer; however, the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy is limited by tumor radioresistance. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that radiation induces tumor cell autophagy as a cytoprotective adaptive response, which depends on liver kinase B1 (LKB1) also known as serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11). Radiation-induced Eca-109 cell autophagy was found to be dependent on signaling through the LKB1 pathway, and autophagy inhibitors that disrupted radiation-induced Eca-109 cell autophagy increased cell cycle arrest and cell death in vitro. Inhibition of autophagy also reduced the clonogenic survival of the Eca-109 cells. When treated with radiation alone, human esophageal carcinoma xenografts showed increased LC3B and p-LKB1 expression, which was decreased by the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. In vivo inhibition of autophagy disrupted tumor growth and increased tumor apoptosis when combined with 6 Gy of ionizing radiation. In summary, our findings elucidate a novel mechanism of resistance to radiotherapy in which radiation-induced autophagy, via the LKB1 pathway, promotes tumor cell survival. This indicates that inhibition of autophagy can serve as an adjuvant treatment to improve the curative effect of radiotherapy.

  14. Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Rui

    2017-09-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes with phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. In particular, recent studies have identified a unique subset of NK cells residing within the liver that are maintained as tissue-resident cells, confer antigen-specific memory responses and exhibit different phenotypical and developmental characteristics compared with conventional NK (cNK) cells. These findings have encouraged researchers to uncover tissue-resident NK cells at other sites, and detailed analyses have revealed that these tissue-resident NK cells share many similarities with liver-resident NK cells and tissue-resident memory T cells. Here, we present a brief historical perspective on the discovery of liver-resident NK cells and discuss their relationship to cNK cells and other emerging NK cell subsets and their potential functions.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.72.

  15. Cancer stem cells in the development of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Wang, Xin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a poor outcome. Several hepatic stem/progenitor markers are useful for isolating a subset of liver cells with stem cell features, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells are responsible for tumor relapse, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Liver CSCs dictate a hierarchical organization that is shared in both organogenesis and tumorigenesis. An increased understanding of the molecular signaling events that regulate cellular hierarchy and stemness, and success in defining key CSC-specific genes, have opened up new avenues to accelerate the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies. This Review highlights recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of liver CSCs and discusses unanswered questions about the concept of liver CSCs. PMID:23635789

  16. EMP-1 is a junctional protein in a liver stem cell line and in the liver.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Sherley, James L; Chen, Jeremy J W; Chiu, Chien-Chang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Liang, Ja-Der; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Sheu, Jin-Chuan

    2005-09-09

    In an attempt to discover cell markers for liver stem cells, a cDNA microarray analysis was carried out to compare the gene expression profiles between an adult liver stem cell line, Lig-8, and mature hepatocytes. Several genes in the categories of extracellular matrix, cell membrane, cell adhesion, transcription factor, signal molecule, transporter, and metabolic enzyme were shown to be differentially expressed in Lig-8 cells. Among them, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 has been previously implicated with stem cell phenotypes. Antiserum to EMP-1 was produced to localize its expression. On monolayers of Lig-8 cells, EMP-1 was expressed along the intercellular border. In the liver harboring proliferating oval cells, the liver progenitors, EMP-1 was localized as ribbon bands, a staining pattern for epithelial junctions, all the way through bile duct epithelia, oval cell ductules, and into peri-hepatocytic regions. These peri-hepatocytic regions were proved to be bile canaliculi by co-localization of EMP-1 and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, an enzyme located on bile canaliculi. This report is the first to indicate EMP-1 to be a junctional protein in the liver.

  17. IMPROVEMENT IN SURVIVAL ASSOCIATED WITH ADULT-TO-ADULT LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION1,2

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carl L.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Merion, Robert M.; Brown, Robert S.; Abecassis, Michael M.; Trotter, James F.; Fisher, Robert A.; Freise, Chris E.; Ghobrial, R. Mark; Shaked, Abraham; Fair, Jeffrey H.; Everhart, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims More than 2000 adult-to-adult living donor liver transplants (LDLT) have been performed in the U.S., yet the potential benefit to liver transplant candidates of undergoing LDLT compared to waiting for deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if there is a survival benefit of adult LDLT Methods Adults with chronic liver disease who had a potential living donor evaluated from 1/98 to 2/03 at nine university-based hospitals were analyzed. Starting at the time of a potential donor’s evaluation, we compared mortality after LDLT to mortality among those who remained on the waitlist or received DDLT. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Comparisons were made by hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for LDLT candidate characteristics at the time of donor evaluation. Results Among 807 potential living donor recipients, 389 received LDLT, 249 received DDLT, 99 died without transplant, and 70 were awaiting transplant at last follow-up. Receipt of LDLT was associated with an adjusted mortality HR of 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42–0.74; P<0.001) relative to candidates who did not receive LDLT. As centers gained greater experience (> 20 LDLT), LDLT benefit was magnified, with a mortality HR of 0.35 (CI 0.23–0.53; P<0.001). Conclusions Adult LDLT was associated with lower mortality than the alternative of waiting for DDLT. This reduction in mortality was magnified as centers gained experience with living donor liver transplantation. This reduction in transplant candidate mortality must be balanced against the risks undertaken by the living donors themselves. PMID:18054553

  18. Bridging Locoregional Therapy Prolongs Survival in Patients Listed for Liver Transplant with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciT

    Xing, Minzhi; Sakaria, Sonali; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy

    Background and AimsTo evaluate the long-term survival benefit of bridging locoregional therapy (LRT) prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within Milan criteria.MethodsOur transplant center registry was studied for all HCC patients within the Milan criteria who were listed for OLT from 1998 to 2013. Baseline clinical characteristics and median overall survival (OS) were calculated and stratified by LRT, OLT status, and wait times. Survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan–Meier estimation and log-rank test.ResultsOf 265 listed, 205 underwent OLT (mean follow-up 7.6 years). Of 205, 111 received bridging LRT (A), and 94 did not (B).more » Both were similar in demographics and tumor characteristics (p > 0.05). Median OS from HCC for A/B were 86.4 vs. 68.9 months (p = 0.01). Median OS from OLT for A/B were 74.6 vs. 63.6 months (p = 0.03). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors for survival from HCC were bridging LRT (p = 0.002) and high wait time (p = 0.008); independent predictors for survival from OLT were bridging LRT (p = 0.005) and high wait time (p = 0.005). Of 60 who were listed but did not undergo transplant, 44 received LRT (C) and 16 received best supportive care (D). Median OS from HCC for C/D were 37.1 vs. 24.8 months (p = 0.03).ConclusionsBridging LRT and high wait times were independent positive prognostic factors for survival from HCC diagnosis and OLT.« less

  19. FINE STRUCTURE OF CELLS ISOLATED FROM ADULT MOUSE LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M. N.; Simpson, F. O.

    1962-01-01

    Suspensions of isolated cells in various media were prepared from mouse liver which had been perfused via the portal vein with a buffered medium containing 0.40 M sucrose, and the cells were fixed with osmium tetroxide. Their fine structure was compared with that of cells from perfused and unperfused intact liver. Perfusion brought about some separation of the cells with little or no damage to cell membranes. When cells were dispersed in 0.40 M sucrose medium the plasma membranes partially broke down, and this disintegration was increased by transfer of the cells to media of lower osmolarity. This is presumed to account for the loss of permeability barriers which occurs in isolated liver cells. The mitochondria in cells of perfused liver and in isolated cells remained elongated, but the layers of many mitochondrial cristae became separated by clear spaces. When cells were transferred to a medium containing 0.20 M sucrose, the mitochondria swelled and became spherical, often with displacement of the swollen cristae to the periphery. In a medium containing 0.06 M sucrose and 0.08 M potassium chloride the outer chamber of many mitochondria became swollen with displacement of the mitochondrial body to one side to give a crescent-shaped appearance. These changes in mitochondrial morphology are discussed in relation to the metabolic activity of isolated liver cells. PMID:19866610

  20. Fraction from human and rat liver which is inhibitory for proliferation of liver cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, T S; Ottenweller, J; Luke, A; Santos, S; Keeting, P; Cuy, R; Lea, M A

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken with human and rat liver of a fraction reported to have growth inhibitory activity when prepared from rat liver. Fractions which were soluble in 70% ethanol and insoluble in 87% ethanol were prepared from liver cytosols. Electrophoretic analysis under denaturing conditions indicated that there were several quantitative or qualitative differences in the fractions from the two species. Fractions from both human and rat liver were found to be inhibitory for the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA of foetal chick hepatocytes. Under conditions in which the rat fraction inhibited precursor incorporation into DNA of rat liver epithelial cells there was not a significant inhibitory effect with the fraction from human liver. DNA synthesis in a rat hepatoma cell line was not significantly inhibited by preparations from either species. The data suggested that corresponding fractions from both rat and human liver could have inhibitory effects on precursor incorporation into DNA but the magnitude of the effects and target cell specificity may differ.

  1. Liver cancer survival in the United States by race and stage (2001-2009): Findings from the CONCORD-2 study.

    PubMed

    Momin, Behnoosh R; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Carreira, Helena; Li, Chunyu; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Worldwide, liver cancer is a leading cause of death for both men and women. The number of Americans who are diagnosed with and die of liver cancer has been rising slowly each year. Using data from the CONCORD-2 study, this study examined population-based survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Data from 37 statewide registries, which covered 81% of the US population, for patients diagnosed during 2001-2009 were analyzed. Survival up to 5 years was adjusted for background mortality (net survival) with state- and race-specific life tables, and it was age-standardized with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Liver cancer was diagnosed overall more often at the localized stage, with blacks being more often diagnosed at distant and regional stages than whites. 5-year net survival was 12.2% in 2001-2003 and 14.8% in 2004-2009. Whites had higher survival than blacks in both calendar periods (11.7% vs 9.1% and 14.3% vs 11.4%, respectively). During 2004-2009, 5-year survival was 25.7% for localized-stage disease, 9.5% for regional-stage disease, and 3.5% for distant-stage disease. Some progress has occurred in survival for patients with liver cancer, but 5-year survival remains low, even for those diagnosed at the localized stage. Efforts directed at controlling well-established risk factors such as hepatitis B may have the greatest impact on reducing the burden of liver cancer in the United States. Cancer 2017;123:5059-78. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. [Isolation and purification of primary Kupffer cells from mouse liver].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Luo, Qingbo; Lu, Xiuxian; Zheng, Daofeng; He, Diao; Wu, Zhongjun

    2016-08-01

    Objective To isolate and purify Kupffer cells (KCs) from BALB/c mice by an efficient method of low-speed centrifugation and rapid adherence. Methods The mouse liver tissue was perfused in situ and digested with 0.5 g/L collagenase type IV in vitro by water bath. Then, through the low-speed centrifugation, KCs were separated from the mixed hepatocytes, and purified by rapid adherent characteristics. Finally, the production and activity of KCs obtained by this modified method were compared with those isolated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. We used F4/80 antibody immunofluorescence technique to observe morphological features of KCs, flow cytometry (FCM) to detect the expression of F4/80 antibody and the ink uptake test to observe the phagocytic activity. Moreover, using FCM, we evaluated the expressions of molecules associated with antigen presentation, including major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), CD40, CD86 and CD68 on the surface of KCs subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) modeling. And, ELISA was conducted to measure tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production of the cultured KCs following H/R. Results The yield of KCs was (5.83±0.54)×10(6) per mouse liver and the survival rate of KCs was up to 92% by low-speed centrifugation and rapid adherent method. Compared with Percoll density gradient centrifugation [the yield of KCs was (2.19±0.43)×10(6) per liver], this new method significantly improved the yield of KCs. F4/80 immunofluorescence showed typical morphologic features of KCs such as spindle or polygon shapes and FCM identified nearly 90% F4/80 positive cells. The phagocytic assay showed that lots of ink particles were phagocytosed into the isolated cells. KC H/R models expressed more MHC II, CD40 and CD86 and produced more TNF-α participating in inflammation. Conclusion The efficient method to isolate and purify KCs from BALB /c mice has been successfully established.

  3. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  4. MR-guided interstitial laser thermotherapy of colorectal liver metastases: efficiency, safety and patient survival.

    PubMed

    Pech, M; Wieners, G; Freund, T; Dudeck, O; Fischbach, F; Ricke, J; Seemann, M D

    2007-04-26

    Evaluation of MR-guided interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILT) of colorectal liver metastases under consideration of efficacy, safety and patient survival. Sixty-six inoperable patients with a total of 117 colorectal liver metastases were treated with MR-guided laser therapy in 96 sessions. 40.9% of patients presented metastases from rectum carcinoma, 30.3% from sigmoid carcinoma and 28.8% from colon carcinoma. Inclusion criteria were < or =5 metastases < or =5 cm in greatest diameter and no extrahepatic tumor spread. Internally water-cooled 9F power-laser-applicators were placed under CT-fluoroscopy. For MR-guided ILT, a 1064 nm Nd-YAG-lasers with a beam divider with multi applicator technique was used. The energy applied was 10 watt per centimeter diffusor length, with the diffusor length ranging from 20 to 40 mm. The mean duration of the energy application was 23 minutes (range: 15 - 37 minutes). The endpoint of the laser ablation was defined as the absence of hyperintense tumor tissue in the continuously monitored T2-w fat saturated gradient-echo sequences. Follow-up included contrast-enhanced MRI using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and gradient-echo sequences every three months after treatment. Survival times were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up was 8.7 months (mean 11.8; standard deviation 9.9; range 1 to 36). The overall median progression free survival was 6.1 months (range, 0.3 to 27+ months). Median survival was 23 months (95% CI, 17-29 months). The rate of major complications was 2.1% (n = 2) and peri-procedural mortality (30 days) was 3% (n = 2). After 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, local tumor control was 98.3%, 91.4%, 76.1%, and 69.4%, respectively. In no patient metastatic deposits along the catheter access route were found. In patients with colorectal liver metastases, interstitial laser thermotherapy is an effective and safe therapeutic option and therefore suitable not only in palliative situations.

  5. Embryonic origin of primary colon cancer predicts survival in patients undergoing ablation for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, S; Odisio, B C; Huang, S Y; Kopetz, S E; Ahrar, K; Chun, Y S; Conrad, C; Aloia, T A; Gupta, S; Harmoush, S; Hicks, M E; Vauthey, J-N

    2017-06-01

    In patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC) or unresectable metastatic CRC, midgut embryonic origin is associated with worse prognosis. The impact of embryonic origin on survival after ablation of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is unclear. We identified 74 patients with CLM who underwent percutaneous ablation during 2004-2015. Survival and recurrence after ablation of CLM from midgut origin (n = 18) and hindgut origin (n = 56) were analyzed. Prognostic value of embryonic origin was evaluated. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) after percutaneous ablation were worse in patients from midgut origin (3-year RFS: 5.6% vs. 24%, P = 0.004; 3-year OS: 25% vs. 70%, P 0.001). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with worse OS were midgut origin (hazard ratio [HR] 4.87, 95% CI 2.14-10.9, P 0.001), multiple CLM (HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.02-5.39, P = 0.044), and RAS mutation (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.25-6.36, P = 0.013). At a median follow-up of 25 months, 56 patients (76%) had developed recurrence, 16 (89%) with midgut origin and 40 (71%) with hindgut origin (P = 0.133). Recurrent disease was treated with local therapy in 20 patients (36%), 2 (13%) with midgut origin and 18 (45%) with hindgut origin (P = 0.022). Compared to CLM from hindgut origin tumors, CLM from midgut origin tumors were associated with worse survival after ablation, which was partly attributable to the fact that patients with hindgut origin were more frequently candidates for local therapy at recurrence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Biological effects of two successive shock waves focused on liver tissues and melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Benes, J; Sunka, P; Králová, J; Kaspar, J; Poucková, P

    2007-01-01

    A new generator of two successive shock waves focused to a common focal point has been developed. Cylindrical pressure waves created by multichannel electrical discharges on two cylindrical composite anodes are focused by a metallic parabolic reflector - cathode, and near the focus they are transformed to strong shock waves. Schlieren photos of the focal region have demonstrated that mutual interaction of the two waves results in generation of a large number of secondary short-wavelength shocks. Interaction of the focused shockwaves with liver tissues and cancer cell suspensions was investigated. Localized injury of rabbit liver induced by the shock waves was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis of liver samples taken from the injured region revealed that the transition between the injured and the healthy tissues is sharp. Suspension of melanoma B16 cells was exposed and the number of the surviving cells rapidly decreased with increasing number of shocks and only 8 % of cells survived 350 shocks. Photographs of cells demonstrate that even small number of shocks results in perforation of cell membranes.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells support hepatocyte function in engineered liver grafts.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshie; Yagi, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenta; Matsubara, Kentaro; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Kitago, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that organ decellularization is a promising approach to facilitate the clinical application of regenerative therapy by providing a platform for organ engineering. This unique strategy uses native matrices to act as a reservoir for the functional cells which may show therapeutic potential when implanted into the body. Appropriate cell sources for artificial livers have been debated for some time. The desired cell type in artificial livers is primary hepatocytes, but in addition, other supportive cells may facilitate this stem cell technology. In this context, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is an option meeting the criteria for therapeutic organ engineering. Ideally, supportive cells are required to (1) reduce the hepatic cell mass needed in an engineered liver by enhancing hepatocyte function, (2) modulate hepatic regeneration in a paracrine fashion or by direct contact, and (3) enhance the preservability of parenchymal cells during storage. Here, we describe enhanced hepatic function achieved using a strategy of sequential infusion of cells and illustrate the advantages of co-cultivating bone marrow-derived MSCs with primary hepatocytes in the engineered whole-liver scaffold. These co-recellularized liver scaffolds colonized by MSCs and hepatocytes were transplanted into live animals. After blood flow was established, we show that expression of adhesion molecules and proangiogenic factors was upregulated in the graft.

  8. Lipopolysaccharides in liver injury: molecular mechanisms of Kupffer cell activation.

    PubMed

    Su, Grace L

    2002-08-01

    Endogenous gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharides have been implicated as important cofactors in the pathogenesis of liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms by which lipopolysaccharides exert their effect are not entirely clear. Recent studies have pointed to proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha as mediators of hepatocyte injury. Within the liver, Kupffer cells are major sources of proinflammatory cytokines that are produced in response to lipopolysaccharides. This review will focus on three important molecular components of the pathway by which lipopolysaccharides activate Kupffer cells: CD14, Toll-like receptor 4, and lipopolysaccharide binding protein. Within the liver, lipopolysaccharides bind to lipopolysaccharide binding protein, which then facilitates its transfer to membrane CD14 on the surface of Kupffer cells. Signaling of lipopolysaccharide through CD14 is mediated by the downstream receptor Toll-like receptor 4 and results in activation of Kupffer cells. The role played by these molecules in liver injury will be examined.

  9. A pilot study of operational tolerance with a regulatory T-cell-based cell therapy in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Todo, Satoru; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Goto, Ryoichi; Zaitsu, Masaaki; Nagatsu, Akihisa; Oura, Tetsu; Watanabe, Masaaki; Aoyagi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tomomi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Sato, Norihiro; Sugita, Junichi; Hatanaka, Kanako; Bashuda, Hisashi; Habu, Sonoko; Demetris, Anthony J; Okumura, Ko

    2016-08-01

    Potent immunosuppressive drugs have significantly improved early patient survival after liver transplantation (LT). However, long-term results remain unsatisfactory because of adverse events that are largely associated with lifelong immunosuppression. To solve this problem, different strategies have been undertaken to induce operational tolerance, for example, maintenance of normal graft function and histology without immunosuppressive therapy, but have achieved limited success. In this pilot study, we aimed to induce tolerance using a novel regulatory T-cell-based cell therapy in living donor LT. Adoptive transfer of an ex vivo-generated regulatory T-cell-enriched cell product was conducted in 10 consecutive adult patients early post-LT. Cells were generated using a 2-week coculture of recipient lymphocytes with irradiated donor cells in the presence of anti-CD80/86 monoclonal antibodies. Immunosuppressive agents were tapered from 6 months, reduced every 3 months, and completely discontinued by 18 months. After the culture, the generated cells displayed cell-number-dependent donor-specific inhibition in the mixed lymphocyte reaction. Infusion of these cells caused no significant adverse events. Currently, all patients are well with normal graft function and histology. Seven patients have completed successful weaning and cessation of immunosuppressive agents. At present, they have been drug free for 16-33 months; 4 patients have been drug free for more than 24 months. The other 3 recipients with autoimmune liver diseases developed mild rejection during weaning and then resumed conventional low-dose immunotherapy. A cell therapy using an ex vivo-generated regulatory T-cell-enriched cell product is safe and effective for drug minimization and operational tolerance induction in living donor liver recipients with nonimmunological liver diseases. (Hepatology 2016;64:632-643). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Serum from CCl4-induced acute rat injury model induces differentiation of ADSCs towards hepatic cells and reduces liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Maria Tayyab; Ali, Gibran; Awan, Sana Javaid; Shehzad, Umara; Mehmood, Azra; Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2017-10-01

    Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl 4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl 4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19). These differentiated ADSCs were transplanted intra-hepatically in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis model. After one month of transplantation, fibrosis and liver functions (alkaline phosphatase, ALAT and bilirubin) showed marked improvement in acute injury group. Elevated expression of hepatic (AFP, albumin, CK 18 and HNF4a) and pro survival markers (PCNA and VEGF) and improvement in liver architecture as deduced from results of alpha smooth muscle actin, Sirius red and Masson's trichome staining was observed.

  11. Hepatic stellate cell and myofibroblast-like cell gene expression in the explanted cirrhotic livers of patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Estep, J Michael; O'Reilly, Linda; Grant, Geraldine; Piper, James; Jonsson, Johann; Afendy, Arian; Chandhoke, Vikas; Younossi, Zobair M

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Cell signaling associated with an insult to the liver affects an HSC transdifferentiation to fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells. To investigate the transcriptional expression distinguishing HSC and myofibroblast-like cells between livers with and without cirrhosis. Tissue from ten cirrhotic livers (undergoing transplant) and four non-cirrhotic livers from the National Disease Research Interchange underwent cell separation to extract HSC and myofibroblast-like cell populations. Separated cell types as well as LI-90 cells were subjected to microarray analysis. Selected microarray results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Differential expression of some genes, such as IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, and IL-6, was associated with both transdifferentiation and disease. Other genes, such as fatty acid 2-hydroxylase only show differential expression in association with disease. Functional analysis supported these findings, indicating some signal transduction pathways (IL-6) are involved in disease and activation, whereas retinoid X receptor signaling in HSC from cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic livers varies in scope and quality. These findings indicate distinct phenotypes for HSC from cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, coordinated differential expression between genes involved in the same signal transduction pathways provides some insight into the mechanisms that may control the balance between fibrogenesis and fibrolysis.

  12. Hepatocytes and IL-15: a favorable microenvironment for T cell survival and CD8+ T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Correia, Margareta P; Cardoso, Elsa M; Pereira, Carlos F; Neves, Rui; Uhrberg, Markus; Arosa, Fernando A

    2009-05-15

    Human intrahepatic lymphocytes are enriched in CD1d-unrestricted T cells coexpressing NKR. Although the origin of this population remains controversial, it is possible to speculate that the hepatic microenvironment, namely epithelial cells or the cytokine milieu, may play a role in its shaping. IL-15 is constitutively expressed in the liver and has a key role in activation and survival of innate and tissue-associated immune cells. In this in vitro study, we examined whether hepatocyte cell lines and/or IL-15 could play a role in the generation of NK-like T cells. The results show that both HepG2 cells and a human immortalized hepatocyte cell line increase survival and drive basal proliferation of T cells. In addition, IL-15 was capable of inducing Ag-independent up-regulation of NKR, including NKG2A, Ig-like receptors, and de novo expression of CD56 and NKp46 in CD8(+)CD56(-) T cells. In conclusion, our study suggests that hepatocytes and IL-15 create a favorable microenvironment for T cells to growth and survive. It can be proposed that the increased percentage of intrahepatic nonclassical NKT cells could be in part due to a local CD8(+) T cell differentiation.

  13. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Katrin; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-09-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro. Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. PMID:27385595

  15. Hepatic loss of survivin impairs postnatal liver development and promotes expansion of hepatic progenitor cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Conway, Edward M; Ji, Yuan; Hui, Lijian

    2013-12-01

    Hepatocytes possess a remarkable capacity to regenerate and reconstitute the parenchyma after liver damage. However, in the case of chronic injury, their proliferative potential is impaired and hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are activated, resulting in a ductular reaction known as oval cell response. Proapoptotic and survival signals maintain a precise balance to spare hepatocytes and progenitors from hyperplasia and cell death during regeneration. Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), plays key roles in the proliferation and apoptosis of various cell types. Here, we characterized the in vivo function of Survivin in regulating postnatal liver development and homeostasis using mice carrying conditional Survivin alleles. Hepatic perinatal loss of Survivin causes impaired mitosis, increased genome ploidy, and enlarged cell size in postnatal livers, which eventually leads to hepatocyte apoptosis and triggers tissue damage and inflammation. Subsequently, HPCs that retain genomic Survivin alleles are activated, which finally differentiate into hepatocytes and reconstitute the whole liver. By contrast, inducible ablation of Survivin in adult hepatocytes does not affect HPC activation and liver homeostasis during a long-life period. Perinatal Survivin deletion impairs hepatic mitosis in postnatal liver development, which induces HPC activation and reconstitution in the liver, therefore providing a novel HPC induction model. Copyright © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Nondestructive Methods for Monitoring Cell Removal During Rat Liver Decellularization

    PubMed Central

    Geerts, Sharon; Ozer, Sinan; Jaramillo, Maria; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    Whole liver engineering holds the promise to create transplantable liver grafts that may serve as substitutes for donor organs, addressing the donor shortage in liver transplantation. While decellularization and recellularization of livers in animal models have been successfully achieved, scale up to human livers has been slow. There are a number of donor human livers that are discarded because they are not found suitable for transplantation, but are available for engineering liver grafts. These livers are rejected due to a variety of reasons, which in turn may affect the decellularization outcome. Hence, a one-size-fit-for all decellularization protocol may not result in scaffolds with consistent matrix quality, subsequently influencing downstream recellularization and transplantation outcomes. There is a need for a noninvasive monitoring method to evaluate the extent of cell removal, while ensuring preservation of matrix components during decellularization. In this study, we decellularized rat livers using a protocol previously established by our group, and we monitored decellularization through traditional destructive techniques, including evaluation of DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in decellularized scaffolds, as well as histology. In addition, we used computed tomography and perfusate analysis as alternative nondestructive decellularization monitoring methods. We found that DNA removal correlates well with the Hounsfield unit of the liver, and perfusate analysis revealed that significant amount of GAG is removed during perfusion with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. This allowed for optimization of our decellularization protocol leading to scaffolds that have significantly higher GAG content, while maintaining appropriate removal of cellular contents. The significance of this is the creation of a nondestructive monitoring strategy that can be used for optimization of decellularization protocols for individual human livers available for liver

  17. Nondestructive Methods for Monitoring Cell Removal During Rat Liver Decellularization.

    PubMed

    Geerts, Sharon; Ozer, Sinan; Jaramillo, Maria; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Basak E

    2016-07-01

    Whole liver engineering holds the promise to create transplantable liver grafts that may serve as substitutes for donor organs, addressing the donor shortage in liver transplantation. While decellularization and recellularization of livers in animal models have been successfully achieved, scale up to human livers has been slow. There are a number of donor human livers that are discarded because they are not found suitable for transplantation, but are available for engineering liver grafts. These livers are rejected due to a variety of reasons, which in turn may affect the decellularization outcome. Hence, a one-size-fit-for all decellularization protocol may not result in scaffolds with consistent matrix quality, subsequently influencing downstream recellularization and transplantation outcomes. There is a need for a noninvasive monitoring method to evaluate the extent of cell removal, while ensuring preservation of matrix components during decellularization. In this study, we decellularized rat livers using a protocol previously established by our group, and we monitored decellularization through traditional destructive techniques, including evaluation of DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in decellularized scaffolds, as well as histology. In addition, we used computed tomography and perfusate analysis as alternative nondestructive decellularization monitoring methods. We found that DNA removal correlates well with the Hounsfield unit of the liver, and perfusate analysis revealed that significant amount of GAG is removed during perfusion with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate. This allowed for optimization of our decellularization protocol leading to scaffolds that have significantly higher GAG content, while maintaining appropriate removal of cellular contents. The significance of this is the creation of a nondestructive monitoring strategy that can be used for optimization of decellularization protocols for individual human livers available for liver

  18. Taking advantage of the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells in liver regeneration: Cells and extracellular vesicles as therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Esteban Juan; Domínguez, Luciana María; Bayo, Juan; García, Mariana Gabriela; Mazzolini, Guillermo Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Cell-based therapies for acute and chronic liver diseases are under continuous progress. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to migrate selectively to damaged tissue and contribute to its healing and regeneration. The MSC pro-regenerative effect occurs due to their immunomodulatory capacity and their ability to produce factors that promote cell protection and survival. Likewise, it has been observed that part of their paracrine effect is mediated by MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs contain proteins, lipids and nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA, miRNA, lncRNA) from the cell of origin, allowing for intercellular communication. Recently, different studies have demonstrated that MSC-derived EVs could reproduce, at least in part, the biological effects obtained by MSC-based therapies. Moreover, due to EVs’ stability for long periods of time and easy isolation methods they have become a therapeutic option to MSCs treatments. This review summarizes the latest results achieved in clinical trials using MSCs as cell therapy for liver regeneration, the role of EVs in liver physiopathology and the potential of MSCderived EVs as intercellular mediators and therapeutic tools in liver diseases. PMID:29930465

  19. Trends in net survival from liver cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Stefano; Bossard, Nadine; Binder-Fouchard, Florence; Faivre, Jean; Bordoni, Andrea; Biavati, Patrizia; Frassoldati, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Liver cancer represents a major clinical challenge. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from liver cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of excess mortality rates (EMRs) up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the period 2000-2004 using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analyses, the study period was specific to each country. Results are reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These trend analyses were carried out using a flexible excess-rate modeling strategy. There were little differences between the six countries in the 5-year age-standardized net survival (2000-2004): it ranged from 13% (France and Portugal) to 16% (Belgium). An increase in the net age-standardized survival was observed in all countries between 1992 and 2004, both at 1 year and at 5 years (the highest in Spain, the lowest in France). Generally, patients aged 60 years showed the highest increase. There was a progressive decrease in EMR over the 5-year- period following diagnosis. The study confirmed the poor prognosis of liver cancer. Innovative treatments might improve the prognosis as well as preventive screening of cirrhotic patients with good liver function. Efforts are also needed to improve registration practices.

  20. Portal vein embolization improves rate of resection of extensive colorectal liver metastases without worsening survival outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shindoh, Junichi; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D.; Aloia, Thomas A.; Curley, Steven A.; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Wei, Steven H.; Huang, Steven Y.; Gupta, Sanjay; Wallace, Michael J.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Background Most patients requiring an extended right hepatectomy (ERH) have an inadequate standardized future liver remnant (sFLR) and need preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE). However, the clinical and oncologic impact of PVE in such patients remains unclear. Methods All consecutive patients from MD Anderson Cancer Center with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) requiring ERH at presentation from 1995 through 2012. The surgical and oncologic outcomes were compared between patients with adequate and inadequate sFLRs at presentation. Results Of the 265 patients requiring ERH, 126 (47.5%) had an adequate sFLR at presentation, and 123 of them underwent curative resection. Of the 139 patients (52.5%) who had an inadequate sFLR and underwent PVE, 87 (62.6% PVE) underwent curative resection. Thus, PVE increased the curative resection rate from 123/265 (46.4%) at baseline to 210/265 (79.2%). Among patients who underwent ERH, rates of major complications and 90-day mortality were similar in the non-PVE and PVE groups (22.0% and 4.1% vs. 31% and 7%, respectively); overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were also similar in these 2 groups. Among patients with an inadequate sFLR at presentation, patients who underwent ERH had significantly better median OS (50.2 months) than patients who underwent noncurative surgery (21.3 months) or did not undergo surgery (24.7 months) (p=0.002). Conclusions PVE enables curative resection in two-thirds of patients with CLM who have an inadequate sFLR to tolerate ERH at presentation. Patients who undergo curative resection after PVE have OS and DFS equivalent to that of patients who never needed PVE. PMID:24227364

  1. Long term intravital multiphoton microscopy imaging of immune cells in healthy and diseased liver using CXCR6.Gfp reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Felix; Niemietz, Patricia M; Peusquens, Julia; Ergen, Can; Kohlhepp, Marlene; Mossanen, Jana C; Schneider, Carlo; Vogt, Michael; Tolba, Rene H; Trautwein, Christian; Martin, Christian; Tacke, Frank

    2015-03-24

    Liver inflammation as a response to injury is a highly dynamic process involving the infiltration of distinct subtypes of leukocytes including monocytes, neutrophils, T cell subsets, B cells, natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. Intravital microscopy of the liver for monitoring immune cell migration is particularly challenging due to the high requirements regarding sample preparation and fixation, optical resolution and long-term animal survival. Yet, the dynamics of inflammatory processes as well as cellular interaction studies could provide critical information to better understand the initiation, progression and regression of inflammatory liver disease. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reliable method was established to study migration and cell-cell-interactions of different immune cells in mouse liver over long periods (about 6 hr) by intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) in combination with intensive care monitoring. The method provided includes a gentle preparation and stable fixation of the liver with minimal perturbation of the organ; long term intravital imaging using multicolor multiphoton microscopy with virtually no photobleaching or phototoxic effects over a time period of up to 6 hr, allowing tracking of specific leukocyte subsets; and stable imaging conditions due to extensive monitoring of mouse vital parameters and stabilization of circulation, temperature and gas exchange. To investigate lymphocyte migration upon liver inflammation CXCR6.gfp knock-in mice were subjected to intravital liver imaging under baseline conditions and after acute and chronic liver damage induced by intraperitoneal injection(s) of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). CXCR6 is a chemokine receptor expressed on lymphocytes, mainly on Natural Killer T (NKT)-, Natural Killer (NK)- and subsets of T lymphocytes such as CD4 T cells but also mucosal associated invariant (MAIT) T cells1. Following the migratory pattern and positioning of CXCR6.gfp+ immune cells allowed a

  2. Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-03-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model

  3. [Early diagnosis and early treatment for liver cancer in Qidong: survival of patients and effectiveness of screening].

    PubMed

    Chen, J G; Zhang, Y H; Zhu, J; Lu, J H; Wang, J B; Sun, Y; Xue, X F; Lu, L L; Chen, Y S; Wu, Y; Jiang, X P; Ding, L L; Zhang, Q N; Zhu, Y R

    2017-12-23

    Objective: To evaluate the patients' survival and effectiveness of the live cancer screening for population at high risk for liver cancer in Qidong. Methods: According to the Expert Scheme proposed the Expert Committee of Early Detection and Early Treatment, China Cancer Foundation, diagnostical screening by using combined methods of alpha-fetoprotein and B ultrasound monitoring were carried out biannually in individuals with positive HBsAg who were screened from Qidong area. The evaluation indices of the effectiveness are task completion rate of screening, detection rate of liver cancer, early diagnosis rate, and treatment rate. The deadline of the follow-up for the surviving outcome was March 31, 2016. The life-table method was used to calculate the observed survival, and to make comparison and significant tests between survival rates in Group A (those found via repeated periodic screening) and Group B (those diagnosed without periodic screening). Results: Since 2007, 38 016 target population have been screened, and 3 703(9.74%) individuals with positive HBsAg were found. Except for 29 patients with liver cancer at the initial screening, 3 674 persons in the cohort were followed up; 268 patients with liver cancer were detected from the 33 199 person-times screening, with an annual detection rate of 1.61%. Of them, 186 patients were found in Group A(1.12%), in which 149 patients were the early cases, with an early detection rate of 80.11%; 167 out of 186(89.78%) patients received treatment after diagnosis. The incidence of liver cancer in this HBsAg (+ ) cohort of 25 452 person-years was 1 052.96 per 100 000 annually, 187 cases in males(1 488.45/100 000)and 81 cases in females(628.46/100 000). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival of all patients with liver cancer were 64.55%, 40.50%, 32.54%, and 19.65%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 77.16%, 49.04%, 38.53%, and 24.25% in Group A, and were 36.25%, 21.21%, 21.21%, and 0% in Group B

  4. Hepatocytes Polyploidization and Cell Cycle Control in Liver Physiopathology

    PubMed Central

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal; Celton-Morizur, Séverine

    2012-01-01

    Most cells in mammalian tissues usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, numerous studies have demonstrated a major role of “diploid-polyploid conversion” during physiopathological processes in several tissues. In the liver parenchyma, progressive polyploidization of hepatocytes takes place during postnatal growth. Indeed, at the suckling-weaning transition, cytokinesis failure events induce the genesis of binucleated tetraploid liver cells. Insulin signalling, through regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, is essential in the establishment of liver tetraploidization by controlling cytoskeletal organisation and consequently mitosis progression. Liver cell polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence, and both lead to a progressive loss of cell pluripotency associated to a markedly decreased replication capacity. Although adult liver is a quiescent organ, it retains a capacity to proliferate and to modulate its ploidy in response to various stimuli or aggression (partial hepatectomy, metabolic overload (i.e., high copper and iron hepatic levels), oxidative stress, toxic insult, and chronic hepatitis etc.). Here we review the mechanisms and functional consequences of hepatocytes polyploidization during normal and pathological liver growth. PMID:23150829

  5. Hepatocytes polyploidization and cell cycle control in liver physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal; Celton-Morizur, Séverine

    2012-01-01

    Most cells in mammalian tissues usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, numerous studies have demonstrated a major role of "diploid-polyploid conversion" during physiopathological processes in several tissues. In the liver parenchyma, progressive polyploidization of hepatocytes takes place during postnatal growth. Indeed, at the suckling-weaning transition, cytokinesis failure events induce the genesis of binucleated tetraploid liver cells. Insulin signalling, through regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, is essential in the establishment of liver tetraploidization by controlling cytoskeletal organisation and consequently mitosis progression. Liver cell polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence, and both lead to a progressive loss of cell pluripotency associated to a markedly decreased replication capacity. Although adult liver is a quiescent organ, it retains a capacity to proliferate and to modulate its ploidy in response to various stimuli or aggression (partial hepatectomy, metabolic overload (i.e., high copper and iron hepatic levels), oxidative stress, toxic insult, and chronic hepatitis etc.). Here we review the mechanisms and functional consequences of hepatocytes polyploidization during normal and pathological liver growth.

  6. CD24-Positive Cells from Normal Adult Mouse Liver Are Hepatocyte Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Qiong; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Dean, Adam M.; Rao, Pulivarthi H.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of specific cell surface markers that can be used to isolate liver progenitor cells will greatly facilitate experimentation to determine the role of these cells in liver regeneration and their potential for therapeutic transplantation. Previously, the cell surface marker, CD24, was observed to be expressed on undifferentiated bipotential mouse embryonic liver stem cells and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-induced oval cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a rare, primary, nonhematopoietic, CD24+ progenitor cell population from normal, untreated mouse liver. By immunohistochemistry, CD24-expressing cells in normal adult mouse liver were colocalized with CK19-positive cholangiocytes. This nonhematopoietic (CD45−, Ter119−) CD24+ cell population isolated by flow cytometry represented 0.04% of liver cells and expressed several markers of liver progenitor/oval cells. The immunophenotype of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells was CD133, Dlk, and Sca-1 high, but c-Kit, Thy-1, and CD34 low. The CD24+ cells had increased expression of CK19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Sox 9, and FN14 compared with the unsorted cells. Upon transplantation of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells under the sub-capsule of the livers of Fah knockout mice, cells differentiated into mature functional hepatocytes. Analysis of X and Y chromosome complements were used to determine whether or not fusion of the engrafted cells with the recipient hepatocytes occurred. No cells were found that contained XXXY or any other combination of donor and host sex chromosomes as would be expected if cell fusion had occurred. These results suggested that CD24 can be used as a cell surface marker for isolation of hepatocyte progenitor cells from normal adult liver that are able to differentiate into hepatocytes. PMID:21361791

  7. CD24-positive cells from normal adult mouse liver are hepatocyte progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qiong; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Dean, Adam M; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Darlington, Gretchen J

    2011-12-01

    The identification of specific cell surface markers that can be used to isolate liver progenitor cells will greatly facilitate experimentation to determine the role of these cells in liver regeneration and their potential for therapeutic transplantation. Previously, the cell surface marker, CD24, was observed to be expressed on undifferentiated bipotential mouse embryonic liver stem cells and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-induced oval cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a rare, primary, nonhematopoietic, CD24+ progenitor cell population from normal, untreated mouse liver. By immunohistochemistry, CD24-expressing cells in normal adult mouse liver were colocalized with CK19-positive cholangiocytes. This nonhematopoietic (CD45-, Ter119-) CD24+ cell population isolated by flow cytometry represented 0.04% of liver cells and expressed several markers of liver progenitor/oval cells. The immunophenotype of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells was CD133, Dlk, and Sca-1 high, but c-Kit, Thy-1, and CD34 low. The CD24+ cells had increased expression of CK19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Sox 9, and FN14 compared with the unsorted cells. Upon transplantation of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells under the sub-capsule of the livers of Fah knockout mice, cells differentiated into mature functional hepatocytes. Analysis of X and Y chromosome complements were used to determine whether or not fusion of the engrafted cells with the recipient hepatocytes occurred. No cells were found that contained XXXY or any other combination of donor and host sex chromosomes as would be expected if cell fusion had occurred. These results suggested that CD24 can be used as a cell surface marker for isolation of hepatocyte progenitor cells from normal adult liver that are able to differentiate into hepatocytes.

  8. Transplantation of co-aggregates of Sertoli cells and islet cells into liver without immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Naohiro; Liu, Xibao; Takii, Kento; Teramura, Yuji; Iwata, Hiroo

    2014-02-15

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans (islets) was used to treat insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, islet grafts must be maintained by administration of immunosuppressive drugs, which can lead to complications in the long term. An approach that avoids immunosuppressive drug use is desirable. Co-aggregates of Sertoli cells and islet cells from BALB/c mice that were prepared by the hanging drop method were transplanted into C57BL/6 mouse liver through the portal vein as in human clinical islet transplantation. The core part of the aggregates contained mainly Sertoli cells, and these cells were surrounded by islet cells. The co-aggregates retained the functions of both Sertoli and islet cells. When 800 co-aggregates were transplanted into seven C57BL/6 mice via the portal vein, six of seven recipient mice demonstrated quasi-normoglycemia for more than 100 days. The hanging drop method is suitable for preparing aggregates of Sertoli and islet cells for transplantation. Notably, transplantation of these allogeneic co-aggregates into mice with chemically induced diabetes via the portal vein resulted in long-term graft survival without systemic immunosuppression.

  9. Portal vein embolization improves rate of resection of extensive colorectal liver metastases without worsening survival.

    PubMed

    Shindoh, J; Tzeng, C-W D; Aloia, T A; Curley, S A; Zimmitti, G; Wei, S H; Huang, S Y; Gupta, S; Wallace, M J; Vauthey, J-N

    2013-12-01

    Most patients requiring an extended right hepatectomy (ERH) have an inadequate standardized future liver remnant (sFLR) and need preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE). However, the clinical and oncological impact of PVE in such patients remains unclear. All consecutive patients presenting at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) requiring ERH at presentation from 1995 to 2012 were studied. Surgical and oncological outcomes were compared between patients with adequate and inadequate sFLRs at presentation. Of the 265 patients requiring ERH, 126 (47·5 per cent) had an adequate sFLR at presentation, of whom 123 underwent a curative resection. Of the 139 patients (52·5 per cent) who had an inadequate sFLR and underwent PVE, 87 (62·6 per cent) had a curative resection. Thus, the curative resection rate was increased from 46·4 per cent (123 of 265) at baseline to 79·2 per cent (210 of 265) following PVE. Among patients who underwent ERH, major complication and 90-day mortality rates were similar in the no-PVE and PVE groups (22·0 and 4·1 per cent versus 31 and 7 per cent respectively); overall and disease-free survival rates were also similar in these two groups. Of patients with an inadequate sFLR at presentation, those who underwent ERH had a significantly better median overall survival (50·2 months) than patients who had non-curative surgery (21·3 months) or did not undergo surgery (24·7 months) (P = 0·002). PVE enabled curative resection in two-thirds of patients with CLM who had an inadequate sFLR and were unable to tolerate ERH at presentation. Patients who underwent curative resection after PVE had overall and disease-free survival rates equivalent to those of patients who did not need PVE. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tan To; Trendell-Smith, Nigel; Poon, Ronnie T P

    2013-07-10

    We present a case of a 53-year-old woman with abdominal discomfort for 6 months. The liver was enlarged. Contrast CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 10 cm hypervascular tumour at the right lobe of the liver. Right hepatectomy with complete excision of the tumour was achieved. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. She is regularly followed up with contrast CT assessment. There is no tumour recurrence 12 months after the operation.

  11. EMX2 gene expression predicts liver metastasis and survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykut, Berk; Ochs, Markus; Radhakrishnan, Praveen; Brill, Adrian; Höcker, Hermine; Schwarz, Sandra; Weissinger, Daniel; Kehm, Roland; Kulu, Yakup; Ulrich, Alexis; Schneider, Martin

    2017-08-22

    The Empty Spiracles Homeobox (EMX-) 2 gene has been associated with regulation of growth and differentiation in neuronal development. While recent studies provide evidence that EMX2 regulates tumorigenesis of various solid tumors, its role in colorectal cancer remains unknown. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of EMX2 expression in stage III colorectal adenocarcinoma. Expression levels of EMX2 in human colorectal cancer and adjacent mucosa were assessed by qRT-PCR technology, and results were correlated with clinical and survival data. siRNA-mediated knockdown and adenoviral delivery-mediated overexpression of EMX2 were performed in order to investigate its effects on the migration of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Compared to corresponding healthy mucosa, colorectal tumor samples had decreased EMX2 expression levels. Furthermore, EMX2 down-regulation in colorectal cancer tissue was associated with distant metastasis (M1) and impaired overall patient survival. In vitro knockdown of EMX2 resulted in increased tumor cell migration. Conversely, overexpression of EMX2 led to an inhibition of tumor cell migration. EMX2 is frequently down-regulated in human colorectal cancer, and down-regulation of EMX2 is a prognostic marker for disease-free and overall survival. EMX2 might thus represent a promising therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

  12. Recellularization via the bile duct supports functional allogenic and xenogenic cell growth on a decellularized rat liver scaffold.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Wessam; Uluer, Mehmet C; Langford, John; Woodall, Jhade D; Cimeno, Arielle; Dhru, Urmil; Werdesheim, Avraham; Harrison, Joshua; Rivera-Pratt, Carlos; Klepfer, Stephen; Khalifeh, Ali; Buckingham, Bryan; Brazio, Philip S; Parsell, Dawn; Klassen, Charlie; Drachenberg, Cinthia; Barth, Rolf N; LaMattina, John C

    2017-01-02

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of methods leading to successful organ decellularization. In this experiment we examine the feasibility of a decellularized liver construct to support growth of functional multilineage cells. Bio-chamber systems were used to perfuse adult rat livers with 0.1% SDS for 24 hours yielding decellularized liver scaffolds. Initially, we recellularized liver scaffolds using a human tumor cell line (HepG2, introduced via the bile duct). Subsequent studies were performed using either human tumor cells co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, introduced via the portal vein) or rat neonatal cell slurry (introduced via the bile duct). Bio-chambers were used to circulate oxygenated growth medium via the portal vein at 37C for 5-7 days. Human HepG2 cells grew readily on the scaffold (n = 20). HepG2 cells co-cultured with HUVECs demonstrated viable human endothelial lining with concurrent hepatocyte growth (n = 10). In the series of neonatal cell slurry infusion (n = 10), distinct foci of neonatal hepatocytes were observed to repopulate the parenchyma of the scaffold. The presence of cholangiocytes was verified by CK-7 positivity. Quantitative albumin measurement from the grafts showed increasing albumin levels after seven days of perfusion. Graft albumin production was higher than that observed in traditional cell culture. This data shows that rat liver scaffolds support human cell ingrowth. The scaffold likewise supported the engraftment and survival of neonatal rat liver cell slurry. Recellularization of liver scaffolds thus presents a promising model for functional liver engineering.

  13. Liver involvement in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Dina, Ion; Copaescu, Catalin; Herlea, Vlad; Wrba, Fritz; Iacobescu, Claudia

    2006-03-01

    Langerhans'cell histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X) is a rare disease of unknown cause characterized by oligoclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. It occurs mostly in children and young adults and involves one or more body systems such as bone, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, lymph nodes, liver or various soft tissues. The diagnosis is always made by a histological approach. We report a case of Langerhans'cell histiocytosis in a young patient with clinical signs of diabetes insipidus and hepatic involvement in whom the immunohistochemical analysis of the liver tissue led to the definitive diagnosis.

  14. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine improves transplant-free survival in early stage non-acetaminophen acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, William M; Hynan, Linda S; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Fontana, Robert J; Stravitz, R Todd; Larson, Anne M; Davern, Timothy J; Murray, Natalie G; McCashland, Timothy; Reisch, Joan S; Robuck, Patricia R

    2009-09-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, might benefit patients with non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. In a prospective, double-blind trial, acute liver failure patients without clinical or historical evidence of acetaminophen overdose were stratified by site and coma grade and assigned randomly to groups that were given NAC or placebo (dextrose) infusion for 72 hours. The primary outcome was overall survival at 3 weeks. Secondary outcomes included transplant-free survival and rate of transplantation. A total of 173 patients received NAC (n = 81) or placebo (n = 92). Overall survival at 3 weeks was 70% for patients given NAC and 66% for patients given placebo (1-sided P = .283). Transplant-free survival was significantly better for NAC patients (40%) than for those given placebo (27%; 1-sided P = .043). The benefits of transplant-free survival were confined to the 114 patients with coma grades I-II who received NAC (52% compared with 30% for placebo; 1-sided P = .010); transplant-free survival for the 59 patients with coma grades III-IV was 9% in those given NAC and 22% in those given placebo (1-sided P = .912). The transplantation rate was lower in the NAC group but was not significantly different between groups (32% vs 45%; P = .093). Intravenous NAC generally was well tolerated; only nausea and vomiting occurred significantly more frequently in the NAC group (14% vs 4%; P = .031). Intravenous NAC improves transplant-free survival in patients with early stage non-acetaminophen-related acute liver failure. Patients with advanced coma grades do not benefit from NAC and typically require emergency liver transplantation.

  15. Administration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells restores liver regeneration and improves liver function in obese mice with hepatic steatosis after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bahamonde, Javiera; Huang, Ya-Lin; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2017-01-28

    The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage. Since HS is the most common form of chronic hepatic illness, in this study we evaluated the role of MSCs in liver regeneration in an animal model of severe HS with impaired liver regeneration. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a regular diet (normal mice) or with a high-fat diet (obese mice) to induce HS. After 30 weeks of diet exposure, 70% hepatectomy (Hpx) was performed and normal and obese mice were divided into two groups that received 5 × 10 5 MSCs or vehicle via the tail vein immediately after Hpx. We confirmed a significant inhibition of hepatic regeneration when liver steatosis was present, while the hepatic regenerative response was promoted by infusion of MSCs. Specifically, MSC administration improved the hepatocyte proliferative response, PCNA-labeling index, DNA synthesis, liver function, and also reduced the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. These effects may be associated to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors by MSCs and the hepatic upregulation of key cytokines and growth factors relevant for cell proliferation, which ultimately improves the survival rate of the mice. MSCs represent a promising therapeutic strategy to improve liver regeneration in patients with HS as well as for increasing the number of donor organs available for transplantation.

  16. Specific gene delivery to liver sinusoidal and artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abel, Tobias; El Filali, Ebtisam; Waern, Johan; Schneider, Irene C; Yuan, Qinggong; Münch, Robert C; Hick, Meike; Warnecke, Gregor; Madrahimov, Nodir; Kontermann, Roland E; Schüttrumpf, Jörg; Müller, Ulrike C; Seppen, Jurgen; Ott, Michael; Buchholz, Christian J

    2013-09-19

    Different types of endothelial cells (EC) fulfill distinct tasks depending on their microenvironment. ECs are therefore difficult to genetically manipulate ex vivo for functional studies or gene therapy. We assessed lentiviral vectors (LVs) targeted to the EC surface marker CD105 for in vivo gene delivery. The mouse CD105-specific vector, mCD105-LV, transduced only CD105-positive cells in primary liver cell cultures. Upon systemic injection, strong reporter gene expression was detected in liver where mCD105-LV specifically transduced liver sinusoidal ECs (LSECs) but not Kupffer cells, which were mainly transduced by nontargeted LVs. Tumor ECs were specifically targeted upon intratumoral vector injection. Delivery of the erythropoietin gene with mCD105-LV resulted in substantially increased erythropoietin and hematocrit levels. The human CD105-specific vector (huCD105-LV) transduced exclusively human LSECs in mice transplanted with human liver ECs. Interestingly, when applied at higher dose and in absence of target cells in the liver, huCD105-LV transduced ECs of a human artery transplanted into the descending mouse aorta. The data demonstrate for the first time targeted gene delivery to specialized ECs upon systemic vector administration. This strategy offers novel options to better understand the physiological functions of ECs and to treat genetic diseases such as those affecting blood factors.

  17. Cell survival in a simulated Mars environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David

    2016-07-01

    The most ancient life forms on earth date back comfortably to the time when liquid water was believed to be abundant on Mars. These ancient life forms include cyanobacteria, contemporary autotrophic earth organisms believed to have descended from ancestors present as long as 3.5 billion years ago. Contemporary cyanobacteria have adapted to the earth environment's harshest conditions (long-term drying, high and low temperature), and, being autotrophic, they are among the most likely life forms to withstand space travel and the Mars environment. However, it is unlikely that humans would unwittingly contaminate a planetary spacecraft with these microbes. One the other hand, heterotrophic microbes that co-habit with humans are more likely spacecraft contaminants, as history attests. Indeed, soil samples from the Atacama desert have yielded colony-forming organisms resembling enteric bacteria. There is a need to understand the survivability of cyanobacteria (likely survivors, unlikely contaminants) and heterotrophic eubacteria (unlikely survivors, likely contaminants) under simulated planetary conditions. A 35-day test was performed in a commercial planetary simulation system (Techshot, Inc., Greenville, IN) in which the minimum night-time temperature was -80 C, the maximum daytime temperature was +26 C, the simulated day-night light cycle in earth hours was 12-on and 12-off, and the total pressure of the pure CO _{2} atmosphere was maintained below 11 mbar. Any water present was allowed to equilibrate with the changing temperature and pressure. The gas phase was sampled into a CR1-A low-pressure hygrometer (Buck Technologies, Boulder, CO), and dew/frost point was measured once every hour and recorded on a data logger, along with the varying temperature in the chamber, from which the partial pressure of water was calculated. According to measurements there was no liquid water present throughout the test except during the initial pump-down period when aqueous specimens

  18. Host-Cell Survival and Death During Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Songmin; Pettengill, Matthew; Ojcius, David M.; Häcker, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Different Chlamydia trachomatis strains are responsible for prevalent bacterial sexually-transmitted disease and represent the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Factors that predispose individuals to disease and mechanisms by which chlamydiae cause inflammation and tissue damage remain unclear. Results from recent studies indicate that prolonged survival and subsequent death of infected cells and their effect on immune effector cells during chlamydial infection may be important in determining the outcome. Survival of infected cells is favored at early times of infection through inhibition of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Death at later times displays features of both apoptosis and necrosis, but pro-apoptotic caspases are not involved. Most studies on chlamydial modulation of host-cell death until now have been performed in cell lines. The consequences for pathogenesis and the immune response will require animal models of chlamydial infection, preferably mice with targeted deletions of genes that play a role in cell survival and death. PMID:18843378

  19. An evaluation of the impact of donor BMI on survival and post-transplant obesity in pediatric liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Rhee, Sue; Glidden, Dave; Roberts, John Paul; Rosenthal, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In adult liver transplant recipients, donor BMI is associated with post-transplant obesity but not graft or patient survival. Given the U.S. obesity epidemic and already-limited supply of liver donors, clarifying whether donor BMI affects pediatric outcomes is important. Methods UNOS data on pediatric U.S. liver transplants 1990-2010 was evaluated. Data on transplants 2004-2010 (n=3788) was used for survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models and for post-transplant obesity analysis with generalized estimating equations. Results For children receiving adult donor livers, donor BMI 25-35 kg/m2 was not associated with graft or patient survival in univariate or multivariate analyses. Donor BMI>35 kg/m2 increased the risk of graft loss (HR 2.54, 95%CI 1.29-5.01, p=0.007) and death (HR 3.56, 95%CI 1.64-7.72, p=0.001). For pediatric donors, donor BMI was not associated with graft loss or mortality in univariate or multivariate analysis. Donor overweight/obesity was not a risk factor for post-transplant obesity. Conclusions Overweight/obesity is common among liver transplant donors. This analysis suggests that for adult donors, BMI 25-35 should not by itself be a contraindication to liver donation. Severe obesity (BMI>35) in adult donors increased the risk of graft loss and mortality, even after adjustment for recipient, donor, and transplant risk factors. Post-transplant obesity was not associated with donor BMI in this analysis. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of donor obesity on pediatric liver transplant recipients. PMID:22467594

  20. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function. PMID:26687129

  1. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function.

  2. Improvement of liver injury and survival by JNK2 and iNOS deficiency in liver transplants from cardiac death mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinlong; Rehman, Hasibur; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Schnellmann, Rick G; Lemasters, John J; Zhong, Zhi

    2015-07-01

    Inclusion of liver grafts from cardiac death donors (CDD) would increase the availability of donor livers but is hampered by a higher risk of primary non-function. Here, we seek to determine mechanisms that contribute to primary non-function of liver grafts from CDD with the goal to develop strategies for improved function and outcome, focusing on c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and mitochondrial depolarization, two known mediators of graft failure. Livers explanted from wild-type, inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS(-/-)), JNK1(-/-) or JNK2(-/-) mice after 45-min aorta clamping were implanted into wild-type recipients. Mitochondrial depolarization was detected by intravital confocal microscopy in living recipients. After transplantation of wild-type CDD livers, graft iNOS expression and 3-nitrotyrosine adducts increased, but hepatic endothelial NOS expression was unchanged. Graft injury and dysfunction were substantially higher in CDD grafts than in non-CDD grafts. iNOS deficiency and inhibition attenuated injury and improved function and survival of CDD grafts. JNK1/2 and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 activation increased markedly in wild-type CDD grafts, which was blunted by iNOS deficiency. JNK inhibition and JNK2 deficiency, but not JNK1 deficiency, decreased injury and improved function and survival of CDD grafts. Mitochondrial depolarization and binding of phospho-JNK2 to Sab, a mitochondrial protein linked to the mitochondrial permeability transition, were higher in CDD than in non-CDD grafts. iNOS deficiency, JNK inhibition and JNK2 deficiency all decreased mitochondrial depolarization and blunted ATP depletion in CDD grafts. JNK inhibition and deficiency did not decrease 3-nitrotyrosine adducts in CDD grafts. The iNOS-JNK2-Sab pathway promotes CDD graft failure via increased mitochondrial depolarization, and is an attractive target to improve liver function and survival in CDD liver transplantation recipients. Copyright © 2015

  3. Murine precision-cut liver slices (PCLS): a new tool for studying tumor microenvironments and cell signaling ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Koch, Alexandra; Saran, Shashank; Tran, Doan Duy Hai; Klebba-Färber, Sabine; Thiesler, Hauke; Sewald, Katherina; Schindler, Susann; Braun, Armin; Klopfleisch, Robert; Tamura, Teruko

    2014-11-07

    One of the most insidious characteristics of cancer is its spread to and ability to compromise distant organs via the complex process of metastasis. Communication between cancer cells and organ-resident cells via cytokines/chemokines and direct cell-cell contacts are key steps for survival, proliferation and invasion of metastasized cancer cells in organs. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) are considered to closely reflect the in vivo situation and are potentially useful for studying the interaction of cancer cells with liver-resident cells as well as being a potentially useful tool for screening anti-cancer reagents. Application of the PCLS technique in the field of cancer research however, has not yet been well developed. We established the mouse PCLS system using perfluorodecalin (PFD) as an artificial oxygen carrier. Using this system we show that the adherence of green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) cells to liver tissue in the PCLS was 5-fold greater than that of SK-BR-3 (less invasive) cells. In addition, we generated PCLS from THOC5, a member of transcription/export complex (TREX), knockout (KO) mice. The PCLS still expressed Gapdh or Albumin mRNAs at normal levels, while several chemokine/growth factor or metalloprotease genes, such as Cxcl12, Pdgfa, Tgfb, Wnt11, and Mmp1a genes were downregulated more than 2-fold. Interestingly, adhesion of cancer cells to THOC5 KO liver slices was far less (greater than 80% reduction) than to wild-type liver slices. Mouse PCLS cultures in the presence of PFD may serve as a useful tool for screening local adherence and invasiveness of individual cancer cells, since single cells can be observed. This method may also prove useful for identification of genes in liver-resident cells that support cancer invasion by using PCLS from transgenic liver.

  4. Multipotent cells from the human third molar: feasibility of cell-based therapy for liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kojima, Midori; Yagyuu, Takahiro; Ohshima, Akira; Sobajima, Satoshi; Tadokoro, Mika; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Go, Masahiro J; Adachi, Hisashi; Yokota, Yukiharu; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-05-01

    Adult stem cells have been reported to exist in various tissues. The isolation of high-quality human stem cells that can be used for regeneration of fatal deseases from accessible resources is an important advance in stem cell research. In the present study, we identified a novel stem cell, which we named tooth germ progenitor cells (TGPCs), from discarded third molar, commonly called as wisdom teeth. We demonstrated the characterization and distinctiveness of the TGPCs, and found that TGPCs showed high proliferation activity and capability to differentiate in vitro into cells of three germ layers including osteoblasts, neural cells, and hepatocytes. TGPCs were examined by the transplantation into a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated liver injured rat to determine whether this novel cell source might be useful for cell-based therapy to treat liver diseases. The successful engraftment of the TGPCs was demonstrated by PKH26 fluorescence in the recipient's rat as to liver at 4 weeks after transplantation. The TGPCs prevented the progression of liver fibrosis in the liver of CCl4-treated rats and contributed to the restoration of liver function, as assessed by the measurement of hepatic serum markers aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Furthermore, the liver functions, observed by the levels of serum bilirubin and albumin, appeared to be improved following transplantation of TGPCs. These findings suggest that multipotent TGPCs are one of the candidates for cell-based therapy to treat liver diseases and offer unprecedented opportunities for developing therapies in treating tissue repair and regeneration.

  5. RAS mutation status predicts survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Kopetz, Scott E; Shindoh, Junichi; Chen, Su S; Andreou, Andreas; Curley, Steven A; Aloia, Thomas A; Maru, Dipen M

    2013-10-01

    To determine the impact of RAS mutation status on survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing curative resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after preoperative modern chemotherapy. RAS mutation has been reported to be associated with aggressive tumor biology. However, the effect of RAS mutation on survival and patterns of recurrence after resection of CLM remains unclear. Somatic mutations were analyzed using mass spectroscopy in 193 patients who underwent single-regimen modern chemotherapy before resection of CLM. The relationship between RAS mutation status and survival outcomes was investigated. Detected somatic mutations included RAS (KRAS/NRAS) in 34 (18%), PIK3CA in 13 (7%), and BRAF in 2 (1%) patients. At a median follow-up of 33 months, 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 81% in patients with wild-type versus 52.2% in patients with mutant RAS (P = 0.002); 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 33.5% with wild-type versus 13.5% with mutant RAS (P = 0.001). Liver and lung recurrences were observed in 89 and 83 patients, respectively. Patients with RAS mutation had a lower 3-year lung RFS rate (34.6% vs 59.3%, P < 0.001) but not a lower 3-year liver RFS rate (43.8% vs 50.2%, P = 0.181). In multivariate analyses, RAS mutation predicted worse OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, P = 0.002), overall RFS (HR = 1.9, P = 0.005), and lung RFS (HR = 2.0, P = 0.01), but not liver RFS (P = 0.181). RAS mutation predicts early lung recurrence and worse survival after curative resection of CLM. This information may be used to individualize systemic and local tumor-directed therapies and follow-up strategies.

  6. RAS mutation status predicts survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Kopetz, Scott E.; Shindoh, Junichi; Chen, Su S.; Andreou, Andreas; Curley, Steven A.; Aloia, Thomas A.; Maru, Dipen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of RAS mutation status on survival and patterns of recurrence in patients undergoing curative resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after preoperative modern chemotherapy. Summary Background Data RAS mutation has been reported to be associated with aggressive tumor biology. However, the effect of RAS mutation on survival and patterns of recurrence after resection of CLM remains unclear. Methods Somatic mutations were analyzed using mass spectroscopy in 193 patients who underwent single-regimen modern chemotherapy before resection of CLM. The relationship between RAS mutation status and survival outcomes was investigated. Results Detected somatic mutations included RAS (KRAS/NRAS) in 34 patients (18%), PIK3CA in 13 (7%), and BRAF in 2 (1%). At a median follow-up of 33 months, 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 81% in patients with wild-type vs 52.2% in patients with mutant RAS (P=0.002); 3-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 33.5% with wild-type vs 13.5% with mutant RAS (P=0.001). Liver and lung recurrences were observed in 89 and 83 patients, respectively. Patients with RAS mutation had a lower 3-year lung RFS rate (34.6% vs 59.3%, P<0.001), but not a lower 3-year liver RFS rate (43.8% vs 50.2%, P=0.181). In multivariate analyses, RAS mutation predicted worse OS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3, P=0.002), overall RFS (HR 1.9, P=0.005), and lung RFS (HR 2.0, P=0.01), but not liver RFS (P=0.181). Conclusions RAS mutation predicts early lung recurrence and worse survival after curative resection of CLM. This information may be used to individualize systemic and local tumor-directed therapies and follow-up strategies. PMID:24018645

  7. Survival and resource utilization in liver transplant recipients: the impact of admission to the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Ong, J P; Goormastic, M; Nelson, D R; Arroliga, A C; Farquhar, L; Mayes, J; Younossi, Z M

    2003-12-01

    The organ allocation system for liver transplantation was recently changed to address criticisms that it was too subjective and relied too heavily on total waiting time. The new system, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Pediatric Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD/PELD), stratifies patients based on the risk of 3-month pretransplant mortality, allocating livers thereby. There is concern that such a scheme gives priority to the sickest patients, who may not enjoy good posttransplant outcomes. The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of liver transplant recipients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) to those who had not. Admission to the ICU is considered here to be another indicator of the severity of illness. Patients who underwent liver transplantation at the Cleveland Clinic between January 1, 1993 and October 31, 1998 and were at least 18 years of age were coded for liver transplantation as status 2, 2A, and 2B (n = 112). These patients fell into three groups: those who had been admitted to an ICU before transplantation (group A, n = 16), those who had been admitted to the hospital but not to an ICU (group B, n = 63), and those who were living at home and had undergone an elective transplant (group C, n = 33). Clinical and demographic information (age, sex, race, disease severity, disease etiology, and cold ischemia time) were associated with patient survival, patient/graft survival, and posttransplant resource utilization (hospital length of stay and hospital charges). Age, sex, race, etiology of disease, and cold ischemia time were similar among the three groups. Patient survival, patient/graft survival, and hospital charges were not statistically different between the three groups. The median length of stay was statistically different only between groups B and C (P =.006). Our data support the idea that if severely ill patients with end-stage liver disease are selected appropriately, liver transplant outcomes are

  8. Model for end-stage liver disease dynamic stratification of survival benefit.

    PubMed

    Avolio, A W; Siciliano, M; Barone, M; Lai, Q; Caracciolo, G L; Barbarino, R; Nicolotti, N; Lirosi, M C; Gasbarrini, A; Agnes, S

    2012-09-01

    Only patients with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores ≥18 or ≥17 experience a survival benefit (SB) at 12 and 36 months after liver transplantation (OLT). The SB calculation estimates the difference after stratification for risk categories between the survival rate of transplanted versus waiting list patients. The aim of this study was to perform a short- and long-term (60 months) SB analyses of a Italian OLT program. One-hundred seventy-one patients were stratified into four MELD classes (6-14, 15-18, 19-25, 26-40), and two groups: namely, waiting list (WL) and transplanted groups (TX). The median waiting time for transplanted patients was 4.4 months (range, 0-35). SB was expressed as mortality hazard ratio (MHR) as obtained through a Cox regression analysis using as a covariate the status of each patient in the waiting list (WL = 0, reference group) or the TX group (TX = 1). Values over 1 indicated the MHR in favor of the WL with the values below 1 indicating MHR in favor of Tx. In the MELD class 6 to 14, the MHR was above 1 at 3 and 6 months, indicating an SB in favor of WL; subsequently, the MHR dropped below 1, indicating an SB in favor of TX (P < .05). In the MELD class 15 to 18 the MHR was above 1 at 3 months, but below 1 subsequently (P < .05). For MELD classes 19 to 25 and 26 to 40, the MHR was always below 1 (P < .01). According to the SB approach, patients in the MELD class 6 to 14 could safely wait for at least 36 months; patients in the MELD class 15 to 18 should likely remain no longer than 12 months on the waiting list, and all the remaining patients with MELD > 18 should be transplanted as soon as possible. OLT should not be precluded but only postponed for MELD < 19 patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of donor histology on survival following liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a Scandinavian single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Ydreborg, Magdalena; Westin, Johan; Lagging, Martin; Castedal, Maria; Friman, Styrbjörn

    2012-06-01

    Survival following liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by several factors. The aims of this single-center study were to evaluate survival from 1992 to 2006 in HCV-infected liver transplant recipients and to identify factors influencing patient and graft survival, with particular focus on donor liver histopathology. Survival among 84 patients transplanted for HCV-related liver disease at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital during the above period was evaluated. Median follow-up time was 57 months (range 28-87). A perioperative liver biopsy from the donor liver graft was available in 68 cases. Biopsies were assessed for fibrosis, necroinflammatory activity, and degree of steatosis. Patient and graft survival according to relevant factors including donor histopathology were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. We found an association between donor liver fibrosis and patient survival (p = 0.016) as well as between graft survival and portal inflammation in the donor liver (p = 0.026). Both these associations remained significant in multivariate analysis (p = 0.007 and 0.017 respectively). Moreover, recipient age over 60 was found predictive of patient survival and repeated steroid boluses or steroid-resistant rejection of graft survival. Donor age was high throughout the study period. Histopathological features, especially portal inflammation and stage of fibrosis, in the donor liver may deleteriously affect graft and patient survival following HCV-related liver transplantation. Thus, pretransplant evaluation of donor histopathology may be of value in the selection of donors for transplantation of HCV-positive individuals, especially among donors older than 60 years.

  10. ATF5 regulates β-cell survival during stress.

    PubMed

    Juliana, Christine A; Yang, Juxiang; Rozo, Andrea V; Good, Austin; Groff, David N; Wang, Shu-Zong; Green, Michael R; Stoffers, Doris A

    2017-02-07

    The stress response and cell survival are necessary for normal pancreatic β-cell function, glucose homeostasis, and prevention of diabetes. The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (Pdx1) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4). Here we show that Atf5, a close but less-studied relative of Atf4, is also a target of Pdx1 and is critical for β-cell survival under stress conditions. Pdx1 deficiency led to decreased Atf5 transcript, and primary islet ChIP-sequencing localized PDX1 to the Atf5 promoter, implicating Atf5 as a PDX1 target. Atf5 expression was stress inducible and enriched in β cells. Importantly, Atf5 deficiency decreased survival under stress conditions. Loss-of-function and chromatin occupancy experiments positioned Atf5 downstream of and parallel to Atf4 in the regulation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4ebp1), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway component that inhibits protein translation. Accordingly, Atf5 deficiency attenuated stress suppression of global translation, likely enhancing the susceptibility of β cells to stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, we identify ATF5 as a member of the transcriptional network governing pancreatic β-cell survival during stress.

  11. ATF5 regulates β-cell survival during stress

    PubMed Central

    Juliana, Christine A.; Yang, Juxiang; Rozo, Andrea V.; Good, Austin; Groff, David N.; Wang, Shu-Zong; Stoffers, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    The stress response and cell survival are necessary for normal pancreatic β-cell function, glucose homeostasis, and prevention of diabetes. The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (Pdx1) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4). Here we show that Atf5, a close but less-studied relative of Atf4, is also a target of Pdx1 and is critical for β-cell survival under stress conditions. Pdx1 deficiency led to decreased Atf5 transcript, and primary islet ChIP-sequencing localized PDX1 to the Atf5 promoter, implicating Atf5 as a PDX1 target. Atf5 expression was stress inducible and enriched in β cells. Importantly, Atf5 deficiency decreased survival under stress conditions. Loss-of-function and chromatin occupancy experiments positioned Atf5 downstream of and parallel to Atf4 in the regulation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4ebp1), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway component that inhibits protein translation. Accordingly, Atf5 deficiency attenuated stress suppression of global translation, likely enhancing the susceptibility of β cells to stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, we identify ATF5 as a member of the transcriptional network governing pancreatic β-cell survival during stress. PMID:28115692

  12. Excellent long-term patient and graft survival are possible with appropriate use of livers from deceased septuagenarian and octogenarian donors

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Marcio F; Rosen, Charles B; Nyberg, Scott L; Heimbach, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Background Although increasing donor age adversely affects survival after liver transplantation, livers have been used from selected deceased donors older than 70 years. Although there are reports of excellent short-term results, long-term results are unknown. Our experience was reviewed with septuagenarian and octogenarian deceased donors to determine long-term outcomes. Methods All primary deceased donor liver transplants performed at our institution between July 1998 and December 2010 were reviewed. Recipients of livers procured after circulatory arrest, split and reduced-size livers and multiple organ transplants were excluded from the study. Patient and graft survival were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and survival comparisons were made with the log-rank test. Results In total, 780 patients met inclusion criteria, and 109 patients received livers from donors older than 70 years (range = 70–86). There were no differences in long-term patient (P = 0.67) or graft (P = 0.42) survival between hepatitis C negative recipients of livers from older compared with younger donors. In contrast, 7-year survival for HCV-positive recipients of older donor livers was less than half that of HCV-negative recipients. Discussion Transplantation of livers from septua- and octogenarian donors can achieve excellent long-term patient and graft survival for selected HCV-negative patients. PMID:24467292

  13. Cure model survival analysis after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Cucchetti, Alessando; Ferrero, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Donadon, Matteo; Russolillo, Nadia; Ercolani, Giorgio; Stacchini, Giacomo; Mazzotti, Federico; Torzilli, Guido; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cure is achieved when a patient population has the same mortality as cancer-free individuals; however, data regarding the probability of cure after hepatectomy of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) have never been provided. We aimed to assess the probability of being statistically cured from CLM by hepatic resection. Data from 1,012 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for CLM (2001-2012) were used to fit a nonmixture cure model to compare mortality after surgery to that expected for the general population matched by sex and age. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival was 18.9 and 15.8 %; the corresponding overall survival was 44.3 and 32.7 %. In the entire study population, the probability of being cured from CLM was 20 % (95 % confidence interval 16.5-23.5). After the first year, the mortality excess of resected patients, in comparison to the general population, starts to decline until it approaches zero 6 years after surgery. After 6.48 years, patients alive without tumor recurrence can be considered cured with 99 % certainty. Multivariate analysis showed that cure probabilities range from 40.9 % in patients with node-negative primary tumors and metachronous presentation of a single lesion <3 cm, to 1.5 % in patients with node positivity, and synchronous presentation of multiple, large CLMs. A model for the calculation of a cure fraction for each possible clinical scenario is provided. Using a cure model, the present results indicate that statistical cure of CLM is possible after hepatectomy; providing this information can help clinicians give more precise answer to patients' questions.

  14. Impact of myeloid-derived suppressor cell on Kupffer cells from mouse livers with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lacotte, Stéphanie; Slits, Florence; Orci, Lorenzo A.; Meyer, Jeremy; Oldani, Graziano; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen; Morel, Philippe; Toso, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kupffer cells represent the first line of defense against tumor cells in the liver. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently been observed in the liver parenchyma of tumor-bearing animals. The present study investigates the function of the MDSC subsets, and their impact on Kupffer cell phenotype and function. RIL-175 mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were injected into the median liver lobe of C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks later, the median lobe hosting the tumor nodule was removed, and Kupffer cells and MDSCs were sorted from the remaining liver. Mouse livers devoid of HCC served as control. Kupffer cells expressed less co-stimulatory CD86 and MHCII and more co-inhibitory CD274 molecules in HCC-bearing livers than in control livers. Corresponding to this phenotype, Kupffer cells from HCC-bearing mice were less efficient in their function as antigen-presenting cells. Three CD11b+ cell populations were identified and sorted from HCC-bearing mice. These cells had various phenotypes with different levels of MDSC-specific surface markers (Ly6Ghigh cells, Gr1high cells, and Ly6Clow cells), and may be considered as bonafide MDSCs given their suppression of antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Primary isolated Kupffer cells in co-culture with the three MDSC subsets showed a decrease in CCL2 and IL-18 secretion, and an increase in IL-10 and IL-1β secretion, and an increased expression of CD86, CD274, and MHCII. In conclusion, these data demonstrated the existence of three MDSC subsets in HCC-bearing animals. These cells altered Kupffer cell function and may decrease the migration and activation of anticancer effector cells in the liver. PMID:27999748

  15. Characterization of genetically engineered mouse hepatoma cells with inducible liver functions by overexpression of liver-enriched transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Tonello, Jane Marie; Sambuichi, Takanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2018-01-01

    New cell sources for the research and therapy of organ failure could significantly alleviate the shortage of donor livers that are available to patients who suffer from liver disease. Liver carcinoma derived cells, or hepatoma cells, are the ideal cells for developing bioartificial liver systems. Such cancerous liver cells are easy to prepare in large quantities and can be maintained over long periods under standard culture conditions, unlike primary hepatocytes. However, hepatoma cells possess only a fraction of the functions of primary hepatocytes. In a previous study, by transducing cells with liver-enriched transcription factors that could be inducibly overexpressed-hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α, HNF1β, HNF3β [FOXA2], HNF4α, HNF6, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ and C/EBPγ-we created mouse hepatoma cells with high liver-specific gene expression called the Hepa/8F5 cell line. In the present study, we performed functional and genetic analyses to characterize the Hepa/8F5 cell line. Further, in three-dimensional cultures, the function of these cells improved significantly compared to parental cells. Ultimately, these cells might become a new resource that can be used in basic and applied hepatic research. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated C-reactive protein and hypoalbuminemia measured before resection of colorectal liver metastases predict postoperative survival.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Teruya, Masanori; Kishiki, Tomokazu; Endo, Daisuke; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Miki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Morita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score measured before resection of colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), can predict postoperative survival. Sixty-three consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for CRLM were investigated. GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with both an elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (<35 g/l) were allocated a GPS score of 2. Patients in whom only one of these biochemical abnormalities was present were allocated a GPS score of 1, and patients with a normal C-reactive protein and albumin were allocated a score of 0. Significant factors concerning survival were the number of liver metastases (p = 0.0044), carcinoembryonic antigen level (p = 0.0191), GPS (p = 0.0029), grade of liver metastasis (p = 0.0033), and the number of lymph node metastases around the primary cancer (p = 0.0087). Multivariate analysis showed the two independent prognostic variables: liver metastases > or =3 (relative risk 2.83) and GPS1/2 (relative risk 3.07). GPS measured before operation and the number of liver metastases may be used as novel predictors of postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent curative resection for CRLM. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Augmenter of liver regeneration: An important intracellular survival factor for hepatocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Wang, Lian Fu; Harvey, Stephen A.K.; Watkins, Simon C.; Chaillet, J. Richard; Prelich, John; Starzl, Thomas E.; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a protein synthesized and stored in hepatocytes, is associated with mitochondria, and possesses sulfhydryl oxidase and cytochrome c reductase activities. We sought to determine the effects of ALR depletion in hepatocytes by antisense oligonucleotide transfection. Methods Rat hepatocytes in primary culture were transfected with antisense oligonucleotide for ALR mRNA (ALR-AS) or scrambled oligonucleotide. Various analyses were performed at times up to 24 h after transfection. Results Treatment with ALR-AS caused a decrease in ALR mRNA, cellular depletion of ALR protein primarily from mitochondria, and decreased viability. Flow cytometric analysis of ALR-AS-transfected hepatocytes stained with annexin-Vcy3 and 7-aminoactinomycin D revealed apoptosis as the predominant cause of death up to 6 h; incubation beyond this time resulted in necrosis in addition to apoptosis. ALR-AS-transfection caused release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, profound reduction in the ATP content, and cellular release of LDH. Inhibition of caspase-3 inhibited the early phase of ALR-AS-induced death but not the late phase that included ALR and LDH release. Conclusions These results suggest that ALR is critically important for the survival of hepatocytes by its association with mitochondria and regulation of ATP synthesis. PMID:18272248

  18. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Folch-Puy, Emma; Panisello, Arnau; Oliva, Joan; Lopez, Alexandre; Castro Benítez, Carlos; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes. PMID:27231901

  19. Biliary epithelium and liver B cells exposed to bacteria activate intrahepatic MAIT cells through MR1

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Hannah C.; van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Kurioka, Ayako; Parekh, Krishan; Stirling, Kathryn; Roberts, Sheree; Dutton, Emma E.; Hunter, Stuart; Geh, Daniel; Braitch, Manjit K.; Rajanayagam, Jeremy; Iqbal, Tariq; Pinkney, Thomas; Brown, Rachel; Withers, David R.; Adams, David H.; Klenerman, Paul; Oo, Ye H.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells characterised by the invariant TCR-chain, Vα7.2-Jα33, and are restricted by MR1, which presents bacterial vitamin B metabolites. They are important for antibacterial immunity at mucosal sites; however, detailed characteristics of liver-infiltrating MAIT (LI-MAIT) and their role in biliary immune surveillance remain unexplored. Methods The phenotype and intrahepatic localisation of human LI-MAIT cells was examined in diseased and normal livers. MAIT cell activation in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, biliary epithelial cells (BEC) and liver B cells was assessed with/without anti-MR1. Results Intrahepatic MAIT cells predominantly localised to bile ducts in the portal tracts. Consistent with this distribution, they expressed biliary tropic chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR6, and integrin αEβ7. LI-MAIT cells were also present in the hepatic sinusoids and possessed tissue-homing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, suggesting their recruitment via hepatic sinusoids. LI-MAIT cells were enriched in the parenchyma of acute liver failure livers compared to chronic diseased livers. LI-MAIT cells had an activated, effector memory phenotype, expressed α4β7 and receptors for IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23. Importantly, in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, liver B cells and BEC, MAIT cells upregulated IFN-γ and CD40 Ligand and degranulated in an MR1-dependent, cytokine-independent manner. In addition, diseased liver MAIT cells expressed T-bet and RORγt and the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence of an immune surveillance effector response for MAIT cells towards BEC in human liver; thus they could be manipulated for treatment of biliary disease in the future. PMID:26743076

  20. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) Regulates Liver Cells Proteome and Methylproteome: Implications in Liver Biology and Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Bigaud, Emilie; Corrales, Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP), a key enzyme in the adenine and methionine salvage pathways, catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylthioadenosine (MTA), a compound suggested to affect pivotal cellular processes in part through the regulation of protein methylation. MTAP is expressed in a wide range of cell types and tissues, and its deletion is common to cancer cells and in liver injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the proteome and methyl proteome alterations triggered by MTAP deficiency in liver cells to define novel regulatory mechanisms that may explain the pathogenic processes of liver diseases. iTRAQ analysis resulted in the identification of 216 differential proteins (p < 0.05) that suggest deregulation of cellular pathways as those mediated by ERK or NFκB. R-methyl proteome analysis led to the identification of 74 differentially methylated proteins between SK-Hep1 and SK-Hep1+ cells, including 116 new methylation sites. Restoring normal MTA levels in SK-Hep1+ cells parallels the specific methylation of 56 proteins, including KRT8, TGF, and CTF8A, which provides a novel regulatory mechanism of their activity with potential implications in carcinogenesis. Inhibition of RNA-binding proteins methylation is especially relevant upon accumulation of MTA. As an example, methylation of quaking protein in Arg242 and Arg256 in SK-Hep1+ cells may play a pivotal role in the regulation of its activity as indicated by the up-regulation of its target protein p27kip1. The phenotype associated with a MTAP deficiency was further verified in the liver of MTAP± mice. Our data support that MTAP deficiency leads to MTA accumulation and deregulation of central cellular pathways, increasing proliferation and decreasing the susceptibility to chemotherapeutic drugs, which involves differential protein methylation. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002957 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002957). PMID:26819315

  1. Cell Spheroids with Enhanced Aggressiveness to Mimic Human Liver Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Ryul; Kang, Hyun Mi; Ryu, Jea-Woon; Kim, Dae-Soo; Noh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Eun-Su; Lee, Ho-Joon; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Nam-Soon; Im, Dong-Soo; Lim, Jung Hwa; Jung, Cho-Rok

    2017-09-05

    We fabricated a spheroid-forming unit (SFU) for efficient and economic production of cell spheroids. We optimized the protocol for generating large and homogenous liver cancer cell spheroids using Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. The large Huh7 spheroids showed apoptotic and proliferative signals in the centre and at the surface, respectively. In particular, hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and ERK signal activation were detected in the cell spheroids. To diminish core necrosis and increase the oncogenic character, we co-cultured spheroids with 2% human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs promoted proliferation and gene expression of HCC-related genes and cancer stem cell markers in the Huh7 spheroidsby activating cytokine signalling, mimicking gene expression in liver cancer. HUVECs induced angiogenesis and vessel maturation in Huh7 spheroids in vivo by activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenic pathways. The large Huh7 cell spheroids containing HUVECs survived at higher concentrations of anti-cancer drugs (doxorubicin and sorafenib) than did monolayer cells. Our large cell spheroid provides a useful in vitro HCC model to enable intuitive observation for anti-cancer drug testing.

  2. Clinical translation of bioartificial liver support systems with human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakiyama, Ryoichi; Blau, Brandon J; Miki, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a pressing need for alternative therapies to liver transplantation. The number of patients waiting for a liver transplant is substantially higher than the number of transplantable donor livers, resulting in a long waiting time and a high waiting list mortality. An extracorporeal liver support system is one possible approach to overcome this problem. However, the ideal cell source for developing bioartificial liver (BAL) support systems has yet to be determined. Recent advancements in stem cell technology allow researchers to generate highly functional hepatocyte-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In this mini-review, we summarize previous clinical trials with different BAL systems, and discuss advantages of and potential obstacles to utilizing hPSC-derived hepatic cells in clinical-scale BAL systems. PMID:28373763

  3. Liver repopulation by c-Met-positive stem/progenitor cells isolated from the developing rat liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Zheng, Yun-wen; Fukao, Katashi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Self-renewing stem cells responsible for tissue or organ development and regeneration have been recently described. To isolate such cells using flow cytometry, it should be required to find molecules expressing on their cell surfaces. We have previously reported that, on cells fulfilling the criteria for hepatic stem cells, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met is expressed specifically in the developing mouse liver. In this study, to determine whether c-Met is an essential marker for hepatic stem cells in other animal strains, we examined the potential for in vivo liver-repopulation in sorted fetal rat-derived c-Met+ cells using the retrorsine model. Using flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies for c-Met and leukocyte common antigen CD45, fetal rat liver cells were fractionated according to the expression of these molecules. Then, cells in each cell subpopulation were sorted and transplanted into the retrorsine-treated adult rats with two-third hepatectomy. At 9 months post transplant, frequency of liver-repopulation was examined by qualitative and quantitative analyses. When we transplanted c-Met+ CD45- sorted cells, many donor-derived cells formed colonies that included mature hepatocytes expressing albumin and containing abundant glycogen in their cytoplasm. In contrast, c-Met- cells and CD45+ cells could not repopulate damaged recipient livers. High enrichment of liver-repopulating cells was conducted by sorting of c-Met+ cells from the developing rat liver. This result suggests that c-Met/HGF interaction plays a crucial role for stem cell growth, differentiation, and self-renewal in rat liver organogenesis. Since the c-Met is also expressed in the fetal mouse-derived hepatic stem cells, this molecule could be expected to be an essential marker for such cell population in the various animal strains, including human.

  4. Cell Pleomorphism and Cytoskeleton Disorganization in Human Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Chao, Wei-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Chen, You-Yin; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    Nucleoskeleton maintains the framework of a cell nucleus that is required for a variety of nuclear functions. However, the nature of nucleoskeleton structure has not been yet clearly elucidated due to microscopy visualization limitations. Plectin, a nuclear pore-permeable component of cytoskeleton, exhibits a role of cross-linking between cytoplasmic intermediate filaments and nuclear lamins. Presumably, plectin is also a part of nucleoskeleton. Previously, we demonstrated that pleomorphism of hepatoma cells is the consequence of cytoskeletal changes mediated by plectin deficiency. In this study, we applied a variety of technologies to detect the cytoskeletons in liver cells. The images of confocal microscopy did not show the existence of plectin, intermediate filaments, microfilaments and microtubules in hepatic nuclei. However, in the isolated nuclear preparation, immunohistochemical staining revealed positive results for plectin and cytoskeletal proteins that may contribute to the contamination derived from cytoplasmic residues. Therefore, confocal microscopy provides a simple and effective technology to observe the framework of nucleoskeleton. Accordingly, we verified that cytoskeletons are not found in hepatic cell nuclei. Furthermore, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of plectin in liver cells leads to collapsed cytoskeleton, cell transformation and pleomorphic nuclei. Plectin and cytoskeletons were not detected in the nuclei of liver cells compared to the results of confocal microscopy. Despite the absence of nuclear plectin and cytoskeletal filaments, the evidence provided support that nuclear pleomorphism of cancer cells is correlated with the cytoplasmic disorganization of cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Necroptosis: an emerging type of cell death in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Jun, Dae Won

    2014-09-21

    Cell death has been extensively evaluated for decades and it is well recognized that pharmacological interventions directed to inhibit cell death can prevent significant cell loss and can thus improve an organ's physiological function. For long, only apoptosis was considered as a sole form of programmed cell death. Recently necroptosis, a RIP1/RIP3-dependent programmed cell death, has been identified as an apoptotic backup cell death mechanism with necrotic morphology. The evidences of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by blocking necroptosis have been extensively reported in recent past. However, only a few studies reported the evidence of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by inhibiting necroptosis in liver related disease conditions. Although the number of necroptosis initiators is increasing; however, interestingly, it is still unclear that what actually triggers necroptosis in different liver diseases or if there is always a different necroptosis initiator in each specific disease condition followed by specific downstream signaling molecules. Understanding the precise mechanism of necroptosis as well as counteracting other cell death pathways in liver diseases could provide a useful insight towards achieving extensive therapeutic significance. By targeting necroptosis and/or other parallel death pathways, a significant cell loss and thus a decrement in an organ's physiological function can be prevented.

  6. Stem Cells Transplantation in the Treatment of Patients with Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ya-Chao; Wang, Meng-Lan; Chen, En-Qiang; Tang, Hong

    2018-02-23

    Liver failure is a life-threatening liver disease encompassing severe acute deterioration of liver function. Emergency liver transplantation is the only curative treatment for liver failure, but is restricted by the severe shortage of organ donors. Stem cell, including embroyonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells and hepatic progenitor cells, have capacity to proliferate and differentiate and could be used in a variety of liver diseases including hereditary liver diseases, cirrhosis and liver failure. We summarized the basic experimental and clinical advances of stem cell transplantation in liver failure treatment, and also discussed the advantages and disadvantage of different stem cells subtype in this field, aiming to provide a perspective on the stem cell-based therapy for liver failure. Stem cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (mainly low immunogenicity and paracrine characteristics) and induced pluripotent stem cells (generation of desired cell type from somatic cell), are feasible candidates for cell therapy in the treatment of liver failure, but there are some drawbacks remaining to be resolved, such as low engraftment, cryotpreservation methods and tumorigenesis. Stem cell transplantation is a promising but challenging strategy and paves a new way for curing liver failure. But more efforts need to be made to overcome problems before this new strategy could be safely and effectively applied to humans. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Analyses of cell surface molecules on hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mouse fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Sei; Ohta, Haruhiko; Kamiya, Akihide; Yamazaki, Yuji; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Okada, Ken; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2009-07-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells possess active proliferative ability and the capacity for differentiation into hepatic and cholangiocytic lineages. Our group and others have shown that a prospectively defined population in mid-gestational fetal liver contains hepatic stem/progenitor cells. However, the phenotypes of such cells are incompletely elucidated. We analyzed the profile of cell-surface molecules on primary hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Expression of cell surface molecules on primary hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mouse mid-gestational fetal liver was analyzed using flow cytometric multicolor analyses and colony-formation assays. The potential of the cells for liver repopulation was examined by transplantation assay. We found that CD13 (aminopeptidase N) was detected on the cells of the previously reported (Dlk/Pref-1(+)) hepatic stem/progenitor fraction. Colony-formation assays revealed that the CD13(+) fraction, compared with the Dlk(+) fraction, of non-hematopoietic cells in fetal liver was enriched in hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Transplantation assay showed the former fraction exhibited repopulating potential in regenerating liver. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis for over 90 antigens demonstrated enrichment of hepatic stem/progenitor cells using several positive selection markers, including (hitherto unknown) CD13, CD73, CD106, and CD133. Our data indicated that CD13 is a positive selection marker for hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mid-gestational fetal liver.

  8. The SHH/Gli axis regulates CD90-mediated liver cancer stem cell function by activating the IL6/JAK2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ketao; Che, Siyao; Pan, Chuzhi; Su, Zheng; Zheng, Shangyou; Yang, Shanglin; Zhang, Huayao; Li, Wenda; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Jianping

    2018-05-02

    The cell surface antigen CD90 has recently been established as a promising marker for liver cancer stem cells. This study aimed to investigate potential implications of SHH/Gli signalling in CD90+ liver cancer stem cells. Correlation of the expression of SHH signalling components and CD90 in liver cancer cells and clinical tissues, as well as in enriched CD90+ liver cancer stem cells and the TCGA database, were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. Functional analysis was conducted by siRNA-mediated CD90, Gli1 and Gli3 gene knockdown, SHH treatment and application of the JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 and IL6 neutralizing antibody in CD90+ liver cancer stem cells, followed by cell proliferation, migration, sphere formation and tumorigenicity assays. CD90 expression exhibited a high positive correlation with Gli1 and Gli3 in multiple liver cancer cell lines and human cancerous liver tissues, both of which showed a significant increase in liver cancer. Analysis of TCGA data revealed an association of CD90, Gli1 and Gli3 with a short overall survival and positive correlation between CD90 expression and Gli3 expression level. The stem cell potentials of CD90+ 97L liver cancer cells were greatly impaired by Gli1/3 knockdown with siRNA but enhanced by SHH treatment. Application of the JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 and IL6 neutralizing antibody showed the CD90 and SHH/Gli-regulated liver cancer stem cell functions were mediated by the IL6/JAK2/STAT3 pathway. The stem cell properties of CD90+ liver cancer cells are regulated by the downstream SHH/Gli and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathways. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Cell Death and Cell Death Responses in Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Tom; Kaplowitz, Neil; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocellular death is present in almost all types of human liver disease and is used as a sensitive parameter for the detection of acute and chronic liver disease of viral, toxic, metabolic, or autoimmune origin. Clinical data and animal models suggest that hepatocyte death is the key trigger of liver disease progression, manifested by the subsequent development of inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Modes of hepatocellular death differ substantially between liver diseases. Different modes of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis trigger specific cell death responses and promote progression of liver disease through distinct mechanisms. In this review, we first discuss molecular mechanisms by which different modes of cell death, damage-associated molecular patterns, and specific cell death responses contribute to the development of liver disease. We then review the clinical relevance of cell death, focusing on biomarkers; the contribution of cell death to drug-induced, viral, and fatty liver disease and liver cancer; and evidence for cell death pathways as therapeutic targets. PMID:25046161

  10. The mitochondrial import gene tomm22 is specifically required for hepatocyte survival and provides a liver regeneration model

    PubMed Central

    Curado, Silvia; Ober, Elke A.; Walsh, Susan; Cortes-Hernandez, Paulina; Verkade, Heather; Koehler, Carla M.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding liver development should lead to greater insights into liver diseases and improve therapeutic strategies. In a forward genetic screen for genes regulating liver development in zebrafish, we identified a mutant – oliver – that exhibits liver-specific defects. In oliver mutants, the liver is specified, bile ducts form and hepatocytes differentiate. However, the hepatocytes die shortly after their differentiation, and thus the resulting mutant liver consists mainly of biliary tissue. We identified a mutation in the gene encoding translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane 22 (Tomm22) as responsible for this phenotype. Mutations in tomm genes have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but most studies on the effect of defective mitochondrial protein translocation have been carried out in cultured cells or unicellular organisms. Therefore, the tomm22 mutant represents an important vertebrate genetic model to study mitochondrial biology and hepatic mitochondrial diseases. We further found that the temporary knockdown of Tomm22 levels by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides causes a specific hepatocyte degeneration phenotype that is reversible: new hepatocytes repopulate the liver as Tomm22 recovers to wild-type levels. The specificity and reversibility of hepatocyte ablation after temporary knockdown of Tomm22 provides an additional model to study liver regeneration, under conditions where most hepatocytes have died. We used this regeneration model to analyze the signaling commonalities between hepatocyte development and regeneration. PMID:20483998

  11. Long-term survival after liver transplant for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus: case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jie

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is considered an aggressive malignancy, and the prognosis of liver transplant for it remains obscure. A 42-year-old man with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma and a history of surgical resection was admitted to our hospital with a 10-day history of yellowish urine and itchy skin. There were 3 lesions in the right lobe with the diameter of 2 cm each. A mass was found in the upper part of common bile duct, and the intrahepatic bile duct was dilated. His serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 2476 μg/L, total bilirubin level was 327 μmol/L, direct bilirubin level was 261 μmol/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 714 U/L. There was no main portal vein thrombus or extrahepatic metastases. Because of his poor liver function, he was listed for a liver transplant. During the wait (30 d), he underwent 9 episodes of plasmapheresis to decrease the serum level of bilirubin. He had an orthotopic liver transplant with the graft from a deceased donor. After the liver transplant, he received 5 cycles of chemotherapy with the regimen of oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil. This patient has survived without recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma for more than 82 months and remains in good condition. Liver transplant may have a favorable result for hepatocellular carcinoma patient with a bile duct tumor thrombus, within the Milan criteria.

  12. Antitumor effects of interleukin-18 gene-modified hepatocyte cell line on implanted liver carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jianhang; Zhang, Lihuang; Yao, Hangping; Cao, Xuetao

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the antitumor effects of intrasplenically transplanted interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene-modified hepatocytes on murine implanted liver carcinoma. Embryonic murine hepatocyte cell line (BNL-CL2) was transfected with a recombinant adenovirus encoding IL-18 and used as delivery cells for IL-18 gene transfer. Two cell lines, BNL-LacZ and BNL-CL2, were used as controls. One week after intrasplenic injection of C26 cells (colon carcinoma line), tumor-bearing syngeneic mice underwent the intrasplenic transplantation of IL-18 gene-modified hepatocyte cell line and were divided into treatment group (BNL IL-18) and control groups (BNL-LacZ and BNL-CL2). Two weeks later, the serum levels of IL-18, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in the implanted liver carcinoma-bearing mice were assayed, the cytotoxicity of murine splenic cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) was measured, and the morphology of the hepatic tumors was studied to evaluate the antitumor effects of the approach. In the treatment group, the serum levels of IL-18, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and NO increased significantly. The splenic CTL activity increased markedly (P < 0.01), accompanied by a substantial decrease in tumor volume and the percentage of tumor area and prolonged survival of liver carcinomo-being mice. In vivo IL-18 expression by ex vivo manipulated cells with IL-18 recombinant adenovirus is able to exert potent antitumor effects by inducing a predominantly T-cell-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response. Intrasplenic transplantation of adenovirus-mediated IL-18 gene-modified hepatocytes could be used as a targeting treatment for implanted liver carcinoma.

  13. Fusion with stem cell makes the hepatocellular carcinoma cells similar to liver tumor-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Chen, Shuxun; Li, Changxian; Ng, Kevin Tak Pan; Kong, Chi-wing; Cheng, Jinping; Cheng, Shuk Han; Li, Ronald A; Lo, Chung Mau; Man, Kwan; Sun, Dong

    2016-02-04

    Cell fusion is a fast and highly efficient technique for cells to acquire new properties. The fusion of somatic cells with stem cells can reprogram somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Our research on the fusion of stem cells and cancer cells demonstrates that the fused cells can exhibit stemness and cancer cell-like characteristics. Thus, tumor-initiating cell-like cells are generated. We employed laser-induced single-cell fusion technique to fuse the hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry and in vivo tumorigenicity assay were adopted to identify the gene expression difference. We successfully produced a fused cell line that coalesces the gene expression information of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and stem cells. Experimental results showed that the fused cells expressed cancer and stemness markers as well as exhibited increased resistance to drug treatment and enhanced tumorigenesis. Fusion with stem cells transforms liver cancer cells into tumor initiating-like cells. Results indicate that fusion between cancer cell and stem cell may generate tumor initiating-like cells.

  14. Is Osteopontin a Friend or Foe of Cell Apoptosis in Inflammatory Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases?

    PubMed

    Iida, Tomoya; Wagatsuma, Kohei; Hirayama, Daisuke; Nakase, Hiroshi

    2017-12-21

    Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in a variety of biological processes, including bone remodeling, innate immunity, acute and chronic inflammation, and cancer. The expression of OPN occurs in various tissues and cells, including intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes. OPN plays an important role in the efficient development of T helper 1 immune responses and cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. The association of OPN with apoptosis has been investigated. In this review, we described the role of OPN in inflammatory gastrointestinal and liver diseases, focusing on the association of OPN with apoptosis. OPN changes its association with apoptosis depending on the type of disease and the phase of disease activity, acting as a promoter or a suppressor of inflammation and inflammatory carcinogenesis. It is essential that the roles of OPN in those diseases are elucidated, and treatments based on its mechanism are developed.

  15. VEGF improves survival of mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts

    SciT

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang Yu; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice

    2008-11-14

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell-based treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but existing strategies are restricted by low cell survival and engraftment. We examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve MSC viability in infracted hearts. We found long-term culture increased MSC-cellular stress: expressing more cell cycle inhibitors, p16{sup INK}, p21 and p19{sup ARF}. VEGF treatment reduced cellular stress, increased pro-survival factors, phosphorylated-Akt and Bcl-xL expression and cell proliferation. Co-injection of MSCs with VEGF to MI hearts increased cell engraftment and resulted in better improvement of cardiac function than that injected with MSCs ormore » VEGF alone. In conclusion, VEGF protects MSCs from culture-induce cellular stress and improves their viability in ischemic myocardium, which results in improvements of their therapeutic effect for the treatment of MI.« less

  16. Dendritic cells regulate angiogenesis associated with liver fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blois, Sandra M; Piccioni, Flavia; Freitag, Nancy; Tirado-González, Irene; Moschansky, Petra; Lloyd, Rodrigo; Hensel-Wiegel, Karin; Rose, Matthias; Garcia, Mariana G; Alaniz, Laura D; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    During liver fibrogenesis the immune response and angiogenesis process are fine-tuned resulting in activation of hepatic stellate cells that produce an excess of extracellular matrix proteins. Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role modulating the liver immunity and have recently been implicated to favour fibrosis regression; although their ability to influence the development of fibrogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we explored whether the depletion of DC during early stages of liver injury has an impact in the development of fibrogenesis. Using the CD11c.DTR transgenic mice, DC were depleted in two experimental models of fibrosis in vivo. The effect of anti-angiogenic therapy was tested during early stages of liver fibrogenesis. DC depletion accelerates the development of fibrosis and as a consequence, the angiogenesis process is boosted. We observed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic factors together with an enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) bioavailability, mainly evidenced by the decrease of anti-angiogenic VEGF receptor 1 (also known as sFlt-1) levels. Interestingly, fibrogenesis process enhanced the expression of Flt-1 on hepatic DC and administration of sFlt-1 was sufficient to abrogate the acceleration of fibrogenesis upon DC depletion. Thus, DC emerge as novel players during the development of liver fibrosis regulating the angiogenesis process and thereby influencing fibrogenesis.

  17. Cultures of human liver cells in simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoffe, B.; Darlington, G. J.; Soriano, H. E.; Krishnan, B.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; Khaoustov, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    We used microgravity-simulated bioreactors that create the unique environment of low shear force and high-mass transfer to establish long-term cultures of primary human liver cells (HLC). To assess the feasibility of establishing HLC cultures, human liver cells obtained either from cells dissociated by collagenase perfusion or minced tissues were cultured in rotating vessels. Formation of multidimensional tissue-like spheroids (up to 1.0 cm) comprised of hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells that arranged as bile duct-like structures along newly formed vascular sprouts were observed. Electron microscopy revealed clusters of round hepatocytes and bile canaliculi with multiple microvilli and tight junctions. Scanning EM revealed rounded hepatocytes that were organized in tight clusters surrounded by a complex mesh of extracellular matrix. Also, we observed that co-culture of hepatocytes with endothelial cells stimulate albumin mRNA expression. In summary, a simulated microgravity environment is conducive for the establishment of long-term HLC cultures and allows the dissection of the mechanism of liver regeneration and cell-to-cell interactions that resembles in vivo conditions.

  18. Laminin and Fibronectin in Cell Adhesion: Enhanced Adhesion of Cells from Regenerating Liver to Laminin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, Roland; Engvall, Eva; Freeman, Aaron; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    1981-04-01

    Laminin, a basement membrane glycoprotein isolated from cultures of mouse endodermal cells and rat yolk sac carcinoma cells, promoted the attachment of liver cells obtained from regenerating mouse liver. Cells from normal mouse liver attached readily to dishes coated with fibronectin but attached poorly to surfaces coated with laminin. Both proteins efficiently promoted the attachment of cells from livers undergoing regeneration. After regeneration, the attachment to laminin returned to the low levels found in animals not subjected to partial hepatectomy but attachment to fibronectin remained high. Immunofluorescent staining of sections of normal liver with antilaminin revealed the presence of laminin in or adjacent to the walls of the bile ducts and blood vessels. After induction of regeneration by partial hepatectomy, increased amounts of laminin appeared in the sinusoidal areas. After carbon tetrachloride poisoning, staining for laminin was especially pronounced in the necrotic and postnecrotic areas around the central veins. This additional expression of laminin was transient. It reached a maximum around 5-6 days after the injury and then gradually disappeared. These findings show that laminin is an adhesive protein. The increase of laminin in regenerating liver and the adhesiveness of cells from such livers to laminin suggest a role for laminin in the maintenance of a proper tissue organization during liver regeneration.

  19. Regenerative medicine using dental pulp stem cells for liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohkoshi, Shogo; Hara, Hajime; Hirono, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-02-06

    Acute liver failure is a refractory disease and its prognosis, if not treated using liver transplantation, is extremely poor. It is a good candidate for regenerative medicine, where stem cell-based therapies play a central role. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to differentiate into multiple cell lineages including hepatocytes. Autologous cell transplant without any foreign gene induction is feasible using MSCs, thereby avoiding possible risks of tumorigenesis and immune rejection. Dental pulp also contains an MSC population that differentiates into hepatocytes. A point worthy of special mention is that dental pulp can be obtained from deciduous teeth during childhood and can be subsequently harvested when necessary after deposition in a tooth bank. MSCs have not only a regenerative capacity but also act in an anti-inflammatory manner via paracrine mechanisms. Promising efficacies and difficulties with the use of MSC derived from teeth are summarized in this review.

  20. [Clinical and experimental study of treating aplastic anemia with fetal liver cell suspension and fetal liver cell-free suspension].

    PubMed

    Han, J R; Yuan, S W; Ren, Q F

    1990-06-01

    Fresh fetal liver obtained from 3- to 6-month fetus was prepared. Fetal liver cell suspension (FLC) or fetal liver cell-free suspension (FLCF) were then transfused into two groups of patient of aplastic anemia. 15 of 21 patients of aplastic anemia treated with FLC showed reconstitution of haemopoietic function or improvement of peripheral blood pictures, while 27 of 30 patients treated with FLCF showed reconstitution or improvement. It is verified that there is a stimulating factor for CFU-CM, BFU-E, and CFU-E and also a immunologic stimulant for improving the nonspecific immunologic function of the organism as shown by clinical analysis and experimental study. It is obvious that the therapeutic effect of FLCF is much better than that of the FLC.

  1. Intermittent individual housing increases survival of newly proliferated cells.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Pham, Therese M; Zwart, Mieke; Baumans, Vera; Brené, Stefan

    2005-09-08

    In this study, we analyzed how intermittent individual housing with or without a running wheel influenced corticosterone levels and survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Female Balb/c mice, in standard or enhanced housing, were divided into groups that were individually housed with or without running wheels on every second day. Intermittent individual housing without, but not with, running wheels increased survival of proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus as compared with continuous group housing in standard or enhanced conditions. Thus, changes in housing conditions on every second day can, under certain circumstances, have an impact on the survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus.

  2. Stratified aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index accurately predicts survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing curative liver resection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jie; Jiang, Jing-Hang; Yang, Yu-Ting; Guo, Zhe; Li, Ji-Jia; Liu, Xuan-Han; Lu, Fei; Zeng, Feng-Hua; Ye, Jin-Song; Zhang, Ke-Lan; Chen, Neng-Zhi; Xiang, Bang-De; Li, Le-Qun

    2017-03-01

    The aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index has been reported to predict prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. This study examined the prognostic potential of stratified aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing curative liver resection. A total of 661 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were retrieved and the associations between aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index and clinicopathological variables and survivals (overall survival and disease-free survival) were analyzed. Higher aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index quartiles were significantly associated with poorer overall survival (p = 0.002) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index to be an independent risk factor for overall survival (p = 0.018) and disease-free survival (p = 0.01). Patients in the highest aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index quartile were at 44% greater risk of death than patients in the first quartile (hazard ratio = 1.445, 95% confidence interval = 1.081 - 1.931, p = 0.013), as well as 49% greater risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.112-1.998, p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis also showed aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index to be an independent predictor of poor overall survival and disease-free survival in patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen or with cirrhosis (both p < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index was analyzed as a dichotomous variable with cutoff values of 0.25 and 0.62. Elevated preoperative aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index may be independently associated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients following curative resection.

  3. Unusual mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by intraoperative histological examination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As rare condition, mucoepidermoid carcinoma may occur in liver although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of intrahepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma misdiagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by preoperative radiologic and intraoperative histological examinations, respectively. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of progressive jaundice, epigastric discomfort, and weight loss with slightly increased carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Computed tomography (CT) showed a large tumor, 8.0 cm in diameter, in the left lobe of the liver. A preliminary diagnosis of a cholangiocarcinoma of the liver was made. In the intraoperative histological examination, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made based on predominantly invasive epidermoid cells with abundant keratinization and absence of mucin-producing cell component. However, postoperative histological diagnosis of the lesion was mucoepidermiod carcinoma of liver by thoroughly microscopical inspection and the presence of mucin-producing cells confirmed by Alcian blue staining. Despite surgical excision and chemotherapy, the tumor showed very aggressive malignancy with tumor recurrence. The patient died shortly afterward, surviving 6 months after surgery. Due to its rarity and distinct morphological features, mucoepidermoid carcinoma might be erroneously interpreted as squamous cell carcinoma by those who were not familiar with this condition in unusual locations. Therefore, removal of sufficient tissue from different portions of the lesion is essential for the surgeons and pathologists to make a precise diagnosis in the intraoperative histological examination. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4956311271136060 PMID:24475740

  4. Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tan To; Trendell-Smith, Nigel; Poon, Ronnie T P

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 53-year-old woman with abdominal discomfort for 6 months. The liver was enlarged. Contrast CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 10 cm hypervascular tumour at the right lobe of the liver. Right hepatectomy with complete excision of the tumour was achieved. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. She is regularly followed up with contrast CT assessment. There is no tumour recurrence 12 months after the operation. PMID:23845671

  5. The Ron Receptor Regulates Kupffer Cell-Dependent Cytokine Production and Hepatocyte Survival Following Endotoxin Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, William D.; Kulkarni, Rishikesh M.; Gray, Jerilyn K.; Vasiliauskas, Juozas; Leonis, Mike A.; Waltz, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that targeted deletion of the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) domain in mice leads to marked hepatocyte protection in a well-characterized model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice. Hepatocyte protection in TK−/− mice was observed despite paradoxically elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). To understand the role of Ron in the liver, purified populations of Kupffer cells and hepatocytes from wild-type (TK+/+) and TK−/− mice were studied. Utilizing quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that Ron is expressed in these cell-types. Moreover, we also recapitulated the protected hepatocyte phenotype and exaggerated cytokine production observed in the TK−/− mice in vivo through the use of purified cultured cells ex vivo. We show that isolated TK−/− Kupffer cells produce increased levels of TNFα and select cytokines compared to TK+/+ cells following LPS stimulation. We also show that conditioned media from LPS-treated TK−/− Kupffer cells was more toxic to hepatocytes than control media, suggesting the exaggerated levels of cytokines produced from the TK−/− Kupffer cells are detrimental to wild type hepatocytes. In addition, we observed that TK−/− hepatocytes were more resistant to cell death compared to TK+/+ hepatocytes, suggesting that Ron functions in both the epithelial and inflammatory cell compartments to regulate acute liver injury. These findings were confirmed in vivo in mice with hepatocyte and macrophage cell-type-specific conditional Ron deletions. Mice with Ron loss selectively in hepatocytes exhibited less liver damage and increased survival compared to mice with Ron loss in macrophages. In conclusion, we have dissected cell-type-specific roles for Ron such that this receptor modulates cytokine production from Kupffer cells and inhibits hepatocyte survival in response to injury. PMID:21520175

  6. Renal cell metastases versus liver hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Shore, N; Herr, H W

    1991-03-01

    We present the case of a man with presumed metastatic renal cell carcinoma based on radiologic examination and weight loss, who refused treatment of any kind for one year. A surgical exploration to control hematuria revealed a Stage I tumor.

  7. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on the serum and liver HMGB1 expression in rats with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Sheng; Yang, Juan; Tang, Yingmei; Yang, Jinhui; Shao, Qinghua; Guo, Ling; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on the expression of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in the serum and liver of rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods: Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, ALF group and BMSCs group. ALF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 900 mg/kg D-GalN and 10 μg/kg LPS. In BMSCs group, rats received BMSCs (1.0×107) transplantation via the tail vein at 2 h after ALF induction. Results: Intraperitoneal injection of 900 mg/kg D-GalN and 10 μg/kg LPS was able to induce ALF in rats. In ALF group, serum ALT and AST increased gradually over time. At 72 h, the serum ALT and AST in BMSCs group were significantly different from those in ALF group. HMGB1 expression in the serum and liver remained at a low level at any time point in control group, but increased significantly in ALF group and BMSCs group. The serum and liver HMGB1 expression increased progressively in ALF group, but reduced gradually in BMSCs group. Significant difference in serum and liver HMGB1 expression was observed between ALF group and BMSCs group at 24 h and 72 h. In addition, there was marked difference in the survival rate among three groups at 24 h (χ2=21.098, P<0.01). Conclusion: BMSCs transplantation is able to improve the liver function and liver pathology in ALF rats and decrease the serum and liver HMGB1. PMID:26884873

  8. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  9. Evaluation of Encapsulated Liver Cell Spheroids in a Fluidised-Bed Bioartificial Liver for Treatment of Ischaemic Acute Liver Failure in Pigs in a Translational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Clare; Spearman, Catherine Wendy; Kahn, Delawir; Miller, Malcolm; Figaji, Anthony; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Arendse, Hiram; Gautier, Aude; Sharratt, Peter; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey

    2013-01-01

    Liver failure is an increasing problem. Donor-organ shortage results in patients dying before receiving a transplant. Since the liver can regenerate, alternative therapies providing temporary liver-support are sought. A bioartificial-liver would temporarily substitute function in liver failure buying time for liver regeneration/organ-procurement. Our aim: to develop a prototype bioartificial-liver-machine (BAL) comprising a human liver-derived cell-line, cultured to phenotypic competence and deliverable in a clinical setting to sites distant from its preparation. The objective of this study was to determine whether its use would improve functional parameters of liver failure in pigs with acute liver failure, to provide proof-of-principle. HepG2cells encapsulated in alginate-beads, proliferated in a fluidised-bed-bioreactor providing a biomass of 4–6×1010cells, were transported from preparation-laboratory to point-of-use operating theatre (6000miles) under perfluorodecalin at ambient temperature. Irreversible ischaemic liver failure was induced in anaesthetised pigs, after portal-systemic-shunt, by hepatic-artery-ligation. Biochemical parameters, intracranial pressure, and functional-clotting were measured in animals connected in an extracorporeal bioartificial-liver circuit. Efficacy was demonstrated comparing outcomes between animals connected to a circuit containing alginate-encapsulated cells (Cell-bead BAL), and those connected to circuit containing alginate capsules without cells (Empty-bead BAL). Cells of the biomass met regulatory standards for sterility and provenance. All animals developed progressive liver-failure after ischaemia induction. Efficacy of BAL was demonstrated since animals connected to a functional biomass (+ cells) had significantly smaller rises in intracranial pressure, lower ammonia levels, more bilirubin conjugation, improved acidosis and clotting restoration compared to animals connected to the circuit without cells. In the +cell

  10. Extending Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Survival In Vitro with Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Glettig, Dean Liang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) cannot be maintained in vitro for extended time periods because they rapidly differentiate or die. To extend in vitro culture time, researchers have made attempts to use human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to create feeder layers that mimic the stem cell niche. We have conducted an array of experiments including adipocytes in these feeder layers that inhibit hHSC differentiation and by that prolong stem cell survival in vitro. The amount of CD34+ cells was quantified using flow cytometry. In a first experiment, feeder layers of undifferentiated hMSCs were compared with feeder layers differentiated toward osteoblasts or adipocytes using minimal medium, showing the highest survival rate where adipocytes were included. The same conclusion was drawn in a second experiment in comparing hMSCs with adipogenic feeder cells, using a culture medium supplemented with a cocktail of hHSC growth factors. In a third experiment, it was shown that direct cell–cell contact is necessary for the supportive effect of the feeder layers. In a fourth and fifth experiment the amount of adipocytes in the feeder layers were varied, and in all experiments a higher amount of adipocytes in the feeder layers showed a less rapid decay of CD34+ cells at later time points. We therefore concluded that adipocytes assist in suppressing hHSC differentiation and aid in prolonging their survival in vitro. PMID:23741628

  11. A tryptophan derivative, ITE, enhances liver cell metabolic functions in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Lu, Juan; He, Bin; Tang, Lingling; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Danhua; Cao, Hongcui; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Cell encapsulation provides a three-dimensional support by incorporating isolated cells into microcapsules with the goal of simultaneously maintaining cell survival and function, as well as providing active transport for a bioreactor in vitro similarly to that observed in vivo. However, the biotransformation and metabolic functions of the encapsulated cells are not satisfactory for clinical applications. For this purpose, in this study, hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells/C3A cells were treated with 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), an endogenous non-toxic ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor, in monolayer cultures and on microspheres. The mRNA and protein levels, as well as the metabolic activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, albumin secretion and urea synthesis were determined. When the Huh7 and C3A cells cultured in a monolayer on two-dimensional surfaces, ITE enhanced the protein levels and the metabolic activities of the major cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1, and slightly increased albumin secretion and urea synthesis. Moreover, when cultured on microspheres, ITE also substantially increased the protein levels and metabolic activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1 in both liver cell lines. On the whole, our findings indicate that ITE enhances the enzymatic activities of major CYP450 enzymes and the metabolic functions of liver cells cultured in monolayer or on microspheres, indicating that it may be utilized to improve the functions of hepatocytes. Thus, it may be used in the future for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:27959388

  12. A tryptophan derivative, ITE, enhances liver cell metabolic functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Lu, Juan; He, Bin; Tang, Lingling; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Danhua; Cao, Hongcui; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Cell encapsulation provides a three-dimensional support by incorporating isolated cells into microcapsules with the goal of simultaneously maintaining cell survival and function, as well as providing active transport for a bioreactor in vitro similarly to that observed in vivo. However, the biotra-nsformation and metabolic functions of the encapsulated cells are not satisfactory for clinical applications. For this purpose, in this study, hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells/C3A cells were treated with 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), an endogenous non-toxic ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor, in monolayer cultures and on microspheres. The mRNA and protein levels, as well as the metabolic activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, albumin secretion and urea synthesis were determined. When the Huh7 and C3A cells cultured in a monolayer on two‑dimensional surfaces, ITE enhanced the protein levels and the metabolic activities of the major cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1, and slightly increased albumin secretion and urea synthesis. Moreover, when cultured on microspheres, ITE also substantially increased the protein levels and metabolic activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1 in both liver cell lines. On the whole, our findings indicate that ITE enhances the enzymatic activities of major CYP450 enzymes and the metabolic functions of liver cells cultured in monolayer or on microspheres, indicating that it may be utilized to improve the functions of hepatocytes. Thus, it may be used in the future for the treatment of liver diseases.

  13. Survival Benefits of Small Anatomical Resection of the Liver for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Impaired Liver Function, Based on New-Era Imaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Sakoda, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinichi; Iino, Satoshi; Hiwatashi, Kiyokazu; Minami, Koji; Kawasaki, Yota; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Mataki, Yuko; Maemura, Kosei; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that anatomical resection of the liver may be preferred for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and is at least recommended for systematic removal of a segment confined by tumor-bearing portal tributaries. However, nonanatomical resection (NAR) is often selected because of the patient's background, impairment of liver function, and tumor factors. The aims of the present study were to retrospectively compare the recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for cases of partial resection (PR) and for small anatomical resection (SAR), which is regarded as NAR for primary HCC with impaired liver function. So-called NAR was performed for a primary and solitary (≤ 5cm) HCC in 47 patients; the patients were classified into PR (n=25) and SAR (n=22) groups. Clinicopathological factors, survival data, and recurrence patterns were compared between groups. There were no significant differences in the preoperative characteristics between the two groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the SAR group than in the PR group. There was no significant difference in the postoperative morbidity and tumor pathological characteristics between the two groups. The RFS of the SAR group was significantly better than those of the PR group. Although there was no significant difference in the pattern of recurrence between the two groups, the rate of intrahepatic recurrence in the same segment as the initial tumor tended to be higher in the PR group than in the SAR group. Multivariate analysis revealed that only the PR operative procedure was significant independent risk factor for poorer RFS. Compared with PR, SAR effectively improves the rate of RFS after surgery for a primary and solitary HCC with impaired liver function.

  14. Low Survival Rates of Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Júnior, Francisco Feliciano; dos Santos, Karine de Cássia Batista; Ferreira, Stefania Jeronimo

    2017-01-01

    Aim To assess the epidemiological and clinical factors that influence the prognosis of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods One hundred and twenty-one cases of oral and oropharyngeal SCC were selected. The survival curves for each variable were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model was applied to assess the effect of the variables on survival. Results Cancers at an advanced stage were observed in 103 patients (85.1%). Cancers on the tongue were more frequent (23.1%). The survival analysis was 59.9% in one year, 40.7% in two years, and 27.8% in 5 years. There was a significant low survival rate linked to alcohol intake (p = 0.038), advanced cancer staging (p = 0.003), and procedures without surgery (p < 0.001). When these variables were included in the Cox regression model only surgery procedures (p = 0.005) demonstrated a significant effect on survival. Conclusion The findings suggest that patients who underwent surgery had a greater survival rate compared with those that did not. The low survival rates and the high percentage of patients diagnosed at advanced stages demonstrate that oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients should receive more attention. PMID:28638410

  15. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  16. SIMULTANEOUS LIVER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT CANDIDATES WITH RENAL DYSFUNCTION: IMPORTANCE OF CREATININE LEVELS, DIALYSIS, AND ORGAN QUALITY IN SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Tanriover, Bekir; MacConmara, Malcolm P.; Parekh, Justin; Arce, Cristina; Zhang, Song; Gao, Ang; Mufti, Arjmand; Levea, Swee-Ling; Sandikci, Burhaneddin; Ayvaci, Mehmet U.S.; Ariyamuthu, Venketash K.; Hwang, Christine; Mohan, Sumit; Mete, Mutlu; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Marrero, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival benefit from simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK) over liver transplant alone (LTA) in recipients with moderate renal dysfunction is not well understood. Moreover, the impact of deceased donor organ quality in SLK transplant survival has not been well described in the literature. Methods The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was studied for adult recipients receiving LTA (N=2,700) or SLK (N=1,361) transplantation with moderate renal insufficiency between 2003 and 2013. The study cohort was stratified into four groups based on serum creatinine (Scr< 2 mg/dL versus Scr≥ 2 mg/dL) and dialysis status at listing and at transplant. The patients with end-stage renal disease and requiring acute dialysis more than three months before transplantation were excluded. A propensity score (PS)-matching was performed in each stratified groups to factor out imbalances between the SLK and LTA regarding covariates distribution and to reduce measured confounding. Donor quality was assessed with liver-donor risk index (L-DRI). The primary outcome of interest was post-transplant mortality. Results On multivariable PS-matched Cox proportional hazard models, SLK led to decrease in post-transplant mortality compared to LTA across all four groups, but only reached statistical significance (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62–0.96) in the recipients not exposed to dialysis and Scr≥ 2 mg/dL at transplant (mortality incidence rate per patient-year 5.7% in SLK vs. 7.6% in LTA, p=0.005). The decrease in mortality was observed among SLK recipients with better quality donors (L-DRI<1.5). Conclusions Exposure to pre-transplantation dialysis and donor quality affected overall survival among SLK recipients. PMID:27942610

  17. Status of and candidates for cell therapy in liver cirrhosis: overcoming the "point of no return" in advanced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Terai, Shuji; Tsuchiya, Atsunori

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of liver cirrhosis is currently being standardized and developed specifically to reduce activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), inhibit fibrosis, increase degradation of matrix components, and reduce activated myofibroblasts. Cell therapy can be applied in the treatment of liver cirrhosis; however, the characteristic features of this therapy differ from those of other treatments because of the involvement of a living body origin and production of multiple cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and growth factors. Thus, cell therapies can potentially have multiple effects on the damaged liver, including alleviating liver cirrhosis and stimulating liver regeneration with affecting the host cells. Cell therapies initially involved autologous bone marrow cell infusion, and have recently developed to include the use of specific cells such as mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages. The associated molecular mechanisms, routes of administration, possibility of allogeneic cell therapy, and host conditions appropriate for cell therapies are now being extensively analyzed. In this review, we summarize the status and future prospects of cell therapy for liver cirrhosis.

  18. Bioluminescence Imaging of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Overexpression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor4α: Tracking Biodistribution and Survival.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peiyi; Hu, Xiaojun; Li, Dan; Xie, Sidong; Zhou, Zhiyang; Meng, Xiaochun; Shan, Hong

    2018-05-14

    The purposes of this study were to construct immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (UE7T-13) with overexpression of the hepatocyte nuclear factor4α (hHNF4α) and luciferase2-mKate2 dual-fusion reporter gene, further investigate their impact on treating acute liver injury (ALI) in rats, and track their biodistribution and survival by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The hHNF4α and luciferase2-mKate2 genes were transduced by a lentiviral vector into UE7T-13 cells (named E7-hHNF4α-R cells), and expression was verified by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry. E7-hGFP-R cells expressing the luciferase2-mKate2/hGFP gene served as a negative group. A correlation between the bioluminescence signal and cell number was detected by BLI. The ALI rats were established and divided into three groups: PBS, E7-hGFP-R, and E7-hHNF4α-R. After transplantation of 2.0 × 10 6 cells, BLI was used to dynamically track their biodistribution and survival. The restoration of biological functions was assessed by serum biochemical and histological analyses. Stable high-level expression of hHNF4α and mKate2 protein was established in the E7-hHNF4α-R cells in vitro. The E7-hHNF4α-R cells strongly expressed hGFP, hHNF4α, and mKate2 proteins, and the hHNF4α gene. hGFP-mKate2 dual-positive cell expression reached approximately 93 %. BLI verified that a linear relationship existed between the cell number and bioluminescence signal (R 2  = 0.9991). The cells improved liver function in vivo after transplantation into the ALI rat liver, as evidenced by the fact that AST and ALT temporarily returned to normal levels in the recipient ALI rats. The presence of the transplanted E7-hGFP-R and E7-hHNF4α-R cells in recipient rat livers was confirmed by BLI and immunohistochemistry. However, the cells were cleared by the immune system a short time after transplantation into ALI rats with a normal immune system. Our data revealed that the E7-hHNF4α-R cells can

  19. Subretinal Implantation of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Derived From Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Improved Survival When Implanted as a Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Bruno; Thomas, Padmaja; Thomas, Biju; Ribeiro, Ramiro; Hu, Yuntao; Brant, Rodrigo; Ahuja, Ashish; Zhu, Danhong; Liu, Laura; Koss, Michael; Maia, Mauricio; Chader, Gerald; Hinton, David R.; Humayun, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate cell survival and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cell–derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE) transplantation in immunocompromised nude rats. Cells were transplanted as a cell suspension (CS) or as a polarized monolayer plated on a parylene membrane (PM). Methods. Sixty-nine rats (38 male, 31 female) were surgically implanted with CS (n = 33) or PM (n = 36). Cohort subsets were killed at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Both ocular tissues and systemic organs (brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, and lungs) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Every fifth section was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed histologically. Adjacent sections were processed for immunohistochemical analysis (as needed) using the following antibodies: anti-RPE65 (RPE-specific marker), anti-TRA-1-85 (human cell marker), anti-Ki67 (proliferation marker), anti-CD68 (macrophage), and anti-cytokeratin (epithelial marker). Results. The implanted cells were immunopositive for the RPE65 and TRA-1-85. Cell survival (P = 0.006) and the presence of a monolayer (P < 0.001) of hESC-RPE were significantly higher in eyes that received the PM. Gross morphological and histological analysis of the eye and the systemic organs after the surgery revealed no evidence of tumor or ectopic tissue formation in either group. Conclusions. hESC-RPE can survive for at least 12 months in an immunocompromised animal model. Polarized monolayers of hESC-RPE show improved survival compared to cell suspensions. The lack of teratoma or any ectopic tissue formation in the implanted rats bodes well for similar results with respect to safety in human subjects. PMID:23833067

  20. Cytokines, hepatic cell profiling and cell interactions during bone marrow cell therapy for liver fibrosis in cholestatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Daphne; Leirós, Luana; Dáu, Juliana Barbosa Torreão; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; Thole, Alessandra Alves; Cortez, Erika Afonso Costa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Lais

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow cells (BMC) migrate to the injured liver after transplantation, contributing to regeneration through multiple pathways, but mechanisms involved are unclear. This work aimed to study BMC migration, characterize cytokine profile, cell populations and proliferation in mice with liver fibrosis transplanted with GFP+ BMC. Confocal microscopy analysis showed GFP+ BMC near regions expressing HGF and SDF-1 in the fibrotic liver. Impaired liver cell proliferation in fibrotic groups was restored after BMC transplantation. Regarding total cell populations, there was a significant reduction in CD68+ cells and increased Ly6G+ cells in transplanted fibrotic group. BMC contributed to the total populations of CD144, CD11b and Ly6G cells in the fibrotic liver, related to an increment of anti-fibrotic cytokines (IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ and HGF) and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A and IL-6). Therefore, HGF and SDF-1 may represent important chemoattractants for transplanted BMC in the injured liver, where these cells can give rise to populations of extrahepatic macrophages, neutrophils and endothelial progenitor cells that can interact synergistically with other liver cells towards the modulation of an anti-fibrotic cytokine profile promoting the onset of liver regeneration. PMID:29176797

  1. Control of Cell Survival in Adult Mammalian Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, H Georg

    2015-10-28

    The fact that continuous proliferation of stem cells and progenitors, as well as the production of new neurons, occurs in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) raises several basic questions concerning the number of neurons required in a particular system. Can we observe continued growth of brain regions that sustain neurogenesis? Or does an elimination mechanism exist to maintain a constant number of cells? If so, are old neurons replaced, or are the new neurons competing for limited network access among each other? What signals support their survival and integration and what factors are responsible for their elimination? This review will address these and other questions regarding regulatory mechanisms that control cell-death and cell-survival mechanisms during neurogenesis in the intact adult mammalian brain. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of three Wenyang Jianpi Tang on cell proliferation and apoptosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yao; Tao, Dong-Qing; Liu, Song; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Wei; Shi, Zhao-Hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Sijunzi Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells through the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model established by inducing L02 cells with oleic acid. Different concentrations of oleic acid were added into L02 cells to induce the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model. Oil red O staining was used to observe fatty droplets of fatty liver cells. Automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the levels of aspartic transaminase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), total cholesterol(TC), and triglyceride(TG) in the cell supernatants. There were five groups, namely normal group, model group, model and Sijunzi Tang group, model and Lizhong Tang group, and model and Fuzi Lizhong Tang group. The cell proliferation and apoptosis of the five groups were detected by MTT colorimetry test and flow cytometer. The expressions of PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins of the five groups were detected by Western blot. The oil red O staining results showed that the optimum concentration of oleic acid that was used to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver cell models was 80 mg•L-1. The levels of AST, ALT, TC and TG in the nonalcoholic fatty liver cell supernatants were higher than that in normal liver cell supernatants(P<0.01). MTT colorimetry test and flow cytometer results showed that all of Sijunzi Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang could effectively promote the cell proliferation, and inhibit the cellular apoptosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells(P<0.01). And Fuzi Lizhong Tang showed the best effect. Western blot results showed that Sijunzi Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang could down-regulate the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-9 and Bax proteins, and up-regulate the expressions of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins of nonalcoholic fatty liver cells. And Fuzi Lizhong Tang showed the best effect

  3. Protein tyrosine phosphatase of liver regeneration-1 is required for normal timing of cell cycle progression during liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ye, Diana Z.; Li, Zhaoyu; Teta-Bissett, Monica; Peng, Yong; Taub, Rebecca; Greenbaum, Linda E.

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase of liver regeneration-1 (Prl-1) is an immediate-early gene that is significantly induced during liver regeneration. Several in vitro studies have suggested that Prl-1 is important for the regulation of cell cycle progression. To evaluate its function in liver regeneration, we ablated the Prl-1 gene specifically in mouse hepatocytes using the Cre-loxP system. Prl-1 mutant mice (Prl-1loxP/loxP;AlfpCre) appeared normal and fertile. Liver size and metabolic function in Prl-1 mutants were comparable to controls, indicating that Prl-1 is dispensable for liver development, postnatal growth, and hepatocyte differentiation. Mutant mice demonstrated a delay in DNA synthesis after 70% partial hepatectomy, although ultimate liver mass restoration was not affected. At 40 h posthepatectomy, reduced protein levels of the cell cycle regulators cyclin E, cyclin A2, cyclin B1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 were observed in Prl-1 mutant liver. Investigation of the major signaling pathways involved in liver regeneration demonstrated that phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 were significantly reduced at 40 h posthepatectomy in Prl-1 mutants. Taken together, this study provides evidence that Prl-1 is required for proper timing of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Prl-1 promotes G1/S progression via modulating expression of several cell cycle regulators through activation of the AKT and STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:25377314

  4. Nano scaffolds and stem cell therapy in liver tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been constantly developing of late due to the major progress in cell and organ transplantation, as well as advances in materials science and engineering. Although stem cells hold great potential for the treatment of many injuries and degenerative diseases, several obstacles must be overcome before their therapeutic application can be realized. These include the development of advanced techniques to understand and control functions of micro environmental signals and novel methods to track and guide transplanted stem cells. A major complication encountered with stem cell therapies has been the failure of injected cells to engraft to target tissues. The application of nanotechnology to stem cell biology would be able to address those challenges. Combinations of stem cell therapy and nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have achieved significant advances. These combinations allow nanotechnology to engineer scaffolds with various features to control stem cell fate decisions. Fabrication of Nano fiber cell scaffolds onto which stem cells can adhere and spread, forming a niche-like microenvironment which can guide stem cells to proceed to heal damaged tissues. In this paper, current and emergent approach based on stem cells in the field of liver tissue engineering is presented for specific application. The combination of stem cells and tissue engineering opens new perspectives in tissue regeneration for stem cell therapy because of the potential to control stem cell behavior with the physical and chemical characteristics of the engineered scaffold environment.

  5. Erythropoietin Augments Survival of Glioma Cells After Radiation and Temozolomide

    SciT

    Hassouna, Imam; Sperling, Swetlana; Kim, Ella

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: Despite beneficial effects of irradiation/chemotherapy on survival of glioblastoma (GBM) patients, collateral damage to intact neural tissue leads to 'radiochemobrain' and reduced quality of life in survivors. For prophylactic neuroprotection, erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising candidate, provided that concerns regarding potential tumor promoting effects are alleviated. Methods and Materials: Human GBM-derived cell lines U87, G44, G112, and the gliosarcoma-derived line G28 were treated with EPO, with and without combinations of irradiation or temozolomide (TMZ). Responsiveness of glioma cells to EPO was measured by cell migration from spheroids, cell proliferation, and clonogenic survival. Implantation of U87 cells into brains ofmore » nude mice, followed 5 days later by EPO treatment (5,000 U/kg intraperitoneal every other day for 2 weeks) should reveal effects of EPO on tumor growth in vivo. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed for EPOR, HIF-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)vIII in cell lines and 22 human GBM specimens. Results: EPO did not modulate basal glioma cell migration and stimulated proliferation in only one of four cell lines. Importantly, EPO did not enhance tumor growth in mouse brains. Preincubation of glioma cells with EPO for 3 h, followed by irradiation and TMZ for another 24 h, resulted in protection against chemoradiation-induced cytotoxicity in three cell lines. Conversely, EPO induced a dose-dependent decrease in survival of G28 gliosarcoma cells. In GBM specimens, expression of HIF-1{alpha} correlated positively with expression of EPOR and EGFRvIII. EPOR and EGFRvIII expression did not correlate. Conclusions: EPO is unlikely to appreciably influence basal glioma growth. However, concomitant use of EPO with irradiation/chemotherapy in GBM patients is not advisable.« less

  6. Low dietary boron reduces parasite (nematoda) survival and alters cytokine profiles but the infection modifies liver minerals in mice.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Scott, Marilyn E; Sabally, Kebba; Koski, Kristine G

    2007-09-01

    Although boron (B) is an essential trace mineral, any interactions that it may have with gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are unknown. This study explored whether low dietary B would: 1) alter survival or reproduction of Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda); 2) modify the resulting cytokine response to this parasitic infection; or 3) influence liver mineral concentrations in the infected host. Balb/c mice were fed either a low-B (0.2 microg B/g), marginal (2.0 microg B/g), or control (12.0 microg B/g) diet. Diets commenced 3 wk before a primary infection and were fed for 4 wk (primary infection protocol) and 8-9 wk (challenge infection protocol). Mice were killed 6 d post-primary infection (d6ppi), or dewormed then reinfected (challenge infection protocol) and killed 14 or 21 d post-challenge infection (d14pci or d21pci, respectively). Low and marginal dietary B intakes impaired survival of the parasite, reduced intestinal inflammation, and modulated a broad range of cytokines and chemokines despite similar liver B concentrations in diet groups. Compared with control mice, cytokine production was lower following low and marginal B intakes at d6ppi but was elevated at d21pci. Serum alkaline phosphatase was higher at d6ppi than at d14pci and d21pci. Compared with d14pci, liver zinc, iron, and B concentrations were reduced at d21pci when worm numbers were also lower, whereas concentrations of sodium, potassium, molybdenum, chromium, and sulfur were higher. This study shows that parasite survival and cytokine and inflammatory responses are modified by dietary B intake but indicates that a GI nematode infection alters liver mineral concentrations.

  7. A retrospective 15-year review: survival advantage after switching to sirolimus in hepatitis C virus infected liver graft recipients.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Shankar, A; Gee, I; Nash, K; Hoare, M; Gibbs, P; Davies, S; Alexander, G J M

    2015-02-01

    The use of sirolimus-based immune suppression in liver transplantation, particularly in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected recipients, remains contentious. There is some evidence that sirolimus retards hepatic fibrosis, is renal sparing and may be of benefit in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Sirolimus has not been adopted by many transplant centres because of persistent concerns regarding an increased risk of hepatic artery thrombosis, graft loss and death with de novo sirolimus. To review the impact of switching to sirolimus monotherapy in HCV-infected liver recipients with respect to survival, graft loss and hepatic fibrosis. A retrospective review of 190 patients from a single centre undergoing first liver transplantation for HCV over 15 years. 113 patients were switched from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy to low-dose sirolimus monotherapy at a median of 15 months after transplantation for HCV-related fibrosis (72%), renal impairment (14%) or high-risk HCC (5%). Patients switched to sirolimus had improved survival (P < 0.001) and slower progression to cirrhosis (P = 0.001). In patients with HCC (n = 91), sirolimus duration rather than strategy was an independent predictor of survival (P = 0.001) and extended time to HCC recurrence (33 vs. 16 months). Patients switched for renal dysfunction showed improvement in serum creatinine (140-108 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Those remaining on CNI-therapy were more likely to develop post-transplant diabetes (P = 0.03). These data suggest selective switching to low-dose sirolimus monotherapy in HCV-positive liver recipients improves clinical outcome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Incidence, survival and cause-specific mortality in alcoholic liver disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Färkkilä, Martti

    2016-08-01

    We studied the incidence of severe ALD requiring hospitalization in Finland, and survival and causes of death among the ALD patients. A cohort of 11,873 persons (8796 men and 3077 women) with diagnosis of ALD during the years 1996-2012 was identified from Finnish national Inpatient Register. The annual incidence of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and alcoholic liver cirrhosis was calculated. The cohort was combined with the data from national Cause of Death Register of Statistics Finland. The incidence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis increased from 8.8/100,000 in year 2001 to 14.6/100,000 in year 2012 among men and from 2.4 to 4.2/100,000 among women. The incidence of AH increased from 3.7 to 6.5/100,000 among men and from 1.3 to 2.7/100,000 among women. The relative 5-year survival ratios of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and AH were 29 and 50% among men and 38 and 52% among women, respectively. Out of 8440 deaths, 65% were due to alcoholic-related causes. The risk of death among ALD patients was increased in malignancies (SMR 6.82; 95% CI: 6.35-7.29), cardiovascular diseases (6.13; 5.74-6.52), respiratory diseases (7.86; 6.70-9.10), dementia (3.31; 2.41-4.44) and accidents and violence (11.12; 10.13-12.15). The incidence of AH and alcoholic liver cirrhosis is increasing. The survival is poor. Most deaths are alcohol-related and other common causes of excess deaths are cancers especially in the upper aerodigestive tract and cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory diseases as well as violence and accidents.

  9. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    SciT

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinasemore » B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.« less

  10. FGF7 is a functional niche signal required for stimulation of adult liver progenitor cells that support liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Takase, Hinako M.; Itoh, Tohru; Ino, Seitaro; Wang, Ting; Koji, Takehiko; Akira, Shizuo; Takikawa, Yasuhiro; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The liver is a unique organ with a remarkably high potential to regenerate upon injuries. In severely damaged livers where hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, facultative liver progenitor cells (LPCs) proliferate and are assumed to contribute to regeneration. An expansion of LPCs is often observed in patients with various types of liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of LPC activation still remains largely unknown. Here we show that a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF7, is a critical regulator of LPCs. Its expression was induced concomitantly with LPC response in the liver of mouse models as well as in the serum of patients with acute liver failure. Fgf7-deficient mice exhibited markedly depressed LPC expansion and higher mortality upon toxin-induced hepatic injury. Transgenic expression of FGF7 in vivo led to the induction of cells with characteristics of LPCs and ameliorated hepatic dysfunction. We revealed that Thy1+ mesenchymal cells produced FGF7 and appeared in close proximity to LPCs, implicating a role for those cells as the functional LPC niche in the regenerating liver. These findings provide new insights into the cellular and molecular basis for LPC regulation and identify FGF7 as a potential therapeutic target for liver diseases. PMID:23322300

  11. CXCR7 functions in colon cancer cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HONGXIAN; TAO, LINYU; QI, KE; ZHANG, HAOYUN; FENG, DUO; WEI, WENJUN; KONG, HENG; CHEN, TIANWEN; LIN, QIUSHENG; CHEN, DAOJIN

    2015-01-01

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a known promoter of tumor progression and metastasis; however, little is known about its role in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of CXCR7 in human colon cancer cells. CXCR7 mRNA levels were examined in HT-29 and SW-480 human colon cancer cell lines using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CXCR7-knockdown was performed with small interfering RNA and lentiviral-mediated gene delivery. Immunofluorescence (IF) was conducted to examine CXCR7 expression and localization in colon cancer cells. Cell survival and migration were evaluated using MTT and migration assays, respectively. HT-29 cells expressed higher levels of CXCR7 mRNA and were therefore used in subsequent experiments. IF staining revealed that the CXCR7 protein was expressed on the cell membrane, and its expression decreased following CXCR7-short hairpin RNA lentiviral transfection. Lentiviral CXCR7-knockdown resulted in decreased cell survival and migration; however, MTT assays revealed that the lentiviral vector itself was cytotoxic. This cytotoxicity was indicated as the cell survival of the negative control group cells was significantly decreased compared with that of the blank control group cells (P<0.05). In conclusion, it is becoming increasingly evident that CXCR7 plays a role in colon cancer promotion, suggesting that CXCR7 is a promising biomarker for chemokine receptor-based drug development. Furthermore, the fact that CXCR7 is expressed on the membrane and not intracellularly makes it a prime target for drug-based intervention. PMID:26640542

  12. Survival benefits of interferon-based therapy in patients with recurrent hepatitis C after orthotopic liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zanaga, L.P.; Vigani, A.G.; Angerami, R.N.; Giorgetti, A.; Escanhoela, C.A.F.; Ataíde, E.C.; Boin, I.F.S.F.; Stucchi, R.S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent hepatitis C after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is universal and can lead to graft failure and, consequently, reduced survival. Hepatitis C treatment can be used to prevent these detrimental outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe rates of hepatitis C recurrence and sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon-based treatment after OLT and its relationship to survival and progression of liver disease through retrospective analysis of medical records of 127 patients who underwent OLT due to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma secondary to chronic hepatitis C between January 2002 and December 2013. Fifty-six patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease, 42 started interferon-based therapy and 37 completed treatment. Demographic, treatment- and outcome-related variables were compared between SVR and non-responders (non-SVR). There was an overall 54.1% SVR rate with interferon-based therapies. SVR was associated with longer follow-up after treatment (median 66.5 vs 37 months for non-SVR, P=0.03) and after OLT (median 105 vs 72 months, P=0.074), and lower rates of disease progression (15 vs 64.7%, P=0.0028) and death (5 vs 35.3%, P=0.033). Regardless of the result of therapy (SVR or non-SVR), there was a significant difference between treated and untreated patients regarding the occurrence of death (P<0.001) and months of survival (P<0.001). Even with suboptimal interferon-based therapies (compared to the new direct-acting antivirals) there is a 54.1% SVR rate to treatment. SVR is associated with improved survival and reduced risks of clinical decompensation, loss of the liver graft and death. PMID:28076451

  13. Impact of perioperative liver dysfunction on in-hospital mortality and long-term survival in infective endocarditis patients.

    PubMed

    Diab, M; Sponholz, C; von Loeffelholz, C; Scheffel, P; Bauer, M; Kortgen, A; Lehmann, T; Färber, G; Pletz, M W; Doenst, T

    2017-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is often associated with multiorgan dysfunction and mortality. The impact of perioperative liver dysfunction (LD) on outcome remains unclear and little is known about factors leading to postoperative LD. We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis on 285 patients with left-sided IE without pre-existing chronic liver disease referred to our center between 2007 and 2013 for valve surgery. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was used to evaluate organ dysfunction. Chi-square, Cox regression, and multivariate analyses were used for evaluation. Preoperative LD (Bilirubin >20 μmol/L) was present in 68 of 285 patients. New, postoperative LD occurred in 54 patients. Hypoxic hepatitis presented the most common origin of LD, accompanied with high short-term mortality. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with preoperative and postoperative LD compared to patients without LD (51.5, 24.1, and 10.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). 5-year survival was worse in patients with pre- or postoperative LD compared to patients without LD (20.1, 37.1, and 57.0% respectively). A landmark analysis revealed similar 5-year survival between groups after patient discharge. Quality of life was similar between groups when patients survived the perioperative period. Logistic regression analysis identified duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and S. aureus infection as independent predictors of postoperative LD. Perioperative liver dysfunction in patients with infective endocarditis is an independent predictor of short- and long-term mortalities. After surviving the hospital stay, 5-year prognosis is not different and quality of life is not affected by LD. S. aureus and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass represent risk factors for postoperative LD.

  14. Biliary epithelium and liver B cells exposed to bacteria activate intrahepatic MAIT cells through MR1.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Hannah C; van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Kurioka, Ayako; Parekh, Krishan; Stirling, Kathryn; Roberts, Sheree; Dutton, Emma E; Hunter, Stuart; Geh, Daniel; Braitch, Manjit K; Rajanayagam, Jeremy; Iqbal, Tariq; Pinkney, Thomas; Brown, Rachel; Withers, David R; Adams, David H; Klenerman, Paul; Oo, Ye H

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells characterised by the invariant TCR-chain, Vα7.2-Jα33, and are restricted by MR1, which presents bacterial vitamin B metabolites. They are important for antibacterial immunity at mucosal sites; however, detailed characteristics of liver-infiltrating MAIT (LI-MAIT) and their role in biliary immune surveillance remain unexplored. The phenotype and intrahepatic localisation of human LI-MAIT cells was examined in diseased and normal livers. MAIT cell activation in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, biliary epithelial cells (BEC) and liver B cells was assessed with/without anti-MR1. Intrahepatic MAIT cells predominantly localised to bile ducts in the portal tracts. Consistent with this distribution, they expressed biliary tropic chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR6, and integrin αEβ7. LI-MAIT cells were also present in the hepatic sinusoids and possessed tissue-homing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, suggesting their recruitment via hepatic sinusoids. LI-MAIT cells were enriched in the parenchyma of acute liver failure livers compared to chronic diseased livers. LI-MAIT cells had an activated, effector memory phenotype, expressed α4β7 and receptors for IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23. Importantly, in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, liver B cells and BEC, MAIT cells upregulated IFN-γ and CD40 Ligand and degranulated in an MR1-dependent, cytokine-independent manner. In addition, diseased liver MAIT cells expressed T-bet and RORγt and the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Our findings provide the first evidence of an immune surveillance effector response for MAIT cells towards BEC in human liver; thus they could be manipulated for treatment of biliary disease in the future. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stem-like plasticity and heterogeneity of circulating tumor cells: current status and prospect challenges in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Correnti, Margherita; Raggi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Poor prognosis and high recurrence remain leading causes of primary liver cancerassociated mortality. The spread of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood plays a major role in the initiation of metastasis and tumor recurrence after surgery. Nevertheless, only a subset of CTCs can survive, migrate to distant sites and establish secondary tumors. Consistent with cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, stem-like CTCs might represent a potential source for cancer relapse and distant metastasis. Thus, identification of stem-like metastasis-initiating CTC-subset may provide useful clinically prognostic information. This review will emphasize the most relevant findings of CTCs in the context of stem-like biology associated to liver carcinogenesis. In this view, the emerging field of stem-like CTCs may deliver substantial contribution in liver cancer field in order to move to personalized approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. PMID:27738343

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 as a key regulator of liver progenitor cells in DDC-induced cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Addante, Annalisa; Roncero, Cesáreo; Almalé, Laura; Lazcanoiturburu, Nerea; García-Álvaro, María; Fernández, Margarita; Sanz, Julián; Hammad, Seddik; Nwosu, Zeribe C; Lee, Se-Jin; Fabregat, Isabel; Dooley, Steven; Ten Dijke, Peter; Herrera, Blanca; Sánchez, Aránzazu

    2018-05-11

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) interferes with liver regeneration upon acute injury, while promoting fibrosis upon carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic injury. We have now addressed the role of BMP9 in 3,5 diethoxicarbonyl-1,4 dihydrocollidine (DDC)-induced cholestatic liver injury, a model of liver regeneration mediated by hepatic progenitor cell (known as oval cell), exemplified as ductular reaction and oval cell expansion. WT and BMP9KO mice were submitted to DDC diet. Livers were examined for liver injury, fibrosis, inflammation and oval cell expansion by serum biochemistry, histology, RT-qPCR and western blot. BMP9 signalling and effects in oval cells were studied in vitro using western blot and transcriptional assays, plus functional assays of DNA synthesis, cell viability and apoptosis. Crosslinking assays and short hairpin RNA approaches were used to identify the receptors mediating BMP9 effects. Deletion of BMP9 reduces liver damage and fibrosis, but enhances inflammation upon DDC feeding. Molecularly, absence of BMP9 results in overactivation of PI3K/AKT, ERK-MAPKs and c-Met signalling pathways, which together with an enhanced ductular reaction and oval cell expansion evidence an improved regenerative response and decreased damage in response to DDC feeding. Importantly, BMP9 directly targets oval cells, it activates SMAD1,5,8, decreases cell growth and promotes apoptosis, effects that are mediated by Activin Receptor-Like Kinase 2 (ALK2) type I receptor. We identify BMP9 as a negative regulator of oval cell expansion in cholestatic injury, its deletion enhancing liver regeneration. Likewise, our work further supports BMP9 as an attractive therapeutic target for chronic liver diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of Cox's Regression Model and Parametric Models in Evaluating the Prognostic Factors for Survival after Liver Transplantation in Shiraz during 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Adelian, R; Jamali, J; Zare, N; Ayatollahi, S M T; Pooladfar, G R; Roustaei, N

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the prognostic factors for survival in patients with liver transplantation is challengeable. Various methods of survival analysis have provided different, sometimes contradictory, results from the same data. To compare Cox's regression model with parametric models for determining the independent factors for predicting adults' and pediatrics' survival after liver transplantation. This study was conducted on 183 pediatric patients and 346 adults underwent liver transplantation in Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, southern Iran. The study population included all patients undergoing liver transplantation from 2000 to 2012. The prognostic factors sex, age, Child class, initial diagnosis of the liver disease, PELD/MELD score, and pre-operative laboratory markers were selected for survival analysis. Among 529 patients, 346 (64.5%) were adult and 183 (34.6%) were pediatric cases. Overall, the lognormal distribution was the best-fitting model for adult and pediatric patients. Age in adults (HR=1.16, p<0.05) and weight (HR=2.68, p<0.01) and Child class B (HR=2.12, p<0.05) in pediatric patients were the most important factors for prediction of survival after liver transplantation. Adult patients younger than the mean age and pediatric patients weighing above the mean and Child class A (compared to those with classes B or C) had better survival. Parametric regression model is a good alternative for the Cox's regression model.

  18. Comparison of Cox’s Regression Model and Parametric Models in Evaluating the Prognostic Factors for Survival after Liver Transplantation in Shiraz during 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Adelian, R.; Jamali, J.; Zare, N.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.; Pooladfar, G. R.; Roustaei, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identification of the prognostic factors for survival in patients with liver transplantation is challengeable. Various methods of survival analysis have provided different, sometimes contradictory, results from the same data. Objective: To compare Cox’s regression model with parametric models for determining the independent factors for predicting adults’ and pediatrics’ survival after liver transplantation. Method: This study was conducted on 183 pediatric patients and 346 adults underwent liver transplantation in Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, southern Iran. The study population included all patients undergoing liver transplantation from 2000 to 2012. The prognostic factors sex, age, Child class, initial diagnosis of the liver disease, PELD/MELD score, and pre-operative laboratory markers were selected for survival analysis. Result: Among 529 patients, 346 (64.5%) were adult and 183 (34.6%) were pediatric cases. Overall, the lognormal distribution was the best-fitting model for adult and pediatric patients. Age in adults (HR=1.16, p<0.05) and weight (HR=2.68, p<0.01) and Child class B (HR=2.12, p<0.05) in pediatric patients were the most important factors for prediction of survival after liver transplantation. Adult patients younger than the mean age and pediatric patients weighing above the mean and Child class A (compared to those with classes B or C) had better survival. Conclusion: Parametric regression model is a good alternative for the Cox’s regression model. PMID:26306158

  19. Dexamethasone-induced haptoglobin release by calf liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, H; Katoh, N; Miyamoto, T; Uchida, E; Yuasa, A; Takahashi, K

    1994-08-01

    Parenchymal cells were isolated from the liver of male calves, and monolayer cultures formed were treated with glucocorticoids to examine whether haptoglobin, appearance of which is associated with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver) in cattle, is induced by steroid hormones. Without addition of dexamethasone, only trace amounts of haptoglobin were detected in culture medium. With addition of dexamethasone (10(-12) to 10(-4) M), considerable amounts of haptoglobin were released into the medium. Maximal release was observed at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-6) M dexamethasone. Haptoglobin release was similarly induced by cortisol, although the effect was less potent than that of dexamethasone. Actinomycin D (a known protein synthesis inhibitor) dose-dependently reduced amounts of haptoglobin released in response to 10(-8) M dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also induced annexin I, which is known to be synthesized in response to glucocorticoids. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in reduced protein kinase C activity in the cell cytosol, which has been shown to be an early event in dexamethasone-treated cells. Other than glucocorticoids, estradiol induced haptoglobin release, whereas progesterone was less effective. The association of haptoglobin with hepatic lipidosis can be reasonably explained by the fact that haptoglobin production by the liver is induced by glucocorticoids and estradiol, and these steroid hormones are triggers for development of hepatic lipidosis in cattle.

  20. Adaptive remodeling of the biliary tree: the essence of liver progenitor cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    The liver progenitor cell population has long been thought to exist within the liver. However, there are no standardized criteria for defining the liver progenitor cells, and there has been intense debate about the origin of these cells in the adult liver. The characteristics of such cells vary depending on the disease model used and also on the method of analysis. Visualization of three-dimensional biliary structures has revealed that the emergence of liver progenitor cells essentially reflects the adaptive remodeling of the hepatic biliary network in response to liver injury. We propose that the progenitor cell exists as a subpopulation in the biliary tree and show that the appearance of liver progenitor cells in injured parenchyma is reflective of extensive remodeling of the biliary structure. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  1. Th-17 cells infiltrate the liver in human biliary atresia and are related to surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Richard; Quaglia, Alberto; Hussain, Munther; Hadzic, Nedim; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego; Davenport, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA), a cholangiopathy of unknown etiology is associated with intrahepatic mononuclear cell infiltrate. An abnormal reaction to viral exposure has been hypothesized in some cases. We aimed to investigate the nature of the CD4+ hepatic infiltrate in defined clinical variants of BA by quantification of inflammatory cell components. Liver biopsies of infants obtained at Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE) were stained immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies to Tbet, GATA-3, FOXP3 and interleukin (IL) 17, identifying Th-1, Th-2, Tregs and Th-17 cells respectively. T cells were counted with the aid of a graticule. Data are reported as median (range) of cells per high-power-field (×400) and compared using nonparametric statistical tests with P≤0.05 regarded as significant. Liver biopsies from BA (n=37) and age-matched cholestatic controls (e.g. alpha-1-anti trypsin deficiency, Alagilles syndrome, n=12) were investigated. BA infants were divided into three groups: cytomegalovirus IgM +ve (CMV; n=9); BA splenic malformation (BASM; n=9) and isolated BA (IBA; n=19). All T-cell subsets were present in the portal tracts, with an overrepresentation of Th-1 (P<0.001) and Th-17 (P<0.03), but not Th-2 (P=0.94) or Tregs (P=0.15), compared to controls. Th-1 cells predominated in the CMV group; (18 [7-37] vs. 3 [0-14] [BASM] and vs. 5 [3-23] [IBA]; P<0.01 both), while no subgroup differences were seen for Th-17 cells. The degree of Th-1 cell infiltrate inversely correlated with platelet count (rS=-0.49; P<0.01). Th-17 cells were fewer (6 [2-11] vs. 11 [8-20]; P=0.02) in infants who cleared their jaundice (n=15, <20μmol/L) although this did not translate to improved native liver survival (P=0.17). Th-17 cells infiltrate the liver in BA and are associated with a worse surgical outcome; a Th-1 profile predominates in CMV-associated BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival after yttrium-90 resin microsphere radioembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma across Barcelona clinic liver cancer stages: a European evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sangro, Bruno; Carpanese, Livio; Cianni, Roberto; Golfieri, Rita; Gasparini, Daniele; Ezziddin, Samer; Paprottka, Philipp M; Fiore, Francesco; Van Buskirk, Mark; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Salvatori, Rita; Giampalma, Emanuela; Geatti, Onelio; Wilhelm, Kai; Hoffmann, Ralf Thorsten; Izzo, Francesco; Iñarrairaegui, Mercedes; Maini, Carlo Ludovico; Urigo, Carlo; Cappelli, Alberta; Vit, Alessandro; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Jakobs, Tobias Franz; Lastoria, Secondo

    2011-09-02

    A multicenter analysis was conducted to evaluate the main prognostic factors driving survival after radioembolization using yttrium-90-labeled resin microspheres in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at eight European centers. In total, 325 patients received a median activity of 1.6 GBq between September 2003 and December 2009, predominantly as whole-liver (45.2%) or right-lobe (38.5%) infusions. Typically, patients were Child-Pugh class A (82.5%), had underlying cirrhosis (78.5%), and had good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (ECOG 0-1; 87.7%), but many had multinodular disease (75.9%) invading both lobes (53.1%) and/or portal vein occlusion (13.5% branch; 9.8% main). Over half had advanced Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging (BCLC C, 56.3%) and one-quarter had intermediate staging (BCLC B, 26.8%). The median overall survival was 12.8 months (95% confidence interval, 10.9-15.7), which varied significantly by disease stage (BCLC A, 24.4 months [95% CI, 18.6-38.1 months]; BCLC B, 16.9 months [95% CI, 12.8-22.8 months]; BCLC C, 10.0 months [95% CI, 7.7-10.9 months]). Consistent with this finding , survival varied significantly by ECOG status, hepatic function (Child-Pugh class, ascites, and baseline total bilirubin), tumor burden (number of nodules, alpha-fetoprotein), and presence of extrahepatic disease. When considered within the framework of BCLC staging, variables reflecting tumor burden and liver function provided additional prognostic information. The most significant independent prognostic factors for survival upon multivariate analysis were ECOG status, tumor burden (nodules >5), international normalized ratio >1.2, and extrahepatic disease. Common adverse events were: fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain. Grade 3 or higher increases in bilirubin were reported in 5.8% of patients. All-cause mortality was 0.6% and 6.8% at 30 and 90 days, respectively. This analysis provides robust evidence of the survival

  3. Acute kidney injury after liver, heart, and lung transplants: dialysis modality, predictors of renal function recovery, and impact on survival.

    PubMed

    Pham, Phuong-Thu T; Slavov, Carmen; Pham, Phuong-Chi T

    2009-07-01

    Recipients of nonrenal organ transplants including the liver, heart, and lung are at risk for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Underlying hepatic or cardiopulmonary failure, prolonged intraoperative hemodynamic instability, and the use of calcineurin inhibitors and nephrotoxic medications have all been suggested to be contributory. The incidence of perioperative AKI has been reported to occur in 17% to 95% in liver transplant recipients, 5% to 30% in heart transplant recipients, and 5% to 60% in recipients of lung transplants. Among those who develop AKI, renal replacement therapy is required in 5% to 35%, 5% to 15%, and 8% to 10% in liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients, respectively. The current article presents an overview of the literature on the choice of dialysis modality and its associated advantages and disadvantages in the management of AKI after liver, heart, and lung transplants. Predictive factors for renal function recovery and the impact of AKI and CKD on survival will also be discussed.

  4. Effect of transplant center volume on post-transplant survival in patients listed for simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Rohan M; Tumin, Dmitry; Kruger, Andrew J; Beal, Eliza W; Hayes, Don; Hanje, James; Michaels, Anthony J; Washburn, Kenneth; Conteh, Lanla F; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid

    2018-01-01

    AIM To examine the effect of center size on survival differences between simultaneous liver kidney transplantation (SLKT) and liver transplantation alone (LTA) in SLKT-listed patients. METHODS The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for patients ≥ 18 years of age listed for SLKT between February 2002 and December 2015. Post-transplant survival was evaluated using stratified Cox regression with interaction between transplant type (LTA vs SLKT) and center volume. RESULTS During the study period, 393 of 4580 patients (9%) listed for SLKT underwent a LTA. Overall mortality was higher among LTA recipients (180/393, 46%) than SLKT recipients (1107/4187, 26%). The Cox model predicted a significant survival disadvantage for patients receiving LTA vs SLKT [hazard ratio, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.85; 95%CI: 2.21, 3.66; P < 0.001] in centers performing 30 SLKT over the study period. This disadvantage was modestly attenuated as center SLKT volume increased, with a 3% reduction (HR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.95, 0.99; P = 0.010) for every 10 SLKs performed. CONCLUSION In conclusion, LTA is associated with increased mortality among patients listed for SLKT. This difference is modestly attenuated at more experienced centers and may explain inconsistencies between smaller-center and larger registry-wide studies comparing SLKT and LTA outcomes. PMID:29399287

  5. Duck hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA appears to survive hepatocyte mitosis in the growing liver

    SciT

    Reaiche-Miller, Georget Y.; Thorpe, Michael; Low, Huey Chi

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues that inhibit hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication are typically used as monotherapy for chronically infected patients. Treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue eliminates most HBV DNA replication intermediates and produces a gradual decline in levels of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the template for viral RNA synthesis. It remains uncertain if levels of cccDNA decline primarily through hepatocyte death, or if loss also occurs during hepatocyte mitosis. To determine if cccDNA survives mitosis, growing ducklings infected with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) were treated with the nucleoside analogue, Entecavir. Viremia was suppressed at least 10{sup 5}-fold, during amore » period when average liver mass increased 23-fold. Analysis of the data suggested that if cccDNA synthesis was completely inhibited, at least 49% of cccDNA survived hepatocyte mitosis. However, there was a large duck-to-duck variation in cccDNA levels, suggesting that low level cccDNA synthesis may contribute to this apparent survival through mitosis. - Highlights: • The hepatitis B virus nuclear template is covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). • cccDNA was studied during liver growth in duck hepatitis B virus infected ducks. • Virus DNA replication and new cccDNA synthesis were inhibited with Entecavir. • At least 49% of cccDNA appeared to survive hepatocyte mitosis. • Low level virus DNA synthesis may contribute to survival of cccDNA through mitosis.« less

  6. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Wataru; Takiguchi, Yuya; Takizawa, Kento; Nakabayashi, Ami; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Nagano-Ito, Michiyo; Ichikawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. PMID:27429636

  7. Marital status and survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Ming-Xi; Qi, Si-Hua

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in several types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of marital status on survival outcomes among renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients.We identified patients diagnosed with RCC between 1973 and 2013 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to identify the effects of marital status on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS).We enrolled 97,662 eligible RCC patients, including 64,884 married patients, and 32,778 unmarried (9831 divorced/separated, 9692 widowed, and 13,255 single) patients at diagnosis. The 5-year OS and CSS rates of the married, separated/divorced, widowed, and single patients were 73.7%, 69.5%, 58.3%, and 73.2% (OS), and 82.2%, 80.7%, 75.7%, and 83.3% (CSS), respectively. Multivariate Cox regression showed that, compared with married patients, widowed individuals showed poorer OS (hazard ratio, 1.419; 95% confidence interval, 1.370-1.469) and CSS (hazard ratio, 1.210; 95% confidence interval, 1.144-1.279). Stratified analyses and multivariate Cox regression showed that, in the insured and uninsured groups, married patients had better survival outcomes while widowed patients suffered worse OS outcomes; however, this trend was not significant for CSS.In RCC patients, married patients had better survival outcomes while widowed patients tended to suffer worse survival outcomes in terms of both OS and CSS.

  8. Marital status and survival in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Ming-xi; Qi, Si-hua

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown that marital status is an independent prognostic factor for survival in several types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of marital status on survival outcomes among renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. We identified patients diagnosed with RCC between 1973 and 2013 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to identify the effects of marital status on overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). We enrolled 97,662 eligible RCC patients, including 64,884 married patients, and 32,778 unmarried (9831 divorced/separated, 9692 widowed, and 13,255 single) patients at diagnosis. The 5-year OS and CSS rates of the married, separated/divorced, widowed, and single patients were 73.7%, 69.5%, 58.3%, and 73.2% (OS), and 82.2%, 80.7%, 75.7%, and 83.3% (CSS), respectively. Multivariate Cox regression showed that, compared with married patients, widowed individuals showed poorer OS (hazard ratio, 1.419; 95% confidence interval, 1.370–1.469) and CSS (hazard ratio, 1.210; 95% confidence interval, 1.144–1.279). Stratified analyses and multivariate Cox regression showed that, in the insured and uninsured groups, married patients had better survival outcomes while widowed patients suffered worse OS outcomes; however, this trend was not significant for CSS. In RCC patients, married patients had better survival outcomes while widowed patients tended to suffer worse survival outcomes in terms of both OS and CSS. PMID:29668592

  9. Living-donor liver transplantation at the University of Tokyo, 1996-2011: the impact of HLA matching and a positive crossmatch on long-term survival and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Waki, K; Sugawara, Y; Mizuta, K; Fujita, H; Kadowaki, T; Kokudo, N

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed a single center's experience during 16 years of living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The impacts of HLA mismatches and positive crossmatches on long term outcomes and tolerance were evaluated. This study was of primary LDLTs of consecutive patients from January 1996 to December 2011; re-transplants were not included. Long-term survival was compared by primary disease, number of HLA mismatches, and crossmatches. Demographics and complications after transplantation between pediatric recipients who achieved clinical operational tolerance and those who did not were compared. One-year liver graft survival rates for adult and pediatric cases were 90.4% and 91.9%, respectively; the 5-year rates were 83.1% and 89.2%, respectively; the 10-year rates were 79.7% and 89.2%, respectively; and 15-year rates were 65.9% and 83.8%, respectively. For the grafts that survived more than one year, the 10-year rates for adult and pediatric cases were 88.2% and 97.0%, respectively. The 10-year rates for adult LDLT in 0 mismatches, 1-2 mismatches, 3-4 mismatches, and 5-6 mismatches were 79.2%, 86.8%, 77.4%, and 69.4%, respectively. Although the survival rates were not significantly different, the survival rates were lowest in LDLT recipients with 5-6 HLA mismatches. Ten-year liver graft survival rates for adult LDLT with negative T-cell crossmatch, and positive T-cell crossmatch were 80.0% and 71.1%, respectively. The 1-year liver graft survival rates for adult LDLT with negative B-cell crossmatch, and positive B-cell crossmatch were 90.6% and 88.2%, respectively. None of the factors--age of recipients and donors, primary disease, donor gender, relationship of donors to recipients, positive crossmatches, or number of HLA mismatches--was significantly different between COT and non-COT recipients, except for recipient gender (p = 0.01); in COT cases, there were more female recipients (88.9%) than male (11.1%). Post-transplant complications--acute rejection rate in one year

  10. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    PubMed

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Response to preoperative chemotherapy predicts survival in patients undergoing hepatectomy for liver metastases from gastric and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Andreas; Viganò, Luca; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Seehofer, Daniel; Dreyer, Martin; Pascher, Andreas; Bahra, Marcus; Schoening, Wenzel; Schmitz, Volker; Thuss-Patience, Peter C; Denecke, Timm; Puhl, Gero; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Neuhaus, Peter; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Pratschke, Johann; Schmidt, Sven-Christian

    2014-11-01

    The role of hepatectomy for patients with liver metastases from gastric and esophageal cancer (GELM) is not well defined. The present study examined the morbidity, mortality, and long-term survivals after liver resection for GELM. Clinicopathological data of patients who underwent hepatectomy for GELM between 1995 and 2012 at two European high-volume hepatobiliary centers were assessed, and predictors of overall survival (OS) were identified. In addition, the impact of preoperative chemotherapy for GELM on OS was evaluated. Forty-seven patients underwent hepatectomy for GELM. The primary tumor was located in the stomach, cardia, and distal esophagus in 27, 16, and 4 cases, respectively. Twenty patients received preoperative chemotherapy before hepatectomy. After a median follow-up time of 76 months, 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 70, 37, and 24%, respectively. Postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 32 and 4%, respectively. Outcomes were comparable between the two centers. Preoperative chemotherapy for GELM (5-year OS: 45 vs 9%, P = .005) and the lack of posthepatectomy complications (5-year OS: 34 vs 0%, P < .0001) were significantly associated with improved OS in univariate and multivariate analyses. When stratifying OS by radiologic response of GELM to preoperative chemotherapy, patients with progressive disease despite preoperative treatment had significantly worse OS (5-year OS: 0 vs 70%, P = .045). For selected patients with GELM, liver resection is safe and should be regarded as a potentially curative approach. A multimodal treatment strategy including systemic therapy may provide better patient selection resulting in prolonged survival in patients with GELM undergoing hepatectomy.

  12. Novel therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Naoki; Wang, Xin Wei

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis was first proposed over 40 years ago. Advances in CSC isolation were first achieved in hematological malignancies, with the first CSC demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia. However, using similar strategies and technologies, and taking advantage of available surface markers, CSCs have been more recently demonstrated in a growing range of epithelial and other solid organ malignancies, suggesting that the majority of malignancies are dependent on such a compartment. Primary liver cancer consists predominantly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). It is believed that hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) could be the origin of some HCCs and ICCs. Furthermore, stem cell activators such as Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways also expedite tumorigenesis, and these pathways could serve as molecular targets to assist in designing cancer prevention strategies. Recent studies indicate that additional factors such as EpCAM, Lin28 or miR-181 may also contribute to HCC progression by targeting HCC CSCs. Various therapeutic drugs that directly modulate CSCs have been examined in vivo and in vitro. However, CSCs clearly have a complex pathogenesis, with a considerable crosstalk and redundancy in signaling pathways, and hence targeting single molecules or pathways may have a limited benefit for treatment. Many of the key signaling molecules are shared by both CSCs and normal stem cells, which add further challenges for designing molecularly targeted strategies specific to CSCs but sparing normal stem cells to avoid side effects. In addition to the direct control of CSCs, many other factors that are needed for the maintenance of CSCs, such as angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, invasion and migration, hypoxia, immune evasion, multiple drug resistance, and radioresistance, should be taken into consideration when designing therapeutic strategies for HCC. Here we provide a brief review of

  13. The Prognostic Role of Cancer Stem Cell Markers for Long-term Outcome After Resection of Colonic Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Spelt, Lidewij; Sasor, Agata; Ansari, Daniel; Hilmersson, Katarzyna Said; Andersson, Roland

    2018-01-01

    To assess the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) markers CD44, CD133 and CD24 in colon cancer liver metastases and analyse their predictive value for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after liver resection. Patients operated on for colon cancer liver metastases were included. CSC marker expression was determined through immunohistochemistry analysis. OS and DFS were compared between marker-positive and marker-negative patients. Multivariate analysis was performed to select predictive variables for OS and DFS. CD133-positive patients had a worse DFS than CD133-negative patients, with a median DFS of 12 and 25 months (p=0.051). Multivariate analysis selected CD133 expression as a significant predictor for DFS. CD44 and CD24 were not found to predict OS or DFS. CD133 expression in colonic liver metastases is a negative prognostic factor for DFS after liver resection. In the future, CD133 could be used as a biomarker for risk stratification, and possibly for developing novel targeted therapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Neutron-energy-dependent cell survival and oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Martin, S G; Komatsu, K; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1999-12-01

    Both cell lethality and neoplastic transformation were assessed for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to neutrons with energies from 0.040 to 13.7 MeV. Monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 0.23 to 13.7 MeV and two neutron energy spectra with average energies of 0.040 and 0.070 MeV were produced with a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) in the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University. For determination of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), cells were exposed to 250 kVp X rays. With exposures to 250 kVp X rays, both cell survival and radiation-induced oncogenic transformation were curvilinear. Irradiation of cells with neutrons at all energies resulted in linear responses as a function of dose for both biological endpoints. Results indicate a complex relationship between RBEm and neutron energy. For both survival and transformation, RBEm was greatest for cells exposed to 0.35 MeV neutrons. RBEm was significantly less at energies above or below 0.35 MeV. These results are consistent with microdosimetric expectation. These results are also compatible with current assessments of neutron radiation weighting factors for radiation protection purposes. Based on calculations of dose-averaged LET, 0.35 MeV neutrons have the greatest LET and therefore would be expected to be more biologically effective than neutrons of greater or lesser energies.

  15. Hepatitis B-core antibody positive donors in liver transplantation and their impact on graft survival: evidence from the Liver Match cohort study.

    PubMed

    Angelico, Mario; Nardi, Alessandra; Marianelli, Tania; Caccamo, Lucio; Romagnoli, Renato; Tisone, Giuseppe; Pinna, Antonio D; Avolio, Alfonso W; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Burra, Patrizia; Strazzabosco, Mario; Costa, Alessandro Nanni

    2013-04-01

    The appropriate allocation of grafts from HBcAb positive donors in liver transplantation is crucial, yet a consensus is still lacking. We evaluated this issue within Liver Match, a prospective observational Italian study. Data from 1437 consecutive, first transplants performed in 2007-2009 using grafts from deceased heart beating donors were analyzed (median follow-up: 1040 days). Of these, 219 (15.2%) were HBcAb positive. Sixty-six HBcAb positive grafts were allocated to HBsAg positive and 153 to HBsAg negative recipients. 329 graft losses occurred (22.9%): 66 (30.1%) among 219 recipients of HBcAb positive grafts, and 263 (21.6%) among 1218 recipients of HBcAb negative grafts. Graft survival was lower in recipients of HBcAb positive compared to HBcAb negative donors, with unadjusted 3-year graft survival of 0.69 (s.e. 0.032) and 0.77 (0.013), respectively (log-rank, p=0.0047). After stratifying for recipient HBsAg status, this difference was only observed among HBsAg negative recipients (log rank, p=0.0007), 3-year graft survival being excellent (0.88, s.e. 0.020) among HBsAg positive recipients, regardless of the HBcAb donor status (log rank, p=0.4478). Graft loss due to de novo HBV hepatitis occurred only in one patient. At Cox regression, hazard ratios for graft loss were: MELD (1.30 per 10 units, p=0.0002), donor HBcAb positivity (1.56, p=0.0015), recipient HBsAg positivity (0.43, p <0.0001), portal vein thrombosis (1.99, p=0.0156), and DRI (1.41 per unit, p=0.0325). HBcAb positive donor grafts have better outcomes when transplanted into HBsAg positive than HBsAg negative recipients. These findings suggest that donor HBcAb positivity requires more stringent allocation strategies. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyaluronan Tumor Cell Interactions in Prostate Cancer Growth and Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    is a high molecular weight polyanionic polysaccharide that is increased in more advanced prostate cancers. Tumor cell interaction with this... polysaccharide by specific receptors CD44 and RHAMM promote tumor growth, survival and invasion. Work during the last funding period have further defined the... polysaccharide to its cognate receptors. These peptides inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo and the residues important for the activity

  17. Role of donor hemodynamic trajectory in determining graft survival in liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death donors.

    PubMed

    Firl, Daniel J; Hashimoto, Koji; O'Rourke, Colin; Diago-Uso, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico N; Quintini, Cristiano; Kelly, Dympna M; Miller, Charles M; Fung, John J; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-11-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors show heterogeneous hemodynamic trajectories following withdrawal of life support. Impact of hemodynamics in DCD liver transplant is unclear, and objective measures of graft viability would ease transplant surgeon decision making and inform safe expansion of the donor organ pool. This retrospective study tested whether hemodynamic trajectories were associated with transplant outcomes in DCD liver transplantation (n = 87). Using longitudinal clustering statistical techniques, we phenotyped DCD donors based on hemodynamic trajectory for both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) following withdrawal of life support. Donors were categorized into 3 clusters: those who gradually decline after withdrawal of life support (cluster 1), those who maintain stable hemodynamics followed by rapid decline (cluster 2), and those who decline rapidly (cluster 3). Clustering outputs were used to compare characteristics and transplant outcomes. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.53; P = 0.047), cold ischemia time (HR = 1.50 per hour; P = 0.027), and MAP cluster 1 were associated with increased risk of graft loss (HR = 3.13; P = 0.021), but not SpO 2 cluster (P = 0.172) or donor warm ischemia time (DWIT; P = 0.154). Despite longer DWIT, MAP and SpO 2 clusters 2 showed similar graft survival to MAP and SpO 2 clusters 3, respectively. In conclusion, despite heterogeneity in hemodynamic trajectories, DCD donors can be categorized into 3 clinically meaningful subgroups that help predict graft prognosis. Further studies should confirm the utility of liver grafts from cluster 2. Liver Transplantation 22 1469-1481 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Metabolic reprogramming ensures cancer cell survival despite oncogenic signaling blockade

    PubMed Central

    Lue, Hui-wen; Podolak, Jennifer; Kolahi, Kevin; Cheng, Larry; Rao, Soumya; Garg, Devin; Xue, Chang-Hui; Rantala, Juha K.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Thornburg, Kent L.; Martinez-Acevedo, Ann; Liu, Jen-Jane; Amling, Christopher L.; Truillet, Charles; Louie, Sharon M.; Anderson, Kimberly E.; Evans, Michael J.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Nomura, Daniel K.; Drake, Justin M.; Ritz, Anna

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the metabolic reprogramming induced by cancer therapies and how this contributes to therapeutic resistance. Here we show that although inhibition of PI3K–AKT–mTOR signaling markedly decreased glycolysis and restrained tumor growth, these signaling and metabolic restrictions triggered autophagy, which supplied the metabolites required for the maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and redox homeostasis. Specifically, we found that survival of cancer cells was critically dependent on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to mobilize lysophospholipids and free fatty acids to sustain fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. Consistent with this, we observed significantly increased lipid droplets, with subsequent mobilization to mitochondria. These changes were abrogated in cells deficient for the essential autophagy gene ATG5. Accordingly, inhibition of PLA2 significantly decreased lipid droplets, decreased oxidative phosphorylation, and increased apoptosis. Together, these results describe how treatment-induced autophagy provides nutrients for cancer cell survival and identifies novel cotreatment strategies to override this survival advantage. PMID:29138276

  19. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  20. The apical complex couples cell fate and cell survival to cerebral cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonhee; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Sessa, Alessandro; Zappaterra, Mauro; Cho, Seo-Hee; Gonzalez, Dilenny; Boggan, Brigid; Austin, Christina A.; Wijnholds, Jan; Gambello, Michael J.; Malicki, Jarema; LaMantia, Anthony S.; Broccoli, Vania; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical development depends upon tightly controlled cell fate and cell survival decisions that generate a functional neuronal population, but the coordination of these two processes is poorly understood. Here we show that conditional removal of a key apical complex protein, Pals1, causes premature withdrawal from the cell cycle, inducing excessive generation of early-born postmitotic neurons followed by surprisingly massive and rapid cell death, leading to the abrogation of virtually the entire cortical structure. Pals1 loss shows exquisite dosage sensitivity, so that heterozygote mutants show an intermediate phenotype on cell fate and cell death. Loss of Pals1 blocks essential cell survival signals, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, while mTORC1 activation partially rescues Pals1 deficiency. These data highlight unexpected roles of the apical complex protein Pals1 in cell survival through interactions with mTOR signaling. PMID:20399730

  1. Clinical Application of Pluripotent Stem Cells: An Alternative Cell-Based Therapy for Treating Liver Diseases?

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Laia; Pareja, Eugenia; Gómez-Lechón, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide shortage of donor livers for organ and hepatocyte transplantation has prompted the search for alternative therapies for intractable liver diseases. Cell-based therapy is envisaged as a useful therapeutic option to recover and stabilize the lost metabolic function for acute liver failure, end-stage and congenital liver diseases, or for those patients who are not considered eligible for organ transplantation. In recent years, research to identify alternative and reliable cell sources for transplantation that can be derived by reproducible methods has been encouraged. Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which comprise both embryonic and induced PSCs, may offer many advantages as an alternative to hepatocytes for liver cell therapy. Their capacity for expansion, hepatic differentiation and self-renewal make them a promising source of unlimited numbers of hepatocyte-like cells for treating and repairing damaged livers. Immunogenicity and tumorigenicity of human PSCs remain the bottleneck for successful clinical application. However, recent advances made to develop disease-corrected hepatocyte-like cells from patients' human-induced PSCs by gene editing have opened up many potential gateways for the autologous treatment of hereditary liver diseases, which may likely reduce the risk of rejection and the need for lifelong immunosuppression. Well-defined methods to reduce the expression of oncogenic genes in induced PSCs, including protocols for their complete and safe hepatic differentiation, should be established to minimize the tumorigenicity of transplanted cells. On top of this, such new strategies are currently being rigorously tested and validated in preclinical studies before they can be safely transferred to clinical practice with patients.

  2. Discrepancy between recurrence-free survival and overall survival in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases: a potential surrogate endpoint for time to surgical failure.

    PubMed

    Oba, Masaru; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Shindoh, Junichi; Mise, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-06-01

    Recurrence-free survival (RFS) may not be a surrogate for overall survival (OS) in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases (CLM). We investigated whether a new composite tool-time to surgical failure (TSF)-is a suitable endpoint. The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for CLM at our center over a 17-year period were reviewed. Patients with liver-limited tumors (n = 371) who had not received previous treatment for metastasis were eligible for analysis. TSF was defined as the time until unresectable relapse or death. The correlations between TSF and OS, and between RFS and OS, were assessed for all the eligible patients. The median OS, TSF, and RFS were 5.7, 2.7, and 0.7 years, respectively, and the 5-year OS, TSF, and RFS rates were 52.6, 39.8, and 23.7 %, respectively, for all patients. The rates of first, second, and third relapse were 75.5, 77.6, and 70.8 %, respectively, and repeat resections were performed in 54.3 % (first relapses), 40.7 % (second relapses), and 47.1 % (third relapses) of patients. The concordance proportions of TSF and RFS for OS events were 0.83 and 0.65, respectively. The correlation between TSF and OS was stronger than that between RFS and OS in terms of the predicted probabilities. The correlation between TSF and OS was stronger than that between RFS and OS after curative hepatic resection. TSF could be a suitable endpoint for CLM overall management.

  3. Enhanced Growth and Hepatic Differentiation of Fetal Liver Epithelial Cells through Combinational and Temporal Adjustment of Soluble Factors

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Lichuan; Krause, Diane S.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Fetal liver epithelial cells (FLEC) are valuable for liver cell therapy and tissue engineering, but methods for culture and characterization of these cells are not well developed. This work explores the influence of multiple soluble factors on FLEC, with the long-term goal of developing an optimal culture system to generate functional liver tissue. Our comparative analysis suggests hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is required throughout the culture period. In the presence of HGF, addition of oncostatin M (OSM) at culture initiation results in concurrent growth and maturation, while constant presence of protective agents like ascorbic acid enhances cell survival. Study observations led to the development of a culture medium that provided optimal growth and hepatic differentiation conditions. FLEC expansion was observed to be ~2 fold of that under standard conditions, albumin secretion rate was 2 – 3 times greater than maximal values obtained with other media, and the highest level of glycogen accumulation among all conditions was observed with the developed medium. Our findings serve to advance culture methods for liver progenitors in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. PMID:21922669

  4. IGFBP2 promotes glioma tumor stem cell expansion and survival

    SciT

    Hsieh, David, E-mail: dhs.zfs@gmail.com; Hsieh, Antony; Stea, Baldassarre

    2010-06-25

    IGFBP2 is overexpressed in the most common brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM), and its expression is inversely correlated to GBM patient survival. Previous reports have demonstrated a role for IGFBP2 in glioma cell invasion and astrocytoma development. However, the function of IGFBP2 in the restricted, self-renewing, and tumorigenic GBM cell population comprised of tumor-initiating stem cells has yet to be determined. Herein we demonstrate that IGFBP2 is overexpressed within the stem cell compartment of GBMs and is integral for the clonal expansion and proliferative properties of glioma stem cells (GSCs). In addition, IGFBP2 inhibition reduced Akt-dependent GSC genotoxic and drug resistance.more » These results suggest that IGFBP2 is a selective malignant factor that may contribute significantly to GBM pathogenesis by enriching for GSCs and mediating their survival. Given the current dearth of selective molecular targets against GSCs, we anticipate our results to be of high therapeutic relevance in combating the rapid and lethal course of GBM.« less

  5. The Shc protein RAI promotes an adaptive cell survival program in hypoxic neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, Mattia; Filippi, Irene; Osti, Daniela; Aldinucci, Carlo; Guerrini, Giuditta; Pelicci, Giuliana; Carraro, Fabio; Naldini, Antonella

    2018-05-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a highly malignant pediatric solid tumor where a hypoxic signature correlates with unfavorable patient outcome. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays an important role in NB progression, contributing to cell proliferation and invasiveness. RAI belongs to the Shc family proteins, it is mainly neuron specific and protects against cerebral ischemia. RAI is also expressed in several NB cell lines, where it promotes cell survival. In this work, hypoxia differently affected cell survival and pro-apoptotic program in two NB cell lines, either expressing RAI (SKNBE) or not (SKNMC). RAI expression appeared to promote NB cell survival and to reduce some pro-apoptotic markers under hypoxia. Accordingly, the RAI silencing in SKNBE cells resulted in a reduction of cell survival and HIF-1α expression. Furthermore, using SKNMC cells stably expressing RAI, we defined a role of RAI in NB cell responses to hypoxia. Of interest, in hypoxic SKNMC cells expressing RAI HIF-1α protein levels were higher than in control cells. This was associated with a) an increased cell survival; b) an increased expression of anti-apoptotic markers; c) a pro-autophagic and not pro-apoptotic phenotype; and d) an increased metabolic activity. We may conclude that RAI plays an important role in hypoxic signaling in NB cells and the interplay between RAI and HIF-1α may be relevant in the protection of NB cells against hypoxia. Our results may contribute to a further understanding the physiology of NB cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in their survival, with important implications in NB progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Establishment and characterization of feeder cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Wang, Ling; Garrett, Wesley M; Caperna, Thomas J; Tang, Young

    2016-03-01

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines are described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-d bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO (SIMS mouse strain, thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant) feeder layers and were cultured in a medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 2-3 wk, primary colonies of hepatocytes were observed by phase-contrast microscopic observation. Individual hepatocyte colonies were colony-cloned into independent bovine fetal liver (BFL) cell lines. Two cell lines, BFL-6 and BFL-9, grew the best of several isolates, and they were further characterized for growth potential and for hepatocyte morphology and function. The two cell lines were found to grow markedly better in the presence of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta inhibitor, SB431542 (1 μM). Their continuous culture also depended on a particular medium height-for T12.5 flasks, 3 ml total medium produced optimum growth. Higher or lower amounts of medium caused less cell growth or cessation of growth. The cell lines were propagated for over a year at split ratios of 1:2 or 1:3 at each passage until reaching senescence at approximately 30 passages. The cells were laterally polarized with well-developed canalicular spaces occurring between adjacent BFL cells. Treatment of the cultures with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulating chemicals or peptides (e.g., forskolin or glucagon) caused physical expansion of the canaliculi between the cells within 15 min. The cells secreted a spectrum of serum proteins, were positive for the expression of several hepatocyte-specific genes, and converted ammonia to urea, although at a relatively low rate. The culture system provides an in vitro model of fetal bovine hepatocytes and is the first demonstration of the continuous culture of normal bovine hepatocytes as cell lines.

  7. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  8. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection

    PubMed Central

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells. PMID:28120926

  9. Overexpression of Klotho suppresses liver cancer progression and induces cell apoptosis by negatively regulating wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huidong; Gao, Yanchao; Lu, Kemei; Zhao, Guimei; Li, Xuehua; Li, Zhu; Chang, Hong

    2015-10-24

    Klotho is a discovered aging suppressor gene, and its overexpression in mice extends the life span of the animal. Recently, Klotho is also identified as a tumor suppressor gene in variety of tumors; however, the potential role and the antitumor mechanism remain unclarified in liver cancers. RT-PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of Klotho, β-catenin, C-myc, and Cyclin D1. MTT assay was used to detect the survival rates of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Colony formation assay was used to test the proliferation ability in Klotho transfected cells. FACS was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate in different groups. The results showed that lower expression of Klotho were found in liver cancer cell lines than the immortalized liver cell L02. Also, MTT assay results found that overexpression or recombinant Klotho administration suppressed the proliferation of liver cancer cells HepG2 and SMMC-7721. Moreover, the colony formation assay results showed that the number of colonies was significantly lower in the cells with transfection with pCMV-Klotho than the controls. Thus, functional analysis demonstrated that Klotho expression inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cells and Klotho worked as an important antitumor gene in tumor progression. Next, the mechanism was partly clarified that Klotho expression induced cell apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, and this phenomenon was mainly involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The western blotting analysis revealed that overexpression or recombinant administration of Klotho obviously decreased the expression levels of β-catenin, C-myc, and Cyclin D1 in HepG2 cells. Most importantly, the antitumor mechanism for Klotho due to that overexpression of Klotho not only decreased the endogenous β-catenin levels but also inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin to delay the cell cycle progression. Klotho was a tumor suppressor gene, and overexpression of Klotho suppressed the

  10. All-In-One: Advanced preparation of Human Parenchymal and Non-Parenchymal Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Melanie; Driftmann, Sabrina; Kleinehr, Kathrin; Kaiser, Gernot M; Mathé, Zotlan; Treckmann, Juergen-Walter; Paul, Andreas; Skibbe, Kathrin; Timm, Joerg; Canbay, Ali; Gerken, Guido; Schlaak, Joerg F; Broering, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from a single liver specimen. Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and stellate cells were isolated from liver tissues by collagenase perfusion in combination with low-speed centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic-activated cell sorting. The purity and functionality of cultured cell populations were controlled by determining their morphology, discriminative cell marker expression, and functional activity. Cell preparation yielded the following cell counts per gram of liver tissue: 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(7) hepatocytes, 1.8 ± 0.5 × 10(6 )Kupffer cells, 4.3 ± 1.9 × 10(5) liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and 3.2 ± 0.5 × 10(5) stellate cells. Hepatocytes were identified by albumin (95.5 ± 1.7%) and exhibited time-dependent activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Kupffer cells expressed CD68 (94.5 ± 1.2%) and exhibited phagocytic activity, as determined with 1 μm latex beads. Endothelial cells were CD146(+) (97.8 ± 1.1%) and exhibited efficient uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Hepatic stellate cells were identified by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (97.1 ± 1.5%). These cells further exhibited retinol (vitamin A)-mediated autofluorescence. Our isolation procedure for primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells resulted in cell populations of high purity and quality, with retained physiological functionality in vitro. Thus, this system may provide a valuable tool for determining liver function and disease.

  11. All-In-One: Advanced preparation of Human Parenchymal and Non-Parenchymal Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Melanie; Driftmann, Sabrina; Kleinehr, Kathrin; Kaiser, Gernot M.; Mathé, Zotlan; Treckmann, Juergen-Walter; Paul, Andreas; Skibbe, Kathrin; Timm, Joerg; Canbay, Ali; Gerken, Guido; Schlaak, Joerg F.; Broering, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver cells are key players in innate immunity. Thus, studying primary isolated liver cells is necessary for determining their role in liver physiology and pathophysiology. In particular, the quantity and quality of isolated cells are crucial to their function. Our aim was to isolate a large quantity of high-quality human parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from a single liver specimen. Methods Hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and stellate cells were isolated from liver tissues by collagenase perfusion in combination with low-speed centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic-activated cell sorting. The purity and functionality of cultured cell populations were controlled by determining their morphology, discriminative cell marker expression, and functional activity. Results Cell preparation yielded the following cell counts per gram of liver tissue: 2.0±0.4×107 hepatocytes, 1.8±0.5×106 Kupffer cells, 4.3±1.9×105 liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and 3.2±0.5×105 stellate cells. Hepatocytes were identified by albumin (95.5±1.7%) and exhibited time-dependent activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Kupffer cells expressed CD68 (94.5±1.2%) and exhibited phagocytic activity, as determined with 1μm latex beads. Endothelial cells were CD146+ (97.8±1.1%) and exhibited efficient uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Hepatic stellate cells were identified by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (97.1±1.5%). These cells further exhibited retinol (vitamin A)-mediated autofluorescence. Conclusions Our isolation procedure for primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells resulted in cell populations of high purity and quality, with retained physiological functionality in vitro. Thus, this system may provide a valuable tool for determining liver function and disease. PMID:26407160

  12. Association between Pre-Transplant Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Survival One Year after Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Sergio T.; Sanz, Pablo; Abreu-González, Pedro; Díaz, Dácil; Moreno, Antonia M.; Borja, Elisa; Martín, María M.; Jiménez, Alejandro; Barrera, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients compared to healthy controls and higher MDA concentrations in tumoral tissue of HCC patients than in non-tumoral tissue. However, the association between pre-transplant serum levels of MDA and survival in HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT) has not been described, and the aim of the present study was to determine whether such an association exists. In this observational study we measured serum MDA levels in 127 patients before LT. We found higher pre-LT serum MDA levels in 15 non-surviving than in 112 surviving patients one year after LT (p = 0.02). Exact binary logistic regression analysis revealed that pre-LT serum levels of MDA over 3.37 nmol/mL were associated with mortality after one year of LT (Odds ratio = 5.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = from 1.580 to infinite; p = 0.007) adjusting for age of the deceased donor. The main finding of our study was that there is an association between serum MDA levels before LT for HCC and 1-year survival after LT. PMID:27058525

  13. Hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in cocultures with fetal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Lange, Claudia; Bruns, Helge; Kluth, Dietrich; Zander, Axel-R; Fiegel, Henning-C

    2006-04-21

    To investigate the hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in co-cultures with fetal liver cells (FLC) and the possibility to expand differentiated hepatocytic cells. MSCs were marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) by retroviral gene transduction. Clonal marked MSCs were either cultured under liver stimulating conditions using fibronectin-coated culture dishes and medium supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) alone, or in presence of freshly isolated FLC. Cells in co-cultures were harvested, and GFP+ or GFP- cells were separated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the liver specific markers cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), albumin, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was performed in different cell populations. Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSCs co-cultured with FLC expressed albumin, CK-18, and AFP-RNA over two weeks. At wk 3, MSCs lost hepatocytic gene expression, probably due to overgrowth of the cocultured FLC. FLC also showed a stable liver specific gene expression in the co-cultures and a very high growth potential. The rat MSCs from bone marrow can differentiate hepatocytic cells in the presence of FLC in vitro and the presence of MSCs in co-cultures also provides a beneficial environment for expansion and differentiation of FLC.

  14. [Survival in patients with liver cirrhosis at the Durango, IMSS Regional General Hospital].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Heriberto; Jacobo-Karam, Janett S; Castañón-Santillán, María del Carmen; Arámbula-Chávez, Mayela; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    In Mexico, hepatic cirrhosis mortality exhibits important regional differences. To analyze global survival of cirrhotic patients, according to etiology and functional status. Between March 1990 to August 1998, newly diagnosed patients with hepatic cirrhosis were included in a follow-up study. Subjects were analyzed monthly. Information on clinical evolution, complications, and dates of events (death) and complications were registered. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Ninety nine subjects were included in the survival analysis, 66 with alcoholic and 33 with viral cirrhosis (HCV and HBV in 24 and nine patients, respectively). Ninety seven percent of patients were decompensated at diagnosis, and 81% had ascites. Probabilities for survival in the entire series were 69.7, 37.6 and 23.6% at 24, 48, and 60 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in the survival of patients grouped according to etiology. When survival was analyzed by Child-Pugh score, it was slightly higher in the alcoholic cirrhosis group. In this study survival probability of patients with viral cirrhosis was lower than in patients with alcohol cirrhosis.

  15. A small population of liver endothelial cells undergoes endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to chronic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Jordi; Pauta, Montse; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Córdoba, Bernat; Bosch, Anna; Calvo, Maria; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Mira, Aurea; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Rising evidence points to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) as a significant source of the mesenchymal cell population in fibrotic diseases. In this context, we hypothesized that liver endothelial cells undergo EndMT during fibrosis progression. Cirrhosis in mice was induced by CCl 4 A transgenic mouse expressing a red fluorescent protein reporter under the control of Tie2 promoter (Tie2-tdTomato) was used to trace the acquisition of EndMT. Sinusoidal vascular connectivity was evaluated by intravital microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional confocal microscopy. A modest but significant fraction of liver endothelial cells from both cirrhotic patients and CCl 4 -treated Tie2-tdTomato mice acquired an EndMT phenotype characterized by the coexpression of CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin, compared with noncirrhotic livers. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) inhibited the acquisition of EndMT induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment in cultured primary mouse liver endothelial cells from control mice. EndMT was also reduced significantly in vivo in cirrhotic Tie2-tdTomato mice treated intraperitoneally with BMP-7 compared with untreated mice (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). The decrease of EndMT in cirrhotic livers correlated with a significant decrease in liver fibrosis ( P < 0.05) and an improvement in the vascular disorganization rate ( P < 0.05). We demonstrated the acquisition of the EndMT phenotype by a subpopulation of endothelial cells from cirrhotic livers in both animal models and patients. BMP-7 treatment decreases the occurrence of the EndMT phenotype and has a positive impact on the severity of disease by reducing fibrosis and sinusoidal vascular disorganization. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A subpopulation of liver endothelial cells from cirrhotic patients and mice with liver fibrosis undergoes endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Liver endothelial cells from healthy mice could transition into a

  16. Bag1 is essential for differentiation and survival of hematopoietic and neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Götz, Rudolf; Wiese, Stefan; Takayama, Shinichi; Camarero, Guadalupe C; Rossoll, Wilfried; Schweizer, Ulrich; Troppmair, Jakob; Jablonka, Sibylle; Holtmann, Bettina; Reed, John C; Rapp, Ulf R; Sendtner, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Bag1 is a cochaperone for the heat-shock protein Hsp70 that interacts with C-Raf, B-Raf, Akt, Bcl-2, steroid hormone receptors and other proteins. Here we use targeted gene disruption in mice to show that Bag1 has an essential role in the survival of differentiating neurons and hematopoietic cells. Cells of the fetal liver and developing nervous system in Bag1-/- mice underwent massive apoptosis. Lack of Bag1 did not disturb the primary function of Akt or Raf, as phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor FKHR and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)-1/2 were not affected. However, the defect was associated with the disturbance of a tripartite complex formed by Akt, B-Raf and Bag1, in addition to the absence of Bad phosphorylation at Ser136. We also observed reduced expression of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Our data show that Bag1 is a physiological mediator of extracellular survival signals linked to the cellular mechanisms that prevent apoptosis in hematopoietic and neuronal progenitor cells.

  17. Modulation of liver tolerance by conventional and nonconventional antigen-presenting cells and regulatory immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Andrea Kristina; Neumann, Katrin; Diehl, Linda; Tiegs, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a tolerogenic organ with exquisite mechanisms of immune regulation that ensure upkeep of local and systemic immune tolerance to self and foreign antigens, but that is also able to mount effective immune responses against pathogens. The immune privilege of liver allografts was recognized first in pigs in spite of major histo-compatibility complex mismatch, and termed the “liver tolerance effect”. Furthermore, liver transplants are spontaneously accepted with only low-dose immunosuppression, and induce tolerance for non-hepatic co-transplanted allografts of the same donor. Although this immunotolerogenic environment is favorable in the setting of organ transplantation, it is detrimental in chronic infectious liver diseases like hepatitis B or C, malaria, schistosomiasis or tumorigenesis, leading to pathogen persistence and weak anti-tumor effects. The liver is a primary site of T-cell activation, but it elicits poor or incomplete activation of T cells, leading to their abortive activation, exhaustion, suppression of their effector function and early death. This is exploited by pathogens and can impair pathogen control and clearance or allow tumor growth. Hepatic priming of T cells is mediated by a number of local conventional and nonconventional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which promote tolerance by immune deviation, induction of T-cell anergy or apoptosis, and generating and expanding regulatory T cells. This review will focus on the communication between classical and nonclassical APCs and lymphocytes in the liver in tolerance induction and will discuss recent insights into the role of innate lymphocytes in this process. PMID:27041638

  18. Dietary macronutrients and the aging liver sinusoidal endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Cogger, Victoria Carroll; Mohamad, Mashani; Solon-Biet, Samantha Marie; Senior, Alistair M; Warren, Alessandra; O'Reilly, Jennifer Nicole; Tung, Bui Thanh; Svistounov, Dmitri; McMahon, Aisling Clare; Fraser, Robin; Raubenheimer, David; Holmes, Andrew J; Simpson, Stephen James; Le Couteur, David George

    2016-05-01

    Fenestrations are pores within the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) that line the sinusoids of the highly vascularized liver. Fenestrations facilitate the transfer of substrates between blood and hepatocytes. With pseudocapillarization of the hepatic sinusoid in old age, there is a loss of fenestrations. LSECs are uniquely exposed to gut-derived dietary and microbial substrates delivered by the portal circulation to the liver. Here we studied the effect of 25 diets varying in content of macronutrients and energy on LSEC fenestrations using the Geometric Framework method in a large cohort of mice aged 15 mo. Macronutrient distribution rather than total food or energy intake was associated with changes in fenestrations. Porosity and frequency were inversely associated with dietary fat intake, while fenestration diameter was inversely associated with protein or carbohydrate intake. Fenestrations were also linked to diet-induced changes in gut microbiome, with increased fenestrations associated with higher abundance of Firmicutes and reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes Diet-induced changes in levels of several fatty acids (C16:0, C19:0, and C20:4) were also significantly inversely associated with fenestrations, suggesting a link between dietary fat and modulation of lipid rafts in the LSECs. Diet influences fenestrations and these data reflect both the key role of the LSECs in clearing gut-derived molecules from the vascular circulation and the impact these molecules have on LSEC morphology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Survival of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) following surgical liver biopsy

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Esler, Daniel N.

    2010-01-01

    We measured intra- and postoperative mortality rates of captive and free-ranging Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) undergoing surgical liver biopsy sampling for determination of the induction of cytochrome P4501A, a biomarker of oil exposure. Liver biopsies were taken from and radio transmitters were implanted into 157 free-ranging Harlequin Ducks over three winters (55 in 2000, 55 in 2001, and 47 in 2002). No birds died during surgery, but seven (4.5%) died during recovery from anesthesia (three in 2001 and four in 2002). None of the deaths could be attributed directly to the liver biopsy. Four of the 150 (2.7%) birds that were released died in the 2 wk period after surgery. All post-release deaths occurred in 2001; no birds died after release in 2000 or 2002. No mortalities of 36 captive birds occurred during surgery or recovery or in the 2 wk period following surgery. Hemorrhage was a minor problem with one captive bird. Surgical liver biopsies appear to be a safe procedure, but anesthetic complications may occur with overwintering ducks.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen in human liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guido, M; Roskams, T; Pontisso, P; Fassan, M; Thung, S N; Giacomelli, L; Sergio, A; Farinati, F; Cillo, U; Rugge, M

    2008-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) is a serine protease inhibitor that can be overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at both molecular and protein level, but no data are available on its expression in pre-malignant stages. To assess SCCA expression by immunohistochemistry in HCC and its nodular precursors in cirrhotic livers. 55 nodules from 42 explanted livers were evaluated: 7 large regenerative nodules (LRNs), 7 low-grade dysplastic nodules (LG-DNs), 10 high-grade DNs (HG-DNs), and 31 HCC. SCCA expression was semiquantitatively scored on a four-tiered scale. SCCA hepatocyte immunostaining was always restricted to the cytoplasm, mainly exhibiting a granular pattern. Stain intensity varied, ranging from weak to very strong. Within the nodules, positive cells were unevenly distributed, either scattered or in irregular clusters. The prevalence of SCCA expression was 29% in LRNs, 100% in DNs and 93% in HCC. A significant difference emerged in both prevalence and score for LRNs versus LG-DNs (p<0.039), HG-DNs (p = 0.001), and HCC (p = 0.000). A barely significant difference (p = 0.49) was observed between LG-DNs and HG-DNs, while no difference in SCCA expression was detected between HG-DNs and HCC. Cirrhotic tissue adjacent to the nodules was positive in 96% of cases, with a significant difference in the score (p = 0.000) between hepatocytes adjacent to HCC and those surrounding LRNs. This study provides the first evidence that aberrant SCCA expression is an early event in liver cell carcinomatous transformation.

  1. Reduced Erg Dosage Impairs Survival of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Koch, Mia Lee; Zhang, Xin; Hamblen, Melanie J; Godinho, Frank J; Fujiwara, Yuko; Xie, Huafeng; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Orkin, Stuart H; Li, Zhe

    2017-07-01

    ERG, an ETS family transcription factor frequently overexpressed in human leukemia, has been implicated as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells. However, how ERG controls normal hematopoiesis, particularly at the stem and progenitor cell level, and how it contributes to leukemogenesis remain incompletely understood. Using homologous recombination, we generated an Erg knockdown allele (Erg kd ) in which Erg expression can be conditionally restored by Cre recombinase. Erg kd/kd animals die at E10.5-E11.5 due to defects in endothelial and hematopoietic cells, but can be completely rescued by Tie2-Cre-mediated restoration of Erg in these cells. In Erg kd/+ mice, ∼40% reduction in Erg dosage perturbs both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoiesis by reducing the numbers of Lin - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and megakaryocytic progenitors. By genetic mosaic analysis, we find that Erg-restored HSPCs outcompete Erg kd/+ HSPCs for contribution to adult hematopoiesis in vivo. This defect is in part due to increased apoptosis of HSPCs with reduced Erg dosage, a phenotype that becomes more drastic during 5-FU-induced stress hematopoiesis. Expression analysis reveals that reduced Erg expression leads to changes in expression of a subset of ERG target genes involved in regulating survival of HSPCs, including increased expression of a pro-apoptotic regulator Bcl2l11 (Bim) and reduced expression of Jun. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ERG controls survival of HSPCs, a property that may be used by leukemic cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:1773-1785. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Toll-like receptor signaling in cell proliferation and survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyan; Jiang, Song; Tapping, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of foreign microbial components as well as products of damaged or inflamed self tissues. Upon sensing these molecules, TLRs initiate a series of downstream signaling events that drive cellular responses including the production of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. This outcome results from the intracellular assembly of protein complexes that drive phosphorylation and other signaling cascades ultimately leading to chromatin remodeling and transcription factor activation. In addition to driving inflammatory responses, TLRs also regulate cell proliferation and survival which serves to expand useful immune cells and integrate inflammatory responses and tissue repair processes. In this context, central TLR signaling molecules, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), play key roles. In addition, four major groups of transcription factors which are targets of TLR activation also control cell fate. This review focuses on the role of TLR signaling as it relates to cell proliferation and survival. This topic not only has important implications for understanding host defense and tissue repair, but also cancer which is often associated with conditions of chronic inflammation. PMID:19775907

  3. Upregulation of LYAR induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuting; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Yu, Denise; Wong, Matthew; Liu, Bing; Ho, Nicholas; Ling, Dora; Tee, Andrew E; Wang, Jenny; Mungrue, Imran N; Liu, Pei Y; Liu, Tao

    2017-09-01

    The N-Myc oncoprotein induces neuroblastoma by regulating gene transcription and consequently causing cell proliferation. Paradoxically, N-Myc is well known to induce apoptosis by upregulating pro-apoptosis genes, and it is not clear how N-Myc overexpressing neuroblastoma cells escape N-Myc-mediated apoptosis. The nuclear zinc finger protein LYAR has recently been shown to modulate gene expression by forming a protein complex with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5. Here we showed that N-Myc upregulated LYAR gene expression by binding to its gene promoter. Genome-wide differential gene expression studies revealed that knocking down LYAR considerably upregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes including CHAC1, which depletes intracellular glutathione and induces oxidative stress. Although knocking down LYAR expression with siRNAs induced oxidative stress, neuroblastoma cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, co-treatment with the glutathione supplement N-acetyl-l-cysteine or co-transfection with CHAC1 siRNAs blocked the effect of LYAR siRNAs. Importantly, high levels of LYAR gene expression in human neuroblastoma tissues predicted poor event-free and overall survival in neuroblastoma patients, independent of the best current markers for poor prognosis. Taken together, our data suggest that LYAR induces proliferation and promotes survival of neuroblastoma cells by repressing the expression of oxidative stress genes such as CHAC1 and suppressing oxidative stress, and identify LYAR as a novel co-factor in N-Myc oncogenesis.

  4. CXCR4 engagement promotes dendritic cell survival and maturation

    SciT

    Kabashima, Kenji; Sugita, Kazunari; Shiraishi, Noriko

    2007-10-05

    It has been reported that human monocyte derived-dendritic cells (DCs) express CXCR4, responsible for chemotaxis to CXCL12. However, it remains unknown whether CXCR4 is involved in other functions of DCs. Initially, we found that CXCR4 was expressed on bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The addition of specific CXCR4 antagonist, 4-F-Benzoyl-TN14003, to the culture of mouse BMDCs decreased their number, especially the mature subset of them. The similar effect was found on the number of Langerhans cells (LCs) but not keratinocytes among epidermal cell suspensions. Since LCs are incapable of proliferating in vitro, these results indicate that CXCR4 engagement is important formore » not only maturation but also survival of DCs. Consistently, the dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced, antigen-specific in vitro proliferation of previously sensitized lymph node cells was enhanced by CXCL12, and suppressed by CXCR4 antagonist. These findings suggest that CXCL12-CXCR4 engagement enhances DC maturation and survival to initiate acquired immune response.« less

  5. Long Term Liver Engraftment of Functional Hepatocytes Obtained from Germline Cell-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Famulari, Elvira Smeralda; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Altruda, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in liver gene and cell therapy is availability of ex vivo-expanded hepatocytes. Pluripotent stem cells are an attractive alternative. Here, we show that hepatocyte precursors can be isolated from male germline cell-derived pluripotent stem cells (GPSCs) using the hepatoblast marker, Liv2, and induced to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. These cells expressed hepatic-specific genes and were functional as demonstrated by their ability to secrete albumin and produce urea. When transplanted in the liver parenchyma of partially hepatectomised mice, Liv2-sorted cells showed regional and heterogeneous engraftment in the injected lobe. Moreover, approximately 50% of Y chromosome-positive, GPSC-derived cells were found in the female livers, in the region of engraftment, even one month after cell injection. This is the first study showing that Liv2-sorted GPSCs-derived hepatocytes can undergo long lasting engraftment in the mouse liver. Thus, GPSCs might offer promise for regenerative medicine. PMID:26323094

  6. Kinetics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in SIV-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Muhammad H; Gill, Amy F; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2013-11-01

    Since the liver drains antigens from the intestinal tract, and since the intestinal tract is a major site of viral replication, we examined the dynamics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) throughout SIV infection. Absolute numbers of Kupffer cells increased in the livers in acute infection, and in animals with AIDS. Significantly higher percentages of proliferating (BrdU+) Kupffer cells were detected in acute infection and in AIDS with similar trends in blood monocytes. Significantly higher percentages of apoptotic (AC3+) Kupffer cells were also found in acute and AIDS stages. However, productively infected cells were not detected in liver of 41/42 animals examined, despite abundant infected cells in gut and lymph nodes of all animals. Increased rates of Kupffer cell proliferation resulting in an increase in Kupffer cells without productive infection indicate SIV infection affects Kupffer cells, but the liver does not appear to be a major site of productive viral replication. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in SIV-infected macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Gill, Amy F.; Alvarez, Xavier; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the liver drains antigens from the intestinal tract, and since the intestinal tract is a major site of viral replication, we examined the dynamics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) throughout SIV infection. Absolute numbers of Kupffer cells increased in the livers in acute infection, and in animals with AIDS. Significantly higher percentages of proliferating (BrdU+) Kupffer cells were detected in acute infection and in AIDS with similar trends in blood monocytes. Significantly higher percentages of apoptotic (AC3+) Kupffer cells were also found in acute and AIDS stages. However, productively infected cells were not detected in liver of 41/42 animals examined, despite abundant infected cells in gut and lymph nodes of all animals. Increased rates of Kupffer cell proliferation resulting in an increase in Kupffer cells without productive infection indicate SIV infection affects Kupffer cells, but the liver does not appear to be a major site of productive viral replication. PMID:24074569

  8. Red blood cells as modulators of T cell growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Arosa, Fernando A; Pereira, Carlos F; Fonseca, Ana M

    2004-01-01

    T cell homeostasis is largely controlled by a balance between cell death and survival and anomalies in either process account for a number of diseases linked to excessive or faulty T cell growth. Yet, the influence that cells outside the immunological system have on these processes has only recently received attention. Accumulated evidence indicate that homeostasis of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools is highly dynamic and regulated by signals delivered by cells and molecules present in the different internal microenvironments. The major function of red blood cells (RBC) is generally considered to be oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. In recent years, however, RBC have been implicated in the regulation of basic physiological processes, from vascular contraction and platelet aggregation to T cell growth and survival. Regulation of T cell survival by RBC may influence the response of selected subsets of T cells to internal or external stimuli and may help explaining the immunomodulatory activities of red blood cells. By interfering in the balance between death and survival RBC become potential tools that can be manipulated to improve or reverse pathological situations characterized by anomalies in the control of T cell growth.

  9. Lack of Liver X Receptors Leads to Cell Proliferation in a Model of Mouse Dorsal Prostate Epithelial Cell

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Julie; Pommier, Aurélien; Alves, Georges; De Boussac, Hugues; Lours-Calet, Corinne; Volle, David H.; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Baron, Silvère

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies underline the implication of Liver X Receptors (LXRs) in several prostate diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we derived epithelial cells from dorsal prostate (MPECs) of wild type (WT) or Lxrαβ−/− mice. In the WT MPECs, our results show that LXR activation reduces proliferation and correlates with the modification of the AKT-survival pathway. Moreover, LXRs regulate lipid homeostasis with the regulation of Abca1, Abcg1 and Idol, and, in a lesser extent, Srebp1, Fas and Acc. Conversely cells derived from Lxrαβ−/− mice show a higher basal phosphorylation and consequently activation of the survival/proliferation transduction pathways AKT and MAPK. Altogether, our data point out that the cell model we developed allows deciphering the molecular mechanisms inducing the cell cycle arrest. Besides, we show that activated LXRs regulate AKT and MAPK transduction pathways and demonstrate that LXRs could be good pharmacological targets in prostate disease such as cancer. PMID:23554947

  10. Iron alters cell survival in a mitochondria-dependent pathway in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bauckman, Kyle; Haller, Edward; Taran, Nicholas; Rockfield, Stephanie; Ruiz-Rivera, Abigail; Nanjundan, Meera

    2015-01-01

    The role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear. We previously reported that iron reduces cell survival in a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner in ovarian cells; however, the underlying downstream pathway leading to reduced survival was unclear. Although levels of intracellular iron, ferritin/CD71 protein and reactive oxygen species did not correlate with iron-induced cell survival changes, we identified mitochondrial damage (via TEM) and reduced expression of outer mitochondrial membrane proteins (translocase of outer membrane: TOM20 and TOM70) in cell lines sensitive to iron. Interestingly, Ru360 (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter) reversed mitochondrial changes and restored cell survival in HEY ovarian carcinoma cells treated with iron. Further, cells treated with Ru360 and iron also had reduced autophagic punctae with increased lysosomal numbers, implying cross-talk between these compartments. Mitochondrial changes were dependent on activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway since treatment with a MAPK inhibitor restored expression of TOM20/TOM70 proteins. Although glutathione antioxidant levels were reduced in HEY treated with iron, extracellular glutamate levels were unaltered. Strikingly, oxalomalate (inhibitor of aconitase, involved in glutamate production) reversed iron-induced responses in a similar manner to Ru360. Collectively, our results implicate iron in modulating cell survival in a mitochondria-dependent manner in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25697096

  11. In vitro recapitulation of the urea cycle using murine embryonic stem cell-derived in vitro liver model.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Miho; Aoki, Mami; Nishimura, Akihito; Morishita, Koji; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia, a toxic metabolite, is converted to urea in hepatocytes via the urea cycle, a process necessary for cell/organismal survival. In liver, hepatocytes, polygonal and multipolar structures, have a few sides which face hepatic sinusoids and adjacent hepatocytes to form intercellular bile canaliculi connecting to the ductules. The critical nature of this three-dimensional environment should be related to the maintenance of hepatocyte function such as urea synthesis. Recently, we established an in vitro liver model derived from murine embryonic stem cells, IVL(mES), which included the hepatocyte layer and a surrounding sinusoid vascular-like network. The IVL(mES) culture, where the hepatocyte is polarized in a similar fashion to its in vivo counterpart, could successfully recapitulate in vivo results. L-Ornithine is an intermediate of the urea cycle, but supplemental L-ornithine does not activate the urea cycle in the apolar primary hepatocyte of monolayer culture. In the IVL(mES), supplemental L-ornithine could activate the urea cycle, and also protect against ammonium/alcohol-induced hepatocyte death. While the IVL(mES) displays architectural and functional properties similar to the liver, primary hepatocyte of monolayer culture fail to model critical functional aspects of liver physiology. We propose that the IVL(mES) will represent a useful, humane alternative to animal studies for drug toxicity and mechanistic studies of liver injury.

  12. Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

    2014-08-01

    Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100 nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by γ-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250 µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies.

  13. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    PubMed Central

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. PMID:18300260

  14. Solitary chemoreceptor cell survival is independent of intact trigeminal innervation.

    PubMed

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Thomas E

    2008-05-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al. [2003] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:8981-8986). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al. [2003]) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Liver Cell-Derived Microparticles Activate Hedgehog Signaling and Alter Gene Expression in Hepatic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Witek, Rafal P.; Yang, Liu; Liu, Renshui; Jung, Youngmi; Omenetti, Alessia; Syn, Wing-Kin; Choi, Steve S.; Cheong, Yeiwon; Fearing, Caitlin M.; Agboola, Kolade M.; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Angiogenesis contributes to vascular remodeling during cirrhosis. In cirrhotic livers, cholangiocytes and myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (MF-HSC) produce Hedgehog (Hh) ligands. During embryogenesis Hh ligands are released from ligand-producing cells in microparticles and activate Hh signaling in endothelial cells. We studied whether adult liver cell-derived microparticles contain Hh ligands that alter hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). Methods MF-HSCs and cholangiocytes were exposed to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to induce Hh ligands; microparticles were isolated from medium, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunoblots, and applied to Hh-reporter containing cells. Microparticles were also obtained from serum and bile of rats after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery and applied to normal primary liver SEC with or without cyclopamine, a Hh signaling inhibitor. Effects on SEC gene expression were evaluated by QRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Finally, Hh target gene expression and SEC activation markers were compared in primary SEC and in liver sections from healthy and BDL rats. Results PDGF-treated MF-HSC and cholangiocytes released exosome-enriched microparticles containing biologically active Hh ligands. BDL also increased release of Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles into plasma and bile. TEM and immunoblots revealed similarities among microparticles from all sources; all microparticles induced similar Hh-dependent changes in SEC gene expression. SEC from healthy livers did not express Hh target genes or activation markers, but both were up-regulated in SEC after BDL. Conclusions Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles released from liver cells alter hepatic SEC gene expression, suggesting a novel mechanism for cirrhotic vasculopathy. PMID:19013163

  16. Liver cell-derived microparticles activate hedgehog signaling and alter gene expression in hepatic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Witek, Rafal P; Yang, Liu; Liu, Renshui; Jung, Youngmi; Omenetti, Alessia; Syn, Wing-Kin; Choi, Steve S; Cheong, Yeiwon; Fearing, Caitlin M; Agboola, Kolade M; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis contributes to vascular remodeling during cirrhosis. In cirrhotic livers, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (MF-HSC) produce Hedgehog (Hh) ligands. During embryogenesis Hh ligands are released from ligand-producing cells in microparticles and activate Hh signaling in endothelial cells. We studied whether adult liver cell-derived microparticles contain Hh ligands that alter hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). MF-HSC and cholangiocytes were exposed to platelet-derived growth factor to induce Hh ligands; microparticles were isolated from medium, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and immunoblots, and applied to Hh-reporter-containing cells. Microparticles were obtained from serum and bile of rats after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery and applied to normal primary liver SEC with or without cyclopamine, an Hh signaling inhibitor. Effects on SEC gene expression were evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Hh target gene expression and SEC activation markers were compared in primary SEC and in liver sections from healthy and BDL rats. Platelet-derived growth factor-treated MF-HSC and cholangiocytes released exosome-enriched microparticles containing biologically-active Hh ligands. BDL increased release of Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles into plasma and bile. Transmission electron microscopy and immunoblots revealed similarities among microparticles from all sources; all microparticles induced similar Hh-dependent changes in SEC gene expression. SEC from healthy livers did not express Hh target genes or activation markers, but both were up-regulated in SEC after BDL. Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles released from liver cells alter hepatic SEC gene expression, suggesting a novel mechanism for cirrhotic vasculopathy.

  17. Crocetin shifts autophagic cell survival to death of breast cancer cells in chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ailian; Li, Jincheng

    2017-03-01

    The chemotherapy with fluorouracil is not always effective, in which some breast cancer cells may survive the fluorouracil treatment through enhanced autophagy. Crocetin is the major constituent of saffron, a Chinese traditional herb, which has recently found to have multiple pharmacological effects, including anticancer. However, the effects of Crocetin on the outcome of fluorouracil therapy for breast cancer have not been studied. Here, we showed that fluorouracil treatment inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells, in either a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay or an MTT assay. Inhibition of autophagy further suppressed breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that the breast cancer cells increased autophagic cell survival during fluorouracil treatment. However, Crocetin significantly increased the suppressive effects of fluorouracil on breast cancer cell growth, without affecting either cell apoptosis or autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy at the presence of Crocetin partially abolished the suppressive effects on breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that Crocetin may increase autophagic cell death in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Crocetin decreased Beclin-1 levels but increased ATG1 levels in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells. Together, these data suggest that Crocetin may shift autophagic cell survival to autophagic cell death in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells, possibly through modulation of the expression of ATG1 and Beclin-1.

  18. MALAT1 affects ovarian cancer cell behavior and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qunbo; Guan, Wencai; Ren, Weimin; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhang, Jinguo; Xu, Guoxiong

    2018-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal malignancies of the female reproductive organs. Increasing evidence has revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in tumorigenesis. Metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is an lncRNA and plays a role in various types of tumors. However, the function of MALAT1 on cellular behavior in EOC remains unclear. The current study explored the expression of MALAT1 in ovarian cancer tissues and in EOC cell lines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of MALAT1 was higher in human ovarian malignant tumor tissues and EOC cells than in normal ovarian tissues and non-tumorous human ovarian surface epithelial cells, respectively. By analyzing the online database Kaplan-Meier Plotter, MALAT1 was identified to be correlated with the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, knockdown of MALAT1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased EOC cell viability, migration, and invasion. Finally, dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that MALAT1 interacted with miR-143-3p, a miRNA that plays a role in EOC as demonstrated in our previous study. Inhibition of MALAT1 resulted in an increase of miR-143-3p expression, leading to a decrease of CMPK protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicated that MALAT1 was overexpressed in EOC. Silencing of MALAT1 decreased EOC cell viability and inhibited EOC cell migration and invasion. These data revealed that MALAT1 may serve as a new therapeutic target of human EOC. PMID:29693187

  19. Fetal liver contains committed NK progenitors, but is not a site for development of CD34+ cells into T cells.

    PubMed

    Jaleco, A C; Blom, B; Res, P; Weijer, K; Lanier, L L; Phillips, J H; Spits, H

    1997-07-15

    The presence of T and NK cells in the human fetal liver and the fact that fetal liver hemopoietic progenitor cells develop into T and NK cells suggest a role for the fetal liver compartment in T and NK cell development. In this work, we show that the capacity of fetal liver progenitors to develop into T cells, in a human/mouse fetal thymic organ culture system, is restricted to an immature subset of CD34+ CD38- cells. No T cell-committed precursors are contained within the more differentiated CD34+ CD38+ population. This conclusion is supported by the observations that no TCR-delta gene rearrangements and no pre-TCR-alpha expression can be detected in this population. However, NK cells were derived from CD34+ CD38- and CD34+ CD38+ fetal liver cells cultured in the presence of IL-15, IL-7, and Flt-3 ligand. Eighty to ninety percent of cells arising from the CD34+ CD38+ population expressed the NK cell-associated markers CD56, CD16, CD94, and NKR-P1A. Several subpopulations of NK cell precursors were identified by differential expression of these receptors. Based on the detection of populations with a similar antigenic profile in freshly isolated fetal liver cells, we propose a model of NK cell differentiation. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD34+ cells differentiate into NK cells, but not into mature T cells, in the human fetal liver.

  20. Kinetics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) in SIV-infected macaques

    SciT

    Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Gill, Amy F.; Alvarez, Xavier

    Since the liver drains antigens from the intestinal tract, and since the intestinal tract is a major site of viral replication, we examined the dynamics of liver macrophages (Kupffer cells) throughout SIV infection. Absolute numbers of Kupffer cells increased in the livers in acute infection, and in animals with AIDS. Significantly higher percentages of proliferating (BrdU+) Kupffer cells were detected in acute infection and in AIDS with similar trends in blood monocytes. Significantly higher percentages of apoptotic (AC3+) Kupffer cells were also found in acute and AIDS stages. However, productively infected cells were not detected in liver of 41/42 animalsmore » examined, despite abundant infected cells in gut and lymph nodes of all animals. Increased rates of Kupffer cell proliferation resulting in an increase in Kupffer cells without productive infection indicate SIV infection affects Kupffer cells, but the liver does not appear to be a major site of productive viral replication. - Highlights: • Kupffer cells increase in the liver of SIV-infected macaques. • Increased proliferation and apoptosis of Kupffer cells occurs in SIV infection. • Productively infected cells are rarely detected in the liver. • The liver is not a major site for SIV replication.« less

  1. High cytidine deaminase expression in the liver provides sanctuary for cancer cells from decitabine treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Ebrahem, Quteba; Mahfouz, Reda Z; Ng, Kwok Peng; Saunthararajah, Yogen

    2012-10-01

    We document for the first time that sanctuary in an organ which expresses high levels of the enzyme cytidine deaminase (CDA) is a mechanism of cancer cell resistance to cytidine analogues. This mechanism could explain why historically, cytidine analogues have not been successful chemotherapeutics against hepatotropic cancers, despite efficacy in vitro. Importantly, this mechanism of resistance can be readily reversed, without increasing toxicity to sensitive organs, by combining a cytidine analogue with an inhibitor of cytidine deaminase (tetrahydrouridine). Specifically, CDA rapidly metabolizes cytidine analogues into inactive uridine counterparts. Hence, to determine if sheltering/protection of cancer cells in organs which express high levels of CDA (e.g., liver) is a mechanism of resistance, we utilized a murine xenotransplant model of myeloid cancer that is sensitive to epigenetic therapeutic effects of the cytidine analogue decitabine in vitro and hepato-tropic in vivo. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with decitabine (subcutaneous 0.2mg/kg 2X/week) doubled median survival and significantly decreased extra-hepatic tumor burden, but hepatic tumor burden remained substantial, to which the animals eventually succumbed. Combining a clinically-relevant inhibitor of CDA (tetrahydrouridine) with a lower dose of decitabine (subcutaneous 0.1mg/kg 2X/week) markedly decreased liver tumor burden without blood count or bone marrow evidence of myelotoxicity, and with further improvement in survival. In conclusion, sanctuary in a CDA-rich organ is a mechanism by which otherwise susceptible cancer cells can resist the effects of decitabine epigenetic therapy. This protection can be reversed without increasing myelotoxicity by combining tetrahydrouridine with a lower dose of decitabine.

  2. Proline oxidase promotes tumor cell survival in hypoxic tumor microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Glunde, Kristine; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Raman, Venu; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Proline is a readily released stress substrate that can be metabolized by proline oxidase (POX) to generate either reactive oxygen species to induce apoptosis or autophagy or ATP during times of nutrient stress. However, the contribution of proline metabolism to tumorigenesis in hypoxic microenvironments has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the different functions of POX under hypoxia and glucose depletion. We found that hypoxia induced POX expression in cancer cells in vitro and that POX upregulation co-localized with hypoxic tissues in vivo. In addition, the combination of hypoxia and low-glucose showed additive effects on POX expression. Similar to conditions of low glucose, hypoxia-mediated POX induction was dependent on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, but was independent of HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Under low-glucose and combined low-glucose and hypoxic conditions, proline catabolized by POX was used preferentially for ATP production, whereas under hypoxia, POX mediated autophagic signaling for survival by generating ROS. Although the specific mechanism was different for hypoxia and glucose deprivation, POX consistently contributed to tumor cell survival under these conditions. Together, our findings offer new insights into the metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells present within a hostile microenvironment and suggest that proline metabolism is a potential target for cancer therapeutics. PMID:22609800

  3. IDH mutations in liver cell plasticity and biliary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Supriya K; Parachoniak, Christine A; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive cancer associated with the bile ducts within the liver. These tumors are characterized by frequent gain-of-function mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes—that are also common in subsets of neural, haematopoietic and bone tumors, but rare or absent in the other types of gastrointestinal malignancy. Mutant IDH acts through a novel mechanism of oncogenesis, producing high levels of the metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with the function of α-ketoglutarate-dependent enzymes that regulate diverse cellular processes including histone demethylation and DNA modification. Recently, we used in vitro stem cell systems and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to demonstrate that mutant IDH promotes ICC formation by blocking hepatocyte differentiation and increasing pools of hepatic progenitors that are susceptible to additional oncogenic hits leading to ICC. We found that silencing of HNF4A—encoding a master transcriptional regulator of hepatocyte identity and quiescence—was critical to mutant IDH-mediated inhibition of liver differentiation. In line with these findings, human ICC with IDH mutations are characterized by a hepatic progenitor cell transcriptional signature suggesting that they are a distinct ICC subtype as compared to IDH wild type tumors. The role of mutant IDH in controlling hepatic differentiation state suggests the potential of newly developed inhibitors of the mutant enzyme as a form of differentiation therapy in a solid tumor. PMID:25485496

  4. Targeting of VX2 Rabbit Liver Tumor by Selective Delivery of 3-Bromopyruvate: A Biodistribution and Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Vali, Mustafa; Vossen, Josephina A.; Buijs, Manon; Engles, James M.; Liapi, Eleni; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Khwaja, Afsheen; Acha-Ngwodo, Obele; Shanmugasundaram, Ganapathy; Syed, Labiq; Wahl, Richard L.; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biodistribution and tumor targeting ability of 14C-labeled 3-bromopyruvate ([14C]3-BrPA) after i.a. and i.v. delivery in the VX2 rabbit model. In addition, we evaluated the effects of [14C]3-BrPA on tumor and healthy tissue glucose metabolism by determining 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Last, we determined the survival benefit of i.a. administered 3-BrPA. In total, 60 rabbits with VX2 liver tumor received either 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.a., 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.v., 20 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.v., or 25 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All rabbits (with the exception of the 20 mM i.v. group) received FDG 1 h before sacrifice. Next, we compared survival of animals treated with i.a. administered 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA in 25 ml of PBS (n = 22) with controls (n = 10). After i.a. infusion, tumor uptake of [14C]3-BrPA was 1.8 ± 0.2% percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), whereas other tissues showed minimal uptake. After i.v. infusion (1.75 mM), tumor uptake of [14C]3-BrPA was 0.03 ± 0.01% ID/g. After i.a. administration of [14C]3-BrPA, tumor uptake of FDG was 26 times lower than in controls. After i.v. administration of [14C]3-BrPA, there was no significant difference in tumor FDG uptake. Survival analysis showed that rabbits treated with 1.75 mM 3-BrPA survived longer (55 days) than controls (18.6 days). Intra-arterially delivered 3-BrPA has a favorable biodistribution profile, combining a high tumor uptake resulting in blockage of FDG uptake with no effects on healthy tissue. The local control of the liver tumor by 3-BrPA resulted in a significant survival benefit. PMID:18591216

  5. Effect of interleukins on the proliferation and survival of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mainou-Fowler, T; Copplestone, J A; Prentice, A G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the effects of interleukin (IL) 1, 2, 4, and 5 on the proliferation and survival of peripheral blood B cells from patients with B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and compare them with the effects on normal peripheral blood B cells. METHODS--The proliferation and survival of pokeweed mitogen (PWM) activated B cells from B-CLL (n = 12) and normal peripheral blood (n = 5) were studied in vitro in response to IL-1, IL-2 IL-4, and IL-5. Survival of cells in cultures with or without added interleukins was studied by microscopic examination of cells and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS--Proliferation was observed in both B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells on culture with IL-2 alone and also in some, but not all, B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells with IL-1 and IL-4. However, there was greater variability in B-CLL cell responses than in normal peripheral blood cells. Il-5 did not affect normal peripheral blood cell proliferation but it increased proliferation in two B-CLL cases. Synergistic effects of these cytokines were not detected. IL-4 inhibited normal peripheral blood and B-CLL cell proliferation after the addition of IL-2. Inhibition of B-CLL cell responses to IL-2 was also observed with IL-5 and Il-1. Survival of B-CLL cells in cultures was enhanced with IL-4 not by an increase in proliferation but by reduced apoptosis. No such effect was seen in normal peripheral blood cells. IL-2 had a less noticeable antiapoptotic effect; IL-5 enhanced apoptosis in B-CLL cells. CONCLUSIONS--B-CLL and normal peripheral blood cells proliferated equally well in response to IL-2. IL-4 had a much lower effect on B-CLL cell proliferation, but had noticeable antiapoptotic activity. IL-5 enhanced cell death by apoptosis. Images PMID:7629299

  6. Regulation of cell survival and death during Flavivirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh Roy, Sounak; Sadigh, Beata; Datan, Emmanuel; Lockshin, Richard A; Zakeri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses, ss(+) RNA viruses, include many of mankind’s most important pathogens. Their pathogenicity derives from their ability to infect many types of cells including neurons, to replicate, and eventually to kill the cells. Flaviviruses can activate tumor necrosis factor α and both intrinsic (Bax-mediated) and extrinsic pathways to apoptosis. Thus they can use many approaches for activating these pathways. Infection can lead to necrosis if viral load is extremely high or to other types of cell death if routes to apoptosis are blocked. Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Virus can also activate autophagy. In this case the autophagy temporarily spares the infected cell, allowing a longer period of reproduction for the virus, and the autophagy further protects the cell against other stresses such as those caused by reactive oxygen species. Several of the viral proteins have been shown to induce apoptosis or autophagy on their own, independent of the presence of other viral proteins. Given the versatility of these viruses to adapt to and manipulate the metabolism, and thus to control the survival of, the infected cells, we need to understand much better how the specific viral proteins affect the pathways to apoptosis and autophagy. Only in this manner will we be able to minimize the pathology that they cause. PMID:24921001

  7. Possible role of pineal allopregnanolone in Purkinje cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Hara, Sakurako; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Mita, Masatoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that neurosteroids are produced in the brain and other nervous systems. Here, we show that allopregnanolone (ALLO), a neurosteroid, is exceedingly produced in the pineal gland compared with the brain and that pineal ALLO acts on the Purkinje cell, a principal cerebellar neuron, to prevent apoptosis in the juvenile quail. We first demonstrated that the pineal gland is a major organ of neurosteroidogenesis. A series of experiments using molecular and biochemical techniques has further demonstrated that the pineal gland produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in the juvenile quail. Importantly, ALLO was far more actively produced in the pineal gland than in the brain. Pinealectomy (Px) decreased ALLO concentration in the cerebellum and induced apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas administration of ALLO to Px quail chicks prevented apoptosis of Purkinje cells. We further found that Px significantly increased the number of Purkinje cells that expressed active caspase-3, a key protease in apoptotic pathway, and daily injection of ALLO to Px quail chicks decreased the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. These results indicate that the neuroprotective effect of pineal ALLO is associated with the decrease in caspase-3 activity during the early stage of neuronal development. We thus provide evidence that the pineal gland is an important neurosteroidogenic organ and that pineal ALLO may be involved in Purkinje cell survival during development. This is an important function of the pineal gland in the formation of neuronal circuits in the developing cerebellum. PMID:23213208

  8. Molecular Recognition of Human Liver Cancer Cells Using DNA Aptamers Generated via Cell-SELEX.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiehua; Teng, I-Ting; Zhang, Liqin; Delgado, Stefanie; Champanhac, Carole; Cansiz, Sena; Wu, Cuichen; Shan, Hong; Tan, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical cases of liver cancer cannot be diagnosed until they have evolved to an advanced stage, thus resulting in high mortality. It is well recognized that the implementation of early detection methods and the development of targeted therapies for liver cancer are essential to reducing the high mortality rates associated with this disease. To achieve these goals, molecular probes capable of recognizing liver cancer cell-specific targets are needed. Here we describe a panel of aptamers able to distinguish hepatocarcinoma from normal liver cells. The aptamers, which were selected by cell-based SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment), have Kd values in the range of 64-349 nM toward the target human hepatoma cell HepG2, and also recognize ovarian cancer cells and lung adenocarcinoma. The proteinase treatment experiment indicated that all aptamers could recognize target HepG2 cells through surface proteins. This outcome suggested that these aptamers could be used as potential probes for further research in cancer studies, such as developing early detection assays, targeted therapies, and imaging agents, as well as for the investigation of common membrane proteins in these distinguishable cancers.

  9. Morphologic examination of CD3-CD4(bright) cells in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Yosinobu; Abo, Toru; Hatakeyama, Katsuyosi

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we found CD3-CD4(bright) cells with comparative specificity for normal rat liver. In the current study, we investigated the type and form of both CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells in the rat liver. The surface phenotype of hepatic mononuclear cells in Lewis rats was identified by using monoclonal antibodies including anti-CD4, anti-CD3, and antimacrophage in conjunction with two- or three-color immunofluorescence analysis. CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells were examined morphologically using May-Giemsa staining and scanning electron microscopy. The distribution of CD3-CD4(bright) cells and CD3-CD4(dull) cells 48 hours after intravenous administration of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate was also investigated. In comparison to CD3-CD4(dull) cells, CD3-CD4(bright) cells were slightly larger macrophages with abundant cytoplasmic granules, being present with comparative specificity for normal rat liver and showing negligible effects by intravenous liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphate administration. These data suggest that in normal young rat liver these CD3-CD4(dull) and CD3-CD4(bright) cells may be dendritic cells and Kupffer cells that shift from the liver to the spleen or vice versa. These cells may also be able to locally proliferate in liver or spleen due to changes in the developing liver.

  10. The influence of donor age on liver regeneration and hepatic progenitor cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Hayashida, Tetsu; Wakui, Masatoshi; Tanabe, Minoru; Itano, Osamu; Obara, Hideaki; Shinoda, Masahiro; Hibi, Taizo; Oshima, Go; Tani, Noriyuki; Mihara, Kisyo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that donor age might have a major impact on recipient outcome in adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but the reasons underlying this effect remain unclear. The aims of this study were to compare liver regeneration between young and aged living donors and to evaluate the number of Thy-1+ cells, which have been reported to be human hepatic progenitor cells. LDLT donors were divided into 2 groups (Group O, donor age ≥ 50 years, n = 6 and Group Y, donor age ≤ 30 years, n = 9). The remnant liver regeneration rates were calculated on the basis of computed tomography volumetry on postoperative days 7 and 30. Liver tissue samples were obtained from donors undergoing routine liver biopsy or patients undergoing partial hepatectomy for metastatic liver tumors. Thy-1+ cells were isolated and counted using immunomagnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) technique. Donor liver regeneration rates were significantly higher in young donors compared to old donors (P = .042) on postoperative day 7. Regeneration rates were significantly higher after right lobe resection compared to rates after left lobe resection. The MACS findings showed that the number of Thy-1+ cells in the human liver consistently tended to decline with age. Our study revealed that liver regeneration is impaired with age after donor hepatectomy, especially after right lobe resection. The declining hepatic progenitor cell population might be one of the reasons for impaired liver regeneration in aged donors. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endothelial Cell Implantation and Survival within Experimental Gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Bachchu; Indurti, Ravi R.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Goldstein, Gary W.; Laterra, John

    1994-10-01

    The delivery of therapeutic genes to primary brain neoplasms opens new opportunities for treating these frequently fatal tumors. Efficient gene delivery to tissues remains an important obstacle to therapy, and this problem has unique characteristics in brain tumors due to the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers. The presence of endothelial mitogens and vessel proliferation within solid tumors suggests that genetically modified endothelial cells might efficiently transplant to brain tumors. Rat brain endothelial cells immortalized with the adenovirus E1A gene and further modified to express the β-galactosidase reporter were examined for their ability to survive implantation to experimental rat gliomas. Rats received 9L, F98, or C6 glioma cells in combination with endothelial cells intracranially to caudate/putamen or subcutaneously to flank. Implanted endothelial cells were identified by β-galactosidase histochemistry or by polymerase chain reaction in all tumors up to 35 days postimplantation, the latest time examined. Implanted endothelial cells appeared to cooperate in tumor vessel formation and expressed the brain-specific endothelial glucose transporter type 1 as identified by immunohistochemistry. The proliferation of implanted endothelial cells was supported by their increased number within tumors between postimplantation days 14 and 21 (P = 0.015) and by their expression of the proliferation antigen Ki67. These findings establish that genetically modified endothelial cells can be stably engrafted to growing gliomas and suggest that endothelial cell implantation may provide a means of delivering therapeutic genes to brain neoplasms and other solid tumors. In addition, endothelial implantation to brain may be useful for defining mechanisms of brain-specific endothelial differentiation.

  12. Is Survival for Patients with Resectable Lung Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Comparable to Those with Resectable Liver Disease? Results from the South Australian Metastatic Colorectal Registry.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dainik; Townsend, Amanda R; Karapetis, Christos; Beeke, Carol; Padbury, Rob; Roy, Amitesh; Maddern, Guy; Roder, David; Price, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic resection for colorectal (CRC) metastasis is considered a standard of care. Resection of metastasis isolated to lung also is considered potentially curable, although there is still some variation in recommendations. We explore outcomes for patients undergoing lung resection for mCRC, with the liver resection group as the comparator. South Australian (SA) metastatic CRC registry data were analysed to assess patient characteristics and survival outcomes for patients suitable for lung or liver resection. A total of 3241 patients are registered on the database to December 2014. One hundred two (3.1 %) patients were able to undergo a lung resection compared with 420 (12.9 %) who had a liver resection. Of the lung resection patients, 62 (61 %) presented with lung disease only, 21 % initially presented with liver disease only, 11 % had both lung and liver, and 7 % had brain or pelvic disease resection. Of these patients, 79 % went straight to surgery without any neoadjuvant treatment and 34 % had lung resection as the only intervention. Chemotherapy for metastatic disease was given more often to liver resection patients: 76.9 versus 53.9 %, p = 0.17. Median overall survival is 5.6 years for liver resection and has not been reached for lung resection (hazard ratio 0.82, 95 % confidence interval 0.54-1.24, p = 0.33). Lung resection was undertaken in 3.1 % of patients with mCRC in our registry. These data provide further support for long-term survival after lung resection in mCRC, survival that is at least comparable to those who undergo resection for liver metastasis in mCRC.

  13. Discovery of survival factor for primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells using induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Suknuntha, Kran; Ishii, Yuki; Tao, Lihong; Hu, Kejin; McIntosh, Brian E.; Yang, David; Swanson, Scott; Stewart, Ron; Wang, Jean Y.J.; Thomson, James; Slukvin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A definitive cure for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) requires identifying novel therapeutic targets to eradicate leukemia stem cells (LSCs). However, the rarity of LSCs within the primitive hematopoietic cell compartment remains a major limiting factor for their study in humans. Here we show that primitive hematopoietic cells with typical LSC features, including adhesion defect, increased long-term survival and proliferation, and innate resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib, can be generated de novo from reprogrammed primary CML cells. Using CML iPSC-derived primitive leukemia cells, we discovered olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) as a novel factor that contributes to survival and growth of somatic lin−CD34+ cells from bone marrow of patients with CML in chronic phase, but not primitive hematopoietic cells from normal bone marrow. Overall, this study shows the feasibility and advantages of using reprogramming technology to develop strategies for targeting primitive leukemia cells. PMID:26561938

  14. [Survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells in cell sheets].

    PubMed

    An, Kangkang; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) in BMMSC/PDLSC cell sheets which transplanted ectopically into subcutaneous dorsum of nude mice. The canine BMMSC and PDLSC from primary culture were tranfected with lentiviral vectors carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (Lentivirus-GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene (Lentivirus-RFP) respectively. The immunophenotypes of GFP-labeled BMMSC and RFP-labeled PDLSC were identified by flow cytometry. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of them were detected by alizarin red or oil red O respectively. Then, both GFP-labeled BMMSC cell sheets and RFP-labeled PDLSC cell sheets were fabricated respectively using normal culture dish (6 cm) after stimulation of extracellular matrix formation. Each was enveloped by collagen membrane (Bio-Gide) and then transplanted into the subcutaneous dorsum of nude mice. In vivo non-invasive biofluorescence imaging(BFI) was performed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 w post-tranplantation to trace and quantify the survival and growth of RFP-labeled PDLSC and GFP-labeled BMMSC via the BFI system of the NightOWL. The fluorescence intensity change of GFP/RFP signal was monitored and compared. The mice were sacrificed 8 weeks after cell sheets transplantation and the survival of stem cells was verified by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The flow cytometry showed that GFP-labeled BMMSC positively expressed CD29, CD44, CD34, STRO-1 were 93.07%, 92.84%, 3.23%, 67.67%, and RFP-labeled PDLSCs were 89.91%, 88.47%, 6.04%, 74.11%, respectively. Both of them had the potency of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes. The stemness of both of them was almost same. After being transplanted into nude mice, the signal strength of GFP(BMMSC) was weaker and weaker in 1, 2, 4 and 8 w [(83.1±3.1)×10(6), (65.1±2.3)×10(6), (51.5 ± 2.3)×10(6), (33.8 ± 2.0)×10(6) ph/s, respectively.]. The signal strength of RFP(PDLSC) was

  15. APSA Awardee Submission: Tumor/cancer stem cell marker doublecortin-like kinase 1 in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Charles B; Houchen, Courtney W; Ali, Naushad

    2017-02-01

    Liver diseases are the fourth leading cause of mortality among adults in the United States. Patients with chronic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis have significantly higher risks of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With a dismal five-year survival rate of 11%, HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Regardless of the underlying cause, late presentation and a lack of effective therapy are the major impediments for successful treatment of HCC. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of chronic liver diseases at the early stages. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small cell subpopulation in a tumor, exhibit unlimited self-renewal and differentiation capacity. These cells are believed to play pivotal roles in the initiation, growth, metastasis, and drug-resistance of tumors. In this review, we will briefly discuss pivotal roles of the CSC marker doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) in hepatic tumorigenesis. Recent evidence suggests that anti-DCLK1 strategies hold promising clinical potential for the treatment of cancers of the liver, pancreas, and colon.

  16. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of cirrhotic liver cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma can provide a new prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Ruà, S; Comino, A; Fruttero, A; Torchio, P; Bouzari, H; Taraglio, S; Torchio, B; Capussotti, L

    1996-09-15

    DNA flow cytometry of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells has been investigated in many studies, but, to the best of our knowledge, there are no data on DNA analysis of cirrhotic parenchyma around the HCC. In this study, cell kinetics and ploidy of parenchymal cells around HCC were performed to ascertain if this would predict the possibility of recurrence in the cirrhotic areas. The DNA content of 93 cases of HCC and of cirrhotic liver around the tumor nodules was analyzed by flow cytometry. Ploidy and proliferative index of HCC and cirrhotic liver were compared with macroscopic, histologic, and clinical features of each case and linked with the behavior of these tumors. Survival curves were assessed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate analysis based on Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed on cases of diploid cirrhosis cells in which the S-phase fraction was evaluable. The univariate analysis of survival suggested significant roles for age, number of intrahepatic nodules, Edmondson-Steiner's classification, portal invasion, vascular invasion, presence of necrosis, hepatitis B surface antigen, alpha-feto-protein, Child's score, ploidy, and S-phase fraction of HCC cells. The DNA analysis of the cirrhotic cells showed that polyploidy was dramatically reduced in patients with HCC, compared with normal hepatocytes, and aneuploid clones were present among diploid cells. High S-phase fraction of cirrhotic cells and Child-Pugh classification were the strongest independent parameters affecting the tumor behavior in this study. The results of this study suggest that S-phase fraction of cirrhotic liver parenchyma may be employed as a new parameter in the prognostic evaluation of HCC patients.

  17. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Stimulation before or after Streptococcus pneumoniae Induced Sepsis Improves Survival and Is Dependent on T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Edward N.; Scheld, W. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endotoxin tolerance improves outcomes from gram negative sepsis but the underlying mechanism is not known. We determined if endotoxin tolerance before or after pneumococcal sepsis improved survival and the role of lymphocytes in this protection. Methods Mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle before or after a lethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Survival, quantitative bacteriology, liver function, and cytokine concentrations were measured. We confirmed the necessity of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for endotoxin tolerance using C3H/HeN (TLR4 replete) and C3H/HeJ (TLR4 deficient) mice. The role of complement was investigated through A/J mice deficient in C5 complement. CBA/CaHN-Btkxid//J mice with dysfunctional B cells and Rag-1 knockout (KO) mice deficient in T and B cells delineated the role of lymphocytes. Results Endotoxin tolerance improved survival from pneumococcal sepsis in mice with TLR4 that received LPS pretreatment or posttreatment. Survival was associated with reduced bacterial burden and serum cytokine concentrations. Death was associated with abnormal liver function and blood glucose concentrations. Endotoxin tolerance improved survival in A/J and CBA/CaHN-Btkxid//J mice but not Rag-1 KO mice. Conclusions TLR4 stimulation before or after S. pneumoniae infection improved survival and was dependent on T-cells but did not require an intact complement cascade or functional B cells. PMID:24465843

  18. Chemokine receptor CXCR6-dependent hepatic NK T Cell accumulation promotes inflammation and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Alexander; Baeck, Christer; Heymann, Felix; Niemietz, Patricia Maria; Hammerich, Linda; Martin, Christian; Zimmermann, Henning W; Pack, Oliver; Gassler, Nikolaus; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Ludwig, Andreas; Luedde, Tom; Trautwein, Christian; Tacke, Frank

    2013-05-15

    Chronic liver injury characteristically results in hepatic inflammation, which represents a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Although NKT cells are abundantly present in liver and involved in hepatic inflammation, molecular mechanisms of their recruitment in liver fibrosis remained elusive. We hypothesized that chemokine receptor CXCR6 and its ligand CXCL16 control NKT cell migration and functionality in liver fibrosis. In patients with chronic liver diseases (n = 58), CXCR6 and CXCL16 expression was intrahepatically upregulated compared with controls. In murine liver, Cxcl16 was strongly expressed by endothelium and macrophages, whereas lymphocyte populations (NKT, NK, CD4 T, CD8 T cells) expressed CXCR6. Intravital two-photon microscopy imaging of Cxcr6(+/gfp) and Cxcr6(gfp/gfp) mice and chemotaxis studies in vitro revealed that CXCR6 specifically controls hepatic NKT cell accumulation during the early response upon experimental liver damage. Hepatic invariant NKT cells expressed distinct proinflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-4 upon injury. CXCR6-deficient mice were protected from liver fibrosis progression in two independent experimental models. Macrophage infiltration and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-4 were also reduced in fibrotic livers of Cxcr6(-/-) mice, corroborating that hepatic NKT cells provide essential cytokine signals perpetuating hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Adoptive transfer of NKT cells, but not CD4 T cells, isolated from wild type livers restored hepatic fibrosis in Cxcr6(-/-) mice upon experimental steatohepatitis. Our results demonstrate that hepatic NKT cells accumulate CXCR6-dependent early upon injury, thereby accentuating the inflammatory response in the liver and promoting hepatic fibrogenesis. Interfering with CXCR6/CXCL16 might therefore bear therapeutic potential in liver fibrosis.

  19. Cell death and survival signalling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tucka, Joanna; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The loss of cells is an important factor in many diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system. Whereas apoptosis is an essential process in development and tissue homeostasis, its occurrence is often associated with various pathologies. Apoptosis of neurons that fail to make appropriate connections is essential for the selection of correct neural signalling in the developing embryo, but its appearance in adults is often associated with neurodegenerative disease. Similarly, in the cardiovascular system, remodeling of the mammalian outflow tract during the transition from a single to dual series circulation with four chambers is accompanied by a precise pattern of cell death, but apoptosis of cardiomyocytes contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart. In many cases, it is unclear whether apoptosis represents a causative association or merely a consequence of the disease itself. There are many excellent reviews on cell death in the cardiovascular system (1-5); in this review we outline the critical signalling pathways that promote the survival of cardiovascular cells, and their relevance to both physiological cell death and disease.

  20. Markers of activated inflammatory cells correlate with severity of liver damage in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    De Vito, Rita; Alisi, Anna; Masotti, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Sara; Panera, Nadia; Citti, Arianna; Salata, Michele; Valenti, Luca; Feldstein, Ariel E; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-07-01

    Concomitantly to the obesity epidemic, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of liver disease in children. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histological damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with possible progression to cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that the immune system plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression to NASH but the cellular nature of the hepatic inflammation is still unknown. The present study includes 34 children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Liver damage was evaluated by the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and the inflammatory infiltrate was characterized by immunohistochemistry for CD45, CD3 and CD163 which are markers of leukocytes, T cells and activated Kupffer cells/macrophages, respectively. Our results have shown that CD45+ (P<0.0001) and CD163+ (P<0.0001) cells were markedly increased in children with severe histological activity (NAS≥5) compared to children with lower activity (NAS<5), whereas CD3+ cells were significantly lower (P<0.01) in children with severe histological activity. There was a significant association between the numbers of CD45+, CD3+ and CD163+ cells, regarding both the portal tract and liver lobule, and the severity of steatosis, ballooning and fibrosis (P<0.01). These data suggest that the severity and composition of the inflammatory infiltrate correlate with steatosis and the severity of disease in children with NAFLD. Moreover, a decrease in CD3+ cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage. Future studies should evaluate whether it can predict the progression of liver disease independently of established histological scores.

  1. A Drug-Induced Hybrid Electrospun Poly-Capro-Lactone: Cell-Derived Extracellular Matrix Scaffold for Liver Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rhiannon; Hay, David C; Callanan, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    Liver transplant is the only treatment option for patients with end-stage liver failure, however, there are too few donor livers available for transplant. Whole organ tissue engineering presents a potential solution to the problem of rapidly escalating donor liver shortages worldwide. A major challenge for liver tissue engineers is the creation of a hepatocyte microenvironment; a niche in which liver cells can survive and function optimally. While polymers and decellularized tissues pose an attractive option for scaffold manufacturing, neither alone has thus far proved sufficient. This study exploited cell's native extracellular matrix (ECM) producing capabilities using two different histone deacetylase inhibitors, and combined these with the customizability and reproducibility of electrospun polymer scaffolds to produce a "best of both worlds" niche microenvironment for hepatocytes. The resulting hybrid poly-capro-lactone (PCL)-ECM scaffolds were validated using HepG2 hepatocytes. The hybrid PCL-ECM scaffolds maintained hepatocyte growth and function, as evidenced by metabolic activity and DNA quantitation. Mechanical testing revealed little significant difference between scaffolds, indicating that cells were responding to a biochemical and topographical profile rather than mechanical changes. Immunohistochemistry showed that the biochemical profile of the drug-derived and nondrug-derived ECMs differed in ratio of Collagen I, Laminin, and Fibronectin. Furthermore, the hybrid PCL-ECM scaffolds influence the gene expression profile of the HepG2s drastically; with expression of Albumin, Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Subfamily A Polypeptide 1, Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Subfamily A Polypeptide 2, Cytochrome P450 Family 3 Subfamily A Polypeptide 4, Fibronectin, Collagen I, and Collagen IV undergoing significant changes. Our results demonstrate that drug-induced hybrid PCL-ECM scaffolds provide a viable, translatable platform for creating a niche microenvironment for

  2. Hepatocyte transplantation and advancements in alternative cell sources for liver-based regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charlotte A; Sinha, Siddharth; Fitzpatrick, Emer; Dhawan, Anil

    2018-06-01

    Human hepatocyte transplantation has been actively perused as an alternative to liver replacement for acute liver failure and liver-based metabolic defects. Current challenges in this field include a limited cell source, reduced cell viability following cryopreservation and poor engraftment of cells into the recipient liver with consequent limited life span. As a result, alternative stem cell sources such as pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, hepatic progenitor cells, amniotic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be used to generate induced hepatocyte like cells (HLC) with each technique exhibiting advantages and disadvantages. HLCs may have comparable function to primary human hepatocytes and could offer patient-specific treatment. However, long-term functionality of transplanted HLCs and the potential oncogenic risks of using stem cells have yet to be established. The immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are promising, and multiple clinical trials are investigating their effect in cirrhosis and acute liver failure. Here, we review the current status of hepatocyte transplantation, alternative cell sources to primary human hepatocytes and their potential in liver regeneration. We also describe recent clinical trials using hepatocytes derived from stem cells and their role in improving the phenotype of several liver diseases.

  3. Decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients of donors with positive blood cultures: a review of the United Network for Organ Sharing dataset.

    PubMed

    Huaman, Moises A; Vilchez, Valery; Mei, Xiaonan; Shah, Malay B; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan; Gedaly, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Liver transplantation using blood culture positive donors (BCPD) has allowed a significant expansion of the donor pool. We aimed to characterize BCPD and assess the outcomes of BCPD liver transplant recipients. We retrieved data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry on all adults who underwent primary, single-organ deceased-donor liver transplantation in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Patients were classified into two cohorts: the BCPD cohort and the non-BCPD cohort. One-year graft and patient survival were compared between cohorts using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. A total of 28 961 patients were included. There were 2316 (8.0%) recipients of BCPD. BCPD were more likely to be older, female, black, diabetic, hypertensive, and obese compared to non-BCPD. Graft survival was significantly lower in BCPD recipients compared to non-BCPD recipients (Kaplan-Meier, 0.85 vs. 0.87; P = 0.009). Results remained significant in propensity-matched analysis (P = 0.038). BCPD was independently associated with decreased graft survival (adjusted HR; 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20; P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in patient survival between study groups. BCPD was associated with decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients. Studies are needed to identify subgroups of BCPD with the highest risk of graft failure and characterize the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Acute phase lipocalin Ex-FABP is involved in heart development and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Gentili, C; Tutolo, G; Zerega, B; Di Marco, E; Cancedda, R; Cancedda, F Descalzi

    2005-03-01

    Ex-FABP is an extracellular fatty acid binding protein, expressed during chicken embryo development in cartilage, muscle fibers, and blood granulocytes. Transfection of chondrocytes and myoblasts with anti-sense Ex-FABP cDNA results in inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction. Ex-FABP expression is dramatically enhanced by inflammatory stimuli and in pathological conditions. In this paper, by in situ whole mount and immunohistochemistry analysis we show that, at early developmental stage, Ex-FABP is diffuse in all tissues of chick embryos. Particularly high level of transcript and protein are expressed in the heart. During acute phase response (APR) induced by endotoxin LPS injection, a marked increase of Ex-FABP mRNA was observed in embryos, highest Ex-FABP expression being in heart and liver. To investigate in vivo the biological role of Ex-FABP, we have directly microinjected chicken embryos with antibody against Ex-FABP. Almost 70% of chicken embryos died and the target tissue was the heart. We detected in heart of the treated embryos a significant increase of apoptotic cells and high level of fatty acids. We propose that the accumulation of fatty acid, specific ligand of Ex-FABP, in the cell microenvironment is responsible of heart cell death, and we suggest that Ex-FABP may act as a survival protein by playing a role as scavenger for fatty acids. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Self-renewing diploid Axin2+ cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y.; Nusse, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Summary The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thus differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity. PMID:26245375

  6. Cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen connects glycolysis and cell survival in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Delphine; De Chiara, Alessia; Chapuis, Nicolas; Candalh, Céline; Mocek, Julie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Haddaoui, Lamya; Ifrah, Norbert; Hermine, Olivier; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Frachet, Philippe; Bouscary, Didier; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-10-19

    Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved in DNA replication, has been described as a key element in survival of mature neutrophil granulocytes, which are non-proliferating cells. Herein, we demonstrated an active export of PCNA involved in cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Notably, daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60R) have a prominent cytosolic PCNA localization due to increased nuclear export compared to daunorubicin-sensitive HL-60 cells (HL-60S). By interacting with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a protein involved in NAD biosynthesis, PCNA coordinates glycolysis and survival, especially in HL-60R cells. These cells showed a dramatic increase in intracellular NAD+ concentration as well as glycolysis including increased expression and activity of hexokinase 1 and increased lactate production. Furthermore, this functional activity of cytoplasmic PCNA was also demonstrated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our data uncover a novel pathway of nuclear export of PCNA that drives cell survival by increasing metabolism flux.

  7. Cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen connects glycolysis and cell survival in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Delphine; De Chiara, Alessia; Chapuis, Nicolas; Candalh, Céline; Mocek, Julie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Haddaoui, Lamya; Ifrah, Norbert; Hermine, Olivier; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Frachet, Philippe; Bouscary, Didier; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved in DNA replication, has been described as a key element in survival of mature neutrophil granulocytes, which are non-proliferating cells. Herein, we demonstrated an active export of PCNA involved in cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Notably, daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60R) have a prominent cytosolic PCNA localization due to increased nuclear export compared to daunorubicin-sensitive HL-60 cells (HL-60S). By interacting with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a protein involved in NAD biosynthesis, PCNA coordinates glycolysis and survival, especially in HL-60R cells. These cells showed a dramatic increase in intracellular NAD+ concentration as well as glycolysis including increased expression and activity of hexokinase 1 and increased lactate production. Furthermore, this functional activity of cytoplasmic PCNA was also demonstrated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our data uncover a novel pathway of nuclear export of PCNA that drives cell survival by increasing metabolism flux. PMID:27759041

  8. Resection margin and recurrence-free survival after liver resection of colorectal metastases.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Andrea; Ribero, Dario; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Mellano, Alfredo; Langella, Serena; Capussotti, Lorenzo

    2010-05-01

    Optimal margin width is uncertain because of conflicting results from recent studies using overall survival as the end-point. After recurrence, re-resection and aggressive chemotherapy heavily affect survival time; the potential confounding effect of such factors has not been investigated. Use of recurrence-free survival (RFS) may overcome this limitation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of width of resection margin on RFS and site of recurrence after hepatic resection for colorectal metastases (CRM). From a prospectively maintained institutional database (1/1999-12/2007) we identified 314 patients undergone hepatectomy for CRM (1/1999-12/2007) with detailed pathologic analysis of the surgical margin and complete follow-up imaging studies documenting disease status and site of recurrence, which was categorized as: resection margin (M(arg)), other intra-hepatic ((other)IH), lung (L) or other extra-hepatic ((other)EH). Recurrence-free estimation was the survival end-point. Median follow-up was 56.5 months. Two hundred and fifteen patients (68.8%) recurred at 288 sites after a mean of 15.5 months. A positive resection margin was associated with an increased risk of M(arg) recurrence (P < 0.001). The presence of >or=2 metastases was the only factor increasing the risk of positive margins (P < 0.05). The width of the negative resection margin (>or=1 cm versus >1 cm) was not a prognostic factor of worse RFS (30.2% versus 37.3%, P = 0.6). Node status of the primary tumour, and size and number of CRM were independent predictors of RFS. Tumour biology and not the width of the negative resection margin affect RFS.

  9. Liver damage, proliferation, and progenitor cell markers in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Hiromu; Li, Bo; Lee, Carol; Koike, Yuhki; Chen, Yong; Seo, Shogo; Pierro, Agostino

    2018-05-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease known to cause injury to multiple organs including the liver. Liver regeneration is essential for the recovery after NEC-induced liver injury. Our aim was to investigate hepatic proliferation and progenitor cell marker expression in experimental NEC. Following ethical approval (#32238), NEC was induced in mice by hypoxia, gavage feeding of hyperosmolar formula, and lipopolysaccharide. Breastfed pups were used as control. We analyzed serum ALT level, liver inflammatory cytokines, liver proliferation markers, and progenitor cell marker expression. Comparison was made between NEC and controls. Serum ALT level was higher in NEC (p<0.05). The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver was also higher in NEC (IL6: p<0.05, TNF-α: p<0.01). Conversely, mRNA expression of proliferation markers in the liver was lower in NEC (Ki67; p<0.01, PCNA: p<0.01). LGR5 expression was also significantly decreased in NEC as demonstrated by mRNA (p<0.05) and protein (p<0.01) levels. Inflammatory injury was present in the liver during experimental NEC. Proliferation and LGR5 expression were impaired in the NEC liver. Modulation of progenitor cell expressing LGR5 may result in stimulation of liver regeneration in NEC-induced liver injury and improved clinical outcome. Level IV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Flow-cytometric separation and enrichment of hepatic progenitor cells in the developing mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Zheng, Y; Kondo, R; Kusakabe, M; Takada, Y; Fukao, K; Nakauchi, H; Taniguchi, H

    2000-12-01

    Stem cells responsible for tissue maintenance and repair are found in a number of organs. However, hepatic stem cells assumed to play a key role in liver development and regeneration remain to be well characterized. To address this issue, we set up a culture system in which primitive hepatic progenitor cells formed colonies. By combining this culture system with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), cells forming colonies containing distinct hepatocytes and cholangiocytes were identified in the fetal mouse liver. These cells express both CD49f and CD29 (alpha6 and beta1 integrin subunits), but do not mark for hematopoietic antigens such as CD45, TER119, and c-Kit. When transplanted into the spleen, these cells migrated to the recipient liver and differentiated into liver parenchymal cells. Our data demonstrate that hepatic progenitor cells are enriched by FACS and suggest approaches to supplanting organ allografting and improving artificial-organ hepatic support.

  11. Nitric oxide protects murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) from cytotoxicity induced by glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pae, H O; Kim, H G; Paik, Y S; Paik, S G; Kim, Y M; Oh, G S; Chung, H T

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of nitric oxide on cell death of murine embryonic liver cells (BNL CL.2) after glucose deprivation. Endogenous nitric oxide production by BNL CL.2 cells was induced by 6 hr pretreatment with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. We used sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-L-glutathione as exogenous nitric oxide-generating compounds. All agents were used at doses that did not show direct cytotoxicity as measured by crystal violet staining assay. In the BNL CL.2 cells, the viability dropped very steeply after 24 hr incubation with glucose-free media. Endogenous nitric oxide produced by treatment of the cells with interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, but did not protect them in the presence of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Exogenous nitric oxide protected the cells from glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytoprotection by nitric oxide donors was abolished by the use of nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazole, but not by the soluble guanosine cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one. In addition, cytoprotective effects comparable to endogenous or exogenous nitric oxide were not observed when the cells were incubated with dibutyl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. Based upon these results, we suggest that nitric oxide may enhance the cell survival of BNL CL.2 cells after glucose deprivation via a guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-independent pathway.

  12. Regulatory T Cell-Enriching Microparticles for Promoting Vascularized Composite Allotransplant Survival

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0244 TITLE: Regulatory T Cell-Enriching Microparticles for Promoting Vascularized Composite Allotransplant Survival...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulatory T Cell-Enriching Microparticles for Promoting Vascularized Composite Allotransplant Survival...observed effects these particles have on allograft survival. Key Words CTA Composite Tissue Allotransplantation VCA Vascularized Composite

  13. A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver

    SciT

    Shikanai, Mima; Asahina, Kinji; Iseki, Sachiko

    2009-04-03

    Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or {alpha}-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells becamemore » mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.« less

  14. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  15. Direct evidence of macrophage differentiation from bone marrow cells in the liver: a possible origin of Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, R; Watanabe, Y; Akaike, T

    1995-12-01

    Controversy has surrounded origin and differentiation of tissue macrophages. We directly demonstrate the differentiation of bone marrow cells into macrophages in the liver in vivo using a cell-labeling fluorescence dye, PKH-26. Bone marrow cells labeled with PKH26 were intravenously injected into syngenic mice, and these cells were tracked by flow cytometric analysis. The majority of the labeled cells were detected only in the liver after 4 days. Interestingly, antigens specific for macrophage lineage cells (F4/80, Fc gamma RII, and CD14) were detected on the liver-accumulated cells only 4 h after the injection. The pattern of the antigen expression changed to that of Kupffer cells (F4/80+, Fc gamma RII+, Mac-1-) after 4 days and remained so thereafter. These labeled cells in the liver were esterase staining-positive and showed phagocytic activity at day 7. The number of labeled cells among the Kupffer cells in the liver increased with days after injection. This indicates that bone marrow cells accumulate in the liver and differentiate into liver macrophages on site. Roles of factors secreted from hepatocytes are also discussed.

  16. Targeting survival pathways in chronic myeloid leukaemia stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, A; Latif, A L; Holyoake, T L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the presence of a fusion oncogene BCR-ABL, which encodes a protein with constitutive TK activity. The implementation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) marked a major advance in CML therapy; however, there are problems with current treatment. For example, relapse occurs when these drugs are discontinued in the majority of patients who have achieved a complete molecular response on TKI and these agents are less effective in patients with mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase domain. Importantly, TKI can effectively target proliferating mature cells, but do not eradicate quiescent leukaemic stem cells (LSCs), therefore allowing disease persistence despite treatment. It is essential that alternative strategies are used to target the LSC population. BCR-ABL activation is responsible for the modulation of different signalling pathways, which allows the LSC fraction to evade cell death. Several pathways have been shown to be modulated by BCR-ABL, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK-STAT and autophagy signalling pathways. Targeting components of these survival pathways, alone or in combination with TKI, therefore represents an attractive potential therapeutic approach for targeting the LSC. However, many pathways are also active in normal stem cells. Therefore, potential targets must be validated to effectively eradicate CML stem cells while sparing normal counterparts. This review summarizes the main pathways modulated in CML stem cells, the recent developments and the use of novel drugs to target components in these pathways which may be used to target the LSC population. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23517124

  17. Consequences of Lipid Droplet Coat Protein Downregulation in Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ming; Wang, Hong; Chen, Hui; McLenithan, John C.; Gong, Da-Wei; Yang, Rong-Zee; Yu, Daozhan; Fried, Susan K.; Quon, Michael J.; Londos, Constantine; Sztalryd, Carole

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) in non-adipose tissues is recognized as a strong prognostic factor for the development of insulin resistance in obesity. LDs are coated with perilipin, adipose differentiation–related protein, tail interacting protein of 47 kd (PAT) proteins that are thought to regulate LD turnover by modulating lipolysis. Our hypothesis is that PAT proteins modulate LD metabolism and therefore insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used a cell culture model (murine AML12 loaded with oleic acid) and small interfering RNA to directly assess the impact of PAT proteins on LD accumulation, lipid metabolism, and insulin action. PAT proteins associated with excess fat deposited in livers of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were also measured. RESULTS—Cells lacking PAT proteins exhibited a dramatic increase in LD size and a decrease in LD number. Further, the lipolytic rate increased by ∼2- to 2.5-fold in association with increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) at the LD surface. Downregulation of PAT proteins also produced insulin resistance, as indicated by decreased insulin stimulation of Akt phosphorylation (P < 0.001). Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase decreased, and insulin receptor substrate-1 307 phosphorylation increased. Increased lipids in DIO mice livers were accompanied by changes in PAT composition but also increased ATGL, suggesting a relative PAT deficiency. CONCLUSIONS—These data establish an important role for PAT proteins as surfactant at the LD surface, packaging lipids in smaller units and restricting access of lipases and thus preventing insulin resistance. We suggest that a deficiency of PAT proteins relative to the quantity of ectopic fat could contribute to cellular dysfunction in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:18487449

  18. Increased Hepatic Iron Content Predicts Poor Survival in Patients With Iron Overload Who Underwent Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sivgin, Serdar; Baldane, Suleyman; Deniz, Kemal; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Kaynar, Leylagul; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali; Eser, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Iron overload results in increased infection, venous-oclusive disease and hepatic dysfunction in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) recipients. Liver is one of the most common sites of iron overload. A total of 50 alloHSCT recipients that underwent liver biopsy in Erciyes Stem Cell Transplantation Hospital, Erciyes University, between 2004 and 2011 were enrolled in the study. The liver biopsy specimens have been obtained from the archives of Erciyes University, Department of Pathology and stainned for iron content. The mean age was found 34 ± 11 years. For median overall survival (OS); 53 months (min-max: 41-65) in patients with grade 0, 55 months (min-max: 47-64) in patients with grade 1, in patients with grade 2 patients 25.4 months (11.5-39.4 ), grade 3 patients 29.3 months (min-max: 12.3-46.3) and grade 4 patients 2.6 months (min-max: 2.0-3.3). Overall survival was correlated with the degree of liver iron content and it was statistically significant in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < .001). Disease-free survival was found (DFS); grade 0 patients 47.1 months (min-max: 32.0-62.0), grade 1 patients 36.9 months (min-max: 21.0-65.0), grade 2 patients 23.5 months (min-max: 12.0-59.0), grade 3 patients 27.4 months (min-max: 5.3-59.3) and grade 4 patients 2.6 months (min-max: 2.0-3.0). For DFS; it was negatively correlated with the degree of liver iron content nevertheless; it was not was statistically significant in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P = .093).Hepatic iron overload might be associated with poor survival in patients with transfusional iron overload that underwent alloHSCT. Hepatic iron content might be associated with poorer prognosis in patients with iron overload that underwent alloHSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. T cell infiltrate and outcome following resection of intermediate-grade primary neuroendocrine tumours and liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Katz, Steven C; Donkor, Charan; Glasgow, Kristen; Pillarisetty, Venu G; Gönen, Mithat; Espat, N Joseph; Klimstra, David S; D'Angelica, Michael I; Allen, Peter J; Jarnagin, William; Dematteo, Ronald P; Brennan, Murray F; Tang, Laura H

    2010-12-01

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to predict survival in numerous malignancies. The importance of TILs in primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) and NET liver metastases (NETLMs) has not been defined. We identified 87 patients with NETs and 39 with NETLMs who had undergone resection. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine TIL counts. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined using the log-rank test. The median follow-up time was 62 months in NET patients and 48 months in NETLM patients. Vascular invasion and histologic grade were the only independent predictors of outcome for NETs and NETLMs, respectively. Analysis of intermediate-grade NETs indicated that a dense T cell (CD3+) infiltrate was associated with a median RFS of 128 months compared with 61 months for those with low levels of intratumoral T cells (P= 0.05, univariate analysis). Examination of NETLMs revealed that a low level of infiltrating regulatory T cells (Treg, FoxP3+) was a predictor of prolonged survival (P < 0.01, univariate analysis). A robust T cell infiltrate is associated with improved RFS following resection of intermediate-grade NETs, whereas the presence of more Treg correlated with shorter OS after treatment of NETLMs. Further study of the immune response to intermediate-grade NETs and NETLMs is warranted.

  20. Different induction of LPA receptors by chemical liver carcinogens regulates cellular functions of liver epithelial WB-F344 cells.

    PubMed

    Hirane, Miku; Ishii, Shuhei; Tomimatsu, Ayaka; Fukushima, Kaori; Takahashi, Kaede; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2016-11-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling via LPA receptors (LPA 1 to LPA 6 ) mediates a variety of cellular functions, including cell motility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LPA receptors on cell motile activity during multi-stage hepatocarcinogenesis in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells treated with chemical liver carcinogens. Cells were treated with a initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)) and three promoters (phenobarbital (PB), okadaic acid (OA) and clofibrate) every 24 h for 2 days. Cell motile activity was elevated by DEN, correlating with Lpar3 expression. PB, OA, and clofibrate elevated Lpar1 expression and inhibited cell motile activity. To evaluate the effects of long-term treatment on cell motility, cells were treated with DEN and/or PB for at least 6 months. Lpar3 expression and cell motile activity were significantly elevated by the long-term DEN treatment with or without further PB treatment. In contrast, long-term PB treatment with or without further DEN elevated Lpar1 expression and inhibited cell motility. When the synthesis of extracellular LPA was blocked by a potent ATX inhibitor S32826 before cell motility assay, the cell motility induced by DEN and PB was markedly suppressed. These results suggest that activation of the different LPA receptors may regulate the biological functions of cells treated with chemical carcinogens. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Relationship between the growth rate of the liver of young rats and the inhibitory effect of extracts of their liver on the multiplication of cultured cells].

    PubMed

    Aujard, C; Chany, E; Frayssinet, C

    1976-12-08

    We have shown that extracts of liver from young Rats are less active, than extracts of liver from adult Rats, in inhibiting the multiplication of cells in culture. This inhibitory activity is at a minimum in livers taken from 10 to 15 days old Rats, which corresponds to the time of maximum increase in weight of the liver. The existence of an inverse relationship between the inhibitory activity of these extracts and the state of proliferation of the liver suggests that the inhibitory substance contained in the liver extracts may act as a regulator of growth of the organ.

  2. A four-gene signature predicts survival in clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Lu, Yuchao; Wang, Jinyu; Yang, Lili; Han, Yingyan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Dan; Ruan, Qiurong; Wang, Shaogang

    2016-12-13

    Clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common pathological subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), accounting for about 80% of RCC. In order to find potential prognostic biomarkers in ccRCC, we presented a four-gene signature to evaluate the prognosis of ccRCC. SurvExpress and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissue microarrays were used to analyze the association between the four genes and the prognosis of ccRCC. Data from TCGA dataset revealed a prognostic prompt function of the four genes (PTEN, PIK3C2A, ITPA and BCL3). Further discovery suggested that the four-gene signature predicted survival better than any of the four genes alone. Moreover, IHC staining demonstrated a consistent result with TCGA, indicating that the signature was an independent prognostic factor of survival in ccRCC. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were conducted to verify the association of clinicopathological variables and the four genes' expression levels with survival. The results further testified that the risk (four-gene signature) was an independent prognostic factors of both Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-free Survival (DFS) (P<0.05). In conclusion, the four-gene signature was correlated with the survival of ccRCC, and therefore, may help to provide significant clinical implications for predicting the prognosis of patients.

  3. Aberrant expression of cancer stem cell markers (CD44, CD90, and CD133) contributes to disease progression and reduced survival in hepatoblastoma patients: 4-year survival data.

    PubMed

    Bahnassy, Abeer A; Fawzy, Mohamed; El-Wakil, Mohamed; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Abdel-Sayed, Ahmed; Sheta, Marwa

    2015-03-01

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is an embryonal tumor of the liver in children. Prognosis and response to treatment in HB are highly variable. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a population of cells, which contribute to the development and progression of many tumors. However, their role in HB is not well defined yet. We assessed the prognostic and predictive values of some CSC markers in HB patients. Protein and messenger RNA expressions of the CSC markers CD133, CD90, and CD44 were assessed in 43 HB patients and 20 normal hepatic tissues using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these markers were correlated to standard prognostic factors, patients' response to treatment, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS). CD44, CD90, and CD133 proteins were detected in 48.8%, 32.6%, and 48.8% compared with 46.5%, 41.7%, and 58.1% RNA, respectively (concordance, 77.8%-96%). None of the normal tissue samples was positive for any of the markers. Significant correlations were reported between α-fetoprotein and both CD44 and CD133 (P = 0.02) as well as between tumor types CD90 and CD133 (P = 0.009). Reduced OS correlated with CD44, CD90, and CD133 expressions (P < 0.001), advanced stage (P < 0.001), response to treatment (P < 0.001), and total excision of the tumor. Reduced DFS correlated with CD44 and CD133 expressions (P < 0.001) only. In conclusion, CD133, CD44, and CD90 could be used as prognostic and predictive markers in HB. High expression of these markers is significantly associated with poor response to treatment and reduced survival. Moreover, complete surgical resection and systemic chemotherapy are essential to achieve good response and prolonged survival, especially in early stage patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodistribution of Liver-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Peripheral Injection in a Hemophilia A Patient.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Etienne M; Lombard, Catherine Anne; Roelants, Véronique; Najimi, Mustapha; Varma, Sharat; Sargiacomo, Camillo; Ravau, Joachim; Mazza, Giuseppe; Jamar, François; Versavau, Julia; Jacobs, Vanessa; Jacquemin, Marc; Eeckhoudt, Stéphane; Lambert, Catherine; Stéphenne, Xavier; Smets, Françoise; Hermans, Cédric

    2017-08-01

    With the exception of liver transplantation, there is no cure for hemophilia, which is currently managed by preemptive replacement therapy. Liver-derived stem cells are in clinical development for inborn and acquired liver diseases and could represent a curative treatment for hemophilia A. The liver is a major factor VIII (FVIII) synthesis site, and mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to control joint bleeding in animal models of hemophilia. Adult-derived human liver stem cells (ADHLSCs) have mesenchymal characteristics and have been shown able to engraft in and repopulate both animal and human livers. Thus, the objectives were to evaluate the potency of ADHLSCs to control bleeding in a hemophilia A patient and assess the biodistribution of the cells after intravenous injection. A patient suffering from hemophilia A was injected with repeated doses of ADHLSCs via a peripheral vein (35 million In-oxine-labeled cells, followed by 125 million cells the next day, and 3 infusions of 250 million cells every 2 weeks thereafter; total infusion period, 50 days). After cell therapy, we found a temporary (15 weeks) decrease in the patient's FVIII requirements and severe bleeding complications, despite a lack of increase in circulating FVIII. The cells were safely administered to the patient via a peripheral vein. Biodistribution analysis revealed an initial temporary entrapment of the cells in the lungs, followed by homing to the liver and to a joint afflicted with hemarthrosis. These results suggest the potential use of ADHLSCs in the treatment of hemophilia A.

  5. Competitive inhibition of leptin signaling results in amelioration of liver fibrosis through modulation of stellate cell function.

    PubMed

    Elinav, Eran; Ali, Mohammad; Bruck, Rafi; Brazowski, Eli; Phillips, Adam; Shapira, Yami; Katz, Meirav; Solomon, Gila; Halpern, Zamir; Gertler, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    Leptin signaling is involved in T-cell polarization and is required for profibrotic function of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice do not develop liver fibrosis despite the presence of severe long-standing steatohepatitis. Here, we blocked leptin signaling with our recently generated mouse leptin antagonist (MLA), and examined the effects on chronic liver fibrosis in vivo using the chronic thioacetamide (TAA) fibrosis model, and in vitro using freshly-isolated primary HSCs. In the chronic TAA fibrosis model, leptin administration was associated with significantly enhanced liver disease and a 100% 5-week to 8-week mortality rate, while administration or coadministration of MLA markedly improved survival, attenuated liver fibrosis, and reduced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) levels. No significant changes in weight, serum cholesterol, or triglycerides were noted. In vitro administration of rat leptin antagonist (RLA), either alone or with leptin, to rat primary HSCs reduced leptin-stimulated effects such as increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and activation of alpha1 procollagen promoter. Inhibition of leptin-enhanced hepatic fibrosis may hold promise as a future antifibrotic therapeutic modality.

  6. Cell populations can use aneuploidy to survive telomerase insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Caroline; Ausiannikava, Darya; Le Bihan, Thierry; Granneman, Sander; Makovets, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase maintains ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, telomeres. Telomerase loss results in replicative senescence and a switch to recombination-dependent telomere maintenance. Telomerase insufficiency in humans leads to telomere syndromes associated with premature ageing and cancer predisposition. Here we use yeast to show that the survival of telomerase insufficiency differs from the survival of telomerase loss and occurs through aneuploidy. In yeast grown at elevated temperatures, telomerase activity becomes limiting: haploid cell populations senesce and generate aneuploid survivors—near diploids monosomic for chromosome VIII. This aneuploidy results in increased levels of the telomerase components TLC1, Est1 and Est3, and is accompanied by decreased abundance of ribosomal proteins. We propose that aneuploidy suppresses telomerase insufficiency through redistribution of cellular resources away from ribosome synthesis towards production of telomerase components and other non-ribosomal proteins. The aneuploidy-induced re-balance of the proteome via modulation of ribosome biogenesis may be a general adaptive response to overcome functional insufficiencies. PMID:26489519

  7. Correlation between liver cell necrosis and circulating alanine aminotransferase after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Anders R; Andersen, Kasper J; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Nyengaard, Jens R; Mortensen, Frank V

    2016-04-01

    Circulating liver enzymes such as alanine transaminase are often used as markers of hepatocellular damage. Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an inevitable consequence of prolonged liver ischaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between liver enzymes and volume of liver cell necrosis after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries, using design-unbiased stereological methods. Forty-seven male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of partial liver ischaemia, followed by either 4 or 24 h of reperfusion. Within each group, one-third of animals were subjected to ischaemic preconditioning and one-third to ischaemic postconditioning. At the end of reperfusion, blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. The volume of necrotic liver tissue was subsequently correlated to circulating markers of I/R injury. Correlation between histological findings and circulating markers was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Alanine transferase peaked after 4 h of reperfusion; however, at this time-point, only mild necrosis was observed, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.663 (P = 0.001). After 24 h of reperfusion, alanine aminotransferase was found to be highly correlated to the degree of hepatocellular necrosis R = 0.836 (P = 0.000). Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase (R = 0.806) and α-2-macroglobulin (R = 0.655) levels were also correlated with the degree of necrosis. We show for the first time that there is a close correlation between the volume of hepatocellular necrosis and alanine aminotransferase levels in a model of I/R injury. This is especially apparent after 24 h of reperfusion. Similarly, increased levels of alkaline phosphatase and α-2-macroglobulin are correlated to the volume of liver necrosis. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Modular degradable dendrimers enable small RNAs to extend survival in an aggressive liver cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H.; Miller, Jason B.; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T.; Siegwart, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 < 0.02 mg/kg siRNA against FVII (siFVII)] in dose–response experiments, and well tolerated in separate toxicity studies in chronically ill mice bearing MYC-driven tumors (>75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer’s own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs. PMID:26729861

  9. Cell death versus cell survival instructed by supramolecular cohesion of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomb, Christina J.; Sur, Shantanu; Ortony, Julia H.; Lee, One-Sun; Matson, John B.; Boekhoven, Job; Yu, Jeong Min; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2014-02-01

    Many naturally occurring peptides containing cationic and hydrophobic domains have evolved to interact with mammalian cell membranes and have been incorporated into materials for non-viral gene delivery, cancer therapy or treatment of microbial infections. Their electrostatic attraction to the negatively charged cell surface and hydrophobic interactions with the membrane lipids enable intracellular delivery or cell lysis. Although the effects of hydrophobicity and cationic charge of soluble molecules on the cell membrane are well known, the interactions between materials with these molecular features and cells remain poorly understood. Here we report that varying the cohesive forces within nanofibres of supramolecular materials with nearly identical cationic and hydrophobic structure instruct cell death or cell survival. Weak intermolecular bonds promote cell death through disruption of lipid membranes, while materials reinforced by hydrogen bonds support cell viability. These findings provide new strategies to design biomaterials that interact with the cell membrane.

  10. Red blood cells release factors with growth and survival bioactivities for normal and leukemic T cells.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ricardo F; Brandão, Cláudia; Maia, Margarida; Arosa, Fernando A

    2011-01-01

    Human red blood cells are emerging as a cell type capable to regulate biological processes of neighboring cells. Hereby, we show that human red blood cell conditioned media contains bioactive factors that favor proliferation of normal activated T cells and leukemic Jurkat T cells, and therefore called erythrocyte-derived growth and survival factors. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy in parallel with bioactivity assays revealed that the erythrocyte factors are present in the vesicle-free supernatant, which contains up to 20 different proteins. The erythrocyte factors are thermosensitive and do not contain lipids. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by passive elution and mass spectrometry identification reduced the potential erythrocyte factors to hemoglobin and peroxiredoxin II. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis of the erythrocyte factors revealed the presence of multiple hemoglobin oxy-deoxy states and peroxiredoxin II isoforms differing in their isoelectric point akin to the presence of β-globin chains. Our results show that red blood cells release protein factors with the capacity to sustain T-cell growth and survival. These factors may have an unforeseen role in sustaining malignant cell growth and survival in vivo.

  11. Human Umbilical Cord Matrix Stem Cells Efficiently Rescue Acute Liver Failure Through Paracrine Effects Rather than Hepatic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Dedong; Wang, Zhengguo

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from different tissues could act as an alternative source of mature hepatocytes for treatment of acute liver failure (ALF). Human umbilical cord matrix stem cells (hUCMSCs) represent a novel source of MSCs. We examined the therapeutic potential and the different mechanisms of hUCMSCs by their transplantation into nonobese diabetic severe combined-immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced ALF in comparison to adult human hepatocytes (AHHs). The characteristics of isolated hUCMSCs were determined from MSCs and hepatocyte marker expression, hepatic function, and differentiation. Native hUCMSCs constitutively expressed some hepatic markers, though weaker hepatocyte-specific functions were observed when compared to AHHs. When native hUCMSCs or AHHs were transplanted into livers of NOD-SCID mice with ALF induced by CCl4, both hUCMSCs and AHHs provided a significant survival benefit and prevented the release of liver injury biomarkers. hUCMSCs were found to engraft within the recipient liver and differentiated into functional hepatocytes, whereas the HepPar1-/albumin (ALB)-positive cells of the hUCMSC group were less than the AHH group in the recipient liver. Higher values of human ALB in the serum of mice-transplanted AHHs were determined in comparison with levels in mice-transplanted hUCMSCs. The analysis of mouse serum cytokine levels showed that hUCMSC transplantation was even more effective than treatment with AHHs and successfully downregulated the systemic inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Furthermore, paracrine effects produced by hUCMSCs were identified by indirect coculture with damaged mouse hepatocytes (MHs) induced by CCl4. Coculture with hUCMSCs significantly increased the viability, ALB secretion of damaged MHs, and greatly enhanced the regeneration of

  12. Regulation of cell death and cell survival gene expression during ovarian follicular development and atresia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Yi; Cheung, Carmen K M; Wang, Yifang; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development and atresia is closely regulated by the cross talk of cell death and cell survival signals, which include endocrine hormones (gonadotropins) and intra-ovarian regulators (gonadal steroids, cytokines and growth factors). The fate of the follicle is dependent on a delicate balance in the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, growth and differentiation and of those inducing programmed cell death (apoptosis). As an important endocrine hormone, FSH binds to its granulosa cell receptors and promotes ovarian follicle survival and growth not only by stimulating proliferation and estradiol secretion of these cells, but also inhibiting the apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of intracellular anti-apoptotic proteins, such as XIAP and FLIP. In addition, intra-ovarian regulators, such as TGF-alpha and TNF-alpha, also play an important role in the control of follicular development and atresia. In response to FSH, Estradiol-17 beta synthesized from the granulosa cells stimulates thecal expression of TGF-alpha, which in turn increases granulosa cell XIAP expression and proliferation. The death receptor and ligand, Fas and Fas ligand, are expressed in granulosa cells following gonadotropin withdrawal, culminating in caspase-mediated apoptosis and follicular atresia. In contrast, TNF-alpha has both survival and pro-apoptotic function in the follicle, depending on the receptor subtype activated, but has been shown to promote granulosa cell survival by increasing XIAP and FLIP expression via the IkappaB-NFkappaB pathway. The pro-apoptotic action of TNF-alpha is mediated through the activation of caspases, via its receptor- (i.e. Caspases-8 and -3) and mitochrondria- (i.e. Caspase-9 and -3) death pathways. In the present manuscript, we have reviewed the actions and interactions of gonadotropins and intra-ovarian regulators in the control of granulosa cell fate and ultimately follicular destiny. We have

  13. ON-retinal bipolar cell survival in RCS rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen Xing; Yin, Zheng Qin; Chen, Li-Feng; Weng, Chuang-Huang; Zeng, Yu-Xiao

    2010-11-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the slow and progressive death of inner retinal neurons is thought to be inevitable after the death of photoreceptors. However, even in the advanced stage of RP, all inner retinal neurons are not completely lost. The morphological and electrophysiological modifications in ON-retinal bipolar cells (ON-RBCs) of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats (RCS-ON-RBCs) were investigated to elucidate the mechanisms of survival of RCS-ON-RBCs in RP. Control (CTR) and RCS rats were divided into age groups according to postnatal stage: postnatal day 21 (Pn21d), postnatal day 30 (Pn30d), postnatal day 60 (Pn60d), and postnatal day 90 (Pn90d). Lucifer yellow staining of single ON-RBCs and double-immunofluorescence of the retinal frozen sections were used to detect the morphological modifications and loss of RCS-ON-RBCs in different retinal regions. The whole-cell patch clamping technique was used to record the electrophysiological properties of ON-RBCs. There was a significant loss of RCS-ON-RBCs compared with CTR (p < 0.01) at Pn60d. Loss of the RCS-ON-RBCs differed by region. From Pn60d onwards, the loss was more severe in the peripheral retinal regions (p < 0.01). From Pn21d, the ectopic neurites from the RCS-ON-RBCs reached the outer and inner nuclear layers. At Pn60d, terminal branches of RCS-ON-RBCs axons vanished and ectopic neurites from the RCS-ON-RBCs became entwined. The resting membrane potential, input resistance and outward membrane current amplitude of RCS-ON-RBCs were significantly higher than those of the ON-RBCs of CTR rats at Pn60d (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that more RCS-ON-RBCs survived in the central retinal area near cone clusters, potentially as a result of ectopic neuritis. Meanwhile the surviving RCS-ON-RBCs remained immature and had no normal electrophysiological characteristics.

  14. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P; Walles, Heike; Braspenning, Joris; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions.

  15. Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis in a rat model of ex vivo liver resection and liver autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tubing; Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Geng; He, Yu; Bie, Ping

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of autologous bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) transplantation in the treatment of hepatic injury in ex vivo liver resection and liver autotransplantation (ELRLA). Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50% CCl4-olive oil solution at a dose of 2 mL/kg twice weekly for 4 wk. ELRLA was performed 3 d post the last injection of CCl4. Six rats in each group were killed 12, 24, 48, 72, and 168 h after the operation. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, transforming growth factor (TGF) β1, TGFβ1 receptor1/2, and phosphorylated p38 MAPK were determined by Western blot. Autologous BMSC transplantation significantly inhibited the increase of alanine aminotransferease and aspartate aminotransferase at 12, 24, and 48 h post operation and attenuated ELRLA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. In BMSC-treated rats, the expression of Bcl-2 was significantly upregulated, whereas there were no obvious changes in Bax level. The expression of TGFβ1 was significantly upregulated in the rat liver after the surgery. Autologous BMSC transplantation significantly downregulated the TGFβ1 levels at 48, 72, and 168 h post surgery. However, autologous BMSC transplantation showed little effect on the levels of TGFβ receptor 1/2 at all the time points observed. Furthermore, autologous BMSC transplantation significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK. Autologous BMSC transplantation may reduce ELRLA-induced liver injury and improve survival rates in hepatic fibrosis rats. Autologous BMSC transplantation may be useful to improve the outcome of patients who undergo ELRLA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The caspase-3/p120 RasGAP stress-sensing module reduces liver cancer incidence but does not affect overall survival in gamma-irradiated and carcinogen-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Vanli, Güliz; Sempoux, Christine; Widmann, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Activation of oncogenes is the initial step in cellular transformation. Oncogenes favor aberrant proliferation, which, at least initially, induces cellular stress. This oncogenic stress can act as a safeguard mechanism against further transformation by inducing senescence or apoptosis. Yet, the few premalignant cells that tolerate and escape these senescent or apoptotic responses are those that will ultimately generate tumors. The caspase-3/p120 RasGAP module is a stress-sensing device that promotes survival under mild stress conditions. A point mutation in RasGAP that prevents its cleavage by caspase-3 inactivates the pro-survival capacity of the device. When the mice homozygous for this mutation (D455A knock-in mice) are patho-physiologically challenged, they experience much stronger cellular damage than their wild-type counterparts and the affected organs rapidly lose their functionality. We reasoned that the caspase-3/p120 RasGAP module could help premalignant cells to cope with oncogenic stress and hence favor the development of tumors. Using gamma-irradiation and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) as tumor initiators, we assessed the survival advantage that the caspase-3/p120 RasGAP module could provide to premalignant cells. No difference in overall mortality between wild-type and D455A knock-in mice were observed. However, the number of ENU-induced liver tumors in the knock-in mice was higher than in control mice. These results indicate that the caspase-3/p120 RasGAP stress-sensing module impacts on carcinogen-induced liver cancer incidence but not sufficiently so as to affect overall survival. Hence, gamma irradiation and ENU-induced tumorigenesis processes do not critically rely on a survival mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of organ homeostasis in stressed healthy tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Schmitz, Ingo; Sameie, Shahram; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility. We have investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) in prostate cancer cells by downregulating its expression via short (21-mer) interfering RNA (siRNA) and measuring the consequences on EMT markers, cell viability, death, cell cycle, senescence, attachment, and invasivity. Of eight carcinoma cell lines, the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 showed the highest and moderate expression of SNAI1 mRNA, respectively, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Long-term knockdown of Snail induced a severe decline in cell numbers in LNCaP and PC-3 and caspase activity was accordingly enhanced in both cell lines. In addition, suppression of Snail expression induced senescence in LNCaP cells. SNAI1-siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the extracellular matrix, probably due to downregulation of integrin α6. Expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin was also affected. Invasiveness of PC-3 cells was not significantly diminished by Snail knockdown. Our data suggest that Snail acts primarily as a survival factor and inhibitor of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell lines. We therefore propose that Snail can act as early driver of prostate cancer progression.

  18. Mature Hepatocytes Exhibit Unexpected Plasticity by Direct Dedifferentiation into Liver Progenitor Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixin; Wong, Philip P.; Sjeklocha, Lucas; Steer, Clifford J.; Sahin, M. Behnan

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been numerous reports describing the isolation of liver progenitor cells from adult liver, their exact origin has not been clearly defined; and the role played by mature hepatocytes as direct contributors to the hepatic progenitor cell pool has remained largely unknown. Here we report strong evidence that mature hepatocytes in culture have the capacity to dedifferentiate into a population of adult liver progenitors without genetic or epigenetic manipulations. By using highly-purified mature hepatocytes, which were obtained from untreated, healthy rat liver and labeled with fluorescent dye PKH2, we found that hepatocytes in culture gave rise to a population of PKH2-positive liver progenitor cells. These cells, Liver Derived Progenitor Cells or LDPCS, which share phenotypic similarities with oval cells, were previously reported to be capable of forming mature hepatocytes both in culture and in animals. Studies done at various time points during the course of dedifferentiation cultures revealed that hepatocytes rapidly transformed into liver progenitors within one week through a transient oval cell-like stage. This finding was supported by lineage-tracing studies involving double-transgenic AlbuminCreXRosa26 mice expressing β-galactosidase exclusively in hepatocytes. Cultures set up with hepatocytes obtained from these mice resulted in generation of β-galactosidase-positive liver progenitor cells demonstrating that they were a direct dedifferentiation product of mature hepatocytes. Additionally, these progenitors differentiated into hepatocytes in vivo when transplanted into rats that had undergone retrorsine pretreatment and partial hepatectomy. Conclusion Our studies provide strong evidence for the unexpected plasticity of mature hepatocytes to dedifferentiate into progenitor cells in culture; and this may potentially have a significant impact on the treatment of liver diseases requiring liver or hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:21953633

  19. Comparative Peripheral Blood T Cells Analysis Between Adult Deceased Donor Liver Transplantation (DDLT) and Living Donor Liver Transplantation (LDLT).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2017-08-08

    BACKGROUND T lymphocytes are an essential component of allograft rejection and tolerance. The aim of the present study was to analyze and compare the characteristics of T cell subsets in patients who underwent deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) versus living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). MATERIAL AND METHODS Between April 2013 and June 2014, 64 patients underwent adult liver transplantation. The distribution of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets before transplantation and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks post-transplantation were monitored serially. RESULTS In the serial peripheral blood samples, the absolute CD3+ T cell counts in the LDLT group were higher than those in the DDLT group (p=0.037). The CD4+, CD8+, CD4/CD8, Vδ1, Vδ2, and γδ T cell counts did not change significantly over time in either group. The Vδ1/Vδ2 ratio was higher in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection than in patients without CMV infection (0.12 versus 0.26; p=0.033). The median absolute CD3+ and CD8+ T cell counts in patients with biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR) were 884 (range, 305-1,320) and 316 (range, 271-1,077), respectively, whereas they were 320 (range, 8-1,167) and 257 (range, 58-1,472) in patients without BPAR. The absolute CD3+ and CD8 T cell counts were higher in patients with BPAR than in patients without BPAR (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS With the exception of CD3+ T cells, T cell populations did not differ significantly between patients who received DDLT versus LDLT. In liver transplantation patients, CMV infection and BPAR were closely associated with T cell population changes.

  20. Interleukins-17 and 27 promote liver regeneration by sequentially inducing progenitor cell expansion and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Adrien; Gasmi, Imène; Brouillet, Arthur; Ait-Ahmed, Yeni; Calderaro, Julien; Ruiz, Isaac; Gao, Bin; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lafdil, Fouad

    2018-03-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs)/ductular reactions (DRs) are associated with inflammation and implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases. However, how inflammation regulates LPCs/DRs remains largely unknown. Identification of inflammatory processes that involve LPC activation and expansion represent a key step in understanding the pathogenesis of liver diseases. In the current study, we found that diverse types of chronic liver diseases are associated with elevation of infiltrated interleukin (IL)-17-positive (+) cells and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) + LPCs, and both cell types colocalized and their numbers positively correlated with each other. The role of IL-17 in the induction of LPCs was examined in a mouse model fed a choline-deficient and ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. Feeding of wild-type mice with the CDE diet markedly elevated CK19 + Ki67 + proliferating LPCs and hepatic inflammation. Disruption of the IL-17 gene or IL-27 receptor, alpha subunit (WSX-1) gene abolished CDE diet-induced LPC expansion and inflammation. In vitro treatment with IL-17 promoted proliferation of bipotential murine oval liver cells (a liver progenitor cell line) and markedly up-regulated IL-27 expression in macrophages. Treatment with IL-27 favored the differentiation of bipotential murine oval liver cells and freshly isolated LPCs into hepatocytes. Conclusion : The current data provide evidence for a collaborative role between IL-17 and IL-27 in promoting LPC expansion and differentiation, respectively, thereby contributing to liver regeneration. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:329-343).

  1. Improvement of Liver Cell Therapy in Rats by Dietary Stearic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Goradel, Nasser Hashemi; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Masoud; Roshangar, Leila; Asadi, Maryam; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stearic acid is known as a potent anti-inflammatory lipid. This fatty acid has profound and diverse effects on liver metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of stearic acid on markers of hepatocyte transplantation in rats with acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver damage. Methods: Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 10-day treatment. Stearic acid was administered to the rats with APAP-induced liver damage. The isolated liver cells were infused intraperitoneally into rats. Blood samples were obtained to evaluate the changes in the serum liver enzymes, including activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the level of serum albumin. To assess the engraftment of infused hepatocytes, rats were euthanized, and the liver DNA was used for PCR using sex-determining region Y (SRY) primers. Results: The levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the serum of rats with APAP-induced liver injury were significantly increased and returned to the levels in control group by day six. The APAP-induced decrease in albumin was significantly improved in rats through cell therapy, when compared with that in the APAP-alone treated rats. SRY PCR analysis showed the presence of the transplanted cells in the liver of transplanted rats. Conclusion: Stearic acid-rich diet in combination with cell therapy accelerates the recovering of hepatic dysfunction in a rat model of liver injury. PMID:27090202

  2. Enhanced in vivo targeting of murine nonparenchymal liver cells with monophosphoryl lipid A functionalized microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak-Nguyen, Anette; Fichter, Michael; Dedters, Marvin; Pretsch, Leah; Gregory, Stephen H; Meyer, Claudius; Doganci, Aysefa; Diken, Mustafa; Landfester, Katharina; Baier, Grit; Gehring, Stephan

    2014-07-14

    A broad spectrum of infectious liver diseases emphasizes the need of microparticles for targeted delivery of immunomodulatory substances to the liver. Microcapsules (MCs) are particularly attractive for innovative drug and vaccine formulations, enabling the combination of antigen, drugs, and adjuvants. The present study aimed to develop microcapsules characterized by an enhanced liver deposition and accelerated uptake by nonparenchymal liver cells (NPCs). Initially, two formulations of biodegradable microcapsules were synthesized from either hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or mannose. Notably, HES-MCs accumulated primarily in the liver, while mannose particles displayed a lung preference. Functionalization of HES-MCs with anti-CD40, anti-DEC205, and/or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) enhanced uptake of MCs by nonparenchymal liver cells in vitro. In contrast, only MPLA-coated HES-MCs promoted significantly the in vivo uptake by NPCs. Finally, HES-MCs equipped with MPLA, anti-CD40, and anti-DEC205 induced the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 by Kupffer cells (KCs), and IFN-γ and IL-12p70 by liver dendritic cells (DCs). The enhanced uptake and activation of KCs by MPLA-HES-MCs is a promising approach to prevent or treat infection, since KCs are exploited as an entry gate in various infectious diseases, such as malaria. In parallel, loading and activating liver DCs, usually prone to tolerance, bears the potential to induce antigen specific, intrahepatic immune responses necessary to prevent and treat infections affecting the liver.

  3. Identification of liver cancer-specific aptamers using whole live cells.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Dihua; Meng, Ling; Cao, Zehui Charles; Xiao, Zeyu; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Ying; Cardona, Diana; Witek, Rafal P; Liu, Chen; Tan, Weihong

    2008-02-01

    Liver cancer is the third most deadly cancers in the world. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment. One of the major problems is that most cancers are diagnosed in the later stage, when surgical resection is not feasible. Thus, accurate early diagnosis would significantly improve the clinical outcome of liver cancer. Currently, there are no effective molecular probes to recognize biomarkers that are specific for liver cancer. The objective of our current study is to identify liver cancer cell-specific molecular probes that could be used for liver cancer recognition and diagnosis. We applied a newly developed cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) method for the generation of molecular probes for specific recognition of liver cancer cells. The cell-SELEX uses whole live cells as targets to select aptamers (designed DNA/RNA) for cell recognition. In generating aptamers for liver cancer recognition, two liver cell lines were used: a liver cancer cell line BNL 1ME A.7R.1 (MEAR) and a noncancer cell line, BNL CL.2 (BNL). Both cell lines were originally derived from Balb/cJ mice. Through multiple rounds of selection using BNL as a control, we have identified a panel of aptamers that specifically recognize the cancer cell line MEAR with Kd in the nanomolar range. We have also demonstrated that some of the selective aptamers could specifically bind liver cancer cells in a mouse model. There are two major new results (compared with our reported cell-SELEX methodology) in addition to the generation of aptamers specifically for liver cancer. The first one is that our current study demonstrates that cell-based aptamer selection can select specific aptamers for multiple cell lines, even for two cell lines with minor differences (MEAR cell is derived from BNL by chemical inducement); and the second result is that cell-SELEX can be used for adhesive cells and thus open the door for solid tumor selection and investigation. The newly

  4. A CD133-expressing murine liver oval cell population with bilineage potential.

    PubMed

    Rountree, C Bart; Barsky, Lora; Ge, Shundi; Zhu, Judy; Senadheera, Shantha; Crooks, Gay M

    2007-10-01

    Although oval cells are postulated to be adult liver stem cells, a well-defined phenotype of a bipotent liver stem cell remains elusive. The heterogeneity of cells within the oval cell fraction has hindered lineage potential studies. Our goal was to identify an enriched population of bipotent oval cells using a combination of flow cytometry and single cell gene expression in conjunction with lineage-specific liver injury models. Expression of cell surface markers on nonparenchymal, nonhematopoietic (CD45-) cells were characterized. Cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry for gene expression studies. 3,5-Diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine toxic injury induced cell cycling and expansion specifically in the subpopulation of oval cells in the periportal zone that express CD133. CD133+CD45- cells expressed hepatoblast and stem cell-associated genes, and single cells coexpressed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte-associated genes, indicating bilineage potential. CD133+CD45- cells proliferated in response to liver injury. Following toxic hepatocyte damage, CD133+CD45- cells demonstrated upregulated expression of the hepatocyte gene Albumin. In contrast, toxic cholangiocyte injury resulted in upregulation of the cholangiocyte gene Ck19. After 21-28 days in culture, CD133+CD45- cells continued to generate cells of both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. Thus, CD133 expression identifies a population of oval cells in adult murine liver with the gene expression profile and function of primitive, bipotent liver stem cells. In response to lineage-specific injury, these cells demonstrate a lineage-appropriate genetic response. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    SciT

    Pei, Yanxi; College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan; Wu, Bo

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H{sub 2}S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H{sub 2}S donor) decreased the viability ofmore » PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H{sub 2}S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H{sub 2}S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H{sub 2}S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H{sub 2}S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H{sub 2}S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H{sub 2}S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of H{sub 2}S is released from sulforaphane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S mediates the anti-survival effect of

  6. Igf-I regulates pheochromocytoma cell proliferation and survival in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Celia; Venara, Marcela; Nowicki, Susana; Chemes, Héctor E; Barontini, Marta; Pennisi, Patricia A

    2012-08-01

    IGFs are involved in malignant transformation and growth of several tissues, including the adrenal medulla. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-I on pheochromocytoma development. We used a murine pheochromocytoma (MPC) cell line (MPC4/30) and an animal model with a reduction of 75% in circulating IGF-I levels [liver-IGF-I-deficient (LID) mice] to perform studies in vitro and in vivo. We found that, in culture, IGF-I stimulation increases proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth, whereas it inhibits apoptosis of MPC cells. When injected to control and to LID mice, MPC cells grow and form tumors with features of pheochromocytoma. Six weeks after cell inoculation, all control mice developed sc tumors. In contrast, in 73% of LID mice, tumor development was delayed to 7-12 wk, and the remaining 27% did not develop tumors up to 12 wk after inoculation. LID mice harboring MPC cells and treated with recombinant human IGF-I (LID+) developed tumors as controls. Tumors developed in control, LID, and LID+ mice had similar histology and were similarly positive for IGF-I receptor expression. The apoptotic index was higher in tumors from LID mice compared with those from control mice, whereas vascular density was decreased. In summary, our work demonstrates that IGF-I has a critical role in maintaining tumor phenotype and survival of already transformed pheochromocytoma cells and is required for the initial establishment of these tumors, providing encouragement to carry on research studies to address the IGF-I/IGF-I receptor system as a target of therapeutic strategies for pheochromocytoma treatment in the future.

  7. Magnetic Targeting of Stem Cell Derivatives Enhances Hepatic Engraftment into Structurally Normal Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fagg, W. Samuel; Liu, Naiyou; Yang, Ming-Jim; Cheng, Ke; Chung, Eric; Kim, Jae-Sung; Wu, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Attaining consistent robust engraftment in the structurally normal liver is an obstacle for cellular transplantation. Most experimental approaches to increase transplanted cells’ engraftment involve recipient-centered deleterious methods such as partial hepatectomy or irradiation which may be unsuitable in the clinic. Here, we present a cell-based strategy that increases engraftment into the structurally normal liver using a combination of magnetic targeting and proliferative endoderm progenitor (EPs) cells. Magnetic labeling has little effect on cell viability and differentiation, but in the presence of magnetic targeting, it increases the initial dwell time of transplanted EPs into the undamaged liver parenchyma. Consequently, greater cell retention in the liver is observed concomitantly with fewer transplanted cells in the lungs. These highly proliferative cells then significantly increase their biomass over time in the liver parenchyma, approaching nearly 4% of total liver cells 30 d after transplant. Therefore, the cell-based mechanisms of increased initial dwell time through magnetic targeting combined with high rate of proliferation in situ yield significant engraftment in the undamaged liver. PMID:29390880

  8. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Liver Fibrosis: Recent Findings, Old/New Caveats and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Esteban J; Mazzolini, Guillermo; Aquino, Jorge B

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are progenitors which share plastic-adherence capacity and cell surface markers but have different properties according to their cell and tissue sources and to culture conditions applied. Many recent publications suggest that MSCs can differentiate into hepatic-like cells, which can be a consequence of either a positive selection of rare in vivo pluripotent cells or of the original plasticity of some cells contributing to MSC cultures. A possible role of MSCs in hereditary transmission of obesity and/or diabetes as well as properties of MSCs regarding immunomodulation, cell fusion and exosome release capacities are discussed according to recent literature. Limitations in methods used to track MSCs in vivo especially in the context of liver cirrhosis are addressed as well as strategies explored to enhance their migratory, survival and proliferation properties, which are known to be relevant for their future clinical use. Current knowledge regarding mechanisms involved in liver cirrhosis amelioration mediated by naïve and genetically modified MSCs as well as the effects of applying preconditioning and combined strategies to improve their therapeutic effects are evaluated. Finally, first reports of GMP guidelines and biosafety issues in MSCs applications are discussed.

  9. Genetic modification of embryonic stem cells with VEGF enhances cell survival and improves cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Cao, Feng; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Li, Zongjin; Connolly, Andrew J; Pei, Xuetao; Li, Ren-Ke; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac stem cell therapy remains hampered by acute donor cell death posttransplantation and the lack of reliable methods for tracking cell survival in vivo. We hypothesize that cells transfected with inducible vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) can improve their survival as monitored by novel molecular imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transfected with an inducible, bidirectional tetracycline (Bi-Tet) promoter driving VEGF(165) and renilla luciferase (Rluc). Addition of doxycycline induced Bi-Tet expression of VEGF(165) and Rluc significantly compared to baseline (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF(165) enhanced ES cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis as determined by Annexin-V staining. For noninvasive imaging, ES cells were transduced with a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (Fluc-eGFP). There was a robust correlation between cell number and Fluc activity (R(2)=0.99). Analysis by immunostaining, histology, and RT-PCR confirmed that expression of Bi-Tet and DF systems did not affect ES cell self-renewal or pluripotency. ES cells were differentiated into beating embryoid bodies expressing cardiac markers such as troponin, Nkx2.5, and beta-MHC. Afterward, 5 x 10(5) cells obtained from these beating embryoid bodies or saline were injected into the myocardium of SV129 mice (n=36) following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and echocardiography showed that VEGF(165) induction led to significant improvements in both transplanted cell survival and cardiac function (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate imaging of embryonic stem cell-mediated gene therapy targeting cardiovascular disease. With further validation, this platform may have broad applications for current basic research and further clinical studies.

  10. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  11. Construction of bioengineered hepatic tissue derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells via aggregation culture in porcine decellularized liver scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Yujia; Li, Li; Chen, Fei; Shi, Yujun; Bao, Ji; Bu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    An individualized, tissue-engineered liver suitable for transplanting into a patient with liver disease would be of great benefit to the patient and the healthcare system. The tissue-engineered liver would possess the functions of the original healthy organ. Two fields of study, (i) using decellularized tissue as cell scaffolding, and (ii) stem cell differentiation into functional cells, are coming together to make this concept feasible. The decellularized liver scaffolds (DLS) can interact with cells to promote cell differentiation and signal transduction and three-dimensional (3D) stem cell aggregations can maintain the phenotypes and improve functions of stem cells after differentiation by undergoing cell-cell contact. Although the effects of DLS and stem cell aggregation culture have been intensively studied, few observations about the interaction between the two have been achieved. We established a method that combines the use of decellularized liver scaffolds and aggregation culture of MSCs (3D-DLS) and explored the effects of the two on hepatic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in bioengineered hepatic tissue. A higher percentage of albumin-producing cells, higher levels of liver-specific transcripts, higher urea cycle-related transcripts, and lower levels of stem cell-specific transcripts were observed in the 3D-DLS group when compared to that of hUC-MSCs in monolayer culture (2D), aggregation culture (3D), monolayer on DLS culture (2D-DLS). The gene arrays also indicated that 3D-DLS induced the differentiation from the hUC-MSC phenotype to the PHH phenotype. Liver-specific proteins albumin, CK-18, and glycogen storage were highly positive in the 3D-DLS group. Albumin secretion and ammonia conversion to urea were more effective with a higher cell survival rate in the 3D-DLS group for 14 days. This DLS and aggregation combination culture system provides a novel method to improve hepatic differentiation, maintain

  12. Effects of phenobarbital on aniline metabolism in primary liver cell culture of rats with ethionine-induced liver disorder.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, M; Nitoh, S; Mabuchi, M; Kawai, Y

    1996-04-01

    In experiment 1, the amount of aniline (AN) metabolites in the primary cell culture medium of the liver cells obtained from ethionine (ET)-treated rats was compared with that of the control (normal) rats. Although the metabolites detected in both groups were p-aminophenol (p-AP), N-acetyl-p-AP (AAP), acetoanilide (AAN), AAP-glucuronide (AAPG), phenylhydroxylamine sulfate (PHAS) and p-AP-glucuronide (p-APG), the amount of AAP was lower and that of p-APG was markedly higher in the ET-treated rats than in the control rats. In experiment 2, phenobarbital (PB) was orally administered to the ET-treated and control rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The time course changes in AN metabolites in the primary cell culture medium of liver cells obtained at 2 or 48 hr after PB treatment were compared with those without PB treatment. In the ET-treated rats, the amount of PHAS was slightly higher at 2 hr after PB treatment, and that of AAP was lower and that of p-APG was higher at 48 hr after PB treatment as compared with those without PB treatment. In the control rats, the amounts of AAP, AAN, p-AP and p-APG at 2 hr after PB treatment remained lower than those without PB treatment, and that of AAP was markedly lower and that of p-APG was higher at 48 hr after PB treatment as compared with those without PB treatment. These findings indicated greater detoxication in the primary liver cell culture in the ET-treated rats than in the control rats. Furthermore, detoxication was greater in the primary cell culture of liver cell obtained from the ET-treated rats after PB treatment than from those without PB treatment, because the production of acetylates (AAP) decreased and p-APG increased (induction of conjugated enzyme) in the PB treatment group.

  13. Camouflaging endothelial cells: does it prolong graft survival?

    PubMed

    Stuhlmeier, K M; Lin, Y

    1999-08-05

    Camouflaging antigens on the surface of cells seems an appealing way to prevent activation of the immune system. We explored the possibility of preventing hyperacute rejection by chemically camouflaging endothelial cells (EC). In vitro as well as in vivo experiments were perform