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Sample records for liver cysts experience

  1. [Dysplastic cysts of the liver: our experience].

    PubMed

    Nardello, O; Muggianu, M; Cabras, V; Farina, G P; Cagetti, M

    2004-08-01

    Systematic surveys with advanced non-invasive imaging techniques have revealed that hepatic cysts are quite common in the general population. Therefore, we retrospectively examined our case series and compared it with the literature. Between January 1990 and December 2000, 228 patients with non-parasitic liver cysts were referred to the outpatients section of the Department of Surgery of the University of Cagliari and 23 were submitted to treatment: 14 patients (60.8%) for solitary cyst and 9 (39.2%) for multiple simple cysts of the liver. One patient (4.5%) had right upper quadrant pain. Eleven (47.8%) patients were asymptomatic: 7 (63.7%) required treatment for other pathologies, 3 (27.3%) for a progressive enlargement of the cyst and 1 (9%) for a suspected hydatid disease. Mean diameter of the treated cysts measured by preoperative CT or US was 8.8 cm (range 7-14). Percutaneous aspiration-injection reaspiration (PAIR) was performed in 5 patients (21.7%), US-guided in 2 cases (40%) and CT-guided in 3 (60%). Twenty patients (86.9%) underwent cysts unroofing, 18 (78.2%) with open surgical fenestration and the latest 2 cases with a laparoscopic approach. Two patients had PAIR as second treatment for recurrence: CT-guided in one and US-guided in the other case. Four (25%) out of 16 patients treated exclusively for cystic liver disease, had fever in 3 cases and nausea and vomiting in 1 case; 8 patients (50%) had an intraperitoneal drainage for a mean of 6-7 days (range 4-11) and of 116 cc of serum-hematic liquid. In our opinion the choice of an adequate treatment must be based on an accurate evaluation of the clinical aspects of the patients and on the characteristics of cystic lesions such as number, size and location. These data let us to choose a surgical treatment rather than a strict US follow-up and to get the best outcome in terms of absence of recurrence, and less biological and economic costs.

  2. Successful aspiration and ethanol sclerosis of a large, symptomatic, simple liver cyst: Case presentation and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Blonski, Wojciech C; Campbell, Mical S; Faust, Thomas; Metz, David C

    2006-01-01

    Simple liver cysts are congenital with a prevalence of 2.5%-4.25%. Imaging, whether by US, CT or MRI, is accurate in distinguishing simple cysts from other etiologies, including parasitic, neoplastic, duct-related, and traumatic cysts. Symptomatic simple liver cysts are rare, and the true frequency of symptoms is not known. Symptomatic simple liver cysts are predominantly large (> 4 cm), right-sided, and more common in women and older patients. The vast majority of simple hepatic cysts require no treatment or follow-up, though large cysts (> 4 cm) may be followed initially with serial imaging to ensure stability. Attribution of symptoms to a large simple cyst should be undertaken with caution, after alternative diagnoses have been excluded. Aspiration may be performed to test whether symptoms are due to the cyst; however, cyst recurrence should be expected. Limited experience with both laparoscopic deroofing and aspiration, followed by instillation of a sclerosing agent has demonstrated promising results for the treatment of symptomatic cysts. Here, we describe a patient with a large, symptomatic, simple liver cyst who experienced complete resolution of symptoms following cyst drainage and alcohol ablation, and we present a comprehensive review of the literature. PMID:16718826

  3. Surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz A; Bari, Shams UL; Amin, Ruquia; Jan, Masooda

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To review the clinical presentation and surgical management of complicated hydatid cysts of the liver and to assess whether conservative surgery is adequate in the management of complicated hydatid cysts of liver. METHODS: The study was carried out at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Science, Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Sixty nine patients with hydatid disease of the liver were surgically managed from April 2004 to October 2005 with a follow up period of three years. It included 27 men and 42 women with a median age of 35 years. An abdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and serology established diagnosis. Patients with jaundice and high suspicion of intrabiliary rupture were subjected to preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cysts with infection, rupture into the biliary tract and peritoneal cavity were categorized as complicated cysts. Eighteen patients (26%) had complicated cysts and formed the basis for this study. RESULTS: Common complications were infection (14%), intrabiliary rupture (9%) and intraperitoneal rupture (3%). All the patients with infected cysts presented with pain and fever. All the patients with intrabiliary rupture had jaundice, while only four with intrabiliary rupture had pain and only two had fever. Surgical procedures performed in complicated cysts were: infection-omentoplasty in three and external drainage in seven; intrabiliary rupture-omentoplasty in two and internal drainage in four patients. Two patients with intraperitoneal rupture underwent external drainage. There was no mortality. The postoperative morbidity was 50% in complicated cysts and 16% in uncomplicated cysts. CONCLUSION: Complicated hydatid cyst of the liver can be successfully managed surgically with good long term results. PMID:21160854

  4. Giant hydatid liver cyst. Management of residual cavity.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2008-01-01

    The management of the residual cavity during surgical intervention for giant hydatid liver cysts is often a challenging problem. Herein, is described the case of a 55-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with a giant hydatid cyst occupying almost the entire left lobe of the liver. After partial cystectomy, the residual cavity was managed by combination of suture obliteration with omentoplasty. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged eight days later. The clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up and surgical management of the patient are discussed, along with a review of the literature.

  5. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience.

    PubMed

    Román-González, Alejandro; Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME ( Biblioteca Regional de Medicina ) LILACS ( Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud ), Google Scholar and Scielo ( Scientific Electronic Library on Line ) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid.

  6. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Methods Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina) LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), Google Scholar and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library on Line) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Results Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Conclusions Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid. PMID:28149800

  7. Fatal Liver Cyst Rupture Due to Anabolic Steroid Use: A Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Patrick; Diaz, Francisco J; Njiwaji, Chantel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cysts are commonly found incidentally from imaging scans or at autopsy. These benign neoplasms vary in size and represent a heterogeneous group of disorders, for which the demographics, risk factors, apparent inciting event, clinical presentation, and outcome are varied. Complications that can develop from a liver cyst include development of spontaneous hemorrhage, infection, and/or obstruction. Although the etiology of liver cysts varies, fatal rupture of a hemorrhagic liver cyst due to anabolic steroid use is a rare occurrence. In fact, there are few reported cases in journal literature. We report a case of a fatal liver cyst rupture with resultant hemoperitoneum in the presence of anabolic steroid (stanozolol) use.

  8. Budd-Chiari Syndrome Complicating Hydatid Cyst of the Liver Managed by Venoplasty and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Sarawagi, Radha, E-mail: sarawagi_r@yahoo.co.uk; Keshava, Shyamkumar N., E-mail: aparna_shyam@yahoo.com; Surendrababu, Narayanam R. S., E-mail: nrssbabu@yahoo.com

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal hypertension is an uncommon complication of hydatid cyst of the liver. Previous reports describe cyst excision or portosystemic shunt surgery for such patients. Here we present a case of hydatid cyst of the liver with BCS that was treated successfully with hepatic venoplasty and transjugular stent placement.

  9. Solitary Septated Simple Liver Cyst in a Newborn Infant

    PubMed Central

    Alviedo, Neil; Kent, Amanda; Cohen, Inbal

    2015-01-01

    Simple liver cysts (SLC) are generally rare and are typically symptomatic when detected in infancy. We present a case of a newborn infant in whom fetal ultrasound and MRI revealed a cystic structure. Postnatal imaging revealed a septated, single cystic structure causing mass effect on the common bile duct and partially obstructing the inferior vena cava. Treatment of a solitary septated SLC was successful by laparoscopic total excision. The infant had an uncomplicated postsurgical course and has done well. PMID:26203457

  10. Destructive granuloma derived from a liver cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kawashita, Yujo; Kamohara, Yukio; Furui, Junichiro; Fujita, Fumihiko; Miyamoto, Shungo; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Ohno, Yasuharu; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We herein report the case of an idiopathic liver cystic mass which aggressively infiltrated the thoraco-abdominal wall. A 74-year-old woman who had a huge cystic lesion in her right hepatic lobe was transferred to our hospital for further examinations. Imaging studies revealed a simple liver cyst, and the cytological findings of intracystic fluid were negative. She was followed up periodically by computed tomography (CT) scans. Seven years later, she complained of a prominence and dull pain in her right thoraco-abdominal region. CT revealed an enlargement of the cystic lesion and infiltration into the intercostal subcutaneous tissue. We suspected the development of a malignancy inside the liver cyst such as cystadenocarcinoma, and she therefore underwent surgery. A tumor extirpation was performed, including the chest wall, from the 7th to the 10th rib, as well as a right hepatic lobectomy. Pathologically, the lesion consisted of severe inflammatory change with epithelioid cell granuloma and bone destruction without any malignant neoplasm. No specific pathogens were evident based on further histological and molecular examinations. Therefore the lesion was diagnosed to be a destructive granuloma associated with a long-standing hepatic cyst. Since undergoing surgery, the patient has been doing well without any signs of recurrence. PMID:16586558

  11. Comparison of MRI segmentation techniques for measuring liver cyst volumes in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Zerwa; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzadeh; Blumenfeld, Jon D; Zhao, Yize; Prince, Martin R

    To compare MRI segmentation methods for measuring liver cyst volumes in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Liver cyst volumes in 42 ADPKD patients were measured using region growing, thresholding and cyst diameter techniques. Manual segmentation was the reference standard. Root mean square deviation was 113, 155, and 500 for cyst diameter, thresholding and region growing respectively. Thresholding error for cyst volumes below 500ml was 550% vs 17% for cyst volumes above 500ml (p<0.001). For measuring volume of a small number of cysts, cyst diameter and manual segmentation methods are recommended. For severe disease with numerous, large hepatic cysts, thresholding is an acceptable alternative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Parasitological examinations of the hydatoid cysts of liver].

    PubMed

    Cielecka, D; Gierczak, A; Michałowicz, B; Grytner-Ziecina, B

    2001-01-01

    Liver cysts taken from 9 patients, operated on in the Medical Academy Clinic in 2000, have been examined. Cyst layers, their thickness and content have been analysed. We have searched for the cestoid scolexes and rostellar hooks. In 6 patients Echinococcus granulosus larvae have been found. In 4 cases there have been protoscolexes discovered, however with some signs of degeneration of the larva. In one case dead larva has been diagnosed on the basis of the presence of single hooks and in one patient one larva alive with unchanged structures has been revealed. Profound parasitological examination is a good supplement to the examination of the histopathological slides, especially in the case of degenerating larvae, when the tissues of the parasite lose their contact with the connective tissue layer of the host. Separated layer fragments, as well as protoscolexes and rostellar hooks need not be exposed to histological cutting.

  13. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Tanemura, Kouichi; Ohtaki, Tadatoshi; Kuwahara, Yasushi; Tsumagari, Shigehisa

    2017-01-20

    Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P<0.01). Liver disorders, such as fatty liver and hepatitis, were observed in half cows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows.

  14. Association between liver failure and hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity in dairy cows with follicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    TANEMURA, Kouichi; OHTAKI, Tadatoshi; KUWAHARA, Yasushi; TSUMAGARI, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    Uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) liver activity was measured using estradiol-17β as a substrate in dairy cows with follicular cysts. The activity was significantly lower than that in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles (P<0.01). Liver disorders, such as fatty liver and hepatitis, were observed in half cows with follicular cysts, and liver UGT activity was lower than that in cows with normal estrus cycles. In addition, the liver UGT activity was significantly lower in dairy cows with follicular cysts without liver disorders than in dairy cows with normal estrous cycles. Therefore, the cows were divided into those with low, middle and high liver UGT activities, and liver disorder complication rates were investigated. The complication rate was significantly higher in the low- (78.1%) than in the middle- (22.2%) and high-level (8.3%) groups, suggesting that liver disorders are closely associated with the development of follicular cysts in dairy cows and that steroid hormone metabolism is delayed because of reduced liver UGT activity, resulting in follicular cyst formation. We conclude that reduced estradiol-17β glucuronidation in the liver and liver disorders are associated with follicular cyst occurrence in dairy cows. PMID:27666462

  15. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Saini, Narinder Singh; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sangwan, Vandana; Sood, Naresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle) suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness. Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1%) and USG (62.2%) had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool. Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis. PMID:27847421

  16. Hydatid liver cyst causing portal vein thrombosis and cavernous transformation: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kirmizi, Serdar; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with abdominal distention after meals was admitted to the hospital. He had a history of surgery for hydatid liver cyst. The cyst was located at the liver hilum and there were portal venous thrombosis and cavernous transformation. It had been treated with partial cystectomy, omentoplasty and albendazole. Two years later at the admission to our center, his laboratory tests were in normal ranges. Abdominal imaging methods revealed splenomegaly, portal vein thrombosis, cavernous transformation and the previously operated hydatid liver cyst. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated esophageal and gastric fundal varices. Due to his young age and low risk for surgery, the patient was planned for surgical treatment of both pathologies at the same time. At laparotomy, hydatid liver cyst was obliterated with omentum and there was no sign of active viable hydatid disease. A meso-caval shunt with an 8 mm in-diameter graft was created. In the postoperative period, his symptoms and endoscopic varices were regressed. There were four similar cases reported in the literature. This one was the youngest and the only one treated by a surgical shunt. Hydatid liver cysts that located around the hilum can lead to portal vein thrombosis and cavernous thrombosis. Treatment should consist of both hydatid liver cyst and portal hypertension. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case of surgically treated portal vein thrombosis that was originated from a hydatid liver cyst. PMID:27895860

  17. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Gizela Melina; Rodrigues, Robson Andrade; Marcondes, Sandriely Fernanda; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g) and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g), from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer). The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm), 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm) and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm), respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, P<0.05). Collagen layer was correlated with cyst diameter (r=0.62, P<0.01). Pericystic and parenchymatous MMCs were moderately (r=0.48) and highly (r=0.90) correlated with nematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  18. Hydatid cyst of the liver-criteria for the selection of appropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Menezes da Silva, A

    2003-02-01

    The appropriate treatment of hydatid cysts of the liver is determined by several factors, namely the patient, the cyst, the therapeutic resources and the physician. Characteristics of cysts, can be described by ultrasonography (US). Based on US images, we can classify hydatid cysts, according the evolutionary phase of the larval parasite and to choose the most appropriate therapeutic approach. US is also important to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment. Concerning the therapeutic methods, surgery had long been the only treatment available for the hydatid cyst of the liver. Beginning the 1970s benzimidazoles, Mebendazole and Albendazole, have been used for the treatment of the hydatid disease and in the early 1980s, with the development of diagnostic US, the deliberate puncture of abdominal cysts, particularly those in the liver, was evaluated this lead to puncture/aspiration, followed by injection of a scolicide which became a therapeutic method known as puncture, aspiration, injection and re-aspiration (PAIR). So, according to the cyst's characteristics based on US evaluation we can establish a therapeutic strategy: cysts type 1 and 3 may be treated by chemotherapy. Alternative treatment should be PAIR but only if the cysts cannot be treated with benzimidazoles. If there are contraindications for PAIR and chemotherapy the treatment should be surgical. Type 2 hydatid cysts can be treated by PAIR following initial treatment with benzimidazoles. If PAIR is not feasible or there is no evidence of degenerative changes after chemotherapy, surgery is indicated. Type 4 cysts are usually inactive and, in these cases, treatment is not indicated. If there is evidence that the cysts contents are still viable PAIR may be indicate. If PAIR is not possible, surgery is the method of choice. Cysts type 5 do not require treatment.

  19. Total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver in to common bile duct: a case report.

    PubMed

    Robleh, Hassan; Yassine, Fahmi; Driss, Khaiz; Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatima-Zahra, Bensardi; Saad, Berrada; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdalaziz, Fadil; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2014-01-01

    Rupture of hydatid liver cyst into biliary tree is frequent complications that involve the common hepatic duct, lobar biliary branches, the small intrahepatic bile ducts,but rarely rupture into common bile duct. The rupture of hydatid cyst is serious life threating event. The authors are reporting a case of total rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct. A 50-year-old male patient who presented with acute cholangitis was diagnosed as a case of totally rupture of hydatid cyst on Abdominal CT Scan. Rupture of hydatid cyst of liver into common bile duct and the gallbladder was confirmed on surgery. Treated by cholecystectomy and T-tube drainage of Common bile duct.

  20. Results of percutaneous sclerotherapy and surgical treatment in patients with symptomatic simple liver cysts and polycystic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Erdogan, Deha; van Delden, Otto M; Rauws, Erik AJ; Busch, Olivier RC; Lameris, Johan S; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the results of the treatment of simple liver cysts (solitary and multiple) and polycystic liver disease (PLD) using percutaneous sclerotherapy and/or surgical procedures in a single tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 54 patients referred for evaluation and possible treatment of simple liver cysts (solitary and multiple) and PLD, from January 1997 to July 2006. RESULTS: Simple liver cysts were treated in 41 pts (76%) with a mean size of 12.6 cm. The most common reason for referral was abdominal pain or discomfort (85%). Percutaneous sclerotherapy was performed as initial treatment in 30 pts, showing cyst recurrence in 6 pts (20%). Surgical treatment was initially performed in 11 pts with cyst recurrence in 3 pts (27%). PLD was treated in 13 pts (24%) with a mean size of the dominant cyst of 13 cm. Percutaneous sclerotherapy for PLD was performed in 9 pts with recurrence in 7 pts (77.8%). Surgical treatment for PLD was undertaken in 4 pts (30.8%) with recurrence in all. Eventually, 2 pts with PLD in the presence of polycystic kidney disease underwent liver- and kidney transplantation because of deterioration of liver and kidney function. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with simple liver cysts and PLD are referred for progressive abdominal pain. As initial treatment, percutaneous sclerotherapy is appropriate. Surgical deroofing is indicated in case of cyst recurrence after percutaneous sclerotherapy. However, the results of percutaneous sclerotherapy and surgical treatment for PLD are disappointing. Partial liver resection is indicated when there is suspicion of a pre-malignant lesion. PMID:17589926

  1. Upper digestive stenosis due to a hydatid cyst of the liver.

    PubMed

    Jarrar, Mohamed Salah; Ben Hadj Khalifa, Mohamed Habib; Toumi, Radhouane; Ghrissi, Rafik; Elghali, Mohamed Amine; Khenissi, Abdelmajid; Hamila, Fehmi; Letaief, Rached

    2015-03-01

    The complications of the hydatid cyst of the liver are dominated by infection and rupture. The compression of adjacent organs (mainly the inferior vena cava, the portal vein and the bile ducts) can be seen, when the cyst is located in the dome, in the hilum or within the hepatic parenchyma. Upper digestive stenosis by compression of the duodenum by the hydatid cyst is an exceptional complication. A 63 year-old patient had, for two months, upper digestive stenosis associated with a sensation of weight in the right hypochondrium. Digestive endoscopy showed an extrinsic compression of the second portion of the duodenum. Biopsies were negative. Abdominal CT showed up a hydatid cyst in the segment VI of the liver, adhering to the duodenum, with an exo-vesiculation compressing it. The patient was operated on: There was a hydatid cyst of the right lateral sector compressing the duodenum. A partial intralamellar pericystectomy was performed. Hydatid cyst of the liver, a parasitic disease described as benign, may give mechanical complications related to compression of adjacent organs (especially the bile ducts and veins). Compression of the digestive tract is exceptional. This is due to the proximity of the cyst to the duodenum and the thickness of the cyst wall.

  2. Mesothelial cyst in the liver round ligament: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Feo, Claudio F; Ginesu, Giorgio C; Cherchi, Giuseppe; Fancellu, Alessandro; Cossu, M Laura; Porcu, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Cysts of the liver round ligament are rare and they are benign in the majority of cases. Current literature has been reviewed on this subject. A 22-year-old woman with a history of epigastric pain was admitted at our institution. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a 14-mm cystic lesion in the epigastrium. A large cyst of the liver round ligament was successfully removed during exploratory laparoscopy and histopathology revealed a benign mesothelial cyst. Mesothelial cysts of the liver round ligament are rare entities and we found a total of 5 cases from the literature. Diameter varies from 5 to 14cm. Most patients were asymptomatic or may complain abdominal pain in the upper quadrants. Ultrasonography and CT scan are the most useful diagnostic tools, however differential diagnosis between various abdominal cystic lesions can be difficult. Treatment is usually surgical excision. Mesothelial cysts of the liver round ligament are extremely rare but should be taken in consideration in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic lesions. We stress the importance of exploratory laparoscopy that can allow both diagnosis and radical surgical excision. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. CT differentiation of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver from solitary bile duct cysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Yu, Eun Sil; Byun, Jae Ho; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, So Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the CT features required for differentiating mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver (mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct) from solitary bile duct cysts. CT images of pathologically confirmed mucinous cystic neoplasms (n = 15), cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (n = 16), and solitary bile duct cysts (n = 31) were reviewed. Analysis of the CT findings included shape, presence of septa, location of septa (peripheral vs central), thickness of septa (thin vs thick), mosaic pattern, mural nodules, intracystic debris, calcification, upstream bile duct dilatation, downstream bile duct dilatation, and communication between a cystic lesion and the bile duct. The maximum size of a cystic lesion and the maximum size of the largest mural nodule were measured. The presence of septa, central septa, mural nodules, upstream bile duct dilatation, and downstream bile duct dilatation were found to be significant CT findings for differentiating mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from solitary bile duct cysts (p < 0.05 for each finding). When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucin-producing cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively. When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively [corrected]. With the use of specific CT criteria, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver can be differentiated from solitary bile duct cysts with a high degree of accuracy.

  4. Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... and location. Sometimes, a cyst looks like a skin cancer and may need to be removed to be ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2016: ...

  5. [Traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst].

    PubMed

    Martino, A; Rampone, B; Schiavone, B; Viviano, C; Cuomo, O; Iovine, L; Sacco, M; Maharajan, G; Confuorto, G

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in some areas of the world. It is located mostly in the liver. The cysts rupture is possible after a trauma, or spontaneously by the increase of intracystic pressure. Rupture of the hydatid cyst requires urgent surgical intervention. We report our experience in treatment of traumatic rupture of hepatic hydatid cyst.

  6. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Simple and Hydatid Cysts of the Liver.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, S; Erdil, I; Hocaoglu, E; Inci, E; Adas, G T; Kemik, O; Turkay, R

    2018-02-01

    The present study indicates that simple and hydatid cysts in liver are a common health problem in Turkey. The aim of the study is to differentiate different types of hydatid cysts from simple cysts by using diffusion-weighted images. In total, 37 hydatid cysts and 36 simple cysts in the liver were diagnosed. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of the patients who had both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. We measured apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of all the cysts and then compared the findings. There was no statistically meaningful difference between the ADC values of simple cysts and type 1 hydatid cysts. However, for the other types of hydatid cysts, it is possible to differentiate hydatid cysts from simple cysts using the ADC values. Although in our study we cannot differentiate between type I hydatid cysts and simple cysts in the liver, diffusion-weighted images are very useful to differentiate different types of hydatid cysts from simple cysts using the ADC values.

  7. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    PubMed

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Percutaneous treatment of symptomatic non-parasitic hepatic cysts. Initial experience with single-session sclerotherapy with polidocanol.

    PubMed

    Spârchez, Zeno; Radu, Pompilia; Zaharie, Florin; Al Hajjar, Nadim; Sparchez, Mihaela

    2014-09-01

    Hepatic cysts have a prevalence of 2.5-7% and most of them are asymptomatic. However, large cysts may cause complaints; in such cases an appropriate treatment is necessary (open surgery, laparoscopic deroofing, removal of cystic fluid and injection of a sclerosing agent. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a single session technique with polidocanol in the therapy of symptomatic non parasitic hepatic cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study included 13 patients with symptomatic liver cysts (range 4-10 cm). All patients underwent percutaneous aspiration of the liver cyst under ultrasound guidance followed by instillation of polidocanol (3%, 4-10 ml). The patients were followed up at 1, 3 and 12 months. The disappearance of the cyst or reduction in volume more than 90% was considered successful. If the fluid was accumulated at 1month the procedure was repeated. If after the second injection the fluid accumulation was more than 50% of the initial volume the case was considered a failure and a laparoscopic deroofing was performed. The procedure was successful in 10 patients, 9 after the first instillation and one after the second (76.9%). The mean initial volume of cysts was 228 ml, and the mean reduction in volume at 1, 3 and 12 months was 80.2%, 91.9% and 96.7%. The cyst resolution was gradual with clinically significant cyst reduction achievement within 1 year after therapy. In 3 patients the fluid reaccumulated at the same volume despite 2 instillations. Those 3 cases the procedure was considered failure and the patients were sent to surgery. In 2 patients (one successfully treated and one with treatment failure) bleeding during the first puncture and aspiration appeared and the therapy was postponed for 1 month. There were no significant adverse effects, and all the patients had relief of symptoms after therapy. This initial experience with percutaneous aspiration and polidocanol sclerosis of hepatic cysts demonstrated that the technique

  9. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis. © J. Li et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  10. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis. PMID:25456565

  11. Weight loss in a patient with polycystic kidney disease: when liver cysts are no longer innocent bystanders.

    PubMed

    Cecere, N; Hakem, S; Demoulin, N; Hubert, C; Jabbour, N; Goffette, P; Pirson, Y; Morelle, J

    2015-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent inherited kidney disorder, and liver involvement represents one of its major extra-renal manifestations. Although asymptomatic in most patients, polycystic liver disease (PLD) can lead to organ compression, severe disability and even become life-threatening, thereby warranting early recognition and appropriate management. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman with ADPKD and severe weight loss secondary to a giant hepatic cyst compressing the pylorus. Partial hepatectomy was required after failure of cyst aspiration and sclerotherapy, and patient's condition improved rapidly. We discuss the presentation and classification of compressing liver cysts, and the available therapeutic alternatives for this potentially severe complication of ADPKD.

  12. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences.

    PubMed

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.

  13. [Echinococcus vogeli cysts in paca liver (Cuniculus paca) native from the Acre State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Meneghelli, U G; Martinelli, A L; Velludo, M A

    1990-01-01

    Four of the patients with polycystic hydatid disease observed by us reported that they were aware of the presence of liver disease in the pacas hunted for food. The viscera of these animals were usually given to domestic dogs. All of our 7 patients reported contact with dogs that had previously ingested viscera of pacas. Examination of the liver considered to be diseased by one of the patients and removed from a paca killed in the same region (State of Acre, Brazil) from which the human cases originated showed the presence of hydatid cysts. The characteristics of the rostellar hooks of the protoscolex indicated that this was the larval form of Echinococcus vogeli. These observations confirm the participation of pacas in the biological cycle of E. vogeli and the pathway through which man may become an alternative intermediate host of this echinococcus.

  14. Effect of different concentrations of hypertonic saline at different times on protoscoleces of hydatid cyst isolated from liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Tappeh, Khosrow Hazreti; Einshaei, Ali; Mahmudloo, Rahim; Mohammadzadeh, Habib; Tahermaram, Mansoor; Mousavi, Seyed Javad

    2011-01-01

    Most surgeons inject scoloidal materials into the cyst before or after its removal, since any contamination to normal sites will cause re-growth of the same cyst. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal effect of hypertonic saline at different doses and different times on protoscolexes of lung and liver. The livers and lungs of killed animals with hydatid cyst disease were gathered from Urmia Industrial Abattoirs. They were transferred to the university parasitological lab immediately. The hydatid cyst fluid was aspirated with a 10 mm syringe and poured into a 15 cc tubes. The movement of protoscoleces and staining with 0.1% eosin was the test to determine viability of protoscoleces. Those with color absorption were those which were not viable. Different concentrations of hypertonic saline were given at different time. The results showed that in 20% of hypertonic saline in the 4th minute, 80% of protoscoleces were alive while in the 5th minute 50% were alive, in the 7th minute 20% and 8th minute 5%, 9th minute all of them were dead. In the 10% concentration, at up to 9 minutes 50% were alive, in the 18th minute 20% and in 30 minutes 10% of protoscoleces were alive. In the 5% concentration at up to 10 minutes 90% were alive while in the 22nd minute 80% and in 30 minutes 70% of protoscoleces were alive. When we inject 20% hypertonic saline into the cyst cavity there is aprobability that the cyst contaminates the bile duct and liver through the small hole we made. This material may cause widespread necrosis of the liver. We should use 10% hypertonic saline minimally for 45 minute before surgery and after cyst removal, since the hypertonic saline itself may cause injury to the biliary system.

  15. Cysts of the oro-facial region: A Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, AO; Adisa, AO; Sigbeku, OF

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Though many studies have examined cysts of the jaws, most of them focused on a group of cysts and only few have examined cysts based on a particular classification. The aim of this study is to review cysts of the oro-facial region seen at a tertiary health centre in Ibadan and to categorize these cases based on Lucas, Killey and Kay and WHO classifications. Materials and Methods: All histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts were retrieved from the oral pathology archives. Information concerning cyst type, topography, age at time of diagnosis and gender of patients was gathered. Data obtained was analyzed with the SPSS 18.0.1 version software. Results: A total of 92 histologically diagnosed oro-facial cysts comprising 60 (65.2%) males and 32 (34.8%) females were seen. The age range was 4 to 73 years with a mean age of 27.99 ± 15.26 years. The peak incidence was in the third decade. The mandible/ maxilla ratio was 1.5:1. Apical periodontal was the most common type of cyst accounting for 50% (n = 46) of total cysts observed. Using the WHO classification, cysts of the soft tissues of head, face and neck were overwhelmingly more common in males than females with a ratio of 14:3, while non-epithelial cysts occurred at a 3:1 male/female ratio. Conclusion: This study showed similar findings in regard to type, site and age incidence of oro-facial cysts compared to previous studies and also showed that the WHO classification protocol was the most comprehensive classification method for oro-facial cysts. PMID:22923885

  16. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Materials and Methods: Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. Results: In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months–17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson’s disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion: The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature. PMID:28149148

  17. Laparoscopic management of peripelvic renal cysts: University of California, San Francisco, experience and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Affonso H L A; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Ershoff, Brent D; Rubenstein, Jonathan N; Meng, Maxwell V; Stoller, Marshall L

    2005-05-01

    To report our experience and review published reports on the laparoscopic management of peripelvic renal cysts. Peripelvic renal cysts represent a unique subset of renal cysts, as they are rare, commonly symptomatic, and more difficult to treat than simple peripheral renal cysts. Minimally invasive methods for the treatment of peripelvic renal cysts, including laparoscopic decortication, have recently become more common. Four patients who presented with symptomatic peripelvic cysts underwent laparoscopic decortication at our institution. All four were men aged 47 to 65 years. One patient had undergone an unsuccessful prior cyst aspiration. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography and retrograde pyelography. The mean number of peripelvic cysts per patient was 3.0, and the mean cyst size was 7.1 cm. The mean operative time was 259 minutes (range 240 to 293), and the mean estimated blood loss was 30 mL (range 10 to 50). No evidence of cystic renal cell carcinoma was found on aspiration cytology or cyst wall pathologic examination. The mean hospital stay was 1.3 days. No inadvertent collecting system injuries and no intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. All 4 patients achieved symptomatic relief and were determined to have radiologic success as determined by the 6-month postoperative computed tomography findings. Laparoscopic ablation of peripelvic renal cysts is more difficult than that of simple peripheral renal cysts and demands a heightened awareness of potential complications and, therefore, more advanced surgical skills. In addition to our experience, a thorough review of published reports found this procedure to be safe and effective with appropriate patient selection.

  18. Coblation assisted transnasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal cyst: 10 years experience and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinying; Chen, Haihong; Wang, Shenqing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the outcomes of coblation assisted transnasal endoscopic resection of nasopharyngeal cyst. Method: Retrospective chart review outcomes in 12 patients who underwent endoscopic resect cysts of the nasopharynx at our department between 2001 and 2010. Twelve patient, aged 28 to 71 years, with cysts of the nasopharynx. The outcome variables of complications and the rate of recurrence were analyzed, respectively. Results: In 12 cases, retention cysts in 2 cases, branchial cyst in 1 case, adenoid middle fossa cyst infection in 6 cases, Tornwaldt’s cyst in 3 cases. The use of the coblation device was associated with a significant decrease in blood loss. There were no postoperative complications, and the overall follow-up period was 2-7 years and shows no signs of recurrence. Conclusions: We describe transnasal endoscopic procedures to resect cysts of the nasopharynx. We found that radiofrequency coblation is a useful and safe tool associated with minimal blood loss in the resection of these cysts. In our experience, it has been a highly successful, safe, and effective procedure. PMID:26131108

  19. [Odontogenic and nonodontogenic jaw cysts: experience in 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Ağir, Hakan; Sen, Cenk; Işil, Eda; Unal, Ciğdem; Ustündağ, Emre; Keskin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the patients with jaw cysts treated at our center. The study included 25 patients (14 males, 11 females; mean age 33+/-19 years; range 7 to 69 years) who underwent surgery for odontogenic or nonodontogenic jaw cysts. The most common presentation was a swelling in the jaw with or without dental problems. Involvement was in the mandible in 18 patients, and in the maxilla in seven patients. The lesions consisted of eight radicular, six dentigerous, two nasoalveolar, two globulomaxillary cysts, and three keratocysts. Four patients had gingival, nasopalatine, residual, and median mandibular cysts, respectively. Marsupialization, curettage, extensive burring, enucleation, or marginal resection were performed depending on pre- and intraoperative findings. The defects were repaired with a corticocancellous iliac bone block graft in three patients and cancellous iliac bone chips in five patients. During a mean follow-up of 14 months (range 12 to 46 months), recurrence was seen in only one patient with a keratocyst. A good preoperative assessment, complete removal of the cystic lesion, and close radiographic follow-up are essential for a successful outcome in jaw cysts. In selected cases, reconstruction of the defects with autogenous corticocancellous iliac bone graft yields highly satisfactory results.

  20. Long-term experience with sclerotherapy for treatment of epididymal cyst and hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Braslis, K G; Moss, D I

    1996-04-01

    Symptomatic testicular hydrocele and cyst of the epididymis may be treated with either operation or sclerotherapy. The current report presents the experience of a 9 year prospective study using sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STD) sclerotherapy for the treatment of symptomatic hydrocele and/or epididymal cyst. A total of 102 lesions were treated during the study period, with an initial success rate of 76% which improved to 94% with multiple treatments. The overall median follow up during the study was 30 months (range 2-100). Sclerotherapy offers a cost-effective outpatient method for the treatment of symptomatic scrotal cysts.

  1. Treatment of recurrent pilonidal cysts with nd-YAG laser: report of our experience.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, F; Moretti, S; Cannarozzo, G; Campolmi, P

    2018-02-01

    Surgical treatment remains the first-line therapy of pilonidal cyst but is associated with high levels of postoperative pain, adverse events and a recurrence rate of 30%. We report our experience with laser hair removal using the Nd-YAG laser for the treatment of pilonidal cyst. Ten patients affected by pilonidal cyst were examined and treated from October 2011 to November 2016. Treatments were carried out using the Nd-YAG laser (Deka M.E.L.A, Calenzano, Florence, Italy) at a wavelength of 1064 nm at 30-day interval. Nine patients were asymptomatic after the second treatment, while in one case the symptom disappeared after the fourth session. After 4-8 treatments, the pilonidal cyst had clinically disappeared and patients subjectively felt healed. In all cases, the soft-tissue ultrasounds performed before the first and after the last session showed the disappearance of the pilonidal cyst. In the follow-up, all the patients remained asymptomatic without any disease recurrence. Nd-YAG laser is an effective treatment for pilonidal cysts, providing excellent results with quick healing and no risk of serious adverse side-effects. It could be a very attractive alternative to open surgery, enabling patients to prevent the frequent and severe postoperative issues associated with surgery.

  2. Is the adjuvant albendazole treatment really needed with PAIR in the management of liver hydatid cysts? A prospective, randomized trial with short-term follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Akhan, Okan; Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Akinci, Devrim; Yildiz, Baris Dogu; Ciftci, Turkmen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of adjuvant albendazole medication in percutaneous liver hydatid cyst treatment with puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR) method. Between November 2007 and May 2011, total of 39 patients with newly diagnosed liver hydatid cyst (total of 77 cysts) were prospectively randomized and enrolled in 3 groups. In the first group, cysts (n = 14) were treated with PAIR without albendazole. In the second (n = 16) and third groups (n = 47), cysts were treated with PAIR with albendazole 1 week before and 1 month after the procedure, with albendazole 1 week before and 3 months after the procedure respectively. Technical and clinical success rates were 100 and 96.1% respectively. In 3 of 77 cysts (3.9%), findings of recurrence were detected on US imaging. All recurrent cysts were in group 1 and recurrence rates in this group were statistically different from cysts of second and third groups (p = 0.005). Side effects of albendazole were detected in 7 of 29 patients (24.1%), and no statistically significant difference was observed between the second (15.3%) and third (38.4%) groups (p = 0.378). Use of albendazole medication as an adjuvant to percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cyst decreases the recurrence rate. Although there is no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3 in terms of efficacy and recurrence rate, patients in group 3 had a higher rate of side effect. Therefore, we conclude that albendazole treatment 1 week before and 1 month after PAIR treatment is sufficient to reduce/prevent recurrences.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of a Liver Hydatid Cyst Invading the Portal Vein and Causing Portal Cavernomatosis.

    PubMed

    Herek, Duygu; Sungurtekin, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic hydatid cysts rarely invade portal veins causing portal cavernomatosis as a secondary complication. We report the case of a patient with direct invasion of the right portal vein by hydatid cysts causing portal cavernomatosis diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The presented case highlights the useful application of MRI with T2-weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images in the diagnosis of hepatic hydatid lesions presenting with a rare complication of portal cavernomatosis.

  4. Feasibility study of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of hydatid cysts of the liver.

    PubMed

    Imankulov, S B; Fedotovskikh, G V; Shaimardanova, G M; Yerlan, M; Zhampeisov, N K

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of hydatid cysts of the liver. HIFU ablation was carried out in 62 patients with echinococcosis of the liver. The mean age of patients was 40.76±14.84 (range: 17-72 years). The effectiveness of the treatment was monitored in real-time by changes in the gray-scale, and by morphological studies, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of treatment in real time were outlines. Cytomorphological picture of destructive changes of parasitic elements was presented as well. Loss of embryonic elements of the parasite was observed at the subcellular level after HIFU-ablation and underlines the effectiveness of HIFU. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Perforation of a duodenal ulcer into a non-parasitic liver cyst: a rare case of a penetrate hole blockaded with conservative medical management.

    PubMed

    Ono, Koichi; Takeda, Masaharu; Makihata, Eiichi; Okazaki, Junji; Nagai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An 88-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain with a raised inflammatory reaction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and computed tomography (CT) showed a duodenal ulcer punching a liver cyst. Since neither ascites nor free air were detected on CT and her family did not wish for aggressive medical treatment, the patient received clinical observation and conservative management. Antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor therapy was effective, and she exhibited an uneventful recovery. A reexamination of EGD and CT confirmed that the fistulous tract between the liver cyst and duodenum was blockaded.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of a Liver Hydatid Cyst Invading the Portal Vein and Causing Portal Cavernomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Herek, Duygu; Sungurtekin, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatic hydatid cysts rarely invade portal veins causing portal cavernomatosis as a secondary complication. Case Report We report the case of a patient with direct invasion of the right portal vein by hydatid cysts causing portal cavernomatosis diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conclusion The presented case highlights the useful application of MRI with T2-weighted images and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images in the diagnosis of hepatic hydatid lesions presenting with a rare complication of portal cavernomatosis. PMID:26730239

  7. Ovarian cysts and breast cancer: results from the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julia A; Lesosky, Maia; Blackmore, Kristina M; Voigt, Lynda F; Holt, Victoria L; Bernstein, Leslie; Marchbanks, Polly A; Burkman, Ronald T; Daling, Janet R; Whittemore, Alice S

    2008-05-01

    A diagnosis of ovarian cysts is likely an indicator of hormonal milieu and thus may be related to breast cancer risk. Recent studies have reported an inverse relationship between prior ovarian cyst diagnosis and breast cancer risk. We evaluated this relationship in the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (CARE) Study, a population-based case-control study conducted in Atlanta, Detroit, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Cases had first primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1994 and 1998 at ages 35-64 years. African American women were over-sampled. Controls were identified through random digit dialling and were frequency matched to cases on centre, race, and five-year age group. A total of 4575 cases and 4682 controls were interviewed. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and study centre within racial groups to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the relationship between prior ovarian cysts and breast cancer. Ovarian cyst diagnosis was associated with a significantly reduced risk among Caucasians (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76-0.96) and among African Americans (OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.57-0.81). The association in Caucasians was not significant within subgroups defined by menopausal status, hormone use, or gynecological surgery while the OR estimates in African Americans were consistently lower and frequently significant. These data are consistent with the previously reported inverse association between ovarian cysts and breast cancer, but the evidence for a relationship was stronger in African Americans than Caucasians. Additional studies are required to determine the specific cyst type(s) responsible for the observed relationship.

  8. Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukelić, Dalibor; Desnica, Boško

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. Methods The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases “Dr. Fran Mihaljević,” Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N = 48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (3 × 5 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n = 34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n = 14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Results Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P < 0.001) and higher than cyst concentrations at the time of treatment (GMR = 1.58, 1.01-2.34, P = 0.045). Higher cyst (but not plasma) concentrations were independently associated with lower odds of protoscolex motility (OR = 0.23, 0.01-0.70, P < 0.001) and higher odds of protoscolex destruction (OR = 1.17, 1.04-1.46, P < 0.001). With adjustment for age and protoscolex motility, higher day 10 plasma concentrations (but not cyst concentrations) were associated with lower odds of disease recurrence (OR = 0.49, 0.09-0.97, P = 0.035). Plasma concentrations did not predict cyst concentrations. Conclusion Viability of protoscolices progressively decreased with increasing ASO concentrations in the cyst. Data strongly suggested that higher plasma concentrations reduced the risk of disease recurrence. PMID:24778101

  9. Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukelic, Dalibor; Desnica, Bosko

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases Dr. Fran Mihaljević, Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N=48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (3×5 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n=34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n=14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P<0.001) and higher than cyst concentrations at the time of treatment (GMR=1.58, 1.01-2.34, P=0.045). Higher cyst (but not plasma) concentrations were independently associated with lower odds of protoscolex motility (OR=0.23, 0.01-0.70, P<0.001) and higher odds of protoscolex destruction (OR=1.17, 1.04-1.46, P<0.001). With adjustment for age and protoscolex motility, higher day 10 plasma concentrations (but not cyst concentrations) were associated with lower odds of disease recurrence (OR=0.49, 0.09-0.97, P=0.035). Plasma concentrations did not predict cyst concentrations. Viability of protoscolices progressively decreased with increasing ASO concentrations in the cyst. Data strongly suggested that higher plasma concentrations reduced the risk of disease recurrence.

  10. Liver hydatid cyst leading to bilateral pulmonary artery embolism and bilateral multiple pulmonar echinococcosis via inferior vena cava: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Bayaroğullari, Hanifi; Davran, Ramazan; Cavuş, Yeliz; Yetim, Tülin Durgun; Evirgen, Ömer

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease (HD) is a worldwide parasitic disease. Echinococcosis may involve many organs but affect most commonly liver and lungs. The location of echinococcal cysts inside pulmonary artery is extremely rare. Radiologic findings range from purely cystic lesions to a completely solid appearance. Hydatid cysts (HC) can be solitary or multiple and varies size. Pulmonary artery embolism of HC can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. When symptomatic, we see the chest pain, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis and sometimes acute cor pulmonale or sudden death secondary to massive giant pulmonary artery embolism of HC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-session alcohol sclerotherapy of symptomatic liver cysts using 10-20 min of ethanol exposure: no recurrence at 2-16 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Larssen, Trond Bjerke; Viste, Asgaut; Horn, Arild; Haldorsen, Ingfrid Salvesen; Espeland, Ansgar

    2016-09-01

    To assess long-term results after single-session alcohol sclerotherapy of symptomatic benign liver cysts performed with maximum 20 min of exposure to alcohol. We included 47 patients aged 32-88 years (42 women, 5 men) with 51 benign non-parasitic liver cysts that were exposed to ethanol for 7-20 min in a single sclerotherapy session and were followed for at least 24 months. Each cyst was emptied before injecting ethanol (10% of cyst volume, but maximum 100 mL) into it. The patient rotated from side to side to facilitate contact between ethanol and the whole cyst wall. Pre-treatment cyst volume was defined as the volume of aspirated cyst fluid after complete emptying of the cyst. Follow-up cyst volume was estimated based on computed tomography images. Cyst volumes were 30-4900 (median 520) mL at pre-treatment and 0-230 (median 1) mL at 24-193 (median 56) months follow-up, a reduction of 83-100% (median 99.7%). No cyst required repeated treatment during the follow-up. Median volume reduction was 99.7% at median 49 months of follow-up for 35 cysts exposed to ethanol for 7-10 min vs. 99.6% at median 75 months of follow-up for 16 cysts exposed for 20 min (p = 0.83, Mann-Whitney test). Ethanol intoxication occurred in one patient. There were no other complications except for pain. Long-term results of single-session alcohol sclerotherapy performed with maximum 20 min of exposure to ethanol were satisfactory with no sign of recurrence of cyst fluid.

  12. Kidney enlargement and multiple liver cyst formation implicate mutations in PKD1/2 in adult sporadic polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fujimaru, T; Mori, T; Sekine, A; Mandai, S; Chiga, M; Kikuchi, H; Ando, F; Mori, Y; Nomura, N; Iimori, S; Naito, S; Okado, T; Rai, T; Hoshino, J; Ubara, Y; Uchida, S; Sohara, E

    2018-07-01

    Distinguishing autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) from other inherited renal cystic diseases in patients with adult polycystic kidney disease and no family history is critical for correct treatment and appropriate genetic counseling. However, for patients with no family history, there are no definitive imaging findings that provide an unequivocal ADPKD diagnosis. We analyzed 53 adult polycystic kidney disease patients with no family history. Comprehensive genetic testing was performed using capture-based next-generation sequencing for 69 genes currently known to cause hereditary renal cystic diseases including ADPKD. Through our analysis, 32 patients had PKD1 or PKD2 mutations. Additionally, 3 patients with disease-causing mutations in NPHP4, PKHD1, and OFD1 were diagnosed with an inherited renal cystic disease other than ADPKD. In patients with PKD1 or PKD2 mutations, the prevalence of polycystic liver disease, defined as more than 20 liver cysts, was significantly higher (71.9% vs 33.3%, P = .006), total kidney volume was significantly increased (median, 1580.7 mL vs 791.0 mL, P = .027) and mean arterial pressure was significantly higher (median, 98 mm Hg vs 91 mm Hg, P = .012). The genetic screening approach and clinical features described here are potentially beneficial for optimal management of adult sporadic polycystic kidney disease patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Liver transplantations in Bulgaria--initial experience.

    PubMed

    Vladov, N; Mihaylov, V; Takorov, I; Vasilevski, I; Lukanova, T; Odisseeva, E; Katzarov, K; Simonova, M; Tomova, D; Konakchieva, M; Petrov, N; Mladenov, N; Sergeev, S; Mutafchiiski, V

    2014-01-01

    The filed of liver transplantation (LT) continues to evolve and is highly effective therapy for many patients with acute and chronic liver failure resulting from a variety of causes. Improvement of perioperative care, surgical technique and immunosuppression in recent years has led to its transformation into a safe and routine procedure with steadily improving results. The aim of this paper is to present the initial experience of the transplant team at Military Medical Academy - Sofia, Bulgaria. For the period of April 2007 - August 2014 the team performed 38 liver transplants in 37 patients (one retransplantation). Patients were followed up prospectively and retrospectively. In 36 (95%) patients a graft from a cadaveric donor was used and in two cases--a right liver grafts from live donor. The mean MELD score of the transplanted patients was 17 (9-40). The preferred surgical technique was "piggyback" with preservation of inferior vena cava in 33 (86%) of the cases and classical technique in 3 (8%) patients. The overall complication rate was 48%. Early mortality rate was 13% (5 patients). The overall 1- and 5-year survival is 81% and 77% respectivelly. The setting of a new LT program is a complex process which requires the effort and effective colaboration of a wide range of speciacialists (hepatologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, psychologists, therapists, coordinators, etc.) and institutions. The good results are function of a proper selection of the donors and the recipients. Living donation is an alternative in the shortage of cadaveric donors.

  14. [18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of liver cyst infection in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and fever of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Banzo, J; Ubieto, M A; Gil, D; Prats, E; Razola, P; Tardín, L; Andrés, A; Rambalde, E F; Ayala, S M; Cáncer, L; Velilla, J

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis, localization and treatment of infected cysts in the kidney or liver of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remain a clinical challenge. We report the findings of (18)F-FDG PET-CT in an ADPKD diagnosed patient who required renal transplantation five years before and in his follow up presented repeated episodes of bacteriemia without known focus on radiological tests performed. The (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan showed numerous hypermetabolic images with focal or ring-shaped morphology related to the content and the wall of some hepatic cysts. The increased metabolic activity was localized on segments VI and VII. We proceeded to drainage of one cyst in segment VI, removing 110 cc of purulent fluid which grew E. Coli BLEE. The (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan should be included in the diagnostic algorithm for detecting infected liver cysts in patients with ADPKD and fever of unknown origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Traumatic rupture of liver hydatid cysts into the peritoneal cavity of an 11-year-old boy: a case report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Sabzevari, Sadaf; Badirzadeh, Alireza; Shahkaram, Reza; Seyyedin, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This is the first published case report of an 11-year-old patient with a rupture of a liver hydatid cyst (HC) into the peritoneal cavity after an abdominal trauma in Iran. The disease was diagnosed using focused abdominal sonography for trauma. To date, no cases of traumatic ruptures of liver HCs in children have been reported in Iran. In the endemic regions of the world, where patients suffer from a history of trauma and constant abdominal symptoms or anaphylactic shock, early diagnosis of HC is crucial as it may disseminate to other organs. The condition needs conservative surgery and follow-up.

  16. Cyst infection in hospital-admitted autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients is predominantly multifocal and associated with kidney and liver volume

    PubMed Central

    Balbo, B.E.P.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Jayanthi, S.K.; Dettoni, J.B.; Castro, I.; Onuchic, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has improved cyst infection (CI) management in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The determinants of kidney and/or liver involvement, however, remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging factors associated with CI in kidney (KCI) and liver (LCI) in ADPKD. A retrospective cohort study was performed in hospital-admitted ADPKD patients with suspected CI. Clinical, imaging and surgical data were analyzed. Features of infected cysts were evaluated by PET/CT. Total kidney (TKV) and liver (TLV) volumes were measured by CT-derived multiplanar reconstruction. CI was detected in 18 patients who experienced 24 episodes during an interval of 30 months (LCI in 12, KCI in 10 and concomitant infection in 2). Sensitivities of CT, magnetic resonance imaging and PET/CT were 25.0, 71.4, and 95.0%. Dysuria (P<0.05), positive urine culture (P<0.01), and previous hematuria (P<0.05) were associated with KCI. Weight loss (P<0.01) and increased C-reactive protein levels (P<0.05) were associated with LCI. PET/CT revealed that three or more infected cysts were present in 70% of the episodes. TKV was higher in kidney-affected than in LCI patients (AUC=0.91, P<0.05), with a cut-off of 2502 mL (72.7% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity). TLV was higher in liver-affected than in KCI patients (AUC=0.89, P<0.01) with a cut-off of 2815 mL (80.0% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity). A greater need for invasive procedures was observed in LCI (P<0.01), and the overall mortality was 20.8%. This study supports PET/CT as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosis of cyst infection, confirms the multifocal nature of most hospital-admitted episodes, and reveals an association of kidney and liver volumes with this complication. PMID:24919173

  17. Ovarian Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... mature in the ovaries, are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years. Many women have ovarian ... cysts develop as a result of your menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much ...

  18. Mammary and femoral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    Hydatid cyst disease most commonly affects liver and lungs, but it can affect all viscera and soft tissues of the body. Simultaneous mammary and femoral hydatid cysts, without any other visceral involvement, are extremely rare. This is a case report of 25-years-old female, presenting with lump in left breast mimicking fibroadenoma and lump in right thigh mimicking fibroma. Both turned out to be hydatid cysts.

  19. Mesothelial Cysts of the Round Ligament of the Uterus in 9 Patients: a 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    Tirnaksiz, Mehmet; Erkan, Arman; Dogrul, Ahmet Bulent; Abbasoglu, Osman

    2016-04-04

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristic features of patients with mesothelial cyst of the round ligament of the uterus and the incidence of this entity. This was a retrospective review of 3065 patients who underwent inguinal exploration for groin mass from 1998 to 2013. Clinical, radiological and histopathological features of patients with a diagnosis of mesothelial cyst of the round ligament were analyzed. Of the 405 female patients reviewed 9 mesothelial cysts of the round ligament were identified (2.2%). The median age was 37 (range 19-82 years). In all patients the groin mass was manually irreducible on physical examination. The lesions were on the right side in 6 (66.6%) patients. These were identified before surgery in 4 (all by groin ultrasonography). Three were misidentified as a hernia before surgery. The remaining 2 (22%) had both hernia and the mesothelial cyst of the round ligament. The cysts were identified after surgery at the time of histopathological examination in these two patients. In all patients histopathological examination revealed multilobular cystic lesion lined by a single layer of mesothelial cells. Cystic lesions arising from the round ligament were identified and excised along with the round ligament in 7 patients. In the remaining 2, a hernia repair was also performed. There was no recurrence at follow-up. Mesothelial cysts of the round ligament are rare. They are easily misidentified as groin hernia. An accurate diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and is greatly aided by preoperative imaging studies.

  20. Laparoscopic liver resection: Experience based guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Kruger, Jaime Arthur Pirola; Fonseca, Gilton Marques; Araújo, Raphael Leonardo Cunha; Jeismann, Vagner Birk; Perini, Marcos Vinícius; Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Cecconello, Ivan; Herman, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been progressively developed along the past two decades. Despite initial skepticism, improved operative results made laparoscopic approach incorporated to surgical practice and operations increased in frequency and complexity. Evidence supporting LLR comes from case-series, comparative studies and meta-analysis. Despite lack of level 1 evidence, the body of literature is stronger and existing data confirms the safety, feasibility and benefits of laparoscopic approach when compared to open resection. Indications for LLR do not differ from those for open surgery. They include benign and malignant (both primary and metastatic) tumors and living donor liver harvesting. Currently, resection of lesions located on anterolateral segments and left lateral sectionectomy are performed systematically by laparoscopy in hepatobiliary specialized centers. Resection of lesions located on posterosuperior segments (1, 4a, 7, 8) and major liver resections were shown to be feasible but remain technically demanding procedures, which should be reserved to experienced surgeons. Hand-assisted and laparoscopy-assisted procedures appeared to increase the indications of minimally invasive liver surgery and are useful strategies applied to difficult and major resections. LLR proved to be safe for malignant lesions and offers some short-term advantages over open resection. Oncological results including resection margin status and long-term survival were not inferior to open resection. At present, surgical community expects high quality studies to base the already perceived better outcomes achieved by laparoscopy in major centers’ practice. Continuous surgical training, as well as new technologies should augment the application of laparoscopic liver surgery. Future applicability of new technologies such as robot assistance and image-guided surgery is still under investigation. PMID:26843910

  1. Nasolabial cyst: 18.5 year experience in a pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Rocha, R; Dornela Verli, F; Lages Lima, N; Rocha Dos Santos, C R; Aparecida Marinho, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a survey of nasolabial cysts diagnosed at the Pathology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (Brazil) over a period of 18.5 years, and a case report. A retrospective study was carried out on biopsies performed at the Pathology Laboratory of the UFVJM School of Dentistry between January 1992 and July 2010. Among a total of 2730 histopathological exams of biopsies performed at the UFVJM Pathology Laboratory, 288 (10.54%) were different types of cysts, The prevalence of NLC was 0.29% (8 cases) in relation to the overall sample and 2.43% among all cysts. NLC only occurred in the female gender in the age group spanning from 25 to 62 years (mean: 40.00 years; standard deviation (SD): 13.48 years). The duration of evolution ranged from six to 18 months (mean: 12 months; SD: 3.79 months). The cysts were asymptomatic in 62.5% of cases. Cyst size ranged from 10 to 30 mm (mean: 16.86; SD: 8.00 mm). In six cases (75%), the radiographic exams were consistent with the final diagnosis, whereas there were no records of radiographic images in two cases (25%). Surgical excision was the treatment of choice for all cases. The characteristics of NLC, such as location, elevation of the nasal wing, disappearance of the nasolabial sulcus, nasal obstruction, floatation of the cyst and the presence of cystic liquid in the interior, are enough to suggest the diagnosis of this cyst. However, the confirmation of the diagnosis is performed through biopsy and histopathological analysis.

  2. Liver transplantation: Fifty years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Alice Tung Wan; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Pecora, Rafael Antonio Arruda; Pugliese, Vincenzo; D’Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Abdala, Edson

    2014-01-01

    Since 1963, when the first human liver transplantation (LT) was performed by Thomas Starzl, the world has witnessed 50 years of development in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, organ allocation, donor selection, and the indications and contraindications for LT. This has led to the mainstream, well-established procedure that has saved innumerable lives worldwide. Today, there are hundreds of liver transplant centres in over 80 countries. This review aims to describe the main aspects of LT regarding the progressive changes that have occurred over the years. We herein review historical aspects since the first experimental studies and the first attempts at human transplantation. We also provide an overview of immunosuppressive agents and their potential side effects, the evolution of the indications and contraindications of LT, the evolution of survival according to different time periods, and the evolution of methods of organ allocation. PMID:24833866

  3. Comparison of acetic acid and ethanol sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: clinical experience with 86 patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and treatment session numbers of acetic acid to that of ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Between February 2004 and June 2013, 86 patients with simple renal cysts underwent percutaneous aspiration and injection of 50 %-acetic-acid (42 cysts) and 95 %-ethanol (44 cysts). The patient demographics, volume reduction rate, number of treatment sessions, and complications were then analyzed. The volume reduction rate was 94.1 ± 7.6 % in the 50 %-acetic acid group and 94.7 ± 11.7 % in the 95 %-ethanol group, and without a statistical difference. The rates of complete remission, partial remission, and no response were 57.1, 42.9 and 0 %, respectively, for the acetic acid group, and 70.5, 25.0, and 4.5 %, respectively, for the ethanol group. No statistical difference was observed between the two groups. Compared to the acetic acid group, the ethanol group had a higher number of treatment sessions, i.e. 1.10 ± 0.30 in the acetic acid group and 1.80 ± 0.79 in the ethanol group. Mild flank pain was a minor complication that occurred in both groups. Acetic acid seems to have equivalent sclerosing effects on simple renal cysts compared with those of ethanol despites of fewer treatment sessions.

  4. Renal Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the renal cysts. Your doctor may use ultrasound imaging to monitor renal cysts for any changes over ... Related Articles and Media Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Body Ultrasound - Pelvis Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  5. Baker cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Popliteal cyst; Bulge-knee ... Baker cyst is caused by swelling in the knee. The swelling is due to an increase in the fluid that lubricates the knee joint (synovial fluid). When pressure builds up, fluid ...

  6. Ganglion Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ganglion Cysts Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Ganglion Cysts Close Popup Figures Figure 1 - Ganglion ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  7. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...

  8. Rescue allocation for liver transplantation within Eurotransplant: the Heidelberg experience.

    PubMed

    Schemmer, Peter; Nickkholgh, Arash; Gerling, Till; Weitz, Jürgen; Büchler, Markus W; Schmidt, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Organ shortage has driven many transplant centers to extend their criteria for organ acceptance. Graft allocation policies have been modified accordingly. This report focuses on the impact of applying the so-called rescue allocation (RA) strategy for liver transplantation (LT) in a single center within the Eurotransplant (ET) area. Liver grafts are considered for RA when the regular organ allocation is declined by at least three centers or is averted because of donor instability/unfavorable logistical reasons, thus entering a competitive or a single-recipient rescue organ offer procedure, respectively. The accepting center has the advantage to select a recipient from its own waiting list for these RA grafts. Among 253 livers accepted at the University of Heidelberg between January 2004 and December 2006, we transplanted 85 (34%) rescue-allocated livers. The indications for LT were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 43%), chronic liver disease (55%), and acute liver failure (2%). Median cold ischemia time for RA grafts was 10 h (range: 4-17). The MELD score (mean +/- SD) was 13 +/- 7 (range: 6-40) and was 12 +/- 7 for recipients with HCC. Three (3.5%) primary non-functions (PNF) occurred after transplantation of RA livers. One-year patient and graft survival were 84% and 75%, respectively. A comparison between the recipients of RA livers and regularly allocated livers revealed no significant difference regarding initial poor function (IPF), PNF, and surgical complications. Furthermore, a median follow-up of 16 months revealed no significant difference regarding patient and graft survival between the two groups. The use of RA organs has increased the donor pool and transplantation dynamics with satisfying results. The unique possibility to match livers with recipients, which is left to the discretion of accepting center, should be judged according to the center's experience to decrease the waiting times for a timely rescue of organs/recipients while avoiding futile

  9. Incidental Findings in Abdominal Dual-Energy Computed Tomography: Correlation Between True Noncontrast and Virtual Noncontrast Images Considering Renal and Liver Cysts and Adrenal Masses.

    PubMed

    Slebocki, Karin; Kraus, Bastian; Chang, De-Hua; Hellmich, Martin; Maintz, David; Bangard, Christopher

    To assess correlation between attenuation measurements of incidental findings in abdominal second generation dual-energy computed tomography (CT) on true noncontrast (TNC) and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images. Sixty-three patients underwent arterial dual-energy CT (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens; pitch factor, 0.75-1.0; gantry rotation time, 0.28 seconds) after endovascular aneurysm repair, consisting of a TNC single energy CT scan (collimation, 128 × 0.6 mm; 120 kVp) and a dual-energy arterial phase scan (collimation, 32 × 0.6 mm, 140 and 100 kVp; blended, 120 kVp data set). Attenuation measurements in Hounsfield units (HU) of liver parenchyma and incidental findings like renal and hepatic cysts and adrenal masses on TNC and VNC images were done by drawing regions of interest. Statistical analysis was performed by paired t test and Pearson correlation. Incidental findings were detected in 56 (89%) patients. There was excellent correlation for both renal (n = 40) and hepatic cysts (n = 12) as well as adrenal masses (n = 6) with a Pearson correlation of 0.896, 0.800, and 0.945, respectively, and mean attenuation values on TNC and VNC images of 10.6 HU ± 12.8 versus 5.1 HU ± 17.5 (attenuation value range from -8.8 to 59.1 HU vs -11.8 to 73.4 HU), 6.4 HU ± 5.8 versus 6.3 HU ± 4.6 (attenuation value range from 2.0 to 16.2 HU vs -3.0 to 15.9 HU), and 12.8 HU ± 11.2 versus 12.4 HU ± 10.2 (attenuation value range from -2.3 to 27.5 HU vs -2.2 to 23.6 HU), respectively. As proof of principle, liver parenchyma measurements also showed excellent correlation between TNC and VNC (n = 40) images with a Pearson correlation of 0.839 and mean attenuation values on TNC and VNC images of 47.2 HU ± 10.5 versus 43.8 HU ± 8.7 (attenuation value range from 21.9 to 60.2 HU vs 4.5 to 65.3 HU). In conclusion, attenuation measurements of incidental findings like renal cysts or adrenal masses on TNC and VNC images derived from second generation dual-energy CT scans show excellent

  10. Liver transplantation in Greek children: 15 years experience

    PubMed Central

    Xinias, Ioannis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Vrani, Olga; Imvrios, Georgios; Takoudas, Dimitrios; Spiroglou, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the only available live-saving procedure for children with irreversible liver failure. This paper reports our experience from the follow-up of 16 Greek children with end-stage liver failure who underwent a LT. Over a period of 15 years, 16 pediatric liver recipients received follow up after being subjected to OLT (orthotopic liver transplantation) due to end-stage liver failure. Nine children initially presented with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 2 with acute liver failure after toxic mushroom ingestion, 2 with intrahepatic cholestasis, 2 with metabolic diseases and one with hepatoblastoma. Ten children received a liver transplant in the Organ Transplantation Unit of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the rest in other transplant centers. Three transplants came from a living-related donor and 13 from a deceased donor. Six children underwent immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, and 7 with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Three out of 16 children died within the first month after the transplantation due to post-transplant complications. Three children presented with acute rejection and one with chronic organ rejection which was successfully managed. Five children presented with cytomegalovirus infection, 5 with Epstein-Barr virus, 2 with HSV1,2, 2 with ParvoB19 virus, 2 with varicella-zoster virus and one with C. Albicans infection. One child presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and one with small biliary paucity. A satisfying outcome was achieved in most cases, with good graft function, except for the patient with small biliary paucity who required re-transplantation. The long-term clinical course of liver transplanted children is good under the condition that they are attended in specialized centers. PMID:21589827

  11. Laparoscopic Excision of a Ciliated Hepatic Foregut Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Grace Z.; Reynolds, Jordan P.; Tevar, Amit D.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are uncommon solitary cysts of the liver that originate from the embryologic foregut. Clinically and radiographically, these lesions can be difficult to distinguish from neoplasms. Recent reports have demonstrated that ciliated hepatic foregut cysts may undergo dysplastic progression, supporting the argument to excise these cysts when discovered. Fewer than 100 cases have been described in the literature since the first description of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in 1857. We present a patient who recently underwent laparoscopic excision of a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst, review the literature, and propose the rationale for attempting removal of these cysts via a laparoscopic approach. PMID:19366552

  12. Single-Center Experience Using Marginal Liver Grafts in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, P-J; Yu, Y-D; Yoon, Y-I; Kim, S-R; Kim, D-S

    2018-05-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is an established therapeutic modality for patients with end-stage liver disease. The use of marginal donors has become more common worldwide due to the sharp increase in recipients, with a consequent shortage of suitable organs. We analyzed our single-center experience over the last 8 years in LT to evaluate the outcomes of using so-called "marginal donors." We retrospectively analyzed the database of all LTs performed at our institution from 2009 to 2017. Only patients undergoing deceased-donor LTs were analyzed. Marginal grafts were defined as livers from donors >60 years of age, livers from donors with serum sodium levels >155 mEq, graft steatosis >30%, livers with cold ischemia time ≥12 hours, livers from donors who were hepatitis B or C virus positive, livers recovered from donation after cardiac death, and livers split between 2 recipients. Patients receiving marginal grafts (marginal group) were compared with patients receiving standard grafts (standard group). A total of 106 patients underwent deceased-donor LT. There were 55 patients in the standard group and 51 patients in the marginal group. There were no significant differences in terms of age, sex, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, underlying liver disease, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and hospital stay between the 2 groups. Although the incidence of acute cellular rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, and postoperative complications was similar between the 2 groups, the incidence of early allograft dysfunction was higher in the marginal group. With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall and graft (death-censored) survivals in the marginal group were 85.5%, 75%, and 69.2% and 85.9%, 83.6%, and 77.2%, respectively. Patient overall survival and graft survival (death-censored) were significantly lower in the marginal group (P = .023 and P = .048, respectively). On multivariate analysis, receiving a marginal graft (hazard ratio [HR

  13. Pediatric Liver Transplant For Hepatoblastoma: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Kirnap, Mahir; Ayvazoglu Soy, Ebru; Ozcay, Figen; Moray, Gokhan; Ozdemir, Binnaz Handan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to analyze our experience with orthotopic liver transplant for hepatoblastoma patients. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis of 6 orthotopic liver transplant cases in children with hepatoblastoma from 2001 to March 2015. We evaluated patient demographic features, pretreatment extent of disease stage, type of transplant, change in serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, complications, and follow-up results. Orthotopic liver transplant was performed for pretreatment extent of disease stage III with a central location (n = 3) and pretreatment extent of disease stage IV (n = 3). All children underwent living-donor orthotopic liver transplant. Postoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein levels remained below 10 ng/mL during the follow-up period in 3 patients who were free of recurrences or metastases. Five patients were free of tumor recurrences at a median follow-up of 29.9 months. The limited number of cases we present without long-term follow-up of orthotopic liver transplant for unresectable hepatoblastoma seemed to show good clinical results.

  14. Minimally invasive management of hepatic cysts: indications and complications.

    PubMed

    Vardakostas, D; Damaskos, C; Garmpis, N; Antoniou, E A; Kontzoglou, K; Kouraklis, G; Dimitroulis, D

    2018-03-01

    Liver cysts are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital cystic lesions include polycystic liver disease, simple cysts, duct related and ciliated hepatic foregut cysts. Acquired cystic lesions are divided into infectious and non-infectious. The infectious cysts are the hydatid cyst, the amoebic abscess, and the pyogenic abscess, whereas the non-infectious cysts are neoplastic cysts and false cysts. While modern medicine provides a lot of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities, there has emerged a pressing need for understanding the various types of liver cysts, the possible minimal therapeutic options along with their indications and complications. We aim is to clarify the role of minimally invasive techniques in the management of hepatic cysts. A literature review was performed using the MEDLINE database. The search terms were: liver cyst, minimally invasive, laparoscopic, percutaneous, drainage and fenestration. We reviewed 82 English language publications articles, published until October 2017. Minimally invasive management of liver LC is an emerging field including many therapeutic modalities ranging from the percutaneous aspiration of pyogenic abscesses to laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatic cystadenomas. The most used techniques are percutaneous drainage, laparoscopic fenestration, and laparoscopic hepatectomy. The application of the various minimally invasive approaches, as well as their indication and complications, depend on the type of the cystic lesion, its size and its position in the liver. Percutaneous drainage is mostly used in simple cysts, hydatid cysts, pyogenic abscesses and bilomas. Laparoscopic fenestration is mostly used in simple cysts and polycystic liver disease. Finally, laparoscopic hepatectomy is mostly used in polycystic liver disease, hydatid cysts, and cystadenomas.

  15. Liver Transplantation With Old Grafts: A Ten-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Roullet, S; Defaye, M; Quinart, A; Adam, J-P; Chiche, L; Laurent, C; Neau-Cransac, M

    2017-11-01

    The persistent scarcity of donors has prompted liver transplantation teams to find solutions for increasing graft availability. We report our experience of liver transplantations performed with grafts from older donors, specifically over 70 and 80 years old. We analyzed our prospectively maintained single-center database from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014, with 380 liver transplantations performed in 354 patients. Six groups were composed according to donor age: <40 (n = 84), 40 to 49 (n = 67), from 50 to 59 (n = 62), from 60 to 69 (n = 76), from 70 to 79 (n = 64), and ≥80 years (n = 27). Donors <40 years of age had a lower body mass index, died more often from trauma, and more often had cardiac arrest and high transaminase levels. In contrast, older donors (≥70 years of age) died more often from stroke. Recipients of grafts from donors <50 years of age were more frequently infected by hepatitis C virus; recipients of oldest grafts more often had hepatocellular carcinoma. Cold ischemia time was the shortest in donors >80 years of age. Patient survival was not significantly different between the groups. In multivariate analysis, factors predicting graft loss were transaminase peak, retransplantation and cold ischemia time but not donor age. Older donors >70 and >80 years of age could provide excellent liver grafts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Hong Kong experience.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kelvin K; Lo, Chung Mau; Chan, See Ching; Chok, Kenneth S; Cheung, Tan-To; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2010-09-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best treatment option for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the background of cirrhosis since this treatment modality can cure both diseases at once. Over the years, the applicability of OLT for HCC has evolved. In Asia, including Hong Kong, a shortage of deceased donor liver grafts is a universal problem having to be faced in all transplant centers. Living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) has therefore been developed to counteract organ shortage and the high prevalence of HCC. The application of LDLT for HCC is a complex process involving donor voluntarism, selection criteria for the recipient and justification with respect to long-term survival in comparison to the result of deceased donor liver transplant. This article reviews the authors' experience with OLT for HCC patients in Hong Kong, with emphasis on the applicability and outcome of LDLT for HCC. Donor voluntarism has a significant impact on the application of LDLT. "Fast-track" LDLT in the setting of recurrence following curative treatment carries a high risk of recurrence even though the tumor stage fulfills the standard criteria. Although the survival outcome may be worse following LDLT than DDLT for HCC, LDLT is still the main treatment option for patients with transplantable HCC in Hong Kong, and a reasonable survival outcome can be achieved in selected patients with extended indications. It is particularly true that LDLT provides the only hope for patients with advanced HCC under the constricting problem of organ shortage.

  17. Radiofrequency ablation of neuroendocrine liver metastases: the Middlesex experience.

    PubMed

    Gillams, A; Cassoni, A; Conway, G; Lees, W

    2005-01-01

    Current treatment options for neuroendocrine liver metastases are not widely applicable or not that effective. Image-guided thermal ablation offers the possibility of a minimally invasive, albeit palliative, treatment that decreases tumor volume, preserves most of the normal liver, and can be repeated several times. We report our experience with image-guided thermal ablation in 25 patients with unresectable liver metastases. Since 1990 we have treated 189 tumors at 66 treatment sessions in 25 patients (12 female, 13 male; median age, 56 years; age range, 26--78 years). Thirty treatments were performed with a solid-state laser, and 36 treatments were performed with radiofrequency ablation. All but one treatment was performed percutaneously under image guidance. Sixteen patients had metastases from carcinoid primaries, three from gastrinoma, two from insulinoma, and four from miscellaneous causes. Fourteen of 25 had symptoms from hormone secretion. Imaging follow-up was available in 19 patients at a median of 21 months (range, 4--75 months). There was a complete response in six patients, a partial response in seven, and stable disease in one; hence, tumor load was controlled in 14 of 19 patients (74%). Relief of hormone-related symptoms was achieved in nine of 14 patients (69%). The median survival period from the diagnosis of liver metastases was 53 months. One patient with end-stage cardiac disease died after a carcinoid crisis. There were eight (12%) complications: five local and three distant, four major and four minor. As a minimally invasive, readily repeatable procedure that can be used to ablate small tumors, preferably before patients become severely symptomatic, radiofrequency ablation can provide effective control of liver tumor volume in most patients over many years.

  18. Ganglion Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... with aspiration and injection therapy, there are nevertheless cases in which the ganglion cyst returns. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find an ACFAS Physician: Search by Mail Address ...

  19. Ovarian cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to get pregnant and you often get functional cysts, you can prevent them by taking hormone drugs (such as birth control pills). These medicines prevent follicles from growing. Alternative Names Physiologic ovarian ...

  20. The Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Mediastinal Bronchogenic Cysts: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Chen, Kezhong; Li, Yun; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for mediastinal bronchogenic cyst (MBC) excision and investigate the surgical indication for MBC. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive MBC patients who underwent surgical excision between April 2001 and June 2016. One hundred and nineteen patients were enrolled with a median age of 45.4 years and divided into two groups: anterior mediastinum group (n = 48), and middle and posterior mediastinum group (n = 71). VATS technique was initially performed for each patient. The cyst should be resected completely as far as possible. Follow-up was completed by telephone or outpatient clinic every year. The deadline of follow-up was June 2017. One hundred and eighteen patients underwent VATS, and only one patient converted to open thoracotomy. The average operative time was 103.8 ± 41.6 min (40-360 min). The average intraoperative blood loss was 56.6 ± 86.6 ml (5-600 ml). The intraoperative complication rate was 3.4%, and the incomplete excision rate was 5.9%. The multivariate logistic analysis showed that maximal diameter >5 cm was significantly associated with risk of operation time extension (OR = 3.968; 95% CI 1.179-13.355, p = 0.026) and bleeding loss increasing (OR = 12.242; 95% CI 2.420-61.933, p = 0.002). No serious postoperative complications were observed. Follow-up was performed in 102 patients, and the mean follow-up time was 45 months (12-194 months). There was no local recurrence. The maximal diameter >5 cm increased risk of operation time extension and bleeding loss increasing. Early surgical excision of MBC by VATS is recommended to establish histopathological diagnosis, relieve symptoms, and prevent surgery-related complications.

  1. Personal experience with the procurement of 132 liver allografts

    PubMed Central

    Yanaga, K.; Tzakis, A.G.; Starzl, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    A single donor surgeon's experience procuring the livers from 132 donors is described. Thirty-seven grafts (28.9%) had hepatic arterial anomalies, 19 (14.4%) of which required arterial reconstruction prior to transplantation. Of the 121 grafts evaluated for early function, 103 grafts (85.2%) functioned well, whereas 14 grafts (11.6%) functioned poorly and 4 grafts (3.3%) failed to function at all. The variables associated with less than optimal function of the graft consisted of donor age (P < 0.05), duration of donor's stay in the intensive care unit (P < 0.005), abnormal graft appearance (P < 0.05), and such recipient problems as vascular thromboses during or immediately following transplantation (P < 0.005). A new preservation fluid, University of Wisconsin solution, allowed safe and longer cold storage of the liver allograft than did Euro-Collins' solution (P < 0.0001). A parameter of liver allograft viability, which is simple and predictive of allograft function prior to the actual transplant procedure, is urgently needed. PMID:2803485

  2. Problem of living liver donation in the absence of deceased liver transplantation program: Mansoura experience.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Hamed, Hosam; Salah, Tarek; Elsarraf, Waleed; Elshobary, Mohamed; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Shehta, Ahmed; Fathy, Omar; Ezzat, Helmy; Yassen, Amr; Elmorshedi, Mohamed; Elsaadany, Mohamed; Shiha, Usama

    2014-10-07

    We report our experience with potential donors for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which is the first report from an area where there is no legalized deceased donation program. This is a single center retrospective analysis of potential living donors (n = 1004) between May 2004 and December 2012. This report focuses on the analysis of causes, duration, cost, and various implications of donor exclusion (n = 792). Most of the transplant candidates (82.3%) had an experience with more than one excluded donor (median = 3). Some recipients travelled abroad for a deceased donor transplant (n = 12) and some died before finding a suitable donor (n = 14). The evaluation of an excluded donor is a time-consuming process (median = 3 d, range 1 d to 47 d). It is also a costly process with a median cost of approximately 70 USD (range 35 USD to 885 USD). From these results, living donor exclusion has negative implications on the patients and transplant program with ethical dilemmas and an economic impact. Many strategies are adopted by other centers to expand the donor pool; however, they are not all applicable in our locality. We conclude that an active legalized deceased donor transplantation program is necessary to overcome the shortage of available liver grafts in Egypt.

  3. Live-donor liver transplantation: the USC experience.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, N; Genyk, Y; Mateo, R; Peyre, C; Patel, R V; Thomas, D; Ralls, P; Palmer, S; Kanel, G; Selby, R R

    2001-01-01

    Liver transplantation is currently the standard of care for patients with end stage liver disease. However due to the cadaveric organ shortage, live donor liver transplantation (LDLT), has been recently introduced as a potential solution. We analyzed and support our initial experience with this procedure at USC. From September 1998 until July 2000, a total of 27 patients underwent LDLT at USC University Hospital and Los Angeles Children's Hospital. There were 12 children with the median age of 10 months (4-114) and 15 adults with the median age of 56 years (35-65). The most common indication for transplantation was biliary atresia for children and hepatitis C for adults. All donors did well postoperatively; the median postoperative stay was five days (5-7) for left lateral segmentectomy and seven days (4-12) for lobar donation. None of the donors required blood transfusion, re-operation or postoperative invasive procedure. However, five of them (18%) experienced minor complications. The survival rate in pediatric patients was 100% and only one graft was lost at nine months due to rejection. Two adult recipients died in the postoperative period, one from graft non-function and one from necrotizing fascitis. 37% of adult recipients experienced postoperative complications, mainly related to biliary reconstruction. Also 26% of the recipients underwent reoperation for some of these complications. LDLT is an excellent alternative to cadaveric transplantation with excellent results in the pediatric population. However, in adult patients it still carries a significant complication rate and it should be used with caution.

  4. [Surgical treatment of perinatal ovarian cysts].

    PubMed

    Armas Alvarez, A L; Taboada Santomil, P; Pradillos Serna, J M; Rivera Chavez, L L; Méndez Gallart, R; Estévez Martínez, E; Rodríguez Barca, P; Bautista Casasnovas, A; Varela Cives, R

    2010-10-01

    Actually, the perinatal ovarian cysts are increasingly being diagnosed by prenatal and neonatal ultrasound. We reported our experience in the surgical management of perinatal ovarian cysts. Patients and methods. We have reviewed the clinical charts of 10 female newborns diagnosed of ovarian cysts who underwent surgical management in our hospital from 1989 to 2009. The ovarian cysts were diagnosed antenatally in 8 cases and period neonatal in 2 cases. The clinical presentation was asymptomatic abdominal mass in 7 cases. Ultrasound confirmed the ovarian mass in 8 patients. CT scan and MRI were necessary for confirm suspected diagnosis in two patients. Ultrasonography showed 7 complex cysts and 3 simple cysts. Surgery of the complicated cysts revealed ovarian torsion in 5 cases and 1 hemorragic cyst. At surgery, 5 patients underwent salpingooophorectomy, 2 patients needed oophorectomy and in 3 cases only cystectomy were necessary. The ovarian torsion is the most common complication and the cause of loss of the ovary. The neonatal ovarian cysts greater than 5 centimetres, symptomatic cysts, complex cysts and cysts persisting for more than 6 months need surgical intervention.

  5. Hydatid cyst of the uterus.

    PubMed Central

    Başgül, A; Kavak, Z N; Gökaslan, H; Küllü, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydatidosis is a common zoonosis that affects a large number of humans and animals, especially in poorly developed countries. The infesting parasite has four forms named Echinococcus granulosis, E. multilocularis, E. vogeli and E. oligarthrus (very rare in humans). The most frequently involved organs are liver followed by the lung. The involvement of the genital tract is rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. We report a case of hydatid cyst in the uterus. CASE: A 70-year-old female with a history of hydatid cysts of the liver, was admitted to hospital after complaining of low abdominal pains. On physical and gynecological examinations, no pathological finding was detected. However, the uterus was significantly large for a postmenopausal patient. Transvaginal sonography (TS) revealed a cystic mass in the uterus with a size of 7 x 6 cm. After further examinations a subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Microscopic examination showed scolices of Echinococcus granulosis. CONCLUSION: Hydatid cysts in the genital tract are rare and the occurrence in the uterus is an extreme rarity. Differentiation between hydatid cyst and malignant disease of the related organ is difficult. To avoid misdiagnosis, a careful examination of pelvic masses should be carried out in endemic areas for detection of hydatid cysts. PMID:12530482

  6. Fibular hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Arti, Hamidreza; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus. Genus Echinococcus has different species including Echinococcus vogeli, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilucularis. Echinococcus granulosus is the most common cause of hydatid disease in humans. This disease occurs either through direct ingestion of parasite eggs from contact with infected dogs or indirectly from the ingestion of contaminated water or food. Infestation of hydatid disease in humans most commonly occurs in the liver (55-70%), followed by the lungs (18-35%). Bone hydatidosis however is very rare (3%). We present herein a case of hydatid cyst of the fibula, which is an uncommon site for the occurrence of this disease. PMID:21139754

  7. Baker's Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rarely, a Baker's cyst bursts and synovial fluid leaks into the calf region, causing: Sharp pain in your knee Swelling in the calf Sometimes, redness of your calf or a feeling of water running down your calf These signs and symptoms ...

  8. Pyogenic liver abscess: An audit of 10 years’ experience

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tony CY; Fung, Thomas; Samra, Jaswinder; Hugh, Thomas J; Smith, Ross C

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To describe our own experience with pyogenic liver abscesses over the past 10 years and investigate the risk factors associated with failure of initial percutaneous therapy. METHODS: A retrospective study of records of 63 PLA patients presenting between 1998 and 2008 to Australian tertiary referral centre, were reviewed. Amoebic and hydatid abscesses were excluded. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and microbiological characteristics, as well as surgical/radiological interventions, were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (42 males, 21 females) aged 65 (± 14) years [mean ± (SD)] had prodromal symptoms for a median (interquartile range; IQR) of 7 (5-14) d. Only 59% of patients were febrile at presentation; however, the serum C-reactive protein was elevated in all 47 in whom it was measured. Liver function tests were non-specifically abnormal. 67% of patients had a solitary abscess, while 32% had > 3 abscesses with a median (IQR) diameter of 6.3 (4-9) cm. Causative organisms were: Streptococcus milleri 25%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 21%, and Escherichia coli 16%. A presumptive cryptogenic cause was most common (34%). Four patients died in this series: one from sepsis, two from advanced cancer, and one from acute myocardial infarction. The initial procedure was radiological aspiration ± drainage in 54 and surgery in two patients. 17% underwent surgical management during their hospitalization. Serum hypoalbuminaemia [mean (95% CI): 32 (29-35) g/L vs 28 (25-31) g/L, P = 0.045] on presentation was found to be the only factor related to failure of initial percutaneous therapy on univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: PLA is a diagnostic challenge, because the presentation of this condition is non-specific. Intravenous antibiotics and radiological drainage in the first instance allows resolution of most PLAs; However, a small proportion of patients still require surgical drainage. PMID:21472130

  9. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  10. Rathke's cleft cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Steven P.; Bailey, Orville T.

    1972-01-01

    A 29 year old female with a chiasmal syndrome secondary to a Rathke's cleft cyst is described. The histology and pathogenesis of these rare cysts are discussed, contrasting them with other hypophysial cysts. Images PMID:4538890

  11. Surgery for pilonidal cyst

    MedlinePlus

    Pilonidal abscess; Pilonidal dimple; Pilonidal disease; Pilonidal cyst; Pilonidal sinus ... An infected pilonidal cyst or abscess requires surgical drainage. It will not heal with antibiotic medicines. If you continue to have infections, the pilonidal cyst can be ...

  12. Management of paediatric liver trauma.

    PubMed

    van As, A B; Millar, Alastair J W

    2017-04-01

    Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy. The operative management can be taxing and should ideally be performed in a dedicated paediatric surgical centre with experience in dealing with such trauma. Complications can occur early or late and include haemobilia, intrahepatic duct rupture with persistent biliary fistula, bilaemia, intrahepatic haematoma, post-traumatic cysts, vascular outflow obstruction, and gallstones. The prognosis is generally excellent.

  13. Primary hydatid cyst of the neck.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Syeddah Shafaq; Faridi, Naveen; Haroon, Saroona

    2013-11-01

    Hydatid cysts in the neck are relatively exceptional, even in areas where Echinococcus granulosis is endemic, such as Asia. Although liver and lung are frequent sites of involvement, it can involve all tissues, with neck remaining one of the most rare sites. It should come in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesion of neck, as the treatment options differ widely from common neck cysts. The role of radiological investigation is important and, in these cases, the involvement of other organs should be investigated. Serological tests may be helpful. The major treatment modality is surgical and the cyst should be excised as a whole, without being ruptured, to prevent any treatment complications, as the cyst fluid can initiate an anaphylactic reaction. Postoperative albendazole therapy is recommended particularly when there is intra-operative spillover. We report a case of an isolated hydatid cyst localized in the anterior triangle of the neck without any pulmonary or hepatic involvement.

  14. [Orthotopic liver transplantation in adult patients with cadaveric grafts. Experience of the Fundeni Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Popescu, I; Ionescu, M; Tulbure, D; Ciurea, S; Băilă, S; Braşoveanu, V; Hrehoreţ, D; Sârbu-Boeţi, P; Pietrăreanu, D; Alexandrescu, S; Dorobanţu, B; Gheorghe, L; Gheorghe, C; Mihăilă, M; Boroş, M; Croitoru, M; Herlea, V

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the experience of the Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation from the Fundeni Clinical Institute (Bucharest, Romania) regarding orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in adult recipients, with whole liver grafts from cadaveric donors, between April 2000 (when the first successful LT was performed in Romania) and December 2004. This series includes 37 OLTs in adult recipients (16 women and 21 men, aged between 29-57 years--average 46 years). Other two LT with whole liver cadaveric grafts and two reduced-size LT were performed in children; also, in the same period, due to the acute organ shortage, other methods of LT were performed in 28 patients (21 living donor LT, 6 split LT and one "do mino" LT), that were not included in the present series. The indications for OLT were HBV cirrhosis--10, HBV+HDV cirrhosis--4, HCV cirrhosis--11, HBV+HCV cirrhosis--2, biliary cirrhosis--5, Wilson disease--2, alcoholic cirrhosis--1, non-alcoholic liver disease--1, autoimmune cirrhosis--1. With three exceptions, in which the classical transplantation technique was used, the liver was grafted following the technique described by Belghiti. Local postoperative complications occurred in 15 patients (41%) and general complications in 17 (46%); late complications were registered in 18 patients (49%) and recurrence of the initial disease in 6 patients (16%). Intrao- and postoperative mortality was 8% (3/37). There were two patients (5%) who died because of immunosuppressive drug neurotoxicity at more than 30 days following LT. Four patients (11%) died lately because of PTLD, liver venoocclusive disease, recurrent autoimmune hepatitis and liver venoocclusive disease, myocardial infarction, respectively. Thirty-four patients survived the postoperative period (92%); according to Kaplan-Meier analysis, actuarial patient-survival rate at month 31 was 75%.

  15. [Diagnostic and treatment experience with amebic lesions of the liver].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, K S; Basos, S F; Volzhanin, V M; Gorelov, A I

    1992-01-01

    The article studies the traits of diagnosis and treatment of 134 patients with amebic affections of liver. It is indicated that on the basis of clinical data it is possible to detect the development of amebic hepatitis or amebic abscess of liver. The most effective methods for treatment are: in case of amebic hepatitis--trans-umbilical injection of amebocytes; in case of amebic abscess of liver--percutaneous puncture of abscess under the ultrasonic sensor control, active aspiration of the content, cavity washing with antiamebic solutions and its trans-umbilical injections.

  16. Odontogenic Cysts and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Steps for the autologous ex vivo perfused porcine liver-kidney experiment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen Yuan; Eltweri, Amar M; Isherwood, John; Haqq, Jonathan; Ong, Seok Ling; Gravante, Gianpiero; Lloyd, David M; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Dennison, Ashley R

    2013-12-18

    The use of ex vivo perfused models can mimic the physiological conditions of the liver for short periods, but to maintain normal homeostasis for an extended perfusion period is challenging. We have added the kidney to our previous ex vivo perfused liver experiment model to reproduce a more accurate physiological state for prolonged experiments without using live animals. Five intact livers and kidneys were retrieved post-mortem from sacrificed pigs on different days and perfused for a minimum of 6 hr. Hourly arterial blood gases were obtained to analyze pH, lactate, glucose and renal parameters. The primary endpoint was to investigate the effect of adding one kidney to the model on the acid base balance, glucose, and electrolyte levels. The result of this liver-kidney experiment was compared to the results of five previous liver only perfusion models. In summary, with the addition of one kidney to the ex vivo liver circuit, hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis were improved. In addition this model reproduces the physiological and metabolic responses of the liver sufficiently accurately to obviate the need for the use of live animals. The ex vivo liver-kidney perfusion model can be used as an alternative method in organ specific studies. It provides a disconnection from numerous systemic influences and allows specific and accurate adjustments of arterial and venous pressures and flow.

  18. Liver Function Tests Following Irreversible Electroporation of Liver Tumors: Experience in 174 Procedures.

    PubMed

    Froud, Tatiana; Venkat, Shree R; Barbery, Katuzka J; Gunjan, Arora; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation modality that uses electric currents to cause cell death. It is commonly used to treat primary and secondary liver tumors in patients with normal liver function and preexisting cirrhosis. Retrospective analysis of 205 procedures sought to evaluate changes in liver function after IRE. Liver function tests (LFTs) results before and after IRE were evaluated from 174 procedures in 124 patients. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and total bilirubin levels were analyzed. The study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and institutional review board approved. Informed consent was waived. Changes in LFT results after IRE were compared with baseline and were followed up over time to see if they resolved. Changes were compared with volume of ablation. The greatest perturbations were in transaminase levels. The levels increased sharply within 24 hours after IRE in 129 (74.1%) procedures to extreme levels (more than 20 times the upper limit of normal in one-third of cases). Resolution occurred in 95% and was demonstrated to have occurred by a mean of approximately 10 weeks, many documented as early as 7 days after procedure. ALKP levels elevated in 10% procedures, was slower to increase, and was less likely to resolve. Total bilirubin level demonstrated 2 different patterns of elevation--early and late--and similar to ALKP, it was more likely to remain elevated. There was no increased risk in patients with cirrhosis or cholangiocarcinoma. There was no correlation of levels with volume of ablation. IRE results in significant abnormalities in LFT results, but in most of the cases, these are self-limiting, do not preclude treatment, and are similar to the changes seen after radiofrequency and cryoablation in the liver. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVEIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  20. LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET STUDIES FOR INACTIVATION OF GIARDIA MURIS CYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low pressure ultravolet (UV) light source. Cyst viability was detemined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doeses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excy...

  1. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium experience in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, G P C; Zanotelli, M L; Gleisner, A L M; de Mello Brandão, A; Marroni, C A

    2006-04-01

    Mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) has been shown to be as effective and as safe as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in renal transplant patients. Nevertheless, compared to MMF its use in liver transplant patients has been limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of EC-MPS as a primary immunosuppressant or as a replacement for MMF in liver transplant patients. Ninety among 470 liver transplant recipients were receiving or had added an antimetabolite to their immunosuppressant therapy. The most common reason for this change was renal dysfunction (47.8%) or diabetes (32.2%). EC-MPS was started at a median of 30 months after liver transplantation. The mean administered daily dose was 720 mg/d. At least one gastrointestinal symptom was reported by 25 patients. Abdominal pain (16.6%) and diarrhea (14.5%) were the most frequent. EC-MPS had to be discontinued in two patients, while six others required dose reduction to resolve the symptoms. Hematological adverse events were infrequent: three patients had leukopenia and one, anemia, all of which responded to dosage reduction. There was a creatinine reduction within 6 months of drug commencement and maintenance of the lower creatinine levels at 1 year among patients who began EC-MPS for renal dysfunction. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly lower among patients on EC-MPS than on MMF. In conclusion, EC-MPS appears to have a similar efficacy and safety profile as MMF in liver transplant patients. Hematological and gastrointestinal adverse events were infrequent; seldom had the drug to be discontinued.

  2. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of mediastinal cysts

    PubMed Central

    Brzeziński, Daniel; Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progress in the development of surgical techniques has led to the growing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) techniques in mediastinal cyst treatment. Aim To present our experience of treating mediastinal cysts with the minimally invasive technique. Material and methods Fifty patients with mediastinal cysts were treated from 2001 to 2011. There were 32 women and 18 men. The age of the patients ranged from 17 to 72, the mean age being 42 years. All patients underwent basic preoperative diagnostic tests of the chest: X-ray, computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and spirometry; 4 patients underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and 3 fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the described lesions. Results The VATS was performed in each case. Conversion was carried out due to superior mediastinal location in 10 cases and pleural adhesions in 3 cases. The partial resection of a cyst was performed in 3 patients. One patient was treated conservatively due to heart failure. In that patient the transthoracic needle aspiration of a cyst under ultrasound guidance using alcoholisation with 76% ethanol with a good effect was performed twice. Cyst recurrence was observed in 1 case. Conclusions The surgical access depends on the location of a cyst. The VATS resection of a superior mediastinal cyst is not always feasible. Surgery of mediastinal cysts is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:25337163

  3. An asymptomatic ruptured hepatic hydatid cyst case presenting with subdiaphragmatic gas in a traumatic patient.

    PubMed

    Eren, Suat; Yildirgan, Ilhan; Kantarci, A Mecit

    2005-12-01

    Hydatid disease presents as hydatid cysts primarily in the liver and lungs. Although hepatic hydatid cysts (HHCs) may be asymptomatic for many years, they may be symptomatic due to expansion, rupture, and pyogenic infection. Rupture of the HHC into the biliary tract is one of the most serious complications and is frequently related to overenlargement of the cyst or major trauma. Patients with this disease usually have jaundice or fever. We report an asymptomatic HHC ruptured after minor trauma. While the ruptured cyst was presented as the subdiaphragmatic gas on the chest radiography, it was detected as a large cyst with multiple daughter cysts on ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. Evaluation of the learning curve of laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in children: CUSUM analysis of a single surgeon's experience.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhe; Liang, Huiying; Liang, Jiankun; Liang, Qifeng; Xia, Huimin

    2017-02-01

    Laparoscopic cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is gaining popularity as a treatment for choledochal cyst (CDC) in children. However, the learning curve for this challenging laparoscopic procedure has not been addressed. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of the learning curve of this procedure. This may guide the training in institutions currently not using this technique. A prospectively collected database comprising all medical records of the first 104 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic CDC excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy performed by one surgeon was studied. Multifactorial linear/logistic regression analysis was performed to identify patient-, surgeon-, and procedure-related factors associated with operating times, rates of adverse event, and length of postoperative stay. Cumulative sum analysis demonstrated a learning curve for laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision of 37 cases. Comparing the early with the late experiences (37 vs. 67 cases), the surgeon-specific outcomes significantly improved in terms of operating times (352 vs. 240 min; P < 0.001), postoperative complication rate (13.5 vs. 1.5 %; P = 0.02), and the length of hospital stay (9.4 vs. 7.8 days; P = 0.01). After multivariate analyses, independent predictors of operating times included the completion of the learning curve (CLC) (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.63-0.73) and adhesion score (OR middle 1.25, 95 % CI 1.08-1.45; OR high 1.40, 95 % CI 1.20-1.62; compared with the low score); significant predictors of perioperative adverse outcomes were CLC (OR 0.07, 95 % CI 0.02-0.34) and comorbidities prior to the surgery (OR 30.65, 95 % CI 1.71-549.63). The independent predictors of length of postoperative stay included CLC, preoperative comorbidities, and perioperative adverse events. CLC for laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision is 37 cases. After CLC, not only the operative time is reduced, the complications, adverse results, and the length

  5. Tc-NGA imaging in liver transplantation: preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, E.S.; Ward, R.E.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) is a new liver imaging agent that binds to hepatic-binding protein, a hepatocyte-specific membrane receptor. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of Tc-NGA imaging in clinical liver transplantation. A total of 25 studies were performed in nine patients. Imaging studies performed in the early posttransplant period in patients with good hepatic allograft function revealed diffuse patchiness in tracer distribution, a manifestation of preservation damage. Left lobar infarction was demonstrated within a few hours of ischemic injury. Right posterior segmental infarction was seen in another patient. Comparison of kinetic, clinical, and biochemical data revealedmore » good correlation between hepatic allograft function and Tc-NGA kinetics. Major kinetic alterations were noted during periods of preservation injury, hepatic infarction, and acute rejection. These studies indicate: (1) major alterations in Tc-NGA kinetics occur during preservation injury, hepatic infarction, and acute rejection, and (2) Tc-NGA kinetic data appear to provide an accurate reflection of hepatic allograft function. Tc-NGA imaging has the advantages of being noninvasive and of utilizing standard nuclear medicine instrumentation, including portable imaging devices. In conclusion, Tc-NGA imaging provides a promising noninvasive approach for evaluation of liver function in patients undergoing hepatic transplantation.« less

  6. Single-Pass Percutaneous Liver Biopsy for Diffuse Liver Disease Using an Automated Device: Experience in 154 Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Sanfeliz, Gerant, E-mail: gerantrivera@ucsd.edu; Kinney, Thomas B.; Rose, Steven C.

    2005-06-15

    Purpose: To describe our experience with ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous liver biopsies using the INRAD 18G Express core needle biopsy system.Methods: One hundred and fifty-four consecutive percutaneous core liver biopsy procedures were performed in 153 men in a single institution over 37 months. The medical charts, pathology reports, and radiology files were retrospectively reviewed. The number of needle passes, type of guidance, change in hematocrit level, and adequacy of specimens for histologic analysis were evaluated.Results: All biopsies were performed for histologic staging of chronic liver diseases. The majority of patients had hepatitis C (134/153, 90.2%). All patients were discharged to homemore » after 4 hr of postprocedural observation. In 145 of 154 (94%) biopsies, a single needle pass was sufficient for diagnosis. US guidance was utilized in all but one of the procedures (153/154, 99.4%). The mean hematocrit decrease was 1.2% (44.1-42.9%). Pain requiring narcotic analgesia, the most frequent complication, occurred in 28 of 154 procedures (18.2%). No major complications occurred. The specimens were diagnostic in 152 of 154 procedures (98.7%).Conclusions: Single-pass percutaneous US-guided liver biopsy with the INRAD 18G Express core needle biopsy system is safe and provides definitive pathologic diagnosis of chronic liver disease. It can be performed on an outpatient basis. Routine post-biopsy monitoring of hematocrit level in stable, asymptomatic patients is probably not warranted.« less

  7. Primary pelvic hydatid cyst with sciatic compression.

    PubMed

    Nouira, F; Chouikh, T; Charieg, A; Ghorbel, S; Jlidi, S; Chaouachi, B

    2011-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are endemic in certain regions of the world and particulary in North Africa. They are usually located in the liver, lung, and spleen, though many uncommon locations have been reported. This is the first report of a child with primary pelvic hydatid disease causing a sciatic compression.

  8. Tail gut cyst.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Mallikarjuna; Haricharan, P; Ramanujacharyulu, S; Reddy, K Lakshmi

    2002-01-01

    The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a 14-year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision.

  9. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Vaishnavi; Ranganathan, Kannan; Praveen, B

    2014-01-01

    Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up. PMID:24808713

  10. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  11. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-10-07

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth.

  12. Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-09-01

    Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0.

  13. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. [Hydatid Cyst Cases with Different Localization: Region of Erzurum].

    PubMed

    Demirci, Elif; Altun, Eren; Çalık, Muhammet; Durur Subaşı, Irmak; Şipal, Sare; Gündoğdu, Özge Beyza

    2015-06-01

    In this study it is aimed to contribute in determination of geographic distribution of Hydatid Cysts in Turkey and to emphasize the clinic chaos of Hydatid Cysts cases found in various localizations, by indicating the prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in our region. It is evaluated that the cases diagnosed as Hydatid Cysts in Atatürk University Medical Faculty Pathology Depatment/Erzurum laboratories between 2003-2013; in terms of their age, gender, organ involvement and histopathologic detail. In our study, 459 Hydatid Cysts cases are defined. The most common localizations of cases are determined as liver (n:280, 61%) and lung (n:86, 18,7%). Those are followed by the kidney (n:12, 2,6%), brain (n:12, 2,6%) and spleen (n:9, 2.3%). Multi-organ involvement is observed in 31 cases (6.7%), in 10 (2.2%) cases co-occurence of liver and lung is determined. Unusual organ involvement is observed in 64 cases (13.9%) while the liver and lung is not involved. Hydatid Cysts is an important health issue which is endemically seen in our region. It can be observed in various localizations of human body, other than the liver and lung. Those various localizations lie behind the serious diagnostic problems in endemic regions.

  15. Living-Donor Liver Transplant Follow-Up: A SingleCenter Experience.

    PubMed

    Laeeq, Syed Mudassir; Hanif, Farina M; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Mandhwani, Rajesh Kumar; Iqbal, Jawed; Mehdi, Syed Haider

    2017-02-01

    Liver transplant is a definite treatment of decompensated liver disease. Because of the shortage of livers from deceased donors, living-donor liver transplant is becoming more common. Here, we analyzed our clinical experience in the follow-up care of these patients. Liver transplant recipients seen at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (Karachi, Pakistan) were included in this analysis. Baseline characteristics and follow-up events were recorded. Our study population included 76 liver transplant patients registered at our clinic. Median age was 42 years, with 62 patients (81.6%) being males. The most common indication of transplant was hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis (42 patients; 55%), followed by hepatitis B-hepatitis D virus coinfection (8 patients; 10.5%). Anastomotic biliary stricture developed in 16 patients (21.1%),which required biliary stenting. Biliary leak developed in 5 patients (6.6%), and renal cell carcinoma developed in 1 patient. Two recipients died due to hepatitis C virus-related fibrosing cholestasis hepatitis and pulmonary com plications. Posttransplant diabetes mellitus developed in 36 (47.1%), hypertension in 17 (38.6%), and dyslipidemia in 19 patients (25%). Of 42 patients with hepatitis C virus infection, 26 were treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, of which 65.3% achieved sustained virologic response at 24 weeks. The other 16 patients received sofosbuvir com - bined with ribavirin for 24 weeks. A sustained virologic response at 12 weeks was achieved in 5 patients, with not yet determined results in the remaining patients. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. Hepatitis C-related cirrhosis was the most common indication for liver transplant, and infection recurrence was observed in our patients. Biliary anastomotic stricture formation was the most prevalent complication after transplant. As liver transplants are becoming more widely available for Pakistani patients at home and abroad, gastroenterologists and

  16. Diagnostic problems with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Altiok, Merih; Battal, Muharrem; Bender, Omer; Ozcan, Deniz; Karahan, Servet

    2009-05-29

    The splenic cysts constitute a very rare clinical entity. They may occur secondary to trauma or even being more seldom due to parasitic infestations, mainly caused by ecchinocccus granulosus. Literature lacks a defined concencus including the treatment plans and follow up strategies, nor long term results of the patients. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnosis, management of patients with parasitic and non-parasitic splenic cysts together with their long term follow up progresses. Twenty-four patients with splenic cysts have undergone surgery in our department over the last 9 years. Data from eighteen of the twenty-four patients were collected prospectively, while data from six were retrospectively collected. All patients were assessed in terms of age, gender, hospital stay, preoperative diagnosis, additional disease, serology, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), cyst recurrences and treatment. In this study, the majority of patients presented with abdominal discomfort and palpable swelling in the left hypochondrium. All patients were operated on electively. The patients included 14 female and 10 male patients, with a mean age of 44.77 years (range 20-62). Splenic hydatid cysts were present in 16 patients, one of whom also had liver hydatid cysts (6.25%). Four other patients were operated on for a simple cyst (16%) two patients for an epithelial cyst, and the last two for splenic lymphangioma. Of the 16 patients diagnosed as having splenic hydatit cysts, 11 (68.7%) were correctly diagnosed. Only two of these patients were administered benzimidazole therapy pre-operatively because of the risk of multicystic disease The mean follow-up period was 64 months (6-108). There were no recurrences of splenic cysts. Surgeons should keep in mind the possibility of a parasitic cyst when no definitive alternative diagnosis can be made. In the treatment of splenic hydatidosis, benzimidazole therapy is not necessary, although it is crucial to perform

  17. Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients. In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms. With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts, have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst, benign epithelial cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, squamous lined cysts (dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen), mucinous nonneoplastic cysts, and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6.3% of all pancreatic cysts. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively. Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. PMID:25674524

  18. Family experience of waiting for living donor liver transplantation: from parental donor perspective.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chih; Chen, Chao-Long; Chen, Jo-Lin; Mu, Pei-Fan

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate from the perspectives of the donor parents of children with biliary atresia, the essence of family experiences during the period when waiting for a living donor liver transplant. Living donor liver transplantation is a new hope for children and families when the child suffers from biliary atresia. It is obvious, during the waiting period, for a family with a child undergoing living donor liver transplantation, that the process has a serious impact and there is a need for them to be well-prepared. A descriptive phenomenological design was used in this study. Nine donor parents from a medical centre in Taiwan participated in this study. The inclusion criteria were that the parent had a child with biliary atresia, that the child had received living donor liver transplantation over the last year and a half and that the parent was the living donor for child's liver transplantation. An open in-depth interview technique encouraged the parents to reflect on their experiences as the process raised their feelings to a conscious level. The data were analysed using the Colaizzi's approach. This study explores the essence of families undergoing the waiting period for living donor liver transplantation surgery from the point of view of the donating parents. Five themes emerged: (1) surgery as hope of rebirth, (2) negotiating the decision to have surgery, (3) the selection of the donor to achieve family welfare, (4) preparing and planning for the surgery and (5) worry over the impact of the surgery. The results demonstrate that the parents' experiences included a variety of domains: hope of rebirth, mental negotiation while deciding on surgery and choice of donor, coping with the preparation for surgery and the possible impact on the family of the surgery. The findings indicated that nursing professionals should provide family-centred care to assist the family with the steps needed to move toward surgery.

  19. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Atoini, Fouad; Ouarssani, Aziz; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Aitlhou, Fatima; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi; Hommadi, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.

  20. Role of surgical treatment in breast cancer liver metastases: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Dima, Simona Olimpia; Purtan-Purnichescu, Raluca; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to review a single hepatobiliary center experience, the benefit of hepatic metastasectomy in breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) patients and to identify predictors of survival. Fifty-two female patients underwent surgery for BCLM between 2002 and 2013. Only patients with liver resections (n=43) were included in the analysis. The median survival of the 43 patients with liver resection was 32.2 months. The factors significantly associated with overall post-hepatectomy survival were estrogen/progesteron receptor (ER/PR) status (p=0.002), node involvement of the primary tumor (p=0.049), size (p=0.005) and number (p=0.006) of the metastatic lesions. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates after curative liver resection were 93.02%, 74.42%, 58.14%, respectively. BCLM resection is a safe procedure and offers survival benefit, especially in patients with reduced liver metastatic burden (solitary metastases, diameter of the metastases <5 cm) and positive ER/PR status. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. An experience of liver transplantation in Latin America: a medical center in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Londoño, Mauricio; Marín, Juan; Muñoz, Octavio; Mena, Álvaro; Guzmán, Carlos; Hoyos, Sergio; Restrepo, Juan; Arbeláez, María; Correa, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for acute and chronic liver failure, for selected cases of tumors, and for conditions resulting from errors in metabolism. This paper reports the experience of a medical center in Latin America. Methods: Were conducted 305 orthotopic liver transplantations on 284 patients between 2004 and 2010. Of these patients, 241 were adults undergoing their first transplantation. Results: The average age of patients was 52 years old, and 62% of the individuals were male. The most common indication was alcoholic cirrhosis. The rate of patient survival after 1 and 5 years was 82 and 72% respectively. The rate of liver graft survival after 1 and 5 years was 78 and 68% respectively. The main cause of death was sepsis. Complications in the hepatic artery were documented for 5% of the patients. Additionally, 14.5% of the patients had complications in the biliary tract. Infections were found in 41% of the individuals. Acute rejection was observed in 30% of the subjects, and chronic rejection in 3%. Conclusion: In conclusion, liver transplantation at our medical center in Colombia offers good mid-term results, with a complication rate similar to that reported by other centers around the world. PMID:26019379

  2. MR elastography of the liver at 3.0 T in diagnosing liver fibrosis grades; preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Mitsufuji, Toshimichi; Shinagawa, Yoshinobu; Fujimitsu, Ritsuko; Morita, Ayako; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Takano, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    To clarify the usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography (MRE) in diagnosing the histological grades of liver fibrosis using preliminary clinical data. Between November 2012 and March 2014, MRE was applied to all patients who underwent liver MR study at a 3.0-T clinical unit. Among them, those who had pathological evaluation of liver tissue within 3 months from MR examinations were retrospectively recruited, and the liver stiffness measured by MRE was correlated with histological results. Institutional review board approved this study, waiving informed consent. There were 70 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Liver stiffness showed significant correlation with the pathological grades of liver fibrosis (rho = 0.89, p < 0.0001, Spearman's rank correlation). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.93, 0.95, 0.99 and 0.95 for fibrosis score greater than or equal to F1, F2, F3 and F4, with cut-off values of 3.13, 3.85, 4.28 and 5.38 kPa, respectively. Multivariate analysis suggested that grades of necroinflammation also affected liver stiffness, but to a significantly lesser degree as compared to fibrosis. 3.0-T clinical MRE was suggested to be sufficiently useful in assessing the grades of liver fibrosis. MR elastography may help clinicians assess patients with chronic liver diseases. Usefulness of 3.0-T MR elastography has rarely been reported. Measured liver stiffness correlated well with the histological grades of liver fibrosis. Measured liver stiffness was also affected by necroinflammation, but to a lesser degree. 3.0-T MRE could be a non-invasive alternative to liver biopsy.

  3. Branchial cleft cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop normally. The birth defect may appear as open spaces called cleft sinuses, which may develop on one or both sides of the neck. A branchial cleft cyst may form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected.

  4. Use of Tubular Retractor for Resection of Deep-Seated Cerebral Tumors and Colloid Cysts: Single Surgeon Experience and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Eichberg, Daniel G; Buttrick, Simon; Brusko, G Damian; Ivan, Michael; Starke, Robert M; Komotar, Ricardo J

    2018-04-01

    Brain retraction is often required to develop a surgical corridor during the resection of deep-seated intracranial lesions. Traditional blade retractors distribute pressure asymmetrically and may case local tissue damage. Tubular retractors minimize this pitfall by distributing pressure evenly, which has been shown to translate to significant safety and efficacy data. Further qualified reports regarding the use of tubular retractors are of interest. We performed a retrospective analysis of 1 surgeon's experience with 20 cases of minimally invasive resection with the ViewSite Brain Access System (n = 7) and BrainPath (n = 13) systems. In addition, a comprehensive review of all published cases of tubular retractor systems used for resection of subcortical neoplastic, cystic, infectious, vascular, and hemorrhagic lesions was conducted. Of the 20 cases analyzed, gross total resection was achieved in 18, with an associated 10% immediate postoperative complication rate and 5% long-term complication rate. A comprehensive review of the literature showed 30 articles describing 536 cases of resection of deep neoplastic or colloid cysts with an overall complication rate of 9.1%. Tubular retractor systems have a favorable safety profile and are an important tool in the armamentarium of a neurosurgeon for the resection of deep intracranial lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surgical outcome of right liver donors in living donor liver transplantation: single-center experience with 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Say-June; Na, Gun-Hyung; Choi, Ho-Joong; Yoo, Young-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Goo

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing number of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), concerns regarding morbidity and mortality of donors have become inevitable. Thus, the aim of the present study was to find ways to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality of donors by analyzing our experience. A retrospective clinicopathologic analysis was performed for 500 consecutive living donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy between May 1999 and February 2011. We chronologically divided those procedures into three periods: period A (n = 100), period B (n = 200), and period C (n = 200). Surgical outcomes according to each period were then compared. Over time, the following factors have decreased: the operative time, the amount of transfusions during surgery, hospital stay, and the incidence of biliary complications. No mortality developed. Even though the total complication rate was high (21.6 %, n = 108) including 10.6 % (n = 53) of biliary complications, the grade 3 complication rate was only 9.4 % (n = 47). In most patients with grade 3 complication, interventional therapies via radiologic or endoscopic approaches corrected these complications, and reoperation was required for ten patients (2 %). Whereas biliary complications were related with operation period (period B or C compared to period A; relative risk [RR] 2.10, P = 0.049, 95 % CI 1.01-4.39) and operative time (RR 1.01, P = 0.027, 95 % CI 1.00-1.02), postoperative hyperbilirubinemia (serum total bilirubin ≥ 5 mg/dL) was related with male gender (RR 2.68, P = 0.039, 95 % CI 1.05-6.85) and ≥ 25 % liver steatosis (RR 3.35, P = 0.053, 95 % CI 0.99-11.38). Optimization of donor selection as well as institutional experience is imperative to improve the surgical outcome. Even though donor hepatectomy was associated with relatively higher complication rate, most complications showed low-grade severity which could be corrected by interventional therapies.

  6. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen

    2013-12-26

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed bymore » a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.« less

  7. Mucus retention cyst of the maxillary sinus: the endoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Hadar, T; Shvero, J; Nageris, B I; Yaniv, E

    2000-06-01

    To present our experience of endoscopic surgery for symptomatic mucus retention cyst of the maxillary sinus. Retrospective study. Teaching hospital, Israel. 60 patients with 65 symptomatic cysts of the maxillary sinus who were operated on endoscopically. Only patients with large cysts that filled at least 50% of the sinus space were included. A rigid nasal endoscope was used in all cases; most of the cysts were removed through the natural sinus ostium. Cysts recurred in only two patients during the first postoperative year. There were no complications from the procedure. The endoscopic approach to the treatment of maxillary sinus cyst is associated with a low rate of recurrence (3% in this study) and no complications, and we recommend it as the surgical procedure of choice. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  8. Dentigerous cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lobprise, H B; Wiggs, R B

    1992-03-01

    An infrequently occurring tumor-like lesion arising from the cellular components of the developing dental follicle is the dentigerous cyst. These odontogenic cysts have classic clinical and radiographic findings. The cysts are locally invasive and aggressive and require prompt surgical management. This case describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a dentigerous cyst in the mandible of a dog.

  9. Branchial Cleft Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. PMID:27904209

  10. Branchial Cleft Cyst.

    PubMed

    Nahata, Vaishali

    2016-01-01

    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  11. Deceased donor liver transplant: Experience from a public sector hospital in India.

    PubMed

    Pamecha, Viniyendra; Borle, Deeplaxmi Purushottam; Kumar, Senthil; Bharathy, Kishore Gurumoorthy Subramanya; Sinha, Piyush Kumar; Sasturkar, Shridhar Vasantrao; Sharma, Vibuti; Pandey, Chandra Kant; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) is an uncommon procedure in India. We present our experience of DDLT from a public sector teaching hospital. A retrospective analysis of all DDLT was performed from April 2012 till September 2016. Demographics, intraoperative, donor factors, morbidity, and outcome were analyzed. During the study period, 305 liver transplants were performed, of which 36 were DDLT (adult 32, pediatric 4; 35 grafts; 1 split). The median age was 42.5 (1-62) years; 78% were men. The median donor age was 28 (1-77) years; 72.2% were men. About 45% of organs were procured from outside of Delhi and 67% of all grafts used were marginal. Three of 38 liver grafts (7.8%) were rejected due to gross steatosis. Commonest indication was cryptogenic cirrhosis (19.4%). The median model for end-stage liver disease sodium and pediatric end-stage liver disease scores were 23.5 (9-40) and 14.5 (9-22), respectively. Median warm and cold ischemia times were 40 (23-56) and 396 (111-750) min, respectively. Major morbidity of grade III and above occurred in 63.8%. In hospital (90 days), mortality was 16.7% and there were two late deaths because of chronic rejection and biliary sepsis. The overall survival was 77.8% at median follow up of 8.6 (1-54) months. DDLT can be performed with increasing frequency and safety in a public sector hospital. The perioperative and long-term outcomes are acceptable despite the fact that most organs were extended criteria grafts.

  12. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Combined Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma: Experience of a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Ying-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Hao; Chen, Chun-Han; Kuo, Fang-Ying; Eng, Hock-Liew; Yong, Chee-Chien; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Lin, Ting-Lung; Li, Wei-Feng; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Wang, Chih-Chi; Chen, Chao-Long

    2017-02-28

    BACKGROUND Because the outcome of liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma is often poor, cholangiocarcinoma is a contraindication for liver transplantation in most centers. Combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma is a rare type of primary hepatic malignancy containing features of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Diagnosing combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma pre-operatively is difficult. Because of sparse research presentations worldwide, we report our experience with living donor liver transplantation for combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 710 patients underwent living donor liver transplantation at our institution from April 2006 to June 2014; 377 of them received transplantation because of hepatocellular carcinoma with University of California San Francisco (UCSF) staging criteria fulfilled pre-operatively. Eleven patients (2.92%) were diagnosed with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma confirmed pathologically from explant livers; we reviewed these cases retrospectively. Long-term survival was compared between patients diagnosed with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS The mean age of the patients in our series was 60.2 years, and the median follow-up period was 23.9 months. Four patients were diagnosed with a recurrence during the follow-up period, including one intra-hepatic and three extra-hepatic recurrences. Four patients died due to tumor recurrence. Except for patients with advanced-stage cancer, disease-free survival of patients with combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma compared with that of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was 80% versus 97.2% in 1 year, and 46.7% versus 92.5% in 3 years (p<0.001), and overall survival was 90% versus 97.2% in 1 year, and 61.7% versus 95.1% in 3 years (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS

  13. Endoscopic technique in the treatment of patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle. Report based on over a decade of experience.

    PubMed

    Kwiek, Staniwsław; Kocur, Damian; Doleżych, Hanna; Suszyński, Krzysztof; Szajkowski, Sebastian; Sordyl, Ryszard; Slusarczyk, Wojciech; Kukier, Wojciech; Bażowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was a retrospective analysis of the efficiency of endoscopic treatment of patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle. The analysis covered 17 patients. There were 19 operations in total. The follow-up period ranged from 21 to 130 months. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated by comparing neurological condition and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after treatment. The mean duration of surgery was 81 minutes. The cyst was removed completely in 8 patients, subtotally in 5, partially in 3, and in 1 case a biopsy was performed. No persistent intra- or postoperative complications or deaths occurred. Immediately after the operation symptoms withdrew completely in 8 patients and partially in 9. In the long term follow-up period, all symptoms receded completely in 11 patients and a further 6 patients showed partial improvement. MRI revealed the absence of the cyst in 8 patients, in 2 patients the tumor was smaller in size and in a further 7 patients some small parts of the walls of the cyst were present. The width of the ventricle system returned to its normal size in 8 patients, decreased in 8 patients and in 1 case remained at its initial size. In 2 patients temporary postoperative complications occurred. The average hospitalization time was 9 days. Recurrences of colloidal cysts after subtotal and partial removal do not occur very often, and the time of the recurrence may either be very long or it may not happen at all. Although we recommend complete removal of the cyst, this should not be pursued at the cost of incurring operative complications.

  14. Odontogenic Cysts - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Nayyer, Namita V; Macluskey, Michaelina; Keys, William

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the clinical features, radiological assessment, histopathology and management of a variety of odontogenic cysts. It also highlights the reclassification of odontogenic keratocysts to keratocystic odontogenic tumours.

  15. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  16. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  17. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    HS, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A.; Astekar, Madhusudan S.

    2012-01-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient. PMID:24765458

  18. Submental epidermoid cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  19. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681

  20. Liver transplantation for severe hepatic trauma: Experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Delis, Spiros G; Bakoyiannis, Andreas; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Weppler, Debbie; Levi, David; Tzakis, Andreas G

    2009-01-01

    Liver transplantation has been reported in the literature as an extreme intervention in cases of severe and complicated hepatic trauma. The main indications for liver transplant in such cases were uncontrollable bleeding and postoperative hepatic insufficiency. We here describe four cases of orthotopic liver transplantation after penetrating or blunt liver trauma. The indications were liver failure, extended liver necrosis, liver gangrene and multiple episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding related to portal hypertension, respectively. One patient died due to postoperative cerebral edema. The other three patients recovered well and remain on immunosuppression. Liver transplantation should be considered as a saving procedure in severe hepatic trauma, when all other treatment modalities fail. PMID:19340909

  1. Yttrium-90 radioembolization as a bridge to liver transplantation: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Samer; Sukato, Daniel; Chen, Hui-Wei; Amesur, Nikhil; Zajko, Albert B; Humar, Abhinav; Geller, David A; Marsh, James W; Tsung, Allan

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate our experience with the use of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization in maintaining potential candidacy and, in some instances, downstaging hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that does not meet Milan criteria for liver transplantation. A retrospective review of 20 consecutive patients with HCC who were listed to receive a liver transplant and were treated with (90)Y radioembolization as a sole modality for locoregional "bridge" therapy was performed. Demographics, radiographic and pathologic response, survival, and recurrences were examined. Twenty-two (90)Y treatments were performed in 20 patients before transplantation. Median time from first treatment to transplantation was 3.5 months. HCC in 14 patients met the Milan criteria at the time of the first (90)Y treatment, and HCC in six did not. All cases that originally met the Milan criteria remained within the criteria before transplantation, and two of six patients whose disease did not meet the criteria (33%) had their disease successfully downstaged to meet the criteria. Overall, nine patients (45%) had complete or partial radiologic response to (90)Y radioembolization according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. Complete necrosis of tumor with no evidence of viable tumor on pathologic examination was observed in five patients (36%) whose disease met the Milan criteria. Particularly in regions with long wait list times, (90)Y treatment is effective in maintaining tumor size in potential liver transplantation candidates with HCC. In addition, it can also be considered as a downstaging therapy in select patients before transplantation. © SIR, 2013.

  2. First Experience of Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Ablation for Recurrent Hepatoblastoma after Liver Resection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoxian; Zhou, Luyao; Huang, Guangliang; Zhong, Zhihai; Jiang, Chunlin; Shan, Quanyuan; Xu, Ming; Kuang, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to summarize the first experience with ultrasound-guided percutaneous ablation treatment (PAT) for recurrent hepatoblastoma (HB) after liver resection in children. From August 2013 to October 2014, PAT was used to treat 5 children with a total of 8 recurrent HB (mean size, 1.4 ± 0.8 cm; size range, 0.7–3.1 cm), including 4 patients with 7 tumors in the liver and 1 patient with 1 tumor in the lung. Technical success was achieved in all patients (5/5, 100%). The complete ablation rate after the first ablation session was 80% (4/5) on a patient-by-patient basis and 87.5% (7/8) on a tumor-by-tumor basis. Only 1 patient developed a fever with temperature >39 °C; it lasted 4 days after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and was resolved by conservative therapy. During the follow-up period, new intrahepatic recurrences after PAT were detected in two patients. One died due to tumor progression 4 months after ablation. The median overall survival time after PAT was 13.8 months. PAT is a safe and promising therapy for children with recurrent HB after liver resection, and further investigation in large-scale randomized clinical trials is required to determine its role in the treatment of this disease. PMID:26578035

  3. Experimenting liver fibrosis diagnostic by two photon excitation microscopy and Bag-of-Features image classification.

    PubMed

    Stanciu, Stefan G; Xu, Shuoyu; Peng, Qiwen; Yan, Jie; Stanciu, George A; Welsch, Roy E; So, Peter T C; Csucs, Gabor; Yu, Hanry

    2014-04-10

    The accurate staging of liver fibrosis is of paramount importance to determine the state of disease progression, therapy responses, and to optimize disease treatment strategies. Non-linear optical microscopy techniques such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) can image the endogenous signals of tissue structures and can be used for fibrosis assessment on non-stained tissue samples. While image analysis of collagen in SHG images was consistently addressed until now, cellular and tissue information included in TPEF images, such as inflammatory and hepatic cell damage, equally important as collagen deposition imaged by SHG, remain poorly exploited to date. We address this situation by experimenting liver fibrosis quantification and scoring using a combined approach based on TPEF liver surface imaging on a Thioacetamide-induced rat model and a gradient based Bag-of-Features (BoF) image classification strategy. We report the assessed performance results and discuss the influence of specific BoF parameters to the performance of the fibrosis scoring framework.

  4. Experimenting Liver Fibrosis Diagnostic by Two Photon Excitation Microscopy and Bag-of-Features Image Classification

    PubMed Central

    Stanciu, Stefan G.; Xu, Shuoyu; Peng, Qiwen; Yan, Jie; Stanciu, George A.; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Csucs, Gabor; Yu, Hanry

    2014-01-01

    The accurate staging of liver fibrosis is of paramount importance to determine the state of disease progression, therapy responses, and to optimize disease treatment strategies. Non-linear optical microscopy techniques such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) can image the endogenous signals of tissue structures and can be used for fibrosis assessment on non-stained tissue samples. While image analysis of collagen in SHG images was consistently addressed until now, cellular and tissue information included in TPEF images, such as inflammatory and hepatic cell damage, equally important as collagen deposition imaged by SHG, remain poorly exploited to date. We address this situation by experimenting liver fibrosis quantification and scoring using a combined approach based on TPEF liver surface imaging on a Thioacetamide-induced rat model and a gradient based Bag-of-Features (BoF) image classification strategy. We report the assessed performance results and discuss the influence of specific BoF parameters to the performance of the fibrosis scoring framework. PMID:24717650

  5. Experimenting Liver Fibrosis Diagnostic by Two Photon Excitation Microscopy and Bag-of-Features Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Stefan G.; Xu, Shuoyu; Peng, Qiwen; Yan, Jie; Stanciu, George A.; Welsch, Roy E.; So, Peter T. C.; Csucs, Gabor; Yu, Hanry

    2014-04-01

    The accurate staging of liver fibrosis is of paramount importance to determine the state of disease progression, therapy responses, and to optimize disease treatment strategies. Non-linear optical microscopy techniques such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) can image the endogenous signals of tissue structures and can be used for fibrosis assessment on non-stained tissue samples. While image analysis of collagen in SHG images was consistently addressed until now, cellular and tissue information included in TPEF images, such as inflammatory and hepatic cell damage, equally important as collagen deposition imaged by SHG, remain poorly exploited to date. We address this situation by experimenting liver fibrosis quantification and scoring using a combined approach based on TPEF liver surface imaging on a Thioacetamide-induced rat model and a gradient based Bag-of-Features (BoF) image classification strategy. We report the assessed performance results and discuss the influence of specific BoF parameters to the performance of the fibrosis scoring framework.

  6. Statistical quality control charts for liver transplant process indicators: evaluation of a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Varona, M A; Soriano, A; Aguirre-Jaime, A; Barrera, M A; Medina, M L; Bañon, N; Mendez, S; Lopez, E; Portero, J; Dominguez, D; Gonzalez, A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation, the best option for many end-stage liver diseases, is indicated in more candidates than the donor availability. In this situation, this demanding treatment must achieve excellence, accessibility and patient satisfaction to be ethical, scientific, and efficient. The current consensus of quality measurements promoted by the Sociedad Española de Trasplante Hepático (SETH) seeks to depict criteria, indicators, and standards for liver transplantation in Spain. According to this recommendation, the Canary Islands liver program has studied its experience. We separated the 411 cadaveric transplants performed in the last 15 years into 2 groups: The first 100 and the other 311. The 8 criteria of SETH 2010 were correctly fulfilled. In most indicators, the outcomes were favorable, with an actuarial survivals at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years of 84%, 79%, 76%, and 65%, respectively; excellent results in retransplant rates (early 0.56% and long-term 5.9%), primary nonfunction rate (0.43%), waiting list mortality (13.34%), and patient satisfaction (91.5%). On the other hand, some indicators of mortality were worse as perioperative, postoperative, and early mortality with normal graft function and reoperation rate. After the analyses of the series with statistical quality control charts, we observed an improvement in all indicators, even in the apparently worst, early mortality with normal graft functions in a stable program. Such results helped us to discover specific areas to improve the program. The application of the quality measurement, as SETH consensus recommends, has shown in our study that despite being a consuming time process, it is a useful tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing Incidental Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jennifer; Raman Muthusamy, V

    2018-06-09

    The goal of this review is to critically analyze the current literature regarding the management of incidental pancreatic cysts. Given their increased rates of detection due to the frequent use of cross-sectional imaging, correctly identifying the subset of high risk lesions that are appropriate for surgical resection is critical. However, the existing consensus and societal guidelines discussed in this review lack high quality data to create evidence-based recommendations, making achieving this important aim challenging. Several recent studies have focused on the natural history of pancreatic cysts and defining the role of endoscopic ultrasound, which remains unclear. EUS-guided diagnostic tools include molecular analysis of obtained fluid; EUS-guided FNA, FNB, and intracystic forceps biopsy of the cyst wall; and confocal endomicroscopy. While their precise role in diagnosing pancreatic cystic neoplasms remains to be defined, they represent promising innovations that may play a future role in cyst assessment and management. Large, long-term, prospective studies of incidentally identified pancreatic cysts are essential to fully understand their natural history and potential for neoplastic progression. Given the absence of such data at present, an individualized patient approach is recommended.

  8. Hepatic Cyst Compressing The Right Atrial and Ventricular Inflow Tract: An Uncommon Cardiac Complication.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Maulik; Alansari, Ahmed; Wallack, Marc; Visco, Ferdinand; Williams, Susan; Sy, Alexander M

    2018-01-01

    Commonly reported complications of hepatic cysts are spontaneous hemorrhage, rupture into the peritoneal cavity, infection and compression of the biliary tree however cardiac complications are not commonly reported. We are presenting a case of a large liver cyst presenting with right atrial and ventricular inflow tract impingement resulting in cardiac symptoms. A 68 year-old Hispanic female presented with one month of fatigue and shortness of breath after household work and walking less than one block, right upper quadrant pain and weight loss. She had history of multiple hepatic cysts for more than 12 years, well-controlled diabetes and hypertension. Examination of the heart revealed tachycardia with regular heart sounds. There were no murmurs. She had tenderness in her right upper quadrant on palpation and an enlarged smooth liver. Rest of physical examination was unremarkable. CT scan of the abdomen showed multiple non-enhancing liver cysts in both lobes, with the largest measuring 12 x 15 x 17 cm which was significantly increased from her baseline of 7 x 8 x 10 cm in 2003. Echocardiogram showed normal left ventricular ejection fraction, grade 1 diastolic dysfunction and a hepatic cyst impinging RA and RV inflow tract. She had successful laparoscopic enucleation of liver cyst and subsequent relief from tachycardia, fatigue and shortness of breath. In conclusion, this case illustrates that hepatic cysts may become symptomatic after remaining quiescent for an extended period. They may present with unusual symptoms and clinicians should be mindful of rare complications, such as in this case.

  9. [Acute rupture of hydatid cysts in the peritoneum: 17 cases].

    PubMed

    Beyrouti, Mohamed Issam; Beyrouti, Ramez; Abbes, Imed; Kharrat, Madiha; Ben Amar, Mohamed; Frikha, Foued; Elleuch, Slim; Gharbi, Walid; Chaabouni, Mohamed; Ghorbel, Ali

    2004-03-27

    Specify the clinical and progressive characteristics of acute rupture of hydatid cysts in the peritoneum. We retrospectively studied patients who had undergone surgery for a hydatid cyst (HC) of the abdomen between January 1990 and December 2000 and in whom the exploration had confirmed the diagnosis of acute rupture of a hydatid cyst in the peritoneum. Over this period of 11 Years, 970 patients had undergone surgery for hydatid cysts of the liver and the spleen, 17 of whom had presented an acute rupture of the hydatid cyst in the peritoneum, that is to say 1.75% of the cases. The mean age was 30 Years and sex ratio was 0.41. Rupture was secondary to a trauma in 6 cases and to an intense physical effort in one case. The clinical table was acute peritonitis in 14 cases, acute intestinal occlusion in one case, suggested anaphylactic shock in one case, and a non-complicated hydatid cyst in one case. Ultra-sonographic diagnosis was made in all the cases, but that of rupture in 12 cases only. No scans were performed. Intervention was decided on within a delay of less than 72 hours in 16 cases. Surgical treatment consisted in the treatment of the peritonitis, the ruptured hydatid cyst, the associated hydatid cysts in the liver and the spleen, and the hydatid cyst of the right lung in two cases. Post-operative follow-up was complicated in 4 cases with two deaths through septic shock. Distant follow-up was marked by a secondary peritoneal hydatidosis in a patient whom has not benefited from medical treatment. The latter, based on albendazole, was prescribed in 6 patients with satisfying results and a mean follow-up of 32 months. The therapeutic progress has improved the prognosis of ruptured hydatid cysts in the peritoneum. Secondary peritoneal hydatidosis is fundamentally enhanced by the delay in diagnosis and treatment and the absence of medical treatment. The optimal strategy is to treat the patients at the non-complicated stage of the hydatid cyst and, above all

  10. Unicameral (simple) bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Baig, Rafath; Eady, John L

    2006-09-01

    Since their original description by Virchow, simple bone cysts have been studied repeatedly. Although these defects are not true neoplasms, simple bone cysts may create major structural defects of the humerus, femur, and os calcis. They are commonly discovered incidentally when x-rays are taken for other reasons or on presentation due to a pathologic fracture. Various treatment strategies have been employed, but the only reliable predictor of success of any treatment strategy is the age of the patient; those being older than 10 years of age heal their cysts at a higher rate than those under age 10. The goal of management is the formation of a bone that can withstand the stresses of use by the patient without evidence of continued bone destruction as determined by serial radiographic follow-up. The goal is not a normal-appearing x-ray, but a functionally stable bone.

  11. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Parapharyngeal cyst: considerations on embryology, clinical evaluation, and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Dallan, Iacopo; Seccia, Veronica; Bruschini, Luca; Ciancia, Eugenio; Franceschini, Stefano Sellari

    2008-11-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies represent a common cause of cervical mass in adults. Describing a case report, we reviewed embryology, clinical elements, and treatment options for parapharyngeal congenital cysts. A case of a parapharyngeal cyst mimicking a tonsillar abscess is presented. A second branchial cleft cyst was hypothesized on a clinical and radiologic basis and then confirmed by histologic data. Magnetic resonance imaging provided fundamental information for the study of the parapharyngeal mass and its relationship with surrounding structures. In literature, surgical excision is the recommended therapy. We removed the cyst through a transcervical approach, with no complications or recurrence after 3 years. In our opinion, cervicotomy should be considered the gold standard approach, even for lesions not palpable in the cervical area. When dealing with a parapharyngeal cyst, second branchial cleft anomalies should be considered. Our experience confirms that cervicotomy is a safe approach to parapharyngeal congenital lesions.

  13. Infected orbital cyst following exenteration.

    PubMed

    Barak, A; Hirsh, A; Rosner, M; Rosen, N

    1996-09-01

    An orbital cyst is a rare complication of orbital trauma and exenteration. Infections of such cysts have not been described, and are potentially dangerous unless treated immediately. The authors describe a case of delayed treatment of such an infected cyst, which resolved following surgical drainage. The potentially hazardous outcome makes knowledge of such cases important.

  14. Low pressure ultraviolet studies for inactivation of Giardia muris cysts.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S L; Rice, E W; Ware, M W; Schaefer, F W

    2003-01-01

    The research was initiated to confirm earlier ultraviolet (u.v.) light inactivation studies performed on Giardia cysts using excystation as the viability indicator. Following this, a comparison of in vitro excystation and animal infectivity was performed for assessing cyst viability after exposure to low-pressure u.v. irradiation. Cysts of Giardia muris were inactivated using a low-pressure u.v. light source. Giardia muris was employed as a surrogate for the human pathogen Giardia lamblia. Cyst viability was determined by both in vitro excystation and animal infectivity. Cyst doses were counted using a flow cytometer for the animal infectivity experiments. Using in vitro excystation as the viability indicator, fluences as high as approximately 200 mJ cm(-2) did not prevent some cysts from excysting, thus verifying earlier work. Using animal infectivity, u.v. fluences of 1.4, 1.9 and 2.3 mJ cm(-2) yielded log10 reductions ranging from 0.3 to >or= 4.4. Results indicate that in vitro excystation is not a reliable indicator of G. muris cyst viability after u.v. disinfection. Very low doses of u.v. light rendered G. muris cysts non-infective in the mouse model employed. Data presented represent the only complete u.v. inactivation curve for G. muris. This research provides evidence that u.v. can be an effective barrier against Giardia spp. in the treatment of drinking water supplies.

  15. Beware! A simple renal cyst could be a hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Nidhi; Priyadarshi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Kidney is one of the most common sites for the cyst formation in the body, and the management of simple cysts is required entirely for its symptoms and complications. Surgical decortication is an established treatment for a large and symptomatic simple renal cyst. On the other hand, hydatid cysts of the kidney are usually multiloculated complex or calcified cysts and are quite rare. Their surgical treatment also differs and requires complete excision with pericystectomy or partial/complete nephrectomy depending upon residual functional parenchyma, using extreme caution to avoid spillage, recurrence or development of severe anaphylactic shock. A simple cyst harboring a hydatid cyst is highly uncommon and quite dangerous; as if not diagnosed preoperatively, it can create huge trouble for both the patient and the operating surgeon which happened in the present case.

  16. Large-for-size liver transplant: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Akdur, Aydincan; Kirnap, Mahir; Ozcay, Figen; Sezgin, Atilla; Ayvazoglu Soy, Hatice Ebru; Karakayali Yarbug, Feza; Yildirim, Sedat; Moray, Gokhan; Arslan, Gulnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The ideal ratio between liver transplant graft mass and recipient body weight is unknown, but the graft probably must weigh 0.8% to 2.0% recipient weight. When this ratio > 4%, there may be problems due to large-for-size transplant, especially in recipients < 10 kg. This condition is caused by discrepancy between the small abdominal cavity and large graft and is characterized by decreased blood supply to the liver graft and graft dysfunction. We evaluated our experience with large-for-size grafts. We retrospectively evaluated 377 orthotopic liver transplants that were performed from 2001-2014 in our center. We included 188 pediatric transplants in our study. There were 58 patients < 10 kg who had living-donor living transplant with graft-to-bodyweight ratio > 4%. In 2 patients, the abdomen was closed with a Bogota bag. In 5 patients, reoperation was performed due to vascular problems and abdominal hypertension, and the abdomen was closed with a Bogota bag. All Bogota bags were closed in 2 weeks. After closing the fascia, 10 patients had vascular problems that were diagnosed in the operating room by Doppler ultrasonography, and only the skin was closed without fascia closure. No graft loss occurred due to large-for-size transplant. There were 8 patients who died early after transplant (sepsis, 6 patients; brain death, 2 patients). There was no major donor morbidity or donor mortality. Large-for-size graft may cause abdominal compartment syndrome due to the small size of the recipient abdominal cavity, size discrepancies in vascular caliber, insufficient portal circulation, and disturbance of tissue oxygenation. Abdominal closure with a Bogota bag in these patients is safe and effective to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome. Early diagnosis by ultrasonography in the operating room after fascia closure and repeated ultrasonography at the clinic may help avoid graft loss.

  17. First experience of liver transplantation with type 2 donation after cardiac death in France.

    PubMed

    Savier, Eric; Dondero, Federica; Vibert, Eric; Eyraud, Daniel; Brisson, Hélène; Riou, Bruno; Fieux, Fabienne; Naili-Kortaia, Salima; Castaing, Denis; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Langeron, Olivier; Dokmak, Safi; Hannoun, Laurent; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe

    2015-05-01

    Organ donation after unexpected cardiac death [type 2 donation after cardiac death (DCD)] is currently authorized in France and has been since 2006. Following the Spanish experience, a national protocol was established to perform liver transplantation (LT) with type 2 DCD donors. After the declaration of death, abdominal normothermic oxygenated recirculation was used to perfuse and oxygenate the abdominal organs until harvesting and cold storage. Such grafts were proposed to consenting patients < 65 years old with liver cancer and without any hepatic insufficiency. Between 2010 and 2013, 13 LTs were performed in 3 French centers. Six patients had a rapid and uneventful postoperative recovery. However, primary nonfunction occurred in 3 patients, with each requiring urgent retransplantation, and 4 early allograft dysfunctions were observed. One patient developed a nonanastomotic biliary stricture after 3 months, whereas 8 patients showed no sign of ischemic cholangiopathy at their 1-year follow-up. In comparison with a control group of patients receiving grafts from brain-dead donors (n = 41), donor age and cold ischemia time were significantly lower in the type 2 DCD group. Time spent on the national organ wait list tended to be shorter in the type 2 DCD group: 7.5 months [interquartile range (IQR), 4.0-11.0 months] versus 12.0 months (IQR, 6.8-16.7 months; P = 0.08. The 1-year patient survival rates were similar (85% in the type 2 DCD group versus 93% in the control group), but the 1-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in the type 2 DCD group (69% versus 93%; P = 0.03). In conclusion, to treat borderline hepatocellular carcinoma, LT with type 2 DCD donors is possible as long as strict donor selection is observed. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Liver and lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis: an adult cystic fibrosis centre's experience.

    PubMed

    Sivam, S; Al-Hindawi, Y; Di Michiel, J; Moriarty, C; Spratt, P; Jansz, P; Malouf, M; Plit, M; Pleass, H; Havryk, A; Bowen, D; Haber, P; Glanville, A R; Bye, P T P

    2016-07-01

    Liver disease develops in one-third of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is rare for liver disease to have its onset after 20 years of age. Lung disease, however, is usually more severe in adulthood. A retrospective analysis was performed on nine patients. Three patients required lung transplantation approximately a decade after liver transplant, and another underwent combined liver and lung transplants. Four additional patients with liver transplants are awaiting assessment for lung transplants. One patient is awaiting combined liver and lung transplants. With increased survival in CF, several patients may require more than single organ transplantation. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Adult living liver donors have excellent long-term medical outcomes: the University of Toronto liver transplant experience.

    PubMed

    Adcock, L; Macleod, C; Dubay, D; Greig, P D; Cattral, M S; McGilvray, I; Lilly, L; Girgrah, N; Renner, E L; Selzner, M; Selzner, N; Kashfi, A; Smith, R; Holtzman, S; Abbey, S; Grant, D R; Levy, G A; Therapondos, G

    2010-02-01

    Right lobe living donor liver transplantation is an effective treatment for selected individuals with end-stage liver disease. Although 1 year donor morbidity and mortality have been reported, little is known about outcomes beyond 1 year. Our objective was to analyze the outcomes of the first 202 consecutive donors performed at our center with a minimum follow-up of 12 months (range 12-96 months). All physical complications were prospectively recorded and categorized according to the modified Clavien classification system. Donors were seen by a dedicated family physician at 2 weeks, 1, 3 and 12 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. The cohort included 108 males and 94 females (mean age 37.3 +/- 11.5 years). Donor survival was 100%. A total of 39.6% of donors experienced a medical complication during the first year after surgery (21 Grade 1, 27 Grade 2, 32 Grade 3). After 1 year, three donors experienced a medical complication (1 Grade 1, 1 Grade 2, 1 Grade 3). All donors returned to predonation employment or studies although four donors (2%) experienced a psychiatric complication. This prospective study suggests that living liver donation can be performed safely without any serious late medical complications and suggests that long-term follow-up may contribute to favorable donor outcomes.

  20. Polycystic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Linda, Nguyen, E-mail: nguyenli@einstein.edu

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations.more » The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.« less

  1. Odonto calcifying cyst.

    PubMed

    Aswath, Nalini; Mastan, Kader; Manikandan, Tirupathi; Samuel, Gigi

    2013-01-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is reported to be associated with odontoma in 24% of cases. Separation of the cases of calcifying odontogenic cyst associated with odontoma (COCaO) may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. The literature revealed 52 cases of COCaO. The male to female ratio was 1:1.9, with a mean age of 16 years. Most common location was the maxilla (61.5%). The radiographic appearance of most cases (80.5%) was a well-defined, mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a single large cyst with tooth-like structures as an integral part, giving the impression of a single lesion. In addition to the unique histologic features, differences in gender and distribution were found between the cases of COCaO and those of simple COC. COCaO may be regarded as a separate entity and classified as a benign, mixed odontogenic tumor. The term odontocalcifying odontogenic cyst is suggested.

  2. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    PubMed

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  3. Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Campanacci, M; Capanna, R; Picci, P

    1986-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight cases of unicameral bone cysts (UBC) treated with curettage and bone grafting were compared to 141 cases treated with cortisone injections. The end results were comparable in the two groups. Local recurrence risk factors in the surgical group were active cyst and previous operations. In the other group they were multilocation of the cyst, active cyst, and size of cyst. A new radiographic classification of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is proposed in a report of 198 cases of ABC. The treatment of choice in ABC is surgical and the type (curettage, curettage plus phenole or cryosurgery, resection or hemiresection) is selected on the basis of the radiographic aspect and the rate of growth of the cyst. Radiotherapy is only indicated in inoperable ABC cases.

  4. Mucosal Cysts of the Maxillary Sinus in Solid Organ Transplant Population: Computerised Tomography Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Erdinç; Yerli, Hasan; Tanrıkulu, Suna; Hizal, Evren

    2013-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of maxillary sinus mucosal cysts in liver and kidney transplant recipients remains unclear. Aim: To investigate the course of maxillary mucosal cysts in liver and kidney transplantation patients. Study Design: Retrospective clinical study Methods: Paranasal sinus computed tomography scans of 169 renal and 43 hepatic transplant recipients were reviewed. The incidence, size and growth characteristics of maxillary mucosal cysts in the renal and hepatic transplant population were noted. Results: Overall incidence of maxillary sinus mucosal cyst in transplantation patients was found to be 24.5%, with a male to female ratio of 2:1 (p<0.05). Follow-up views of 26 patients showed that the size of the cysts increased in 19, decreased in 4, and remained the same in 3 patients. Mean growth rate of the cysts was calculated to be 6.30 ± 7.02 mm2 per month. Most of the cysts were located on the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus. Conclusion: Incidence of the maxillary mucosal cysts in renal and hepatic transplant recipients does not differ from general population, but these cysts have a greater tendency to grow. Specific measures are not needed for isolated, asymptomatic maxillary mucosal cysts in transplant populations. PMID:25207125

  5. [Splenic hydatid cyst. Case report of a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Arzac, Rodrigo; Sanjuán, Alberto; Rebolledo, Gustavo; Márquez, Juan Carlos; Recinos, Elio Germán; Cue, Araceli; Blas, Carolina; Flisser, Ana

    2002-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by larvae of the platyhelminth parasite called Echinococcus; it generally lodges in liver and lung, and less commonly in spleen. In Mexico, hydatid disease has a very low frequency; only few cases of lung disease have been reported. In this paper, case of a 7 weeks pregnant female patient with a simple cyst in spleen identified by ultrasound and tomography is reported. The patient underwent splenectomy. Diagnosis of hydatid cyst was confirmed by histopathology. This case suggests that hydatid disease should be considered as differential diagnosis in every patient with a cystic mass of the spleen.

  6. Radiofrequency ablation-assisted liver resection: review of the literature and our experience

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Peng

    2006-01-01

    Background: Surgical resection is the best established treatment known to provide long-term survival and possibility of cure for liver malignancy. Intraoperative blood loss has been the major concern during major liver resections, and mortality and morbidity of surgery are clearly associated with the amount of blood loss. Different techniques have been developed to minimize intraoperative blood loss during liver resection. The radiofrequency ablation (RFA) technique has been used widely in the treatment of unresectable liver tumors. This review concentrates on the use of RFA to provide an avascular liver resection plane. Methods and results: The following review is based on two types of RFA device during liver resection: single needle probe RFA and the In-Line RFA device. Conclusion: Liver resection assisted by RFA is safe and is associated with very limited blood loss. PMID:18333135

  7. The contribution of contrast enhanced ultrasound for the characterization of benign liver lesions in clinical practice - a monocentric experience.

    PubMed

    Martie, Alina; Bota, Simona; Sporea, Ioan; Sirli, Roxana; Popescu, Alina; Danila, Mirela

    2012-12-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) uses second generation microbubble contrast agents and is considered to be a useful imaging method for focal liver lesions (FLLs) characterization. To observe if CEUS increases the diagnostic performance of benign FLLs as compared with standard ultrasonography examination (US). This is a single centre study developed during September 2009- December 2011 in the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, in Timisoara. We evaluated 386 benign FLLs diagnosed by means of CEUS. Before performing CEUS, all FLLs were examined by US and Power Doppler techniques. At CEUS, the benign nature of a lesion was established by the absence of washout in the portal and late phase. The typical features observed using contrast, allowed their classification in a particular type of pathology, according to the 2008 EFSUMB Guidelines. From 386 benign FLLs, 81 (20.9%) of them were diagnosed in patients with chronic liver disease, while 305 (79.1%) were in patients without chronic hepatopathy. In 355 (92%) cases CEUS established a particular type of pathology. The most frequent lesions were: hemangiomas (37.5%), focal fatty alterations (24.8%), complex cysts (10.7%) and regenerative nodules (11.8%). Based on US we correctly estimated the positive diagnosis in 55.7% cases and using CEUS, the diagnostic performance increased up to 92%. In our study, by means of US the estimate positive diagnosis was made in 55.7% of cases. CEUS properly characterized 92% of benign FLLs and increased the diagnostic performance of these lesions, as compared with US.

  8. Classification of focal liver lesions on ultrasound images by extracting hybrid textural features and using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoo Na; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Ga Young; Jiang, Yuan Yuan; Kim, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the improvement of the diagnostic accuracy of focal liver lesions by quantifying the key features of cysts, hemangiomas, and malignant lesions on ultrasound images. The focal liver lesions were divided into 29 cysts, 37 hemangiomas, and 33 malignancies. A total of 42 hybrid textural features that composed of 5 first order statistics, 18 gray level co-occurrence matrices, 18 Law's, and echogenicity were extracted. A total of 29 key features that were selected by principal component analysis were used as a set of inputs for a feed-forward neural network. For each lesion, the performance of the diagnosis was evaluated by using the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The results of the experiment indicate that the proposed method exhibits great performance, a high diagnosis accuracy of over 96% among all focal liver lesion groups (cyst vs. hemangioma, cyst vs. malignant, and hemangioma vs. malignant) on ultrasound images. The accuracy was slightly increased when echogenicity was included in the optimal feature set. These results indicate that it is possible for the proposed method to be applied clinically.

  9. The Role of Re-resection for Breast Cancer Liver Metastases-a Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    BacalbaȘa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hepatic re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases. Between January 2004 and December 2014 seven patients were submitted to liver re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases at our Center. The main inclusion criteria were presence of isolated liver metastases and absence of systemic recurrent disease Results: The median age at the time of breast surgery was 51 years (range=39-69 years). The first liver resection was performed after a median period of 34.7 months and consisted of minor hepatectomies in six and major hepatectomy in one patient. The second liver resection was performed after a median interval of 22 months from the first liver resection and consisted of major resection in one case and minor resection in the other six cases. Postoperative complications occurred in a single case after the first liver surgery and in two cases after the second hepatic resection, all cases being successfully managed conservatively. Overall postoperative mortality was 0. The median overall survival after the second liver resection was 28 months. Re-resection for breast cancer liver metastases can be safely performed and may bring survival benefit. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. A single-center experience of 500 liver transplants using the modified piggyback technique by Belghiti.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Arianeb; Mood, Zhoobin A; Fonouni, Hamidreza; Kashfi, Arash; Hillebrand, Norbert; Müller, Sascha A; Encke, Jens; Büchler, Markus W; Schmidt, Jan

    2009-05-01

    Over the past 4 decades, the surgical techniques of liver transplantation (LTx) have permanently evolved and been modified. Among these, the modified piggyback (MPB) technique by Belghiti offers specific advantages. The objective of this study was to present our single-center experience with the MPB technique in 500 cases. Recipients' perioperative data were prospectively collected and evaluated. Postoperative and specific complications, stay in the intensive and intermediate care unit, and the mortality rate with cause of death were analyzed. Most recipients were classified as Child C (49.1%). For the patients who underwent LTx for the first time, alcoholic (23.9%) and viral (22.2%) cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (15.1%) were the prevalent indications. The overall median warm ischemia time, anastomosis duration, and operative time were 45, 108, and 320 minutes, respectively. The median intraoperative blood loss was 1500 mL. A venovenous bypass was never needed to maintain hemodynamic stability. Only in a few cases was temporary inferior vena cava clamping necessary. Most prominent surgical complications were hemorrhage, hematoma, and wound dehiscence. Renal failure occurred in 6.2% of patients. The overall median stay in the intensive and intermediate care unit was 14 days. The mortality rates within 30 and 90 days were 6.3% and 13.3%, respectively. No technique-related death occurred. The MPB technique by Belghiti is a feasible and simple LTx technique. The caval flow is preserved during the anhepatic phase, and this minimizes the need for venovenous bypass or portocaval shunt. This technique requires only 1 caval anastomosis, which is easy to perform with a short anhepatic phase. To minimize the risk of outflow obstruction, attention should be paid by doing a wide cavocavostomy cranially to the donor inferior vena cava in a door-lock manner. This technique can be applied in almost all patients undergoing LTx for the first time and liver retransplantation

  11. Outcome of liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma -- a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Iacob, R; Iacob, S; Gheorghe, L; Gheorghe, C; Hrehoreţ, D; Brașoveanu, V; Croitoru, A; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a promising treatment for patients with liver cirrhosis associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of our study was to evaluate our experience regarding the clinical and pathological staging of HCC in patients who underwent LT, as well as recurrence free and overall survival. From January 2006 to December 2011, 38 patients with diagnosis of HCC, underwent LT in our Center. Demographic, clinical, imaging and pathologic information were recorded. A Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was performed in order to identify significant predictors of tumor recurrence and patient's death after LT. Eighteen patients (47.4%) in our study group were within Milan criteria. The mean follow-up was 22 months and the recurrence rate of HCC after LT was 13.2%. The 1, 3- year recurrence free survival rates were 85%, 74.3% respectively. The 1 and 3-year overall survival rates were 83.5% and 63.6% respectively. No significant predictor for HCC recurrence was identified in our study group by survival analysis, taking into account 13 different variables. As independent predictors of patient'ss death after LT for HCC however, the presence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.001), presence of more than 3 HCC nodules (p=0.03) and tumor recurrence after LT (p=0.03) were identified by multivariate Cox proportional hazards survival analysis. In our cohort HCC recurrence rate after LT was 13.2%. Diabetes mellitus, presence of more than 3 HCC nodules and HCC recurrence were significant predictors of poor overall survival after LT. Celsius.

  12. Caring for overseas liver transplant recipients: Taiwan primary family caregivers' experiences in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Chen, H M; Shih, F Jong; Chang, C L; Lai, I H; Shih, F J; Hu, R H

    2010-12-01

    This study explores the motivations of overseas liver transplant recipient (OLTR) families of Taiwanese OLTR who undergo the procedure in mainland China. We report the waiting time to receive the transplant in mainland China as well as the rational and service. This exploratory qualitative method reflects guided face-to-face, semistructured interviews with families members of OLTRs. Data were subjected to content analysis. We interviewed 19 OLTR family members (15 females and 4 males who were between 29 and 71 years of age; mean 55.1 years) regarding 19 patients who had (17 males and 2 females who were between 36 and 71 years of age, mean, 54.6 years). The OLTR underwent transplantation in three cities in mainland China: Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. After arrival the average waiting time was 33.1 days. Subjects reported the following reasons to help patients undergo the procedure in mainland China: (1) it is difficult to have the procedure in Taiwan; (2) the desire to extend life; and ((3)) there is no domestic living donor. Seven reasons for serving as OLTR supportive family members were identified: (1) The role and obligation in the marital relationship; (2) a close bloodline relationship; (3) insufficient manpower; (4) an individual's availability; (5) evasion of responsibility by other family members; (6) compensation for inadequate caring efforts earlier in life; and (7) an unwillingness to disturb other relatives' lives. Finally, the following support for the OLTR was reported: providing company during medical treatment/doctor visits, food preparation, massage, daily assistance, medical care, and psychological support. Taiwanese OLTR family members' perspectives throughout the transplant process may provide better understanding of living experiences and concerns during the stages of overseas liver transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver Transplantation in Hepatitis C-Infected Patients: Experience From a South American Transplant Center.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, L A; Delgado, A; Garcia, V H; Aristizabal, A M; Gomez, C; Jiménez, D F; Sepulveda, M; García, J A; Rosso, F; Castro, A M; Alcazar, K; Villegas, J I; Serrano, O; Echeverri, G J

    2018-03-01

    Around 2.4% of the world's population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and it is the most common cause of liver transplantation (LT) in the world. Latin America (LA), with nearly 9% of the world population, has had a continuous increase in the number of LTs per year. Yet, due to the lack of mandatory data collection and a well-developed health-care system, access to transplantation is limited in most LA countries. We report the first LA experience of HCV-infected LT patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study by reviewing the medical histories of all HCV-infected LT patients between 1996 and 2016 who acquired HCV before their LT, at the Fundación Valle del Lilí, Cali, Colombia. Between January 1996 and December 2015, a total of 770 LTs were performed, of which 75 had a cirrhotic liver due to HCV infection. With a median follow-up time of 24.4 months (interquartile range [IQR] 4.7-61.2 months), patient survival was 44.9% and 66.9% for the time periods 1996-2006 and 2007-2015, respectively. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was present in 30.6% of the patients, and overall postoperative complications had an incidence of 80%. This is the first report of LT in HCV-infected patients in Colombia and in LA. Our results are comparable to those of other transplant centers worldwide with regard to postoperative complications and patient survival. Patients with LT in the 1996-2006 time frame had higher morbidity and mortality. Studies including larger numbers of patients are needed to determine the reason for this finding. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Treated unicameral bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Weinman, J; Servaes, S; Anupindi, S A

    2013-06-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are a common benign entity involving the metaphysis of growing bone, occurring within the first two decades of life. Assessment of these lesions, both before and after surgery, is performed routinely utilizing radiographs. We present a review of UBCs at various stages of treatment, including both successful and incomplete healing, and describe the imaging findings throughout their postoperative course. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish oil–based lipid emulsions in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: An ongoing positive experience

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously reported the beneficial effect of fish oil-based lipid emulsions (FOLEs) as monotherapy in the treatment of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). In this report, we share our ongoing experience at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, in the use of FOLE in treatment of P...

  16. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    PubMed

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonographic features of the liver with cystic echinococcosis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Hussein Awad; Elrashidy, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to gain information about the ultrasonographic features of livers with cystic echinococcosis, as well as to evaluate the use of ultrasonography for diagnosis of such disease in sheep. Design This was a retrospective study during the period April 2011 to March 2013. Participants A total of 22 Baladi sheep (aged three to six years) were included in this study. Based on clear hepatic ultrasonographic findings, all animals were classified into two groups: those with hepatic cysts (n=9) and without liver cysts (healthy liver, n=13). Results Biochemically, serum concentrations of γ-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and globulins were significantly increased (P<0.01), while albumin was lowered (P<0.01) in sheep with cystic livers. Ultrasonographic findings of diseased sheep livers revealed the presence of rounded, anechoic and unilocular hydatid cysts with ellipse circumference ranged from 6–10 cm. The borders of cysts were mostly well defined. The interior of cysts contained echogenic particulate materials, septations, or fine echoes. At the 10th intercostal space, the ventral margin, size, thickness and angle of livers were higher (P<0.01), while the diameter of portal vein was lower (P<0.01) in sheep with liver cysts than control ones. Furthermore, at the 9th intercostal space, the circumference of the gall bladder was decreased in sheep with hepatic cysts (P<0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for diagnosis of hepatic hydatid cysts were 80 per cent and 100 per cent, and 100 per cent and 83 per cent, respectively. Conclusions Cystic echinococcosis is associated with a number of anatomical alterations in the liver tissues that can be easily recognised by ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasonography alone or in combination with analysis of biochemical parameters reflecting liver function could be helpful for diagnosis of hepatic

  18. [Cystic echinococcosis in children in Tunisia: fertility and case distribution of hydatid cysts].

    PubMed

    Oudni-M'Rad, M; M'Rad, S; Gorcii, M; Mekki, M; Belguith, M; Harrabi, I; Nouri, A; Azaiez, R; Mezhoud, H; Babba, H

    2007-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, which commonly starts during childhood or adolescence, is a serious problem of public health in Tunisia. For 121 children (161 cysts), the localization and fertility of cysts as well as viability of their protoscoleces were determined. Results indicated that the lung was the primary localization of cyst (59%) followed by the liver (35%). Children's infection is more frequent in male than in female (sex ratio 1.96) and the greatest number of cases is observed in the 4-9 year age groups (94 cases). The fertility of the cyst was independent of its site or its size and no incidence of age of children was detected. Nevertheless, the fertility rate is higher in females than in males for the liver localization.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of a giant non parasitic hepatic cyst presenting as an acute surgical abdomen.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Georgoulis, Epameinondas; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Tsohataridis, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a non parasitic hepatic cyst is an extremely rare occurrence. A 50 -year- old male, was admitted with typical clinical manifestations of acute surgical abdomen. At exploratory laparotomy, a giant ruptured non parasitic cyst occupying the entire left liver lobe was found, along with a large amount of free intraperitoneal fluid. The cyst was widely unroofed very close to the liver parenchyma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged six days later. The clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and surgical management of this extremely rare clinical entity are discussed, along with a review of the literature. This case, which according to our best knowledge is the fourth reported in the literature, highlights the considerable risk of serious complications associated with the presence of a large symptomatic nonparasitic hepatic cyst. Prophylactic treatment should be considered in all these cases.

  20. Building shared experience to advance practical application of pathway-based toxicology: liver toxicity mode-of-action.

    PubMed

    Willett, Catherine; Caverly Rae, Jessica; Goyak, Katy O; Minsavage, Gary; Westmoreland, Carl; Andersen, Melvin; Avigan, Mark; Duché, Daniel; Harris, Georgina; Hartung, Thomas; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kleensang, Andre; Landesmann, Brigitte; Martos, Suzanne; Matevia, Marilyn; Toole, Colleen; Rowan, Andrew; Schultz, Terry; Seed, Jennifer; Senior, John; Shah, Imran; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Vinken, Mathieu; Watkins, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A workshop sponsored by the Human Toxicology Project Consortium (HTPC), "Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action" brought together experts from a wide range of perspectives to inform the process of pathway development and to advance two prototype pathways initially developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC): liver-specific fibrosis and steatosis. The first half of the workshop focused on the theory and practice of pathway development; the second on liver disease and the two prototype pathways. Participants agreed pathway development is extremely useful for organizing information and found that focusing the theoretical discussion on a specific AOP is extremely helpful. In addition, it is important to include several perspectives during pathway development, including information specialists, pathologists, human health and environmental risk assessors, and chemical and product manufacturers, to ensure the biology is well captured and end use is considered.

  1. Liver transplantation after severe hepatic trauma: a sustainable practice. A single-center experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Damiano; Brunati, Andrea; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Severe hepatic trauma is a rare indication for liver transplantation (LT). We report our single-center experience of LT for hepatic trauma. Four new cases are discussed in light of a literature review in order to depict the pathways leading from hepatic trauma to LT and to assess the outcomes of this practice. LT is generally indicated in case of uncontrollable hemorrhage, acute liver failure, or post-traumatic late sequelae. Hepatic vessels thrombosis, sepsis, major hepatic resections, and a late referral are factors associated with the progression toward irreversible liver failure. Considering all reported cases, early patient and graft survival reached 68% and 62%, respectively, but in the last decade both have improved to 84%. LT after severe hepatic trauma is a sustainable practice considering the current good outcomes and the ineluctable death of these patients without LT. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding.

  3. Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Catherine; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Goyak, Katy O.; Minsavage, Gary; Westmoreland, Carl; Andersen, Melvin; Avigan, Mark; Duché, Daniel; Harris, Georgina; Hartung, Thomas; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kleensang, Andre; Landesmann, Brigitte; Martos, Suzanne; Matevia, Marilyn; Toole, Colleen; Rowan, Andrew; Schultz, Terry; Seed, Jennifer; Senior, John; Shah, Imran; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Vinken, Mathieu; Watkins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A workshop sponsored by the Human Toxicology Project Consortium (HTPC), “Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action” brought together experts from a wide range of perspectives to inform the process of pathway development and to advance two prototype pathways initially developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC): liver-specific fibrosis and steatosis. The first half of the workshop focused on the theory and practice of pathway development; the second on liver disease and the two prototype pathways. Participants agreed pathway development is extremely useful for organizing information and found that focusing the theoretical discussion on a specific AOP is helpful. It is important to include several perspectives during pathway development, including information specialists, pathologists, human health and environmental risk assessors, and chemical and product manufacturers, to ensure the biology is well captured and end use is considered. PMID:24535319

  4. Scolicidal effect of Allium sativum flowers on hydatid cyst protoscolices.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Esboei, B; Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Fathi, H; Rezaei Anzahaei, F

    2016-01-01

    he s Because there is no effective and safe drug therapy for hydatid cyst, finding of some new agents especially from herbal origin with a desired scolicidal effect attracts great attention for treatment and pre-surgical use to prevent the hydatid cyst recurrence. In this study, the scolicidal effect of ultrasonic methanol extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) flower is investigated. Protoscolices were collected aseptically from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and were exposed to different concentrations of extract for various exposure times. The viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% Eosin staining. The scolicidal activity of extract at a concentration of 50 mg ml-1 was 59, 76, 81 and 86% after 10, 30, 60, and 180 min of exposure respectively. The scolicidal effect at 100 mg ml-1 was 67, 78, 85 and 98% after various exposure times, respectively. The results of this study showed that the ultrasonic extract has high scolicidal activity and might be used as a natural scolicidal agent. Garlic flower extracts is a potent protoscolicid and might be used in hydatid cyst treatment and pre-surgery to prevent secondary cyst recurrence.

  5. Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization Tailored to Prepare the Liver for Complex Resections: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Baere, T. de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr; Robinson, J. M.; Deschamps, F.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) tailored to prepare the liver for complex and extended resections. During the past 5 years, 12 PVEs were performed in noncirrhotic patients with liver metastases from colon cancer (n = 10), choroidal melanoma (n = 1), and leiomyosarcoma (n = 1) to prepare complex anatomical liver resections in patients with small future remnant livers. These liver resections planned to preserve only segment IV in four patients, segments IV, V, and VIII in four patients, segments II, III, VI, and VII in threemore » patients, and segments V and VI in one patient. PVE was performed under general anesthesia with a flow-guided injection of a mixture of cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol using a 5-Fr catheter. All portal branches feeding the liver segments to be resected were successfully embolized with cyanoacrylate except one, which was occluded with coils due to the risk of reflux with cyanoacrylate. After a mean of 32 days, CT volumetry revealed a mean hypertrophy of the unembolized liver of 47 {+-} 25% (range, 21-88%). Liver resections could be performed in 10 patients but were canceled in 2, due to the occurrence of a new hepatic tumor in one and an insufficiently increased volume in the other. Among the 10 patients who underwent the liver resection, 1 died of postoperative sepsis, 3 died 3 to 32 months after surgery, including 1 death unrelated to cancer, and 6 were alive after 6 to 36 months after surgery. In conclusion, in this preliminary report, PVE appears to be feasible and able to induce hypertrophy of the future remnant liver before a complex and extended hepatectomy. Further evaluation is needed in a larger cohort.« less

  6. Hydatid cyst of urinary bladder associated with pregnancy:a case report.

    PubMed

    Kanagal, Deepa V; Hanumanalu, Lokeshchandra C

    2010-07-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatid disease which is caused by Echinococcus group of cestodes is very rare in pregnancy. While liver and lungs are commonly involved, other sites can be rarely affected. The management of hydatid disease in pregnancy is challenging in view of varied presentation and manifestation. We report a case of hydatid cyst arising from the bladder associated with pregnancy and presenting with abdominal pain. The cyst was surgically removed and the bladder wash was given with povidone-iodine. The postoperative recovery was uneventful with ongoing pregnancy. This is to our knowledge, the first case of hydatid cyst arising from the bladder associated with pregnancy to be reported.

  7. Surgical management of congenital saccular cysts of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Ward, R F; Jones, J; Arnold, J A

    1995-09-01

    Congenital saccular cysts of the larynx are unusual lesions that commonly present with respiratory obstruction in infants and children. The saccular cyst may result from an atresia of the laryngeal saccule orifice or may represent the retention of mucus in the collecting ducts of submucosal glands located around the ventricle. Traditionally, the treatment of the lesions has been endoscopic unroofing or marsupialization. Frequently, this modality requires multiple procedures as well as concomitant tracheotomy. There also have been reports of acquired subglottic stenosis. We have found that removal of the recurrent saccular cyst can be achieved relatively safely and effectively via a lateral cervical approach to the thyrohyoid membrane. We review our experience with four patients with congenital saccular cysts and detail the evaluation and surgical management of these lesions.

  8. Congenital choledochal cyst: video-guided laparoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Farello, G A; Cerofolini, A; Rebonato, M; Bergamaschi, G; Ferrari, C; Chiappetta, A

    1995-10-01

    We report our first experience with a laparoscopic treatment of congenital choledochal cysts involving the total cyst resection and the reconstruction of the biliary and gastrointestinal tracts through a transmesocolic hepatic-jejunal Roux-en-Y loop anastomosis. The procedure was carried out in a 14-kg 6-year-old girl with a congenital choledochal cyst of the first type, according to the Alonso-Lej classification. The cyst was divided using a Multifire EndoGIA 30 stapler. Hepatic-jejunal and jejunojejunal anastomoses were made with 4.0 chrome catgut interrupted sutures. Intestinal recanalization occurred on the 2nd postoperative day and the postoperative course was uneventful. The laparoscopic approach affords several advantages: excellent intraoperative visualization of tiny structures and, therefore, great surgical accuracy; early resumption of peristalsis; no postoperative pain; no laparocele; prevention of adhesions; excellent esthetics; and quicker resumption of school and sports activities.

  9. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  10. Molecular Absorbent Recirculating System therapy (MARS®) in pediatric acute liver failure: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, Pierre; Merouani, Aicha; Phan, Véronique; Litalien, Catherine; Lallier, Michel; Alvarez, Fernando; Jouvet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Supportive care as a bridge to transplant or recovery remains challenging in children suffering from acute liver failure (ALF). We report our experience in children using the Molecular Absorbent Recirculating System (MARS(®)). Retrospective data from children receiving therapy using MARS(®) from October 2009 to October 2012 were included in this single-center retrospective study. Patient characteristics, clinical presentation and complications of ALF, clinical and biological data before and after each MARS(®) session, technical modalities and adverse events were recorded. A total of six children underwent 17 MARS(®) sessions during the study period. Two adolescents were treated with the adult filter MARSFLUX(®) and four infants were treated with the MiniMARS(®) filter. The mean PEdiatric Logistic Dysfunction (PELOD) score at admission was 19 (range 11-33). All patients were mechanically ventilated, and four had acute kidney injury. The neurological course improved in one case, judged as stable in two cases and worsened in one case; data were unavailable in two cases. Mean serum ammonia levels decreased significantly following treatment with MARS(®) from an initial 89 ± 29 to 58 ± 35 mcmol/L (p = 0.02). No other significant biological improvement was observed. Hemodynamic status improved/remained unchanged in the adolescent group, but in the infants four of the seven sessions were poorly tolerated and two sessions were aborted. Three patients died, two were successfully transplanted and one recovered without transplantation. In our experience, treatment with MARS(®) is associated with encouraging results in adolescents, but it needs modification for very sick infants to improve tolerance.

  11. Novel Interventional Management of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Nanosecond Pulses on Experimental Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhang, Ruiqing; Aji, Tuerganaili; Shao, Yingmei; Chen, Yonggang; Wen, Hao

    2017-07-03

    The nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is investigated as an alternative plan for benign hepatic hydatid cyst. Altogether 72 C57B6 mice were included. Normal group (n = 12) had no parasite injection and the other 60 mice were used to induce hydatid cyst in liver by injecting protoscolices in portal vein. The liver hydatid cysts were exposed to nsPEF with different doses and then follow up. The standard surgery was performed as positive control. The hydatid cyst growth was monitored by ultrasound; the morphology was checked by gross anatomy and pathology was tested by H&E stain. In nsPEF-treated groups no hepatic failure nor bleeding were observed. As a comparison, in the surgery group, high post-treatment complications occurred (50%). Significant parasite growth inhibition was seen in high nsPEF dose group as compared with control group (P < 0.05). Pathological analysis confirmed destruction of hydatid cyst with sharp demarcation defined by the electrodes. Laboratory analysis showed nsPEF stimulated a time-dependent infection and recoverable liver function. The traumatic reactions defined by white blood count was significant lower than surgery groups (P < 0.05).Preliminary studies demonstrate nsPEF ablation can be applied on hepatic hydatid by inhibiting parasite growth, destructing the cyst and stimulating infections.

  12. Outcome of children with blunt liver or spleen injuries: Experience from a single institution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Woon-Won

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the demographics, injury pattern, and treatment outcomes among children hospitalized for the management of blunt liver and spleen injury at a single institution in Korea, and to document trends in treatment strategies of children with blunt torso trauma. Children (<20 years) with blunt liver and spleen injuries, hospitalized at our center between May 2010 and February 2016, were included in the present study. Data were retrospectively analyzed for demographic and injury-related information were obtained. During the study period, 34 patients with blunt liver injury and 21 patients with blunt spleen injury presented at the center. The most common cause of liver and spleen injury was motor vehicle collision, followed by fall. Thirty patients (88.2%) with liver injuries and 18 patients (85.7%) with spleen injuries were managed conservatively. No cases of mortality occurred in patients with spleen injury group; one patient (2.9%) died in patients with liver injury due to uncontrolled bleeding. Our data demonstrated that 85.7% of patients with spleen injuries and 88.2% of patients with liver injuries were managed nonoperatively. Operative management was chosen more selectively, being applied in patients with high grade organ injury scores or abrupt changes in vital status. Our findings will contribute to the available data concerning children with traumatic injuries in Korea. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The molecular adsorbent recirculating system as a liver support system: summary of Mexican experience.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Garza, Laura Esthela; Muñoz-Ramírez, Ma del Rosario; Muñoz-Espinoza, Linda Elsa; Ruiz Velasco, José Antonio Velarde; Moreno-Alcántar, Rosalba; Marín-López, Eduardo; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) on patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and liver failure with cirrhosis (AoCLF) as well as in cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus in a Mexican population. From August 2003 to December 2011, MARS was used in 38 patients with ALF, 15 patients with AoCLF, and 17 cholestatic patients with intractable pruritus. The patients were examined using a standard liver function test and for vital signs, presence of ascites and encephalopathy before and after each treatment. The therapeutic response, patient status, follow-up status, and need for liver transplantation were determined. Seventy-nine MARS procedures were performed. MARS was used for ALF in 54.3% of patients, AoCLF in 24.2%, and cholestatic disease in 21.5%. There were significant improvements in serum bilirubin (p = 0.000), aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.000), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.030), gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase (p = 0.044), alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.006), and encephalopathy grade (p = 0.000). Thirty-eight ALF patients were listed for emergency liver transplantation and treated with MARS; 20 of these patients died on a waiting list, 18 survived. only four underwent liver transplantation and 14 (37%) recovered without transplantation after the MARS procedure. MARS is a safe and effective procedure, especially for ALF patients. Our results suggest that MARS therapy can contribute to native liver recovery in ALF patients.

  14. Huge intradiploic epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdol, Cagatay; Gurcan, Oktay; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Tun, Kagan; Cemil, Berker

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with an occipital mass under the scalp and complained of headache, nausea, and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass in the occipital scalp extending from the scalp through the cranium and several centimetres into the posterior fossa. There were well-defined margins in the deep portion and the mass was totally removed. Histological examination showed that the cystic structure was lined by squamous epithelium containing laminated keratin material. The pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged free of symptoms.

  15. Combined liver resection and reconstruction of the supra-renal vena cava: the Paul Brousse experience.

    PubMed

    Azoulay, Daniel; Andreani, Paola; Maggi, Umberto; Salloum, Chadi; Perdigao, Fabiano; Sebagh, Mylène; Lemoine, Antoinette; Adam, René; Castaing, Denis

    2006-07-01

    Liver tumors with inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement may require combined resection of the liver and IVC. This approach, with its high surgical risks and poor long-term prognosis, was precluded until the development of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, portal vein embolization, reinforced vascular prostheses, and technical advances in liver transplantation. We reviewed 22 cases of hepatectomy with retrohepatic IVC resection and reconstruction. The patients had a median age of 51.5 years (range, 32.8-75.3 years). Indications for resection were: liver metastases (n = 9), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 8), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 2), other cancers (n = 3). The liver resections carried out included 18 first, 3 second, and one third hepatectomy. Segment 1 (caudate lobe) was included in the specimen in 19 cases (86%). Resection concerned 1 to 6 liver segments (median = 5.0). Vascular control was achieved by vascular exclusion of the liver preserving the caval flow (n = 1), standard vascular exclusion of the liver (n = 12), in situ cold perfusion of the liver (n = 9). Ex situ surgery was not necessary in any case. Venovenous bypass was used in 12 cases. The IVC was reconstructed with a ringed Gore-Tex tube graft (n = 10), primarily (n = 8), or by caval plasty (n = 4). A main hepatic vein was reimplanted in 6 cases: into the native IVC (n = 4) or into a Gore-Tex tube graft (n = 2). One patient died (4.5%) due to catheter infection, 7 days after in situ cold perfusion with replacement of the vena cava. Eight patients (36%) had no complications and 14 patients (64%) had 23 complications. In all but 1 case, the complications were transient and successfully controlled. The patients stayed in intensive care for 3.3 +/- 2.0 days and in the hospital for 17.7 +/- 7.8 days. All vascular reconstructions were patent at last follow-up. With median follow-up of 19 months, 10 patients died of tumor recurrence and eleven were alive with (n = 5) or without (n = 6) disease. Actuarial 1-, 3-, and

  16. Reduction in fecal excretion of Giardia cysts: effect of cholestasis and diet.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, Stanley

    2005-12-01

    Bile is a major growth factor for the proliferation of Giardia spp. trophozoites in the small intestine and, at high concentrations, stimulates encystment of trophozoites. This report demonstrates that surgical cholestasis to interrupt the flow of bile from liver to intestine or the use of bile-binding resins in the diet can both dramatically decrease the fecal excretion of Giardia muris cysts. Cholestasis produced a 3 log reduction in excretion of G. muris cysts within 24 hr of surgery and a 4 log reduction after 3 days. Sham controls showed no difference in cyst excretion from presurgical control values. Two isocaloric diets were studied: a control diet (N) of Purina mouse chow containing 5% celufil and an experimental diet (CR) containing 5% cholestyramine, a resin that binds bile. Compared with the N diet, the CR diet was associated with reductions in cyst excretion of 3 logs within 1 day. Despite lowered excretion of G. muris cysts in mice fed the cholestyramine diet, the trophozoite recovery from the duodenum was similar with both diets. Cyclic feeding of the CR diet and the N diet at 3-day intervals produced significant oscillations (changes of 3-4 logs) in fecal cyst shedding. The significant reductions in fecal excretion of cysts observed with agents that bind bile suggests that diets capable of binding bile might be a therapeutic means to minimize the fecal excretion of cysts and thereby may help to reduce the risk of spreading giardiasis through fecal-oral contamination.

  17. Augmented Reality Guidance for the Resection of Missing Colorectal Liver Metastases: An Initial Experience.

    PubMed

    Ntourakis, Dimitrios; Memeo, Ricardo; Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Modern chemotherapy achieves the shrinking of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) to such extent that they may disappear from radiological imaging. Disappearing CRLM rarely represents a complete pathological remission and have an important risk of recurrence. Augmented reality (AR) consists in the fusion of real-time patient images with a computer-generated 3D virtual patient model created from pre-operative medical imaging. The aim of this prospective pilot study is to investigate the potential of AR navigation as a tool to help locate and surgically resect missing CRLM. A 3D virtual anatomical model was created from thoracoabdominal CT-scans using customary software (VR RENDER(®), IRCAD). The virtual model was superimposed to the operative field using an Exoscope (VITOM(®), Karl Storz, Tüttlingen, Germany). Virtual and real images were manually registered in real-time using a video mixer, based on external anatomical landmarks with an estimated accuracy of 5 mm. This modality was tested in three patients, with four missing CRLM that had sizes from 12 to 24 mm, undergoing laparotomy after receiving pre-operative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. AR display and fine registration was performed within 6 min. AR helped detect all four missing CRLM, and guided their resection. In all cases the planned security margin of 1 cm was clear and resections were confirmed to be R0 by pathology. There was no postoperative major morbidity or mortality. No local recurrence occurred in the follow-up period of 6-22 months. This initial experience suggests that AR may be a helpful navigation tool for the resection of missing CRLM.

  18. Repeat liver resection for recurrent colorectal metastases: a single-centre, 13-year experience.

    PubMed

    Battula, Narendra; Tsapralis, Dimitrios; Mayer, David; Isaac, John; Muiesan, Paolo; Sutcliffe, Robert P; Bramhall, Simon; Mirza, Darius; Marudanayagam, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Isolated intrahepatic recurrence is noted in up to 40% of patients following curative liver resection for colorectal liver metastases (CLM). The aims of this study were to analyse the outcomes of repeat hepatectomy for recurrent CLM and to identify factors predicting survival. Data for all liver resections for CLM carried out at one centre between 1998 and 2011 were analysed. A total of 1027 liver resections were performed for CLM. Of these, 58 were repeat liver resections performed in 53 patients. Median time intervals were 10.5 months between the primary resection and first hepatectomy, and 15.4 months between the first and repeat hepatectomies. The median tumour size was 3.0 cm and the median number of tumours was one. Six patients had a positive margin (R1) resection following first hepatectomy. There were no perioperative deaths. Significant complications included transient liver dysfunction in one and bile leak in two patients. Rates of 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival following repeat liver resection were 85%, 61% and 52%, respectively, at a median follow-up of 23 months. R1 resection at first hepatectomy (P = 0.002), a shorter time interval between the first and second hepatectomies (P = 0.02) and the presence of extrahepatic disease (P = 0.02) were associated with significantly worse overall survival. Repeat resection of CLM is safe and can achieve longterm survival in carefully selected patients. A preoperative knowledge of poor prognostic factors helps to facilitate better patient selection. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  19. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a cooled salt-water (saline) ... Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant Images Donor liver attachment Liver transplant - series References Carrion AF, Martin ...

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Quality of Life, and the Subjective Experience in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Paslakis, Georgios; Beckmann, Mingo; Beckebaum, Susanne; Klein, Christian; Gräf, Jan; Erim, Yesim

    2018-03-01

    A high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among transplant recipients has been associated with a low adherence to treatment and poor survival. It is crucial to detect and prevent the development of posttraumatic stress in transplant settings. We examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress symptoms in 3 liver transplant recipients by means of the Essen Trauma Inventory (ETI), a self-report questionnaire. The Short Form-36 was used to assess the perceived health-related quality of life. Patients were asked to indicate the most traumatic events within the context of the liver transplantation procedure. Five patients (4.9%) fulfilled the criteria for PTSD related to liver disease or transplantation (ETI score greater than 27). In these patients, diagnosis was confirmed by a structured clinical interview. Fourteen (13.6%) patients had a partial PTSD with the ETI score less than 27 and greater than 16. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were significantly associated with perceived poor physical and mental health-related quality of life. Patients reported that the physicians' disclosure of diagnosis was experienced as traumatic, followed by treatment in an intensive care unit and the liver transplantation itself. The ETI resulted in prevalence rates for PTSD comparable to previous studies in liver transplantation settings. Medical professionals requested additional training in how to deliver severe diagnoses to patients.

  1. Postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding after an orthotopic liver transplant: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Cihan; Kırnap, Mahir; Akdur, Aydıncan; Özçay, Figen; Selçuk, Haldun; Arslan, Gülnaz; Moray, Gökhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    The overall incidence, causes, and treatment of posttransplant gastrointestinal bleeding, have been previously described. In this study, we examined the causes and treatment of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding after orthotopic liver transplant. Clinical data of 335 patients who underwent an orthotopic liver transplant at our institution between September 2001 and December 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The diagnosis and treatment of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding after an orthotopic liver transplant were reviewed. Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 13 patients (3.8%) after an orthotopic liver transplant. Five patients (38.4%) were adult and 8 patients (61.6%) were pediatric. The sites of the bleeding were Roux-en-Y anastomosis bleeding in 5 cases, peptic ulcer in 3 cases, erosive gastritis in 3 cases, gastric and esophageal varices in 1 case, and hemobilia in 1 case. These 13 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding were managed with conservative treatment, endoscopic treatment, radiologic interventional embolism, or exploratory laparotomy. No patients died because of gastro--intestinal bleeding. During follow-up, 4 patients died because of sepsis and 1 patient died of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastrointestinal bleeding after liver transplant and its incidence, causes, and treatment are not well-described in the literature. Diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal bleeding requires a multidisciplinary approach involving surgeons, hepatologists, advanced and experienced endoscopists, and interventional radiologists.

  2. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.

  3. Aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Timothy B; Ward, James P; Alaia, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare skeletal tumors that most commonly occur in the first two decades of life. They primarily develop about the knee but may arise in any portion of the axial or appendicular skeleton. Pathogenesis of these tumors remains controversial and may be vascular, traumatic, or genetic. Radiographic features include a dilated, radiolucent lesion typically located within the metaphyseal portion of the bone, with fluid-fluid levels visible on MRI. Histologic features include blood-filled lakes interposed between fibrous stromata. Differential diagnosis includes conditions such as telangiectatic osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The mainstay of treatment is curettage and bone graft, with or without adjuvant treatment. Other management options include cryotherapy, sclerotherapy, radionuclide ablation, and en bloc resection. The recurrence rate is low after appropriate treatment; however, more than one procedure may be required to completely eradicate the lesion.

  4. Liver transplantation from anti-hepatitis C virus-positive donors: our experience.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, E; Abradelo, M; Fuertes, A; Manrique, A; Colina, F; Alegre, C; Calvo, J; García, M; García-Sesma, A; Cambra, F; Sanabria, R; Moreno, E; Jimenez, C

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is among the most common causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide. The donor shortage leads us to consider alternative organ sources such as HCV-positive donors. The outcomes of these transplants must be evaluated thoroughly since there is universal recurrence of disease among HCV-positive liver transplant recipients. From January 2005 to April 2011, we performed 143 liver transplants (OLT) to treat end-stage liver disease secondary to HCV infection. Thirteen patients (9,1%) received livers from HCV-positive donors. A control group consisted of 130 HCV-positive patients who underwent OLT during the same period with organs from HCV-negative donors. Donor HCV status was assessed by 2 tests: HCV antibodies and viral load. Not only recipient and graft survivals were analyzed, but also frequency, timing and severity of hepatitis recurrence. Among 143 transplants performed in HCV-positive recipients during a 6-year period from January 1, 2005, to April 30, 2011, 9.1% of patients received an organ from an anti-HCV-positive donor, 72.7% of whom showed a negative viral load. The vast majority (80%) of our patients suffered hepatitis during their follow-up, 22.4% of which were severe cases. No significant difference in patient or graft survival was observed between the 2 groups. A high percentage of grafts with initial positive serology for HCV showed no viral replication. Grafts from HCV-positive donors can be considered to be a safe, effective source for liver donation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Section 4. Further expanding the criteria for HCC in living donor liver transplantation: the Tokyo University experience.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-04-27

    In Asia, evidence-based guidelines for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have evolved, including the option of liver transplantation. Because of the continuing serious organ shortage, however, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remains the mainstream in Japan. Unlike deceased donor transplantation, living donor transplantation is not always limited by the restrictions imposed by the nationwide organ allocation system. The decision for transplantation may depend on institutional or case-by-case considerations, balancing the will of the donor, the operative risk, and the overall survival benefit. Cumulative data from the Japanese national multicenter registry analysis as well as individual center experiences suggest further expanding the criteria for LDLT for HCC from the Milan criteria is feasible with acceptable outcomes.

  6. Migrating lumbar facet joint cysts.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Francesco; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Lalam, Radhesh K; Tins, Bernhard J; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; McCall, Iain W

    2006-04-01

    The majority of lumbar facet joint cysts (LFJCs) are located in the spinal canal, on the medial aspect of the facet joint with characteristic diagnostic features. When they migrate away from the joint of origin, they cause diagnostic problems. In a 7-year period we examined by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging five unusual cases of facet joint cysts which migrated from the facet joint of origin. Three LFJCs were identified in the right S1 foramen, one in the right L5-S1 neural foramen and one in the left erector spinae and multifidus muscles between the levels of L2-L4 spinous process. Awareness that spinal lesions identified at MRI and CT could be due to migrating facet joint cyst requires a high level of suspicion. The identification of the appositional contact of the cyst and the facet joint needs to be actively sought in the presence of degenerative facet joints.

  7. Molecular aspects of cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2005-11-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Superkingdom Eukaryota; kingdom Metazoa; phylum Nematoda; class Chromadorea; order Tylenchida; suborder Tylenchina; superfamily Tylenchoidea; family Heteroderidae; subfamily Heteroderinae; main genera Heterodera and Globodera. Cyst nematodes comprise approximately 100 known species in six genera. They are pathogens of temperate, subtropical and tropical plant species and the host range of many species is narrow. The most economically important species are within the Globodera and Heterodera genera. Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are important pathogens of potato crops. There are many economic species in the Heterodera genus, including Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode), H. avenae (cereal cyst nematode) and H. schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode), the last of which attacks a range of Chenopodiaceae and Cruciferae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Disease symptoms: Field symptoms of severe cyst nematode infection are often stunting, wilting and chlorosis, but considerable yield loss can occur without obvious symptoms. The only unique indicator of cyst nematode infection is the presence of adult female nematodes attached to host roots after several weeks of parasitism. Disease control: This is usually achieved by using integrated pest management involving cultural practices such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars if available and chemical control when economically justified.

  8. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

  9. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p < 0.001). Assessment of staining intensity and staining pattern showed more strong intensity and focally pattern in odontogenic keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Findings showed higher expression of cyclin D1 in parabasal layer of odontogenic keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  10. Keratinous inclusion cyst of oesophagus: unusual finding

    PubMed Central

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mutum, Samarendra Singh; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi

    2013-01-01

    Cysts of the oesophagus are unusual findings and they are classified according to the embryological site of origin. It may represent inclusion cysts, retention cysts and developmental cysts. We present a case of keratinous inclusion cyst of the lower oesophagus in a 71-year-old Malay woman who presented with dyspepsia and severe epigastric pain. An oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated a sliding hiatus hernia with whitish ulcer-like lesion at the lower oesophagus. Biopsy from the lesion revealed a keratinous inclusion cyst. The patient was given pantoprazole and put on regular follow-up for monitoring any other development. PMID:23878290

  11. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Causality Assessment: Criteria and Experience in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Paul H

    2016-02-04

    Hepatotoxicity due to drugs, herbal or dietary supplements remains largely a clinical diagnosis based on meticulous history taking and exclusion of other causes of liver injury. In 2004, the U.S. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) was created under the auspices of the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with the aims of establishing a large registry of cases for clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic study. From inception, the DILIN has used an expert opinion process that incorporates consensus amongst three different DILIN hepatologists assigned to each case. It is the most well-established, well-described and vigorous expert opinion process for DILI to date, and yet it is an imperfect standard. This review will discuss the DILIN expert opinion process, its strengths and weaknesses, psychometric performance and future.

  12. Liver Procurement for Orthotopic Transplantation: An Analysis of the Pittsburgh Experience

    PubMed Central

    Van Thiel, David H.; Schade, Robert R.; Hakala, Thomas R.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Denny, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of prospective organ donors in the United States and the techniques which are to used to guarantee their optimal use after identification are analyzed. Attitudes of the public and health professionals toward organ donation are discussed. The organization of the Pittsburgh Organ Procurement Agency and its relationship to other such agencies is described. Finally, the presently used techniques of liver salvaging and preservation are outlined. PMID:6363261

  13. Robotic surgery of the liver: Italian experience and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, P; Antonelli, B; Rossi, G

    2013-01-01

    Robotic liver resection is a new promising minimally invasive surgical technique not yet validated by level I evidence. During recent years, the application of the laparoscopic approach to liver resection has grown less than other abdominal specialties due to the intrinsic limitations of laparoscopic instruments. Robotics can overcome these limitations above all for complex operations. A review of the literature on major hepatic surgery was conducted on PubMed using selected keywords. Two hundred and thirty-five patients in 17 series were analysed and outcomes such as operative time, estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, complications, conversion rate, and costs were described. The most commonly performed procedures were wedge resection and segmentectomy, but the predominance of major hepatectomies performed with robotic surgery is likely due to the superior control achieved by the robotic system. The conversion and complication rates were 4.2% and 13.4%, respectively. Intracavitary fluid collections and bile leaks were the most frequently occurring morbidities. The mean operation time was 285 min. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 50–280 mL. The mean postoperative hospital stay was four to seven days. Overall survival and long-term outcomes were not reported. Robotic liver surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance; a survey was carried out on robotic surgery, which showed that it is perceived as a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. More than 100 robotic hepatic resections have been performed in Italy where important robotic training schools are active. Robotic liver surgery is feasible and safe in trained and experienced hands. Further evaluation is required to assess the improvement in outcomes and long-term oncologic follow-up. PMID:24174991

  14. Impact of elderly donors for liver transplantation: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Naoko; Kaido, Toshimi; Hammad, Ahmed; Ogawa, Kohei; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Uemura, Tadahiro; Mori, Akira; Hatano, Etsuro; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-05-01

    Elderly donor grafts for liver transplantation (LT) are recognized to be marginal grafts. The present study investigated the impact of using elderly donors for LT. Between June 1990 and August 2012, 1631 patients received LT at Kyoto University Hospital. Out of 1631 patients, 1597 patients received living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), whereas the other 34 patients underwent deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Seventy-five grafts that were used came from individuals who were ≥60 years old. We retrospectively analyzed the recipients' survival rates according to donor age. The overall survival rates of the recipients of all LDLT (P < 0.001), adult-to-adult LDLT (P = 0.007), all DDLT (P = 0.026), and adult-to-adult DDLT (P = 0.011) were significantly lower for the elderly donor group versus the younger group and especially for those who were hepatitis C-positive. A multivariate analysis revealed that donor age, ABO incompatibility, and preoperative intensive care unit stay were independent risk factors for poor patient survival in adult-to-adult LDLT. However, no significant differences existed between the 2 groups among those who received adult-to-adult LDLT in and after April 2006. No significant association was found between donor age and incidence of acute cellular rejection. In conclusion, donor age was closely related to the survival rate for LDLT and DDLT, although the impact of donor age was not shown in the recent cases. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Navigated MRI-guided liver biopsies in a closed-bore scanner: experience in 52 patients.

    PubMed

    Moche, Michael; Heinig, Susann; Garnov, Nikita; Fuchs, Jochen; Petersen, Tim-Ole; Seider, Daniel; Brandmaier, Philipp; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate clinical effectiveness and diagnostic efficiency of a navigation device for MR-guided biopsies of focal liver lesions in a closed-bore scanner. In 52 patients, 55 biopsies were performed. An add-on MR navigation system with optical instrument tracking was used for image guidance and biopsy device insertion outside the bore. Fast control imaging allowed visualization of the true needle position at any time. The biopsy workflow and procedure duration were recorded. Histological analysis and clinical course/outcome were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. Fifty-four of 55 liver biopsies were performed successfully with the system. No major and four minor complications occurred. Mean tumour size was 23 ± 14 mm and the skin-to-target length ranged from 22 to 177 mm. In 39 cases, access path was double oblique. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 88 %, 100 % and 92 %, respectively. The mean procedure time was 51 ± 12 min, whereas the puncture itself lasted 16 ± 6 min. On average, four control scans were taken. Using this navigation device, biopsies of poorly visible and difficult accessible liver lesions could be performed safely and reliably in a closed-bore MRI scanner. The system can be easily implemented in clinical routine workflow. • Targeted liver biopsies could be reliably performed in a closed-bore MRI. • The navigation system allows for image guidance outside of the scanner bore. • Assisted MRI-guided biopsies are helpful for focal lesions with a difficult access. • Successful integration of the method in clinical workflow was shown. • Subsequent system installation in an existing MRI environment is feasible.

  16. Late Intensive Care Unit Admission in Liver Transplant Recipients: 10-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Atar, Funda; Gedik, Ender; Kaplan, Şerife; Zeyneloğlu, Pınar; Pirat, Arash; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated late intensive care unit admission in liver transplant recipients to identify incidences and causes of acute respiratory failure in the postoperative period and to compare these results with results in patients who did not have acute respiratory failure. We retrospectively screened the data of 173 consecutive adult liver transplant recipients from January 2005 through March 2015 to identify patients with late admission (> 30 d posttransplant) to an intensive care unit. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with and without acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory failure was defined as severe dyspnea, respiratory distress, decreased oxygen saturation, hypoxemia or hypercapnia on room air, or need for noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. Demographic, laboratory, clinical, and respiratory data were collected. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores; lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays; and hospital mortality were assessed. Among 173 patients, 37 (21.4%) were admitted to an intensive care unit, including 22 (59.5%) with acute respiratory failure. The leading cause of acute respiratory failure was pneumonia (n = 19, 86.4%). Patients with acute respiratory failure had significantly lower levels of albumin before intensive care unit admission (P = .003). In patients with acute respiratory failure, severe sepsis and septic shock were more frequently observed and tracheotomy was more frequently performed (P = .041). Acute respiratory failure developed in 59.5% of liver transplant recipients with late intensive care unit admission. The leading cause was pneumonia, with this group of patients having higher requirements for invasive mechanical ventilation and tracheotomy, longer stays in an intensive care unit, and higher mortality.

  17. Recipient-donor age matching in liver transplantation: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Pagano, D; Grosso, G; Vizzini, G; Spada, M; Cintorino, D; Malaguarnera, M; Donati, M; Mistretta, A; Gridelli, B; Gruttadauria, S

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether donor age was a predictor of outcomes in liver transplantation, representing an independent risk factor as well as its impact related to recipient age-matching. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 221 adult liver transplantations performed from January 2006 to September 2009. Compared with recipients who received grafts from donors <60 years old, transplantation from older donors was associated with significantly higher rates of graft rejection (9.5% vs 3.5%; P = .05) and worse graft survival (P = .021). When comparing recipient and graft survivals according to age matching, we observed significantly worse values for age-mismatched (P values .029 and .037, respectively) versus age-matched patients. After adjusting for covariates in a multivariate model, age mismatch was an independent risk factor for patient death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.17; P = .027) and graft loss (HR 3.86, 95% CI 1.02-15.47; P = .046). The results of this study suggest to that optimized donor allocation takes into account both donor and recipient ages maximize survival of liver-transplanted patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver transplantation using organs from deceased organ donors: a single organ transplant center experience.

    PubMed

    Han, Ming; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Yang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Dong-Ping; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wu, Lin-Wei; Hu, An-Bin; Tai, Qiang; Ma, Yi; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; He, Xiao-Shun

    2014-08-01

    In 2011, a pilot program for deceased organ donation was initiated in China. We describe the first successful series of liver transplants in the pilot program. From July 2011 to August 2012, our center performed 26 liver transplants from a pool of 29 deceased donors. All organ donation and allograft procurement were conducted according to the national protocol. The clinical data of donors and recipients were collected and summarized retrospectively. Among the 29 donors, 24 were China Category II donors (organ donation after cardiac death), and five were China Category III donors (organ donation after brain death followed by cardiac death). The recipients were mainly the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The one-year patient survival rate was 80.8% with a median follow-up of 422 (2-696) days. Among the five mortalities during the follow-up, three died of tumor recurrence. In terms of post-transplant complications, 9 recipients (34.6%) experienced early allograft dysfunction, 1 (3.8%) had non-anastomotic biliary stricture, and 1 (3.8%) was complicated with hepatic arterial thrombosis. None of these complications resulted in patient death. Notably, primary non-function was not observed in any of the grafts. With careful donor selection, liver transplant from deceased donors can be performed safely and plays a critical role in overcoming the extreme organ shortage in China.

  19. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors - the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Kenneth W; Johnson, Jedediah E; Mou, Benjamin; Barney, Brandon M; Nelson, Kathryn E; Mayo, Charles S; Haddock, Michael G; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Olivier, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the efficacy of liver SBRT we reviewed our prospectively collected institutional SBRT database. Between May 2008 and March 2013, 80 patients with 104 liver lesions received SBRT. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated local control (LC), overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards regression models identified factors associated with LC and OS. The median follow-up for living patients was 38.6 months. Patients had primary (n=17) or metastatic (n=63) tumors. The median tumor size was 2.7 cm (range, 0.6-14.0). The 1 and 4 year rates of LC were 89.4% and 88%, respectively. Colorectal (CRC) metastasis was associated with lower rates of LC (p=0.013). OS at 1 and 4 years was 78% and 25%, respectively. Patients with CRC metastases had higher rates of OS (p=0.03). The occurrence of severe acute and late toxicity was 3.8% and 6.3%, respectively. SBRT should be studied in prospective clinical trials compared with other liver-directed treatment modalities.

  20. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors — the Mayo Clinic experience

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Johnson, Jedediah E.; Mou, Benjamin; Barney, Brandon M.; Nelson, Kathryn E.; Mayo, Charles S.; Haddock, Michael G.; Hallemeier, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To better understand the efficacy of liver SBRT we reviewed our prospectively collected institutional SBRT database. Methods Between May 2008 and March 2013, 80 patients with 104 liver lesions received SBRT. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated local control (LC), overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards regression models identified factors associated with LC and OS. Results The median follow-up for living patients was 38.6 months. Patients had primary (n=17) or metastatic (n=63) tumors. The median tumor size was 2.7 cm (range, 0.6-14.0). The 1 and 4 year rates of LC were 89.4% and 88%, respectively. Colorectal (CRC) metastasis was associated with lower rates of LC (p=0.013). OS at 1 and 4 years was 78% and 25%, respectively. Patients with CRC metastases had higher rates of OS (p=0.03). The occurrence of severe acute and late toxicity was 3.8% and 6.3%, respectively. Conclusions SBRT should be studied in prospective clinical trials compared with other liver-directed treatment modalities. PMID:29296438

  1. Comparative Efficiency of the Fenwick Can and Schuiling Centrifuge in Extracting Nematode Cysts from Different Soil Types

    PubMed Central

    Bellvert, Joaquim; Crombie, Kieran; Horgan, Finbarr G.

    2008-01-01

    The Fenwick can and Schuiling centrifuge are widely used to extract nematode cysts from soil samples. The comparative efficiencies of these two methods during cyst extraction have not been determined for different soil types under different cyst densities. Such information is vital for statutory laboratories that must choose a method for routine, high-throughput soil monitoring. In this study, samples of different soil types seeded with varying densities of potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) cysts were processed using both methods. In one experiment, with 200 ml samples, recovery was similar between methods. In a second experiment with 500 ml samples, cyst recovery was higher using the Schuiling centrifuge. For each method and soil type, cyst extraction efficiency was similar across all densities tested. Extraction was efficient from pure sand (Fenwick 72%, Schuiling 84%) and naturally sandy soils (Fenwick 62%, Schuiling 73%), but was significantly less efficient from clay-soil (Fenwick 42%, Schuiling 44%) and peat-soil with high organic matter content (Fenwick 35%, Schuiling 33%). Residual moisture (<10% w/w) in samples prior to analyses reduced extraction efficiency, particularly for sand and sandy soils. For each soil type and method, there were significant linear relationships between the number of cysts extracted and the numbers of cysts in the samples. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each extraction method for cyst extraction in statutory soil laboratories. PMID:19259516

  2. Cystic echinococcosis in cattle slaughtered at Shashemanne Municipal Abattoir, south central Oromia, Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst distribution and fertility.

    PubMed

    Negash, Kedir; Beyene, Desta; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2013-04-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses, causing morbidity and mortality in humans and huge economic losses in livestock. It is caused by metacestodes of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The metacestodes cause hydatid cysts in the lungs, liver and other organs of intermediate hosts. A study was made from December 2010 through March 2011 to determine the prevalence, organ distribution and characteristics of hydatid cysts in cattle slaughtered at Shashemanne Municipal Abattoir in Oromia, Ethiopia. Antemortem examination of 384 cattle was followed by standard postmortem inspection of their internal organs including lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen and heart for the presence of hydatid cysts. The overall prevalence of hydatid cysts recorded in cattle slaughtered at Shashemanne Municipal Abattoir was 49.5% (190/384). Hydatid cyst prevalence was significantly higher in cattle more than 7 years old compared with those aged 7 years or less, in male cattle compared with female cattle (51.9% vs 31.9%), and in cattle with a body condition score of lean or medium rather than fat (54.05% and 83.2% vs 22.9%). The greatest proportions of cysts were recorded in the lungs (71.6%) and liver (24.1%). Lungs and liver were more commonly infected (95.5%) than other organs. Of the cysts recorded, 15.9% were fertile, 71.7% sterile and 12.2% calcified. The percentage of fertile cysts in the lungs was higher than that in any other organ. Our study showed widespread occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in cattle, which may have a role in the lifecycle of this serious zoonosis.

  3. Neurenteric Cyst or Neuroendodermal Cyst? Immunohistochemical Study and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ting; Lai, Hung-Yi; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lee, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Neurenteric cysts are rare central nervous system lesions derived from an endodermal origin. There is no consensus concerning pathogenesis because of the paucity of occurrences. We report an immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with neurenteric cysts and postulate its pathogenesis. Ten patients underwent surgical treatment for neurenteric cysts from 1995 to 2015. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, radiologic, operative, and pathologic findings for these patients. Immunohistochemical stains were completed in all cases to distinguish cell type and origin. Three cell types were identified: pseudostratified-ciliated, goblet-columnar, and simple cuboidal cells. All cases were positive for cytokeratin 7, and negative for cytokeratin 20, caudal-type homeobox 2, mucin 2, thyroid transcription factor 1, human chorionic gonadotropin, placental alkaline phosphatase, and cluster of differentiation 31. Four of them had positive staining for mucin 5AC, with expression only in goblet-columnar cells. According to the immunohistochemical results, the cells resembled the respiratory tract (pseudostratified-ciliated), stomach (goblet-columnar), and respiratory bronchioles (simple cuboidal). Seventy-five percent of cases with recurrence had a goblet-columnar component, emphasizing the importance of total resection of the cyst and complete pathologic examination. We postulate that the cystic tumor was derived from multipotent endodermal cells that migrated and traveled along the neuroectoderm, with incomplete differentiation into various cell types as a result of an unsuitable microenvironment. Because the neurenteric canal was only the channel of migration rather than a component of the cysts, the term neuroendodermal cysts is more precise in presenting the embryopathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucous retention cyst of the maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, A; Batniji, S; el-Neweihi, E

    1986-12-01

    The mucous retention cyst is not a rare phenomenon. The incidence of dental patients was determined. Of 1685 patient radiographs reviewed, 44 (2.6%) had one or more mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinuses.

  5. Mycobiome of Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode Under Long Term Crop Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiming; Strom, Noah; Haarith, Deepak; Chen, Senyu; Bushley, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens. SCN cysts were collected from a long-term crop rotation experiment in Southeastern Minnesota at three time points over two growing seasons to characterize diversity of fungi inhabiting cysts and to examine how crop rotation and seasonal variation affects fungal communities. A majority of fungi in cysts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but the presence of several early diverging fungal subphyla thought to be primarily plant and litter associated, including Mortierellomycotina and Glomeromycotina (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), suggests a possible role as nematode egg parasites. Species richness varied by both crop rotation and season and was higher in early years of crop rotation and in fall at the end of the growing season. Crop rotation and season also impacted fungal community composition and identified several classes of fungi, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Orbiliomycetes (e.g., nematode trapping fungi), with higher relative abundance in early soybean rotations. The relative abundance of several genera was correlated with increasing years of soybean. Fungal communities also varied by season and were most divergent at midseason. The percentage of OTUs assigned to Mortierellomycotina_cls_Incertae_sedis and Sordariomycetes increased at midseason, while Orbiliomycetes

  6. Mycobiome of Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode Under Long Term Crop Rotation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiming; Strom, Noah; Haarith, Deepak; Chen, Senyu; Bushley, Kathryn E

    2018-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe (Phylum Nematoda), is a major pathogen of soybean. It causes substantial yield losses worldwide and is difficult to control because the cyst protects the eggs which can remain viable for nearly a decade. Crop rotation with non-host crops and use of biocontrol organisms such as fungi and bacteria offer promising approaches, but remain hampered by lack of knowledge of the biology of nematode parasitic organisms. We used a high-throughput metabarcoding approach to characterize fungal communities associated with the SCN cyst, a microenvironment in soil that may harbor both nematode parasites and plant pathogens. SCN cysts were collected from a long-term crop rotation experiment in Southeastern Minnesota at three time points over two growing seasons to characterize diversity of fungi inhabiting cysts and to examine how crop rotation and seasonal variation affects fungal communities. A majority of fungi in cysts belonged to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but the presence of several early diverging fungal subphyla thought to be primarily plant and litter associated, including Mortierellomycotina and Glomeromycotina (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi), suggests a possible role as nematode egg parasites. Species richness varied by both crop rotation and season and was higher in early years of crop rotation and in fall at the end of the growing season. Crop rotation and season also impacted fungal community composition and identified several classes of fungi, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Orbiliomycetes (e.g., nematode trapping fungi), with higher relative abundance in early soybean rotations. The relative abundance of several genera was correlated with increasing years of soybean. Fungal communities also varied by season and were most divergent at midseason. The percentage of OTUs assigned to Mortierellomycotina_cls_Incertae_sedis and Sordariomycetes increased at midseason, while Orbiliomycetes

  7. Laparoscopic thermoablation of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver - new experience of the centre.

    PubMed

    Murawa, Dawid; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Lewandowski, Adam; Nowaczyk, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Thermoablation of metastatic lesions in the liver is very commonplace. At present there are 3 essential techniques of access to carry out the procedure: open surgery, percutaneous technique and laparoscopic method. Percutaneous thermoablation is criticised due to the possible lack of radicalism. On the other hand, thermoablation during open surgery is a big perioperative trauma for the patient. The laparoscopic technique seems to be a compromise between the aforementioned techniques. The aim of this study was to present the technique and preliminary results of thermoablation of the liver carried out by means of the laparoscopic technique. Laparoscopic thermoablation was carried out in 4 patients with colorectal cancer metastases to the liver. In order to precisely locate the tumour and guarantee radicalism of the surgery, laparoscopic probe ultrasonography was carried out during the procedure. All the patients underwent the procedure without any difficulties. All the patients left the hospital department as soon as 3 or 4 days after the surgery. This was about 7 days earlier in comparison with the open surgery procedure, which had been carried out before. The patients required a supply of analgesics only during the first 48 hours - non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, which made a substantial difference between them and the patients treated with the open surgical technique. Thanks to the laparoscopic ultrasound technique one patient had an additional lesion located, which had not been described in preoperative examinations. In combination with ultrasonography, laparoscopic access, which does not have a very invasive character, seems to be relatively simple and effective to carry out the procedure of thermoablation.

  8. Laparoscopic thermoablation of colorectal cancer metastases to the liver – new experience of the centre

    PubMed Central

    Spychała, Arkadiusz; Lewandowski, Adam; Nowaczyk, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Thermoablation of metastatic lesions in the liver is very commonplace. At present there are 3 essential techniques of access to carry out the procedure: open surgery, percutaneous technique and laparoscopic method. Percutaneous thermoablation is criticised due to the possible lack of radicalism. On the other hand, thermoablation during open surgery is a big perioperative trauma for the patient. The laparoscopic technique seems to be a compromise between the aforementioned techniques. The aim of this study was to present the technique and preliminary results of thermoablation of the liver carried out by means of the laparoscopic technique. Material and methods Laparoscopic thermoablation was carried out in 4 patients with colorectal cancer metastases to the liver. In order to precisely locate the tumour and guarantee radicalism of the surgery, laparoscopic probe ultrasonography was carried out during the procedure. Results All the patients underwent the procedure without any difficulties. All the patients left the hospital department as soon as 3 or 4 days after the surgery. This was about 7 days earlier in comparison with the open surgery procedure, which had been carried out before. The patients required a supply of analgesics only during the first 48 hours – non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, which made a substantial difference between them and the patients treated with the open surgical technique. Thanks to the laparoscopic ultrasound technique one patient had an additional lesion located, which had not been described in preoperative examinations. Conclusions In combination with ultrasonography, laparoscopic access, which does not have a very invasive character, seems to be relatively simple and effective to carry out the procedure of thermoablation. PMID:23788874

  9. Family adjustment and parenting stress when an infant has serious liver disease: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Michael R; Stormon, Michael; Hardikar, Winita; Ee, Looi C; Krishnan, Usha; Carmody, Diana; Jermyn, Vicki; Lee, Mee-Mee; O'Loughlin, Edward V; Sawyer, Janine; Beyerle, Kathe; Lemberg, Daniel A; Day, Andrew S; Paul, Campbell; Hazell, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Parenting stress, problems in family functioning, and lack of fathers' engagement in treatment are associated with poor quality of life in children with chronic illnesses. The aim of the present study was to examine these characteristics in families of infants with serious liver disease in Australia, to inform the provision of mental health care for these families. From September 2009 to May 2013, 42 parents of infants recently diagnosed as having serious liver disease (defined as liver disease that may require transplantation in the future) completed questionnaires about family function, impact of the infant's illness on the family, parent stress symptoms, and fathers' engagement in the care of the child. Participants were recruited from 4 metropolitan children's hospitals in Australia. Parents reported psychological symptoms at similar rates to normative populations. Their reports of family functioning were significantly below mean scores in previously published populations with a medically ill family member (population mean 1.89; mothers mean 1.59; fathers mean 1.61, P < 0.001). Disruption to family roles was significantly correlated with psychological symptoms for mothers (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and fathers (r = 0.31, P < 0.05). Greater helpfulness of fathers was correlated with lower depression in mothers (r = -0.35, P < 0.05), and fathers' anxiety was correlated with their increased engagement (r = 0.40, P < 0.01). When parents report the presence of psychological symptoms, symptoms are likely to be present in both parents and are associated with difficulties adjusting to disrupted family roles. Father engagement may be protective of mothers' mental health.

  10. Deceased donor liver transplantation from donors with central nervous system malignancy: Experience of the Inonu University.

    PubMed

    Ince, Volkan; Ersan, Veysel; Ozdemir, Fatih; Barut, Bora; Koc, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation from deceased donors with a central nervous system (CNS) malignancy has some risk of tumor transmission to the recipient. Though the risk is small, this group of donors is regarded as marginal. The use of marginal grafts may be an acceptable alternative practice in order to expand the donor pool in countries where there is a shortage of donated organs. The aim of this study was to examine and present the outcomes of liver transplantations performed using donors with a CNS tumor. Between March 2002 and July 2017, 1990 (deceased donor: n=399, 20%; living donor: n=1591, 80%) liver transplantations were performed at the center. Of the 399 deceased donors, 17 (4.2%) had a CNS tumor. The data of donors with a CNS tumor and of recipients who survived for more than 1 month (n=11) were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, the grade of the CNS tumor, tumor transmission to recipient data, and survival rates were analyzed. Only 2 (18%) grafts were provided locally, 6 (54%) were offered to the transplantation center after all of the national centers had declined them, and 3 (37%) were made available to us by the national coordination center for patients with a documented notification of urgency. High-grade (grade III-IV) brain tumors were detected in 7 (64%) donors, while low-grade (grade I-II) tumors were found in 2 patients. The remaining 2 donors were not pathologically graded because the diagnosis was made radiologically. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall and tumor-free survival of the patients was estimated at 100%, 70%, and 45%, respectively. A median survival of 40 months (range: 13-62 months) was achieved in recipients of grafts from a donor with a CNS tumor and no donor-related malignant transformation was observed.

  11. Deceased donor liver transplantation from donors with central nervous system malignancy: Experience of the Inonu University

    PubMed Central

    Ince, Volkan; Ersan, Veysel; Ozdemir, Fatih; Barut, Bora; Koc, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Liver transplantation from deceased donors with a central nervous system (CNS) malignancy has some risk of tumor transmission to the recipient. Though the risk is small, this group of donors is regarded as marginal. The use of marginal grafts may be an acceptable alternative practice in order to expand the donor pool in countries where there is a shortage of donated organs. The aim of this study was to examine and present the outcomes of liver transplantations performed using donors with a CNS tumor. METHODS: Between March 2002 and July 2017, 1990 (deceased donor: n=399, 20%; living donor: n=1591, 80%) liver transplantations were performed at the center. Of the 399 deceased donors, 17 (4.2%) had a CNS tumor. The data of donors with a CNS tumor and of recipients who survived for more than 1 month (n=11) were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic data, the grade of the CNS tumor, tumor transmission to recipient data, and survival rates were analyzed. RESULTS: Only 2 (18%) grafts were provided locally, 6 (54%) were offered to the transplantation center after all of the national centers had declined them, and 3 (37%) were made available to us by the national coordination center for patients with a documented notification of urgency. High-grade (grade III-IV) brain tumors were detected in 7 (64%) donors, while low-grade (grade I-II) tumors were found in 2 patients. The remaining 2 donors were not pathologically graded because the diagnosis was made radiologically. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall and tumor-free survival of the patients was estimated at 100%, 70%, and 45%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A median survival of 40 months (range: 13-62 months) was achieved in recipients of grafts from a donor with a CNS tumor and no donor-related malignant transformation was observed. PMID:29270568

  12. Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion with Melphalan for Unresectable Metastatic Melanoma or Sarcoma to the Liver: A Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Meghan R.; Rashid, Omar M.; Perez, Matthew; Choi, Junsung; Chaudhry, Tariq; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with unresectable melanoma or sarcoma hepatic metastasis have a poor prognosis with few therapeutic options. Percutaneous hepatic perfusion (PHP), isolating and perfusing the liver with chemotherapy, provides a promising minimally invasive management option. We reviewed our institutional experience with PHP. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients with unresectable melanoma or sarcoma hepatic metastasis treated with PHP from 2008 to 2013 and evaluated therapeutic response, morbidity, hepatic progression free survival (hPFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Ten patients were treated with 27 PHPs (median 3). Diagnoses were ocular melanoma (n=5), cutaneous melanoma (n=3), unknown primary melanoma (n=1), and sarcoma (n=1). Median hPFS was 240 days, 9 of 10 patients (90%) demonstrated stable disease or partial response to treatment. At a median follow up of 11.5 months, 4 of 10 (40%) remain alive. There were no perioperative mortalities. Myelosuppresion was the most common morbidity, managed on an outpatient basis with growth factors. The median hospital stay was 3 days. Conclusions Patients with metastatic melanoma and sarcoma to the liver have limited treatment options. Our experience with PHP demonstrates promising results with minimal morbidity and should be considered (pending FDA approval) as a management option for unresectable melanoma or sarcoma hepatic metastasis. PMID:24249545

  13. An unusual encounter of an epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558

  14. Asymptomatic vallecular cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.

  15. Acoustic Characteristics in Epiglottic Cyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, YeonWoo; Kim, GeunHyo; Wang, SooGeun; Jang, JeonYeob; Cha, Wonjae; Choi, HongSik; Kim, HyangHee

    2018-05-03

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the acoustic characteristics associated with alternation deformation of the vocal tract due to large epiglottic cyst, and to confirm the relation between the anatomical change and resonant function of the vocal tract. Eight men with epiglottic cyst were enrolled in this study. The jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and first two formants were analyzed in vowels /a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, and /u:/. These values were analyzed before and after laryngeal microsurgery. The F1 value of /a:/ was significantly raised after surgery. Significant differences of formant frequencies in other vowels, jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio were not presented. The results of this study could be used to analyze changes in the resonance of vocal tracts due to the epiglottic cysts. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Institutional Experience in the Management of Hilar Liver Obstruction- A Series of 13 Cases.

    PubMed

    Pathanki, Adithya Malolan; Naragund, Adithya V; Mahadevappa, Basant

    2016-12-01

    Neoplastic hilar obstruction to the liver outflow presents a unique challenge to the surgeon, wherein, the balance between a curative and possibly larger resection has to be achieved against a more conservative local resection. These are often technically demanding and have thus, far produced equivocal outcomes on both ends. The present case series is on 13 patients who presented with hilar obstruction. They all underwent resections with possible curative intent. The focus of our review is on the technical nuances and the strategies we used, intra- and peri-operatively to make resections possible in these patients, who at first look were deemed inoperable. Among the 13, 10 had hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) while the others had a more benign diagnosis e.g., Hydatid disease. We did not encounter any peri-operative mortality in our series. Two of our patients had to be re-explored for intra-abdominal complications. Among the 13, we encountered two deaths. The rest of the patients are still on follow-up as of April 2016. Hilar CCA continue to be rare and challenging tumours for the Hepato Pancreato Biliary (HPB) surgeon to manage. Outlooks are currently changing as we try to resect bigger and more complicated hilar liver tumours with better results.

  17. Outcomes of pregnancy following liver transplantation: The King's College Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Rachel H; Yeoman, Andrew D; Agarwal, Kosh; Aluvihare, Varuna; O'Grady, John; Heaton, Nigel; Penna, Leonie; Heneghan, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Reports of pregnancy in liver transplantation (LT) patients have largely favorable outcomes. Concerns remain with regards to maternal and graft risk, optimal immunosuppression (IS), and fetal outcomes. We review all post-LT pregnancies at our center with regard to the outcomes and safety for the patient, graft, and fetus. A total of 117 conceptions occurred in 79 patients. Median age at conception was 29 years. Maternal complications included graft loss (2%), acute cellular rejection (ACR; 15%), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (15%), gestational diabetes (7%), and bacterial sepsis (5%). ACR was significantly more common in those women who conceived within 12 months of LT (P = 0.001). The live birth rate was 73%. Prematurity occurred in 26 (31%) neonates, and 24 (29%) neonates were of low or very low birth weight. IS choice (cyclosporine versus tacrolimus) had no significant effect on pregnancy outcomes and complications. No congenital abnormalities occurred, and only 1 child born at 24 weeks had delayed developmental milestones. In conclusion, pregnancy following LT has a favorable outcome in the majority, but severe maternal risks remain. Patients should be counseled with regard to the above information so informed decisions can be made, and pregnancy must be considered high risk with regular monitoring by transplant clinicians and specialist obstetricians. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  18. Evolving experience with prevention and treatment of splenic artery syndrome after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mogl, Martina T; Nüssler, Natascha C; Presser, Sabine J; Podrabsky, Petr; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian; Neuhaus, Peter; Guckelberger, Olaf

    2010-08-01

    Impaired hepatic arterial perfusion after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) may lead to ischemic biliary tract lesions and graft-loss. Hampered hepatic arterial blood flow is observed in patients with hypersplenism, often described as arterial steal syndrome (ASS). However, arterial and portal perfusions are directly linked via the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR). Recently, the term 'splenic artery syndrome' (SAS) was coined to describe the effect of portal hyperperfusion leading to diminished hepatic arterial blood flow. We retrospectively analyzed 650 transplantations in 585 patients. According to preoperative imaging, 78 patients underwent prophylactic intraoperative ligation of the splenic artery. In case of postoperative SAS, coil-embolization of the splenic artery was performed. After exclusion of 14 2nd and 3rd retransplantations and 83 procedures with arterial interposition grafts, SAS was diagnosed in 28 of 553 transplantations (5.1%). Twenty-six patients were treated with coil-embolization, leading to improved liver function, but requiring postinterventional splenectomy in two patients. Additionally, two patients with SAS underwent splenectomy or retransplantation without preceding embolization. Prophylactic ligation could not prevent SAS entirely (n = 2), but resulted in a significantly lower rate of complications than postoperative coil-embolization. We recommend prophylactic ligation of the splenic artery for patients at risk of developing SAS. Post-transplant coil-embolization of the splenic artery corrected hemodynamic changes of SAS, but was associated with a significant morbidity.

  19. Biliary complications after right lobe living donor liver transplantation: a single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Yaprak, Onur; Dayangac, Murat; Akyildiz, Murat; Demirbas, Tolga; Guler, Necdet; Bulutcu, Fisun; Bassullu, Nuray; Akun, Elif; Yuzer, Yildiray; Tokat, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Background Biliary complications that developed after right lobe liver transplantation from living donors were studied in a single centre. Methods From 2004 to 2010, 200 consecutive living donor right lobe liver transplantations were performed. The database was evaluated retrospectively. Biliary complications were diagnosed according to clinical, biochemical and radiological tests. The number of biliary ducts in the transplanted graft, the surgical techniques used for anastomosis, biliary strictures and bile leakage rates were analysed. Results Of a total of 200 grafts, 117 invloved a single bile duct, 77 had two bile ducts and in six grafts there were three bile ducts. In 166 transplants, the anastomosis was performed as a single duct to duct, in 21 transplants double duct to ducts, in one transplant, three duct to ducts and in 12 transplants as a Roux-en-Y reconstruction. In all, 40 bile leakages (20%) and 17 biliary strictures (8.5%) were observed in 49 patients resulting in a total of 57 biliary complications (28.5%). Seventeen patients were re-operated (12 as a result of bile leakages and five owing to biliary strictures). Conclusion Identification of more than one biliary orifice in the graft resulted in an increase in the complication rates. In grafts containing multiple orifices, performing multiple duct-to-duct (DD) or Roux-en-Y anastomoses led to a lower number of complications. PMID:22151451

  20. Hepatectomy As A First Choice Treatment For Liver Metastasis From Gastric Cancer: A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Amikura, Katsumi; Tanaka, Yoichi; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Indication of hepatectomy for liver metastases from gastric cancer (LMGC) is still controversial despite many papers favoring surgery. The aim of this study is to claim that we should accept hepatectomy as first choice treatment for LMGC. It is important to have a consensus on this matter for surgeons to treat LMGC properly. Fifty three patients undergoing hepatectomy for LMGC from 1990 through 2010 were retrospectively analysed for survival and prognostic factors. Analyses were made on size, multiplicity, synchronicity and positive surgical margin as liver metastasis factors. Serosal invasion, node metastasis, histological differentiation and UICC stage were analysed as primary site factors. Multivariate analysis was performed for those positive for univariate analysis. Cumulative 5 year survival rate was 27%. Multiplicity, positive margin and node metastasis (N > 2) yielded significant difference on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis multiplicity and node metastasis (N > 2) were significant. Hepatectomy for LMGC is potentially curative and should be regarded as first choice. Solitary and N < 3 are good prognostic factors.

  1. Sclerotherapy for 'scrotal cysts' using tetracycline instillation.

    PubMed

    Courtney, S P; Wightman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Aspiration and tetracycline (Achromycin) instillation has been used to sclerose 'scrotal cysts'. Thirteen hydroceles and epididymal cysts were treated. Of the cysts treated, four failed to sclerose, and moderate to severe pain occurred in eight patients. In three patients the pain was severe, necessitating admission to the hospital. We would not recommend this treatment either in terms of efficacy or for patient comfort.

  2. Sclerotherapy for hydrocoele and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Nash, J R

    1979-04-01

    A prospective study was carried out on the efficacy of sclerotherapy for the treatment of hydrocoeles and epididymal cysts. Thirty-six hydrocoeles and 13 epididymal cysts were treated and followed up for between 1 and 2 years. Thirty-four hydrocoeles were cured, 1 failed to respond to treatment and 1 recurred after treatment. All 13 epididymal cysts were cured.

  3. Extraforaminal Discal Cyst as Cause of Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Mathon, Bertrand; Bienvenot, Peggy; Leclercq, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    We report the first extraforaminal location of a lumbar discal cyst. The patient was treated by hemilaminectomy, arthrectomy, cyst resection, and unilateral arthrodesis, achieving complete release of the nerve root. Extraforaminal lumbar discal cyst may represent an unexpected cause of sciatic pain with favorable outcome after surgical resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcomes of Liver Transplant Recipients With Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Exception: Single-Center Experience in the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, G R; Praciano, A M; Viana, G N R; Lima, C A; Feitosa Neto, B A; Garcia, J H P

    2018-06-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) exception policy in liver transplantation is based on symptoms and clinical conditions not included in the calculated MELD score. Therefore, patients with chronic liver disease, like refractory ascites, chronic encephalopathy, recurrent cholangitis, and refractory pruritus, may benefit with extra points. The objective of this study was to establish the profile of the patients submitted to liver transplantation with MELD exceptions based on symptoms in the University Hospital Walter Cantídio, Ceara, Brazil, between the years of 2012 and 2015, analyzing donor and recipient data, with special attention to patients with refractory ascites and recurrent encephalopathy, including survival rates. The results demonstrated acceptable survival rates for MELD exception patients (78.4% in 3 years), showing that maybe this allocation criterion should be maintained, or even expanded. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Nicholas A; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Arthroscopy is an advancing field in orthopedics, the applications of which have been expanding over time. Traditionally, excision of ganglion cysts has been done in an open fashion. However, more recently, studies show outcomes following arthroscopic excision to be as good as open excision. Cosmetically, the incisions are smaller and heal faster following arthroscopy. In addition, there is the suggested benefit that patients will regain function and return to work faster following arthroscopic excision. More prospective studies comparing open and arthroscopic excision of ganglion cysts need to be done in order to delineate if there is a true functional benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracranial, intradural aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical Characterization of Microengineered Epithelial Cysts by Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yusheng; Guan, Dongshi; Serien, Daniela; Takeuchi, Shoji; Tong, Penger; Yobas, Levent; Huang, Pingbo

    2017-01-24

    Most organs contain interconnected tubular tissues that are one-cell-thick, polarized epithelial monolayers enclosing a fluid-filled lumen. Such tissue organization plays crucial roles in developmental and normal physiology, and the proper functioning of these tissues depends on their regulation by complex biochemical perturbations and equally important, but poorly understood, mechanical perturbations. In this study, by combining micropatterning techniques and atomic force microscopy, we developed a simple in vitro experimental platform for characterizing the mechanical properties of the MDCK II cyst, the simplest model of lumen-enclosing epithelial monolayers. By using this platform, we estimated the elasticity of the cyst monolayer and showed that the presence of a luminal space influences cyst mechanics substantially, which could be attributed to polarization and tissue-level coordination. More interestingly, the results from force-relaxation experiments showed that the cysts also displayed tissue-level poroelastic characteristics that differed slightly from those of single cells. Our study provides the first quantitative findings, to our knowledge, on the tissue-level mechanics of well-polarized epithelial cysts and offers new insights into the interplay between cyst mechanics and cyst physiology. Moreover, our simple platform is a potentially useful tool for enhancing the current understanding of cyst mechanics in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ciliates from ancient permafrost: Assessment of cold resistance of the resting cysts.

    PubMed

    Shatilovich, Anastasia; Stoupin, Daniel; Rivkina, Elizaveta

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that resting cysts of soil ciliates and numerous taxa of other protists can survive in permafrost for thousands of years at subzero temperatures; however, our knowledge about mechanisms of long term cryobiosis remains incomplete. In order to better understand the means by which ancient cysts survive, we investigated resistance to cyclical supercooling stress of resting cysts of the soil ciliate Colpoda steinii (Colpodida, Ciliophora). Three clonal strains were used for comparison, isolated from Siberian tundra soil, ancient Holocene (5-7,000 y) and late Pleistocene (32-35,000 y) permafrost sediments. To determine the viability of the ancient and contemporary ciliate cysts we improved and validated a cultivation-independent method of vital fluorescent staining with a combination of two nucleic acid binding dyes, acridine orange and propidium iodide. The viability of Colpoda steinii cysts during low-temperature experiments was measured using both the proposed vital fluorescent staining method and standard germination test. Our results indicate that the dual-fluorescence technique is a more accurate, rapid, and efficient method for estimating cyst viability. We found that cysts of ancient ciliates display lower tolerance to the impact of cyclical cold compared to cysts of contemporary ciliates from Siberian permafrost affected soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Piloting a multidisciplinary clinic for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: initial 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Cobbold, Jeremy F L; Raveendran, Sarrah; Peake, Christopher M; Anstee, Quentin M; Yee, Michael S; Thursz, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Objective A multidisciplinary approach is advocated for the management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), but few clinical data exist to support this. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary NAFLD clinic using surrogate markers of liver injury and cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective survey of clinical practice. Setting The multidisciplinary NAFLD clinic in a secondary/tertiary care setting with hepatology, diabetology, dietetic and exercise therapy input: initial 5-years’ experience (2007–2012). Patients 180 patients with NAFLD but without hepatic comorbidities were followed up for a median of 19.5 (range 3–57) months. 52% had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 48% were Europoid Caucasian, 17% were South Asian. Interventions Multiple clinical interventions were employed including lifestyle (diet and exercise) advice, pharmacological intervention for cardiovascular risk factors, weight loss and exercise therapy. Main outcome measures Change in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), weight, HbA1c, lipid profile and blood pressure. Results Median ALT fell from 61 (12–270) U/l to 50 (11–221) U/l, −18%, p<0.001, and weight fell from 90.5 (42.7–175.0) kg to 87.3 (45.9–175.3) kg, −3.5%, p<0.001. There were significant improvements in total cholesterol overall, triglycerides (among dyslipidaemic patients), HbA1c (among diabetic patients) and systolic blood pressure (among hypertensive patients). 24% of patients achieved ≥7% weight loss during follow-up and 17% maintained this weight loss throughout. Conclusions Improvement in liver biochemistry and cardiovascular risk factors was seen in patients attending the multidisciplinary NAFLD clinic. Refinement of this approach is warranted in light of these data, novel therapies and a growing evidence base. PMID:28839736

  10. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  11. Experience using extended criteria donors in first 100 cases of deceased donor liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Taniguchi, M; Fujiyoshi, M; Oota, M

    2012-03-01

    Because of the serious organ shortage in Japan, the use of extended criteria (EC) donors is inevitable to increase the number of deceased donors. However, the influence of this practice on recipient outcomes has not been clarified yet. We analyzed donor and recipient factors to determine whether those factors, especially from EC donors impacted early recipient outcomes. From February 1999 to January 2011, 100 deceased liver transplantations were performed in Japan, including 85 consecutive adult cases (age≥18 years) who were studied to evaluate whether 6 recipient and 16 donor factors affected 3-month (90-day) recipient survival. Upon univariate analysis, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score≥25 (P=.018), donor age≥55 years (P=.040), and cold ischemia time (CIT)≥10 hours (P=.00013) significantly reduced 3-month survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent contributions of, three adverse factors including MELD score≥25 (P=.0133, odds ratio [OR]=12.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.7-90.3), donor age≥55 years (P=.013, OR=14.0, 95% CI=1.6-119.5), and CIT≥10 hours (P=.0024, OR=67.6, 95% CI=4.5-1024.9). Three-month recipient survivals with 0, 1, 2, and 3 positive factors were 100% (n=34), 94.4% (n=36), 53.8% (n=13), and 0% (n=2), respectively (P<.0001). In conclusion, to improve recipient short-term survivals, minimizing CIT is the first priority. In the long-term, we must promote deceased donation to reduce recipient MELD scores by shortening the waiting time, and revise the allocation system to minimize CIT by giving priority to the local area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Branchial cleft cyst encircling the hypoglossal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kristin L.; Spears, Carol; Kenady, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Branchial cleft anomalies are a common cause of lateral neck masses and may present with infection, cyst enlargement or fistulas. They may affect any of the nearby neck structures, causing compressive symptoms or vessel thrombosis. We present a case of a branchial cleft cyst in a 10-year-old boy who had been present for 1year. At the time of operation, the cyst was found to completely envelop the hypoglossal nerve. While reports of hypoglossal nerve palsies due to external compression from cysts are known, we believe this to be the first report of direct nerve involvement by a branchial cleft cyst. PMID:24963902

  13. [CT diagnosis of hemorrhagic renal cysts].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Z; Li, D T; Luo, J G

    2001-06-28

    CT signs of nineteen cases of hemorrhagic renal cysts that surgically and pathologically proved were analyzed. 8 of the 19 cases revealed as high density hemorrhagic lesion. CT signs in those 8 patients include low density rim sign, cyst immerging sign, and perirenal fascia thickening. The other 11 of 19 cases revealed as low density lesion. CT signs include thickened cyst wall and inhomogeneous density of the cystic content. The hounsfield unit of the lesion is correlated with the duration of disease. It is suggested that CT is valuable in diagnosis of high density hemorrhagic renal cysts, and it gives a clue to the diagnosis of low density hemorrhagic renal cysts.

  14. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel.

  15. Rescue associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy after portal embolization: Our experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Maulat, Charlotte; Philis, Antoine; Charriere, Bérénice; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Guimbaud, Rosine; Otal, Philippe; Suc, Bertrand; Muscari, Fabrice

    2017-08-10

    To report a single-center experience in rescue associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS), after failure of previous portal embolization. We also performed a literature review. Between January 2014 and December 2015, every patient who underwent a rescue ALPPS procedure in Toulouse Rangueil University Hospital, France, was included. Every patient included had a project of major hepatectomy and a previous portal vein embolization (PVE) with insufficient future liver remnant to body weight ratio after the procedure. The ALPPS procedure was performed in two steps (ALPPS-1 and ALPPS-2), separated by an interval phase. ALPPS-2 was done within 7 to 9 d after ALPPS-1. To estimate the FLR, a computed tomography scan examination was performed 3 to 6 wk after the PVE procedure and 6 to 8 d after ALPPS-1. A transcystic stent was placed during ALPPS-1 and remained opened during the interval phase, in order to avoid biliary complications. Postoperative liver failure was defined using the 50-50 criteria. Postoperative complications were assessed according to the Dindo-Clavien Classification. From January 2014 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent a rescue ALPPS procedure. Median FLR before PVE, ALPPS-1 and ALPPS-2 were respectively 263 cc (221-380), 450 cc (372-506), and 660 cc (575-776). Median FLR/BWR before PVE, ALPPS-1 and ALPPS-2 were respectively 0.4% (0.3-0.5), 0.6% (0.5-0.8), and 1% (0.8-1.2). Median volume growth of FLR was 69% (18-92) after PVE, and 45% (36-82) after ALPPS-1. The combination of PVE and ALPPS induced a growth of median initial FLR of +408 cc (254-513), leading to an increase of +149% (68-199). After ALPPS-2, 4 patients had stage I-II complications. Three patients had more severe complications (one stage III, one stage IV and one death due to bowel perforation). Two patients suffered from postoperative liver failure according to the 50/50 criteria. None of our patients developed any biliary complication during the

  16. [MR cholangiopancreatography in choledochal cysts].

    PubMed

    Frampas, E; Moussaly, F; Léauté, F; Heloury, Y; Le Neel, J C; Dupas, B

    1999-12-01

    To assess the value of MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in the diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of choledochal cysts. Five patients (aged between 6 days and 28 years) were investigated by MRCP, referred for ultrasonographic detection of a bile duct dilatation or a cystic structure, of antenatal diagnosis (1 case), for jaundice or abdominal pain (3 cases) or in late follow-up of a choledochal cyst surgery. Two endoscopic-ultrasonographic studies were performed. The five patients underwent surgery without preoperative biliary cholangiography. MRCP was performed using a HASTE sequence in frontal, oblique, axial planes (1,5 Tesla MR unit). MRCP allowed to confirm choledochal cyst, helps to specify the anatomical type (2 type I, 3 type II), detects choledocholithiasis (3 cases). Anatomic correlation was perfect. MRCP allowed to exclude gastrointestinal duplication. Anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct was found in one case. MRCP diagnoses choledochal cysts, specifies type, helps surgery and can avoid endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or endoscopic sonographic examinations especially for children. It may find an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct.

  17. [Laparoscopic treatment of hepatic cysts].

    PubMed

    Gaspari, A L; Di Lorenzo, N; Sica, G; De Ascentis, G; Rossi, M; Ferranti, F

    1995-03-01

    Laparoscopic treatment of simple hepatic cysts is reported. Recent indications to conservative surgical treatment for this benign disease are considered and different therapeutic options are analyzed. Surgical technique adopted in two cases observed is illustrated. In conclusion, the Authors consider laparoscopic treatment as an effective method for a mini-invasive surgical approach.

  18. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, David P.; Mahood, Albert D.

    1981-01-01

    Many Chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. We have used an ecologic and biogeographic approach to study the distribution of cyst forms in sediments and have established that many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples we have studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Numerous taxonomic problems have yet to be resolved. We believe that chrysophyte cysts have the potential to become a useful tool for both modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits.

  19. Management strategy for unicameral bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Chuo, Chin-Yi; Fu, Yin-Chih; Chien, Song-Hsiung; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2003-06-01

    The management of a unicameral bone cyst varies from percutaneous needle biopsy, aspiration, and local injection of steroid, autogenous bone marrow, or demineralized bone matrix to the more invasive surgical procedures of conventional curettage and grafting (with autogenous or allogenous bone) or subtotal resection with bone grafting. The best treatment for a unicameral bone cyst is yet to be identified. Better understanding of the pathology will change the concept of management. The aim of treatment is to prevent pathologic fracture, to promote cyst healing, and to avoid cyst recurrence and re-fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 cases of unicameral bone cysts (12 in the humerus, 3 in the femur, 2 in the fibula) managed by conservative observation, curettage and bone grafting with open reduction and internal fixation, or continuous decompression and drainage with a cannulated screw. We suggest percutaneous cannulated screw insertion to promote cyst healing and prevent pathologic fracture. We devised a protocol for the management of unicameral bone cysts.

  20. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  1. Polycystic liver disease with right pleural effusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggreini, A. Y.; Dairi, L. B.

    2018-03-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is a condition in which multiple cysts form in the hepatic parenchyma. The polycystic liver disease is also an autosomal dominant disorder (ADPLD) caused by a mutation in a gene that encodes a protein hepatocystin. PCLD has a prevalence count of 1:200,000 people in the people of America. PCLD occurs ± 24% of patients in the third decade of age to 80% by the sixth decade. Women tend to get larger cysts and more and correlated with the number of pregnancies. The following case report of a woman, 51-years-old who was treated at Haji Adam Malik hospital Medan with a diagnosis of polycystic liver disease with right pleural effusion. Some literature has reported complications of the polycystic liver disease but rarely reported with pleural effusion presentation. The patient had already undergone a puncture of pleural fluid and after three weeks of treatment condition of the patient improved and permitted to be outgoing patient.

  2. Pancreatic Cysts in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Prevalence and Association with PKD2 Gene Mutations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ah; Blumenfeld, Jon D; Chhabra, Shalini; Dutruel, Silvina P; Thimmappa, Nanda Deepa; Bobb, Warren O; Donahue, Stephanie; Rennert, Hanna E; Tan, Adrian Y; Giambrone, Ashley E; Prince, Martin R

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To define the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging prevalence of pancreatic cysts in a cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) compared with a control group without ADPKD that was matched for age, sex, and renal function. Materials and Methods In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study, all patients with ADPKD provided informed consent; for control subjects, informed consent was waived. Patients with ADPKD (n = 110) with mutations identified in PKD1 or PKD2 and control subjects without ADPKD or known pancreatic disease (n = 110) who were matched for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and date of MR imaging examination were evaluated for pancreatic cysts by using axial and coronal single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted images obtained at 1.5 T. Total kidney volume and liver volume were measured. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate potential associations between collected variables and presence of pancreatic cysts among patients with ADPKD. The number, size, location, and imaging characteristics of the cysts were recorded. Results Patients with ADPKD were significantly more likely than control subjects to have at least one pancreatic cyst (40 of 110 patients [36%] vs 25 of 110 control subjects [23%]; P = .027). In a univariate analysis, pancreatic cysts were more prevalent in patients with ADPKD with mutations in PKD2 than in PKD1 (21 of 34 patients [62%] vs 19 of 76 patients [25%]; P = .0002). In a multivariable logistic regression model, PKD2 mutation locus was significantly associated with the presence of pancreatic cysts (P = .0004) and with liver volume (P = .038). Patients with ADPKD and a pancreatic cyst were 5.9 times more likely to have a PKD2 mutation than a PKD1 mutation after adjusting for age, race, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, liver volume, and total kidney volume. Conclusion Pancreatic cysts were more prevalent in

  3. [Experience in the treatment of some complications of portal hypertension in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Savić, Zeljka; Vracarić, Vladimir; Hadnadjev, Ljiljana; Petrović, Zora; Damjanov, Dragomir

    2011-11-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) is hemodynamical abnormality associated with the most serious complications of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC): ascites, varices and variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of portal hypertension, especially of upper gastrointestinal bleedings in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). A total of 237 patients with ALC were observed in a 3-year period. A total of 161 patients (68%) were hospitalized because of PH elements: 86 (36.3%) had upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 75 (31.7%) were decompensated. Only 76 (32%) of the patients had icterus. General mortality was 85 (36%). According to the source of bleeding, 61 (71%) patients bled from varices, and 25 (29%) from other sources with existing varices but non-incriminated for bleeding in 16 (64%) of those patients. Active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding were found in 63 (73%) cases. Endoscopic treatment of variceal bleeding along with octreotide applied in 20 (32.78%) patients, just octreotide in 32 (52.46%), and octreotid plus balloon tamponade in 9 (14.75%). According to Child-Pugh classification, 25 (29%) of the bleeding patients were in class A, score 5.4; 43 (50%) in class B, score 7.8; and 18 (21%) in class C, score 10.9. Average hemoglobin level was 93 g/L, hematocrit 0.27, AST 71.52 U/L (normal to 37 U/L), ALT 37.74 U/L (normal to 40 U/L). Until this bleeding episode, 41 (47%) of the patients already bled. In the decompensated patients 3 (4%) were in Child Pugh class A, score 6; 42 (56%) in class B, score 8.3; and 30 (40%) in class C, score 10.6. Until this decompensation episode, 7 (9.3%) patients already bled. Patients with ALC need early detection of varices, primary and secondary profilaxis of variceal bleeding and adequate therapy of ascites. When bleeding occurs, patients need urgent upper endoscopy and intensive treatment.

  4. How can primary care enhance end-of-life care for liver disease? Qualitative study of general practitioners’ perceptions and experiences

    PubMed Central

    Standing, Holly; Jarvis, Helen; Orr, James; Exley, Catherine; Hudson, Mark; Kaner, Eileen; Hanratty, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background Liver disease is the third most common cause of premature death in the UK. The symptoms of terminal liver disease are often difficult to treat, but very few patients see a palliative care specialist and a high proportion die in hospital. Primary care has been identified as a setting where knowledge and awareness of liver disease is poor. Little is known about general practitioners’ (GPs) perceptions of their role in managing end-stage liver disease. Objective To explore GPs’ experiences and perceptions of how primary care can enhance end-of-life care for patients with liver disease. Design Qualitative interview study, thematic analysis. Participants Purposive sample of 25 GPs from five regions of England. Results GPs expressed a desire to be more closely involved in end-of-life care for patients with liver disease but identified a number of factors that constrained their ability to contribute. These fell into three main areas; those relating directly to the condition, (symptom management and the need to combine a palliative care approach with ongoing medical interventions); issues arising from patients’ social circumstances (stigma, social isolation and the social consequences of liver disease) and deficiencies in the organisation and delivery of services. Collaborative working with support from specialist hospital clinicians was regarded as essential, with GPs acknowledging their lack of experience and expertise in this area. Conclusions End-of-life care for patients with liver disease merits attention from both primary and secondary care services. Development of care pathways and equitable access to symptom relief should be a priority. PMID:28864486

  5. Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions using CEUS and MRI with Liver-Specific Contrast Media: Experience of a Single Radiologic Center.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Lukas Philipp; Wassermann, Florian; Pregler, Benedikt; Michalik, Katharina; Rennert, Janine; Wiesinger, Isabel; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp; Jung, Ernst Michael

    2017-12-01

     The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using liver-specific contrast agent and a combination of both for the characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL).  83 patients with both benign and malignant liver lesions were examined using CEUS and MRI after the intravenous administration of liver-specific contrast media. All patients had inconclusive results from prior imaging examinations. Histopathological specimens could be obtained in 53 patients. Ultrasound was performed using a multi-frequency curved probe (1 - 6 MHz) after the injection of 1 - 2.4 ml ultrasound contrast media. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of CEUS, MRI and a combination of both (CEUS + MRI) were compared.  The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values regarding lesion classification were 90.9 %, 70.6 %, 92.3 % and 66.6 %, respectively, for CEUS; 90.9 %, 82.4 %, 95.2 % and 70.0 %, respectively, for MRI; and 96.9 %, 70.6 %, 92.7 % and 85.7 % respectively, for CEUS + MRI. There were no statistically significant differences. 6 malignant lesions were missed using CEUS or MRI alone (false negatives). The use of both modalities combined reduced the false-negative results to 2.  CEUS and MRI with liver-specific contrast media are very reliable and of equal informative value in the characterization of focal liver lesions. The number of false-negative results can be decreased using a combination of the two methods. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Role of resting cysts in Chilean Alexandrium catenella dinoflagellate blooms revisited.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Jorge I; Bolch, Chris; Guzmán, Leonardo; Paredes, Javier; Varela, Daniel; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2016-05-01

    The detection of sparse Alexandrium catenella-resting cysts in sediments of southern Chilean fjords has cast doubts on their importance in the recurrence of massive toxic dinoflagellate blooms in the region. The role of resting cysts and the existence of different regional Chilean populations was studied by culturing and genetic approaches to define: (1) cyst production; (2) dormancy period; (3) excystment success; (4) offspring viability and (5) strain mating compatibility. This study newly revealed a short cyst dormancy (minimum 69 days), the role of key abiotic factors (in decreasing order salinity, irradiance, temperature and nutrients) controlling cyst germination (max. 60%) and germling growth rates (up to 0.36-0.52div.day -1 ). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) characterization showed significant differences in genetic distances (GD) among A. catenella populations that were primarily determined by the geographical origin of isolates and most likely driven by oceanographic dispersal barriers. A complex heterothallic mating system pointed to variable reproductive compatibility (RCs) among Chilean strains that was high among northern (Los Lagos/North Aysén) and southern populations (Magallanes), but limited among the genetically differentiated central (South Aysén) populations. Field cyst surveys after a massive 2009 bloom event revealed the existence of exceptional high cyst densities in particular areas of the fjords (max. 14.627cystscm -3 ), which contrast with low cyst concentrations (<221.3cystscm -3 ) detected by previous oceanographic campaigns. In conclusion, the present study suggests that A. catenella resting cysts play a more important role in the success of this species in Chilean fjords than previously thought. Results from in vitro experiments suggest that pelagic-benthic processes can maintain year-round low vegetative cell concentrations in the water column, but also can explain the detection of high cysts aggregations after the

  7. Initial experience with a new articulating energy device for laparoscopic liver resection.

    PubMed

    Berber, Eren; Akyuz, Muhammet; Aucejo, Federico; Aliyev, Shamil; Aksoy, Erol; Birsen, Onur; Taskin, Eren

    2014-03-01

    Although significant advances have been made in laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), most techniques still rely on multiple energy devices and staplers, which increase operative costs. The aim of this study was to report the initial results of a new multifunctional energy device for hepatic parenchymal transection. Fourteen patients who underwent LLR using this new device were compared to 20 patients who had LLR using current laparoscopic techniques (CL). Data were collected prospectively. The groups were similar demographics and tumor type and size. Although the type of resection was similar between the groups, the parenchymal transection time was less in the Caiman group (32 ± 5 vs. 63 ± 4 min, respectively, p = 0.0001). The operative time was similar (194 ± 21 vs. 233 ± 16 min, respectively, p = 0.158). There was reduction of the number of advanced instrumentation used in the Caiman group, including the staplers. Estimated blood loss, size of surgical margin, and hospital stay were similar. There was no mortality, and morbidity was 7 % in the Caiman and 20 % in the CL group. This initial study shows that the new device is safe and efficient for LLR. Its main advantage is shortening of hepatic parenchymal transection time. This has implications for increasing efficiency and cost saving in LLR.

  8. Liver transplantation utilizing old donor organs: a German single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, F; Voigt, R; Dittmar, Y; Heise, M; Settmacher, U

    2010-01-01

    Due to the current profound lack of suitable donor organs, transplant centers are increasingly forced to accept so-called marginal organs. One criterion for marginal donors is the donor age >65 years. We have presented herein the impact of higher donor age on graft and patient survival. Since 2004, 230 liver transplantations have been performed at our center, including 54 donor organs (23.5%) from individuals >65 years of age. We performed a retrospective analysis of recipient and graft survivals. The overall 1-year mortality was 22.2% (12/54) among recipients of organs from older donors versus 19.5% among recipients whose donors were <65 years. When donor organs were grouped according to age, the 1-year mortality in patients receiving organs from donors aged 65-69 years was 30% (6/20); 70-74 years, 29.4% (5/17); and donors >75 years, 5.9% (1/17). There was no significant correlation between mortality rate and the number of additional criteria of a marginal donor organ. The current lack of donor organs forces transplant centers to accept organs from older individuals; increasingly older patients are being recruited for the donor pool. Our results showed that older organs may be transplanted with acceptable outcomes. This observation was consistent with data from the current literature. It should be emphasized, however, that caution is advised when considering the acceptance of older organs for patients with hepatitis C-related cirrhosis.

  9. Asunaprevir and daclatasvir for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: A Japanese multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Toru; Ueda, Yoshihide; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Ishiyama, Kohei; Goto, Ryoichi; Soyama, Akihiko; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Honda, Masaki; Shinoda, Masahiro; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Okajima, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Inomata, Yukihiro; Ku, Yonson; Eguchi, Susumu; Taketomi, Akinobu; Ohdan, Hideki; Kokudo, Norihiro; Shimada, Mitsuo; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-11-01

    The safety and efficacy of an IFN-free regimen using asunaprevir (ASV) and daclatasvir (DCV) for recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation (LT) have not been evaluated in Japan. A multicenter study of LT recipients (n = 74) with recurrent HCV genotype 1b infection treated with ASV-DCV for 24 weeks was performed. Medical history was positive for pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in 40 (54.1%) patients, and for simeprevir (SMV) with Peg-IFN/RBV in 12 (16.2%) patients. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) were positive at D168 (n = 1) in the NS3, and at L31 (n = 4), Y93 (n = 4), and L31/Y93 (n = 1) in the NS5A region of the HCV genome. Sixty-one (82.4%) patients completed the 24-week treatment protocol. Although sustained viral response (SVR) was achieved in 49 (80.3%) patients, it was achieved in only two (16.7%) patients among those with histories of receiving SMV (n = 12). Univariate analysis showed that a history of SMV (P < .01) and the presence of mutations in NS5A (P = .02) were the significant factors for no-SVR. By excluding the patients with either a history of SMV-based treatment or RAVs in NS3/NS5A, the SVR rate was 96.4%. By excluding the patients with a history of SMV and those with RAVs in NS3/NS5A, viral clearance of ASV-DCV was favorable, with a high SVR rate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A simplified regimen of targeted antifungal prophylaxis in liver transplant recipients: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, B; Patrono, D; Tandoi, F; Martini, S; Fop, F; Ballerini, V; Stratta, C; Skurzak, S; Lupo, F; Strignano, P; Donadio, P P; Salizzoni, M; Romagnoli, R; De Rosa, F G

    2018-04-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a severe complication of liver transplantation burdened by high mortality. Guidelines recommend targeted rather than universal antifungal prophylaxis based on tiers of risk. We aimed to evaluate IFI incidence, risk factors, and outcome after implementation of a simplified two-tiered targeted prophylaxis regimen based on a single broad-spectrum antifungal drug (amphotericin B). Patients presenting 1 or more risk factors according to literature were administered prophylaxis. Prospectively collected data on all adult patients transplanted in Turin from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Patients re-transplanted before postoperative day 7 were considered once, yielding a study cohort of 581 cases. Prophylaxis was administered to 299 (51.4%) patients; adherence to protocol was 94.1%. Sixteen patients developed 18 IFIs for an overall rate of 2.8%. All IFI cases were in targeted prophylaxis group; none of the non-prophylaxis group developed IFI. Most cases (81.3%) presented within 30 days after transplantation during prophylaxis; predominant pathogens were molds (94.4%). Only 1 case of candidemia was observed. One-year mortality in IFI patients was 33.3% vs 6.4% in patients without IFI (P = .001); IFI attributable mortality was 6.3%. At multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for IFI were renal replacement therapy (OR = 8.1) and re-operation (OR = 5.2). The implementation of a simplified targeted prophylaxis regimen appeared to be safe and applicable and was associated with low IFI incidence and mortality. Association of IFI with re-operation and renal replacement therapy calls for further studies to identify optimal prophylaxis in this subset of patients. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Prophylaxis after Liver Transplantation: Experience in a Tertiary Transplant Centre

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Sachan, Deepti; Reddy, Mettu S.; Cherian, Tom; Jothimani, Dinesh; Venugopal, Kota; Arikichenin, Olithselvan; Perumalla, Rajasekar; Narasimhan, Gomathy; Shanmugam, Vivekananthan; Vijaya, Srinivasan; Venkataraman, Jayanthi; Rela, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background Prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside analogs can prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplant (LT). Aim To determine the efficacy and cost of maintaining immunoprophylaxis with HBIG and hyperimmune plasma (HIP) for 6 months after LT. Material & methods The study included 22 HBV related LT recipients who were on entecavir and either HBIG or HIP for 6 months. Post transplant HBIG or HIP dose and cost incurred towards prophylaxis were noted. The cost of 200 IU of HBIG at the time of study was Rs 8250/- (US Dollars 135) and that of 2000 IU of HIP was Rs 8000/- (USD 130.7). The loading and maintenance costs at end of 6 months were compared between the two groups. Response to HBIG and HIP was assessed by checking for HBsAg reactivity, anti HBs titer response and HBV DNA viral load. Statistical analysis Median and range, Kruskal Wallis (KW) sign rank Sum Test and Correlation Coefficient (r2) was used for analysis. Results Thirteen recipients received HBIG and 9 recipients HIP. The anti HBs response to HIP was significantly high compared to HBIG (KW Sign rank Sum test P < 0.05); titers remained high until the study period. Between 8 and 30 days, the titer achieved by both HBIG and HIP was similar (KW Sign rank Sum test not significant). Despite low anti HBs titer of <100 IU/L, none of the recipients on HBIG had HBsAg reactivity while 3 on HIP had transient HBsAg positivity. The total cost with HBIG was 13.9 times the cost of HIP. Conclusion HIP immunoprophylaxis in combination with entecavir achieves a high anti HBs titer at a significant low cost during anhepatic and loading phase. HBV reactivation rates with HBIG and HIP is low despite low anti HBs titer. PMID:25755562

  12. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis after liver transplantation: experience in a tertiary transplant centre.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joy; Sachan, Deepti; Reddy, Mettu S; Cherian, Tom; Jothimani, Dinesh; Venugopal, Kota; Arikichenin, Olithselvan; Perumalla, Rajasekar; Narasimhan, Gomathy; Shanmugam, Vivekananthan; Vijaya, Srinivasan; Venkataraman, Jayanthi; Rela, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside analogs can prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after liver transplant (LT). To determine the efficacy and cost of maintaining immunoprophylaxis with HBIG and hyperimmune plasma (HIP) for 6 months after LT. The study included 22 HBV related LT recipients who were on entecavir and either HBIG or HIP for 6 months. Post transplant HBIG or HIP dose and cost incurred towards prophylaxis were noted. The cost of 200 IU of HBIG at the time of study was Rs 8250/- (US Dollars 135) and that of 2000 IU of HIP was Rs 8000/- (USD 130.7). The loading and maintenance costs at end of 6 months were compared between the two groups. Response to HBIG and HIP was assessed by checking for HBsAg reactivity, anti HBs titer response and HBV DNA viral load. Median and range, Kruskal Wallis (KW) sign rank Sum Test and Correlation Coefficient (r2) was used for analysis. Thirteen recipients received HBIG and 9 recipients HIP. The anti HBs response to HIP was significantly high compared to HBIG (KW Sign rank Sum test P < 0.05); titers remained high until the study period. Between 8 and 30 days, the titer achieved by both HBIG and HIP was similar (KW Sign rank Sum test not significant). Despite low anti HBs titer of <100 IU/L, none of the recipients on HBIG had HBsAg reactivity while 3 on HIP had transient HBsAg positivity. The total cost with HBIG was 13.9 times the cost of HIP. HIP immunoprophylaxis in combination with entecavir achieves a high anti HBs titer at a significant low cost during anhepatic and loading phase. HBV reactivation rates with HBIG and HIP is low despite low anti HBs titer.

  13. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-06-01

    An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region-left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions.

  14. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  15. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  16. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver: A primer for hepatologists

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Brunetti, Enrico; Neumayr, Andreas; Maestri, Marcello; Goblirsch, Samuel; Tamarozzi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a complex, chronic and neglected disease with a worldwide distribution. The liver is the most frequent location of parasitic cysts. In humans, its clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe, potentially fatal disease. Four approaches exist in the clinical management of CE: surgery, percutaneous techniques and drug treatment for active cysts, and the ”watch and wait” approach for inactive cysts. Allocation of patients to these treatments should be based on cyst stage, size and location, available clinical expertise, and comorbidities. However, clinical decision algorithms, efficacy, relapse rates, and costs have never been properly evaluated. This paper reviews recent advances in classification and diagnosis and the currently available evidence for clinical decision-making in cystic echinococcosis of the liver. PMID:24868323

  17. Intraosseous Ganglion Cyst of Olecranon

    PubMed Central

    Zarezadeh, Abolghasem; Nourbakhsh, Mohsen; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Etemadifar, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochian, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Intraosseous ganglia are benign cysts that usually can be seen in lower extremity; especially around ankle. These cysts have fewer incidences in upper extremity, mainly around the wrist. They are extremely rare in olecranon. These lesions are often asymptomatic. Patient was a 75-year-old man who had trauma many years ago. When he came to our clinic, he complained of severe pain around his elbow that he could not do ordinary activity. He had local tenderness in elbow and 30 degree limitation in extension. In radiography, lytic, multiloculated lesion existed in region of olecranon. After excisional biopsy was done, cavity was cleaned completely with curette and was filled with autogenous bone. At 10-year follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic. Control radiograph showed cavity filled completely by bone; there was no evidence of relapse. PMID:22973489

  18. Optimizing associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy outcomes: Surgical experience or appropriate patient selection?

    PubMed Central

    Al Hasan, Ibrahim; Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Wanis, Kerollos N.; Garcia-Ochoa, Carlos; Levstik, Mark A.; Al-Judaibi, Bandar; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Background Early reports of associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) outcomes have been suboptimal. The literature has confirmed that learning curves influence surgical outcomes. We have 54 months of continuous experience performing ALPPS with strict selection criteria. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the learning curve on ALPPS outcomes. Methods We retrospectively compared patients who underwent ALPPS between April 2012 and March 2016. Patients were grouped into 2 24-month (early and late) periods. All candidates had a high tumour load requiring staged hepatectomy after chemotherapy response, a predicted future liver remnant (FLR) less than 30% and good performance status. Results Thirty-three patients underwent ALPPS during the study period: 16 in the early group (median age 65 yr, mean body mass index [BMI] 27) and 17 in the late group (median age 60 yr, mean BMI 25). Bilobar disease was comparable in both groups (94% v. 88%, p > 0.99). Duration of surgery was not statistically different. Intraoperative blood loss and need for transfusion were significantly lower in the late group (200 ± 109 mL v. 100 ± 43 mL, p < 0.05). The late group had a higher proportion of monosegment ALPPS (4:1). There were no deaths within 90 days in either cohort. Rates of postoperative complications were not statistically significant between groups. The R0 resection rate was similar. The entire 1-year disease-free and overall survival were 52% and 84%, respectively. Conclusion Excellent results can be obtained in innovative complex surgery with careful patient selection and good technical skills. Additionally, the learning curve brought confidence to perform more complex procedures while maintaining good outcomes. PMID:29173259

  19. CO2 laser-assisted microsurgery for intracordal cysts: technique and results of 49 patients.

    PubMed

    Matar, Nayla; Amoussa, Kassira; Verduyckt, Ingrid; Nollevaux, Marie-Cecile; Jamart, Jacques; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Microsurgery for intracordal cysts is a challenging procedure, because cysts are close to the vocal ligament and the risk of inducing a scar is high. In this retrospective study, our experience with the CO(2)-laser scanning system (Acublade(®)) is reported on 49 patients. There were 41% epidermoid cysts and 59% mucous retention cysts. A quarter of the patients presented with bilateral cystic lesions and 59% had a contralateral lesion other than a cyst. The cyst was removed after a minimicroflap. It was dissected away from the lamina propria and the epithelium. Collagen was injected intraoperatively if the glottal gap was considered important. The epithelium was redraped using Tissucol (Baxter, Vienna, Austria). The mean follow-up time was 160 days. We noted a statistically significant improvement in the grade of the dysphonia according to Hirano's perceptual scale (G pre = 2, G post = 1, p = 0.002); the Vocal Handicap Index (VHI pre = 51, VHI post = 28, p = 0.001) and the maximal phonation time in milliseconds (MPT pre = 11, 1 MPT post = 12.7, p = 0.033) in all the patients. In the professional voice subgroup (20/49 patients), there was a significant improvement in the frequency range (FR pre = 310 Hz, FR post = 434 Hz, p = 0.001). The CO(2)-laser scanning system is reliable in the treatment of intracordal cysts.

  20. Amblyopia secondary to iris cyst.

    PubMed

    López-Arroquia, T E; Avendaño-Cantos, E M; Mesa-Varona, D; Gálvez-Martínez, J; López-Romero, S; Nuñez-Plascencia, R; González del Valle, F

    2014-12-01

    A 5 year-old child diagnosed with moderate anisometropic amblyopia secondary to primary cyst of iris pigment epithelium. He was evaluated with ultrasound biomicroscopy (BMU) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of anterior segment. The OCT, although with some limitations, is a useful tool to study the anterior segment. It is probably more recommendable than BMU in the childhood. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2014-01-01

    Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved. PMID:24792022

  2. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, D.P.; Mahood, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Many chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. Many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Chrysophyte cysts have the potential to be a useful tool for modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits. -from Authors

  3. Bilateral nasolabial cysts associated with recurrent dacryocystitis.

    PubMed

    Kyrmizakis, Dionysios E; Lachanas, Vassilios A; Benakis, Antonios A; Velegrakis, George A; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2005-05-01

    Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic, soft-tissue, developmental cysts occurring inferior to the nasal alar region. They are thought to arise from remnants of the nasolacrimal ducts and they are frequently asymptomatic. We report a rare case of bilateral nasolabial cysts accompanied by bilateral chronic dacryocystitis. A 48-year-old woman suffering from bilateral chronic dacryocystitis was referred to our department for endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. She had undergone external dacryocystorhinostomy on the left side a few years earlier. Physical examination and computed tomography scan revealed nasolabial cysts bilaterally inferior to the nasal alar region. The cysts were removed via a sublabial approach and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed on the right side. Ten months after surgery, the patient was asymptomatic. There may be a correlation, due to embryological reasons, between the presence of nasolabial cysts and the presence of chronic dacryocystitis. Both can be corrected surgically, under the same anaesthesia, without visible scar formation.

  4. Surgical management of calcaneal unicameral bone cysts.

    PubMed

    Glaser, D L; Dormans, J P; Stanton, R P; Davidson, R S

    1999-03-01

    Unicameral bone cysts are not seen commonly in the calcaneus. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. Calcaneal cysts often are symptomatic, although some of these lesions are detected as incidental findings. Treatment has been advocated based on the fear of pathologic fracture and collapse. Several published series have been divided in their favor for either open treatment or injection management. These series are small, and the optimal treatment is still in question. The current study compared the efficacy of methylprednisolone acetate injection treatment with curettage and bone grafting in the treatment of unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus. All patients treated for unicameral bone cysts of the calcaneus during the past 7 years at two institutions were reviewed. Eleven patients met inclusion criteria. All diagnoses were confirmed radiographically or histologically. Demographic information, presenting complaints, diagnostic imaging, treatment modalities, and outcome were analyzed. Long term radiographic and subjective followup was obtained. Eighteen surgical procedures were performed on 11 patients with 12 cysts. Nine injections performed on six patients failed to show healing of the cyst. Nine cysts treated with curettage and bone grafting showed cyst healing. At mean followup of 28 months (range, 12-77 months), all 11 patients had no symptoms; there were no recurrences of the cyst in the nine patients who underwent bone grafting and persistence of the cyst in the two patients who underwent injection therapy. This review reports one of the largest series of cysts in this location. The results indicate that steroid injection treatment, although useful in other locations, may not be the best option for the management of unicameral bone cysts in the calcaneus. Curettage and bone grafting yielded uniformly good results.

  5. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  6. Globulomaxillary cysts--do they really exist?

    PubMed

    Dammer, U; Driemel, O; Mohren, W; Giedl, C; Reichert, T E

    2014-01-01

    The so-called "globulomaxillary cyst", described as a fissural cyst, caused by entrapped epithelium between the nasal and maxillary process, is no longer considered for its own entity. Nevertheless, cystic lesions, which correspond to the previous image of globulomaxillary cysts, do still occur in daily practice. This raises the question to which entities pathological processes in this particular region actually belong to. In a retrospective study, 17 cases (12 men and 5 women, 12-59 years old) of primarily diagnosed globulomaxillary cysts are analysed according to clinical, radiological and histological aspects, catamnestic processed and assigned to a new entity. The results are compared with the international literature and draws conclusions on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Seven lateral periodontal cysts, four radicular cysts, two keratocystic odontogenic tumours, one adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one periapical granuloma, one residual cyst and one undefined jaw cyst were determined. According to the results of our study and the data from the international literature, the entity globulomaxillary cyst is no longer justified.

  7. [Study of 103 cases of odontogenic cysts].

    PubMed

    Moctezuma-Bravo, Gustavo Sergio; Magallanes-González, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    To describe characteristics of odontogenic cysts in a Mexican population. A retrospective study of 103 odontogenic cysts in 86 patients was done. The data were obtained from files of the Pathology Department of a General Hospital. We observed a frequency of the 8.13 % of odontogenic cysts (103) in 1266 pathological studies. The dentigerous cyst 56 % and odontogenic keratocyst 33 % were the most common odontogenic cysts. Sixty one percent of the cysts appeared in the second and third decades of life. In 71 cysts, 42 % appeared in the posterior region jaw, 29 % in the anterior region of the maxilla and 21 % in the posterior region of the maxilla. A 6.7 % developed a recurrence after treatment and a case of keratocyst of posterior region of the maxilla was associated with epidermoid carcinoma. The study included three women with the syndrome of carcinoma of the basal cell nevus, who presented multiple keratocysts. The dentigerous cysts and odontogenic keratocysts were the most frequent odontogenic cysts. They appeared mainly in the second and third decades of life.

  8. Retrospective clinicopathological study of 418 odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Urrutia, Sergio; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2010-09-01

    To determine the relative incidence of odontogenic cysts and to identify the main clinicopathological features among patients treated in the Oral Surgery Department of the Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona (Spain). A retrospective observational study was made of 418 odontogenic cysts diagnosed in 380 patients included in the database of 1235 histopathological diagnoses. The subjects were treated in the Master degree program of Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Barcelona in the period 1997-2006. The following variables were recorded: gender, age, clinical characteristics of the lesions (size and location), radiological features, duration, treatment, complications and relapses. A descriptive analysis was made of the study variables, using the SPSS version 15.0. The incidence of odontogenic cysts was 33.8%. The mean patient age at appearance of the lesion was 42 years (range 7-83). The cysts were slightly more prevalent in males (58.4%). The lesion size ranged from 2-60 mm, with a mean size of 18.4 mm. The most frequent diagnosis was radicular cyst (50.2%). The most common location of the odontogenic cysts was in the mandible (61.5%), particularly the lower third molar region (36.8%). The most frequently diagnosed lesion was the radicular cyst. Odontogenic cysts were seen to be slightly more prevalent in males, and showed a high mandibular incidence. Knowledge of the biological and histological behavior of odontogenic cysts and their frequency are key aspects for ensuring early detection and adequate treatment.

  9. Update on pancreatic cyst fluid analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rockacy, Matthew; Khalid, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) may be incidentally detected in up to 13.5% of patients. These represent a wide variety of lesions including mucinous cysts [intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN)] that have malignant potential. The difficulty in identifying the various PCL and their unpredictable potential for malignant degeneration makes their management cumbersome. The current diagnostic evaluation of PCL often includes EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for cyst fluid analysis. Cyst fluid can be analyzed for tumor markers, cytology, mucins, DNA analysis and amylase. Pancreatic cyst CEA level is considered the most accurate tumor marker for diagnosing mucinous cysts. Approximately 0.2 to 1.0 mL of cyst fluid is required to run the test and a cut-off of 192 ng/ mL can be expected to capture ~75% of mucinous cysts. The presence of a KRAS mutation is very specific for a mucinous cyst but lacks sensitivity. Cytology is especially helpful in diagnosing malignancy typically in the presence of a solid component in the cyst. Newer markers to improve diagnostic accuracy are on the horizon, but clinical studies are awaited. PMID:24714589

  10. Surveillance of Craniopharyngioma Cyst Growth in Children Treated With Proton Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Winkfield, Karen M.; Linsenmeier, Claudia; Yock, Torunn I.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Craniopharyngiomas are benign, slow-growing tumors that frequently contain a cystic component. Even with gross total resection, the cyst can reform and cause symptoms. Fluctuations in cyst volume during radiotherapy (RT) can affect treatment planning and delivery. The aim of this study was to report our experience with cyst enlargement during conformal proton RT for children with craniopharyngioma and to make recommendations regarding mid-treatment surveillance. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and August 2007, 24 children (aged {<=}18 years) underwent proton RT at the Massachusetts General Hospital for craniopharyngioma. For all 24 patients, tumor size on magnetic resonance imaging and/ormore » computed tomography was measured before and after RT. Surveillance imaging was available for review on 17 patients. During RT, cyst growth was assessed to determine whether the treatment fields needed to be altered. Results: Of the 17 children who underwent repeat imaging during RT, 6 required intervention because of changes in cyst dimensions. Four patients (24%) had cyst growth beyond the original treatment fields, requiring enlargement of the treatment plan. One patient's treatment field was reduced after a decreased in cyst size. Cyst drainage was performed in another patient to avoid enlargement of the treatment fields. Conclusion: In patients undergoing highly conformal RT for craniopharyngiomas with cysts, routine imaging during treatment is recommended. Surveillance imaging should be performed at least every 2 weeks during proton RT in an attempt to avoid marginal failure. Craniopharyngiomas with large cystic components or enlargement during treatment might require weekly imaging.« less

  11. The bioimpedance analysis of a parenchyma of a liver in the conditions of its extensive resection in experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agibalov, D. Y.; Panchenkov, D. N.; Chertyuk, V. B.; Leonov, S. D.; Astakhov, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The liver failure which is result of disharmony of functionality of a liver to requirements of an organism is the main reason for unsatisfactory results of an extensive resection of a liver. However, uniform effective criterion of definition of degree of a liver failure it isn’t developed now. One of data acquisition methods about a morfo-functional condition of internals is the bioimpedance analysis (BIA) based on impedance assessment (full electric resistance) of a biological tissue. Measurements of an impedance are used in medicine and biology for the characteristic of physical properties of living tissue, studying of the changes bound to a functional state and its structural features. In experimental conditions we carried out an extensive resection of a liver on 27 white laboratory rats of the Vistar line. The comparative characteristic of data of a bioimpedansometriya in intraoperative and after the operational period with the main existing methods of assessment of a functional condition of a liver was carried out. By results of the work performed by us it is possible to claim that the bioimpedance analysis of a liver on the basis of an invasive bioimpedansometriya allows to estimate morphological features and functional activity of a liver before performance of an extensive resection of a liver. The data obtained during scientific work are experimental justification for use of an impedansometriya during complex assessment of functional reserves of a liver. Preliminary data of clinical approbation at a stage of introduction of a technique speak about rather high informational content of a bioimpedansometriya. The subsequent analysis of efficiency of the invasive bioimpedance analysis of a liver requires further accumulation of clinical data. However even at this stage the method showed the prospect for further use in clinical surgical hepathology.

  12. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi)

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Fang; ZHANG, Ming-Xia; MA, Jun-Ying; CAI, Hui-Xia; SU, Jian-Ping; CAI, Hui-Xia; HOU, Zhi-Bin; ZHANG, Tong-Zuo; LIN, Gong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite. PMID:25017751

  13. Molecular identification of Taenia mustelae cysts in subterranean rodent plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Ma, Jun-Ying; Cai, Hui-Xia; Su, Jian-Ping; Hou, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Lin, Gong-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Cestode larvae spend one phase of their two-phase life cycle in the viscera of rodents, but cases of cestodes infecting subterranean rodents have only been rarely observed. To experimentally gain some insight into this phenomenon, we captured approximately 300 plateau zokors (Eospalax baileyi), a typical subterranean rodent inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and examined their livers for the presence of cysts. Totally, we collected five cysts, and using a mitochondrial gene (cox1) and two nuclear genes (pepck and pold) as genetic markers, we were able to analyze the taxonomy of the cysts. Both the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods showed that the cysts share a monophyly with Taenia mustelae, while Kimura 2-parameter distances and number of different sites between our sequences and T. mustelae were far less than those found between the examined sequences and other Taeniidae species. These results, alongside supporting paraffin section histology, imply that the cysts found in plateau zokors can be regarded as larvae of T. mustelae, illustrating that zokors are a newly discovered intermediate host record of this parasite.

  14. Decreasing incidence of symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus disease and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in pediatric liver transplant recipients: report of the studies of pediatric liver transplantation experience.

    PubMed

    Narkewicz, Michael R; Green, Michael; Dunn, Stephen; Millis, Michael; McDiarmid, Susan; Mazariegos, George; Anand, Ravinder; Yin, Wanrong

    2013-07-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric recipients of liver transplantation (LT). Describe the incidence of PTLD and symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus (SEBV) disease in a large multicenter cohort of children who underwent LT with a focus on the risk factors and changes in incidence over time. SEBV and PTLD were prospectively determined in 2283 subjects who had undergone LT for the first time with at least 1 year of follow-up in the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation database. SEBV was defined with specific criteria, and PTLD required tissue confirmation. The incidence of SEBV and PTLD was determined with a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate modeling of risk factors was performed with standard methods. SEBV occurred in 199 patients; 174 (87.4%) were EBV-negative at LT. Seventy-five patients developed PTLD, and 64 (85.3%) of these patients were EBV-negative at LT. Among the 2048 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up, 8.3% developed SEBV by the second year after LT, and 2.8% developed PTLD. There were lower rates of SEBV (5.9% versus 11.3%, P < 0.001) and PTLD (1.7% versus 4.2%, P = 0.001) in 2002-2007 versus 1995-2001. In 2002-2007, tacrolimus and cyclosporine trough blood levels in the first year after LT were significantly lower, and fewer children were receiving steroids. Biliary atresia, and recipient EBV status were correlated. In a multivariate analysis, era of LT, recipient EBV status, and frequent rejection episodes were associated with SEBV and PTLD. The incidence of SEBV and PTLD is decreasing in pediatric LT recipients concomitantly with a reduction in immunosuppression. Younger recipients and those with multiple rejections remain at higher risk for SEBV and PTLD. © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Perioperative morbidity and mortality of total hip replacement in liver transplant recipients: a 7-year single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Aminata, Iman; Lee, Soo-Ho; Chang, Jae-Suk; Lee, Choon-Sung; Chun, Jae-Myeung; Park, Jin-Woong; Pawaskar, Aditya; Jeon, In-Ho

    2012-12-15

    This study aims to evaluate perioperative mortality and morbidity after total hip replacement in liver transplant recipients and suggesting safety guidelines. Hip replacement surgery is one of the most common elective surgeries even for organ transplant recipients. However, there is a paucity of literature addressing the morbidity and complications of hip replacement surgery for liver transplant recipients. We analyzed retrospectively 33 arthroplasty cases in 20 liver transplant recipients carried out in a single center from 2005 to 2011. All perioperative clinical and laboratory data were evaluated together with early and late morbidity and mortality. Of 2253 liver transplant recipients, 20 (0.9%) patients underwent 33 total hip arthroplasties. Thirty-two arthroplasties were performed for avascular necrosis of the femoral head, whereas only one was performed for osteoarthritis. There was no death, liver failure, or infection within 30 days after surgery. Three patients showed elevated liver enzyme more than 5 times the normal value, but it eventually decreased to normal within 1 week. Of 33 cases of arthroplasty, postoperative blood transfusion was needed in 14 cases with 1 case receiving more than 4 U. On long-term follow-up, no patients have developed periprosthetic fracture, implant loosening, or liver failure. All patients showed good to excellent postoperative Harris hip score. In this series, we can infer that hip replacement surgery in liver transplantation patients is safe and gives a reliably good result. Some preoperative conditions should be obtained to reduce postoperative morbidity.

  16. Hydatid cyst of the gallbaldder: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Roberto; Allaoua, Yousef; Colmenares, Rafael; Gil, Sergio; Roquero, Pilar; Ramia, José M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate all the references about primary gallbladder hidatidosis looking for best treatment evidence. METHODS Search: 1966-2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and Tripdatabase. Key words: “gallabladder hydatid disease” and “gallbladder hydatid cyst”. We found 124 papers in our searches but only 14 papers including 16 cases were about hydatid cyst of the gallbladder (GBHC). RESULTS Eight cases of GBHC were women and seven men. One not mentioned. Median age was 48.3 years. The most frequent clinical symptom was abdominal pain (94%) usually in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasound was performed in ten patients (62.5%) but in most cases a combination of several techniques was performed. The location of the cysts was intravesicular in five patients. Five patients presented GBHC and liver hydatid cysts. Two patients presented cholelithiasis and one choledocholithiasis. The most frequent surgical technique was cholecystectomy by laparotomy (81.25%). Simultaneous surgery of liver cysts was carried out in five cases. Eleven patients did not present postoperative complications, but one died. The mean hospital stay was seven days. No recurrence of GBHC was recorded. CONCLUSION In GBHC, the most frequent symptom is right hypocondrium pain (evidence level V). Best diagnostic methods are ultrasound and computed tomography (level V, grade D). Suggested treatment is open cholecystectomy and postoperative albendazole (level V, grade D) obtaining good clinical results and none relapses. PMID:27660675

  17. Real-time image guidance in laparoscopic liver surgery: first clinical experience with a guidance system based on intraoperative CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, Hannes G; Wagner, Martin; Gondan, Matthias; Nickel, Felix; Nolden, Marco; Fetzer, Andreas; Weitz, Jürgen; Fischer, Lars; Speidel, Stefanie; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Böckler, Dittmar; Büchler, Markus W; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2014-03-01

    Laparoscopic liver surgery is particularly challenging owing to restricted access, risk of bleeding, and lack of haptic feedback. Navigation systems have the potential to improve information on the exact position of intrahepatic tumors, and thus facilitate oncological resection. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a commercially available augmented reality (AR) guidance system employing intraoperative robotic C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for laparoscopic liver surgery. A human liver-like phantom with 16 target fiducials was used to evaluate the Syngo iPilot(®) AR system. Subsequently, the system was used for the laparoscopic resection of a hepatocellular carcinoma in segment 7 of a 50-year-old male patient. In the phantom experiment, the AR system showed a mean target registration error of 0.96 ± 0.52 mm, with a maximum error of 2.49 mm. The patient successfully underwent the operation and showed no postoperative complications. The use of intraoperative CBCT and AR for laparoscopic liver resection is feasible and could be considered an option for future liver surgery in complex cases.

  18. Odontogenic cysts in three dogs: one odontogenic keratocyst and two dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Taketo; Takagi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kenji; Kimura, Takashi; Okumura, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Toru

    2004-09-01

    Odontogenic cysts, which showed cystic radiolucency in the jaw bone by radiographic examination and computed tomography, were enucleated by operation in 3 dogs. One dog had a odontogenic keratocyst in the incisive bone of the right maxilla and another 2 cases revealed dentigerous cysts in the mandible. These cyst walls were enucleated or transpired by semiconductor laser. Afterwards, osteogenesis was confirmed at the defective part of jaw bone by extirpation of the cyst in all cases, and no recurrence has been noted in any cases. Odontogenic cyst is a disease which should be treated by surgical extirpation or transpiration.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology versus frozen section in branchial cleft cysts.

    PubMed

    Begbie, F; Visvanathan, V; Clark, L J

    2015-02-01

    Branchial cleft cysts occur because of a failure of involution of the second branchial cleft. However, as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma can mimic branchial cleft cysts, there is a lack of consensus on the appropriate management of cystic neck lumps. To report our experience of fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section examination in the management of cystic neck lumps. Retrospective case note review of patients managed in the Southern General Hospital, Scotland, UK. The sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section for detecting branchial cleft cysts was 75 per cent and 100 per cent respectively. Two patients who did not undergo intra-operative frozen section examination were either over- or under-treated, which is discussed. Adult patients subjected to surgical excision of a suspected branchial cyst should undergo intra-operative frozen section analysis regardless of clinical suspicion for malignancy. This part of management is critical to ensure patients are offered appropriate treatment.

  20. Liver transplantation in patients with incidental hepatocellular carcinoma/cholangiocarcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Presser, Naftali; Hammad, Abdulrahman Y; Firl, Daniel J; Coppa, Christopher; Fung, John; Aucejo, Federico N

    2017-06-01

    Reports of liver transplantation (LT) in patients with mixed hepatocellular carcinoma/cholangiocarcinoma (HCC/CC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are modest and have been mostly retrospective after pathological categorization in the setting of presumed HCC. Some studies suggest that patients undergoing LT with small and unifocal ICC or mixed HCC/CC can achieve about 40%-60% 5-year post-transplant survival. The study aimed to report our experience in patients undergoing LT with explant pathology revealing HCC/CC and ICC. From a prospectively maintained database, we performed cohort analysis. We identified 13 patients who underwent LT with explant pathology revealing HCC/CC or ICC. The observed recurrence rate post-LT was 31% (4/13) and overall survival was 85%, 51%, and 51% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Disease-free survival was 68%, 51%, and 41% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. In our cohort, four patients would have qualified for exception points based on updated HCC Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network imaging guidelines. Lesions which lack complete imaging characteristics of HCC may warrant pre-LT biopsy to fully elucidate their pathology. Identified patients with early HCC/CC or ICC may benefit from LT if unresectable. Additionally, incorporating adjunctive perioperative therapies such as in the case of patients undergoing LT with hilar cholangiocarcinoma may improve outcomes but this warrants further investigation.

  1. Laparoscopic Repair of Incisional Hernia Following Liver Transplantation-Early Experience of a Single Institution in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S-C; Lin, C-C; Elsarawy, A; Lin, Y-H; Wang, S-H; Wu, Y-J; Chen, C-L

    2017-10-01

    Ventral incisional hernia (VIH) is not uncommon following liver transplantation. Open repair was traditionally adopted for its management. Laparoscopic repair of VIH has been performed successfully in nontransplant patients with evidence of reduced recurrence rates and hospital stay. However, the application of VIH in post-transplantation patients has not been well established. Herein, we provide our initial experience with laparoscopic repair of post-transplantation VIH. From March 2015 to March 2016, 18 cases of post-transplantation VIH were subjected to laparoscopic repair (laparoscopy group). A historical control group of 17 patients who underwent conventional open repair (open group) from January 2013 to January 2015 were identified for comparison. The demographics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared. There were no significant differences among basic demographics between the 2 groups. No conversion was recorded in the laparoscopy group. Recurrence of VIH up to the end of the study period was not noted. In the laparoscopy group, the minor complications were lower (16.7% vs 52.9%; P = .035), the length of hospital stay was shorter (3 d vs 7 d, P = .007), but the median operative time was longer (137.5 min vs 106 min; P = .003). Laparoscopic repair of post-transplantation VIH is a safe and feasible procedure with shorter length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary experience of a PDCA-cycle and quality management based training curriculum for rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hao; Huang, Hai; Dong, Wei; Sun, Jian; Liu, Anding; Deng, Meihong; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2012-08-01

    As repeatedly operating rat liver transplantation (LTx) until animals survive is inefficient in respect to time and use of living animals, we developed a new training concept. METHODS AND CONCEPTS: Training was divided into four phases: pretraining-phase, basic-microsurgical-training phase, advanced-microsurgical-training phases, and expert-microsurgical-training phase. Two "productivity-phases" were introduced right after the basic- and advanced-microsurgical-training phases, respectively, to allow the trainee to accumulate experience and to be scientifically productive before proceeding to a more complex procedure. PDCA cycles and quality criteria were employed to control the learning-process and the surgical quality. Predefined quality criteria included survival rate, intraoperative, postoperative, and histologic parameters. Three trainees participated in the LTx training and achieved their first survival record within 4-10 operations. All of them completely mastered the LTx in fewer procedures (31, 60 and 26 procedures) as reported elsewhere, and the more complex arterialized or partial LTx were mastered by trainee A and B in additional 9 and 13 procedures, respectively. Fast progress was possible due to a high number of training in the 2 Productivity-phases. The stepwise and PDCA-based training program increased the efficiency of LTx training, whereas the constant application and development of predefined quality criteria guaranteed the quality of microsurgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alexandrium fundyense cyst viability and germling survival in light vs. dark at a constant low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahtera, Emil; Crespo, Bibiana G.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Olli, Kalle; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-05-01

    Both observations and models suggest that large-scale coastal blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine are seeded by deep-bottom cyst accumulation zones (“seed beds”) where cysts germinate from the sediment surface or the overlying near-bottom nepheloid layers at water depths exceeding 100 m. The germling cells and their vegetative progeny are assumed to be subject to mortality while in complete darkness, as they swim to illuminated surface waters. To test the validity of this assumption we conducted laboratory investigations of cyst viability and the survival of the germling cells and their vegetative progeny during prolonged exposure to darkness at a temperature of 6 °C, simulating the conditions in deep Gulf of Maine waters. We isolated cysts from bottom sediments collected in the Gulf of Maine under low red light and incubated them in 96-well tissue culture-plates in culture medium under a 10:14 h light:dark cycle and under complete darkness. Cyst viability was high, with excystment frequency reaching 90% in the illuminated treatment after 30 days and in the dark treatment after 50 days. Average germination rates were 0.062 and 0.038 d-1 for light and dark treatments, respectively. The dark treatment showed an approximately 2-week time lag in maximum germination rates compared to the light treatment. Survival of germlings was considerably lower in the dark treatment. In the light treatments, 47% of germinated cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for 7 days and produce vegetative progeny, i.e., there were live cells in the well along with an empty cyst at least once during the experiment. In the dark treatments 12% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for the same length of time. When dark treatments are scaled to take into account non-darkness related mortality, approximately 28% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for at least 7 days. Even though cysts are able to germinate in darkness

  4. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  5. Cystic tumors of the liver: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo Del; Buonocore, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Biliary cyst tumors (cystadenoma and cystadeno-carcinoma) are an indication for liver resection. They account for only 5% of all solitary cystic lesions of the liver, but differential diagnosis with multiloculated or complicated biliary cysts, atypical hemangiomas, hamartomas and lymphangiomas may be difficult. The most frequent challenge is to differentiate biliary cyst tumors from hemorrhagic cysts. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often not diagnostic and in these cases fine needle aspiration (FNA) is used to confirm the presence of atypical biliary cells. FNA, however, lacks adequate sensitivity and specificity and should always be used in conjunction with imaging. Pre-operative differentiation of cystadenoma from cystadenocarcinoma is impossible and surgery must be performed if a biliary cyst tumor is suspected. When multiple cystic lesions are observed throughout the liver parenchyma, it is important to exclude liver metastasis, of which colonic cancer is the most common primary site. Multiple biliary hamartomas (von Meyenburg complex) can appear as a mixture of solid and cystic lesions and can be confused with cystic metastasis. Strong and uniform T2 hyperintensity on MRI is usually diagnostic, but occasionally a percutaneous biopsy may be required. PMID:18595127

  6. Health status of children alive 10 years after pediatric liver transplantation performed in the US and Canada: report of the studies of pediatric liver transplantation experience.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vicky L; Alonso, Estella M; Bucuvalas, John C; Cohen, Geoff; Limbers, Christine A; Varni, James W; Mazariegos, George; Magee, John; McDiarmid, Susan V; Anand, Ravinder

    2012-05-01

    To determine clinical and health-related quality of life outcomes, and to derive an "ideal" composite profile of children alive 10 years after pediatric liver transplantation (LT) performed in the US and Canada. This was a multicenter cross-sectional analysis characterizing patients enrolled in the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation database registry who have survived >10 years from LT. A total of 167 10-year survivors were identified, all of whom received daily immunosuppression therapy. Comorbidities associated with the post-LT course included post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (in 5% of patients), renal dysfunction (9%), and impaired linear growth (23%). Health-related quality of life, as assessed by the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, revealed lower patient self-reported total scale scores for 10-year survivors compared with matched healthy children (77.2±12.9 vs 84.9±11.7; P<.001). At 10 years post-LT, only 32% of patients achieved an ideal profile of a first allograft stable on immunosuppression monotherapy, normal growth, and absence of common immunosuppression-induced sequelae. Success after pediatric LT has moved beyond patient survival. Availability of an ideal composite profile at follow-up provides opportunities for patients, families, and healthcare providers to identify broader sets of outcomes at earlier stages, ultimately contributing to improved outcomes after pediatric LT. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unicameral bone cyst of the calcaneum.

    PubMed

    Hazmy, C H Wan

    2004-12-01

    The calcaneus is not a common site for a unicameral solitary bone cyst. Little is known about the etiology and natural history of these lesions. The author reports an adult man with a solitary bone cyst of the os calcis which was confirmed radiologically and histologically and successfully treated with curretage and bone grafting.

  8. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

  9. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386

  10. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: case study.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Dragan; Krasić, Dragan; Stefanović, Ivan; Veselinović, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Kostić, Aleksandar; Cvetanović, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Nis, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  11. Drug-induced liver injury is frequently associated with severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions: experience from two Australian tertiary hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wendy C; Adler, Nikki R; Graudins, Linda V; Goldblatt, Caitlin; Goh, Michelle S Y; Roberts, Stuart K; Trubiano, Jason A; Aung, Ar Kar

    2018-05-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) can be associated with certain cutaneous adverse drug reaction (cADR). To demonstrate the prevalence of DILI in patients with cADRs. Severity and patterns of liver injury, risk factors, causal medications and outcomes are also examined. A retrospective cohort study of patients with cADRs was conducted across two hospitals in Australia. Patients were identified through cross-linkage of multiple databases. One hundred and four patients with cADRs were identified. Of these, 33 (31.7%) had liver injury, representing 50% of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, and 30.2% of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Most cases of liver injury (69.7%) were of a cholestatic/mixed pattern with severe disease in 18.2%. No significant risk factors for development of liver injury were noted, but peripheral lymphocytosis may represent a risk in patients with SJS (odds ratio, OR = 6.0, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.8-19.7, P = 0.003). Antimicrobials were the most common class to be implicated in DILI. The median length of inpatient stay was longer in patients with liver injury compared to those without (19 vs 11 days, P = 0.002). The mortality rate in those with liver injury was 15.2% and 9.9% in those without. No patients required liver transplantation. DILI commonly occurs in patients with cADRs and is associated with longer inpatient stay. Patients with SJS/TEN and peripheral lymphocytosis appear to be at higher risk for developing associated liver injury. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Oral foregut cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Hiramatsu, Daniel Martins; de Moraes, Fábio Roberto Ruiz; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2013-11-01

    Oral foregut cysts are congenital choristomas that arise in the oral cavity during embryonic development from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium. This is an unusual report of a neonate with a large congenital sublingual cystic lesion, extending superficially from the left ventral tongue to the anterior floor of the mouth, impeding breast-feeding. The differential diagnosis included dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, mucous retention cyst, and oral lymphangioma. The treatment of choice was enucleation under general anesthesia. Histology showed a cystic lesion with a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 and negative for cytokeratin 20, resulting in a final diagnosis of an oral foregut cyst. Three weeks after surgery, the tongue had healed with good mobility, and breast-feeding could be established. No recurrence was present at 6 months of follow-up.

  13. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964

  14. A giant ovarian cyst in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Soccorso, Giampiero; Walker, Jenny

    2009-06-01

    Antenatally diagnosed abdominal cysts are common, and frequently are ovarian in origin, which usually regress spontaneously. Surgery is indicated in the infantile period in case of very large, persisting or symptomatic cysts. Many surgeons feel that watchful waiting can be justified in newborns with simple and complex cysts. We present a neonate with an ovarian cyst diagnosed antenatally by ultrasound (US) and showing persistent enlargement within 3 months after birth when reached a diameter of 13 cm. Assessment and treatment is described. The extremely large, non-resolving ovarian cysts in neonates present a major challenge for clinicians and should be treated by surgery to avoid complications. We advocate laparotomy and cystectomy when possible to avoid unnecessary loss of functional ovarian tissue.

  15. Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Cisternostomy for Nonneoplastic Sellar Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yukai; Ishii, Yudo; Lin, Chien-Min; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Importance. Sellar arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts are benign lesions that produce similar symptoms, including optochiasmatic compression, pituitary dysfunction, and headache. Studies have reported the use of various surgical treatment methods for treating these symptoms, preventing recurrence, and minimizing operative complications. However, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and recurrence rate remain significant. Clinical Presentation. In this paper, we present 8 consecutive cases involving arachnoid cysts and Rathke's cleft cysts, which were managed by using drainage and cisternostomy, the intentional fenestration of the cyst into the subarachnoid space, and then meticulously closing sellar floor using dural sutures. The postoperative images, CSF fistula rate, and the recurrence rate were favorable. Conclusion. We report this technique and discuss the benefit of this minimally invasive approach. PMID:25685785

  16. Cystic echinococcosis of the liver and lung treated by radiofrequency thermal ablation: an ex-vivo pilot experimental study in animal models.

    PubMed

    Lamonaca, Vincenzo; Virga, Antonino; Minervini, Marta Ida; Di Stefano, Roberta; Provenzani, Alessio; Tagliareni, Pietro; Fleres, Giovanna; Luca, Angelo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Palazzo, Ugo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-07-14

    To evaluate radiofrequency thermal ablation (RTA) for treatment of cystic echinococcosis in animal models (explanted organs). Infected livers and lungs from slaughtered animals, 10 bovine and two ovine, were collected. Cysts were photographed, and their volume, cyst content, germinal layer adhesion status, wall calcification and presence of daughter or adjacent cysts were evaluated by ultrasound. Some cysts were treated with RTA at 150 W, 80 degrees C, 7 min. Temperature was monitored inside and outside the cyst. A second needle was placed inside the cyst for pressure stabilization. After treatment, all cysts were sectioned and examined by histology. Cysts were defined as alive if a preserved germinal layer at histology was evident, and as successfully treated if the germinal layer was necrotic. The subjects of the study were 17 cysts (nine hepatic and eight pulmonary), who were treated with RTA. Pathology showed 100% success rate in both hepatic (9/9) and lung cysts (8/8); immediate volume reduction of at least 65%; layer of host tissue necrosis outside the cyst, with average extension of 0.64 cm for liver and 1.57 cm for lung; and endocyst attached to the pericystium both in hepatic and lung cysts with small and focal de novo endocyst detachment in just 3/9 hepatic cysts. RTA appears to be very effective in killing hydatid cysts of explanted liver and lung. Bile duct and bronchial wall necrosis, persistence of endocyst attached to pericystium, should help avoid or greatly decrease in vivo post-treatment fistula occurrence and consequent overlapping complications that are common after surgery or percutaneous aspiration, injection and reaspiration. In vivo studies are required to confirm and validate this new therapeutic approach.

  17. Liver Hemangioma

    MedlinePlus

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  18. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alline J; Silveira, Maria Lg; Duarte, Danilo A; Diniz, Michele B

    2018-01-01

    The pediatric dental approach to the oral cavity of newborns requires special attention, as many aspects are unique and peculiar to this period of life. It is important that pediatricians and pediatric dentists be aware of the characteristics within normal newborn patterns and prepared to make a correct diagnosis of abnormalities at early stages. Congenital eruption cysts (ECs) are rarely observed in newborns, as at this stage of a child's life, tooth eruption is unusual. This study reports a case of EC treated successfully by monitoring of the lesion, without any surgical procedure. In the 4th month, the lesion had completely regressed, and the deciduous central incisors had erupted without problems. The clinical and radiographic monitoring of ECs in newborns seems to be a satisfactory management procedure, similar to what is recommended for older children. How to cite this article: de Oliveira AJ, Silveira MLG, Duarte DA, Diniz MB. Eruption Cyst in the Neonate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2018;11(1):58-60.

  19. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  20. Fluorescence detection of malignant liver tumors using 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis: principles, technique, and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Ryo; Komeda, Koji; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-07-01

    Photoactive drugs selectively accumulate in malignant tissue specimens and cause drug-induced fluorescence. Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) and fluorescence can distinguish normal from malignant tissue. From May 2012 to September 2013, a total of 70 patients underwent hepatic resections using 5-ALA-mediated PDD for liver tumors at our hospital. 5-ALA fluorescence was detected in all hepatocellular carcinoma cases with serosa invasion. In liver metastasis from colorectal cancer cases with serosa invasion, 18 patients (85.7 %) were detected, and three patients (14.2 %) whose tumors showed complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy showed no fluorescence. Both superficial and deep malignant liver tumors were detected with 92.5 % sensitivity. Using 5-ALA-mediated PDD, tumors remaining at the cut surface and postoperative bile leakage were less frequent than in our previous hepatic resections using conventional white-light observation. Moreover, all malignant liver tumors were completely removed with a clear microscopic margin using 5-ALA, with a significant difference in resection margin width between 5-ALA-mediated PDD (6.7 ± 6.9 mm) and white-light observation (9.2 ± 7.0 mm; p = 0.0083). With the detection of malignant liver tumors, residual tumor and bile leakage at the cut surface of the remnant liver were improved by PDD with 5-ALA. This procedure may provide greater sensitivity than the conventional procedure. Furthermore, 5-ALA-mediated PDD can ensure histological clearance regardless of the resection margin and preserve as much liver parenchyma as possible in patients with impaired liver function.

  1. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2 × 1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner's syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.

  2. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation. PMID:24294394

  3. Imaging-guided and nonimaging-guided fine needle aspiration of liver lesions: experience with 406 patients.

    PubMed

    Edoute, Y; Tibon-Fisher, O; Ben-Haim, S A; Malberger, E

    1991-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of different modes of fine needle aspiration (FNA) of liver lesions. A total of 492 FNAs were performed on 406 patients in order to confirm or to rule out focal or multifocal neoplastic disease: 29% under ultrasound (US) guidance, 3% with computed tomographic (CT) guidance, 67% preoperatively, and 1% intraoperatively without imaging guidance. Based on histologic, cytologic, and clinical findings, final diagnoses were reached in 387 patients, of whom 264 had malignant liver disease and 123 had benign liver disease. Of 321 aspirations performed in patients with malignant liver disease, the cytologic findings suggested malignancy in 225 (70.1%), suspected malignancy in 25 (7.8%), and did not reveal malignancy in 71 aspirations (22.1%). Among the 123 patients with benign liver disease, the cytologic findings were reported as benign in all but two patients, who had false-positive cytologic findings. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for cytologic findings were 85.6, 98.4, 99.1, and 76.1%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 89.7%. In one patient, fatal intraperitoneal bleeding due to chronic intravascular coagulation complicated the FNA procedure. We conclude that imaging-guided FNA as well as nonguided FNA for cytologic diagnosis of liver lesions are highly accurate and only rarely may be associated with a fatal complication.

  4. Concurrent Umbilical Hernia Repair at the Time of Liver Transplantation: A Six-Year Experience from a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Perez, A. J.; Haskins, I. N.; Prabhu, A. S.; Krpata, D. M.; Tu, C.; Rosenblatt, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Diago, T.; Eghtesad, B.; Rosen, M. l. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Umbilical hernias are common in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. Management of those persisting at the time of liver transplantation is important to define. Objective: To evaluate the long-term results of patients undergoing simultaneous primary umbilical hernia repair (UHR) at the time of liver transplantation at a single institution. Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing simultaneous UHR and liver transplantation from 2010 through 2016. 30-day morbidity and mortality outcomes and long-term hernia recurrence were investigated. Results: 59 patients had primary UHR at the time of liver transplantation. All hernias were reducible with no overlying skin breakdown or leakage of ascites. 30-day morbidity and mortality included 5 (8%) superficial surgical site infections, 1 (2%) deep surgical site infection, and 7 (12%) organ space infections. Unrelated to the UHR, 10 (17%) patients had an unplanned return to the operating room, 16 (27%) were readmitted within 30 days of their index operation, and 1 (2%) patient died. With a mean follow-up of 21.8 months, 7 (18%) patients experienced an umbilical hernia recurrence. Conclusion: Despite the high perioperative morbidity associated with the transplant procedure, concurrent primary UHR resulted in an acceptable long-term recurrence rate with minimal associated morbidity. PMID:29531643

  5. Concurrent Umbilical Hernia Repair at the Time of Liver Transplantation: A Six-Year Experience from a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Perez, A J; Haskins, I N; Prabhu, A S; Krpata, D M; Tu, C; Rosenblatt, S; Hashimoto, K; Diago, T; Eghtesad, B; Rosen, M L J

    2018-01-01

    Umbilical hernias are common in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. Management of those persisting at the time of liver transplantation is important to define. To evaluate the long-term results of patients undergoing simultaneous primary umbilical hernia repair (UHR) at the time of liver transplantation at a single institution. Retrospective chart review was performed on patients undergoing simultaneous UHR and liver transplantation from 2010 through 2016. 30-day morbidity and mortality outcomes and long-term hernia recurrence were investigated. 59 patients had primary UHR at the time of liver transplantation. All hernias were reducible with no overlying skin breakdown or leakage of ascites. 30-day morbidity and mortality included 5 (8%) superficial surgical site infections, 1 (2%) deep surgical site infection, and 7 (12%) organ space infections. Unrelated to the UHR, 10 (17%) patients had an unplanned return to the operating room, 16 (27%) were readmitted within 30 days of their index operation, and 1 (2%) patient died. With a mean follow-up of 21.8 months, 7 (18%) patients experienced an umbilical hernia recurrence. Despite the high perioperative morbidity associated with the transplant procedure, concurrent primary UHR resulted in an acceptable long-term recurrence rate with minimal associated morbidity.

  6. Expression of Ki-67 in odontogenic cysts: A comparative study between odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Materials and Method: In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Observations and Results: Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. Conclusion: The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior. PMID:29731577

  7. Expression of Ki-67 in odontogenic cysts: A comparative study between odontogenic keratocysts, radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts.

    PubMed

    Modi, Tapan G; Chalishazar, Monali; Kumar, Malay

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are the most common cysts of the jaws and are formed from the remnants of the odontogenic apparatus. Among these odontogenic cysts, radicular cysts (RCs) (about 60% of all diagnosed jaw cysts), dentigerous cysts (DCs) (16.6% of all jaw cysts) and odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) (11.2% of all developmental odontogenic cysts) are the most common. The behavior of any lesion is generally reflected by its growth potential. Growth potential is determined by measuring the cell proliferative activity. The cell proliferative activity is measured by various methods among which immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the commonly used technique. Most of the IHC studies on cell proliferation have been based on antibodies such as Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. In the present study, the total sample size comprised of 45 cases of odontogenic cysts, with 15 cases each of OKC, RC and DC. Here, an attempt is made to study immunohistochemical (streptavidin-biotin detection system HRP-DAB) method to assess the expression of Ki-67 in different layers of the epithelial lining of OKCs, RCs and DCs. Ki-67 positive cells were highest in epithelium of OKC as compared to DC and RC. The increased Ki-67 labeling index and its expression in suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in OKC and its correlation with suprabasal cell layers of epithelial lining in DC and RC could contribute toward its clinically aggressive behavior. OKC is of more significance to the oral pathologist and oral surgeon because of its specific histopathological features, high recurrence rate and aggressive behavior.

  8. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coccidioidomycosis Delta agent (hepatitis D) Drug-induced cholestasis Fatty liver disease Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C ... abscess Reye syndrome Sclerosing cholangitis Wilson disease Images Fatty liver, CT scan Liver with disproportional fattening, CT scan ...

  9. Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C

    2014-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  10. A Novel Minimally Invasive Technique for Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Zaghloul, Ahmed; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim; Grimes, Lisa; Tucker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Management of unicameral bone cysts (UBC) remain controversial. These cysts seldom heal spontaneously or even after pathological fracture. Sometimes these cysts can be very large and incredibly troublesome to the patient. Various treatments exist with variable success rates. We present our experience of treating these lesions by continuous drainage. Over a seven year period, six patients with unicameral bone cysts were treated by inserting a modified drain into the wall of the cyst. The aim of surgery was to place the drain in a dependent area of the cyst, through the cortex allowing for continuous drainage. This was achieved through a small incision under radiographic control. A cement restrictor (usually used for femoral canal plugging during total hip replacements) was modified and inserted to prevent closure of the drain site. A redivac drain was passed through the plug into the cyst. The drain was left in place for a week to establish an epithelialized pathway which hopefully would remain patent, into the subcutaneous tissues, after the drain had been removed. There were four males and two females in the group and the age range was 6 -12 years. Four of the lesions were in the upper humerus, one in the proximal femur and the other one in the proximal tibia. Healing was rated according to the modified Neer classification. Grade 1 (healed) and Grade 2 (healed with defect) was defined as excellent outcome. Persistent /Recurrent cysts (Grade 3 and 4) were noted as unsatisfactory. Five cases were completely healed. Only one had a further fracture and there were no recurrent fractures. All the patients reported complete comfort and they all were able to re-engage in recreational activities without restriction. We think that reducing the intra-medullary pressure in these lesions will lead to healing. We report a safe and minimally invasive technique for the management of UBC. PMID:26587064

  11. A Novel Minimally Invasive Technique for Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Ahmed; Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim; Grimes, Lisa; Tucker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Management of unicameral bone cysts (UBC) remain controversial. These cysts seldom heal spontaneously or even after pathological fracture. Sometimes these cysts can be very large and incredibly troublesome to the patient. Various treatments exist with variable success rates. We present our experience of treating these lesions by continuous drainage. Over a seven year period, six patients with unicameral bone cysts were treated by inserting a modified drain into the wall of the cyst. The aim of surgery was to place the drain in a dependent area of the cyst, through the cortex allowing for continuous drainage. This was achieved through a small incision under radiographic control. A cement restrictor (usually used for femoral canal plugging during total hip replacements) was modified and inserted to prevent closure of the drain site. A redivac drain was passed through the plug into the cyst. The drain was left in place for a week to establish an epithelialized pathway which hopefully would remain patent, into the subcutaneous tissues, after the drain had been removed. There were four males and two females in the group and the age range was 6 -12 years. Four of the lesions were in the upper humerus, one in the proximal femur and the other one in the proximal tibia. Healing was rated according to the modified Neer classification. Grade 1 (healed) and Grade 2 (healed with defect) was defined as excellent outcome. Persistent /Recurrent cysts (Grade 3 and 4) were noted as unsatisfactory. Five cases were completely healed. Only one had a further fracture and there were no recurrent fractures. All the patients reported complete comfort and they all were able to re-engage in recreational activities without restriction. We think that reducing the intra-medullary pressure in these lesions will lead to healing. We report a safe and minimally invasive technique for the management of UBC.

  12. 'It's hard but you've just gotta get on with it'--The experiences of growing-up with a liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jessica; Elwell, Laura; McDonagh, Janet E; Kelly, Deirdre A; Wray, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The successful evolution of paediatric liver transplantation means that increasing numbers of young people survive into adulthood. Non-adherence to medication regimens leading to liver dysfunction, graft loss and patient death are prevalent in this vulnerable group. Insight into young people's experiences of living with a liver transplant (LTx) is vital to improve outcomes and guide future work in this area. Through semi-structured interviews, this study explored the experiences of living with a LTx for 13 young people transplanted as children and adolescents. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, revealing that young people felt different from their peers as a result of their LTx. Young people's perceptions of their scar, experiences of illness symptoms and taking medications acted as triggers of differences. This led to an ongoing struggle to be normal when faced with typical activities for young people and to attempts to take back control. Findings support the implementation of routine psychosocial screening to identify additional support needs and the development of a peer mentoring programme to allow young people to gain social support, thus reducing feelings of being different. It is hoped that such initiatives will have positive consequences for quality of life, self-management and adherence to medications.

  13. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  14. Arthroscopic Decompression for a Giant Meniscal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Acute pancreatitis complicating choledochal cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Muthucumaru, Mathievathaniy; Ljuhar, Damir; Panabokke, Gayathri; Paul, Eldho; Nataraja, Ramesh; Ferguson, Peter; Dagia, Charuta; Clarnette, Tom; King, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the characteristics of patients with choledochal cysts presenting with acute pancreatitis. Multicenter retrospective review of all paediatric patients (<18 years) with choledochal cysts managed over a 14-year period (2001-2014) at two tertiary paediatric surgical centres. Patient data were analysed for demographics, presentation, radiological classification of cyst type (Todani), operative interventions, complications and long-term follow-up. A total of 49 patients with choledochal cysts were identified with 15 (31%) being Type I fusiform, 18 (37%) Type I cystic and 16 (32%) Type IV-A. Seventeen (35%) patients presented with acute pancreatitis, one having had an ante-natally diagnosed choledochal cyst. Patients presenting with pancreatitis were older when compared to the non-pancreatitis group (5.1 vs. 1.2 years, P = 0.005). Nine out of 16 (53%) patients with Type IV-A cysts presented with pancreatitis compared to five (33%) of Type I fusiform and three (17%) of Type I cystic. There was however no statistically significant association between Todani types and the development of pancreatitis (Type I fusiform, P = 1.0; Type I cystic, P = 0.063; Type IV-A, P = 0.053). The rate of complications was similar in both groups. Pancreatitis was a common presentation in children with a choledochal cyst, however, there was no clear statistically significant association with Todani types and pancreatitis. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Niu, Gai-Ling; Gao, Min

    2009-11-01

    To describe the clinical features and the surgical management of primary iris stromal cyst with rapid growth. A 14-year-old Chinese-Mongolian girl was referred to us with a 1-month history of obstructed vision and photophobia. On an examination, a semitransparent cyst with a densely pigmented posterior wall was revealed in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The information regarding the location and extent of the cyst was further analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. It arose within the iris stroma, measuring 7.52 x 3.60 mm. Blood vessels on the surface of the lesion were revealed by iris angiography. There was no history of amniocentesis, birth trauma, antecedent ocular injury, or maternal illness during gestation. The diagnosis of primary iris stromal cyst was made. A combination of needle aspiration, piecemeal resection of cyst wall, cryotherapy, and argon laser photocoagulation with overlapped spots was used. Histopathology of the cyst wall revealed nonkeratinized, multilayered, stratified squamous epithelium with clusters of goblet cells. Complete resolution of the cyst was successfully achieved. The visual acuity improved to 20/25 from counting fingers. At 6 months of follow-up, there was no recurrence. Complete eradication and devitalization of any remaining epithelial cells are the key factors for preventing recurrence and diffuse epithelialization of the anterior chamber.

  17. Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma 2016 WHO Classification Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain ...

  18. Surgical management of anterior chamber epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D

    2003-03-01

    To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  19. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-species transmission of Giardia spp.: inoculation of beavers and muskrats with cysts of human, beaver, mouse, and muskrat origin.

    PubMed Central

    Erlandsen, S L; Sherlock, L A; Januschka, M; Schupp, D G; Schaefer, F W; Jakubowski, W; Bemrick, W J

    1988-01-01

    Giardia cysts isolated from humans, beavers, mice, and muskrats were tested in cross-species transmission experiments for their ability to infect either beavers or muskrats. Giardia cysts, derived from multiple symptomatic human donors and used for inoculation of beavers or muskrats, were shown to be viable by incorporation of fluorogenic dyes, excystation, and their ability to produce infections in the Mongolian gerbil model. Inoculation of beavers with 5 x 10(5) Giardia lamblia cysts resulted in the infection of 75% of the animals (n = 8), as judged by the presence of fecal cysts or intestinal trophozoites at necropsy. The mean prepatent period was 13.1 days. An infective dose experiment, using 5 x 10(1) to 5 x 10(5) viable G. lamblia cysts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, demonstrated that doses of between, less than 50, and less than 500 viable cysts were required to produce infection in beavers. Scanning electron microscopy of beaver small intestine revealed that attachment of G. lamblia trophozoites produced lesions in the microvillous border. Inoculation of muskrats with G. lamblia cysts produced infections when the dose of cysts was equal to or greater than 1.25 x 10(5). The inoculation of beavers with Giardia ondatrae or Giardia muris cysts did not produce any infection; however, the administration to muskrats of Giardia cysts of beaver origin resulted in the infection of 62% of the animals (n = 8), with a prepatent period of 5 days. Our results demonstrated that beavers and muskrats could be infected with Giardia cysts derived from humans, but only by using large numbers of cysts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:3063208

  1. Non-infected and Infected Bronchogenic Cyst: The Correlation of Image Findings with Cyst Content

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Gil; Park, Ju Hwan; Park, Hye Min; Kwon, Woon Jung; Cha, Hee Jeong; Lee, Young Jik; Park, Chang Ryul; Jegal, Yangjin; Ahn, Jong-Joon

    2014-01-01

    We hereby report a case on bronchogenic cyst which is initially non-infected, then becomes infected after bronchoscopic ultrasound (US)-guided transesophageal fine-needle aspiration (FNA). The non-infected bronchogenic cyst appears to be filled with relatively echogenic materials on US, and the aspirate is a whitish jelly-like fluid. Upon contrast-enhanced MRI of the infected bronchogenic cyst, a T1-weighted image shows low signal intensity and a T2-weighted image shows high signal intensity, with no enhancements of the cyst contents, but enhancements of the thickened cystic wall. The patient then undergo video-assisted thoracic surgery 14 days after the FNA. The cystic mass is known to be completely removed, and the aspirate is yellowish and purulent. To understand the image findings that pertain to the gross appearance of the cyst contents will help to diagnose bronchogenic cysts in the future. PMID:24624219

  2. Uncommon localizations of hydatid cyst. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salamone, G; Licari, L; Randisi, B; Falco, N; Tutino, R; Vaglica, A; Gullo, R; Porello, C; Cocorullo, G; Gulotta, G

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is an endemic anthropozoonosis with usual localization in liver and lungs. Rarely it localizes in uncommon sites as spleen, skeleton, kidney, brain, cardiac muscle, peritoneum, sub cutis. Complications of uncommon localizations are the same that for usual ones. Review of the literature on rare and atypical localization of hydatid cysts in soft tissues. Key-words used on Pub-Med [(echinococ OR hydatid) AND (soft tissue OR subcutaneous OR cutaneous)] without time limit. There were found 282 articles; 242 were excluded because of muscular or bone localizations. 40 were coherent. Different variables are taken into account: age, sex, geographic area, anatomic localization of the cyst, dimension, symptoms, signs, mobility, blood exams and specific serological tests, imaging techniques for diagnosis, existing of septa in the structure, treatment, anaesthesia, spillage, neo-adjuvant and adjuvant treatment, follow-up period, recurrent lesions. It would be useful create an homogeneous and standardized collection of data of these rare and potentially life-threatening conditions in order to create guide-line of diagnostic and therapeutic process and create (or adopt) unique classification of the lesions.

  3. Liver Safety of Fasiglifam (TAK-875) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Review of the Global Clinical Trial Experience.

    PubMed

    Marcinak, John F; Munsaka, Melvin S; Watkins, Paul B; Ohira, Takashi; Smith, Neila

    2018-06-01

    Fasiglifam (TAK-875) is a G protein-coupled receptor 40 agonist that was being investigated for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A development program was terminated late in phase III clinical trials due to liver safety concerns. The liver safety of fasiglifam was assessed from data based on six phase II and nine phase III double-blind studies and two open-label studies with emphasis on pooled data from 15 double-blind studies from both global and Japanese development programs. Taking into consideration different daily doses of fasiglifam administered in clinical studies, the primary comparisons were between all patients exposed to fasiglifam (any dose) versus placebo, and, where applicable, versus the two active comparators, sitagliptin or glimepiride. A Liver Safety Evaluation Committee consisting of hepatologists blinded to treatment assignments evaluated hepatic adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) for causal relationship to study drug. The analysis included data from 9139 patients with T2DM in 15 double-blind controlled studies who received either fasiglifam (n = 5359, fasiglifam group), fasiglifam and sitagliptin (n = 123), or a comparator agent (n = 3657, non-exposed group consisting of placebo and other antidiabetic agents). Exposure to treatment for more than 1 year ranged from 249 patients in the placebo arm, to 370 patients in the glimepiride arm and 617 patients in the fasiglifam 50 mg arm. The primary focus of the analysis was on the hepatic safety of fasiglifam. The overall safety profile based on treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs), SAEs, deaths, and withdrawal due to AEs was similar between fasiglifam and placebo (excluding liver test abnormalities). However, there was an increased incidence rate of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations > 3 × upper limit of normal (ULN), 5 × ULN, and 10 × ULN in fasiglifam-treated patients compared with those treated with placebo or active comparators. ALT elevations > 3

  4. Pediatric Odontogenic Cysts of the Jaws.

    PubMed

    Arce, Kevin; Streff, Christopher S; Ettinger, Kyle S

    2016-02-01

    Odontogenic cysts represent a common form of pathology of the jaws, and the natural history, clinicopathologic findings, and appropriate management strategies are important to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Odontogenic cysts in the pediatric populations are important pathologic entities given their potential impact on the growth and development of the maxillofacial complex. Inappropriate management strategies can severely affect the form and function of the growing child. Categorizing pediatric odontogenic cysts into inflammatory or developmental causes provides a convenient way of conceptualizing these various entities and helps facilitate the appropriate diagnosis and the subsequent management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polidocanol sclerotherapy for hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, T; Johansson, J E; Jahnson, S; Helgesen, F; Andersson, S O

    1994-04-01

    A total of 87 patients with 63 hydroceles and 29 epididymal cysts underwent injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol on an outpatient basis. In the hydrocele group the cure rate after 1 treatment was 67% and the overall cure rate was 87% after a median followup of 14 months. In the group treated for epididymal cyst the corresponding cure rates were 46% and 64%, respectively, with a median followup of 12 months. A low rate of complications was observed. Of 86 evaluable patients 81 (94%) were satisfied with the procedure and the treatment results. Therefore, we recommend injection sclerotherapy with polidocanol as primary treatment for hydroceles and epididymal cysts in patients older than 40 years.

  6. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented.

  7. Epidermal cyst mimicking incision line metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gündoğdu, Ramazan; Ayhan, Erhan; Çolak, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are cystic tumors lined with keratinized squamous layer and filled with keratin debris. Epidermal cysts may develop by implantation of surface epidermal layer into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue after trauma or surgical procedures. Cervix cancer spreads either directly or via the vascular and lymphatic systems. Distant skin metastasis of endometrium or cervix cancer is very rare. In this case report, a patient who had a history of cervix cancer operation 11 years ago and presented with a mass that mimicked incision line metastasis and was histopathologically diagnosed with epidermal cyst is presented. PMID:28740968

  8. Cervical bronchogenic cysts in head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Ustundag, Emre; Iseri, Mete; Keskin, Gurkan; Yayla, Berna; Muezzinoglu, Bahar

    2005-06-01

    Congenital cysts of the neck are not uncommon. Most of these are thyroglossal, branchial cleft and thymic cysts. Bronchogenic cysts are uncommon developmental anomalies of the tracheobronchial tree and rarely occur in the neck. More than 70 cases of bronchogenic cysts in the head and neck region have been reported in the literature. We report three cases presenting with neck swelling in the hyoid region that were diagnosed as bronchogenic cysts based on clinical and histopathological findings.

  9. Liver transplantation for metastatic liver malignancies.

    PubMed

    Foss, Aksel; Lerut, Jan P

    2014-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a validated treatment of primary hepatobiliary tumours. Over the last decade, a renewed interest for liver transplantation as a curative treatment of colorectal liver metastasis (CR-LM) and neuro-endocrine metastasis (NET-LM) has developed. The ELTR and UNOS analyses showed that liver transplantation may offer excellent disease-free survival (ranging from 30 to 77%) in case of NET-LM, on the condition that stringent selection criteria are implemented. The interest for liver transplantation in the treatment of CR-LM has been fostered by the Norwegian SECA study. Five-year A 5-year survival rate of 60% could be reached. Despite the high recurrence rate (90%), one-third of patients were disease free following pulmonary surgery for metastases. Liver transplantation will take a more prominent place in the therapeutic algorithm of CR-LM and NET-LM. Larger experiences are necessary to improve knowledge about tumour biology and to refine selection criteria. A multimodal approach adding neo and adjuvant medical treatment to the transplant procedure will be key to bring this oncologic transplant project into the clinical arena. The preserved liver function in these patients will allow a more deliberate access to split liver and living donation for these indications.

  10. Intramedullary cyst formation after removal of multiple intradural spinal arachnoid cysts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Zekaj, Edvin; Saleh, Christian; Servello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Background: A rare cause of spinal cord compression is spinal arachnoid cysts. Symptoms are caused by spinal cord compression, however, asymptomatic patients have been also reported. Treatment options depend upon symptom severity and clinical course. Case Description: We report the case of a 47-year-old patient who developed an intramedullary arachnoid cyst after removal of an intradural extramedullary cyst. Conclusion: Surgery should be considered early in a symptomatic disease course. Longstanding medullary compression may reduce the possibility of neurological recovery as well as secondary complications such as intramedullary cyst formation. PMID:27512608

  11. Sacral extradural arachnoid cyst in association with split cord malformation.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Nejat, Farideh

    2016-09-01

    Split cord malformation (SCM) is a congenital disease that can be associated with other spinal anomalies. Few cases of concurrent intradural arachnoid cyst and SCM have been sporadically reported; however, sacral extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) with SCM is very rare. The report describes our experience with simultaneous surgery in patients with concurrent SEAC and SCM in an effort to document the treatment of the rare spinal concomitant anomalies. The present study is designed as a case series. This is a continuous series of patients with coexisting SCM and SEAC who were presented to our institution. The lower extremities weakness and deformity, radiological imaging, urodynamic tests, and surgical aspects of the patient population are documented. Cases with concomitant anomalies were consecutively enrolled among 73 patients who were operated on for SCM between 2008 and 2014. Clinical data and surgical findings were prospectively filed and retrospectively evaluated. There were seven patients (2 boys and 5 girls), with age ranging from 18 to 119 months (mean: 56.71±39.49). Type I SCM was detected in six cases, and type II SCM was detected in one case. Tethering of the cord was detected in all seven patients, and six patients (85.7%) had syrinx formation rostral to the level of SCM. All patients had at least one kind of urological dysfunctions manifesting as neurogenic bladder. On surgery, fistulous orifice of the meningeal cyst was found and ligated in six cases, and the other one was repaired via sealing the cyst walls as near as possible to the thecal sac. In patients with symptomatic SCM, the signs of concurrent SEAC may be masqueraded by the former condition. It would be impossible to attribute a given sign, particularly urological signs, to either SCM or SEAC. Whatever the sign and nature, both conditions are better to be managed surgically in one session under a single anesthesia to prevent duplicate complications of further anesthesia and interventions in

  12. Technical Failure of MR Elastography Examinations of the Liver: Experience from a Large Single-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mathilde; Corcuera-Solano, Idoia; Lo, Grace; Esses, Steven; Liao, Joseph; Besa, Cecilia; Chen, Nelson; Abraham, Ginu; Fung, Maggie; Babb, James S; Ehman, Richard L; Taouli, Bachir

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To assess the determinants of technical failure of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography of the liver in a large single-center study. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Seven hundred eighty-one MR elastography examinations performed in 691 consecutive patients (mean age, 58 years; male patients, 434 [62.8%]) in a single center between June 2013 and August 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. MR elastography was performed at 3.0 T (n = 443) or 1.5 T (n = 338) by using a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. MR elastography and anatomic image analysis were performed by two observers. Additional observers measured liver T2* and fat fraction. Technical failure was defined as no pixel value with a confidence index higher than 95% and/or no apparent shear waves imaged. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess potential predictive factors of technical failure of MR elastography. Results The technical failure rate of MR elastography at 1.5 T was 3.5% (12 of 338), while it was higher, 15.3% (68 of 443), at 3.0 T. On the basis of univariate analysis, body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, use of 3.0 T, presence of cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver disease were all significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004); but on the basis of multivariable analysis, only body mass index, liver iron deposition, massive ascites, and use of 3.0 T were significantly associated with failure of MR elastography (P < .004). Conclusion The technical failure rate of MR elastography with a gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence was low at 1.5 T but substantially higher at 3.0 T. Massive ascites, iron deposition, and high body mass index were additional independent factors associated with failure of MR elastography of the liver with a two-dimensional gradient-recalled-echo pulse sequence. © RSNA, 2017.

  13. Pediatric Donor to Adult Recipients in Donation After Cardiac Death Liver Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Lan, C; Song, J L; Yan, L N; Yang, J Y; Wen, T F; Li, B; Xu, M Q

    The impact of using liver allografts from donors who are younger than 14 years at the time of donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation in terms of early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and graft survival is undefined. To determine if adults undergoing DCD liver transplantation who receive a graft from a donor age younger than or equal to 13 years have similar outcomes to recipients of organs from older than 18-year-old donors. Records from adult patients undergoing DCD liver transplantation between March 2012 and December 2015 who received whole grafts from donors after cardiac death were reviewed. Patients with donors younger than or equal to 13 years (group 1) and older than 18 years (group 2) were compared for EAD rates, hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), and graft survival. Records of 60 DCD liver transplantation patients were analyzed. The 90-day and 1-year graft survival rate of both groups was 90% versus 96% (P = .427) and 80% versus 84% (P = .668), respectively. The EAD rates of groups 1 and 2 were 30% versus 34% (P = .806). The incidence of HAT was 20% in group 1 compared with 12% in group 2 (P = .610). Also, 0.7% < graft to recipient weight ratio (GRWR) <0.8% was also usable for pediatric donor to adult recipients. Whole liver grafts from donors younger than or equal to 13 years can potentially be used in selected size-matched (GRWR >0.7%) DCD adult recipients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical management and outcome of blunt major liver injuries: experience of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in one trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Lin, Being-Chuan; Fang, Jen-Feng; Chen, Ray-Jade; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Hsu, Yu-Pao

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to assess the clinical experience and outcome of damage control laparotomy with perihepatic packing in the management of blunt major liver injuries. From January 1998 to December 2006, 58 patients of blunt major liver injury, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale (AAST-OIS) equal or greater than III, were operated with perihepatic packing at our institute. Demographic data, intra-operative findings, operative procedures, adjunctive managements and outcome were reviewed. To determine whether there was statistical difference between the survivor and non-survivor groups, data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables, either Pearson's chi-square test or with Yates continuity correction for contingency tables, and results were considered statistically significant if p<0.05. Of the 58 patients, 20 (35%) were classified as AAST-OIS grade III, 24 (41%) as grade IV, and 14 (24%) as grade V. At laparotomy, depending on the severity of injuries, all 58 patients underwent various liver-related procedures and perihepatic packing. The more frequent liver-related procedures included debridement hepatectomy (n=21), hepatorrhaphy (n=19), selective hepatic artery ligation (n=11) and 7 patients required post-laparotomy hepatic transarterial embolization. Of the 58 patients, 28 survived and 30 died with a 52% mortality rate. Of the 30 deaths, uncontrolled liver bleeding in 24-h caused 25 deaths and delayed sepsis caused residual 5 deaths. The mortality rate versus OIS was grade III: 30% (6/20), grade IV: 54% (13/24), and grade V: 79% (11/14), respectively. On univariate analysis, the significant predictors of mortality were OIS grade (p=0.019), prolonged initial prothrombin time (PT) (p=0.004), active partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (p<0.0001) and decreased platelet count (p=0.005). The mortality rate of surgical blunt major liver injuries remains high even with perihepatic packing. Since

  15. Pericardial Cyst: Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death?

    PubMed

    Ley, Marie Brix; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2018-05-21

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of sudden death in the world. The etiology of sudden cardiac death involves a wide range of diseases, but seldom pericardial cysts. A pericardial cyst is an uncommon cyst usually located in the middle mediastinum and rarely in the posterior part. They are usually harmless and asymptomatic. Here, we present a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness, but died suddenly after a CT scan was attempted. The detailed forensic pathologic and histologic examination revealed a pericardial cyst located in the posterior mediastinum. Toxicology and biochemistry tests, including tryptase, found no competing cause of death. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Tumor vs. Cyst: What's the Difference?

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy. With Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. NCI Dictionary of cancer terms: Cyst. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?CdrID=46461. Accessed June 8, 2016. ...

  17. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform.

    PubMed

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-09-02

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  18. Trichilemmal cyst nevus of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Serra, David; Pereira, Sara; Robalo-Cordeiro, Margarida; Tellechea, Oscar

    2011-04-01

    We report the observation of a 24-year-old woman presenting a plaque-like lesion of the occipital scalp with hair rarefaction. This lesion was congenital and consisted of numerous, agminated, very small, trichilemmal cysts. It remained stable since birth, slowly growing in proportion with the patient during childhood. We discuss the nosological status of this intriguing lesion and its relationship with the recently described trichilemmal cyst nevus.

  19. Recurrent pulmonary embolism due to echinococcosis secondary to hepatic surgery for hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Mario Francesco; Carratù, Pierluigi; Tatò, Ilaria; Vizzino, Heleanna; Florio, Carlo; Resta, Onofrio

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 53-year-old man with recurrent pulmonary embolism due to intra-arterial cysts from Echinococcus. Both the patient's medical history and the computed tomographic (CT) scan abnormalities led to the diagnosis. The CT scan, performed during hospitalization in our ward, showed cystic masses in the left main pulmonary artery and in the descending branch of the right pulmonary artery. Within cystic masses, thin septa were visible, giving a chambered appearance, which was suggestive of a group of daughter cysts. In the past, our patient underwent multiple operations for recurring echinococcal cysts of the liver. After the last intervention, 4 years earlier, his postoperative course was complicated by pulmonary embolism: a CT scan showed a filling defect in the descending branch of the right pulmonary artery, which was caused by the same cystic mass as 4 years later, although smaller. This mass, not properly treated, increased in diameter. Moreover, after 4 years, there has been a new episode of embolism, which involved the left main pulmonary artery. This is the first case in which there are repeated episodes of pulmonary embolism echinococcosis after hepatic surgery for removal of hydatid cysts.

  20. Bacteria associated with cysts of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    PubMed

    Nour, Sarah M; Lawrence, John R; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D W; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 +/- 0.5) x 10(5) bacteria (mean +/- standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and STREPTOMYCES: A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents.

  1. Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 ± 0.5) × 105 bacteria (mean ± standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:12514048

  2. Ultrasound biomicroscopic analysis of iris cysts.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Aguilar, L; Fuentes-Cataño, C; Pedroza-Seres, M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) features and complications associated with iris cysts. A retrospective case series. Thirteen patients with iris cysts were identified in a 10 year period study at a ophthalmologic reference Center in Mexico City. The variables included demographic data, ocular and medical history, clinical course, and complications. All patients were examined by UBM, and type, number, location, and acoustic characteristics of cysts were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Thirteen patients were included (8 men and 5 women). The mean age was 44.5 ± 15.5 years (range 6-70 years). The origin most prevalent was neuroepithelial (92.3%), and 7.7% had stromal cysts. Regarding to location 76.9% were found in the periphery, and 69.2% between meridians II and VI. All cysts showed a moderate to high reflectivity in the wall. Complications were present in 38.5% of cases (15.4% partial angle closure, 15.4% secondary angle closure glaucoma and 7.7% dyscoria). Most cysts are derived from iris pigmented epithelium, with a benign course and a minor rate of complications. The UBM is an indispensable tool that allows us to plan more specific and conservative treatments, with less damage to ocular structures and, therefore, better visual prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy.

    PubMed

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future.

  4. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Learning points Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future. PMID:24683475

  5. Routine Laboratory Blood Tests May Diagnose Significant Fibrosis in Liver Transplant Recipients with Chronic Hepatitis C: A 10 Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Victoria; Nguyen, Heajung; Jimenez, Melissa; Agopian, Vatche; Vangala, Sitaram; Elashoff, David; Saab, Sammy

    2016-03-28

    The aims of our study were to determine whether routine blood tests, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) and Fibrosis 4 (Fib-4) scores, were associated with advanced fibrosis and to create a novel model in liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We performed a cross sectional study of patients at The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center who underwent liver transplantation for HCV. We used linear mixed effects models to analyze association between fibrosis severity and individual biochemical markers and mixed effects logistic regression to construct diagnostic models for advanced fibrosis (METAVIR F3-4). Cross-validation was used to estimate a receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the prediction models and to estimate the area under the curve (AUC). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) age of our cohort was 55 (±7.7) years, and almost three quarter were male. The mean (±SD) time from transplant to liver biopsy was 19.9 (±17.1) months. The mean (±SD) APRI and Fib-4 scores were 3 (±12) and 7 (±14), respectively. Increased fibrosis was associated with lower platelet count and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values and higher total bilirubin and Fib-4 scores. We developed a model that takes into account age, gender, platelet count, ALT, and total bilirubin, and this model outperformed APRI and Fib-4 with an AUC of 0.68 (p < 0.001). Our novel prediction model diagnosed the presence of advanced fibrosis more reliably than APRI and Fib-4 scores. This noninvasive calculation may be used clinically to identify liver transplant recipients with HCV with significant liver damage.

  6. Changes in the management of liver trauma leading to reduced mortality: 15-year experience in a major trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Suen, Kary; Skandarajah, Anita R; Knowles, Brett; Judson, Rodney; Thomson, Benjamin N

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, the evolution of management of liver injury has resulted in improved outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the trend in the management and outcomes of patients with liver injury. Primary outcomes were defined as mortality and hospital length of stay. The secondary aim was to identify independent predictors of mortality. This study utilized hospital trauma registry data of all trauma patients with liver injuries admitted from 1999 to 2013. Patients in this 15-year period were divided into three periods of 5 years each and compared in terms of demographics, management and outcomes. A total of 725 patients with hepatic trauma were included. Patient demographics were similar, except for an increase in patient transfers from rural locations. Non-operative management increased significantly. There was a significant increase in the use of damage control surgery with perihepatic packing in high-grade liver injuries managed operatively. Hepatic angioembolization commenced midway through the study period. The overall mortality decreased by approximately threefold (P < 0.001) and mortality within 24 h of arrival to hospital by approximately fivefold (P < 0.001). Controlling for independent predictive factors of mortality, the mortality within 24 h reduced from 18.8% in period 1 to 3.6% in period 3 (P = 0.001). At this institution, an integrated trauma service has led to an evolution in the management of hepatic trauma, favouring non-operative management, damage control surgery and the use of hepatic angioembolization. We experienced a significantly improved mortality within 24 h of arrival to hospital in patients with liver trauma. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  7. Impact of donor age in liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death donors: A decade of experience at Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Firl, Daniel J; Hashimoto, Koji; O'Rourke, Colin; Diago-Uso, Teresa; Fujiki, Masato; Aucejo, Federico N; Quintini, Cristiano; Kelly, Dympna M; Miller, Charles M; Fung, John J; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2015-12-01

    The use of liver grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors remains controversial, particularly with donors of advanced age. This retrospective study investigated the impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. We examined 92 recipients who received DCD grafts and 92 matched recipients who received donation after brain death (DBD) grafts at Cleveland Clinic from January 2005 to June 2014. DCD grafts met stringent criteria to minimize risk factors in both donors and recipients. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year graft survival in DCD recipients was significantly inferior to that in DBD recipients (82%, 71%, 66% versus 92%, 87%, 85%, respectively; P = 0.03). Six DCD recipients (7%), but no DBD recipients, experienced ischemic-type biliary stricture (P = 0.01). However, the incidence of biliary stricture was not associated with donor age (P = 0.57). Interestingly, recipients receiving DCD grafts from donors who were <45 years of age (n = 55) showed similar graft survival rates compared to those receiving DCD grafts from donors who were ≥45 years of age (n = 37; 80%, 69%, 66% versus 83%, 72%, 66%, respectively; P = 0.67). Cox proportional hazards modeling in all study populations (n = 184) revealed advanced donor age (P = 0.05) and the use of a DCD graft (P = 0.03) as unfavorable factors for graft survival. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of DBD graft failure increased with increasing age, but the risk of DCD graft failure did not increase with increasing age (P = 0.13). In conclusion, these data suggest that stringent donor and recipient selection may ameliorate the negative impact of donor age in DCD liver transplantation. DCD grafts should not be discarded because of donor age, per se, and could help expand the donor pool for liver transplantation. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, K G; Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Meyer, B P; Ramalingham, S; Meyer, E A

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether batch solar disinfection (SODIS) can be used to inactivate oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in experimentally contaminated water. Suspensions of oocysts and cysts were exposed to simulated global solar irradiation of 830 W m(-2) for different exposure times at a constant temperature of 40 degrees C. Infectivity tests were carried out using CD-1 suckling mice in the Cryptosporidium experiments and newly weaned CD-1 mice in the Giardia experiments. Exposure times of > or =10 h (total optical dose c. 30 kJ) rendered C. parvum oocysts noninfective. Giardia muris cysts were rendered completely noninfective within 4 h (total optical dose >12 kJ). Scanning electron microscopy and viability (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole/propidium iodide fluorogenic dyes and excystation) studies on oocysts of C. parvum suggest that inactivation is caused by damage to the oocyst wall. Results show that cysts of G. muris and oocysts of C. parvum are rendered completely noninfective after batch SODIS exposures of 4 and 10 h (respectively) and is also likely to be effective against waterborne cysts of Giardia lamblia. These results demonstrate that SODIS is an appropriate household water treatment technology for use as an emergency intervention in aftermath of natural or man-made disasters against not only bacterial but also protozoan pathogens.

  9. Diagnosing aneurysmal and unicameral bone cysts with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R J; Meyer, J S; Dormans, J P; Davidson, R S

    1999-09-01

    The differential between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts usually is clear clinically and radiographically. Occasionally there are cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. Because natural history and treatment are different, the ability to distinguish between these two entities before surgery is important. The authors reviewed, in a blinded fashion, the preoperative magnetic resonance images to investigate criteria that could be used to differentiate between the two lesions. All patients had operative or pathologic confirmation of an aneurysmal bone cyst or unicameral bone cyst. The authors analyzed the preoperative magnetic resonance images of 14 patients with diagnostically difficult bone cysts (eight children with unicameral bone cysts and six children with aneurysmal bone cysts) and correlated these findings with diagnosis after biopsy or cyst aspiration and contrast injection. The presence of a double density fluid level within the lesion strongly indicated that the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. Other criteria that suggested the lesion was an aneurysmal bone cyst were the presence of septations within the lesion and signal characteristics of low intensity on T1 images and high intensity on T2 images. The authors identified a way of helping to differentiate between aneurysmal bone cysts and unicameral bone cysts on magnetic resonance images. Double density fluid level, septation, and low signal on T1 images and high signal on T2 images strongly suggest the bone cyst in question is an aneurysmal bone cyst, rather than a unicameral bone cyst. This may be helpful before surgery for the child who has a cystic lesion for which radiographic features do not allow a clear differentiation of unicameral bone cyst from aneurysmal bone cyst.

  10. Diagnosis and Management of Parathyroid Cysts: Description with Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Koray; Şahin, Furkan; İncekara, Funda; Fındık, Göktürk; Kaya, Sadi; Ağaçkıran, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    Parathyroid cysts are unilocular, thin-walled cysts, and they are seen very rarely. Their formation mechanisms are not clear. They are usually localized in the cervical region, and mediastinal settlements are rare. They are usually asymptomatic, but cysts that have settled in the neck may be symptomatic, such as tracheal pressure symptoms. There are two types-namely, functional cysts and non-functional cysts-depending on their hormonal characteristics. There are still difficulties in the diagnosis, and they can be mistaken by thyroid pathology. Treatment is surgery. We discussed two cases of parathyroid cysts that we surgically excised.

  11. Two Cases of Giant Epidermal Cyst Occurring in the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Gue; Kim, Chul-Han; Cho, Hong-Ki; Park, Mi-Youn; Lee, Yoon-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are the most common cysts of the skin. Aconventional epidermal cyst rarely reaches a size of more than 5 cm in diameter. We report on two cases of giant epidermal cyst occurring in the neck. One patient had a cyst measuring 12×9×9 cm and the other patient had a non-pulsatile, dome-shaped lesion in the neck, which measured 6×5×3 cm. The lesions were totally excised. Histopathologically, both were confirmed as giant epidermal cysts. PMID:22028561

  12. The potential for dispersal of microalgal resting cysts by migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Tesson, Sylvie Vm; Weißbach, Astrid; Kremp, Anke; Lindström, Åke; Rengefors, Karin

    2018-06-11

    Most microalgal species are geographically widespread, but little is known about how they are dispersed. One potential mechanism for long-distance dispersal is through birds, which may transport cells internally (endozoochory) and deposit them during, or in-between, their migratory stopovers. We hypothesize that dinoflagellates, in particular resting stages, can tolerate bird digestion; that bird temperature, acidity, and retention time negatively affect dinoflagellate viability; and that recovered cysts can germinate after passage through the birds' gut, contributing to species-specific dispersal of the dinoflagellates across scales. Tolerance of two dinoflagellate species (Peridiniopsis borgei, a warm-water species and Apocalathium malmogiense, a cold-water species) to Mallard gut passage was investigated using in vitro experiments simulating the gizzard and caeca conditions. The effect of in vitro digestion and retention time on cell integrity, cell viability and germination capacity of the dinoflagellate species was examined targeting both their vegetative and resting stages. Resting stages (cysts) of both species were able to survive simulated bird gut passage, even if their survival rate and germination were negatively affected by exposure to acidic condition and bird internal temperature. Cysts of A. malmogiense were more sensitive than P. borgei to treatments and to the presence of digestive enzymes. Vegetative cells did not survive conditions of bird internal temperature and formed pellicle cysts when exposed to gizzard-like acid conditions. We show that dinoflagellate resting cysts serve as dispersal propagules through migratory birds. Assuming a retention time of viable cysts of 2-12 h to duck stomach conditions, cysts could be dispersed 150-800 km and beyond. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of odontogenic cysts by endonasal endoscopic techniques: A systematic review and case series.

    PubMed

    Marino, Michael J; Luong, Amber; Yao, William C; Citardi, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts and tumors of the maxilla may be amendable to management by endonasal endoscopic techniques, which may reduce the morbidity associated with open procedures and avoid difficult reconstruction. To perform a systematic review that evaluates the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic techniques in the management of different odontogenic cysts. A case series of our experience with these minimally invasive techniques was assembled for insight into the technical aspects of these procedures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used to identify English-language studies that reported the use of endoscopic techniques in the management of odontogenic cysts. Several medical literature data bases were searched for all occurrences in the title or abstract of the terms "odontogenic" and "endoscopic" between January 1, 1950, and October 1, 2016. Publications were evaluated for the technique used, histopathology, complications, recurrences, and the follow-up period. A case series of patients who presented to a tertiary rhinology clinic and who underwent treatment of odontogenic cysts by an endoscopic technique was included. A systematic review identified 16 case reports or series that described the use of endoscopic techniques for the treatment of odontogenic cysts, including 45 total patients. Histopathologies encountered were radicular (n = 16) and dentigerous cysts (n = 10), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (n = 12). There were no reported recurrences or major complications for a mean follow-up of 29 months. A case series of patients in our institution identified seven patients without recurrence for a mean follow-up of 10 months. Endonasal endoscopic treatment of various odontogenic cysts are described in the literature and are associated with effective treatment of these lesions for an average follow-up period of >2 years. These techniques have the potential to reduce morbidity associated with the resection of these

  14. Cyst-theca relationship of the arctic dinoflagellate cyst Islandinium minutum (Dinophyceae) and phylogenetic position based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Éric; Rochon, André; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-10-01

    Round brown spiny cysts constitute a morphological group common in high latitude dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. The dinoflagellate cyst Islandinium minutum (Harland et Reid) Head, Harland et Matthiessen is the main paleoecological indicator of seasonal sea-ice cover in the Arctic. Despite the importance of this cyst in paleoceanographical studies, its biological affinity has so far been unknown. The biological affinity of the species I. minutum and its phylogenetic position based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) and the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) were established from cyst incubation experiments in controlled conditions, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and single-cell PCR. The thecal motile cell obtained was undescribed. Although the motile cell was similar to Archaeperidinium minutum (Kofoid) Jörgensen, the motile cell of I. minutum lacked a transitional plate in the cingular series, which is present in Archaeperidinium spp. Islandinium minutum and Archaeperidinium spp. were paraphyletic in all phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore, Protoperidinium tricingulatum, which also lacks a transitional plate, was closely related to I. minutum and transfered to the genus Islandinium. Based on available data, it is clear that Islandinium is distinct from Archaeperidinium. Therefore, we considered Islandinium Head, Harland et Matthiessen as a non-fossil genus and emend its description, as well as the species I. minutum. This is the first description of a cyst-theca relationship and the first study that reports molecular data based on SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA on a species assigned to the genus Islandinium. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  15. Inherited metabolic disorders presenting as acute liver failure in newborns and young children: King's College Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Robert; Hadzic, Nedim; Gissen, Paul; Dhawan, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in children is a rare condition that is often fatal without liver transplantation. The diagnostic work-up is complex, and the etiology is unidentified in up to half of patients, making decisions like therapeutic transplantation extremely difficult. We collected clinical, laboratory, and outcome data on all patients under 5 years of age who were admitted between January 2001 and December 2011 to King's College Hospital with ALF secondary to an inherited metabolic disease (IMD), a common cause of pediatric acute liver failure. Thirty-six of 127 children with ALF had a metabolic etiology: galactosemia (17); mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder (MRCD, 7); ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency (4); tyrosinemia type 1 (4); Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC, 3); and congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1b (1). Seven children died: MRCD (4) and NPC (3). Four children were transplanted: OTC deficiency (1) and MRCD (3). Fifteen of 25 children followed up showed evidence of developmental delay. IMD is the most common group of disorders in this age group; indeterminate cases may yet include undiagnosed metabolic disorders; the overall survival rate is good but largely depends on diagnosis, while developmental outcome of the surviving patients is less favorable. • Up to half of children with ALF may be undiagnosed. • IMD is a common cause of pediatric acute liver failure. What is New: • Initial diagnostic clues may be gathered from the child's age and laboratory parameters. • Survival of children with IMD-related ALF is good, but developmental outcome is less favorable. • In the future, novel sequencing methods will aid in the diagnosis of disorders in which therapeutic decisions depend upon.

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with liver metastases: An 18-year experience from the GIST cooperation group in North China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi-Nan; Li, Yong; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Liang, Xiao-Bo; Liang, Han; Zhang, Li; Li, Bin; Fan, Li-Qiao; Zhao, Qun; Ma, Zhi-Xue; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Yu; Tan, Bi-Bo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Li-Li; Hao, Ying-Jie; Jia, Nan

    2017-11-01

    Approximately 40% to 50% of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients will have recurrence or metastases after resection of the primary lesion, and the most common affected sites will be liver and peritoneum. Imatinib has been considered as the first-line therapy of metastatic GIST. Surgery for metastases is proposed when possible. Furthermore, there are controversies concerning hepatic resection and systemic tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The therapeutic conditions and long-term outcome of GIST patients with liver metastases in northern China remain unknown.The clinical, pathological, and follow-up data of 144 GIST patients, who had liver metastases between June 1996 and June 2014 from 3 tertiary cancer centers in northern China, were reviewed.Thirty-two cases (22.2%) had hepatectomy with 23 (23/32, 71.9%) R0 resections and 9 (9/32, 28.1%) R1/R2 resections, respectively. Twenty-three patients were given imatinib postoperatively. Furthermore, 98 (68.1%) patients were given TKIs only to control disease progression, and sunitinib was considered after imatinib failure in 12 patients. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate was 82%, 51%, and 24%, with a median overall survival of 48 months for all patients. Patients who had hepatic resection combined with TKIs had a tendency of improved outcome, and the median survival time was 89 months. This was in contrast to patients who received TKIs only, in which median survival time was 53 months. Patients who received imatinib plus sunitinib had a tendency of longer survival time, compared with patients who received imatinib only (not reached vs 50 months).TKIs combined with hepatic resection had a role in improving the outcome of GIST patients with liver metastases.

  17. A new systematic classification of peripheral anatomy of the right hepatic duct: experience from adult live liver donor transplantation.

    PubMed

    Radtke, A; Sgourakis, G; Sotiropoulos, G C; Molmenti, E P; Nadalin, S; Fouzas, I; Schroeder, T; Saner, F H; Cicinnati, V R; Schenk, A; Malagó, M; Lang, H

    2008-11-01

    The peripheral intrahepatic biliary anatomy, especially at the sectorial level on the right side, has not been adequately described. The purpose of our study was to systematically describe this complex anatomy in clinically applicable fashion. We analyzed three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) imaging reconstructions of 139 potential living liver donors evaluated at our institution between January 2003 and June 2007. Eighty-nine (64%) donors had a normal right bile duct sectorial anatomy. In the other 50/139 (36%) cases, we observed abnormal sectorial branching patterns, with 45/50 abnormalities as trifurcations, whereas the remaining ones were quadrifurcations. In 22/50 (44%) abnormalities, a linear branching pattern (types B1/C1) and an early segmental origin off the right hepatic duct (types B3/C3) were present, a finding of particular danger when performing a right graft hepatectomy. In 2 cases, we noted a mixed type (B6/C6) of a rare complex anatomy. Our proposed classification of the right sectorial bile duct system clearly displays the "area at risk" encountered when performing right graft adult live donor liver transplantation and tumor resections involving the right lobe of the liver.

  18. New-onset diabetes mellitus developing in Asian adult living donor liver transplant recipients: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Harada, Nobuhiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation is a common complication with a potentially negative impact on patient outcome. To evaluate the incidence of NODM and its impact on Asian adult living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients, we investigated 369 adult LDLT cases in our institute. Preoperative diabetes mellitus (DM) was diagnosed in 38 (9 %) patients. NODM was observed in 128/331 (38 %) patients, 56 (44 %) with persistent NODM and 72 (56 %) with transient NODM. The mean interval between LDLT and the development of NODM was 0.6 ± 1.8 (range 0-1.4) months. Multivariate analyssis revealed that older age, being male and having a higher body mass index were independent risk factors among recipients for developing NODM, while hepatitis C virus infection was not a significant risk factor, and DM had no impact on patient outcome. Although the long-term effect of DM on outcome remains to be investigated, the presence of DM after liver transplant, whether it was NODM or preexisting DM, had no impact on LDLT recipients' outcomes in mid-term. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  19. Financial Impact of Liver Sharing and Organ Procurement Organizations' Experience With Share 35: Implications for National Broader Sharing.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Weber, J; Barnes, K; Wright, L; Levy, M

    2016-01-01

    The Share 35 policy for organ allocation, which was adopted in June 2013, allocates livers regionally for candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores of 35 or greater. The authors analyzed the costs resulting from the increased movement of allografts related to this new policy. Using a sample of nine organ procurement organizations, representing 17% of the US population and 19% of the deceased donors in 2013, data were obtained on import and export costs before Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2012, to June 14, 2013) and after Share 35 implementation (June 15, 2013, to June 14, 2014). Results showed that liver import rates increased 42%, with an increased cost of 51%, while export rates increased 112%, with an increased cost of 127%. When the costs of importing and exporting allografts were combined, the total change in costs for all nine organ procurement organizations was $11 011 321 after Share 35 implementation. Extrapolating these costs nationally resulted in an increased yearly cost of $68 820 756 by population or $55 056 605 by number of organ donors. Any alternative allocation proposal needs to account for the financial implications to the transplant infrastructure. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    PubMed

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  1. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  2. Elevated cystatin C: is it a reflection for kidney or liver impairment in hepatic children?

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Behairy; El-Araby, Hanaa; Adawy, Nermin; Hassona, Mona; El-Nady, Naglaa; Zakaria, Haidy; Khedr, Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    To assess if elevated serum cystatin C (Cyst-C) is an indicator for renal or hepatic dysfunction in presence of liver fibrosis. Data of 50 children with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), out of which 25 were without renal impairment, and 25 with renal impairment were analyzed. Twenty healthy children served as a healthy control group. Routine investigations, creatinine clearance, hepatitis viral markers, abdominal ultrasonography, and liver biopsy were performed for patients with CLDs. Measurement of serum Cyst-C concentration by particle induced immunonephelometry were completed for both patients and control group. Results showed that serum Cyst-C is not correlated with the degree of hepatic impairment ( p > 0.05). Cyst-C levels were significantly higher in patients with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.71 ± 0.12), and healthy control group (0.63 ± 0.85). Cystatin-C showed significant elevation in patients with severe fibrosis with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.76 ± 0.04) ( p < 0.0001). Cyst-C at cutoff levels of 1.65 mg/l showed 100% accuracy in discrimination between those with and those without renal impairment. Cyst-C > 2.34 mg/l predicting GFR < 40 ml/min with accuracy of 90%. Cyst-C > 2.73 mg/l predicting GFR < 20 ml/min with accuracy of 81.5%. Serum Cyst-C is a promising marker to estimate renal impairment in children with CLDs. Further studies are needed to estimate the accuracy of serum Cyst-C for early detection of renal impairment and close monitoring of the hepatic children.

  3. Intraoperative Visualization of a Spinal Arachnoid Cyst Using Pyoktanin Blue.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Soichiro; Seki, Toshitaka; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Sasamori, Toru; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2018-01-01

    Spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, and they include the arachnoid membrane, making it difficult to distinguish the walls of the cyst from the arachnoid membrane and excise the cyst as a lump. Here we report a technique for the intraoperative visualization of SACs, involving the use of pyoktanin blue. Four patients with spinal intradural arachnoid cysts underwent total excision of the cysts between October 2016 and April 2017. In 1 case, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cyst clearly, but in the other cases, the cysts were unclear. All cysts were injected with 1% pyoktanin blue (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) diluted 500 times with physiological saline before excision. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid membrane, 1% pyoktanin blue diluted 1000 times with physiological saline was injected into both the cyst and the subarachnoid space, and the spread of the stain was observed. The cysts were better visualized after pyoktanin blue injection than before injection. When it was difficult to distinguish the cyst from the normal arachnoid space, pyoktanin blue injection was useful for judging the cyst space. There were no perioperative complications, and the patients' symptoms improved partially or completely after treatment. Our technique of pyoktanin blue injection into SACs could make their excision easy and safe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Kidney and liver transplants from donors after cardiac death: initial experience at the London Health Sciences Centre.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto; Caumartin, Yves; Chent, Cameron; Levstik, Mark A; Quan, Douglas; Muirhead, Norman; House, Andrew A; McAlister, Vivian; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Luke, Patrick P W; Wall, William

    2010-04-01

    The disparity between the number of patients waiting for an organ transplant and availability of donor organs increases each year in Canada. Donation after cardiac death (DCD), following withdrawal of life support in patients with hopeless prognoses, is a means of addressing the shortage with the potential to increase the number of transplantable organs. We conducted a retrospective, single-centre chart review of organs donated after cardiac death to the Multi-Organ Transplant Program at the London Health Sciences Centre between July 2006 and December 2007. In total, 34 solid organs (24 kidneys and 10 livers) were procured from 12 DCD donors. The mean age of the donors was 38 (range 18-59) years. The causes of death were craniocerebral trauma (n = 7), cerebrovascular accident (n = 4) and cerebral hypoxia (n = 1). All 10 livers were transplanted at our centre, as were 14 of the 24 kidneys; 10 kidneys were transplanted at other centres. The mean renal cold ischemia time was 6 (range 3-9.5) hours. Twelve of the 14 kidney recipients (86%) experienced delayed graft function, but all kidneys regained function. After 1-year follow-up, kidney function was good, with a mean serum creatinine level of 145 (range 107-220) micromol/L and a mean estimated creatinine clearance of 64 (range 41-96) mL/min. The mean liver cold ischemia time was 5.8 (range 5.5-8) hours. There was 1 case of primary nonfunction requiring retransplantation. The remaining 9 livers functioned well. One patient developed a biliary anastomotic stricture that resolved after endoscopic stenting. All liver recipients were alive after a mean follow-up of 11 (range 3-20) months. Since the inception of this DCD program, the number of donors referred to our centre has increased by 14%. Our initial results compare favourably with those from the transplantation of organs procured from donors after brain death. Donation after cardiac death can be an important means of increasing the number of organs available for

  5. The pilot experience upon surgical ablation of large liver tumor by microwave system with tissue permittivity feedback control mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liang, Po-Chin; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Wu, Chih-Horng; Huang, Kai-Wen

    2014-10-22

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is used to treat patients with unresectable liver cancer. Our institution applied a novel microwave generator capable of automatically adjusting energy levels based on feedback related to tissue permittivity. This approach is meant to facilitate ablations over larger areas and provide results of greater predictablility. This paper reports on the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of this new system in the treatment of patients with large liver tumors. Between July 2012 and December 2012, a total of 23 patients with malignant liver tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter underwent surgical MWA using a 902-928 MHz generator. The proposed system used a 14-gauge antenna without internal-cooling. Follow up on tumor recurrence was performed using contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging at 1 month and then at 3 month intervals for a period of at least 12 months following ablation. Among the cancers treated, 10 were primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 13 were metastatic lesions from primary colorectal cancer (CRLM). The mean tumor size was 5.40 cm (range of 4.0-7.0 cm). A total of 18 patients underwent MWA via open surgery, and 5 received laparoscopic MWA. The mean ablation time was 1982 seconds, with a range of 900-3600 seconds, and the median number of ablation sessions was 2.0 (range of 1-4 sessions). The rate of complete ablation, as defined by a total loss of contrast-enhancement one month post-treatment, was 82.6% (19 of 23 patients), and the rate of local recurrence was 26.3% (5 of 19 patients). For tumors with a diameter of 4.0-7.0 cm, the technical success rate of MWA was higher for HCC patients (70%) than for metastatic liver cancer (53.8%) patients; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All patients survived throughout the observation period, and the morbidity rate was 8.6%. MWA treatment using the proposed system with tissue permittivity feedback control resulted in a high rate of

  6. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  7. Sarcocystis sp. from white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons): cyst morphology and life cycle studies.

    PubMed

    Kutkiene, L; Sruoga, A; Butkauskas, D

    2006-10-01

    An experiment was carried out using three cubs of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). Twenty-five-day-old cubs were infected by feeding them with the leg muscles of the white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) containing Sarcocystis sp. (cyst type III) cysts. Under the light microscope, the cysts were ribbon-shaped up to 4 mm long and up to 750 microm wide. On the surface of the wall (up to 2.4 microm), they had teat- or finger-like villar protrusions. Ultrastructurally, the cyst wall was a type-9 with villar protrusions (up to 2.3 microm long) different in size. The 11.4x1.7 (10.0-13.5x1.5-2.5)microm cystozoites were almost straight and shuttle-shaped. The fox cubs started shedding typical 12.0x8.0 (10.0-12.8x6.8-8.6)microm Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts on the 13th-14th days post-infection. The patent period lasted 19 days. The conclusion drawn was that the arctic fox (A. lagopus) can be one of the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sp. (cyst type III) from the white-fronted goose.

  8. Laparoscopic unroofing of splenic cysts results in a high rate of recurrences.

    PubMed

    Schier, Felix; Waag, Karl-Ludwig; Ure, Benno

    2007-11-01

    Laparoscopic unroofing is described as an appropriate treatment modality of nonparasitic splenic cysts. However, we repeatedly encountered recurrences with this technique. Because splenic cysts are rare, we analyzed the combined experience of 3 German pediatric surgical departments. Between 1995 and 2005, primary and secondary nonparasitic splenic cysts were unroofed laparoscopically in 14 children (aged 5-12 years; median, 8.5 years). In 3 patients, the inner surface was coagulated with the argon beamer. In most children, the cavity was surfaced with omentum. In addition, in 4 patients the omentum was sutured to the splenic parenchyma. No intraoperative complications occurred, and no inadvertent splenectomy or blood transfusions were necessary. However, in 9 children (64%) the cysts recurred at intervals ranging from 6 to 12 months (median, 12 months). Also, argon laser treatment of the surface resulted in recurrence. Laparoscopic unroofing of true splenic cysts alone proved inadequate in this series. Either removal of the inner layer or partial splenectomy appears to be necessary to prevent recurrences.

  9. Acute Exposure of Medaka to Carcinogens: An Ultrastructural, Cytochemical and Morphometric Analysis of Liver and Kidney.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-24

    specific indicators of cytotoxicity. Livers from three fish were distinguished by the presence of multilocular cyst -like lesions that resemble...plankton 4 times a week and brine shrimp 3 days a week. Nematodes were also a component of the diet with the amount given dependent upon the age of... cyst -like lesions termed spongiosis hepatis. The structural framework of the spongiotic lesions was formed by attenuated cells with small irregular

  10. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has

  11. Clinical approach to incidental pancreatic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Austin L; Lee, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    The approach to incidentally noted pancreatic cysts is constantly evolving. While surgical resection is indicated for malignant or higher risk cysts, correctly identifying these highest risk pancreatic cystic lesions remains difficult. Using parameters including cyst size, presence of solid components, and pancreatic duct involvement, the 2012 International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) and the 2015 American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) guidelines have sought to identify the higher risk patients who would benefit from further evaluation using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Not only can EUS help further assess the presence of solid component and nodules, but also fine needle aspiration of cyst fluid aids in diagnosis by obtaining cellular, molecular, and genetic data. The impact of new endoscopic innovations with novel methods of direct visualization including confocal endomicroscopy require further validation. This review also highlights the differences between the 2012 IAP and 2015 AGA guidelines, which include the thresholds for sending patients for EUS and surgery and methods, interval, and duration of surveillance for unresected cysts. PMID:26811661

  12. In vitro effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on scolices of hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Nazer, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Surgery is still the main treatment for hydatid disease. Recurrence of the infection is one of the end points of surgery in treating the hydatid cyst which results from the dissemination of protoscolices-rich fluid. Installation of a scolicidal agent into the cyst is the most commonly employed measure to prevent recurrence. Many scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of the cyst's content, but most of them are not safe due to their undesired side effects. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of methanolic extract of Allium sativum is investigated. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg ml(-1)) of garlic extract were used for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. Viability of protoscolices was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 25 mg ml(-1) killed 87.9, 95.6, 96.8, 98.7, 99.6, and 100% of protoscolices following 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min of application, respectively. Moreover, the scolicidal activity of Allium sativum extract at the concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) was 100% after 10 min of application. Methanolic extract of Allium sativum had a high scolicidal activity in vitro and thus might be used as a scolicidal agent in the surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst. However, further investigation on the in vivo efficacy of Allium sativum extract and its possible side effects is proposed.

  13. Laparoscopic treatment of traumatic rupture of hydatid hepatic cyst--is it feasible?: A case report.

    PubMed

    Feleppa, Cosimo; D'Ambra, Luigi; Berti, Stefano; Magistrelli, Prospero; Sani, Cinzia; Falco, Emilio

    2009-08-01

    Hydatid disease is endemic in several countries. Although the disease can be asymptomatic for long time, it is usually progressive and insidious and can be even challenging in emergency both for its diagnosis and its treatment. We report the case of an 8-year-old Albanian boy who was admitted in emergency to our surgical department with the diagnosis of suspected hemoperitoneum caused by a mild liver trauma. The abdominal laparoscopic exploration showed, besides peritoneal free serohematic liquid, a ruptured hepatic cystic lesion involving the left liver, which was completely excised. Even if there are not yet any reports about the usefulness of laparoscopic treatment of ruptured liver hydatid cysts, we believe that laparoscopic approach can help the diagnosis and in selected cases, the management of this condition. However more studies need to be carried out to evaluate it's long-term safeness about the recurrence of hydatid disease.

  14. A case of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma arising in the cricoid cartilage that mimicked an aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixiao; Yu, Ziwei; Jiang, Rui; Dong, Pin; Shen, Bin; Li, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the larynx is a rare and highly malignant tumor. We present the report of a 59-year-old man with dedifferentiated laryngeal chondrosarcoma, which was difficult to diagnose even under microscopic examination. The original diagnosis was an aneurysmal bone cyst, and the final diagnosis was established only after careful consideration of the imaging, surgical, and microscopic findings. In clinical practice, there are many similarities between dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma and aneurysmal bone cysts. Furthermore, it is difficult to identify dedifferentiated laryngeal chondrosarcoma with a giant-cell malignant mesenchymal component. This report describes our experience and discusses this phenomenon.

  15. Branched-chain amino acids enhance cyst development in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junya; Nishio, Saori; Hattanda, Fumihiko; Nakazawa, Daigo; Kimura, Toru; Sata, Michio; Makita, Minoru; Ishikawa, Yasunobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the progressive development of kidney and liver cysts. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade is one of the important pathways regulating cyst growth in ADPKD. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), including leucine, play a crucial role to activate mTOR pathway. Therefore, we administered BCAA dissolved in the drinking water to Pkd1 flox/flox :Mx1-Cre (cystic) mice from four to 22 weeks of age after polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-induced conditional Pkd1 knockout at two weeks of age. The BCAA group showed significantly greater kidney/body weight ratio and higher cystic index in both the kidney and liver compared to the placebo-treated mice. We found that the L-type amino acid transporter 1 that facilitates BCAA entry into cells is strongly expressed in cells lining the cysts. We also found increased cyst-lining cell proliferation and upregulation of mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways in the BCAA group. In vitro, we cultured renal epithelial cell lines from Pkd1 null mice with or without leucine. Leucine was found to stimulate cell proliferation, as well as activate mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in these cells. Thus, BCAA accelerated disease progression by mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. Hence, BCAA may be harmful to patients with ADPKD. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Isabel; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell wall) and functional (long- or short-term endurance) differences. These characteristics were initially thought to clearly distinguish pellicle (thin-walled) cysts from resting (double-walled) dinoflagellate cysts. The former were considered short-term (temporal) and the latter long-term (resting) cysts. However, during the last two decades further knowledge has highlighted the great intricacy of dinoflagellate life histories, the ecological significance of cyst stages, and the need to clarify the functional and morphological complexities of the different cyst types. Here we review and, when necessary, redefine the concepts of resting and pellicle cysts, examining both their structural and their functional characteristics in the context of the life cycle strategies of several dinoflagellate species. PMID:27694774

  17. Supratentorial endodermal cysts: review of literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Riccardo; Artico, Marco; Colonnese, Claudio; Marrocco, Luigi; Wierzbicki, Venceslao

    2013-11-01

    Supratentorial endodermal cysts are very rare pathological entities. Their pathoembryology is largely unknown and they can represent a diagnostic challenge. A research performed on the PubMed database in December 2010, to screen for supratentorial endodermal cyst studies, demonstrated that since 1960 only 31 supratentorial endodermal cysts have been described in the literature, including our case: a 42-year-old woman with a parasellar endodermal cyst. These lesions are usually benign. As with other types of brain cysts, the signs and symptoms caused by supratentorial endodermal cysts are mainly linked to the compression or irritation of surrounding neural structures. Upon neuroimaging examination, they typically appear as a round or lobulated mass. The signal intensity may vary depending on the protein content of the cyst. The majority of reported supratentorial endodermal cysts were completely excised with good or excellent results. Incomplete excision can result in an increased risk of recurrence, infection, and dissemination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Treatment of small and sublingual salivary glands cysts by laser].

    PubMed

    Bogatov, V V; Vybornov, V V; Malinovskiĭ, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The differents variants of treatment of retention cysts of mucous membrane of oral cavity and sublingual salivary gland cysts were presented and analysed. Results of doppler examination as a method of research blood microcirculation in postoperation time were presented.

  19. Ovarian dermoid cyst leakage--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A G; Lawrence, A; Tsaltas, J

    1998-08-01

    This case illustrates that when a dermoid cyst is punctured, an immediate operative laparoscopy or laparotomy should be performed, along with lavage, to avoid the problems associated with dermoid cyst contents spillage.

  20. Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus of three dogs.

    PubMed

    Davidson, H J; Blanchard, G L

    1991-01-15

    Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus was identified ultrasonographically and confirmed histologically in 3 dogs. Surgical resection of the cysts, with reconstruction of the lacrimal canaliculi, was curative in all 3 cases.

  1. Chronic Liver Disease is One of the Leading Causes of Death in Bangladesh: Experience by Death Audit from a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Abedin, Mohammed Forhad; Hoque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Md Sadequl Islam, Abu Saleh; Islam Chowdhury, Md Forhadul; Chandra das, Dulal; Begum, Syeda Anwara; Mamun, Ayub Al; Mamun-Al-Mahtab; Rahman, Salimur; Saha, Anup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In industrialized countries, the audit has become an integral part of medical care. The experience from developing countries like Bangladesh is still inadequate. This study had been carried out to find out relation among some factors like age, sex, causes, diurenal variation, duration of hospital stay with death and errors in certification process. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Medicine, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC) and Mitford Hospital from March 2010 to August 2010. Information of consecutive 100 deaths was collected in a predesigned clinical data sheet within half an hour of every occurrence. Necessary data were collected from hospital case records (admission registrar, case files and death certificates) using structured checklist. Patients who were brought dead were excluded from the study. Among 100 deaths, 48% were males (n = 48) and 52% were females (n = 52). Within this group, 66.7% were males and 33.3% were females. First day (within 24 hours of admission) death accounted for 46% (n = 46) of all death and by the second day 23% (n = 23) of all deaths occurred. The highest underlying cause of death was cerebrovascular diseases (29% of total death), infectious disease contributed 20%, chronic liver disease 13%, malignancy 7%, poisoning 6%, cor pulmonale 5%, while others were 20%. In this studychronic liver disease was found to be one of the leading causes of death in our hospital and most of them occurred due to hepatic encephalopathy. So, early detection of hepatic encephalopathy and treatment is necessary to reduce hospital mortality. How to cite this article: Abedin MF, Hoque MM, Islam ASMS, Chowdhury MFI, Das DC, Begum SA, Mamun AA, Mahtab MA, Rahman S, Saha AK. Chronic Liver Disease is One of the Leading Causes of Death in Bangladesh: Experience by Death Audit from a Tertiary Hospital. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):14-17.

  2. Ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair after liver transplantation (OLT) with a biological mesh: experience in 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Schaffellner, S; Sereinigg, M; Wagner, D; Jakoby, E; Kniepeiss, D; Stiegler, P; Haybäck, J; Müller, H

    2016-05-01

    Hernias after orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) occur in about 30 % of cases. Predisposing factors in liver cirrhotic patients of cases are ascites, low abdominal muscle mass and cachexia before and immunosuppression after OLT. Standard operative transplant-technique even in small hernias is to implant a mesh. For patients after liver transplantation a porcine non-cross linked biological patch being less immunogenic than synthetic and cross-linked meshes is chosen for ventral incisional hernia repair. 3 patients (1 female, 2 male), OLT indications Hepatitis C, exogenous- toxic cirrhosis, median-age 53 (51 - 56) and median time to hernia occurrence after OLT were 10 month (6 - 18 m) are documented. 2 patients suffered from diabetes, 2 from chronic-obstructive lung disease. Maintenance immunosuppressions were Everolimus in 1 patient, Everolimus + MMF in the second and Everolimus +Tacrolimus in the third patient. The biological was chosen for hernia repair due to the preexisting risk- factors. Meshes, 10 × 16 cm were placed, in IPOM (Intra-Peritonel-Onlay-Mesh) -position by relaparatomy. Insolvable, monofile, interrupted sutures were used. All patients recovered primarily, and were dismissed within 10 d post OP. No wound healing disorders or signs of postoperative infections occurred. All are free of hernia recurrence in a mean observation time of 22 month (10 - 36). The usage of porcine non-cross-linked biological patches seems feasible for incisional hernia repair after OLT. Wound infections in these patients have been observed with other meshes. Further investigation is needed to prove potential superiority of this biological to the other meshes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Assessment of the effects of Hirsutella minnesotensis on Soybean Cyst Nematode and growth of soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hirsutella minnesotensis is a fungal endoparasite of nematodes juvenile and parasitizes soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) with high frequency. In this study, the effects of two H. minnesotensis isolates on population and distribution of SCN and growth of soybean were evaluated. Experiments were conducted...

  4. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases during laparotomy. First clinical experiences with a new multipolar ablation concept.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Joerg-Peter; Lehmann, Kai S; Reissfelder, Christoph; Albrecht, Thomas; Frericks, Bernd; Zurbuchen, Urte; Buhr, Heinz J

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising method for local treatment of liver malignancies. Currently available systems for radiofrequency ablation use monopolar current, which carries the risk of uncontrolled electrical current paths, collateral damages and limited effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we used a newly developed internally cooled bipolar application system in patients with irresectable liver metastases undergoing laparotomy. The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of this new system with a novel multipolar application concept. Patients with a maximum of five liver metastases having a maximum diameter of 5 cm underwent laparotomy and abdominal exploration to control resectability. In cases of irresectability, RFA with the newly developed bipolar application system was performed. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound guidance. Depending on tumour size, shape and location, up to three applicators were simultaneously inserted in or closely around the tumour, never exceeding a maximum probe distance of 3 cm. In the multipolar ablation concept, the current runs alternating between all possible pairs of consecutively activated electrodes with up to 15 possible electrode combinations. Post-operative follow-up was evaluated by CT or MRI controls 24-48 h after RFA and every 3 months. In a total of six patients (four male, two female; 61-68 years), ten metastases (1.0-5.5 cm) were treated with a total of 14 RF applications. In four metastases three probes were used, and in another four and two metastases, two and one probes were used, respectively. During a mean ablation time of 18.8 min (10-31), a mean energy of 48.8 kJ (12-116) for each metastases was applied. No procedure-related complications occurred. The patients were released from the hospital between 7 and 12 days post-intervention (median 9 days). The post-interventional control showed complete tumour ablation in all cases. Bipolar

  5. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro; Isaka, Takahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki; Wada, Keita; Takagi, Kenji; Kato, Kenichiro

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken. Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided. PMID:16874882

  6. Aneurysmal bone cyst: a hereditary disease?

    PubMed

    Leithner, Andreas; Machacek, Felix; Haas, Oskar A; Lang, Susanna; Ritschl, Peter; Radl, Roman; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-05-01

    Recent genetic and immunohistochemical studies propose that the primary aneurysmal bone cyst is a tumour and not a reactive tumour-simulating lesion. Based on a familial case of aneurysmal bone cyst the authors contacted 135 patients with this disease. Sixty-eight females and 67 males (median age 14 years; range 2-73 years) were asked if other family members had bone lesions. One hundred and seven patients (79%) denied having other family members with lesions, 23 patients (17%) did not answer, and five patients (4%) gave evidence of other bone lesions in the family. These data indicate that a predisposing genetic defect could be part of a multifactorial pathogenesis in the development of some aneurysmal bone cysts.

  7. Nasolacrimal drainage system cyst in an adult.

    PubMed

    Yamasoba, T; Sugimura, H

    1996-01-01

    A cyst of the nasolacrimal drainage system (NLDS) is rare in an adult. We report a case in a 29-year-old man of a mucous retention cyst of the NLDS, which appeared 2 years after the patient developed dacryocystitis coincident with an aggravation of chronic sinusitis. The lesion was successfully managed by removing the bony wall of the NLDS at the interface with the ethmoid and nasal cavity, as well as the membranous closure of the ostium of the common canaliculus. We speculate that the cyst development might have been initiated by inflammatory change such as mucosal adhesion in the NLDS resulting from the spread of secondary infection from the sinonasal tract.

  8. Liesegang rings in renal cyst fluid.

    PubMed

    Katz, L B; Ehya, H

    1990-01-01

    Peculiar ring-like structures identified as Liesegang rings (LRs) were found in renal cyst fluid from three patients with benign renal cysts. They ranged in size from 5 to 820 mu. Most had a double-layer outer wall with equally spaced radial cross-striations and an amorphous central nidus. Special stains were performed in one case, and the results are discussed. Reports of LRs in cystic or inflamed tissues have recently appeared in the literature. Some LRs have been mistaken for eggs or mature components of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. We propose that cytologic assessment of renal cyst fluid in conjunction with histologic examination decreases the likelihood of misdiagnosis of LRs.

  9. Giant cardiac hydatid cyst with rare adhesions.

    PubMed

    Poorzand, Hoorak; Teshnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Baghini, Vahid Shojaei; Gifani, Mehrnoosh; Gholoobi, Arash; Zirak, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    We present a 29-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department with shortness of breath. Using echocardiography, a giant multi-cystic mass was detected in the right ventricle, attached to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve and basal portion of the interventricular septum. Serologic tests (hydatid cyst antibody) confirmed Echinococcus infection. Lung computed tomography with intravenous contrast showed involvement of the pulmonary vasculature. The patient underwent cardiac surgery and the large cardiac cyst and the one in the right pulmonary artery branch were both removed. The tricuspid valve was also replaced by a bioprosthetic one. Albendazole was started preoperatively and was continued for six months after surgery. The patient recovered uneventfully and was followed up for one year. This is a report of a rare case of a very large cardiac hydatid cyst complicated by pulmonary embolism with attachments to both the tricuspid valve and interventricular septum.

  10. Mycotic cysts: report of 21 cases including eight pheomycotic cysts from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Salwa S; Amr, Samir S

    2007-04-01

    Mycotic cysts are subcutaneous cystic granulomas caused by either dematiaceous (pigmented) fungi (pheomycotic cysts) or eumycotic (nonpigmented fungi) present in soil, wood, and decaying plant material. These fungi gain access to the tissues via a wooden splinter or thorn. No deep tissue involvement or extension to bone is known to occur. We reviewed our surgical pathology files for the last 32 years. All cases with the diagnosis of cysts with fungi, thorns, or splinters and associated granulomatous and acute inflammation were reviewed. Gomori's silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains were performed in all cases. Twenty-one cases of mycotic cyst were found, including eight pheomycotic cysts (one with a recurrent lesion seen 11 months after the initial excision of the cyst). Thirteen cysts had nonpigmented fungal hyphae. There were 14 males and seven females, with an age range of 5-76 years. The dorsum of the foot was the most frequently affected site (12 cases). Four cases involved the fingers, two involved the knee area, two involved the big toe, and one each involved the leg, ankle, and forearm. The cysts measured 0.6-4.5 cm in diameter. Histologically, there was granulomatous inflammation with a variable degree of neutrophilic infiltrate giving central abscess formation. Twelve cases showed a wooden splinter. All cases were positive for fungal organisms, mostly septate hyphae and spores that were highlighted by special stains. Fungal pigment, ranging from yellow-brown to light brown to black, was observed in eight cases. No extension to deep tissues was noted. The clinical impression varied widely including ganglion, sebaceous cyst, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, and lipoma. One patient was immunosuppressed following renal transplantation. All patients were treated by simple excision. No antifungal chemotherapy was needed or administered in any of the patients. One patient had a recurrence of his lesion within 1 year as a result of inadequate initial

  11. Viable Blastocystis Cysts in Scottish and Malaysian Sewage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, K.; Smith, H. V.; Tan, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis. PMID:16151162

  12. Spontaneous regression of a pituitary cyst: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Nishio, S; Morioka, T; Suzuki, S; Fukui, M

    2001-01-01

    Two unusual cases of pituitary cysts are described. Both patients presented with sudden onset of severe headache, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated pituitary cysts, which regressed over months. Although the precise etiology of the cysts was unproven, the cystic lesions in our patients are thought to have shrunken after "pituitary apoplexy."

  13. Dissapearance of arachnoid cyst after rupturing into subdural space.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, C; Cetinalp, E; Caner, H; Altinors, N

    2007-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are developmental anomalies usually diagnosed in childhood. The most important complications of arachnoid cysts are subdural haematomas and hygromas and intracystic haemorrhage. In our case we present a 7-year-old boy whose arachnoid cyst ruptured into the subdural space following a mild head injury and disappeared after draining the subdural haematoma by burr-holes.

  14. Tornwaldt's cyst presenting only as occipital headache: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hang S; Byeon, Hyung K; Kim, Jun-Hee; Kim, Kyung S

    2009-02-01

    Tornwaldt's cyst (sometimes called Thornwaldt's cyst) is a rare cause of occipital headache. Owing to the rare occurrence of occipital headache as a symptom of Tornwaldt's cyst, if the patient presented only with occipital headache, this clinical symptom may be falsely perceived as a sign of neurologic disease leading to time-consuming diagnostic examinations that delay the establishment of a correct diagnosis.

  15. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  16. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  17. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  18. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  19. Initial experience of intraoperative three-dimensional navigation for liver resection using real-time virtual sonography.

    PubMed

    Satou, Shouichi; Aoki, Taku; Kaneko, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Arai, Osamu; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Miura, Koui; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-02-01

    Real-time virtual sonography is an innovative imaging technology that detects the spatial position of an ultrasound probe and immediately reconstructs a section of computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance in accordance with the ultrasound image, thereby allowing a real-time comparison of those modalities. A novel intraoperative navigation system for liver resection using real-time virtual sonography has been devised for the detection of tumors and navigation of the resection plane. Sixteen patients with hepatic malignancies (26 tumors in total) were involved in this study, and the system was used intraoperatively. The tumor size ranged 2 to 140 mm (23 mm in median). By the navigation system, operators could refer intraoperative ultrasound image displayed on the television monitor side-by-side with corresponding images of CT and/or magnetic resonance. In addition, the system overlaid preoperative simulation on the CT image and highlighted the extent of resection so as to navigate the resection plane. Because the system used electromagnetic power in the operation room, the feasibility and safety of the system was investigated as well as its validity. The system could be used uneventfully in each operation. All of the 26 tumors scheduled to be resected were detected by the navigation system. The weight of the resected specimen correlated with the preoperatively simulated volume (R = 0.995, P < .0001). The feasibility and safety of the navigation system were confirmed. The system should be helpful for intraoperative tumor detection and navigation of liver resection.

  20. Pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin combination therapy in HCV liver transplant recipients. Experience of 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Iacob, Speranta; Gheorghe, Liana; Hrehoret, Doina; Becheanu, Gabriel; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel

    2008-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide and HCV reinfection is the rule among transplant recipients. Combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin is the treatment of choice for established recurrent hepatitis C. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in LT recipients with histological recurrence of hepatitis C. Seven LT recipients with chronic hepatitis C recurrence were treated with peginterferon alpha-2a with an initial intended dose of 180 microg/week and an intended dose of ribavirin 800-1000 mg/day for at least 12 months and followed-up for at least 24 weeks. Early virological response rate was 57.1%. Three patients (42.8%) had end of treatment virological response and all had also sustained viral response (SVR). Five patients had end of treatment biological response, out of which 4 had also sustained biochemical response. Three patients had both SVR and sustained biochemical response. Four patients had end of treatment histological response, out of which 3 patients had also SVR. Cytopenia was the most common adverse event: anemia (57.1%), leucopenia/neutropenia (71.4%), thrombocytopenia (42.8%). Combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin can be safely and successfully used in liver transplant recipients.

  1. Multiple myxoid cysts secondary to occupation.

    PubMed

    Connolly, M; de Berker, D A R

    2006-05-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with eight digital myxoid cysts (DMCs) involving the fingers of both hands. They developed within 12 months of the patient starting a job that involved pushing a garment into an embroidery mould, thus exerting a downward force on the fingertips. The pressure exerted from this force could have potentially damaged the joint synovial capsule, leading to rupture and loss of synovial gel, thus inducing myxoid cysts. This case suggests that DMCs may be related to occupation, and to our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of occupationally induced DMCs.

  2. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts.

    PubMed

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous cysts in Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: clues for differentiation of nonsyndromic cysts.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Mariantonieta; Ständer, Sonja; Metze, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Goltz-Gorlin syndrome presents with multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts, and cutaneous cysts, among other manifestations. The cutaneous cysts have been described as both epidermoid cysts and keratocysts but were not further characterized. Light microscopic examinations were made on 23 cutaneous cysts in 4 patients associated with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome located on extremities, face, trunk, palms, and soles and compared with nonsyndromic vellus hair cysts, steatocystomas, and hybrid cysts. Twenty-one of the syndromic cysts revealed alternating infundibular-like and steatocystoma-like squamous epitheliums in varying proportions. The cysts were lined by both smooth and corrugated squamous epithelium. The horny layer was composed by alternating areas of thin, lamellate, and compact eosinophilic keratin. Only 2 cases showed an exclusive steatocystoma-like type of epithelium very similar to odontogenic keratocysts. Sebaceous glands and follicular structures were absent. There were no differences between palmar and plantar cysts and other anatomic locations. The ultrastructural findings in syndromatic cysts confirmed variable expression of keratohyalin granules. Only 3 of 6 cases of nonsyndromic hybrid cysts showed overlapping features with syndromic cysts. Immunohistochemical profiling of keratin, involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and BCL-2 expression in syndromatic cysts showed exclusive positivity of K19 and continuous staining for BCL-2. In summary, 2 types of cutaneous cysts are characteristic of Goltz-Gorlin, irrelevant of their anatomic location, namely steatocystoma-like and more frequently hybrid-like. The diagnosis of syndromic hybrid-like cysts should be considered whenever infundibular and steatocystoma differentiation alternate and overlap. Altogether, these findings in epithelial cysts may raise the suspicion of Goltz-Gorlin as an underlying cause.

  4. Suspended Alexandrium spp. hypnozygote cysts in the Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Sarah L.; Townsend, David W.; Pettigrew, Neal R.

    2005-09-01

    The life cycle of dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium includes sexual reproduction followed by the formation of a dormant hypnozygote cyst, which serves as a resting stage. Negatively buoyant cysts purportedly fall to the benthos where they undergo a mandatory period of quiescence. Previous reports of cysts in the surficial sediments of the Gulf of Maine, where Alexandrium blooms are well documented, show a broad distribution of cysts, with highest concentrations generally in sediments below 100 m depth. We report here an exploration of cysts suspended in the water column, where they would be better positioned to inoculate springtime Alexandrium populations. During cruises in February, April, and June of 2000, water samples were collected at depths just off the bottom (within 5 m), at the top of the bottom nepheloid layer, and near the surface (1 m) and examined for cyst concentrations. Suspended cysts were found throughout the Gulf of Maine and westernmost Bay of Fundy. Planktonic cyst densities were generally greater in near-bottom and top of the bottom nepheloid layer samples than in near-surface water samples; densities were of the order of 10 2 cysts m -3 in surface waters, and 10 2-10 3 cysts m -3 at near-bottom depths. Temporally, they were most abundant in February and least abundant in April. Reports by earlier workers of cysts in the underlying sediments were on the order of 10 3 cysts cm -3. We present calculations that demonstrate the likelihood of cyst resuspension from bottom sediments forced by swell and tidal currents, and propose that such resuspended cysts are important in inoculating the seasonal bloom. We estimate that suspended cysts may contribute significantly to the annual vegetative cell population in the Gulf of Maine.

  5. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts.

    PubMed

    Forte, Vito; Fuoco, Gabriel; James, Adrian

    2004-06-01

    A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts based on the extent of the cyst and on the embryologic tissue of origin is proposed. Retrospective chart review. The charts of 20 patients with either congenital or acquired laryngeal cysts that were treated surgically between 1987 and 2002 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, histopathology, and outcome were recorded. A new classification system is proposed to better appreciate the origin of these cysts and to guide in their successful surgical management. Fourteen of the supraglottic and subglottic simple mucous retention cysts posed no diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and were treated successfully by a single endoscopic excision or marsupialization. The remaining six patients with congenital cysts in the study were deemed more complex, and all required open surgical procedures for cure. On the basis of the analysis of the data of these patients, a new classification of congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed. Type I cysts are confined to the larynx, the cyst wall composed of endodermal elements only, and can be managed endoscopically. Type II cysts extend beyond the confines of the larynx and require an external approach. The Type II cysts are further subclassified histologically on the basis of the embryologic tissue of origin: IIa, composed of endoderm only and IIb, containing endodermal and mesodermal elements (epithelium and cartilage) in the wall of the cyst. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin. This classification can help guide the surgeon with initial management and help us better understand the origin of these cysts.

  6. Living donor liver transplantation in children: should the adult donor be operated on by an adult or pediatric surgeon? Experience of a single pediatric center.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Wagner de Castro; Velhote, Manoel Carlos Prieto; Ayoub, Ali Ahman; Silva, Marcos Marques; Gibelli, Nelson Elias M; Tannuri, Ana Cristina A; Santos, Maria Merces; Pinho-Apezzato, Maria Lucia; de Barros, Fabio; Moreira, Daniel Rangel; Miyatani, Helena T; Pereira, Raimundo Renato; Tannuri, Uenis

    2014-04-01

    Living donor liver transplantation has become a cornerstone for the treatment of children with end-stage hepatic dysfunction, especially within populations or countries with low rates of organ utilization from deceased donors. The objective is to report our experience with 185 living donors operated on by a team pediatric surgeons in a tertiary center for pediatric liver transplantation. Retrospective analysis of medical records of donors of hepatic grafts for transplant undergoing surgery between June 1998 and March 2013. Over the last 14 years, 185 liver transplants were performed in pediatric recipients of grafts from living donors. Among the donors, 166 left lateral segments (89.7%), 18 left lobes without the caudate lobe (9.7%) and 1 right lobe (0.5%) were harvested. The donor age ranged from 16 to 53 years, and the weight ranged from 47 to 106 kg. In 10 donors, an additional graft of the donor inferior mesenteric vein was harvested to substitute for a hypoplastic recipient portal vein. The transfusion of blood products was required in 15 donors (8.1%). The mean hospital stay was 5 days. No deaths occurred, but complications were identified in 23 patients (12.4%): 9 patients experienced abdominal pain and severe gastrointestinal symptoms and 3 patients required reoperations. Eight donors presented with minor bile leaks that were treated conservatively, and 3 patients developed extra-peritoneal infections (1 wound collection, 1 phlebitis and 1 pneumonia). Eight grafts (4.3%) showed primary dysfunction resulting in recipient death (3 cases of fulminant hepatitis, 1 patient with metabolic disease, 1 patient with Alagille syndrome and 3 cases of biliary atresia in infants under 1 year old). There was no relation between donor complications and primary graft dysfunction (P=0.6). Living donor transplantation is safe for the donor and presents a low morbidity. The donor surgery may be performed by a team of trained pediatric surgeons. © 2014.

  7. Reversible non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction after liver transplantation: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Yataco, Maria L; Difato, Thomas; Bargehr, Johannes; Rosser, Barry G; Patel, Tushar; Trejo-Gutierrez, Jorge F; Pungpapong, Surakit; Taner, C Burcin; Aranda-Michel, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NIC) is an early complication of liver transplantation (LT). Our aims were to define the prevalence, associated clinical factors, and prognosis of this condition. A retrospective study was performed on patients undergoing LT at our institution from January 2005 to December 2012. Patients who developed NIC were identified. Data collected included demographic and clinical data. A total 1460 transplants were performed in this period and seventeen patients developed NIC. Pretransplant median QTc interval was 459 (range, 405-530), and median E/A ratio was 1 (range, 0.71-1.67). Fourteen patients (82%) were severely malnourished and required nutritional support. Thirteen patients (76%) had renal insufficiency. Median time to onset was 2 days post-transplant (range, 0-20). Echocardiograms showed global left ventricular hypokinesis and a decrease in ejection fraction (EF) from a median of 65% (range, 50-81) pretransplant to a median of 21% (range, 15-32). Median raw model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was 29 in patients with NIC vs. 18 in patients without cardiomyopathy (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference between recipients with NIC vs. recipients without cardiomyopathy regarding donor age, donor risk index, and cold and warm ischaemia time. Recovery of cardiac function occurred in 16 patients, with a median EF of 44% (range, 25-65%) at the time of discharge. The last echocardiogram available showed a median EF of 59% (range, 49-73%). One-year survival of NIC patients was 94.1%. Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy is a rare complication after LT. Patients with NIC are critically ill, with high MELD score, and severe malnutrition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Arachnoid cyst with rupture into the subdural space.

    PubMed Central

    Cullis, P A; Gilroy, J

    1983-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts which develop in relation to the cerebral hemispheres are usually found in the middle cranial fossa. These cysts are usually asymptomatic but can produce symptoms if there is haemorrhage into the cyst or the development of an associated subdural hematoma. Recent publications have emphasised the association of arachnoid cysts of the middle fossa with subdural haematomas. This report describes a case of an asymptomatic arachnoid cyst which ruptured into the subdural space. This event was followed by the development of symptoms despite the lack of haemorrhage. Images PMID:6101185

  9. Epidermoid cyst of the breast: Mammography, ultrasound, MRI.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Elisabeth; Louie, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are common cysts located cutaneously or subcutaneously in the head, neck, and trunk. However, deep epidermal cysts of the breast are very rare, and are frequently associated with traumatic implantation. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The patient was evaluated using mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, which uniquely characterized the mass and revealed a second mass. Histological analysis revealed fragments of an epidermoid cyst. The origin of the cysts and location deep within the breast tissue likely were due to a previous bilateral-reduction mammoplasty.

  10. Atypical Intracranial Epidermoid Cysts: Rare Anomalies with Unique Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778

  11. Proteomic Study of Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites, Cysts, and Cyst-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Nácar, Milka; Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Bobes, Raúl J.; Laclette, Juan P.; Carrero, Julio C.

    2016-01-01

    The cyst stage of Entamoeba histolytica is a promising therapeutic target against human amoebiasis. Our research team previously reported the production in vitro of Cyst-Like Structures (CLS) sharing structural features with cysts, including rounded shape, size reduction, multinucleation, and the formation of a chitin wall coupled to the overexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate isomerase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the chitin synthesis pathway. A proteomic study of E. histolytica trophozoites, cysts, and in vitro-produced CLS is reported herein to determine the nature of CLS, widen our knowledge on the cyst stage, and identify possible proteins and pathways involved in the encystment process. Total protein extracts were obtained from E. histolytica trophozoites, CLS, and partially purified cysts recovered from the feces of amoebic human patients; extracts were trypsin-digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, 1029 proteins were identified in trophozoites, 550 in CLS, and 411 in cysts, with 539, 299, and 84 proteins unique to each sample, respectively, and only 74 proteins shared by all three stages. About 70% of CLS proteins were shared with trophozoites, even though differences were observed in the relative protein abundance. While trophozoites showed a greater abundance of proteins associated to a metabolically active cell, CLS showed higher expression of proteins related to proteolysis, redox homeostasis, and stress response. In addition, the expression of genes encoding for the cyst wall proteins Jessie and Jacob was detected by RT-PCR and the Jacob protein identified by Western blotting and immunofluorescence in CLS. However, the proteomic profile of cysts as determined by LC-MS/MS was very dissimilar to that of trophozoites and CLS, with almost 40% of hypothetical proteins. Our global results suggest that CLS are more alike to trophozoites than to cysts, and they could be generated as a rapid survival response of trophozoites to a stressful condition

  12. Acute triventricular hydrocephalus caused by choroid plexus cysts: a diagnostic and neurosurgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Spennato, Pietro; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cicala, Domenico; Donofrio, Vittoria; Barbarisi, Manlio; Nastro, Anna; Mirone, Giuseppe; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular choroid plexus cysts are unusual causes of acute hydrocephalus in children. Radiological diagnosis of intraventricular choroid plexus cysts is difficult because they have very thin walls and fluid contents similar to CSF and can go undetected on routine CT studies. METHODS This study reports the authors' experience with 5 patients affected by intraventricular cysts originating from the choroid plexus. All patients experienced acute presentation with rapid neurological deterioration, sometimes associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, and required urgent surgery. In 2 cases the symptoms were intermittent, with spontaneous remission and sudden clinical deteriorations, reflecting an intermittent obstruction of the CSF pathway. RESULTS Radiological diagnosis was difficult in these cases because a nonenhanced CT scan revealed only triventricular hydrocephalus, with slight lateral ventricle asymmetry in all cases. MRI with driven-equilibrium sequences and CT ventriculography (in 1 case) allowed the authors to accurately diagnose the intraventricular cysts that typically occupied the posterior part of the third ventricle, occluding the aqueduct and at least 1 foramen of Monro. The patients were managed by urgent implantation of an external ventricular drain in 1 case (followed by endoscopic surgery, after completing a diagnostic workup) and by urgent endoscopic surgery in 4 cases. Endoscopic surgery allowed the shrinkage and near-complete removal of the cysts in all cases. Use of neuronavigation and a laser were indispensable. All procedures were uneventful, resulting in restoration of normal neurological conditions. Long-term follow-up (> 2 years) was available for 2 patients, and no complications or recurrences occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case series emphasizes the necessity of an accurate and precise identification of the possible causes of triventricular hydrocephalus. Endoscopic surgery can be considered the ideal treatment of choroid plexus

  13. Abdominal wall Hydatid cyst: A review a literature with a case report.

    PubMed

    Salih, Abdulwahid M; Kakamad, F H; Hammood, Zuhair D; Yasin, Bzhwen; Ahmed, Dilshad M

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is a serious health problem in endemic areas. It is a parasitic infection that commonly involves liver and lungs while muscular HC is rare. HC of abdominal wall was reported only six times. We reported a 39-year-old male presented with HC of the right loin who was managed surgically with brief literature review. HC should be put in the differential diagnosis of the abdominal wall masses. Its pre-operative diagnosis is important to prevent rupture with subsequent anaphylaxis and recurrence. Surgery is the main modality of treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A rare cause of pleural effusion: ruptured primary pleural hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Erkoç, Mustafa Fatih; Öztoprak, Bilge; Alkan, Sevil; Okur, Aylin

    2014-03-06

    Hydatidosis is an endemic parasitic disease in Mediterranean countries, often caused by the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The disease predominantly affects the liver (60-70%) and lungs (30%), and the surgical management is considered as the gold standard for treatment. Besides anaphylactic reactions, the most frequent complication of the hydatid disease is rupture into neighbouring structures, often affecting the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and peritoneal/pleural cavities, according to its location. Primary pleural hydatidosis is an extremely rare entity and we present a ruptured pleural hydatid cyst with unusual location.

  15. [Primary hydatid cyst of the thyroid, an unusual localisation of hydatidosis].

    PubMed

    Lada, P; Lermite, E; Hennekinne-Mucci, S; Etienne, S; Pessaux, P; Arnaud, J-P

    2005-04-23

    Echinococcus granulosus, responsible for hydatidosis, most often lodges in the liver and lungs, but is found in other organs of the body in 10% of cases. A painless, left cervical tumefaction suddenly developed in a 28-year-old Portuguese man. After thyroid lobectomy with isthmusectomy, the pathology findings led to the diagnosis of hydatidosis. The thyroid is a rare location for a hydatid cyst. Diagnosis can be difficult and fine-needle aspiration cytology is not usually helpful. Treatment requires surgical excision, and administration of benzimidazole derivatives to prevent recurrence.

  16. Thymic cyst: a fourth branchial cleft anomaly.

    PubMed

    Nayan, Smriti; MacLean, Jonathan; Sommer, Doron

    2010-01-01

    We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the literature to date, there have been no reports of such a finding in the adult population. These anomalies can often cause recurrent acute suppurative thyroiditis or recurrent deep neck abscesses. Delay in recognizing the underlying etiology can lead to significant complications.

  17. Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Pelvis

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Sommer; Weber, Kristy; McCarthy, Edward F

    2005-01-01

    Unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis are extremely rare. This study summarizes the clinical, radiologic and pathologic features of 16 cases. Patients ranged in age from nine to 69. Most lesions were in the anterior portion of the iliac wing; many appeared to be related to an open iliac crest apophysis. This suggests that the pathogenesis of unicameral bone cysts in this portion of the ilium is similar to that seen in the proximal humerus and the proximal femur. The correct diagnosis was made preoperatively in only five cases. This indicates that, although they are well documented, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis remain a diagnostic problem. Patients received a spectrum of treatments from curettage to observation. There appeared to be no difference in the outcome after any form of treatment. Therefore, unicameral bone cysts of the pelvis can be managed conservatively. The choice to manage patients conservatively depends on making the correct diagnosis based on clinical history and imaging. The most effective imaging is a combination of plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:16089077

  18. Diverse CLE peptides from cyst nematode species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides play diverse roles in plant growth and development including maintenance of the stem cell population in the root meristem. Small secreted peptides sharing similarity to plant CLE signaling peptides have been isolated from several cyst nematode species including...

  19. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  20. Potato cyst nematodes: pests of national importance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...

  1. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts in the dog.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Davina M; White, Richard A S

    2002-01-01

    To describe the clinical and morphologic characteristics of nasal dermoid sinus cysts in the dog. Retrospective clinical study. Six client-owned dogs. Medical records (1995 to 1999) of 6 dogs that had a discharging sinus in the midline of the nose removed surgically were reviewed for signalment, physical examination, surgical and histopathologic findings, and outcome. Three golden retrievers, 1 springer spaniel, 1 cocker spaniel, and 1 Brittany spaniel with a history of intermittent discharge from a small opening in the midline on the bridge of the nose at the junction between the nasal planum and the skin were identified. The condition was unresponsive to antibiotic therapy, and previous surgical excision had been unsuccessful in 3 dogs. None of the dogs had any other congenital defects, and all dogs responded to complete surgical excision of the tract and cyst. On histopathologic examination of excised tissue, there were adnexal structures along a tract lined with stratified squamous epithelium, consistent with a developmental abnormality of ectodermal tissue. The lesions were diagnosed as nasal dermoid sinus cysts, similar to the congenital condition described in humans. Nasal dermoid sinus cysts are rare developmental defects related to abnormal development of the pre-nasal space and may extend into the cranial vault causing cerebral abscesses or recurrent meningitis. Complete surgical excision has a good prognosis. This is a new condition that should be added to the surgical differential diagnosis for a discharging sinus over the external nares in dogs. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  2. PCR detection of potato cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is responsible for losses in potato production totalling millions of euros every year in the EC. It is important for growers to know which species is present in their land as this determines its subsequent use. The two species Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis can be differentiated using an allele-specific PCR.

  3. [Giant paraovarian cyst in childhood - Case report].

    PubMed

    Torres, Janina P; Íñiguez, Rodrigo D

    2015-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are very uncommon in children To present a case of giant paraovarian cyst case in a child and its management using a modified laparoscopic-assisted technique A 13-year-old patient with a 15 day-history of intermittent abdominal pain, located in the left hemiabdomen and associated with progressive increase in abdominal volume. Diagnostic imaging was inconclusive, describing a giant cystic formation that filled up the abdomen, but without specifying its origin. Laboratory tests and tumor markers were within normal range. Video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy, a modified laparoscopic procedure with diagnostic and therapeutic intent, was performed with a successful outcome. The histological study reported giant paraovarian cyst. Cytology results were negative for tumor cells. The patient remained asymptomatic during the postoperative follow-up. The video-assisted transumbilical cystectomy is a safe procedure and an excellent diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of giant paraovarian cysts. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in odontogenic cysts.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad Abdulhadi Abbas

    2008-08-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is known to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts. An immunohistochemical study using a polyclonal anti-EMMPRIN antibody was done using 48 odontogenic cyst cases: 13 odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), 18 dentigerous cysts (DCs), and 17 periapical cysts (PAs). Twelve cases of normal dental follicles (DFs) were also included in this study for comparison. EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was detected in all of the cysts and DFs studied. In odontogenic cysts, EMMPRIN immunoreactivity was generally higher in basal cells than in suprabasal cells. The overall EMMPRIN expression in the epithelial lining of the 3 different types of odontogenic cyst was significantly higher than in the DFs. Overall EMMPRIN expression was also found to be significantly higher in the epithelial lining of OKCs than in the other types of cysts. This study confirmed that EMMPRIN is present in odontogenic cysts and DFs. The higher EMMPRIN expression in OKCs suggests that it may be involved in the aggressive behavior of this type of cyst.

  5. Cystic echinococcosis in marketed offal of sheep in Basrah, Iraq: Abattoir-based survey and a probabilistic model estimation of the direct economic losses due to hydatid cyst.

    PubMed

    Abdulhameed, Mohanad F; Habib, Ihab; Al-Azizz, Suzan A; Robertson, Ian

    2018-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis in Iraq with substantial impacts on livestock productivity and human health. The objectives of this study were to study the abattoir-based occurrence of CE in marketed offal of sheep in Basrah province, Iraq, and to estimate, using a probabilistic modelling approach, the direct economic losses due to hydatid cysts. Based on detailed visual meat inspection, results from an active abattoir survey in this study revealed detection of hydatid cysts in 7.3% (95% CI: 5.4; 9.6) of 631 examined sheep carcasses. Post-mortem lesions of hydatid cyst were concurrently present in livers and lungs of more than half (54.3% (25/46)) of the positive sheep. Direct economic losses due to hydatid cysts in marketed offal were estimated using data from government reports, the one abattoir survey completed in this study, and expert opinions of local veterinarians and butchers. A Monte-Carlo simulation model was developed in a spreadsheet utilizing Latin Hypercube sampling to account for uncertainty in the input parameters. The model estimated that the average annual economic losses associated with hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs of sheep marketed for human consumption in Basrah to be US$72,470 (90% Confidence Interval (CI); ±11,302). The mean proportion of annual losses in meat products value (carcasses and offal) due to hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs of sheep marketed in Basrah province was estimated as 0.42% (90% CI; ±0.21). These estimates suggest that CE is responsible for considerable livestock-associated monetary losses in the south of Iraq. These findings can be used to inform different regional CE control program options in Iraq.

  6. Neonatal ovarian cysts: ultrasound assessment and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Llorens Salvador, R; Sangüesa Nebot, C; Pacheco Usmayo, A; Picó Aliaga, S; Garcés Iñigo, E

    Ovarian cysts are the most common abdominal cysts in female fetuses and newborn girls. Ultrasonography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing ovarian cysts because it makes it possible to differentiate them from other cystic lesions. Although most neonatal ovarian cysts regress in the first few months after birth, complications can occur during gestation or after birth. The manifestations of ovarian cysts on ultrasonography will depend on the complications. The management is controversial, although the current trend favors watchful waiting. We describe the different presentations of neonatal ovarian cysts with their complications and their patterns of findings on ultrasonography. We also discuss the differential diagnosis with other cystic abdominal lesions, and finally we discuss the therapeutic management of neonatal ovarian cysts. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous haemorrhage and rupture of third ventricular colloid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Bermingham, Niamh; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Acute bleeding within a colloid cyst of the third ventricle represents a rare event causing sudden increase in the cyst volume that may lead to acute hydrocephalus and rapid neurological deterioration. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of haemorrhagic third ventricular colloid cyst and its management. A 77-year-old ex-smoker presented with unsteady gait, incontinence and gradually worsening confusion over a 3-week period. Brain CT scan findings were highly suggestive of a third ventricular colloid cyst with intraventricular rupture. He underwent cyst excision and histopathology, which confirmed the radiological diagnosis with evidence of haemorrhage within the cyst. A ventriculo peritoneal shunt was performed for delayed hydrocephalus. Surgical management of these patients must include emergency ventriculostomy followed by prompt surgical removal of the haemorrhagic cyst. PMID:22949002

  8. Liver anatomy.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Misih, Sherif R Z; Bloomston, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the complexities of the liver has been a long-standing challenge to physicians and anatomists. Significant strides in the understanding of hepatic anatomy have facilitated major progress in liver-directed therapies--surgical interventions, such as transplantation, hepatic resection, hepatic artery infusion pumps, and hepatic ablation, and interventional radiologic procedures, such as transarterial chemoembolization, selective internal radiation therapy, and portal vein embolization. Without understanding hepatic anatomy, such progressive interventions would not be feasible. This article reviews the history, general anatomy, and the classification schemes of liver anatomy and their relevance to liver-directed therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link.

    PubMed

    Huang, George T-J

    2010-10-05

    The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment - the natural function of epithelium. This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object.

  10. Apical Cyst Theory: a Missing Link

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George T.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The mechanism of the formation of apical cyst has been elusive. Several theories have long been proposed and discussed speculating how an apical cyst is developed and formed in the jaw bone resulting from endododontic infection. Two popular theories are the nutritional deficiency theory and the abscess theory. The nutritional deficiency theory assumes that the over proliferated epithelial cells will form a ball mass such that the cells in the center of the mass will be deprived of nutrition. The abscess theory postulates that when an abscess cavity is formed in connective tissue, epithelial cells proliferate and line the preexisting cavity because of their inherent tendency to cover exposed connective tissue surfaces. Based on the nature of epithelial cells and the epithelium, nutritional theory is a fairy tale, while abscess theory at best just indicates that abscess may be one of the factors that allows the stratified epithelium to form but not to explain a mechanism that makes the cyst to form. The hypothesis Apical cyst formation is the result of proliferation of resting epithelial cells, due to inflammation, to a sufficient number such that they are able to form a polarized and stratified epithelial lining against dead tissues or foreign materials. These stratified epithelial lining expands along the dead tissue or foreign materials and eventually wrap around them as a spherical sac, i.e. a cyst. The space in the sac is considered the external environment separating the internal (tissue) environment – the natural function of epithelium. Evaluation of the hypothesis This theory may be tested by introducing a biodegradable device able to slowly release epithelial cell mitogens in an in vivo environment implanted with epithelial cells next to a foreign object. This will allow the cells to continuously proliferate which may form a cystic sac wrapping around the foreign object. PMID:25346864

  11. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Oh, Christopher C; Choudhri, Asim F

    2013-12-01

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 ± 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size.

  12. Multiple Colloid Cysts: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Ahmed R; Bettag, Martin

    2018-06-14

     Colloid cysts usually occur in the anterior third ventricle at the level of the foramina of Monro. Colloid cysts may extend from the third toward the lateral ventricle. We present a rare case of multiple intraventricular colloid cysts, two of which were in the third ventricle and one in the lateral ventricle.  A 40-year-old female patient presented with three intraventricular cystic lesions: one cyst in the typical localization in the anterior rostral third ventricle, another cyst behind it in the same (third) ventricle, and a larger bulging cyst in the right lateral ventricle. A bilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been inserted 26 years before to treat hydrocephalus. All three cysts had different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics. We removed the cysts through an endoscopically assisted right transcortical transventricular microsurgical approach, using the right ventricular catheter as a guide to the lateral ventricle. After removal of the lateral ventricular cyst, we observed that the foramen of Monro was greatly enlarged (most likely as a result of the large cyst), which allowed us to remove the cysts in the third ventricle. During surgery, the cysts were found to have different consistencies. MRI 2 years following surgery showed complete removal and no hydrocephalus. The patient had no symptoms, and the clinical examinations were normal.  Colloid cysts may become large and extend to the lateral ventricle, especially in patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Studying the relevant pathoanatomy of these cysts is very important for preoperative planning including the choice of surgical approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. P53 Protein Expression in Dental Follicle, Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Inflammatory Subtypes of Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). Results The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. Conclusions The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression. PMID:28584604

  14. P53 Protein Expression in Dental Follicle, Dentigerous Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Inflammatory Subtypes of Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Fatemeh, Mashhadiabbas; Sepideh, Arab; Sara, Bagheri Seyedeh; Nazanin, Mahdavi

    2017-05-01

    An odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental odontogenic cyst with aggressive clinical behavior. This cyst shows a different growth mechanism from the more common dentigerous cyst and now has been renamed as a keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). Inflammation can assist tumor growth via different mechanisms including dysregulation of the p53 gene. This study aims to assess and compare the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 in inflamed and non-inflamed types of OKC and dentigerous cyst. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 was assessed in 14 cases of dental follicle, 34 cases of OKC (including 18 inflamed OKCs), and 31 cases of dentigerous cyst (including 16 inflamed cysts). The mean percentage of p53 positive cells was 0.7% in dental follicles, 5.4% in non-inflamed OKCs, 17.3% in inflamed OKCs, 1.2% in non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and 2.2% in inflamed dentigerous cysts. The differences between the groups were statistically significant ( p < 0.050) except for the difference between inflamed and non-inflamed dentigerous cysts, and between dental follicle and non-inflamed dentigerous cyst. The difference in p53 expression in OKC and dentigerous cyst can explain their different growth mechanism and clinical behavior. Inflammation is responsible for the change in behavior of neoplastic epithelium of OKC via p53 overexpression.

  15. Hydatid cyst of parotid: Report of unusual cytological findings extending the cytomorphological spectrum.

    PubMed

    Arora, Vinod Kumar; Chopra, Neha; Singh, Poorva; Venugopal, Vasantha Kumar; Narang, Salil

    2016-09-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infestation caused by larval cestode of genus Echinococcus. Cystic form of this infection mostly involves liver and lung. Hydatid disease of the parotid gland is very rare even in endemic areas and is often clinically mistaken for parotid tumors or cysts. The presence of protoscolices, laminated membranes, and isolated hooklets are characteristic cytological features observed on fine-needle aspirate from hydatid cysts. We report unusual cytological features from a hydatid cyst of parotid in a 13-year-old girl. She presented with a slowly enlarging hard mass in left parotid. Fine-needle aspiration yielded slightly turbid fluid. Smears from the sediment revealed naked parasitic micronuclei, fragments of germinative layer (endocyst), and abortive brood capsules (buds from endocyst) seen as spherical structures with multiple parasitic nuclei. Some of these spherical structures were degenerated with recognizable nuclei and others were completely necrotic. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:770-773. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Italian compassionate use of sofosbuvir in HCV patients waitlisted for liver transplantation: A national real-life experience.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvia; Donato, Maria Francesca; Mazzarelli, Chiara; Rendina, Maria; Visco-Comandini, Ubaldo; Filì, Daniela; Gianstefani, Alice; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Melazzini, Mario; Montilla, Simona; Pani, Luca; Petraglia, Sandra; Russo, Pierluigi; Trotta, Maria Paola; Carrai, Paola; Caraceni, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the real-life clinical and virological outcomes of HCV waitlisted patients for liver transplantation (LT) who received sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SOF/R) within the Italian compassionate use program. Clinical and virological data were collected in 224 patients with decompensated cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving daily SOF/R until LT or up a maximum of 48 weeks. Of 100 transplanted patients, 51 were HCV-RNA negative for >4 weeks before LT (SVR12: 88%) and 49 negative for <4 weeks or still viraemic at transplant: 34 patients continued treatment after LT (bridging therapy) (SVR12: 88%), while 15 stopped treatment (SVR12: 53%). 98 patients completed SOF/R without LT (SVR12: 73%). In patients with advanced decompensated cirrhosis (basal MELD ≥15 and/or C-P ≥B8), a marked improvement of the scores occurred in about 50% of cases and almost 20% of decompensated patients without HCC reached a condition suitable for inactivation and delisting. These real-life data indicate that in waitlisted patients: (i) bridging antiviral therapy can be an option for patients still viraemic or negative <4 weeks at LT; and (ii) clinical improvement to a condition suitable for delisting can occur even in patients with advanced decompensated cirrhosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Belatacept-based immunosuppression in de novo liver transplant recipients: 1-year experience from a phase II randomized study.

    PubMed

    Klintmalm, G B; Feng, S; Lake, J R; Vargas, H E; Wekerle, T; Agnes, S; Brown, K A; Nashan, B; Rostaing, L; Meadows-Shropshire, S; Agarwal, M; Harler, M B; Garcia-Valdecasas, J-C

    2014-08-01

    This exploratory phase II study evaluated the safety and efficacy of belatacept in de novo adult liver transplant recipients. Patients were randomized (N = 260) to one of the following immunosuppressive regimens: (i) basiliximab + belatacept high dose [HD] + mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), (ii) belatacept HD + MMF, (iii) belatacept low dose [LD] + MMF, (iv) tacrolimus + MMF, or (v) tacrolimus alone. All received corticosteroids. Demographic characteristics were similar among groups. The proportion of patients who met the primary end point (composite of acute rejection, graft loss, death by month 6) was higher in the belatacept groups (42–48%) versus tacrolimus groups (15–38%), with the highest number of deaths and grafts losses in the belatacept LD group. By month 12, the proportion surviving with a functioning graft was higher with tacrolimus + MMF (93%) and lower with belatacept LD (67%) versus other groups (90%: basiliximab + belatacept HD; 83%: belatacept HD; 88%: tacrolimus). Mean calculated GFR was 15–34 mL/min higher in belatacept-treated patients at 1 year. Two cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and one case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurred in belatacept-treated patients. Follow-up beyond month 12 revealed an increase in death and graft loss in another belatacept group (belatacept HD), after which the study was terminated.

  18. De novo use of generic tacrolimus in liver transplantation - a single center experience with one-yr follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dannhorn, E; Cheung, M; Rodrigues, S; Cooper, H; Thorburn, D; Patch, D; Burroughs, A K; O'Beirne, J

    2014-12-01

    Use of generic tacrolimus in liver transplantation (LT) could result in cost savings. Generic tacrolimus has been shown to be bioequivalent to innovator tacrolimus in healthy volunteers and renal transplant patients. There are limited data on the de novo use of generic tacrolimus in LT. This study aimed to determine whether the de novo use of generic tacrolimus (Adoport, Sandoz,UK) was associated with differences in outcomes, safety, and cost compared with innovator tacrolimus (Prograf, Astellas, Japan). Patients were studied before and after a programmatic change from de novo IS with Prograf to Adoport. Outcomes, tacrolimus levels, doses, and costs were compared for the first-yr post-LT. Ninety-four patients were studied, 46 Prograf, 48 Adoport. No significant differences in rejection, cytomegalovirus infection, acute kidney injury, sepsis, or graft loss were observed between groups. Tacrolimus costs were significantly reduced with the de novo use of Adoport. Day 14 dose normalized levels in Adoport patients showed significant variation but at the day 30 and one yr, there were no significant differences in the doses or levels of tacrolimus between groups. Adoport is safe and effective compared to Prograf when used de novo in LT patients. Tacrolimus costs were significantly reduced by the use of Adoport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Parents in transition: Experiences of parents of young people with a liver transplant transferring to adult services.

    PubMed

    Wright, J; Elwell, L; McDonagh, J E; Kelly, D A; Wray, J

    2017-02-01

    Predictors of successful transition from pediatric to adult services include ability to self-manage and engage with healthcare services. Parents have a key role in healthcare management throughout childhood and adolescence including encouraging development of self-management skills in their children. Transition to adult services can be challenging for parents and young people, yet parents' views regarding transition remain largely unexplored. Nine parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients (15.2-25.1 yr) participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed using IPA. Analysis revealed three key themes: "emotional impact of transplantation," "protection vs. independence," and "ending relationships and changing roles." Parents expressed the dichotomous nature of the desire to promote independence in their child while still maintaining control and protection, and discussed how changing roles and relationships were difficult to navigate. Parents are important facilitators of young people's development of self-management skills for successful transfer to adult services. Parents should be supported to move from a "managerial" to a "supervisory" role during transition to help young people engage independently with the healthcare team. Findings support the development of interventions for parents to emphasize their role in transition and guide the transfer of self-management skills from parent to young person. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Experiences of liver health related uncertainty and self-reported stress among people who inject drugs living with hepatitis C virus: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Goutzamanis, Stelliana; Doyle, Joseph S; Thompson, Alexander; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Higgs, Peter

    2018-04-02

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are most at risk of hepatitis C virus infection in Australia. The introduction of transient elastography (TE) (measuring hepatitis fibrosis) and direct acting antiviral medications will likely alter the experience of living with hepatitis C. We aimed to explore positive and negative influences on wellbeing and stress among PWID with hepatitis C. The Treatment and Prevention (TAP) study examines the feasibility of treating hepatitis C mono-infected PWID in community settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 purposively recruited TAP participants. Participants were aware of their hepatitis C seropositive status and had received fibrosis assessment (measured by TE) prior to interview. Questions were open-ended, focusing on the impact of health status on wellbeing and self-reported stress. Interviews were voice recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed, guided by Mishel's (1988) theory of Uncertainty in Illness. In line with Mishel's theory of Uncertainty in Illness all participants reported hepatitis C-related uncertainty, particularly mis-information or a lack of knowledge surrounding liver health and the meaning of TE results. Those with greater fibrosis experienced an extra layer of prognostic uncertainty. Experiences of uncertainty were a key motivation to seek treatment, which was seen as a way to regain some stability in life. Treatment completion alleviated hepatitis C-related stress, and promoted feelings of empowerment and confidence in addressing other life challenges. TE scores seemingly provide some certainty. However, when paired with limited knowledge, particularly among people with severe fibrosis, TE may be a source of uncertainty and increased personal stress. This suggests the need for simple education programs and resources on liver health to minimise stress.

  1. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation with 2 × 2 electrodes as a building block for matrix radiofrequency ablation: Ex vivo liver experiments and finite element method modelling.

    PubMed

    Mulier, Stefaan; Jiang, Yansheng; Jamart, Jacques; Wang, Chong; Feng, Yuanbo; Marchal, Guy; Michel, Luc; Ni, Yicheng

    2015-01-01

    Size and geometry of the ablation zone obtained by currently available radiofrequency (RF) electrodes is highly variable. Reliability might be improved by matrix radiofrequency ablation (MRFA), in which the whole tumour volume is contained within a cage of x × y parallel electrodes. The aim of this study was to optimise the smallest building block for matrix radiofrequency ablation: a recently developed bipolar 2 × 2 electrode system. In ex vivo bovine liver, the parameters of the experimental set-up were changed one by one. In a second step, a finite element method (FEM) modelling of the experiment was performed to better understand the experimental findings. The optimal power to obtain complete ablation in the shortest time was 50-60 W. Performing an ablation until impedance rise was superior to ablation for a fixed duration. Increasing electrode diameter improved completeness of ablation due to lower temperature along the electrodes. A chessboard pattern of electrode polarity was inferior to a row pattern due to an electric field void in between the electrodes. Variability of ablation size was limited. The FEM correctly simulated and explained the findings in ex vivo liver. These experiments and FEM modelling allowed a better insight in the factors influencing the ablation zone in a bipolar 2 × 2 electrode RF system. With optimal parameters, complete ablation was obtained quickly and with limited variability. This knowledge will be useful to build a larger system with x × y electrodes for MRFA.

  2. Liver transplantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu; Egawa, Hiroto

    2016-10-01

    As of December 31, 2014, 7937 liver transplants (7673 living donor transplants and 264 deceased donor liver transplantations [DDLTs; 261 from heart-beating donors and 3 from non-heart-beating donors]) have been performed in 67 institutions in Japan. The revised Organ Transplant Law in Japan came into effect in July 2010, which allows organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent if the patient had not previously refused organ donation. However, the number of deceased donor organ donations has not increased as anticipated. The rate of deceased organ donations per million population (pmp) has remained at less than 1. To maximize the viability of the limited numbers of donated organs, a system has been adopted that includes the partnership of well-trained transplant consultant doctors and local doctors. For compensating for the decreased opportunity of on-site training, an educational system regarding quality organ procurement for transplant surgeons has also been established. Furthermore, experts in the field of liver transplantation are currently discussing adoption of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for allocation, promoting split-liver transplantation, arranging in-house coordinators, and improving the frequency of proposing the option to donate organs to the families. To overcome the shortage of donors during efforts to promote organ donation, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been developed in Japan. Continuous efforts to increase DDLT in addition to the successful experience of LDLT will increase the benefits of liver transplantation for more patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1401-1407 2016 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  4. Surgical treatment for hypopharyngeal cysts with a side-opened direct laryngoscope.

    PubMed

    Kawaida, M; Fukuda, H; Shiotani, A; Kohno, N

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of hypopharyngeal cyst are reported. Both cysts occurred in the piriform sinus of the hypopharynx. Histopathological examination indicated that both were retention cysts. These cysts were removed by laryngomicrosurgical technique using a side-opened direct laryngoscope. In the cyst with a distinct base, a laryngomicrosurgical snare was used for removal. In the wide-based cyst, the mucous membrane around the cyst was incised with an electrosurgical instrument and then detached to facilitate removal. In this paper, we describe our surgical procedure for removing hypopharyngeal cysts and discuss the causes of such cysts.

  5. Outcomes of Highly Sensitized Patients Undergoing Simultaneous Liver and Kidney Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience With Desensitization.

    PubMed

    Steggerda, J A; Kang, A; Pan, S-H; Sundaram, V; Nissen, N N; Klein, A S; Todo, T; Annamalai, A; Vo, A; Jordan, S C; Kim, I K

    Preformed donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) in patients undergoing simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation (SLKT) are an independent risk factor for poorer patient and renal allograft survival. The outcomes of patients highly sensitized (HS) against HLA antigens undergoing SLKT and select HS SLKT recipients undergoing desensitization at a high-volume desensitization center were investigated. Seventy-five patients undergoing SLKT at a high-volume desensitization center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. HS patients were defined by panel-reactive antibody (PRA) >30% (n = 17 patients), 11 of whom received pre- or perioperative desensitization with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) ± rituximab. HS patients had significantly higher class I and class II PRA (class I = 41.3% ± 40.0% vs 2.5% ± 6.3%; class II = 45.7% ± 36.4% vs 1.0% ± 2.9%; P < .001), were more likely to be female (P = .05), and more likely to have had a prior transplant (P = .03). HS patients demonstrated greater susceptibility to renal cell-mediated rejection (CMR) (23.5% vs 5.2%, P = .02) compared to nonsensitized patients. Higher renal antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) was also observed in HS patients, 11.8% vs 3.4%, but did not reach significance (P = .18). Desensitization in select HS SLKT patients was well tolerated but did not improve patient and allograft survival or significantly curtail rejection. HS SLKT recipients demonstrated increased allograft rejection, particularly CMR, but patient and graft survival were not impacted in the first year post-transplant. Select HS SLKT patients tolerated desensitization with high-dose IVIG ± rituximab and may have received additional immunoprotection against ABMR but survival was not affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of plastic surgeons in hepatic artery anastomosis in living donor liver transplantation: our experience of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Mahesh; Gambhir, Swaroop; Gupta, Anubhav; Shah, Amiti

    2012-07-01

    To understand the practical difficulties encountered while performing hepatic artery anastomosis by microsurgical technique in living donor liver transplantation. We undertook a retrospective study of 10 cases of hepatic artery anastomosis done at the level of bifurcation of the right hepatic artery and proximal when the plastic surgery team was called in for assistance. All the anastomoses were performed under an operating microscope (up to 24× magnification). In seven of these cases, anterior wall anastomosis was performed primarily, and in three cases, posterior wall approach was chosen. The main indications of calling in the plastic surgery team were to overcome these technical hurdles: (1) in cases where the caliber of the vessel was less than 2 mm in size; (2) dissection (separation of mucosa and adventitia) of the recipient vessel wall; (3) donor pedicle being so short that possibility of revision of the anastomosis seemed unlikely, necessitating single, sure-shot anastomosis without a chance of revision. The problems encountered by our microsurgical team were: (1) a special set of instruments was warranted because of the depth of the hepatic artery; (2) anastomosis had to be done in standing, stooped position with unsupported hands; (3) excessive movements due to respiration and profuse fluid collection in the field added to the hurdles encountered. All patients were prospectively followed by color Doppler ultrasound protocol for the first 5 days after surgery. Hepatic artery thrombosis was encountered in one case on postoperative day 10, which was successfully treated by thrombolytic therapy, but unfortunately the patient died of multiorgan failure on posttransplant day 30. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Bilateral Radicular Cyst in Mandible: An Unusual Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area. PMID:25859111

  8. Bilateral radicular cyst in mandible: an unusual case report.

    PubMed

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area.

  9. CD56 Expression in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Razmjouyi, Faranak

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Odontogenic cysts and tumors have a wide spectrum of clinical characteristics that lead to the different management strategies. Since definite diagnosis is difficult in some cases, it has been suggested that CD56 may be a candidate marker for definitive diagnosis of some odontogenic tumors. The present study was designed to examine CD56 expression in lesions with histopathological similarities. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional, analytical study the subjects were 22 ameloblastomas, 13 dentigerous cysts, 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT), 4 adenomatoid odontogenic tumors (AOT), 3 orthokeratinized odonto-genic cysts, 3 calcifying odontogenic cysts (COC) and one glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC). All the samples were examined for CD56 immunoreactivity. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results. Twenty cases (91%) of ameloblastomas, 3 (75%) AOT, 4 (40%) KCOT and one case of GOC were positive for CD56. None of the dentigerous cysts, COC and orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts was CD56-positive. There was a significant difference in the CD56 expression between ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst, as well as COC. Also, KCOT showed significantly higher expression than orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst. Conclusion. In this study CD56 expression was limited to the odontogenic tumors and more aggressive cystic lesions. This marker can be a useful aid for distinguishing cysts and tumors from similar lesions.

  10. Species of Heterodera cysts in cereal fields in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Zeliha Colak; Deeren, Anne-Marie; De Sutter, Nancy; Viaene, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Heterodera is a genus of cyst-forming nematodes, including the cereal cysts which can provoke yield reductions in grain crops. As little is known about the occurrence of these cysts in Belgian grain fields, a survey was organized, starting in Flanders. Soil samples were taken from 50 fields where cereals are grown in rotation with mainly beet, potato and vegetables. Cysts were extracted from the 112 samples and 10 individuals per sample were identified up to species level by morphometrical and morphological observations. The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was found in 34 fields (56%) at infestation levels varying from 0.6 to 1322 cysts/kg soil. Other Heterodera species (e.g. H. trifolii, H. mani) were found in low numbers and sometimes in mixtures with H. schachtii, but no cereal cysts were detected. This survey confirms that beet cyst nematodes are a problem in Flanders. The few cereal cysts that might be present were perhaps not detected due to the few individuals that were identified. For this reason, molecular identification tools which allow fast and accurate identification of Heterodera species would be very useful. It could be interesting to find out why cereal cysts are suppressed in our regions and to expand the survey to the Walloon region where more cereals are grown.

  11. Hazard and outcome of retreated choledochal cyst patients.

    PubMed

    Chijiiwa, K

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients initially treated for choledochal cyst (25: cyst-enterostomy for 15 type I and 10 type IV A, 13: cyst excision for 8 type I and 5 type IV A, 1: sphincterotomy for type III) have been completely followed up for a mean period of 17 years to examine the effect of surgical management on their lives. Eighteen of 25 cases with cyst-enterostomy (72%) needed retreatment due to the complications but one could not be retreated because of the presence of advanced bile duct carcinoma. Fourteen of 17 cases were retreated with cyst excision, of whom 12 showed an excellent outcome but other two were suffering from cholangitis and hepatolithiasis. The remaining 3 patients retreated with PTCS or cyst-enterostomy showed a poor outcome. Of 13 patients who had undergone cyst excision with hepatico-jejunostomy as the first choice, 12 showed a good outcome but one needed retreatment due to the anastomotic stenosis and hepatolithiasis. Thus, excision of cyst should be the surgical management for choledochal cyst. However, it should be noted that three of 27 patients treated initially or secondarily with cyst excision showed unsatisfactory results mainly due to the anastomotic stenosis. The results demonstrate that hepaticojejunostomy with a wide opening stoma is necessary to prevent postoperative morbidity.

  12. Treatment of unicameral bone cyst: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hsien-Yang; Wu, Karl; Wang, Chen-Ti; Chang, Shun-Min; Lin, Wei-Hsin; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2011-03-01

    There is a variety of treatment modalities for unicameral bone cysts, with variable outcomes reported in the literature. Although good initial outcomes have been reported, the success rate has often changed with longer-term follow-up. We introduce a novel, minimally invasive treatment method and compare its clinical outcomes with those of other methods of treatment of this lesion. From February 1994 to April 2008, forty patients with a unicameral bone cyst were treated with one of four techniques: serial percutaneous steroid and autogenous bone-marrow injection (Group 1, nine patients); open curettage and grafting with a calcium sulfate bone substitute either without instrumentation (Group 2, twelve patients) or with internal instrumentation (Group 3, seven patients); or minimally invasive curettage, ethanol cauterization, disruption of the cystic boundary, insertion of a synthetic calcium sulfate bone-graft substitute, and placement of a cannulated screw to provide drainage (Group 4, twelve patients). Success was defined as radiographic evidence of a healed cyst or of a healed cyst with some defect according to the modified Neer classification, and failure was defined as a persistent or recurrent cyst that needed additional treatment. Patients who sustained a fracture during treatment were also considered to have had a failure. The outcome parameters included the radiographically determined healing rate, the time to solid union, and the total number of procedures needed. The follow-up time ranged from eighteen to eighty-four months. Group-4 patients had the highest radiographically determined healing rate. Healing was seen in eleven of the twelve patients in that group compared with three of the nine in Group 1, eight of the twelve in Group 2, and six of the seven in Group 3. Group-4 patients also had the shortest mean time to union: 3.7 ± 2.3 months compared with 23.4 ± 14.9, 12.2 ± 8.5, and 6.6 ± 4.3 months in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This new

  13. Alexandrium minutum resting cyst distribution dynamics in a confined site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglès, Sílvia; Jordi, Antoni; Garcés, Esther; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Palanques, Albert

    2010-02-01

    The life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum consists of an asexual stage, characterized by motile vegetative cells, and a sexual stage, a resting cyst that once formed remains dormant in the sediment. Insight into the factors that determine the distribution and abundance of resting cysts is essential to understanding the dynamics of the vegetative phase. In investigations carried out between January 2005 and January 2008 in Arenys de Mar harbor (northwestern Mediterranean Sea), the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. minutum resting cysts and of the sediments were studied during different bloom stages of the vegetative population. Maximum cyst abundance was recorded mainly in the innermost part of the harbor while the lowest abundance always occurred near the harbor entrance, consistent with the distribution of silt-clay sediment fractions. The tendency of cysts in sediments to increase after bloom periods was clearly associated with new cyst formation, while cyst abundance decreased during non-bloom periods. Exceptions to this trend were observed in stations dominated by the deposition of coarse sediments. High correlation between the presence of cysts and clays during non-bloom periods indicates that cysts behave as passive sediment particles and are influenced by the same hydrodynamic processes as clays. In Arenys de Mar, the main physical forcing affecting sediment resuspension is the seiche, which was studied using in situ measurements and numerical models to interpret the observed distribution patterns. During non-bloom periods, cyst losses were smaller when the seiche was more active and at the station where the seiche-induced current was larger. Thus, seiche-forced resuspension appears to reduce cyst losses by reallocating cysts back to the sediment surface such that their burial in the sediment is avoided. The observed vertical profiles of the cysts were consistent with this process.

  14. Allium Sativum Methanolic Extract (garlic) Improve Therapeutic Efficacy of Albendazole Against Hydatid Cyst: In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Haji Mohammadi, K H; Heidarpour, M; Borji, H

    2018-04-25

    After gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of prepared methanolic extract of Allium sativum, 40 laboratory BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally by injection of 1,500 viable protoscoleces. Five months after infection, the infected mice were allocated into four treatment groups, including 1- Albendazole (100 mg/kg); 2- Allium sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L); 3- A. sativum methanolic extract (10 mL/L) + Albendazole (50 mg /kg); and 4- untreated control group. After 30 days of daily treatment, total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst as well as blood serum bilirubin and liver enzymes were compared between the mice of different groups. The total number and weight of cysts and size of the largest cyst were significantly lower in treated groups A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 and Albendazole 100 in comparison to those of the control group (p < 0.05). The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme and bilirubin concentration were significantly lower in the mice treated with A. sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50, when compared to the control group. In addition, bilirubin concentration revealed significant decrease in A. sativum 10 mL/L and A. sativum 10 mL/L + Albendazole 50 groups, when compared to the Albendazole group. In conclusion, administration of A. sativum 10 mL/L improved the anti-hydatidosis activity of Albendazole 50 mg /kg, due to parasitological effects similar to Albendazole 100 mg /kg but less hepatotoxic effects.

  15. Differentiation of Pancreatic Cyst Types by Analysis of Rheological Behavior of Pancreatic Cyst Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Khamaysi, Iyad; Abu Ammar, Aiman; Vasilyev, Gleb; Arinstein, Arkadii; Chowers, Yehuda; Zussman, Eyal

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between mucinous and non-mucinous pancreatic cysts is exceedingly important and challenging, particularly as the former bears malignant transformation potential. Pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF)-based diagnostics, including analyses of biochemical markers, as well as cytology, has shown inadequate accuracy. Herein, a preliminary single-center study of 22 PCF samples, collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), assessed the rheological behavior of PCF and its correlation with lesion type. The dependence of PCF shear viscosity on shear rate was found to follow a power law and could be fitted using Ostwald–de Waele model. Three types of flow curves were identified, where two types correlated with non-mucinous cysts, differing by their power law exponent, and the third type corresponding to mucinous cysts. Viscosity measured at a high shear rate was shown to serve as an accurate and independent marker distinguishing between mucinous and non-mucinous cysts, with an optimal cutoff value of ηc = 1.3 cP The accuracy of this novel technique proved superior to string-sign, cytology, carcinoembryonic antigen, and amylase assessments. Moreover, the combined predictive value of ηc and patient age provided for sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 95.5%, respectively. This simple and rapid diagnostic tool can be immediately implemented after EUS-FNA sampling. PMID:28358122

  16. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of Perfluorinated Surfactants in Fish Liver by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Naomi L.; Martin, Jonathan W.; Ye, Yun; Mabury, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that provides students a hands-on introduction to the specific techniques of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization is presented. The students can thus practice the analytical principles of sample extraction, detection, quantification, and quality control using a fresh fish…

  17. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: Factors Affecting Outcomes—A 10-year Experience at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Shady, Waleed; Petre, Elena N.; Gonen, Mithat; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Brown, Karen T.; Covey, Anne M.; Alago, William; Durack, Jeremy C.; Maybody, Majid; Brody, Lynn A.; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; Jarnagin, William R.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Kemeny, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify predictors of oncologic outcomes after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLMs) and to describe and evaluate a modified clinical risk score (CRS) adapted for ablation as a patient stratification and prognostic tool. Materials and Methods This study consisted of a HIPAA-compliant institutional review board–approved retrospective review of data in 162 patients with 233 CLMs treated with percutaneous RFA between December 2002 and December 2012. Contrast material–enhanced CT was used to assess technique effectiveness 4–8 weeks after RFA. Patients were followed up with contrast-enhanced CT every 2–4 months. Overall survival (OS) and local tumor progression–free survival (LTPFS) were calculated from the time of RFA by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank tests and Cox regression models were used for univariate and multivariate analysis to identify predictors of outcomes. Results Technique effectiveness was 94% (218 of 233). Median LTPFS was 26 months. At univariate analysis, predictors of shorter LTPFS were tumor size greater than 3 cm (P < .001), ablation margin size of 5 mm or less (P < .001), high modified CRS (P = .009), male sex (P = .03), and no history of prior hepatectomy (P = .04) or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (P = .01). At multivariate analysis, only tumor size greater than 3 cm (P = .01) and margin size of 5 mm or less (P < .001) were independent predictors of shorter LTPFS. Median and 5-year OS were 36 months and 31%. At univariate analysis, predictors of shorter OS were tumor size larger than 3 cm (P = .005), carcinoembryonic antigen level greater than 30 ng/mL (P = .003), high modified CRS (P = .02), and extrahepatic disease (EHD) (P < .001). At multivariate analysis, tumor size greater than 3 cm (P = .006) and more than one site of EHD (P < .001) were independent predictors of shorter OS. Conclusion Tumor size of less than 3 cm and ablation margins greater than 5 mm

  18. Prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents with emphasis on dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst (keratocystic odontogenic tumor).

    PubMed

    Li, Nannan; Gao, Xing; Xu, Ziyuan; Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Laikuan; Wang, Jinrui; Liu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the incidence and prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in children and adolescents and compare the features of the two most common types, dentigerous cyst and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT). A retrospective review in a series of 369 patients with all histological diagnoses of developmental odontogenic cysts in children (≤12 years) and adolescents (13-18 years) was conducted. Among these, 361 (97.8%) patients were diagnosed as dentigerous cyst (n = 281) and KCOT (n = 80), with the male-to-female ratios of dentigerous cyst and KCOT both being 2:1. The average age of the patients with KCOT was older than that of those with dentigerous cyst (14.7 years vs 11.8 years, p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (59.1%) was more common in children, but KCOT (78.8%) was more common in adolescents (p < 0.001). Dentigerous cyst (57.6%) predominantly located on the maxilla, but KCOT (60.3%) predominantly located on the mandible (p = 0.010). Adolescent patients with lesions located on the mandible would favor KCOT over dentigerous cyst. This study aids in better knowledge of the prevalence of developmental odontogenic cysts in a large pediatric population, and shows that a well-supported early diagnosis is indispensable for a more adequate treatment.

  19. Liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lauterio, Andrea; De Carlis, Riccardo; Di Sandro, Stefano; Ferla, Fabio; Buscemi, Vincenzo; De Carlis, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The place of liver transplantation in the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injuries has not yet been widely discussed in the literature. Bile duct injuries during cholecystectomy represent the leading cause of liver transplantation in this setting, while other indications after abdominal surgery are less common. Urgent liver transplantation for the treatment of severe iatrogenic liver injury may-represent a surgical challenge requiring technically difficult and time consuming procedures. A debate is ongoing on the need for centralization of complex surgery in tertiary referral centers. The early referral of patients with severe iatrogenic liver injuries to a tertiary center with experienced hepato-pancreato-biliary and transplant surgery has emerged as the best treatment of care. Despite widespread interest in the use of liver transplantation as a treatment option for severe iatrogenic injuries, reported experiences indicate few liver transplants are performed. This review analyzes the literature on liver transplantation after hepatic injury and discusses our own experience along with surgical advances and future prospects in this uncommon transplant setting. PMID:28932348

  20. Primary adnexial hydatid cyst mimicking ovarian tumor

    PubMed Central

    Görgen, Hüsnü; Api, Murat; Çetin, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We report here the rare case of a 28-year-old woman with a large hydatid cyst in her left lower pelvis with an unusual sonographic presentation mimicking a multicystic ovarian tumor. Laparoscopic evaluation revealed normal uterus and ovaries with a swelling in the left retropritoneal area. We decided to reach this tumour by the vaginal route and multiple scolex, daughter cysts were removed via a left lateral vaginal wall incision. The pericystic cavity was thoroughly washed. The patient was discharged on the first postoperative day. Mebendazole (100 mg twice daily) was administered for 4 months. This parasite should be kept in mind and considered when making the differential diagnosis of pelvic cystic masses, particularly if the patient is from an endemic area. PMID:24591878

  1. Ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Heng-Kun, W; Yan-Ling, G; Wen-Feng, Z; Zhe, S; Ren-Xin, W; Xiao-Tao, Z

    2014-02-01

    Ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint is a rare disease, which may arise from myxoid degeneration of the collagenous tissue of the temporomandibular joint capsule, without epithelial or endothelial lining. We report a case of cystic lesion in a 40-year-old female patient. The patient had a left pre-auricular oval-shaped swelling without any articular symptoms. The pathological analysis after surgical removal allowed diagnosing the lesion as a ganglion cyst of the left temporomandibular joint. We made a literature review and noted that this condition was predominant in female patients. We recommend using MRI for diagnostic purposes and surgery as the best therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Caveolin-1 expression in odontogenic cysts and ameloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Pardis, Soheil; Asadzadeh, Maryam; Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the caveolin-1 expression in a group of odontogenic cysts and tumors. In this cross-sectional study, the expression of caveolin-1 was evaluated immunohistochemically in 75 samples including 18 cases of dentigerous cyst, 18 odontogenic keratocysts, 3 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts, 2 calcifying odontogenic cysts and 34 ameloblastomas (solid and unicystic). Positive immunohistochemical reaction was found in 100% of odontogenic cysts and this was significantly more than both unicystic (65%) and solid (55%) ameloblastomas. The present study showed the expression of caveolin-1 in all odontogenic cysts and more than ameloblastomas. The results suggested that absence of caveolin-1 might enhance aggressiveness of odontogenic lesions and could be a useful marker for distinguishing ameloblastomas from other odontogenic lesions.

  3. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cyst purification using Percoll gradients

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Elizabeth A.; Dhara, Animesh; Sinai, Anthony P.

    2017-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the CNS and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow growing bradyzoites which have been until recently thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency. Reactivation to active growth during immune suppression is of critical clinical importance. Yet we know little about tissue cysts or the bradyzoites they house as the diversity of tissue cysts cannot be replicated in cell culture systems. Our optimization of tissue cyst purification from the brains of infected mice using Percoll gradients provides an efficient means to recover in vivo derived tissue cysts that can be applied to imaging, cell-biologic, biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. PMID:28510363

  5. A retrospective study of oral cysts in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Salako, N O; Taiwo, E O

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of oral cysts that were seen over an 11-year period in children at a dental institution in Nigeria was carried out. In general, oral cysts accounted for only 2.6% of the total biopsied lesions during the period under review. The most common oral cysts were the mucous retention cysts, the gingival cysts of infants and the dentigerous cyst. The commonest sites were the maxilla, the mandible and the floor of the mouth respectively and there was no significant difference in sex preference. Most of the cases were seen in the age group 11-16 years while the least was in the group aged 6-10 years.

  6. Airway management in an infant with a giant vallecular cyst.

    PubMed

    Reiersen, David A; Gungor, Anil A

    2014-01-01

    Review vallecular cysts and report the surgical management of a vallecular cyst of unusual size with near-complete obliteration of the airway. This case report describes an unusually large mucus retention cyst in an 8-week-old infant that was diagnosed during induction of general anesthesia and prevented visualization of airway. Intubation was performed after rapid aspiration of the cyst contents. Vallecular cysts can present as a life-threatening obstruction in infants and complicate the establishment of an airway after induction of anesthesia. In our case, rapid thinking and aspiration of the cyst contents helped establish the airway for definitive CO2 laser excision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of a large radicular cyst-enucleation or decompression?

    PubMed

    Matijević, Stevo; Jovivić, Bojan; Bubalo, Marija; Dukić, Smiljka; Cutović, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Radicular cysts treatment involves surgical approach, more or less aggressive. However, treatment of large cystic lesions, including radicular cysts, causes some of dilemmas concerning the choice of the surgical method, especially the degree of radicalism. We presented a 65-year-old male patient with large radicular cyst in the mandible. A large elliptical multilocular radiolucency, located in the left side of the mandible, being in close vicinity to the mandibular canal, was registered at the orthopantomographic radiography. There was a risk of pathological fracture of the mandible. However, the cyst was completely removed by enucleation without intraoperative and postoperative complications. The presented case support the opinion that careful enucleation of large mandibular cysts may be done without complications, such as damages of surrounding anatomical structures or mandibular fracture. The authors indicate reasons for strong support of the undertaken surgical approach of treating large radicular cysts in the mandible.

  8. [Epidermal cyst and osteolysis of the cranial vault].

    PubMed

    Guillaud, V; Rémond, J; Balme, B; Moulin, G

    1992-01-01

    In a 40-year old man undergoing, under local anaesthesia, excision of an epidermal cyst located in the frontal region, at the border of the scalp, the operator had difficulties in removing the deep part of the cyst and perceived an underlying bone depression. The depression was caused by a 2 x 1.3 cm wide lacuna in the calvarium, which was subsequently treated by neurosurgeons. Histology showed only fragments of a simple epidermal cyst wall and no evidence of dermoid cyst. The causes of osteolysis associated with congenital or acquired skin lesions are reviewed. In this case, the old age and volume of the cyst may explain the osteolysis by mechanical compression. This case is exceptional since we were unable to find other examples in the literature, apart from dermoid and trichilemmal cysts.

  9. Sciatica and claudication caused by ganglion cyst.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wen, Xiaoyu; Gong, Yubao; Yang, Chen

    2013-12-15

    Case report. We report a rare case that a ganglion cyst compressed the sciatic nerve and caused sciatica and claudication in a 51-year-old male. Sciatica and claudication commonly occurs in spinal stenosis. To our knowledge, only 4 cases have been reported on sciatica resulting from posterior ganglion cyst of hip. A 51-year-old male had a 2-month history of radiating pain on his right leg. He could only walk 20 to 30 m before stopping and standing to rest for 1 to 3 minutes. Interestingly, he was able to walk longer distances (about 200 m) when walking slowly in small steps, without any rest. He had been treated as a case of lumbar disc herniation, but conservative treatment was ineffective. On buttock examination, a round, hard, and fixative mass was palpated at the exit of the sciatic nerve. MR imaging of hip revealed a multilocular cystic mass located on the posterior aspect of the superior gemellus and obturator internus, compressing the sciatic nerve. On operation, we found that the cyst extended to the superior gemellus and the obturator internus, positioned right at the outlet of the sciatic nerve. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient continued to be symptom free. He returned to comprehensive physical activity with no limitations. For an extraspinal source, a direct compression on the sciatic nerve also resulted in sciatica and claudication. A meticulous physical examination is very important for the differential diagnosis of extraspinal sciatica from spinal sciatica.

  10. Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of coronoid process

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Agrawal, Tanu; Jain, Manoj

    2006-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal bone cysts are relatively uncommon in the facial skeleton. These usually affect the mandible but origin from the coronoid process is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a coronoid process aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as temporal fossa swelling. Case presentation A 17 year old boy presented with a progressively increasing swelling in the left temporal region developed over the previous 8 months. An expansile lytic cystic lesion originating from the coronoid process of the left mandible and extending into the infratemporal and temporal fossa regions was found on CT scan. It was removed by a superior approach to the infratemporal fossa. Conclusion Aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process can attain enormous dimensions until the temporal region is also involved. A superior approach to the infratemporal fossa is a reasonable approach for such cases, providing wide exposure and access to all parts of the lesion and ensuring better control and complete excision. PMID:16533409

  11. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Primary Liver Cancer Treatment Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver ...

  12. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  13. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  14. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  15. Reliability of semiquantitative assessment of osteophytes and subchondral cysts on tomosynthesis images by radiologists with different levels of expertise.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daichi; Xu, Li; Gusenburg, Jeffrey; Roemer, Frank W; Hunter, David J; Li, Ling; Guermazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess reliability of the evaluation of osteophytes and subchondral cysts on tomosynthesis images when read by radiologists with different levels of expertise. Forty subjects aged >40 years had both knees evaluated using tomosynthesis. Images were read by an "experienced" reader (musculoskeletal r