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Sample records for liver cytochrome p-450

  1. Cytochrome P-450 epitope typing in animals and humans with monoclonal antibodies to ethanol induced rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450et)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Ko, I.Y.; Yang, C.; Guengerich, F.G.; Schenkman, J.B.; Coon, M.J.; Gelboin, H.V.

    1986-05-01

    Hybridomas were prepared from mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells derived from BALB/c female mice that had been immunized with P-450et. The monoclonal antibody (MAb)-producing hybridomas were screened by RIA. Thirty one independent hybrid clones were isolated with each producing an MAb of a single immunoglobulin subclass. All of these MAbs had high affinities for P-450et but only one MAb had a strong inhibitory effect on aniline rho-hydroxylase and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase. Western blots and RIAs based on ten MAbs (C1-C10) were used to determine the epitope homology of purified cytochromes P-450 from rats, rabbits, and humans. All ten MAbs had high affinity for both P-450et and a rat P-450 which is induced by acetone (P-450ac). Classes of these MAbs were identified which crossreacted toward different forms of rat P-450. In addition, several MAbs (C3, C6, C9) recognized a P-450 form of human liver, while other MAbs (C7, C9) recognized P-450/sub LM2/ of rabbits. Three MAbs (C4, C5, C8) were specific for only P-450et and P-450ac. These results demonstrate the different degrees of epitope relatedness among the multiple forms of cytochrome P-450.

  2. Inducing effect of oxfendazole on cytochrome P450IA2 in rabbit liver. Consequences on cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Gleizes, C; Eeckhoutte, C; Pineau, T; Alvinerie, M; Galtier, P

    1991-06-15

    Male New Zealand rabbits were dosed with either 0.9, 4.5 or 22.5 mg/kg/day of oxfendazole by gastric intubation for 10 days. Oxfendazole administered at the therapeutic dose (4.5 mg/kg) and at the highest dose (22.5 mg/kg) increased 1.54- and 2.36-fold the total liver microsomal cytochrome P450 and more particularly the isoenzyme P450IA2 (95 and 184% increases) as demonstrated by western blotting. Increases in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and hydroxylations of benzopyrene and acetanilide occurred in livers of the same animals without any change in N-demethylation of aminopyrine, benzphetamine or erythromycin. Because of the unchanged level of mRNA specific to cytochrome P450IA2, as shown by northern blot analysis of poly mRNA, an enzyme stabilization rather than a transcriptional activation of IA2 genes should be involved in the P450IA2 regulation mechanisms. Oxfendazole bound strongly to cytochrome P450, giving rise to a type II spectrum, and inhibited noncompetitively the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and acetanilide hydroxylase activities, this confirmed that oxfendazole interacts only with the P450IA2 family. On the basis of a comparison of the enzymatic activities induced by various imidazole drugs, it was concluded that oxfendazole, like omeprazole and albendazole, behaved as a 3-methylcholanthrene-type inducer. These three benzimidazoles did not all belong to the same category of cytochrome P450 inducers as the antifungal drugs miconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole.

  3. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  4. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found. This effect has been confirmed with two CYP3A4 substrates, testosterone (formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone) and diazepam (temazepam formation). CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were inhibited down to 75-80% (at the same rocuronium concentration). Activities of other microsomal CYPs have not been inhibited by rocuronium. To prove the possibility of rocuronium interaction with other drugs (diazepam), the effect of rocuronium on formation of main diazepam metabolites, temazepam (by CYP3A4) and desmethyldiazepam, (also known as nordiazepam; formed by CYP2C19) in primary culture of human hepatocytes has been examined. Rocuronium has caused inhibition of both reactions by 20 and 15%, respectively. The results open a possibility that interactions of rocuronium with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 (and possibly also CYP2C19) may be observed.

  5. Therapeutic doses of SkQ1 do not induce cytochromes P450 in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, K N; Silachev, D N

    2014-10-01

    The effect of SkQ1 (a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) on the level of cytochromes P450 in rat liver was studied. It was found that administration of therapeutic dose of SkQ1 with drinking water for 5 days (250 nmol/kg of body weight per day) did not alter the level of cytochromes P450. Under the same conditions, the standard dose of phenobarbital used for the induction of cytochromes P450 caused the 2.7-fold increase in the content of these cytochromes. We conclude that therapeutic doses of SkQ1 do not induce cytochromes P450 in rats.

  6. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  7. Systematic genetic and genomic analysis of cytochrome P450 enzyme activities in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Zhang, Bin; Molony, Cliona; Chudin, Eugene; Hao, Ke; Zhu, Jun; Gaedigk, Andrea; Suver, Christine; Zhong, Hua; Leeder, J. Steven; Guengerich, F. Peter; Strom, Stephen C.; Schuetz, Erin; Rushmore, Thomas H.; Ulrich, Roger G.; Slatter, J. Greg; Schadt, Eric E.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Lum, Pek Yee

    2010-01-01

    Liver cytochrome P450s (P450s) play critical roles in drug metabolism, toxicology, and metabolic processes. Despite rapid progress in the understanding of these enzymes, a systematic investigation of the full spectrum of functionality of individual P450s, the interrelationship or networks connecting them, and the genetic control of each gene/enzyme is lacking. To this end, we genotyped, expression-profiled, and measured P450 activities of 466 human liver samples and applied a systems biology approach via the integration of genetics, gene expression, and enzyme activity measurements. We found that most P450s were positively correlated among themselves and were highly correlated with known regulators as well as thousands of other genes enriched for pathways relevant to the metabolism of drugs, fatty acids, amino acids, and steroids. Genome-wide association analyses between genetic polymorphisms and P450 expression or enzyme activities revealed sets of SNPs associated with P450 traits, and suggested the existence of both cis-regulation of P450 expression (especially for CYP2D6) and more complex trans-regulation of P450 activity. Several novel SNPs associated with CYP2D6 expression and enzyme activity were validated in an independent human cohort. By constructing a weighted coexpression network and a Bayesian regulatory network, we defined the human liver transcriptional network structure, uncovered subnetworks representative of the P450 regulatory system, and identified novel candidate regulatory genes, namely, EHHADH, SLC10A1, and AKR1D1. The P450 subnetworks were then validated using gene signatures responsive to ligands of known P450 regulators in mouse and rat. This systematic survey provides a comprehensive view of the functionality, genetic control, and interactions of P450s. PMID:20538623

  8. Georges Brohee Prize 1996. Major cytochrome P-450 families: implications in health and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Horsmans, Y

    1997-01-01

    Cytochromes P-450 are a superfamily of hemoproteins which represent the main pathway for drug and chemical oxidation. This superfamily is divided into families, subfamilies and/or single enzymes. The majority of P-450s involved in drug metabolism appear to belong to three distinct families termed CYP1, CYP2 and CYP3. Numerous invasive and non-invasive methodologies have been developed to study these enzymes. Their activities are modulated by genetic and nongenetic factors as well as pathological conditions. In this work, the significance of genetic and nongenetic control of P-450s activities in normal subjects is described. Thereafter, the impact of P-450s on the apparition of liver diseases and the effects of liver disease on P-450s activities is emphasized. In conclusion, future perspectives on this field are presented.

  9. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2J2 mainly expressed in small intestines and livers effectively metabolizes human P450 2J2 probe substrates, astemizole and terfenadine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Okamoto, Eriko; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    1. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World Monkey, has potential to be a useful animal model in preclinical studies. However, drug metabolizing properties have not been fully understood due to insufficient information on cytochrome P450 (P450), major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. Marmoset P450 2J2 cDNA was isolated from marmoset livers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high-sequence identity (91%) with cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes. A phylogenetic tree revealed that marmoset P450 2J2 was evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes, than P450 2J forms in pigs, rabbits, rats or mice. 3. Marmoset P450 2J2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the small intestine and liver, and to a lesser extent in the brain, lung and kidney. Immunoblot analysis also showed expression of marmoset P450 2J2 protein in the small intestine and liver. 4. Enzyme assays using marmoset P450 2J2 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that marmoset P450 2J2 effectively catalyzed astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation, similar to human and cynomolgus monkey P450 2J2 enzymes. 5. These results suggest the functional characteristics of P450 2J2 enzymes are similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  10. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2J2 mainly expressed in small intestines and livers effectively metabolizes human P450 2J2 probe substrates, astemizole and terfenadine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Okamoto, Eriko; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    1. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World Monkey, has potential to be a useful animal model in preclinical studies. However, drug metabolizing properties have not been fully understood due to insufficient information on cytochrome P450 (P450), major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. Marmoset P450 2J2 cDNA was isolated from marmoset livers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high-sequence identity (91%) with cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes. A phylogenetic tree revealed that marmoset P450 2J2 was evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes, than P450 2J forms in pigs, rabbits, rats or mice. 3. Marmoset P450 2J2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the small intestine and liver, and to a lesser extent in the brain, lung and kidney. Immunoblot analysis also showed expression of marmoset P450 2J2 protein in the small intestine and liver. 4. Enzyme assays using marmoset P450 2J2 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that marmoset P450 2J2 effectively catalyzed astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation, similar to human and cynomolgus monkey P450 2J2 enzymes. 5. These results suggest the functional characteristics of P450 2J2 enzymes are similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:26899760

  11. Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren; Beisson, Fred; Bishop, Gerard; Hamberger, Björn; Höfer, René; Paquette, Suzanne; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    There are 244 cytochrome P450 genes (and 28 pseudogenes) in the Arabidopsis genome. P450s thus form one of the largest gene families in plants. Contrary to what was initially thought, this family diversification results in very limited functional redundancy and seems to mirror the complexity of plant metabolism. P450s sometimes share less than 20% identity and catalyze extremely diverse reactions leading to the precursors of structural macromolecules such as lignin, cutin, suberin and sporopollenin, or are involved in biosynthesis or catabolism of all hormone and signaling molecules, of pigments, odorants, flavors, antioxidants, allelochemicals and defense compounds, and in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The mechanisms of gene duplication and diversification are getting better understood and together with co-expression data provide leads to functional characterization. PMID:22303269

  12. METABOLISM OF MYCLOBUTANIL AND TRIADIMEFON BY HUMAN AND RAT CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES AND LIVER MICROSOMES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil wa...

  13. Hamster cytochrome P-450 IA gene family, P-450IA1 and P-450IA2 in lung and liver: cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sagami, I; Ohmachi, T; Fujii, H; Kikuchi, H; Watanabe, M

    1991-10-01

    Two cDNA clones, 2C19 and 4C1, were isolated from a lung cDNA library of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-treated hamster by using rat P-450c cDNA as a probe. The cDNA determined from 2C19 and 4C1 was 2,916 bp long and contained an entire coding region for 524 amino acids with a molecular weight of 59,408. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a 85% identity with that of rat P-450c indicating 2C19 and 4C1 encode the hamster P-450IA1 protein. Another cDNA clone, designated H28, was isolated from a MC-induced hamster liver cDNA library by using the hamster lung 2C19 or 4C1 cDNA clone as a probe. H28 was 1,876 bp long and encoded a polypeptide of 513 amino acids with a molecular weight of 58,079. The N-terminal 20 residues deduced from nucleotide sequence of H28 were identical to those determined by sequence analysis of purified hamster hepatic P-450MCI. The high similarity of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences between H28 and P-450IA2 of other species indicated that H28 encoded a P-450 protein which belongs to the P-450IA2 family. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNAs for hamster P-450IA1 and IA2 were about 2.9 and 1.9 kb long, respectively. Hamster P-450IA1 mRNA was induced to the same level in lungs as in livers by MC treatment, whereas hamster P-450IA2 mRNA was induced and expressed only in hamster liver.

  14. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human liver cytochrome(s) P450

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Mindaye, Samuel T.; Getie-Kebtie, Melkamu; Alterman, Michail A.

    2013-02-15

    The major objective of personalized medicine is to select optimized drug therapies and to a large degree such mission is determined by the expression profiles of cytochrome(s) P450 (CYP). Accordingly, a proteomic case study in personalized medicine is provided by the superfamily of cytochromes P450. Our knowledge about CYP isozyme expression on a protein level is very limited and based exclusively on DNA/mRNA derived data. Such information is not sufficient because transcription and translation events do not lead to correlated levels of expressed proteins. Here we report expression profiles of CYPs in human liver obtained by mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach. We analyzed 32 samples of human liver microsomes (HLM) of different sexes, ages and ethnicity along with samples of recombinant human CYPs. We have experimentally confirmed that each CYP isozyme can be effectively differentiated by their unique isozyme-specific tryptic peptide(s). Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes were established. Those findings should assist in selecting tryptic peptides suitable for MS-based quantitation. The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. CYP2E1, CYP2C8 and CYP4A11 were the only isozymes found in all HLM samples. Female and pediatric HLM samples revealed much more diverse spectrum of expressed CYPs isozymes compared to male HLM. We have confirmed expression of a number of “rare” CYP (CYP2J2, CYP4B1, CYP4V2, CYP4F3, CYP4F11, CYP8B1, CYP19A1, CYP24A1 and CYP27A1) and obtained first direct experimental data showing expression of such CYPs as CYP2F1, CYP2S1, CYP2W1, CYP4A22, CYP4X1, and CYP26A1 on a protein level. - Highlights: ► First detailed proteomic analysis of CYP isozymes expression in human liver ► Trypsin digestion patterns for almost 30 human CYP isozymes established ► The data obtained demonstrate remarkable differences in CYP expression profiles. ► Female HLM samples revealed more

  15. Purification and characterization of a benzene hydroxylase: A cytochrome P-450 from rat liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Karaszkiewicz, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This laboratory previously demonstrated that incubation of ({sup 14}C)benzene with isolated mitochondria resulted in the formation of mtDNA adducts. Since benzene is incapable of spontaneously covalently binding to nuclei acids, it was hypothesized that enzyme(s) present in the organelle metabolized benzene to reactive derivatives. We have purified, to electrophoretic homogeneity, a 52 kDa cytochrome P-450 from liver mitoplasts which metabolizes benzene to phenol. The enzyme has a K{sub M} for benzene of 0.012 mM, and a V{sub MAX} of 22.6 nmol phenol/nmol P-450/10 min, and requires NADPH, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase for activity. Activity also can be reconstituted with microsomal cytochrome P-450 reductase. Benzene hydroxylase activity could be inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A, and by specific inhibitors of microsomal benzene metabolism. The purified enzyme oxidized phenol, forming catechol; aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also demonstrated. These data confirm that a cytochrome P-450 of mitochondrial origin is involved in benzene metabolism, and indicate a role for the mitochondrion in xenobiotic activation.

  16. Immunochemical detection of cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver microsomes of 27 cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Murayama, Norie; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Zeldin, Darryl C; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Yasuhiro

    2011-11-01

    The cynomolgus monkey is widely used as a primate model in preclinical studies because of its evolutionary closeness to humans. Despite their importance in drug metabolism, the content of each cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme has not been systematically determined in cynomolgus monkey livers. In this study, liver microsomes of 27 cynomolgus monkeys were analyzed by immunoblotting using selective P450 antibodies. The specificity of each antibody was confirmed by analyzing the cross-reactivity against 19 CYP1-3 subfamily enzymes using recombinant proteins. CYP2A, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/19, CYP2C76, CYP2D, CYP2E, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were detected in all 27 animals. In contrast, CYP1A, CYP1D, and CYP2J were below detectable levels in all liver samples. The average content of each P450 showed that among the P450s analyzed CYP3A (3A4 and 3A5) was the most abundant (40% of total immunoquantified P450), followed by CYP2A (25%), CYP2C (14%), CYP2B6 (13%), CYP2E1 (11%), and CYP2D (3%). No apparent sex differences were found for any P450. Interanimal variations ranged from 2.6-fold (CYP3A) to 11-fold (CYP2C9/19), and most P450s (CYP2A, CYP2D, CYP2E, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) varied 3- to 4-fold. To examine the correlations of P450 content with enzyme activities, metabolic assays were performed in 27 cynomolgus monkey livers using 7-ethoxyresorufin, coumarin, pentoxyresorufin, flurbiprofen, bufuralol, dextromethorphan, and midazolam. CYP2D and CYP3A4 contents were significantly correlated with typical reactions of human CYP2D (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-deethylation) and CYP3A (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and 4-hydroxylation). The results presented in this study provide useful information for drug metabolism studies using cynomolgus monkeys.

  17. The cytochrome p450 homepage.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R

    2009-10-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described.

  18. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing unique epitopes on sexually differentiated rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E T; Rönnholm, M; Gustafsson, J A

    1987-07-14

    Cytochrome P-450 isozymes P-450(16 alpha), P-450(15 beta), and P-450DEa are immunochemically related, as indicated by mutual cross-reactivity with polyclonal antibody preparations. We have isolated five monoclonal antibodies to P-450(15 beta) and one antibody to P-450(16 alpha) that show selectivity for the respective antigens. High frequencies of cross-reactivity were observed, indicating a high degree of homology among P-450(16 alpha), P-450(15 beta), and P-450DEa. All of the P-450(15 beta-specific antibodies bound to the same epitope, or closely grouped epitopes, supporting this conclusion. The specificity of each monoclonal antibody was characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western immunoblotting, and antibody-Sepharose immunoadsorption of solubilized rat liver microsomes. Antibodies F22 and F23, which were apparently identical, were specific for P-450(15 beta) by these criteria. However, the apparent specificities of antibodies F3 and F20 for P-450(15 beta), and of M16 for P-450(16 alpha), were highly dependent on the analytical technique used. The five anti-P-450(15 beta) antibodies all inhibited the catalytic activity of microsomal P-450(15 beta), by a maximum of 70%. However, they also produced a similar inhibition of microsomal P-450(16 alpha-specific antibody M16 and F23 have a low-affinity interaction with an epitope on P-450(16 alpha). The P-450(16 alpha)-specific antibody M16 was not inhibitory. The results indicate that the apparent specificity of a monoclonal antibody for an antigen determined by, e.g., Western blotting does not allow the conclusive identification of a protein in another system, e.g., immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation reaction products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C19 is involved in R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Yoshio; Uno, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Norie; Fujino, Hideki; Shukuya, Mitsunori; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Makiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies. However, some differences are occasionally seen between monkeys and humans in the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes. R- and S-warfarin are model substrates for stereoselective oxidation in humans. In this current research, the activities of monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey cytochrome P450 enzymes were analyzed with respect to R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation. Monkey liver microsomes efficiently mediated both R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, in contrast to human liver microsomes, which preferentially catalyzed S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. R-Warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities in monkey liver microsomes were not inhibited by α-naphthoflavone or ketoconazole, and were roughly correlated with P450 2C19 levels and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activities in microsomes from 20 monkey livers. In contrast, S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were not correlated with the four marker drug oxidation activities used. Among the 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes tested, P450 2C19 had the highest activities for R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylations. Monkey P450 3A4 and 3A5 slowly mediated R- and S-warfarin 6-hydroxylations. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C19 had high V(max) and low K(m) values for R-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, comparable to those for monkey liver microsomes. Monkey P450 2C19 also mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation with V(max) and V(max)/K(m) values comparable to those for recombinant human P450 2C9. R-warfarin could dock favorably into monkey P450 2C19 modeled. These results collectively suggest high activities for monkey liver P450 2C19 toward R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation in contrast to the saturation kinetics of human P450 2C9-mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

  20. Purification of a sheep liver cytochrome P-450 from the P450IIIA gene subfamily. Its contribution to the N-dealkylation of veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Pineau, T; Galtier, P; Bonfils, C; Derancourt, J; Maurel, P

    1990-03-01

    Oral administration of troleandomycin at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 6 days to three adult male Lacaune sheep produced a 1.6-fold increase in specific content of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, microsomal preparations from treated animals exhibited a strong band in the zone of electrophoretic mobility of cytochromes P-450. This band corresponded to a cytochrome P-450 which cross-reacted with rabbit P450IIIA6 antibodies, as demonstrated by immunoblotting. The ovine isozyme was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by means of successive DEAE cellulose, CM cellulose and hydroxylapatite chromatographic separations. This hemoprotein had an apparent molecular weight of 52 kD as determined by calibrated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was characterized in terms of spectral data, NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, immunologic and catalytic properties. This study revealed some interspecies differences with the orthologous rabbit isozyme. The contribution of this form to the N-demethylation of erythromycin and of three veterinary drugs: chlorpromazine, chlorpheniramine and bromhexine was demonstrated from inhibition by TAO, from immunoinhibition studies, using polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit and from the existence of significant correlations between its microsomal level and these N-demethylase activities. In contrast, the results suggest that ovine P450IIIA could not be predominantly involved in the N-dealkylation of benzphetamine, ephedrine, ivermectine or spiramycin. PMID:2310415

  1. Environmentally persistent free radicals inhibit cytochrome P450 activity in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, James R; Cawley, George F; Ardoin, Taylor G; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Hasan, Farhana; Kiruri, Lucy W; Backes, Wayne L

    2014-06-01

    Combustion processes generate particulate matter that affects human health. When incineration fuels include components that are highly enriched in aromatic hydrocarbons (especially halogenated varieties) and redox-active metals, ultrafine particulate matter containing air-stable, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) is generated. The exposure to fine EPFRs (less than 2.5 μm in diameter) has been shown to negatively influence pulmonary and cardiovascular functions in living organisms. The goal of this study was to determine if these EPFRs have a direct effect on cytochrome P450 function. This was accomplished by direct addition of the EPFRs to rat liver microsomal preparations and measurement of several P450 activities using form-selective substrates. The EPFRs used in this study were formed by heating vapors from an organic compound (either monochlorophenol (MCP230) or 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230)) and 5% copper oxide supported on silica (approximately 0.2 μm in diameter) to 230°C under vacuum. Both types of EPFRs (but not silica, physisorbed silica, or silica impregnated with copper oxide) dramatically inhibited the activities of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2E1, CYP2D2 and CYP3A when incubated at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/ml with microsomes and NADPH. Interestingly, at the same concentrations, the EPFRs did not inhibit HO-1 activity or the reduction of cytochrome c by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. CYP2D2-selective metabolism by rat liver microsomes was examined in more detail. The inhibition of CYP2D2-selective metabolism by both DCB230- and MCP230-EPFRs appeared to be largely noncompetitive and was attenuated in the presence of catalase suggesting that reactive oxygen species may be involved in the mechanism of inhibition.

  2. Environmentally persistent free radicals inhibit cytochrome P450 activity in rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, James R.; Cawley, George F.; Ardoin, Taylor G.; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Hasan, Farhana; Kiruri, Lucy W.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2014-06-01

    Combustion processes generate particulate matter that affects human health. When incineration fuels include components that are highly enriched in aromatic hydrocarbons (especially halogenated varieties) and redox-active metals, ultrafine particulate matter containing air-stable, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) is generated. The exposure to fine EPFRs (less than 2.5 μm in diameter) has been shown to negatively influence pulmonary and cardiovascular functions in living organisms. The goal of this study was to determine if these EPFRs have a direct effect on cytochrome P450 function. This was accomplished by direct addition of the EPFRs to rat liver microsomal preparations and measurement of several P450 activities using form-selective substrates. The EPFRs used in this study were formed by heating vapors from an organic compound (either monochlorophenol (MCP230) or 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230)) and 5% copper oxide supported on silica (approximately 0.2 μm in diameter) to 230 °C under vacuum. Both types of EPFRs (but not silica, physisorbed silica, or silica impregnated with copper oxide) dramatically inhibited the activities of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2E1, CYP2D2 and CYP3A when incubated at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/ml with microsomes and NADPH. Interestingly, at the same concentrations, the EPFRs did not inhibit HO-1 activity or the reduction of cytochrome c by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. CYP2D2-selective metabolism by rat liver microsomes was examined in more detail. The inhibition of CYP2D2-selective metabolism by both DCB230- and MCP230-EPFRs appeared to be largely noncompetitive and was attenuated in the presence of catalase suggesting that reactive oxygen species may be involved in the mechanism of inhibition. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • EPFRs inhibit metabolism by all cytochromes P450 tested in rat liver microsomes. • EPFR-mediated inhibition is related to

  3. Chemical modification and inactivation of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450c by 2-bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, A.; Ryan, D.E.; Thomas, P.E.; Jerina, D.M.; Sayer, J.M.; van Bladeren, P.J.; Haniu, M.; Shively, J.E.; Levin, W.

    1986-09-05

    The alkylating agent 2-bromo-4'-nitroacetophenone (BrNAP) binds covalently to each of 10 isozymes of purified rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450a-P-450j) but substantially inhibits the catalytic activity of only cytochrome P-450c. Regardless of pH, incubation time, presence of detergents, or concentration of BrNAP, treatment of cytochrome P-450c with BrNAP resulted in no more than 90% inhibition of catalytic activity. Alkylation with BrNAP did not cause the release of heme from the holoenzyme or alter the spectral properties of cytochrome P-450c, data that exclude the putative heme-binding cysteine, Cys-460, as the major site of alkylation. Two residues in cytochrome P-450c reacted rapidly with BrNAP, for which reason maximal loss of catalytic activity was invariably associated with the incorporation of approximately 1.5 mol of BrNAP/mol of cytochrome P-450c. Two major radio-labeled peptides were isolated from a tryptic digest of (/sup 14/CC)BrNAP-treated cytochrome P-450c by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of each peptide was determined by microsequence analysis, but the identification of the residues alkylated by BrNAP was complicated by the tendency of the adducts to decompose when subjected to automated Edman degradation. However, results of competitive binding experiments with the sulfhydryl reagent 4,4'-dithiodipyridine identified Cys-292 as the major site of alkylation and Cys-160 as the minor site of alkylation by BrNAP in cytochrome P-450c.

  4. Influence of recipient gender on cytochrome P450 isoforms expression in intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter

    2003-06-30

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern which is regulated by a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether liver cell transplants at an ectopic site are also subject to this influence. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the solvents and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. Livers and intrasplenic transplants were evaluated for the expression of the P450 subtypes 1A1, 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 by means of immunohistochemistry. The livers of both male and female rats displayed nearly no P450 1A1, but a distinct P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression. Whereas no sex differences were seen in the P450 1A1 expression, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in males and that for P450 2E1 in females. Similarly, in the intrasplenic liver cell transplants almost no P450 1A1, but a noticeable P450 2B1, 2E1, 3A2 and 4A1 expression was observed. Like in the respective livers, the immunostaining for P450 2B1, 3A2 and 4A1 was stronger in the transplants hosted by male than by female rats, whereas the opposite was the case for the P450 2E1 expression. Both in livers and transplants with some sex-specific differences P450 1A1 and 2E1 expression was induced by BNF, that of P450 2B1 by BNF and PB, and that of P450 3A2 by PB and DEX. These results indicate that the P450 system of ectopically transplanted liver cells is influenced by the gender of the recipient organism like that of the orthotopic livers.

  5. The Cytochrome P450 Homepage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described. PMID:19951895

  6. Interactions between nitric oxide and cytochrome P-450 in the liver.

    PubMed

    Khatsenko, O

    1998-07-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide and a diverse array of other immunostimulants and cytokines suppress the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances by reducing the activity of hepatic cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase system. Although this effect of immunostimulants was first described almost 40 years ago, the mechanism is obscure. Immunostimulants are now known to cause nitric oxide overproduction by cells via induction of nitric oxide synthase. The highly reactive NO radical binds to prosthetic groups such as heme or iron-sulfur clusters leading to either activation or (more often) inhibition of iron-containing enzymes. It has been known for years that NO also binds to the heme moiety of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) with high affinity. However it was only recently demonstrated that binding of NO to CYPs also inhibits their enzymatic activity. This applies to both exogenously derived as well as endogenously synthesized NO. Suppression of CYP-dependent metabolism, which is a major problem of inflammatory liver diseases, can be significantly reversed by inhibition of NO synthesis in vivo under experimental conditions. The present paper reviews the findings implicating NO as a major factor mediating the suppression of CYP expression caused by endotoxins and immunostimulants in general. NO-mediated suppression of the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances under inflammatory conditions may contribute to the clinical manifestations and may be an important consideration for rational drug therapy in these conditions. PMID:9721336

  7. Metabolism of ethylbenzene by human liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450s (CYP).

    PubMed

    Sams, Craig; Loizou, George D; Cocker, John; Lennard, Martin S

    2004-03-01

    The enzyme kinetics of the initial hydroxylation of ethylbenzene to form 1-phenylethanol were determined in human liver microsomes. The individual cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms catalysing this reaction were identified using selective inhibitors and recombinant preparations of hepatic CYPs. Production of 1-phenylethanol in hepatic microsomes exhibited biphasic kinetics with a high affinity, low Km, component (mean Km = 8 microM; V(max) = 689 pmol/min/mg protein; n = 6 livers) and a low affinity, high Km, component (Km = 391 microM; V(max) = 3039 pmol/min/mg protein; n = 6). The high-affinity component was inhibited 79%-95% (mean 86%) by diethyldithiocarbamate, and recombinant CYP2E1 was shown to metabolise ethylbenzene with low Km (35 microM), but also low (max) (7 pmol/min/pmol P450), indicating that this isoform catalysed the high-affinity component. Recombinant CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 exhibited high V(max) (88 and 71 pmol/min/pmol P450, respectively) and high Km (502 and 219 microM, respectively), suggesting their involvement in catalysing the low-affinity component. This study has demonstrated that CYP2E1 is the major enzyme responsible for high-affinity side chain hydroxylation of ethylbenzene in human liver microsomes. Activity of this enzyme in the population is highly variable due to induction or inhibition by physiological factors, chemicals in the diet or some pharmaceuticals. This variability can be incorporated into the risk assessment process to improve the setting of occupational exposure limits and guidance values for biological monitoring.

  8. Expression and inducibility of cytochrome P450 isoforms in 1-year-old intrasplenic liver cell transplants in rats.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Danz, Manfred; Müller, Dieter; Klinger, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60- to 90-day-old male Fischer 344 inbred rats. Transplant recipients were compared with age-matched control rats. One year after surgery, the animals were treated orally with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the respective solvents 24 or 48 h before being killed. Expression of cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms in spleens and orthotopic livers was assessed by immunohistochemistry and P450-dependent monooxygenase functions by the model reactions ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD), pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation (PROD) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (EMND). Spleens of control animals displayed almost no expression of P450 isoforms and P450-mediated monooxygenase functions. Similar to liver, in the transplanted hepatocytes no P450 1A1 but distinct P450 2B1 and 3A2 expression was observed. Furthermore, the transplant-containing spleens displayed significant EROD, ECOD, PROD and EMND activities. Similar to normal liver, BNF treatment enhanced P450 1A1 and 2B1, PB induced P450 2B1 and 3A2, and DEX induced P450 3A2 expression in the transplanted hepatocytes. Correspondingly, in the transplant-containing spleens EROD, ECOD and PROD activities were significantly enhanced following BNF treatment, EROD, ECOD, PROD and EMND activities after PB administration, and EMND activity by DEX treatment. These results demonstrate that hepatocytes originating from fetal liver tissue suspensions can survive in the spleen at least for 1 year. They have differentiated into adult hepatocytes and even 1 year after transplantation express different P450 isoforms which are inducible by BNF, PB and DEX, corresponding to normal adult liver.

  9. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    PubMed

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  10. Propiconazole-induced cytochrome P450 gene expression and enzymatic activities in rat and mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guobin; Thai, Sheau-Fung; Tully, Douglas B; Lambert, Guy R; Goetz, Amber K; Wolf, Douglas C; Dix, David J; Nesnow, Stephen

    2005-02-15

    Propiconazole is a N-substituted triazole used as a fungicide on fruits, grains, seeds, hardwoods, and conifers. In the present study, propiconazole was examined for its effects on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes and on the activities of P450 enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice. Rats and mice were administered propiconazole by gavage daily for 14 days at doses of 10, 75, and 150 mg/kg body weight/day. Quantitative real time RT-PCR assays of rat hepatic RNA samples from animals treated at the 150 mg/kg body weight/day dose revealed significant mRNA overexpression of the following genes compared to control: CYP1A2 (1.62-fold), CYP2B1 (10.8-fold), CYP3A1/CYP3A23 (2.78-fold), and CYP3A2 (1.84-fold). In mouse liver, propiconazole produced mRNA overexpression of Cyp2b10 (2.39-fold) and Cyp3a11 (5.19-fold). mRNA expression of CYP1A1 was not detected in liver tissues from treated or controls animals from either species. Propiconazole significantly induced both pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) and methoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (MROD) activities in both rat and mouse liver at the 150 mg/kg body weight/day and 75 mg/kg body weight/day doses. In summary, these results indicated that propiconazole induced CYP1A2 in rat liver and CYP2B and CYP3A families of isoforms in rat and mouse liver.

  11. Luminogenic cytochrome P450 assays.

    PubMed

    Cali, James J; Ma, Dongping; Sobol, Mary; Simpson, Daniel J; Frackman, Susan; Good, Troy D; Daily, William J; Liu, David

    2006-08-01

    Luminogenic cytochrome P450 (CYP) assays couple CYP enzyme activity to firefly luciferase luminescence in a technology called P450-Glo(TM) (Promega). Luminogenic substrates are used in assays of human CYP1A1, -1A2, -1B1, -2C8, -2C9, -2C19, -2D6, -2J2, -3A4, -3A7, -4A11, -4F3B, -4F12 and -19. The assays detect dose-dependent CYP inhibition by test compounds against recombinant CYP enzymes or liver microsomes. Induction or inhibition of CYP activities in cultured hepatocytes is measured in a nonlytic approach that leaves cells intact for additional analysis. Luminogenic CYP assays offer advantages of speed and safety over HPLC and radiochemical-based methods. Compared with fluorogenic methods the approach offers advantages of improved sensitivity and decreased interference between optical properties of test compound and CYP substrate. These homogenous assays are sensitive and robust tools for high-throughput CYP screening in early drug discovery. PMID:16859410

  12. Neoplastic lesions of the human liver in relation to the activity of the cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase system.

    PubMed

    Plewka, D; Plewka, A; Nowaczyk, G; Kamiński, M; Rutkowski, T; Ludyga, T; Ziaja, K

    2000-01-01

    We studied the activity of Mixed function oxidase (MFO) in human livers affected by cancer. We determined the content of cytochrome P-450 and b5, as well as the activity of their corresponding reductases, according to generally accepted methods. Liver fragments corresponding with a) healthy tissue, b) tissue at the cancer border and, c) cancerous tissue were collected during surgery from patients with liver cancer. We noted that the developing liver cancer decreased the level of cytochrome P-450, even by a magnitude order. The activity of its corresponding reductase was higher in cancerous than in healthy tissues. Cytochrome b5 behaved in an analogous manner, although the decrease in its content was less significant. NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity changes were insignificant.

  13. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    PubMed Central

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For comparison, another group received 300 mg of triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) per kg, which is equivalent to the 226-mg/kg tiamulin group. Subsequently, microsomal P-450 contents, P-450 enzyme activities, metabolic intermediate complex spectra, and P-450 apoprotein concentrations were assessed. In addition, effects on individual microsomal P-450 activities were studied in control microsomes at different tiamulin and substrate concentrations. In the rats treated with tiamulin, a dose-dependent complex formation as evidenced by its absorption spectrum and an increase in cytochrome P-4503A1/2 contents as assessed by Western blotting (immunoblotting) were found. The effects were comparable to those of TAO. Tiamulin induced microsomal P-450 content, testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate, erythromycin N-demethylation rate, and the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. Other activities were not affected or decreased. When tiamulin was added to microsomes of control rats, the testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate and the erythromycin N-demethylation were strongly inhibited. It is concluded that tiamulin is a potent and selective inducer-inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. Though not belonging to the macrolides, the compound produces an effect on P-450 similar to those of TAO and related compounds. PMID:8787878

  14. Cloning and expression of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) liver cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Kong, Sandra; Ngo, Suong N T; McKinnon, Ross A; Stupans, Ieva

    2009-07-01

    The cloning, expression and characterization of hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is described. Two 2059 bp koala liver CPR cDNAs, designated CPR1 and CPR2, were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The koala CPR cDNAs encode proteins of 678 amino acids and share 85% amino acid sequence identity to human CPR. Transfection of the koala CPR cDNAs into Cos-7 cells resulted in the expression of proteins, which were recognized by a goat-antihuman CPR antibody. The koala CPR1 and 2 cDNA-expressed enzymes catalysed cytochrome c reductase at the rates of 4.9 +/- 0.5 and 2.6 +/- 0.4 nmol/min/mg protein (mean +/- SD, n = 3), respectively which were comparable to that of rat CPR cDNA-expressed enzyme. The apparent Km value for CPR activity in koala liver microsomes was 11.61 +/- 6.01 microM, which is consistent with that reported for rat CPR enzyme. Northern analysis detected a CPR mRNA band of approximately 2.6 kb. Southern analysis suggested a single PCR gene across species. The present study provides primary molecular data regarding koala CPR1 and CPR2 genes in this unique marsupial species.

  15. Evaluation of inhibitory effects of caffeic acid and quercetin on human liver cytochrome p450 activities.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Himanshu; Jana, Snehasis

    2014-12-01

    When herbal drugs and conventional allopathic drugs are used together, they can interact in our body which can lead to the potential for herb-drug interactions. This work was conducted to evaluate the herb-drug interaction potential of caffeic acid and quercetin mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. Human liver microsomes (HLMs) were added to each selective probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes with or without of caffeic acid and quercetin. IC50 , Ki values, and the types of inhibition were determined. Both caffeic acid and quercetin were potent competitive inhibitors of CYP1A2 (Ki = 1.16 and 0.93 μM, respectively) and CYP2C9 (Ki = 0.95 and 1.67 μM, respectively). Caffeic acid was a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2D6 (Ki = 1.10 μM) and a weak inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (IC50  > 100 μM). Quercetin was a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP 2C19 and CYP3A4 (Ki = 1.74 and 4.12 μM, respectively) and a moderate competitive inhibitor of CYP2D6 (Ki = 18.72 μM). These findings might be helpful for safe and effective use of polyphenols in clinical practice. Our data indicated that it is necessary to study the in vivo interactions between drugs and pharmaceuticals with dietary polyphenols. PMID:25196644

  16. Influence of recipient gender on intrasplenic fetal liver tissue transplants in rats: cytochrome P450-mediated monooxygenase functions.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Hugenschmidt, Sabine; Rost, Michael; Müller, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    Rat livers display a sex-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms expression pattern with consecutive differences in P450-mediated monooxygenase activities, which have been shown to be due to a differential profile of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Parallel to previous investigations on P450 isoforms expression, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of recipient gender on P450-mediated monooxygenase activities in intrasplenic liver tissue transplants in comparison to orthotopic liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions of mixed gender were transplanted into the spleen of adult male or female syngenic recipients. Four months after grafting transplant-recipients and age-matched controls were treated with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB), dexamethasone (DEX) or the vehicles and sacrificed 24 or 48 h thereafter. P450-dependent monooxygenase activities were assessed by a series of model reactions for different P450 subtypes in liver and spleen 9000 g supernatants. In spleens of male and female control rats only very low monooxygenase activities were detectable, whereas with most model reactions distinct activities were observed in transplant-containing organs. Livers and transplant-containing spleens from male rats displayed higher basal ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase and testosterone 2alpha-, 2beta-, 6beta-, 14alpha-, 15alpha-, 15beta-, 16alpha-, 16beta- and 17-hydroxylase activities than those from females. On the other hand, like the respective livers, spleens from female transplant-recipients demonstrated more pronounced p-nitrophenol- and testosterone 6alpha- and 7alpha-hydroxylase activities than those from male hosts. With nearly all model reactions gender-specific differences in inducibility by BNF, PB or DEX could be demonstrated in livers as well as in transplant-containing spleens. These results further confirm that the P450 system of intrasplenic liver tissue transplants and the respective orthotopic livers is similarly influenced

  17. Mammalian cytochromes P-450: Volume I and Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Guengerich, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    This two volume set summarizes the current knowledge of mammalian cytochromes. Ten chapters cover the current understanding of the enzymology of rat, rabbit, and human liver cytochromes P-450, extrahepatic cytochromes P-450, the diversity of substrates for the individual cytochromes P0-450 proteins, the metabolism of pro-toxicants and -carcinogens by cytochrome P-450, the degradation of cytochrome P-450 proteins, and the regulation of cytochrome P-450 activities in vitro and in vivo. The individual chapters outline the historical development of each area, the approaches which are applied, the current state of knowledge, and future directions towards unresolved questions; and index.

  18. INDUCTION OF CYTOCHROME P450 ISOFORMS IN RAT LIVER BY TWO CONAZOLES, TRIADIMEFON AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. This study was undertaken to examine the inductive effects of two triazole antifungal agents, myclobutanil and triadimefon on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and on the activities of CYP enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were dosed by gavage for 1...

  19. PROPICONAZOLE-INDUCED CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RAT AND MOUSE LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are N-substituted azole antifungal agents used as both pesticides and drugs. Some of these compounds are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and some can induce thyroid tumors in rats. Many of these compounds are able to induce and/or inhibit mammalian hepatic cytochrome P450s t...

  20. Identification of cytochrome P450 2C2 protein complexes in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Yau, Peter; Kemper, Byron

    2011-08-01

    Interactions of microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYPs) with other proteins in the microsomal membrane are important for their function. In addition to their redox partners, CYPs have been reported to interact with other proteins not directly involved in their enzymatic function. In this study, proteins were identified that interact with CYP2C2 in vivo in mouse liver. Flag-tagged CYP2C2 was expressed exogenously in mouse liver and was affinity purified, along with associated proteins which were identified by MS and confirmed by Western blotting. Over 20 proteins reproducibly copurified with CYP2C2. The heterogeneous sedimentation velocity of CYP2C2 and associated proteins by centrifugation in sucrose gradients and sequential immunoprecipitation analysis were consistent with multiple CYP2C2 complexes of differing composition. The abundance of CYPs and other drug metabolizing enzymes and NAD/NADP requiring enzymes associated with CYP2C2 suggest that complexes of these proteins may improve enzymatic efficiency or facilitate sequential metabolic steps. Chaperones, which may be important for maintaining CYP function, and reticulons, endoplasmic reticulum proteins that shape the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum and are potential endoplasmic reticulum retention proteins for CYPs, were also associated with CYP2C2.

  1. Cytochromes P450 in Nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodiscs have proven to be a versatile tool for the study all types of membrane proteins, including receptors, transporters, enzymes and viral antigens. The self-assembled Nanodisc system provides a robust and common means for rendering these targets soluble in aqueous media while providing a native like bilayer environment that maintains functional activity. This system has thus provided a means for studying the extensive collection of membrane bound cytochromes P450 with the same biochemical and biophysical tools that have been previously limited to use with the soluble P450s. These include a plethora of spectroscopic, kinetic and surface based methods. Significant improvements in homogeneity and stability of these preparations open new possibilities for detailed analysis of equilibrium and steady-state kinetic characteristics of catalytic mechanisms of human cytochromes P450 involved in xenobiotic metabolism and in steroid biosynthesis. The experimental methods developed for physico-chemical and functional studies of membrane cytochromes P450 incorporated in Nanodiscs allow for more detailed understanding of the scientific questions along the lines pioneered by Professor Klaus Ruckpaul and his array of colleagues and collaborators. PMID:20685623

  2. Cloning and expression of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) liver cytochrome P450 CYP4A15.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Suong Ngoc Thi; McKinnon, Ross Allan; Stupans, Ieva

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, the cloning, expression and characterization of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) CYP4A from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), an obligate eucalyptus feeder, is described. It has been previously reported that microsomal lauric acid hydroxylase activity (a CYP4A marker) and CYP content were higher in koala liver in comparison to that in human, rat or wallaby, species that do not ingest eucalyptus leaves as food [Ngo, S., Kong, S., Kirlich, A., Mckinnon, R.A., Stupans, I., 2000. Cytochrome P450 4A, peroxisomal enzymes and nicotinamide cofactors in koala liver. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., C 127, 327-334]. A 1544 bp koala liver CYP4A cDNA, designated CYP4A15, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The koala CYP4A15 cDNA encodes a protein of 500 amino acids and shares 69% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP4A11. Transfection of the koala CYP4A15 cDNA into Cos-7 cells resulted in the expression of a protein with lauric acid hydroxylase activity. The koala CYP4A15 cDNA-expressed enzyme catalysed lauric acid hydroxylation at the rates of 0.45+/-0.18 nmol/min/mg protein and 4.79+/-1.91 nmol/min/nmol CYP (mean+/-SD, n=3), which were comparable to that of rat CYP4A subfamilies. Total CYP content for koala CYP4A15-expressed protein in Cos-7 cells was 0.094+/-0.001 nmol/mg protein (mean+/-SD, n=3) with negligible CYP content in untransfected Cos-7 cells lysate. Immunoblot analysis, using a sheep anti-rat CYP4A polyclonal antibody, detected multiple CYP4A immunoreactive bands in the liver from all species studied. The koala bands were found to be fainter and less confined but appeared much broader as compared to rat, human and wallaby. Northern blot analysis, utilising the koala CYP4A15 cDNA 417 bp probe, detected a mRNA species of approximately 2.6 kb in the koala liver and a mRNA species of approximately 2.4 kb in other species studied. Relative to the intensity of the beta

  3. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 by Propolis in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Sang Yoon; Chae, Jung-woo; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2016-01-01

    Although propolis is one of the most popular functional foods for human health, there have been no comprehensive studies of herb-drug interactions through cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of propolis on the activities of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Propolis inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2C19 with an IC50 value of 6.9, 16.8, and 43.1 μg/mL, respectively, whereas CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were unaffected. Based on half-maximal inhibitory concentration shifts between microsomes incubated with and without nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, propolis-induced CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 inhibition was metabolism-independent. To evaluate the interaction potential between propolis and therapeutic drugs, the effects of propolis on metabolism of duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, were determined in HLMs. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are involved in hydroxylation of duloxetine to 4-hydroxy duloxetine, the major metabolite, which was decreased following propolis addition in HLMs. These results raise the possibility of interactions between propolis and therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. PMID:27437087

  4. Cytochrome P450 dysregulations in thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats and the counteracting effects of hepatoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan; Wang, Guangji; Wang, Hong; Yao, Xilin; Jiang, Shan; Kang, An; Zhou, Fang; Xie, Tong; Hao, Haiping

    2012-04-01

    Dysregulations of cytochromes P450 (P450s) under liver injury have been extensively studied. However, little is known about the possible reversing effects of hepatoprotective agents, the understanding of which is of great importance in guiding clinical dosage adjustment for patients with liver injury. This study aims to investigate the dysregulation patterns of major P450s in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats and the potential counteracting effects of hepatoprotective agents schisandra lignans extract (SLE) and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (DDB). TAA intoxications for 6 weeks induced apparent liver injury and dramatically reduced the hepatic protein expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2C6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A2 to 18, 71, 30, and 21% of that in the normal control, respectively. Both SLE and DDB treatments could significantly reverse the TAA-induced loss of P450 protein levels, which may be ascribed to their hepatoprotective effects and direct P450-inducing effects that have been confirmed in healthy rats. However, the recovery of enzyme activities of most P450s by SLE and DDB treatment was less evident than that for the protein expression levels. TAA exhibited NADPH-, time-, and concentration-dependent inactivating effects on all of the four major P450 isozymes; both DDB and GSH showed little effects on counteracting such an inactivation efficacy. These findings provided a good explanation on the disproportional effects of hepatoprotective agents in recovering the protein levels and enzyme activities of TAA-induced dysregulated P450s.

  5. Immunochemical evidence for an ethanol-inducible form of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 in rodents and primates

    SciTech Connect

    Lasker, J.M.; Ardies, C.M.; Bloswick, B.P.; Lieber, C.S.

    1986-05-01

    Polyclonal antibodies against cytochrome P-450-4, a major liver microsomal P-450 isozyme purified from ethanol (E)-treated hamsters, were used to probe for immunochemically-related hemeproteins in other species. Liver microsomes (LM) were obtained from naive and E-treated rats, deermice, hamsters, and baboons. Baboon liver 9000 x g supernatant (S-9) was prepared from needle biopsy samples. LM and S-9 proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, then transferred to nylon membranes. Immunodetection was performed on the Western blots using rabbit anti P-450-4 IgG, anti-rabbit IgG-alk. phos., and an appropriate chromagen. Control LM from all species contained a cross-reacting protein of mol. wt. similar to P-450-4 (54k). The amount of this cross-reacting protein as reflected by staining intensity, was much higher in LM from E-treated animals. This protein was also detected in S-9 from E-treated baboons. In contrast, no increase in phenobarbital-inducible P-450-2 related LM protein (assessed using anti P-450-2) was observed after E treatment. Increased P-450-4 related protein in LM from E-treated animals was associated with enhanced oxidation of ethanol and aniline by these LM when compared to controls. In conclusion, LM from rats, deermice, and baboons contain a protein immunochemically homologous to hamster liver P-450-4. As observed in hamsters, the amount of this hepatic protein increases in these other species after E treatment.

  6. Novel Marmoset Cytochrome P450 2C19 in Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Human P450 2C9 and 2C19 Substrates, S-Warfarin, Tolbutamide, Flurbiprofen, and Omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Kawano, Mirai; Shimizu, Makiko; Toda, Akiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World monkey, has the potential for use in human drug development due to its evolutionary closeness to humans. Four novel cDNAs, encoding cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C18, 2C19, 2C58, and 2C76, were cloned from marmoset livers to characterize P450 2C molecular properties, including previously reported P450 2C8. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high sequence identities (>86%) with those of human P450 2Cs, except for marmoset P450 2C76, which has a low sequence identity (∼70%) with any human P450 2Cs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that marmoset P450 2Cs were more closely clustered with those of humans and macaques than other species investigated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that all of the marmoset P450 2C mRNAs were predominantly expressed in liver as opposed to the other tissues tested. Marmoset P450 2C proteins were detected in liver by immunoblotting using antibodies against human P450 2Cs. Among marmoset P450 2Cs heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, marmoset P450 2C19 efficiently catalyzed human P450 2C substrates, S-warfarin, diclofenac, tolbutamide, flurbiprofen, and omeprazole. Marmoset P450 2C19 had high Vmax and low Km values for S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation that were comparable to those in human liver microsomes, indicating warfarin stereoselectivity similar to findings in humans. Faster in vivo S-warfarin clearance than R-warfarin after intravenous administration of racemic warfarin (0.2 mg/kg) to marmosets was consistent with the in vitro kinetic parameters. These results indicated that marmoset P450 2C enzymes had functional characteristics similar to those of humans, and that P450 2C-dependent metabolic properties are likewise similar between marmosets and humans.

  7. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    PubMed

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Vavilin, Valentin A; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2015-12-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  8. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus

    PubMed Central

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Vavilin, Valentin A.; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  9. Evidence for involvement of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 in aflatoxin B sup 1 metabolism in human liver

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, L.M.; Wolf, C.R. ); Neal, G.E.; Judah, D.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Liver cancer is a major cause of premature death in many areas of Africa and Asia and its incidence is strongly correlated with exposure to aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}). Because AFB{sub 1} requires metabolic activation to achieve a biological response, there is a need for detailed knowledge of the mechanism of activation to assess individual risk. The authors carried out an extensive study using a total of 19 human liver samples to determine the individual variability in the metabolism of the toxin to mutagenic or detoxification products and to identify the specific cytochrome P-450 forms involved in these processes. Metabolism to the toxic 8,9-epoxide or to products mutagenic in the Ames test was found to exhibit very large individual variation. These data demonstrate that, although P450IIIA probably plays an important role in AFB{sub 1} activation, several other cytochrome P-450 forms have the capacity to activate the toxin. Similar considerations apply to detoxifying metabolism to aflatoxin Q{sub 1} and aflatoxin M{sub 1}. The levels of expression of many of the forms of cytochrome P-450 involved in AFB{sub 1} metabolism are known to be highly sensitive to environmental factors. This indicates that such factors will be an important determinant in individual susceptibility to the tumorigenic action of AFB{sub 1}.

  10. Functional coupling of ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcb6 to cytochrome P450 expression and activity in liver.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Li, Feng; Tessman, Robert; Mickey, Kristen; Dorko, Kenneth; Schmitt, Timothy; Kumer, Sean; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Gaikwad, Nilesh; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2015-03-20

    Although endogenous mechanisms that negatively regulate cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases in response to physiological and pathophysiological signals are not well understood, they are thought to result from alterations in the level of endogenous metabolites, involved in maintaining homeostasis. Here we show that homeostatic changes in hepatic metabolite profile in Abcb6 (mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter B6) deficiency results in suppression of a specific subset of hepatic P450 activity. Abcb6 null mice are more susceptible to pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, secondary to decreased expression and activity of Cyp3a11 and Cyp2b10. The knock-out mice also show decrease in both basal and xeno-inducible expression and activity of a subset of hepatic P450s that appear to be related to changes in hepatic metabolite profile. These data, together with the observation that liver extracts from Abcb6-deficient mice suppress P450 expression in human primary hepatocytes, suggest that this mouse model may provide an opportunity to understand the physiological signals and the mechanisms involved in negative regulation of P450s. PMID:25623066

  11. Reversible inhibition of three important human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by tiliroside.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong-Xue; Lu, Jin-Cai; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Mao, Yu-Xi; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yin, Jun; Yang, Ling

    2010-11-01

    Tiliroside, an active flavonoid extensively found in many medicinal plants including Helichrysum italicum, Geranium mexicanum and Helianthemum glomeratum, has been demonstrated to exert multiple biological effects including antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play an important role in the Phase I oxidation metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics and inhibition of CYP isoforms might influence the elimination of drugs and induce serious adverse drug response. The inhibition of seven CYP isoforms (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP2E1) by tiliroside was investigated using in vitro human liver microsomal incubation assays. The results showed that tiliroside strongly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 (IC(50) = 9.0 ± 1.7 μm), CYP2C8 (IC(50) = 12.1 ± 0.9 μm) and CYP2C9 (IC(50) = 10.2 ± 0.9 μm) with other CYP isoforms negligibly influenced. Further kinetic analysis showed that inhibition of these three CYP isoforms by tiliroside is best fit to a competitive way. The K(i) value was calculated to be 5.5 μm, 3.3 μm, 9.4 μm for CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8, respectively. The relatively low K(i) values suggested that tiliroside might induce drug-drug interactions with many clinically used drugs which are mainly metabolized by these three CYP isoforms. Therefore, attention should be given to the probable drug-drug interaction between tiliroside-containing herbs and substrates of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C8.

  12. Canine cytochrome P-450 pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Court, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    The cytochrome P-450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences.

  13. Repeated treatment with furazolidone induces multiple cytochrome p450-related activities in chicken liver, but not in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Matumoto, Tomoyuki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi

    2013-11-01

    The nitrofuran antimicrobial agent, furazolidone (FZ), is still used in veterinary medicine in some countries in the Middle and Far Eastern countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of successive bolus doses of FZ and its metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related activities in the livers of rats and chickens. Female Wistar rats and white Leghorn chickens were orally administered FZ once a day for 4 consecutive days. FZ-treated chickens showed an increase in multiple CYP-related activities, however, rats treated with FZ did not show these changes. In chickens, treatment with FZ also induced production of microsomal CYP2C6-like apoprotein. The present study demonstrated that FZ caused a multiple-type induction of CYP-related activities in chickens, but not in rats.

  14. Repeated Treatment with Furazolidone Induces Multiple Cytochrome P450-Related Activities in Chicken Liver, but Not in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Nobuo; MATUMOTO, Tomoyuki; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M. M.; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi; KAZUSAKA, Akio; FUJITA, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nitrofuran antimicrobial agent, furazolidone (FZ), is still used in veterinary medicine in some countries in the Middle and Far Eastern countries. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of successive bolus doses of FZ and its metabolite 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related activities in the livers of rats and chickens. Female Wistar rats and white Leghorn chickens were orally administered FZ once a day for 4 consecutive days. FZ-treated chickens showed an increase in multiple CYP-related activities, however, rats treated with FZ did not show these changes. In chickens, treatment with FZ also induced production of microsomal CYP2C6-like apoprotein. The present study demonstrated that FZ caused a multiple-type induction of CYP-related activities in chickens, but not in rats. PMID:23774039

  15. Metabolism of styrene to styrene oxide and vinylphenols in cytochrome P450 2F2- and P450 2E1-knockout mouse liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shuijie; Li, Lei; Ding, Xinxin; Zheng, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicity of styrene is initiated by cytochromes P450-dependent metabolic activation. P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are considered to be two main cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes responsible for styrene metabolism in mice. The objective of the current study was to determine the correlation between the formation of styrene metabolites (i.e. styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol) and pulmonary toxicity of styrene, using Cyp2e1- and Cyp2f2-null mouse models. Dramatic decrease in the formation of styrene glycol and 4-vinylphenol was found in Cyp2f2-null mouse lung microsomes, relative to that in the wild-type mouse lung microsomes. However, no significant difference in the production of the styrene metabolites was observed between lung microsomes obtained from Cyp2e1-null and the wild-type mice. The knock–out and wild-type mice were treated with styrene (6.0 mmol/kg, ip), and cell counts and LDH activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were monitored to evaluate the pulmonary toxicity induced by styrene. Cyp2e1-null mice displayed similar susceptibility to lung toxicity of styrene as the wild-type animals. However, Cyp2f2-null mice were resistant to styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. In conclusion, both P450 2E1 and P450 2F2 are responsible for the metabolic activation of styrene. The latter enzyme plays an important role in styrene-induced pulmonary toxicity. Both styrene oxide and 4-vinylphenol are suggested to participate in the development of lung injury induced by styrene. PMID:24320693

  16. Reactive Intermediates in Cytochrome P450 Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Calixto, Julio C.; Karp, Richard F.; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis. PMID:23632017

  17. Metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide by cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Yuuki; Usami, Atsushi; Rangsunvigit, Pramoch; Malakul, Pomthong; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide was investigated using human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes for the first time. Both isomers of rose oxide were incubated with human liver microsomes, and the formation of the respective 9-oxidized metabolite were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Of 11 different recombinant human P450 enzymes used, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 were the primary enzymes catalysing the metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide. CYP1A2 also efficiently oxidized (-)-cis-rose oxide at the 9-position but not (-)-trans-rose oxide. α-Naphthoflavone (a selective CYP1A2 inhibitor), thioTEPA (a CYP2B6 inhibitor) and anti-CYP2B6 antibody inhibited (-)-cis-rose oxide 9-hydroxylation catalysed by human liver microsomes. On the other hand, the metabolism of (-)-trans-rose oxide was suppressed by thioTEPA and anti-CYP2B6 at a significant level in human liver microsomes. However, omeprazole (a CYP2C19 inhibitor) had no significant effects on the metabolism of both isomers of rose oxide. Using microsomal preparations from nine different human liver samples, (-)-9-hydroxy-cis- and (-)-9-hydroxy-trans-rose oxide formations correlated with (S)-mephenytoin N-demethylase activity (CYP2B6 marker activity). These results suggest that CYP2B6 plays important roles in the metabolism of (-)-cis- and (-)-trans-rose oxide in human liver microsomes.

  18. Studies on the expression and metabolic capabilities of human liver cytochrome P450IIIA5 (HLp3).

    PubMed

    Wrighton, S A; Brian, W R; Sari, M A; Iwasaki, M; Guengerich, F P; Raucy, J L; Molowa, D T; Vandenbranden, M

    1990-08-01

    The human P450III family has been shown to be composed of at least four members, P450IIIA3 (HLp), P450IIIA4 (P450NF), P450IIIA5 (HLp3), and P450IIIA6 (HLp2). Due to the lack of probes that specifically recognize the individual members of this family, little is known about their relative expression. We prepared a form-specific antibody to P450IIIA5 by immunoabsorption of anti-P450IIIA5 IgG against Sepharose 4B upon which microsomes that did not contain P450IIIA5 or purified P450IIIA3 had been bound. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that P450IIIA5 was expressed at detectable levels in only 19 of 66 (29%) human livers. The expression of P450IIIA5 was not influenced by the gender or medical history of the patients. When the expression of P450IIIA5 in different age groups was examined, it was observed that P450IIIA5 was detected in a statistically significantly higher percentage of children and adolescents (19 years old and under), as compared with the remaining population (8 of 17, 47%, versus 11 of 46, 24%, respectively). Furthermore, P450IIIA5 was detected in 1 of 10 human fetal livers. Of the large number of compounds identified as substrates of P450III family members, P450IIIA5 was found to actively metabolize nifedipine, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone 3-sulfate, and cortisol, whereas it metabolized poorly or did not metabolize erythromycin, quinidine, 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, and aflatoxins. The acetylenic steroid gestodene was found to be an effective mechanism-based inhibitor of both P450IIIA4 and P450IIIA5. Immunoblots of microsomes isolated from untreated and dexamethasone-, phenobarbital-, or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated HepG2 cells that were developed with an antibody that recognizes all the P450III family members demonstrated that no proteins in the P450III family were expressed by the HepG2 cells. In conclusion, our studies indicate that P450IIIA5 is polymorphically expressed at all stages of human development and is more limited in its

  19. Novel extrahepatic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Karlgren, Maria . E-mail: Maria.Karlgren@imm.ki.se; Miura, Shin-ichi; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly expressed in the liver and are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Because of the initiatives associated with the Human Genome Project, a great progress has recently been seen in the identification and characterization of novel extrahepatic P450s, including CYP2S1, CYP2R1, CYP2U1 and CYP2W1. Like the hepatic enzymes, these P450s may play a role in the tissue-specific metabolism of foreign compounds, but they may also have important endogenous functions. CYP2S1 has been shown to metabolize all-trans retinoic acid and CYP2R1 is a major vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Regarding their metabolism of xenobiotics, much remains to be established, but CYP2S1 metabolizes naphthalene and it is likely that these P450s are responsible for metabolic activation of several different kinds of xenobiotic chemicals and contribute to extrahepatic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  20. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    den Besten, P J

    1998-11-01

    The results of a limited number of studies on echinoderms provide evidence for the presence of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in representatives of three classes of the phylum Echinodermata: the asteroids (sea stars), holothuroids (sea cucumbers) and echinoids (sea urchins). The monooxygenase system has been demonstrated to be involved in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, but is assumed to have its primary function in the metabolism of endogenous substrates, such as steroids. Available data on P450 cofactor requirement, P450-dependent metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, studies with classical inhibitors of P450, specificity of P450 induction by planar compounds, and the changes in the benzo[a]pyrene metabolite profile in induced animals suggest similarities with the MO system present in vertebrates. However, the relatively high capacity of the monooxygenase system in sea stars to catalyse reactions with organic hydroperoxide as donor for activated oxygen, and the low induceability during exposure to xenobiotics indicate also important differences between the echinoderm cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system and that of vertebrates. Some evidence was found for the existence of different forms of cytochrome P450 in sea stars. Catalytic functions of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system of sea stars in the metabolism of steroids may be suppressed as a result of the induction of cytochrome P450 by xenobiotics. PMID:9972455

  1. A world of cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R

    2013-02-19

    The world we live in is a biosphere influenced by all organisms who inhabit it. It is also an ecology of genes, with some having rather startling effects. The premise put forth in this issue is cytochrome P450 is a significant player in the world around us. Life and the Earth itself would be visibly different and diminished without cytochrome P450s. The contributions to this issue range from evolution on the billion year scale to the colour of roses, from Darwin to Rachel Carson; all as seen through the lens of cytochrome P450.

  2. A world of cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The world we live in is a biosphere influenced by all organisms who inhabit it. It is also an ecology of genes, with some having rather startling effects. The premise put forth in this issue is cytochrome P450 is a significant player in the world around us. Life and the Earth itself would be visibly different and diminished without cytochrome P450s. The contributions to this issue range from evolution on the billion year scale to the colour of roses, from Darwin to Rachel Carson; all as seen through the lens of cytochrome P450. PMID:23297353

  3. Aldehyde Reduction by Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Srivastava, Sanjay; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes the procedure for measuring the relative rates of metabolism of the α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, 9-anthracene aldehyde (9-AA) and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE); specifically the aldehyde reduction reactions of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). These assays can be performed using either liver microsomal or other tissue fractions, spherosome preparations of recombinant CYPs, or recombinant CYPs from other sources. The method used here to study the reduction of a model α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, 9-AA, by CYPs was adapted from the assay used to investigate 9-anthracene oxidation as reported by Marini et al. (Marini et al., 2003). For experiments measuring reduction of the endogenous aldehyde, 4-HNE, the substrate was incubated with CYP in the presence of oxygen and NADPH and the metabolites were separated by High Pressure Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), using an adaptation of the method of Srivastava et al. (Srivastava et al., 2010). For study of 9-AA and 4-HNE reduction, the first step involves incubation of the substrate with the CYP in appropriate media, followed by quantification of metabolites through either spectrofluorimetry or analysis by HPLC coupled with a radiometric assay, respectively. Metabolite identification can be achieved by HPLC GC-mass spectrometric analysis. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 function can be utilized to show the role of the hemoprotein or other enzymes in these reduction reactions. The reduction reactions for CYP’s were not inhibited by either anaerobiosis or inclusion of CO in the gaseous phase of the reaction mixture. These character of these reactions are similar to those reported for some cytochrome P450-catalyzed azo reduction reactions. PMID:21553396

  4. Study Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibition and Hepatotoxicity Using DMSO-Differentiated HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong

    2016-01-01

    Metabolically competent, inexpensive, and robust in vitro cell models are needed for studying liver drug-metabolizing enzymes and hepatotoxicity. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells develop into a differentiated in vitro model resembling primary human hepatocytes after a 2-week dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells express elevated cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme gene expression and activity compared to untreated HuH-7 cells. This cell model could be used to study CYP3A4 inhibition by reversible and time-dependent inhibitors, including drugs, food-related substances, and environmental chemicals. The DMSO-treated HuH-7 model is also a suitable tool for investigating hepatotoxicity. This chapter describes a detailed methodology for developing DMSO-treated HuH-7 cells, which are subsequently used for CYP3A4 inhibition and hepatotoxicity studies. PMID:27518624

  5. Inhibition of fipronil and nonane metabolism in human liver microsomes and human cytochrome P450 isoforms by chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun; Choi, Kyoungju; Rose, Randy L; Hodgson, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have established that chlorpyrifos (CPS), fipronil, and nonane can all be metabolized by human liver microsomes (HLM) and a number of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. However, metabolic interactions between these three substrates have not been described. In this study the effect of either coincubation or preincubation of CPS with HLM or CYP isoforms with either fipronil or nonane as substrate was investigated. In both co- and preincubation experiments, CPS significantly inhibited the metabolism of fipronil or nonane by HLM although CPS inhibited the metabolism of fipronil more effectively than that of nonane. CPS significantly inhibited the metabolism of fipronil by CYP3A4 as well as the metabolism of nonane by CYP2B6. In both cases, preincubation with CPS caused greater inhibition than coincubation, suggesting that the inhibition is mechanism based.

  6. Norcocaine and N-hydroxynorcocaine formation in human liver microsomes: role of cytochrome P-450 3A4.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, B W; Sinclair, P R; Shuster, L; Sinclair, J F; Evans, J E; Greenblatt, D J

    1993-05-01

    Cocaine was metabolized to norcocaine by microsomes prepared from lymphoblastoid cells expressing transfected human P-450 3A4. The specific activities of norcocaine formation by microsomes prepared from three human liver samples correlated with the amount of P-450 3A immunoreactive protein detected by immunoblot. Triacetyloleandomycin, a specific inhibitor of P-450 3A isoforms, inhibited formation of norcocaine from cocaine, but not formation of N-hydroxynorcocaine from norcocaine. The chemical identity of the norcocaine and N-hydroxynorcocaine produced by human liver microsomes was established by combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Thus, human P-450 3A4 is a cocaine demethylase, and P-450 isoforms of the 3A family are responsible for the majority of norcocaine production by human hepatic microsomes.

  7. Roles of different cytochrome P-450 enzymes in bioactivation of the hepatocarcinogen 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene by rat and human liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Degawa, M.; Funae, Y.; Imaoka, S.; Inui, Y.; Guengerich, F.P. Tohoku Univ., Aobayama Osaka City Univ., Abenoku Center for Adult Diseases, Nakamichi, Higashinariku, Osaka Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN )

    1991-03-11

    The potent hepatocarcinogen 3-methoxy-4-aminoazobenzene (3-MeO-AAB) has been reported to be bioactivated to mutagenic intermediates by rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450) and to be a selective inducer of rat P-450IA2. 3-MeO-AAB was found to be bioactivated by liver microsomal enzymes from rats and humans in a Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 system where umu response is indicative of DNA damage. The liver microsomal activities are increased by pretreatment of rats with various P-450 inducers. Evidence has also been obtained that specific antibodies raised against P-4502B1, P-4501A1 or 1A2, P-4502E1, and P4503A inhibited the activation in rat liver microsomes suggesting the possible roles of several P-450 enzymes in the bioactivation of 3-MeO-AAB, and results obtained with various purified rat P-450 enzymes support this view. Human liver microsomal activation of 3-MeO-AAB was also inhibited to various extents by antibodies raised against P-4501A, P-4502C, P-4502E1, and P-4503A enzymes. Purified P-4501A2 was the most active human P-450 in oxidizing 3-MeO-AAB, followed by P-4503A4 and P-450{sub MP} (P4502C). From these results it is concluded that multiple P-450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes are involved in the bioactivation of 3-MeO-AAB, regardless of its selective induction of the P4501A2 gene.

  8. Side chain hydroxylation of C27-steroids and vitamin D3 by a cytochrome P-450 enzyme system isolated from human liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Oftebro, H.; Saarem, K.; Bjoerkhem, I.; Pedersen, J.I.

    1981-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain information on the involvement of cytochrome P-450 in the 26-hydroxylation on bile acid intermediates and in the 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in human liver mitochondria. Cytochrome P-450 was solubilized from human liver mitochondria and purified two times to a specific content of 0.125 nmol per mg protein. Furthermore, a ferredoxin was isolated from the mitochondria and partly purified. This iron-sulfur protein had properties similar to bovine adrenal ferredoxin. A mitochondrial NADPH-ferredoxin reductase was also isolated and purified to homogeneity. This enzyme was a flavoprotein with properties very similar to the bovine adrenal NADPH-ferredoxin reductase. The cytochrome P-450 preparation catalyzed 26-hydroxylation of C27-steroids and 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 when reconstructed with NADPH, the ferredoxin and the ferredoxin reductase. With different substrates the following turnover numbers (nmol product X nmol P-450(-1) X min-1) were found: cholesterol, 8; 5-cholestene-3 beta, 7 alpha-diol, 10; 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 23; 7 alpha, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 27; 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol, 28; 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triol, 41; and vitamin D3, 0.16. The hydroxylation reactions were inhibited by CO and metyrapone. The human liver mitochondrial ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase could be replaced by adrenal ferredoxin and adrenal ferredoxin reductase without reduction of activity, but they could not be replaced by microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. It is concluded that human liver mitochondria contain cytochrome P-450 involved in the oxidation of the side chain of C27-steroids and vitamin D3.

  9. Effect of Long-Term Treatment with Antioxidant SkQ1 Added to Drinking Water on Cytochromes P450 Level in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, K N; Silachev, D N

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondria-targeted cationic antioxidant plastoquinonyl decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1) added to drinking water in therapeutic doses (250 nmol/kg per day) for a long time (up to 24 months) does not induce cytochromes P450 in rat liver.

  10. COMMENTS ON "EFFECT OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE OF DELTAMETHRIN ON THE ONTOGENY OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING CYTOCHROME P450S IN THE BRAIN AND LIVER OF OFFSPRINGS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comments on: Effect of prenatal exposure of deltamethrin on the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s in the brain and liver of offsprings [Johri et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 214:279-289, 2006]

    Johri and colleagues recently reported that maternal exposur...

  11. Drug interactions of diclofenac and its oxidative metabolite with human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 1A2-dependent drug oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Katsuhiro; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    1.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of diclofenac on human cytochrome P450 1A2-, 2C19- and 3A4-mediated drug oxidations and to evaluate the drug interaction potential of diclofenac and 4'-hydroxydiclofenac. 2.  Diclofenac was converted to 4'-hydroxydiclofenac by recombinantly expressed human P450 1A2 with Km and Vmax values of 33 µM and 0.20 min(-1), respectively. Diclofenac and 4'-hydroxydiclofenac suppressed flurbiprofen 4'-hydroxylation by P450 2C9 strongly and moderately, respectively; however, they did not affect P450 2C19-dependent S-mephenytoin hydroxylation or P450 3A4-dependent midazolam hydroxylation. 3.  Although the caffeine 3-N-demethylation activity of liver microsomal P450 1A2 was inhibited by simultaneous incubation with diclofenac, the riluzole N-hydroxylation activities of recombinant P450 1A2 and human liver microsomes were inhibited after preincubation with diclofenac or 4'-hydroxydiclofenac for 20 min in the presence of NADPH. Using the inhibition constant (37 µM) of diclofenac on caffeine 3-N-demethylation and the reported 95th percentiles of maximum plasma concentration (10.5 µM) after an oral dose of diclofenac, the in vivo estimated increase in area under the plasma concentration-time curve was 29%. 4.  These results suggest that diclofenac could inhibit drug clearance to a clinically important degree that depends on P450 1A2. Clinically relevant drug interactions in vivo with diclofenac are likely to be invoked via human P450 1A2 function in addition to those caused by the effect of diclofenac on P450 2C9.

  12. Separation, purification, and properties of cytochrome P-450 from uninduced rat liver microsomes for the studies of metabolism of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Dialameh, G.H. )

    1988-09-01

    This study reports the authors present results on the development of a procedure for purification of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 from un-induced rat liver microsomes. These cytochromes are catalytically active when reconstituted with NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and lipid and exhibit substrate specificities. The presence of four distinct forms of cytochrome P-450 in uninduced rat liver microsomes which is the result of this research report, compared with the presence of six forms in induced animals represent the importance of genetic control of these enzymes for the metabolism and detoxification of environmental chemicals. These metabolite patterns are not only different for the various species, but also among different individuals. The molecular basis for this are genetic and environmental factors, which exhibit interesting evolutionary aspects.

  13. Expression of Cytochrome P450s in the Liver of Rats Administered with Socheongryong-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential influences of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in vivo. Materials and Methods: SCRT was orally administered to either male or female Sprague-Dawley rats once daily at doses of 0, 1000, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. The mRNA expression of CYP450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1) in liver tissues was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. And then, the protein expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in liver tissues was analyzed by the Western blot. Results: We found no significant influence in the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1 after repeated administration of SCRT for 13 weeks. By contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 was increased by repeated SCRT treatment in male rats, but not in female rats. The mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2 in both genders was increased by administration of SCRT. Conclusion: A caution is needed when SCRT is co-administered with substrates of CYP2B1/2 for clinical usage. In case of male, an attention is also required when SCRT and drugs metabolized by CYP1A1 are taken together. Our findings provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of SCRT when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks did not affect the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1In male rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2In female rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2. Abbreviations used: SCRT: Socheongryong-tang, CYP450: Cytochrome P450, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  14. Expression of Cytochrome P450s in the Liver of Rats Administered with Socheongryong-tang, a Traditional Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang-Seob; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential influences of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in vivo. Materials and Methods: SCRT was orally administered to either male or female Sprague-Dawley rats once daily at doses of 0, 1000, 2000, or 5000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. The mRNA expression of CYP450s (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1) in liver tissues was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. And then, the protein expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 in liver tissues was analyzed by the Western blot. Results: We found no significant influence in the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1 after repeated administration of SCRT for 13 weeks. By contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 was increased by repeated SCRT treatment in male rats, but not in female rats. The mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2 in both genders was increased by administration of SCRT. Conclusion: A caution is needed when SCRT is co-administered with substrates of CYP2B1/2 for clinical usage. In case of male, an attention is also required when SCRT and drugs metabolized by CYP1A1 are taken together. Our findings provide information regarding the safety and effectiveness of SCRT when combined with conventional drugs. SUMMARY Oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks did not affect the mRNA expression of hepatic CYP1A2, 2C11, 2E1, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1In male rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2In female rats, oral administration of Socheongryong-tang for 13 weeks induced the mRNA and protein expression of hepatic CYP2B1/2. Abbreviations used: SCRT: Socheongryong-tang, CYP450: Cytochrome P450, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, RT-PCR: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PMID

  15. Musk xylene is a novel specific inducer of cytochrome P-450IA2.

    PubMed

    Iwata, N; Minegishi, K; Suzuki, K; Ohno, Y; Kawanishi, T; Takahashi, A

    1992-04-15

    The effect of musk xylene on contents of both cytochrome P-450IA1 and cytochrome P-450IA2 in rat liver was investigated using Western blotting analysis. Rats were treated i.p. for five consecutive days with either 50, 100 or 200 mg musk xylene/kg body weight. Musk xylene increased both total cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5 contents in rat liver microsomes. Musk xylene induced cytochrome P-450IA2 (384 pmol/mg protein) strongly and preferentially and the ratio of cytochrome P450IA2/P-450IA1 was about 12 at the lowest dose tested. Musk xylene also induced the cytochrome P-450IA1 dose-dependently, but these extents were very small (32-174 pmol/mg protein). These results suggest that musk xylene may be a more specific inducer for cytochrome P-450IA2 than any other inducers reported.

  16. Decreased bile-acid synthesis in livers of hepatocyte-conditional NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null mice results in increased bile acids in serum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) is essential for the function of microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450), including those P450s involved in bile acid (BA) synthesis. Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (H-Cpr-null) have been engineered to understand the in vivo function of hepatic P450s in the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. However, the impact of hepatic Cpr on BA homeostasis is not clear. The present study revealed that H-Cpr-null mice had a 60% decrease in total BA concentration in liver, whereas the total BA concentration in serum was almost doubled. The decreased level of cholic acid (CA) in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice is likely due to diminished enzyme activity of Cyp8b1 that is essential for CA biosynthesis. Feedback mechanisms responsible for the reduced liver BA concentrations and/or increased serum BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice included the following: 1) enhanced alternative BA synthesis pathway, as evidenced by the fact that classic BA synthesis is diminished but chenodeoxycholic acid still increases in both serum and livers of H-Cpr-null mice; 2) inhibition of farnesoid X receptor activation, which increased the mRNA of Cyp7a1 and 8b1; 3) induction of intestinal BA transporters to facilitate BA absorption from the intestine to the circulation; 4) induction of hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters to increase BA efflux from the liver to blood; and 5) increased generation of secondary BAs. In summary, the present study reveals an important contribution of the alternative BA synthesis pathway and BA transporters in regulating BA concentrations in H-Cpr-null mice.

  17. In vitro metabolism of nobiletin, a polymethoxy-flavonoid, by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Chiho; Kato, Yoshihisa; Haraguchi, Koichi; Endo, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ohta, Hideaki; Yano, Masamichi

    2011-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) in the liver metabolize drugs prior to excretion, with different enzymes acting at different molecular motifs. At present, the human CYPs responsible for the metabolism of the flavonoid, nobiletin (NBL), are unidentified. We investigated which enzymes were involved using human liver microsomes and 12 cDNA-expressed human CYPs. Human liver microsomes metabolized NBL to three mono-demethylated metabolites (4'-OH-, 7-OH- and 6-OH-NBL) with a relative ratio of 1:4.1:0.5, respectively, by aerobic incubation with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Of 12 human CYPs, CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 showed high activity for the formation of 4'-OH-NBL. CYP3A4 catalyzed the formation of 7-OH-NBL with the highest activity and of 6-OH-NBL with lower activity. CYP3A5 also catalyzed the formation of both metabolites but considerably more slowly than CYP3A4. In contrast, seven CYPs (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1) were inactive for NBL. Both ketoconazole and troleandomycin (CYP3A inhibitors) almost completely inhibited the formation of 7-OH- and 6-OH-NBL. Similarly, α-naphthoflavone (CYP1A1 inhibitor) and furafylline (CYP1A2 inhibitor) significantly decreased the formation of 4'-OH-NBL. These results suggest that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are the key enzymes in human liver mediating the oxidative demethylation of NBL in the B-ring and A-ring, respectively.

  18. Identification of the rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the calcium channel blocker dipfluzine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weili; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of dipfluzine hydrochloride using the combination of a chemical inhibition study, a correlation analysis and a panel of recombinant rat CYP450 enzymes. The incubation of Dip with rat liver microsomes yielded four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results from the assays involving eight selective inhibitors indicated that CYP3A and CYP2A1 contributed most to the metabolism of Dip, followed by CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2; however, CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2D1 did not contribute to the formation of the metabolites. The results of the correlation analysis and the assays involving the recombinant CYP450 enzymes further confirmed the above results and concluded that CYP3A2 contributed more than CYP3A1. The results will be valuable in understanding drug-drug interactions when Dip is coadministered with other drugs.

  19. Inducer effect on the complex formation between rat liver nuclear proteins and cytochrome P450 2B gene regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Duzhak, T G; Schwartz, E I; Gulyaeva, L F; Lyakhovich, V V

    2002-09-01

    DNA gel retardation assay has been applied to the investigation of complexes between rat liver nuclear proteins and Barbie box positive regulatory element of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) genes. The intensities of B1 and B2 bands detected in the absence of an inducer increased after 30 min protein incubation with phenobarbital (PB) or triphenyldioxane (TPD), but not with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOPOB). In addition, a new complex (B3 band) was for the first time detected under induction by PB, TPD, and TCPOPOB. Increase in the incubation time up to 2 h facilitated the formation of other new complexes (B4 and B5 bands), which were detected only in the presence of TPD. The use of [3H]TPD in hybridization experiments revealed that this inducer, capable of binding to Barbie box DNA, is also present in B4 and B5 complexes. It is probable that the investigated compounds activate the same proteins at the initial induction steps, which correlates with the formation of B1, B2, and B3 complexes. The further induction step might be inducer-specific, as indicated by the formation of B4 and B5 complexes in the presence of TPD only. Thus, the present data suggest the possibility of specific gene activation signaling pathways that are dependent on a particular inducer. PMID:12387719

  20. Multiple-approaches to the identification and quantification of cytochromes P450 in human liver tissue by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Cathrin; Davidson, Brian R.; Fuller, Barry J.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Griffiths, William J.; Wang, Yuqin

    2009-01-01

    Here we report the identification and approximate quantification of cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins in human liver microsomes as determined by nano-LC-MS/MS with application of the exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) algorithm during database searching. Protocols based on 1D-gel protein separation and 2D-LC peptide separation gave comparable results. In total 18 CYP isoforms were unambiguously identified based on unique peptide matches. Further, we have determined the absolute quantity of two CYP enzymes (2E1 and 1A2) in human liver microsomes using stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry, where microsomal proteins were separated by 1D-gel electrophoresis, digested with trypsin in the presence of either a CYP2E1- or 1A2-specific stable-isotope labelled tryptic peptide and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for the isotope-labelled tryptic peptides and their natural unlabelled analogues quantification could be performed over the range of 0.1 – 1.5 pmol on column. Liver microsomes from four individuals were analysed for CYP2E1 giving values of 88 - 200 pmol/mg microsomal protein. The CYP1A2 content of microsomes from a further three individuals ranged from 165 – 263 pmol/mg microsomal protein. Although, in this proof-of-concept study for CYP quantification, the two CYP-isoforms were quantified from different samples, there are no practical reasons to prevent multiplexing the method to allow the quantification of multiple CYP-isoforms in a single sample. PMID:19714871

  1. Cytochrome P450 2E1 is responsible for the initiation of 1,2-dichloropropane-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Yanagiba, Yukie; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Suda, Megumi; Hojo, Rieko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), a solvent, which is the main component of the cleaner used in the offset printing companies in Japan, is suspected to be the causative agent of bile duct cancer, which has been recently reported at high incidence in those offset printing workplaces. While there are some reports about the acute toxicity of 1,2-DCP, no information about its metabolism related to toxicity in animals is available. As part of our efforts toward clarifying the role of 1,2-DCP in the development of cancer, we studied the metabolic pathways and the hepatotoxic effect of 1,2-DCP in mice with or without cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity. In an in vitro reaction system containing liver homogenate, 1,2-DCP was only metabolized by liver tissue of wild-type mice but not by that of cyp2e1-null mice. Furthermore, the kinetics of the solvent in mice revealed a great difference between the two genotypes; 1,2-DCP administration resulted in dose-dependent hepatic damage, as shown biochemically and pathologically, but this effect was only observed in wild-type mice. The nuclear factor κB p52 pathway was involved in the liver response to 1,2-DCP. Our results clearly indicate that the oxidative metabolism of 1,2-DCP in mice is exclusively catalyzed by CYP2E1, and this step is indispensable for the manifestation of the hepatotoxic effect of the solvent. PMID:25681370

  2. Cytochrome P450 2E1 is responsible for the initiation of 1,2-dichloropropane-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Yanagiba, Yukie; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Suda, Megumi; Hojo, Rieko; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakajima, Tamie; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), a solvent, which is the main component of the cleaner used in the offset printing companies in Japan, is suspected to be the causative agent of bile duct cancer, which has been recently reported at high incidence in those offset printing workplaces. While there are some reports about the acute toxicity of 1,2-DCP, no information about its metabolism related to toxicity in animals is available. As part of our efforts toward clarifying the role of 1,2-DCP in the development of cancer, we studied the metabolic pathways and the hepatotoxic effect of 1,2-DCP in mice with or without cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity. In an in vitro reaction system containing liver homogenate, 1,2-DCP was only metabolized by liver tissue of wild-type mice but not by that of cyp2e1-null mice. Furthermore, the kinetics of the solvent in mice revealed a great difference between the two genotypes; 1,2-DCP administration resulted in dose-dependent hepatic damage, as shown biochemically and pathologically, but this effect was only observed in wild-type mice. The nuclear factor κB p52 pathway was involved in the liver response to 1,2-DCP. Our results clearly indicate that the oxidative metabolism of 1,2-DCP in mice is exclusively catalyzed by CYP2E1, and this step is indispensable for the manifestation of the hepatotoxic effect of the solvent.

  3. Developmental changes of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions after transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into spleens of adult syngenic rats.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1998-06-01

    Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. Animals were sacrificed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after transplantation and cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; mainly 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; predominantly 1A, 2A, 2B) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; mainly 3A). Values of transplant recipients were compared to those of sham operated and age matched control rats. Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls or sham operated animals, but there was no influence of the transplants within the spleens on liver weights. With fetal livers at the 21st day of gestation, the day of transplantation, a weak EROD and ECOD, but no END activity was seen. Spleens of controls or sham operated animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions. In the explant containing spleens a significant and increasing EROD activity was found from 4 weeks after surgery on and an ECOD activity already 2 weeks after transplantation. END was only slightly enhanced at 6 months after surgery. The livers of all three groups of rats displayed normal EROD, ECOD and END activities. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence the P450 dependent monooxygenase functions within the livers of the animals. From these results it can be concluded that intrasplenically transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions proliferate and differentiate within the host organs. They display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions with some developmental changes during the observed time period of 6 months.

  4. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene to DNA by cytochrome P-450 catalyzed one-electron oxidation in rat liver microsomes and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalieri, E.L.; Rogan, E.G.; Devanesan, P.D.; Cremonesi, P. ); Cerny, R.L.; Gross, M.L. ); Bodell, W.J. )

    1990-05-22

    To investigate whether cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the covalent binding of substrates to DNA by one-electron oxidation, the ability of both uninduced and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) induced rat liver microsomes and nuclei to catalyze covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to DNA and formation of the labile adduct 7-(benzo(a)pyren-6-yl)guanine (BP-N7Gua) was investigated. In the various systems studied, 1-9 times more BP-N7Gua adduct was isolated than the total amount of stable BP adducts in the DNA. The specific cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 2-((4,6-dichloro-o-biphenyl)oxy)ethylamine hydrobromide (DPEA) reduced or eliminated BP metabolism, binding of BP to DNA, and formation of BP-N7Gua by cytochrome P-450 in both microsomes and nuclei. The effects of the antioxidants cysteine, glutathione, and p-methoxythiophenol were also investigated. This study represents the first demonstration of cytochrome P-450 mediating covalent binding of substrates to DNA via one-electron oxidation and suggests that this enzyme can catalyze peroxidase-type electron-transfer reactions.

  5. In vitro metabolism of a novel PPAR gamma agonist, KR-62980, and its stereoisomer, KR-63198, in human liver microsomes and by recombinant cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-B; Seo, K-A; Yoon, Y-J; Bae, M-A; Cheon, H G; Shin, J-G; Liu, K-H

    2008-09-01

    1. KR-62980 and its stereoisomer KR-63198 are novel and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) modulators with activity profiles different from that of rosiglitazone. This study was performed to identify the major metabolic pathways for KR-62980 and KR-63198 in human liver microsomes. 2. Human liver microsomal incubation of KR-62980 and KR-63198 in the presence of a beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating system resulted in hydroxy metabolite formation. In addition, the specific cytochrome P450s (CYPs) responsible for KR-62980 and KR-63198 hydroxylation were identified by using a combination of chemical inhibition in human liver microsomes and metabolism by recombinant P450s. It is shown that CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 are the predominant enzymes in the hydroxylation of KR-62980 and KR-63198. 3. The intrinsic clearance through hydroxylation was consistently and significantly higher for KR-62980 than for KR-63198, indicating metabolic stereoselectivity (CL(int) of 0.012 +/- 0.001 versus 0.004 +/- 0.001 microl min(-1) pmol(-1) P450, respectively). 4. In a drug-drug interaction study, KR-62980 and KR-63198 had no effect on the activities of the P450s tested (IC(50) > 50 microM), suggesting that in clinical interactions between KR-62980 and KR-63198 the P450s tested would not be expected.

  6. N-methylcarbazole metabolism by a purified isozyme of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450: membrane effects and autocatalytic inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Gurka, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The catalytic properties of purified cytochrome P-450b, the major isozyme found in hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats, for the metabolism of N-methylcarbazole (NMC) were analyzed in two membranous systems in order to investigate membrane bilayer-dependent parameters. Incorporation of the enzymes of the monoxygenase system into bilayer liposomal vesicles composed of total microsomal lipid had no effect on the rates or regioselectivity of the mono-hydroxylation of the substrate when compared to the same enzymes reconstituted in a soluble system with small amounts of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). The membranous system exhibited K/sub m/ values of NMC which were 4-5 times higher than the non-vesicular system. The rapid decline in the rates of NMC metabolism by cytochrome P-450b during catalysis suggested enzyme inactivation during substrate processing. Radiolabel from (methyl-/sup 14/C)NMC was incorporated into the P-450b apoprotein as a result of enzyme turnover co-incident with the loss of enzyme activity. NMC-stimulated NADPH oxidation by the reconstituted enzyme system containing DLPC was biophasic, with a slow rate preceding a two-fold higher rate. Carbazole and some N-substituted derivatives were unique in stimulating this unusual oxidation.

  7. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A2 by musk analogues and other inducing agents in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Iwata, N; Suzuki, K; Minegishi, K; Kawanishi, T; Hara, S; Endo, T; Takahashi, A

    1993-10-01

    We characterized the inducing effects of two musk analogues, musk xylene and musk ambrette, on phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and compared their effects with 3-methylcholanthrene, isosafrole and 2(3)-tertbutylhydroxyanisole (BHA) at 0.1 mmol/kg dose level. Musk xylene and isosafrole increased more efficiently the metabolic activation of 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) to mutagen than that of benzo(a)pyrene. Musk ambrette increased both the activation of Glu-P-1 and benzo(a)pyrene to the same extent. Western blot analyses revealed that musk xylene, musk ambrette, isosafrole and BHA induced more strongly cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) in microsomes than CYP1A1. 3-Methylcholanthrene induced CYP1A1 in preference to CYP1A2. On the other hand, all drugs except for 3-methylcholanthrene did not show remarkable increases in phase II enzyme activities, such as DT-diaphorase, glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase, at 0.1 mmol/kg dose level. These results show that musk xylene, musk ambrette, isosafrole and BHA at the dose level used in this study possess the potency to induce CYP1A2 without remarkable induction of CYP1A1 and phase II enzyme activities as observed for 3-methylcholanthrene, although they have been considered to induce both phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes at higher doses.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Aschantin on Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Cho, Yong Yeon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hye Suk

    2016-01-01

    Aschantin is a bioactive neolignan found in Magnolia flos with antiplasmodial, Ca(2+)-antagonistic, platelet activating factor-antagonistic, and chemopreventive activities. We investigated its inhibitory effects on the activities of eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes of human liver microsomes to determine if mechanistic aschantin-enzyme interactions were evident. Aschantin potently inhibited CYP2C8-mediated amodiaquine N-de-ethylation, CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated [S]-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, and CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, with Ki values of 10.2, 3.7, 5.8, and 12.6 µM, respectively. Aschantin at 100 µM negligibly inhibited CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-de-ethylation, CYP2A6-mediated coumarin 7-hydroxylation, CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylation, and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. At 200 µM, it weakly inhibited UGT1A1-catalyzed SN-38 glucuronidation, UGT1A6-catalyzed N-acetylserotonin glucuronidation, and UGT1A9-catalyzed mycophenolic acid glucuronidation, with IC50 values of 131.7, 144.1, and 71.0 µM, respectively, but did not show inhibition against UGT1A3, UGT1A4, or UGT2B7 up to 200 µM. These in vitro results indicate that aschantin should be examined in terms of potential interactions with pharmacokinetic drugs in vivo. It exhibited potent mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. PMID:27128896

  9. Mapping of genes for cytochromes P-450b, P-450e, P-450g and P-450h in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rampersaud, A.; Walz, F.G. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Inbred ACI, WF and RCS rats having characteristic markers for albino (c), hemoglobin ..beta..-chain (Hbb) and pink-eyed dilution (p) loci on chromosome l and expressing electrophoretic variants for hepatic cytochromes P-450b, P-450e and P-450h and a likely Cis-acting regulatory variant of P-450g were used in genetic mapping studies of these hemoproteins. Phenotypes for these microsomal cytochromes P-450 were analyzed using 2-D electrophoresis and the results of WF x (ACI x WF)fl and RCS x (WF x RCS)fl backcrosses revealed two gene clusters designated the P450-b,e and P450-g,h loci. The interval separating P450-b and P450-e was <1 centiMorgan (cM) and that separating P450-g from P450-h was, 3.7 cM at a 90% confidence level. P450-g,h is not linked with P450-b,e and the other markers tested on chromosome 1. The linkage map P450-b,e--p--c--Hbb on rat chromosome 1 was demonstrated and found to be congruent with Coh(P450-b,e)--p--c--Hbb on mouse chromosome 7. It appears that close genetic linkage, rather than common functional/regulatory properties, typify members of cytochrome P-450 subfamilies.

  10. [Inhibitory effect of imperatorin and isoimperatorin on activity of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human and rat liver microsomes].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhong, Yu-Huan; Yuan, Mei; Li, Hua; Zhao, Chun-Jie

    2013-04-01

    Imperatorin (IM) and isoimperatorin (ISOIM) are major active components of common herbal medicines from Umbelliferae plants, and widely used in clinic. This article studies the inhibitory effect of IM and ISOIM on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, and assesses their potential drug-drug interaction. IM and ISOIM were incubated separately with human or rat liver microsomes for 30 min, with phenacetin, bupropion, tolbutamide, S-mephenytoin, dextromethorphan and midazolam as probe substrates. Metabolites of the CYP probe substrates were determined by LC-MS/MS, and IC50 values were calculated to assess the inhibitory effect of the two drugs on human CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 enzymes, as well as on rat CYP1A2, 2B6, 2D2 and 3A1/2, and grade their inhibitory intensity. In human liver microsomes, IM and ISOIM showed different inhibitory effects on all of the six CYP isoenzymes. They were strong inhibitors for 1A2 and 2B6. The IC50 values were 0.05 and 0.20 micromol x L(-1) for 1A2, and 0.18 and 1.07 micromol x L(-1) for 2B6, respectively. They also showed moderate inhibitory effect on 2C19, and weak effect on 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4. In rat liver microsomes, IM and ISOIM were identified as moderate inhibitors for 1A2, with IC50 values of 1.95 and 2.98 micromol x L(-1). They were moderate and weak inhibitors for 2B6, with IC50 values of 6.22 and 21.71 micromol x L(-1), respectively. They also had weaker inhibitory effect on 2D2 and 3A1/2. The results indicated that IM and ISOIM had extensive inhibitory effects on human CYP enzymes. They are strong inhibitors of CYP1 A2 and 2B6 enzymes. However, it is worth noting the interaction arising from the inhibitory effect of CYP enzymes in clinic.

  11. The impact of individual cytochrome P450 enzymes on oxidative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in human livers

    PubMed Central

    Šulc, Miroslav; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M.; White, P.

    2016-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In this study human recombinant CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5) were expressed in Supersomes™ together with their reductases, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase, epoxide hydrolase and cytochrome b5, to investigate BaP metabolism. Human CYPs produced up to eight BaP metabolites. Among these, BaP‐7,8‐dihydrodiol and BaP‐9‐ol, which are intermediates in BaP‐derived DNA adduct formation, were mainly formed by CYP1A1 and 1B1, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C19 and 3A4. BaP‐3‐ol, a metabolite that is a ‘detoxified’ product of BaP, was formed by most human CYPs tested, although CYP1A1 and 1B1 produced it the most efficiently. Based on the amounts of the individual BaP metabolites formed by these CYPs and their expression levels in human liver, we determined their contributions to BaP metabolite formation in this organ. Our results indicate that hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2C19 are most important in the activation of BaP to BaP‐7,8‐dihydrodiol, whereas CYP2C19, 3A4, and 1A1 are the major enzymes contributing to the formation of BaP‐9‐ol. BaP‐3‐ol is predominantly formed by hepatic CYP3A4, while CYP1A1 and 2C19 are less active. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:229–235, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26919089

  12. Tissue-specific expression of rat mRNAs homologous to cytochromes P-450b and P-450e.

    PubMed Central

    Omiecinski, C J

    1986-01-01

    The tissue-specific expression of cytochrome P-450b and P-450e mRNAs was examined with synthetic 18-mer oligomer probes in the liver, lung, kidney, and testis of control and inducer pretreated adult rats. RNAs homologous to the P-450e probe were detected in trace amounts in control and 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) induced livers and at high levels in livers from phenobarbital (PB) induced animals. P-450e mRNA levels were below detection limits in the other tissues examined, regardless of pretreatment. In contrast, mRNAs homologous to the P-450b oligomer were detected at low levels in control and inducer pretreated lung and testis, and at high levels in PB induced liver. No P-450b mRNAs were detected in these assays in RNA isolates from the kidney or from control or MC pretreated liver. Solution hybridization data indicated that the rat lung contained 9-12%, and the testis, 6-9%, respectively, of the levels of P-450b mRNA measured in the PB induced liver. Results from oligo(dT)-cellulose and poly(U)-affinity experiments indicated that the hepatic mRNAs for P-450b and P-450e were present predominantly in the bound, polyadenylated fraction, whereas the homologous lung and testes P-450b mRNAs predominated in the flow-thru fractions. Images PMID:3754047

  13. Determination of the membrane topology of the phenobarbital-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme PB-4 using site-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen peptides, ranging in length from 6 to 31 amino acids and corresponding in sequence to portions of the major phenobarbital- inducible form of rat liver cytochrome P-450 (P-450 PB-4), were previously synthesized chemically and used to prepare site-specific rabbit antibodies (Frey, A. B., D.J. Waxman, and G. Kreibich, 1985, J. Biol. Chem., 260:15253-15265). The antipeptide antibodies were affinity purified using Sepharose resins derivatized with the respective peptides and 14 preparations were obtained that in an ELISA assay showed affinities to immobilized P-450 judged to be adequate for binding studies on intact rat liver microsomes. The binding of these antibodies to rough microsomes from the livers of phenobarbital treated rats was assessed using 125I-labeled IgG and by immunoelectron microscopy employing protein A-gold as a marker. It was found that many of the antibodies bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane but none bound to the luminal face of ruptured or inverted microsomal vesicles or to contaminating membranes of other organelles present in the preparations. These observations eliminate previously proposed models for the transmembrane disposition of P-450 that postulate the existence of multiple transmembrane domains and the exposure of several polar segments of the polypeptide on the luminal side of the membrane. The fact that an antibody raised to the first 31 residues of P-450 bound well to the purified P-450 but very poorly to rough microsomes, whereas an antibody to a peptide comprising residues 24-38 showed relatively strong binding to intact microsomes, is consistent with the proposal that the amino terminal segment of P-450 extending approximately to residue 20 is embedded in the phospholipid bilayer and the immediately following segment is exposed on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane. All these results favor a model in which the cytochrome P-450 molecule is largely exposed on the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic

  14. Effects of the aqueous extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Jinping, Qiao; Peiling, Hou; Yawei, Li; Abliz, Zeper

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge (danshen in Chinese) on the pharmacokinetics of diazepam and on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in rats. Rats (n = 5) were pretreated with danshen extract (100 mg kg(-1) per day, p.o.) for 15 consecutive days. Control rats (n = 5) received saline at the same time. Each rat was then administered a single oral dose of 15 mg kg(-1) diazepam. The pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam were significantly different between the two groups. In the danshen pretreated group, the maximum concentration of diazepam and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve were reduced to about 72.7% and 44.4%, respectively, while the total body clearance was markedly increased by 2-fold. To help explain the results, liver microsomal suspensions were obtained from rats that were randomly divided into the control group (n = 10), and the low- (20 mg kg(-1) for 15 days, p.o., n = 10) and high-dose groups (100 mg kg(-1) for 15 days, p.o., n = 10) pretreated with danshen extract. Compared with the control rats, the microsomal protein content, cytochrome P450 enzyme level and erythromycin N-demethylase activity of pretreated rats were significantly increased. These results indicate that danshen extract can stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450 isoforms, and changes in the pharmacokinetics of diazepam resulting from danshen extract are related to an increase in metabolic activity of cytochrome P450. PMID:12956908

  15. Assessment of a dry extract from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for interference with human liver cytochrome-P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Doehmer, Johannes; Weiss, Gabriele; McGregor, Gerard P; Appel, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    The effect of a standardised dry extract from Silybum marianum (HEPAR-PASC®) on the enzyme kinetics of cytochrome-P450 isoenzymes (CYP) was investigated with primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes in order to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions. A cytotoxic effect on hepatocytes was observed at concentrations at and above 50 μg/ml. The EC(50) value was calculated to be 72.0 μg/ml. Therefore, the chosen test concentrations for CYP induction on human hepatocytes were 50, 10, and 1.5 μg/ml, which allowed for interpretation of the clinical significance of the data with a range of 50-1-fold c(max) at maximal recommended doses. No induction was observed at the lowest concentration of 1.5 μg/ml, which is close to c(max). The extract did not induce CYP 3A4 at any of the tested concentrations. A low or marginal induction of 1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 at the maximum concentration of 50 μg/ml was observed. CYP inhibition on human microsomes was tested at concentrations of 150, 15, and 1.5 μg/ml. No or minor CYP inhibition was observed for all CYPs tested at the lowest concentration of 1.5 μg/ml, i.e. CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. At concentrations of 15 and 150 μg/ml the extract significantly inhibited CYP 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, and 3A4. In these cases, K(i) values were determined. All K(i) values exceeded c(max) by at least a factor of 10-fold. According to FDA regulations 1>c(max)/K(i)>0.1 indicates, that drug-drug interactions are possible for CYPs 2C8, and 2C9, but not likely, and are remote for CYPs 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4.

  16. A gel-free MS-based quantitative proteomic approach accurately measures cytochrome P450 protein concentrations in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael Zhuo; Wu, Judy Qiju; Dennison, Jennifer B; Bridges, Arlene S; Hall, Stephen D; Kornbluth, Sally; Tidwell, Richard R; Smith, Philip C; Voyksner, Robert D; Paine, Mary F; Hall, James Edwin

    2008-10-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (P450) superfamily consists of membrane-bound proteins that metabolize a myriad of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Quantification of P450 expression in various tissues under normal and induced conditions has an important role in drug safety and efficacy. Conventional immunoquantification methods have poor dynamic range, low throughput, and a limited number of specific antibodies. Recent advances in MS-based quantitative proteomics enable absolute protein quantification in a complex biological mixture. We have developed a gel-free MS-based protein quantification strategy to quantify CYP3A enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM). Recombinant protein-derived proteotypic peptides and synthetic stable isotope-labeled proteotypic peptides were used as calibration standards and internal standards, respectively. The lower limit of quantification was approximately 20 fmol P450. In two separate panels of HLM examined (n = 11 and n = 22), CYP3A, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 concentrations were determined reproducibly (CV or=0.87) and marker activities (r(2)>or=0.88), including testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (CYP3A), midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (CYP3A), itraconazole 6-hydroxylation (CYP3A4) and CYP3A5-mediated vincristine M1 formation (CYP3A5). Taken together, our MS-based method provides a specific, sensitive and reliable means of P450 protein quantification and should facilitate P450 characterization during drug development, especially when specific substrates and/or antibodies are unavailable.

  17. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  18. Diversity and evolution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Sello, Mopeli Marshal; Jafta, Norventia; Nelson, David R; Chen, Wanping; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Parvez, Mohammad; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Sitheni Mashele, Samson; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as drug targets against pathogens, as well as in valuable chemical production and bioremediation, has been explored. In this study we performed comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s in 13 newly explored oomycete pathogens. Three hundred and fifty-six P450s were found in oomycetes. These P450s were grouped into 15 P450 families and 84 P450 subfamilies. Among these, nine P450 families and 31 P450 subfamilies were newly found in oomycetes. Research revealed that oomycetes belonging to different orders contain distinct P450 families and subfamilies in their genomes. Evolutionary analysis and sequence homology data revealed P450 family blooms in oomycetes. Tandem arrangement of a large number of P450s belonging to the same family indicated that P450 family blooming is possibly due to its members’ duplications. A unique combination of amino acid patterns was observed at EXXR and CXG motifs for the P450 families CYP5014, CYP5015 and CYP5017. A novel P450 fusion protein (CYP5619 family) with an N-terminal P450 domain fused to a heme peroxidase/dioxygenase domain was discovered in Saprolegnia declina. Oomycete P450 patterns suggested host influence in shaping their P450 content. This manuscript serves as reference for future P450 annotations in newly explored oomycetes. PMID:26129850

  19. Kupffer cell stimulation with Corynebacterium parvum reduces some cytochrome P450-dependent activities and diminishes acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Raiford, D S; Thigpen, M C

    1994-11-01

    Chemical activation of Kupffer cells in vivo by vitamin A or latex beads is associated with a worsening of hepatic injury induced by the P450-dependent hepatotoxins acetaminophen (ACET) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and by the P450-independent toxin galactosamine (GLN). Immunostimulants such as Corynebacterium parvum (CP) also activate Kupffer cells, but do so while prompting release of soluble mediators which depress microsomal oxidative activities in cultured hepatocytes. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of CP on hepatic injury in vivo due to ACET and CCl4 while employing GLN as a control. Hepatic microsomal oxidative activity and glutathione (GSH) disposition were examined since each influences susceptibility to injury from ACET or CCl4. Rats were given CP 28 mg/kg i.v. 5 days before challenge with hepatotoxicant. Hepatic injury was assessed 24 hr after hepatotoxicant administration by measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and review of histological sections. Livers from parallel groups of rats were used to prepare microsomal and cytosolic fractions, to measure tissue GSH, or for perfusion to assess GSH efflux. Significant reductions in injury due to ACET or CCl4 were observed while injury due to GLN was potentiated. Serum ALT levels after ACET were 3000 +/- 620 in controls vs 170 +/- 45 IU/liter in the CP-treated group and ALT levels after CCl4 were 3100 +/- 500 in controls vs 1700 + 450 IU/liter in the CP-treated group. In contrast, serum ALT levels after GLN were 920 +/- 230 in controls vs 1700 +/- 370 in the CP-treated group. Patterns of hepatic injury observed on histological sections were those characteristic for each toxin and the severity of injury correlated well with alterations in serum ALT levels for each agent. Hepatic microsomal fractions from rats pretreated with CP showed significantly diminished total cytochrome P450 content as well as reduced activity for two P450IIE1 substrates, p-nitrophenol and 7

  20. Cytochrome P-450 revealed: the effect of the respiratory cytochromes on the spectrum of bacterial cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, P M; Ruettinger, R T; Fulco, A J

    1983-05-16

    Soluble extracts of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 prepared by centrifuging a sonicated cell suspension at 40,000 xg for 30 min apparently contained no cytochrome P-450 unless the culture had been grown in the presence of an inducer: a reduced+CO minus reduced spectrum was used to measure cytochrome P-450 concentration. When the 40,000 xg supernatants from the uninduced cultures were recentrifuged at 105,000 xg the respiratory cytochromes, including one like cytochrome a1, were sedimented, and cytochrome P-450 was observed to be 100 nM or 30 +/- 9 p mol cytochrome P-450/mg protein (n=9). Measurements of cytochrome P-450 in cultures induced with phenobarbital were always higher after ultracentrifugation. There was soluble cytochrome o in all extracts. When cytochrome a1 was present a deep trough at 441 nm developed in the reduced +CO minus reduced difference spectrum of the 40,000 xg supernatant of both the uninduced and the induced cultures. The 40,000 xg supernatant obtained after lysing protoplasts of B. megaterium did not contain cytochrome a1 and always gave a good measure of cytochrome P-450. PMID:6405752

  1. Genetics Home Reference: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... P450 oxidoreductase deficiency is a disorder of hormone production. This condition specifically affects steroid hormones, which are ... activity of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, which disrupts the production of steroid hormones. Changes in sex hormones such ...

  2. Structural characterization of a monoclonal antibody immunopurified pulmonary cytochrome P-450 from 3-methylcholanthrenetreated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.C.; Cheng, K.C.; Park, S.S.; Gelboin, H.V.; Friedman, F.K.

    1986-05-01

    Extrahepatic cytochromes P-450 have not been as extensively studied as the hepatic forms, owing to the low concentrations of these enzymes in extrahepatic tissues. A cytochrome P-450 was purified from lung microsomes of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-treated rats by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody to the major MC-inducible form of rat liver cytochrome P-450. The lung cytochrome P-450 is related to this liver form by at least two common epitopes, recognized by monoclonal antibodies 1-7-1 and 1-31-2. The isolated pulmonary cytochrome P-450 is MC-inducible and has an apparent molecular weight of 57 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The molecular weight as well as the NH/sub 2/-terminal sequence of the pulmonary cytochrome P-450 is identical to that of the major MC-inducible form of rat liver cytochrome P-450. In addition, limited proteolytic digestion of both cytochromes P-450 generates the same peptide patterns on SDS-PAGE. By several criteria, treatment of rats with MC thus induces a pulmonary cytochrome P-450 which is structurally identical to the MC-induced hepatic enzyme.

  3. Cytochrome P450 expression in oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; Shaw, D; Weaver, R J; McKay, J A; Ewen, S W; Melvin, W T; Burke, M D

    1994-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes play a central part in the metabolism of carcinogens and anti-cancer drugs. The expression, cellular localisation, and distribution of different forms of P450 and the functionally associated enzymes epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferases have been investigated in oesophageal cancer and non-neoplastic oesophageal tissue using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the different enzymes was confined to epithelial cells in both non-neoplastic samples and tumour samples except the CYP3A was also identified in mast cells and glutathione S-transferase pi was present in chronic inflammatory cells. CYP1A was present in a small percentage of non-neoplastic samples but both CYP2C and CYP3A were absent. Epoxide hydrolase was present in half of the non-neoplastic samples and the different classes of glutathione S-transferase were present in a low number of samples. In carcinomas CYP1A, CYP3A, epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase pi were expressed in at least 60% of samples. The expression of glutathione S-transferases alpha and mu were significantly less in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8200549

  4. Prediction of drug clearance by glucuronidation from in vitro data: use of combined cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase cofactors in alamethicin-activated human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kilford, Peter J; Stringer, Rowan; Sohal, Bindi; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Glucuronidation via UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is an increasingly important clearance pathway. In this study intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values for buprenorphine, carvedilol, codeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, midazolam, naloxone, raloxifene, and zidovudine were determined in pooled human liver microsomes using the substrate depletion approach. The in vitro clearance data indicated a varying contribution of glucuronidation to the clearance of the compounds studied, ranging from 6 to 79% for midazolam and gemfibrozil, respectively. The CL(int) was obtained using either individual or combined cofactors for cytochrome P450 (P450) and UGT enzymes with alamethicin activation and in the presence and absence of 2% bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the presence of combined P450 and UGT cofactors, CL(int) ranged from 2.8 to 688 microl/min/mg for zidovudine and buprenorphine, respectively; the clearance was approximately equal to the sum of the CL(int) values obtained in the presence of individual cofactors. The unbound intrinsic clearance (CL(int, u)) was scaled to provide an in vivo predicted CL(int); the data obtained in the presence of combined cofactors resulted in 5-fold underprediction on average. Addition of 2% BSA to the incubation with both P450 and UGT cofactors reduced the bias in the clearance prediction, with 8 of 10 compounds predicted within 2-fold of in vivo values with the exception of raloxifene and gemfibrozil. The current study indicates the applicability of combined cofactor conditions in the assessment of clearance for compounds with a differential contribution of P450 and UGT enzymes to their elimination. In addition, improved predictability of microsomal data is observed in the presence of BSA, in particular for UGT2B7 substrates.

  5. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A2-mediated metabolism and production of reactive oxygen species by heme oxygenase-1 in rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, James R; Cawley, George F; Backes, Wayne L

    2011-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in most cell types by many forms of environmental stress and is believed to play a protective role in cells exposed to oxidative stress. Metabolism by cytochromes P450 (P450) is highly inefficient as the oxidation of substrate is associated with the production of varying proportions of hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide. This study tests the hypothesis that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role against oxidative stress by competing with P450 for binding to the common redox partner, the NADPH P450 reductase (CPR) and in the process, diminishing P450 metabolism and the associated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Liver microsomes were isolated from uninduced rats and rats that were treated with cadmium and/or β-napthoflavone (BNF) to induce HO-1 and/or CYP1A2. HO-1 induction was associated with slower rates of metabolism of the CYP1A2-specific substrate, 7-ethoxyresorufin. Furthermore, HO-1 induction also was associated with slower rates of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical production by microsomes from rats induced for CYP1A2. The inhibition associated with HO-1 induction was not dependent on the addition of heme to the microsomal incubations. The effects of HO-1 induction were less dramatic in the absence of substrate for CYP1A2, suggesting that the enzyme was more effective in inhibiting the CYP1A2-related activity than the CPR-related production of superoxide (that dismutates to form hydrogen peroxide).

  6. Effect of chronic exposure to ozone and nitric acid on cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system of rat lung and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Sindhu, R.K.; Mautz, W.J.; Ichiro Fujita, Nai-San Wang; Yutaka, Kikkawa

    1996-03-08

    Male F344/N rats were exposed to 0.15ppm ozone (O{sub 3}) and 50{mu}g/m{sup 3} nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) vapor alone and in combination for 4h/day 3days/week for a total of 40 weeks. Exposure to HNO{sub 3} vapor alone caused a significant increase of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the hepatic microsomes (p{le}0.05). Monoclonal cytochrome P450 aA1/1A2 antibody-precipitable EROD activity in the hepatic microsomes was increased by 59% (p{le}0.01) and 40T (p{le}0.05), respectively, in the HNO{sub 3} vapor and {sub 3}+HNO{sub 3} vapor groups. In the pulmonary microsomes, benzphetamine N-demethylase (BPND) activity was increased by 72% (p{le}0.01), 85% (p{le}0.01) and decreased by 15% (p{le}0.01), respectively, by exposure to O{sub 3}, O{sub 3}+HNO{sub 3} and HNO{sub 3} vapor, but was unaffected in the hepatic microsomes.

  7. Flower colour and cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  8. The revised human liver cytochrome P450 "Pie": absolute protein quantification of CYP4F and CYP3A enzymes using targeted quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Scott; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    The CYP4F subfamily of enzymes has been identified recently to be involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds (arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4), nutrients (vitamins K1 and E), and xenobiotics (pafuramidine and fingolimod). CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B are reported to be expressed in the human liver. However, absolute concentrations of these enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and their interindividual variability have yet to be determined because of the lack of specific antibodies. Here, an liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted quantitative proteomic approach was employed to determine the absolute protein concentrations of CYP4F2 and CYP4F3B compared with CYP3A in two panels of HLMs (n = 31). As a result, the human hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) "pie" has been revised to include the contribution of CYP4F enzymes, which amounts to 15% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP4F3B displayed low interindividual variability (3.3-fold) in the HLM panels whereas CYP4F2 displayed large variability (21-fold). However, CYP4F2 variability decreased to 3.4-fold if the two donors with the lowest expression were excluded. In contrast, CYP3A exhibited 29-fold interindividual variability in the same HLM panels. The proposed marker reaction for CYP4F enzymes pafuramidine/DB289 M1 formation did not correlate with CYP4F protein content, suggesting alternate metabolic pathways for DB289 M1 formation in HLMs. In conclusion, CYP4F enzymes are highly expressed in the human liver and their physiologic and pharmacologic roles warrant further investigation.

  9. Impacts of diversification of cytochrome P450 on plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions in primary and secondary metabolism in plants. The share of P450 genes in each plant genome is estimated to be up to 1%. This implies that the diversification of P450 has made a significant contribution to the ability to acquire the emergence of new metabolic pathways during land plant evolution. The P450 families conserved universally in land plants contribute to their chemical defense mechanisms. Several P450s are involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of plant hormones. Species-specific P450 families are essential for the biosynthetic pathways of phytochemicals such as terpenoids and alkaloids. Genome wide analysis of the gene clusters including P450 genes will provide a clue to defining the metabolic roles of orphan P450s. Metabolic engineering with plant P450s is an important technology for large-scale production of valuable phytochemicals such as medicines.

  10. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 530348 (Vorapaxar), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anima; Lu, Xiaowen; Penner, Natalia; Gao, Lan; Ramanathan, Ragu; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Vorapaxar (SCH 530348), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist, is being developed as an antiplatelet agent for patients with established vascular disease. The objective of this study was to identify the human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of SCH 530348. Human liver microsomes metabolized SCH 530348 to M19, an amine metabolite formed via carbamate cleavage, and M20 (monohydroxy-SCH 530348). Recombinant human CYP3A4 exhibited the most activity (11.5% profiled radioactivity) for the formation of M19, followed by markedly less substrate conversion with CYP1A1 and CYP2C19. Trace levels of M19, a major excreted human metabolite, were detected with CYP1A2, CYP3A5, and CYP4F3A. Formation of M19 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole (IC(50), 0.73 μM), 34% by tranylcypromine, and 89% by anti-CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. There was a significant correlation between the rate of M19 formation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (r = 0.75) or M19 formation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation (r = 0.92). The results of screening, inhibition, and correlation studies confirmed that CYP3A4 is the major P450 enzyme responsible for M19 formation from SCH 530348. In contrast, formation of M20, a major circulating human metabolite at steady state, was primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2J2. M20 is pharmacologically equipotent to SCH 530348, whereas M19 is an inactive metabolite. Formation of M20 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole, 75% by astemizole (a CYP2J2 inhibitor), and 43% by CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP2J2 are both involved in the formation of M20 metabolite. PMID:20926621

  11. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: inducibility of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Lau, K; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions were investigated in intrasplenic liver cell explants in comparison to adult liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60-90 days old adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. 2, 4 or 6 months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched controls were orally treated with BNF (1x50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)), PB (1x50 mg/kg b.wt.), DEX (for 3 days 4 mg/kg b.wt. per day), or the respective solvents (dimethylsulfoxide or 0.9% NaCl). The animals were sacrificed 24 (BNF, DEX) or 48 (PB) hours after the last treatment. P450 mediated monooxygenase functions were measured in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants by three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; 1A, 2A, 2B), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; 3A). Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls, at all three time points after surgery. Induction with PB or DEX, and in some cases also with BNF, lead to a significant increase in liver weights of transplant recipients and control rats independent of the time after transplantation. In contrast, there was no influence on spleen weights due to BNF or PB. At all time points after surgery, with DEX a marked decrease in body weights, weights of adrenal glands and of lymphatic organs like thymus glands and spleens was observed, with the weights of the transplant containing spleens being still higher in comparison to control organs. Spleens of control animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions neither without nor with induction. After transplantation, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any END activities were seen in the host organs at all three time points after surgery. In transplant containing spleens

  12. Metabolism of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in Turkey liver microsomes: The relative roles of cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Sumit; Coulombe, Roger A.

    2011-08-01

    The extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is associated with efficient epoxidation by hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450) 1A5 and 3A37 to exo-aflatoxin B{sub 1}-8,9-epoxide (exo-AFBO). The combined presence of 1A5 and 3A37, which obey different kinetic models, both of which metabolize AFB{sub 1} to the exo-AFBO and to detoxification products aflatoxin M{sub 1} (AFM{sub 1}) and aflatoxin Q{sub 1} (AFQ{sub 1}), respectively, complicates the kinetic analysis of AFB{sub 1} in turkey liver microsomes (TLMs). Antisera directed against 1A5 and 3A37, thereby individually removing the catalytic contribution of these enzymes, were used to identify the P450 responsible for epoxidating AFB{sub 1} in TLMs. In control TLMs, AFB{sub 1} was converted to exo-AFBO in addition to AFM{sub 1} and AFQ{sub 1} confirming the presence of functional 1A5 and 3A37. Pretreatment with anti-1A5 inhibited exo-AFBO formation, especially at low, submicromolar ({approx} 0.1 {mu}M), while anti-3A37, resulted in inhibition of exo-AFBO formation, but at higher (> 50 {mu}M) AFB{sub 1} concentrations. Metabolism in immunoinhibited TLMs resembled that of individual enzymes: 1A5 produced exo-AFBO and AFM{sub 1}, conforming to Michaelis-Menten, while 3A37 produced exo-AFBO and AFQ{sub 1} following the kinetic Hill equation. At 0.1 {mu}M AFB{sub 1}, close to concentrations in livers of exposed animals, 1A5 contributed to 98% of the total exo-AFBO formation. At this concentration, 1A5 accounted for a higher activation:detoxification (50:1, exo-AFBO: AFM{sub 1}) compared to 3A37 (0.15: 1, exo-AFBO: AFQ{sub 1}), suggesting that 1A5 is high, while 3A4 is the low affinity enzyme in turkey liver. The data support the conclusion that P450 1A5 is the dominant enzyme responsible for AFB{sub 1} bioactivation and metabolism at environmentally-relevant AFB{sub 1} concentrations in turkey liver. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Efficient bioactivation by P450s 1A5 and 3A4

  13. Activation of amino-alpha-carboline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and a copper phthalocyanine cellulose extract of cigarette smoke condensate by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Guengerich, F P

    1991-10-01

    The ability of cigarette smoke condensate to induce a genotoxic response has been measured in liver microsomal and reconstituted monooxygenase systems containing rat and human cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzymes, as determined by umu gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The reactivities of amino-alpha-carboline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), two compounds known to be present at considerable levels in cigarette smoke condensate, were also determined and compared with regard to genotoxicity. Amino-alpha-carboline and PhIP are activated principally by P-450 1A2 enzymes in human and rat liver microsomes: (a) activation of both compounds was catalyzed efficiently by liver microsomes prepared from rats treated with 5,6-benzoflavone, isosafrole, or the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254, and the activities could be considerably inhibited by antibodies raised against P-450 1A1 or 1A2; (b) the rates of activation of these compounds were correlated with the amount of human P-450 1A2 and of phenacetin O-deethylation activity in different human liver microsomal preparations, and these activities were inhibited by anti-P-450 1A2; (c) reconstituted enzyme systems containing P-450 1A enzymes isolated from rats and humans showed the highest rates of activation of amino-alpha-carboline and PhIP. In rat liver microsomes PhIP may also be activated by P-450 3A enzymes; activity was induced in rats treated with pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile and was inhibited by anti-human P-450 3A4. However, in humans the contribution of P-450 3A enzymes could be excluded as judged by the very low effects of anti-P-450 3A4 on the microsomal activities and poor correlation with P-450 3A4-catalyzed activities in various liver samples. Cigarette smoke condensate strongly inhibited the activation of several potent procarcinogens by human liver microsomes, particularly the reactions catalyzed by P-450 1A2, but was not so inhibitory of

  14. Cold-induced activities of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 in rat liver: putative role of endogenous compounds in induction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Perepechaeva, M L; Grishanova, A Yu

    2013-03-01

    Adaptation to cold includes adaptive changes at the organism and molecular levels. One of the interesting facts is induction of cytochromes P450 subfamily 1A (CYP1A) in the liver of rats, inducible enzymes participating in biotransformation of procarcinogenic xenobiotics, under the effect of moderate cold exposure. Cold activation of CYP1A can be mediated by adaptive changes and the resultant redistribution or intensification of the synthesis of mediator compounds. This hypothesis is verified in the present study. The role of bilirubin, tocopherol, and corticosterone as mediators of cold induction of CYP1A in the rat liver was evaluated. The results indicate that these compounds can be involved in cold induction of CYP1A, but none of them is the only mediator in this process.

  15. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; King, Barry P; Leathart, Julian B S

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for the extraction of DNA from human blood and for genotyping for a number of common cytochrome P450 polymorphisms using either polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis are described. Rapid high-throughput techniques are also available for analyses of this type, but they require access to specialized equipment and are not considered here. General guidelines for performing amplification using PCR are described together with electrophoresis protocols for analysis of restriction digests of PCR products with agarose and polyacrylamide gels including the use of polyacrylamide-based gels for SSCP analysis. Protocols for the following specific isoforms and alleles are also provided: CYP1A1 (*2B and *4 alleles), CYP2C8 (*3 and *4 alleles), CYP2C9 (*2, *3, and *11 alleles), CYP2C19 (*2 and *3 alleles), CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *5, and *6 alleles), CYP2E1 (*5A, *5B, and *6 alleles), and CYP3A5 (*3 allele).

  16. Genotyping for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K; King, Barry P; Leathart, Julian B S

    2006-01-01

    Protocols for the extraction of DNA from human blood and for genotyping for a number of common cytochrome P450 polymorphisms using either polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis are described. Rapid high-throughput techniques are also available for analyses of this type, but they require access to specialized equipment and are not considered here. General guidelines for performing amplification using PCR are described together with electrophoresis protocols for analysis of restriction digests of PCR products with agarose and polyacrylamide gels including the use of polyacrylamide-based gels for SSCP analysis. Protocols for the following specific isoforms and alleles are also provided: CYP1A1 (*2B and *4 alleles), CYP2C8 (*3 and *4 alleles), CYP2C9 (*2, *3, and *11 alleles), CYP2C19 (*2 and *3 alleles), CYP2D6 (*3, *4, *5, and *6 alleles), CYP2E1 (*5A, *5B, and *6 alleles), and CYP3A5 (*3 allele). PMID:16719392

  17. In vitro inhibition and induction of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by gentiopicroside: potent effect on CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yating; Wang, Lu; Yang, Yong; Sun, Wenji; Xie, Renming; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qingwei

    2013-01-01

    Gentiopicroside (GE), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, has been developed into a Novel Traditional Chinese Drug named gentiopicroside injection, and it was approved for the treatment of acute jaundice and chronic active hepatitis by SFDA. However, the inhibitory and inducible effects of GE on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of GE to inhibit and induce human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. In human liver microsomes, GE inhibited CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC₅₀ values of 21.8 µg/ml and 594 µg/ml, respectively, and the IC₅₀ of CYP2A6 was close to the C(max) value observed clinically. GE was a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP2A6 at lower concentrations and a competitive inhibitor at higher concentrations. GE did not produce inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities. However, a significant increase of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity was observed at high concentrations. In cultured human hepatocytes no significant induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 was observed. Given these results, the in vivo potential inhibition of GE on CYP2A6 deserves further investigation, and it seems that the hepatoprotective effect of GE is irrelevant to its effect on P450s.

  18. Measurement of Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition in Human Hepatoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; De Kock, Joery; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a diverse group of catalytic enzymes in the liver that are mainly responsible for the biotransformation of organic substances. Cytochrome P450 activity as well as both its induction and inhibition are key factors in drug biotransformation and can be involved in deactivation, activation, detoxification and toxification processes. Thus, the modulation of cytochrome P450 activity is an important parameter when evaluating the potential toxicity of chemical compounds using an in vitro system. The cytochrome P450 3A subfamily proteins are among the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in human liver and are responsible for about half of all cytochrome P450-dependent drug oxidations. In vitro, these enzymes are active not only in primary human hepatocyte cultures, but also in differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells. The present protocol describes the culture of cryopreserved differentiated HepaRG cells and the evaluation of its cytochrome P450 activity upon exposure to a chemical compound using a commercially available luminogenic cytochrome P450 assay. This in vitro model can be used to monitor the induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A following exposure to a particular test compound.

  19. Role of cytochrome P450 in drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Zakia

    2008-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions have become an important issue in health care. It is now realized that many drug-drug interactions can be explained by alterations in the metabolic enzymes that are present in the liver and other extra-hepatic tissues. Many of the major pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs are due to hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes being affected by previous administration of other drugs. After coadministration, some drugs act as potent enzyme inducers, whereas others are inhibitors. However, reports of enzyme inhibition are very much more common. Understanding these mechanisms of enzyme inhibition or induction is extremely important in order to give appropriate multiple-drug therapies. In future, it may help to identify individuals at greatest risk of drug interactions and adverse events. PMID:18928560

  20. Biological diversity of cytochrome P450 redox partner systems.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kirsty J; Luciakova, Dominika; Belcher, James; Tee, Kang Lan; Munro, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s or CYPs) catalyze an enormous variety of oxidative reactions in organisms from all major domains of life. Their monooxygenase activity relies on the reductive scission of molecular oxygen (O2) bound to P450 heme iron, and thus on the delivery of two electrons to the heme iron at discrete points in the catalytic cycle. Early studies suggested that P450 redox partner machinery fell into only two major classes: either the eukaryotic diflavin enzyme NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, or bacterial/mitochondrial NAD(P)H-ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin partners. However, more recent studies, aided by genome sequence data, reveal a much more complex scenario. Several new types of P450 redox partner systems have now been characterized, including P450s naturally linked to their redox partners, or to a component protein of their P450 electron delivery system. Other P450s have evolved to bypass requirements for redox partners, and instead react directly with hydrogen peroxide or NAD(P)H to facilitate oxidative or reductive catalysis. Further P450s are fused to non-redox partner enzymes and can catalyse consecutive reactions in a common pathway. This chapter describes the biochemistry and the enormous natural diversity of P450 redox systems, including descriptions of novel P450s fused to non-redox partner proteins.

  1. Recent Structural Insights into Cytochrome P450 Function.

    PubMed

    Guengerich, F Peter; Waterman, Michael R; Egli, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are important in the metabolism of drugs, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins, carcinogens, pesticides, and many other types of chemicals. Their catalytic activities are important issues in areas such as drug-drug interactions and endocrine function. During the past 30 years, structures of P450s have been very helpful in understanding function, particularly the mammalian P450 structures available in the past 15 years. We review recent activity in this area, focusing on the past 2 years (2014-2015). Structural work with microbial P450s includes studies related to the biosynthesis of natural products and the use of parasitic and fungal P450 structures as targets for drug discovery. Studies on mammalian P450s include the utilization of information about 'drug-metabolizing' P450s to improve drug development and also to understand the molecular bases of endocrine dysfunction. PMID:27267697

  2. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism by 3-methylcholanthrene-induced hamster hepatic cytochrome P-450s.

    PubMed

    Lai, T S; Chiang, J Y

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the activation of aflatoxin B1 by hamster liver microsomes and purified hamster cytochrome P-450 isozymes using a umu mutagen test. The hamster liver microsomes or S-9 fractions were much more active than rat liver microsomes or S-9 fractions in the activation of umu gene expression by aflatoxin B1 metabolites. 3-Methyl-cholanthrene treatment increased aflatoxin B1 activation by hamster liver microsomes. Two major 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes, P-450 MC1 (IIA) and P-450 MC4 (IA2), were purified from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes, and the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by these two cytochromes was studied. In the reconstituted enzyme system, both P-450 MC1 and P-450 MC4 were highly active in the activation of aflatoxin B1, and antibodies against these P-450s specifically inhibited these activities. Antibody against P-450 MC1 inhibited the activation of aflatoxin B1 by 20% in the presence of 3-methyl-cholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes. In contrast, antibody against P-450 MC4 stimulated the activity by 175%. These results indicated that hamster P-450 MC1 might convert aflatoxin B1 to more toxic metabolite(s), whereas P-450 MC4 might convert aflatoxin B1 to less toxic metabolite(s), than aflatoxin B1 in liver microsomes. The metabolite(s) produced by both hamster cytochrome P-450 MC1 and MC4 were genotoxic in the umu mutagen test. PMID:2126562

  3. Cytochrome P450 inactivation during reductive metabolism of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) by phenobarbital- and pyridine-induced rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, R; Tolando, R; King, L J; Manno, M

    1997-04-01

    The reductive metabolic activation of 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), one of the potential substitutes for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons and a close structural analogue of the hepatotoxic anesthetic halothane, was investigated in vitro. During incubation of liver microsomes from phenobarbital-(PB) or pyridine-induced (PYR) rats with 0-20 mM HCFC-123 under anaerobic conditions, a dose- and time-dependent depletion of added exogenous glutathione was observed, indicating the formation of reactive metabolites. Under similar incubation conditions, except for the absence of glutathione, 1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane and 1-chloro-2,2-difluoroethene were detected as products of reductive metabolism of HCFC-123, as previously reported for halothane. As shown previously in our laboratory for halothane, under these conditions HCFC- 123 also caused a statistically significant loss of microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) as indicated by a decrease of the classical absorption spectrum in the presence of CO. Both glutathione depletion and P450 loss were almost completely prevented by previous saturation of the incubation mixture with CO and were partially prevented by the presence of the free-radical scavenger N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone or the carbene trapping agent 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene, suggesting that both types of intermediates may be involved. The loss of P450 was associated with a quantitatively similar loss of microsomal heme, as measured by the pyridine hemochromogen reaction, with PB but not with PYR microsomes. Finally, both the P4502E1-specific p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity in PYR microsomes and the P4502B1/2-specific pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase activity in PB microsomes were significantly inhibited (58 and 53%, respectively) by prior incubation with HCFC-123, suggesting that both isoforms are able to catalyze the activation of this halogenated compound. These results indicate that indeed HCFC-123, like its analogue halothane, is

  4. Identification of cytochrome P450 isoform involved in the metabolism of YM992, a novel selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, K; Mera, A; Watanabe, T; Higuchi, S; Chiba, K

    2000-05-01

    1. In vitro studies were conducted to identify the hepatic cytochrome P450 isoform involved in the metabolism of YM992, ((S)-2-[[(fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride), a novel serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, in human liver microsomes. 2. Microsomes prepared from yeast expressing CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 effectively metabolized YM992. A significant correlation was observed between the rate of YM992 metabolism and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, CYP1A1/2 specific activity, in liver microsomes from 16 individual donors (r2 = 0.628, p < 0.001). Alpha-naphtoflavone and isosafrole, CYP1A1/2 inhibitors, suppressed the metabolism of YM992 in human liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. 3. The metabolism of YM992 in human liver microsomes was inhibited by approximately 95% by antibodies which recognize both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 whereas antibodies specific for CYP1A1 did not show inhibitory effects. 4. The same major metabolites, M6 and M7, were generated from YM992 after incubation with human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP1A2. 5. These results suggest that the metabolism of YM992 in human liver microsomes is mainly catalysed by CYP1A2, and that YM992 might increase plasma concentration of concomitant drugs metabolized by CYP1A2 due to competitive inhibition.

  5. Engineering Cytochrome P450 Biocatalysts for Biotechnology, Medicine, and Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Importance of the field: Cytochrome P450 enzymes comprise a superfamily of heme monooxygenases that are of considerable interest for the: 1) synthesis of novel drugs and drug metabolites, 2) targeted cancer gene therapy, 3) biosensor design, and 4) bioremediation. However, their applications are limited because cytochrome P450, especially mammalian P450 enzymes, show a low turnover rate and stability, and require a complex source of electrons through cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH. Areas covered in this review: In this review, we discuss the recent progress towards the use of P450 enzymes in a variety of above-mentioned applications. We also present alternate and cost-effective ways to perform P450-mediated reaction, especially using peroxides. Furthermore, we expand upon the current progress in P450 engineering approaches describing several recent examples that are utilized to enhance heterologous expression, stability, catalytic efficiency, and utilization of alternate oxidants. What the reader will gain: The review will provide a comprehensive knowledge in the design of P450 biocatalysts for potentially practical purposes. Finally, we provide a prospective on the future aspects of P450 engineering and its applications in biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. Take home message: Because of its wide applications, academic and pharmaceutical researchers, environmental scientists, and health care providers are expected to gain current knowledge and future prospects of the practical use of P450 biocatalysts. PMID:20064075

  6. In vitro oxidative metabolism of cajaninstilbene Acid by human liver microsomes and hepatocytes: involvement of cytochrome p450 reaction phenotyping, inhibition, and induction studies.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xin; Peng, Xiao; Tan, Shengnan; Li, Chunying; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Smyth, Hugh

    2014-10-29

    Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), an active constituent of pigeonpea leaves, an important tropical crop, is known for its clinical effects in the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis, and measles and its potential antitumor effect. In this study, the effect of the cytochrome P450 isozymes on the activity of CSA was investigated. Two hydroxylation metabolites were identified in the study. The reaction phenotype study showed that CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 were the major cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of CSA. The metabolic food-drug interaction potential was also evaluated in vitro. The effect of CSA inhibition/induction of enzymatic activities of seven drug-metabolizing CYP450 isozymes in vitro was estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical techniques. CSA showed different inhibitory effects on different isozymes. CSA reversibly inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activities in human liver microsomes with IC50 values of 28.3 and 31.3 μM, respectively, but exhibited no inhibition activities to CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. CSA showed a weak effect on CYP450 enzymes in a time-dependent manner. CSA did not substantially induce CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 at concentrations up to 30 μM in primary human hepatocytes. The results of our experiments may be helpful to predict clinically significant food-drug interactions when other drugs are administered in combination with CSA. PMID:25272989

  7. Involvement of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and epoxide hydrolase in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and relevance to risk of human liver cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F P; Johnson, W W; Ueng, Y F; Yamazaki, H; Shimada, T

    1996-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the effect of variations in activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on cancer incidence. This interest has accelerated with the development of methods for analyzing genetic polymorphisms. However, progress in epidemiology has been slow and the contributions of polymorphisms to risks from individual chemicals and mixtures are often controversial. A series of studies is presented to show the complexities encountered with a single chemical, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 is oxidized by human cytochrome P450 enzymes to several products. Only one of these, the 8,9-exo-epoxide, appears to be mutagenic and the others are detoxication products. P450 3A4, which can both activate and detoxicate AFB1, is found in the liver and the small intestine. In the small intestine, the first contact after oral exposure, epoxidation would not lead to liver cancer. The (nonenzymatic) half-life of the epoxide has been determined to be approximately 1 sec at 23 degrees C and neutral pH. Although the half-life is short, AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide does react with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. Levels of these conjugates have been measured and combined with the rate of hydrolysis in a kinetic model to predict constants for binding of the epoxide with DNA and glutathione S-transferase. A role for epoxide hydrolase in alteration of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis has been proposed, although experimental evidence is lacking. Some inhibition of microsome-generated genotoxicity was observed with rat epoxide hydrolase; further information on the extent of contribution of this enzyme to AFB1 metabolism is not yet available. PMID:8781383

  8. Cytochrome P450-Mediated Phytoremediation using Transgenic Plants: A Need for Engineered Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Jin, Mengyao; Weemhoff, James L

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for versatile and ubiquitous Cytochrome P450 (CYP) biocatalysts for biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. In the last decade there has been an increase in realization of the power of CYP biocatalysts for detoxification of soil and water contaminants using transgenic plants. However, the major limitations of mammalian CYP enzymes are that they require CYP reductase (CPR) for their activity, and they show relatively low activity, stability, and expression. On the other hand, bacterial CYP enzymes show limited substrate diversity and usually do not metabolize herbicides and industrial contaminants. Therefore, there has been a considerable interest for biotechnological industries and the scientific community to design CYP enzymes to improve their catalytic efficiency, stability, expression, substrate diversity, and the suitability of P450-CPR fusion enzymes. Engineered CYP enzymes have potential for transgenic plants-mediated phytoremediation of herbicides and environmental contaminants. In this review we discuss: 1) the role of CYP enzymes in phytoremediation using transgenic plants, 2) problems associated with wild-type CYP enzymes in phytoremediation, and 3) examples of engineered CYP enzymes and their potential role in transgenic plant-mediated phytoremediation. PMID:25298920

  9. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R; Goldstone, Jared V; Stegeman, John J

    2013-02-19

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the 'cytochrome P450 genesis locus', where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution.

  10. Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant

  11. [Cytochrome P450 enzymes and microbial drug development - A review].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shengying

    2016-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes broadly exist in animals, plants and microorganisms. This superfamily of monooxygenases holds the greatest diversity of substrate structures and catalytic reaction types among all enzymes. P450 enzymes play important roles in natural product biosynthesis. In particular, P450 enzymes are capable of catalyzing the regio- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated C-H bonds in complex organic compounds under mild conditions, which overrides many chemical catalysts. This advantage thus warrants their great potential in microbial drug development. In this review, we introduce a variety of P450 enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis; provide a brief overview on protein engineering, biotransformation and practical application of P450 enzymes; and discuss the limits, challenges and prospects of industrial application of P450 enzymes.

  12. [Cytochrome P450 enzymes and microbial drug development - A review].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shengying

    2016-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes broadly exist in animals, plants and microorganisms. This superfamily of monooxygenases holds the greatest diversity of substrate structures and catalytic reaction types among all enzymes. P450 enzymes play important roles in natural product biosynthesis. In particular, P450 enzymes are capable of catalyzing the regio- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated C-H bonds in complex organic compounds under mild conditions, which overrides many chemical catalysts. This advantage thus warrants their great potential in microbial drug development. In this review, we introduce a variety of P450 enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis; provide a brief overview on protein engineering, biotransformation and practical application of P450 enzymes; and discuss the limits, challenges and prospects of industrial application of P450 enzymes. PMID:27382792

  13. Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress, Cytochrome P450 2E1, and Bile Acid Disturbance in Rat Liver Injury Induced by Isoniazid and Lipopolysaccharide Cotreatment.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hozeifa Mohamed; Guo, Hongli; Yousef, Bashir Alsiddig; Guerram, Mounia; Hamdi, Aida Mejda; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2016-09-01

    Isoniazid (INH) remains the core drug in tuberculosis management, but serious hepatotoxicity and potentially fatal liver injury continue to accompany INH consumption. Among numerous theories that have been established to explain INH-induced liver injury, an inflammatory stress theory has recently been widely used to explain the idiosyncrasy. Inflammatory stress usually sensitizes tissues to a drug's toxic consequences. Therefore, the present study was conducted to verify whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation may have a role in enhancing INH hepatotoxicity. While single INH or LPS administration showed no major toxicity signs, INH-LPS cotreatment intensified liver toxicity. Both blood biomarkers and histological evaluations clearly showed positive signs of severe liver damage accompanied by massive necrosis, inflammatory infiltration, and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, elevated serum levels of bile acid associated with the repression of bile acid synthesis and transport regulatory parameters were observed. Moreover, the principal impact of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) on INH toxicity could be anticipated, as its protein expression showed enormous increases in INH-LPS-cotreated animals. Furthermore, the crucial role of CYP2E1 in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was clearly obvious in the repression of hepatic antioxidant parameters. In summary, these results confirmed that this LPS-induced inflammation model might prove valuable in revealing the hepatotoxic mechanisms of INH and the crucial role played by CYP2E1 in the initiation and propagation of INH-induced liver damage, information which could be very useful to clinicians in understanding the pathogenesis of drug-induced liver injury.

  14. Role of Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress, Cytochrome P450 2E1, and Bile Acid Disturbance in Rat Liver Injury Induced by Isoniazid and Lipopolysaccharide Cotreatment.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hozeifa Mohamed; Guo, Hongli; Yousef, Bashir Alsiddig; Guerram, Mounia; Hamdi, Aida Mejda; Zhang, Luyong; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2016-09-01

    Isoniazid (INH) remains the core drug in tuberculosis management, but serious hepatotoxicity and potentially fatal liver injury continue to accompany INH consumption. Among numerous theories that have been established to explain INH-induced liver injury, an inflammatory stress theory has recently been widely used to explain the idiosyncrasy. Inflammatory stress usually sensitizes tissues to a drug's toxic consequences. Therefore, the present study was conducted to verify whether bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation may have a role in enhancing INH hepatotoxicity. While single INH or LPS administration showed no major toxicity signs, INH-LPS cotreatment intensified liver toxicity. Both blood biomarkers and histological evaluations clearly showed positive signs of severe liver damage accompanied by massive necrosis, inflammatory infiltration, and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, elevated serum levels of bile acid associated with the repression of bile acid synthesis and transport regulatory parameters were observed. Moreover, the principal impact of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) on INH toxicity could be anticipated, as its protein expression showed enormous increases in INH-LPS-cotreated animals. Furthermore, the crucial role of CYP2E1 in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was clearly obvious in the repression of hepatic antioxidant parameters. In summary, these results confirmed that this LPS-induced inflammation model might prove valuable in revealing the hepatotoxic mechanisms of INH and the crucial role played by CYP2E1 in the initiation and propagation of INH-induced liver damage, information which could be very useful to clinicians in understanding the pathogenesis of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:27324775

  15. Characterization of Drosophila melanogaster cytochrome P450 genes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Henry; Sztal, Tamar; Pasricha, Shivani; Sridhar, Mohan; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s form a large and diverse family of heme-containing proteins capable of carrying out many different enzymatic reactions. In both mammals and plants, some P450s are known to carry out reactions essential for processes such as hormone synthesis, while other P450s are involved in the detoxification of environmental compounds. In general, functions of insect P450s are less well understood. We characterized Drosophila melanogaster P450 expression patterns in embryos and 2 stages of third instar larvae. We identified numerous P450s expressed in the fat body, Malpighian (renal) tubules, and in distinct regions of the midgut, consistent with hypothesized roles in detoxification processes, and other P450s expressed in organs such as the gonads, corpora allata, oenocytes, hindgut, and brain. Combining expression pattern data with an RNA interference lethality screen of individual P450s, we identify candidate P450s essential for developmental processes and distinguish them from P450s with potential functions in detoxification. PMID:19289821

  16. Avian Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1-3 Family Genes: Isoforms, Evolutionary Relationships, and mRNA Expression in Chicken Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Kawata, Minami; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) of chicken and other avian species have been studied primarily with microsomes or characterized by cloning and protein expression. However, the overall existing isoforms in avian CYP1-3 families or dominant isoforms in avian xenobiotic metabolism have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify and classify all of the existing isoforms of CYP1-3 in avian species using available genome assemblies for chicken, zebra finch, and turkey. Furthermore, we performed qRT-PCR assay to identify dominant CYP genes in chicken liver. Our results suggested that avian xenobiotic-metabolizing CYP genes have undergone unique evolution such as CYP2C and CYP3A genes, which have undergone avian-specific gene duplications. qRT-PCR experiments showed that CYP2C45 was the most highly expressed isoform in chicken liver, while CYP2C23b was the most highly induced gene by phenobarbital. Considering together with the result of further enzymatic characterization, CYP2C45 may have a dominant role in chicken xenobiotic metabolism due to the constitutive high expression levels, while CYP2C23a and CYP2C23b can be greatly induced by chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR) activators. These findings will provide not only novel insights into avian xenobiotic metabolism, but also a basis for the further characterization of each CYP gene. PMID:24098714

  17. Simultaneous absolute quantification of 11 cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with in silico target peptide selection.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hirotaka; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kamiie, Junichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Abe, Takaaki; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins are involved in the biological oxidation and reduction of xenobiotics, affecting the pharmacological efficiency of drugs. This study aimed to establish a method to simultaneously quantify 11 CYP isoforms by multiplexed-multiple reaction monitoring analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and in silico peptide selection to clarify CYP isoform expression profiles in human liver tissue. CYP1A2, 2A6, and 2D6 target peptides were identified by shot-gun proteomic analysis, and those of other isoforms were selected by in silico peptide selection criteria. The established quantification method detected target peptides at 10  fmol, and the dynamic range of calibration curves was at least 500-fold. The quantification value of CYP1A2 in Supersomes was not significantly different between the established method and quantitative immunoblot analysis. The absolute protein expression levels of 11 CYP isoforms were determined from one pooled and 10 individual human liver microsomes. In the individual microsomes, CYP2C9 showed the highest protein expression level, and CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C19, and 3A4 protein expression exhibited more than a 20-fold difference among individuals. This highly sensitive and selective quantification method is a useful tool for the analysis of highly homologous CYP isoforms and the contribution made by each CYP isoform to drug metabolism. PMID:20564338

  18. Induction of digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity by glucocorticoids and other inducers of cytochrome P-450p in primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes and in human liver.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, E G; Hazelton, G A; Hall, J; Watkins, P B; Klaassen, C D; Guzelian, P S

    1986-06-25

    We have recently proposed that glucocorticoids induce cytochrome P-450p, a liver microsomal hemoprotein originally isolated from rats treated with the antiglucocorticoid pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), through a mechanism that involves a stereospecific recognition system clearly distinguishable from the classic glucocorticoid receptor (Schuetz, E. G., Wrighton, S. A., Barwick, J. L., and Guzelian, P. S. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 1999-2012). We now report that digitoxigenin monodigitoxoside UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (DIG UDP-glucuronosyltransferase), a liver microsomal enzyme activity induced by PCN in rats, is also inducible, as is P-450p, in primary monolayer cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. DIG UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity closely resembled reported characteristics of induction of P-450p in its time course of induction, concentration-response relationships, exclusivity of induction by steroids with glucocorticoid properties, unusual rank order of potency of glucocorticoid agonists, unusually high ED50 for induction by glucocorticoids, enhanced induction rather than inhibition by anti-glucocorticoids in the presence of glucocorticoids, and finally, induction by nonsteroidal inducers of P-450p. DIG UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity was also readily detected in human liver microsomes and was elevated in two patients who had received inducers of P-450p. We conclude that the liver enzymes controlled by the postulated PCN recognition system include not only P-450p but also one or more UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

  19. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, Stephen; Grindstaff, Rachel D; Lambert, Guy; Padgett, William T; Bruno, Maribel; Ge, Yue; Chen, Pei-Jen; Wood, Charles E; Murphy, Lynea

    2011-10-15

    Propiconazole induces hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatocellular adenomas in mice and promotes liver tumors in rats. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicated that propiconazole induced oxidative stress. Here we sought to identify the source of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by propiconazole using both AML12 immortalized mouse hepatocytes in culture and liver tissues from mice. We also sought to further characterize the nature and effects of ROS formation induced by propiconazole treatment in mouse liver. ROS was induced in AML12 cells by propiconazole as measured by fluorescence detection and its formation was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine. Propiconazole induced glutathione-S-transferase (GSTα) protein levels and increased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in AML12 cells. The TBARS levels were decreased by diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPIC), a cytochrome P450 (CYP) reductase inhibitor revealing the role of CYPs in ROS generation. It has been previously reported that Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins were induced in mouse liver by propiconazole and that Cyp2b and Cyp3a proteins undergo uncoupling of their CYP catalytic cycle releasing ROS. Therefore, salicylic acid hydroxylation was used as probe for ROS formation using microsomes from mice treated with propiconazole. These studies showed that levels of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (an ROS derived metabolite) were decreased by ketoconazole, melatonin and DPIC. In vivo, propiconazole increased hepatic malondialdehyde levels and GSTα protein levels and had no effect on hepatic catalase or superoxide dismutase activities. Based on these observations we conclude that propiconazole induces ROS in mouse liver by increasing CYP protein levels leading to increased ROS levels. Our data also suggest that propiconazole induces the hydroxyl radical as a major

  20. Detection of toxic effects of Cd2+ on different fish species via liver cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities and FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Henczová, Mária; Deér, Aranka Kiss; Komlósi, Viktória; Mink, János

    2006-06-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of Cd2+ and the CYP1A inductor beta-naphthoflavone(beta-NF) on the hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyt 450) monooxygenases were studied in silver carp (Hypophthalmichtys molitrix V.), wels (Silurus glanis L.), and carp (Cyprinus carpio). In vivo treatment of carp with a high dose of Cd2+ (10 mg kg(-1), for 3 days) caused a strong inhibition of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and a lower inhibition of 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity. The low-dose cadmium treatment (2 mg kg(-1) Cd2+, for 6+3 days) resulted in 4-fold increase in EROD and a 3-fold increase in ECOD activity. The combined treatment with Cd2+ and beta-NF in both cases led to a loss of EROD inducibility. The silver carp and wels were treated with 10 mg L(-1) Cd2+ for 72 h in water. The Cyt P450 content in the wels liver microsomes was increased significantly after treatment for 48 h, whereas there was only a slight, not significant increase in Cyt P450 content in the silver carp microsomes. While the Cd2+ treatment resulted in inhibition of the CYP1A isoenzymes (EROD and ECOD), the APND (aminopyrene-N-demethylase, CYP2B or CYP3A isoenzyme) activity was increased 3- to 4-fold in both fish species. In vitro experiments of the effect of Cd2+ led to a concentration-dependent inhibition in all three investigated fish species. The ECOD isoenzyme of silver carp was the most sensitive to Cd2+. The lowest concentration of Cd2+ resulted in 50% inhibition. The APND isoenzyme was similarly sensitive to Cd2+ in all three investigated fish species. The most sensitive species was the wels, and the least sensitive were the carp isoenzyme. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that cadmium caused damage to the protein structure. These results support the enzyme activity measurements measured in vivo and in vitro.

  1. Regioselective differences in C(8)- and N-oxidation of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline by human and rat liver microsomes and cytochromes P450 1A2.

    PubMed

    Turesky, R J; Parisod, V; Huynh-Ba, T; Langouët, S; Guengerich, F P

    2001-07-01

    The metabolism of the mutagen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was investigated with human and rat liver microsomes, recombinant human cytochrome P450 1A2 (P450 1A2) expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and rat P450 1A2. Human liver microsomes and human P450 1A2 catalyzed the oxidation of the exocyclic amine group of MeIQx to form the genotoxic product 2-(hydroxyamino)-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HONH-MeIQx). Human P450 1A2 also catalyzed the oxidation of C(8)-methyl group of MeIQx to form 2-amino-(8-hydroxymethyl)-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-CH(2)OH-IQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carbaldehyde (IQx-8-CHO), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid (IQx-8-COOH). Thus, chemically stable C(8)-oxidation products of MeIQx may be useful biomarkers of P450 1A2 activity in humans. Rat liver microsomes were 10-15-fold less active than the human counterpart at both N-oxidation and C(8)-oxidation of MeIQx when expressed as nanomoles of product formed per minute per nanomoles of P450 1A2. Differences in regioselective oxidation of MeIQx were also observed with human and rat liver microsomes and the respective P450 1A2 orthologs. In contrast to human liver microsomes and P450 1A2, rat liver microsomes and purified rat P4501A2 were unable to catalyze the oxidation of MeIQx to the carboxylic derivative IQx-8-COOH, an important detoxication product formed in humans. However, rat liver microsomes and rat P4501A2, but not human liver microsomes or human P450 1A2, extensively catalyzed ring oxidation at the C-5 position of MeIQx to form the detoxication product 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-5-hydroxyimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (5-HO-MeIQx). There are important differences between human and rat P450 1A2, both in catalytic activities and oxidation pathways of MeIQx, that may affect the biological activity of this carcinogen and must be considered when assessing human health risk.

  2. Severe liver cirrhosis markedly reduces AhR-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 in rats by decreasing the transcription of target genes.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Maura; De Martin, Sara; Gabbia, Daniela; Barbierato, Massimo; Nassi, Alberto; Mescoli, Claudia; Orlando, Rocco; Bova, Sergio; Angeli, Paolo; Gola, Elisabetta; Sticca, Antonietta; Palatini, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Although the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) has long been investigated in patients with cirrhosis, the question whether liver dysfunction impairs the response to CYP inducers still remains unresolved. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the possible effect of cirrhosis on induction has not been investigated. Since ethical constraints do not permit methodologically rigorous studies in humans, this question was addressed by investigating the effect of the prototypical inducer benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in cirrhotic rats stratified according to the severity of liver dysfunction. We simultaneously assessed mRNA level, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the CYP1A enzymes, as well as mRNA and protein expressions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which mediates the BP effect. Basal mRNA and protein expressions of CYP1A1 were virtually absent in both healthy and cirrhotic rats. On the contrary, CYP1A2 mRNA, protein and enzyme activity were constitutively present in healthy rats and decreased significantly as liver function worsened. BP treatment markedly increased the concentrations of mRNA and immunodetectable protein, and the enzymatic activities of both CYP1A enzymes to similar levels in healthy and non-ascitic cirrhotic rats. Induced mRNA levels, protein expressions and enzymatic activities of both CYPs were much lower in ascitic rats and were proportionally reduced. Both constitutive and induced protein expressions of AhR were significantly lower in ascitic than in healthy rats. These results indicate that the inducibility of CYP1A enzymes is well preserved in compensated cirrhosis, whereas it is markedly reduced when liver dysfunction becomes severe. Induction appears to be impaired at the transcriptional level, due to the reduced expression of AhR, which controls the transcription of CYP1A genes.

  3. Effect of prenatal exposure of deltamethrin on the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s in the brain and liver of offsprings

    SciTech Connect

    Johri, Ashu; Dhawan, Alok; Lakhan Singh, Ram; Parmar, Devendra . E-mail: parmar_devendra@hotmail.com

    2006-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to low doses (0.25 or 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, p.o.) of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, to pregnant dams from gestation days 5 to 21 (GD5-21) produced dose-dependent alterations in the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in brain and liver of the offsprings. RT-PCR analysis revealed dose-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of cerebral and hepatic CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1, 2B2, and 2E1 isoenzymes in the offsprings exposed prenatally to deltamethrin. Similar increase in the activity of the marker enzymes of these CYP isoforms has indicated that placental transfer of the pyrethroid, a mixed type of CYP inducer, even at these low doses may be sufficient to induce the CYPs in brain and liver of the offsprings. Our data have further revealed persistence in the increase in expression of xenobiotics metabolizing CYPs up to adulthood in brain and liver of the exposed offsprings, suggesting the potential of deltamethrin to imprint the expression of CYPs in brain and liver of the offsprings following its in utero exposure. Furthermore, though the levels of CYPs were several fold lower in brain, almost equal magnitude of induction in cerebral and hepatic CYPs has further suggested that brain CYPs are responsive to the induction by environmental chemicals. The present data indicating alterations in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs during development following prenatal exposure to deltamethrin may be of significance as these CYP enzymes are not only involved in the neurobehavioral toxicity of deltamethrin but have a role in regulating the levels of ligands that modulate growth, differentiation, and neuroendocrine functions.

  4. Activation of Oxygen by Cytochrome P-450 and Other Haemoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelitsa, D. I.

    1982-11-01

    Data on the activation of molecular oxygen by the full microsomal hydroxylating system containing cytochrome P-450 as the terminal oxygenase are examined. The nature of the hydroxylating agent, which is the oxenoid Fe3+O, is analysed. The autoxidation reactions of cytochrome P-450 from various sources, haemoglobin, myoglobin, and peroxidases are compared and the role of the axial ligands of the haem iron and the structure of the active centres of the haemoproteins in this process is demonstrated. The possible mechanisms of the oxidation of organic compounds by peroxides with participation of cytochrome P-450, cytochrome c, haemoglobin, and catalase are examined critically. Haemoproteins have been divided into three groups in terms of the type of peroxide oxidation reactions. The relative contributions of the radical and two-electron reactions in the oxidation of compounds by peroxides with participation of different haemoproteins are analysed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  5. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  6. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by alkamides of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Usia, Tepy; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2006-05-01

    Nineteen alkamides isolated from Piper nigrum L. were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on human liver microsomal dextromethorphan O-demethylation activity, a prototype marker for cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). All compounds increased their inhibitory activity with increasing preincubation time. Among them, 15 and 17 showed more than 50 % decrease of the CYP2D6 residual activity after 20 min preincubation. Further investigations on 15 and 17 showed that the characteristic time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, which required a catalytic step with NADPH, was not protected by nucleophiles, and was decreased by the presence of a competitive inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for inactivation (kinact and KI) were 0.028 min-1 and 0.23 microM for 15 and 0.064 min-1 and 0.71 microM for 17, respectively, which were stronger than the known mechanism-based inhibitor, paroxetine (a positive control). Thus, 15 and 17 are potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP2D6.

  7. Novel Bioactivation Pathway of Benzbromarone Mediated by Cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Kitagawara, Yumina; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Tachibana, Kumiko; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakamura, Shigeo; Mashino, Tadahiko

    2015-09-01

    Benzbromarone (BBR) is a hepatotoxic drug, but the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unknown. We identified 2,6-dibromohydroquinone (DBH) and mono-debrominated catechol (2-ethyl-3-(3-bromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzoyl)benzofuran; CAT) as novel metabolites of BBR in rat and human liver microsomal systems by comparison with chemically synthesized authentic compounds, and we also elucidated that DBH is formed by cytochrome P450 2C9 and that CAT is formed mainly by CYP1A1, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Furthermore, CAT, DBH, and the oxidized form of DBH are highly cytotoxic in HepG2 compared with BBR. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DBH, a novel reactive metabolite, may be relevant to BBR-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26106235

  8. Simultaneous determination of cytochrome P450 1A, 2A and 3A activities in porcine liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Monika; Tomankova, Jana; Li, Shengjie; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robust method for the simultaneous determination of the activities of three porcine CYP450 enzymes in hepatic microsomes. A cocktail consisting of three selective CYP450 probe substrates, 7-ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A), coumarin (CYP2A) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC; CYP3A), was incubated with porcine liver microsomes. The presence of 7-ethoxyresorufin appears to significantly influence the kinetics of coumarin hydroxylation and BFC O-debenzylation. These results indicate that the use of 7-ethoxyresorufin in substrate cocktails together with coumarin and BFC should be avoided.

  9. Human cytochrome p450 enzyme specificity for the bioactivation of estragole and related alkenylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; Punt, Ans; Boersma, Marelle G; Bogaards, Jan J P; Fiamegos, Yiannis C; Schilter, Benoit; van Bladeren, Peter J; Cnubben, Nicole H P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2007-05-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the bioactivation of estragole to its proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole were identified and compared to the enzymes of importance for 1'-hydroxylation of the related alkenylbenzenes methyleugenol and safrole. Incubations with Supersomes revealed that all enzymes tested, except P450 2C8, are intrinsically able to 1'-hydroxylate estragole. Experiments with Gentest microsomes, expressing P450 enzymes to roughly average liver levels, indicated that P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1 might contribute to estragole 1'-hydroxylation in the human liver. Especially P450 1A2 is an important enzyme based on the correlation between P450 1A2 activity and estragole 1'-hydroxylation in human liver microsomal samples and inhibition of estragole 1'-hydroxylation by the P450 1A2 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone. Kinetic studies revealed that, at physiologically relevant concentrations of estragole, P450 1A2 and 2A6 are the most important enzymes for bioactivation in the human liver showing enzyme efficiencies (kcat/Km) of, respectively, 59 and 341 min-1 mM-1. Only at relatively high estragole concentrations, P450 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1 might contribute to some extent. Comparison to results from similar studies for safrole and methyleugenol revealed that competitive interactions between estragole and methyleugenol 1'-hydroxylation and between estragole and safrole 1'-hydroxylation are to be expected because of the involvement of, respectively, P450 1A2 and P450 2A6 in the bioactivation of these compounds. Furthermore, poor metabolizer phenotypes in P450 2A6 might diminish the chances on bioactivation of estragole and safrole, whereas lifestyle factors increasing P450 1A2 activities such as cigarette smoking and consumption of charbroiled food might increase those chances for estragole and methyleugenol.

  10. Total gastrectomy may result in reduced drug effectiveness due to an increase in the expression of the drug-metabolizing enzyme Cytochrome P450, in the liver.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Makoto; Toda, Takahiro; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-23

    In patients with gastrectomy, it is possible that drug effectiveness is reduced compared to healthy subjects due to the increased of the drug-metabolizing enzyme, Cytochrome P450 (CYP). The purpose of this study is to verify this possibility. Gastrectomy model mice were prepared to evaluate the expression level of various CYPs in the liver from 2 to 24 weeks post-operation. No significant differences were observed in the protein expression levels of CYP3A, CYP1A, CYP2C, and CYP2D between the sham operation group and the gastrectomy group up to 4 weeks after the gastrectomy. On the other hand, significant increases in the protein expression levels of any CYPs were observed in the gastrectomy group compared to the sham operation group from 12 weeks after the gastrectomy onward. These increases in expression levels were maintained until 24 weeks after the gastrectomy. The examination of metabolic activity in the liver in the gastrectomy group using triazolam revealed that the metabolic activity at 12 weeks after the gastrectomy was significantly increased in the gastrectomy group. The administration of the anticancer drug imatinib, which is a substrate of CYP3A, to mice at 12weeks after gastrectomy resulted in an increase in the metabolic rate, suggesting a possible decrease in drug effectiveness. It has been revealed that drug effectiveness may be reduced after gastrectomy because the expression levels of various CYPs in the liver were increased over a prolonged period. The results of this study can serve as valuable fundamental knowledge for drug therapy in patients with gastrectomy.

  11. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  12. Electrochemical investigations on the oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Scheller, F; Renneberg, R; Schwarze, W; Strnad, G; Pommerening, K; Prümke, H J; Mohr, P

    1979-01-01

    The application of cytochrome P-450 in substrate conversion is complicated both due to the limited stability and the cofactor regeneration problems. To overcome the disadvantages of NADPH consumption the transfer of the reduction equivalents from an electrode into the cytochrome P-450-system was studied: 1. NADPH was cathodically reduced at a mercury pool electrode. By immobilization of NADP on dialdehyde Sephadex the reductive recycling was possible. 2. Different forms of reduced oxygen were produced by the cathode: a) The reaction of O2- with deoxycorticosterone yields a carboxylic acid derivative. In contrast the cytochrome P-450 catalyzed NADPH-dependent reaction with the same substrate gives corticosterone, O2- represents only an intermediate in the activation of oxygen and is not the "activated oxygen" species. b) Molecular oxygen was reduced to HO2- and H2O2, respectively. The interaction of adsorbed cytochrome P-450 on the electrode surface with the reduced oxygen species in the absence of NADPH was studied. The electrochemically generated peroxide seems to be more active than added H2O2. 3. In a model of electro-enzyme-reactor several substrates were hydroxylated by microsomal cytochrome P-450 with cathodically reduced oxygen which substitutes NADPH.

  13. Effects of Eleutheroside B and Eleutheroside E on activity of cytochrome P450 in rat liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemicals of herbal products may cause unexpected toxicity or adverse effect by the potential for alteration of the activity of CYP450 when co-administered with other drugs. Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine and popular herbal dietary supplements, and often co-administered with many other drugs. The main bioactive constituents of ES were considered to be eleutherosides including eleutheroside B (EB) and eleutheroside E (EE). This study was to investigate the effects of EB and EE on CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Method Probe drugs of tolbutamide (TB), dextromethorphan (DM), chlorzoxazone (CLZ) and testosterone (TS) as well as eleutherosides of different concentrations were added to incubation systems of rat liver microsomes in vitro. After incubation, validated HPLC methods were used to quantify relevant metabolites. Results The results suggested that EB and EE exhibited weak inhibition against the activity of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, but no effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. The IC50 values for EB and EE were calculated to be 193.20 μM and 188.36 μM for CYP2E1, 595.66 μM and 261.82 μM for CYP2C9, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that inhibitions of CYP2E1 by EB and EE were best fit to mixed-type with Ki value of 183.95 μM and 171.63 μM, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that EB and EE may inhibit the metabolism of drugs metabolized via CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, and have the potential to increase the toxicity of the drugs. PMID:24383621

  14. Cytochrome P450: taming a wild type enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sang Taek; Lauchli, Ryan; Arnold, Frances H

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) has been very successful in generating valuable non-natural activities and properties, allowing these powerful catalysts to be used for the synthesis of drug metabolites and in biosynthetic pathways for the production of precursors of artemisinin and paclitaxel. Collected experience indicates that the P450s are highly 'evolvable'--they are particularly robust to mutation in their active sites and readily accept new substrates and exhibit new selectivities. Their ability to adapt to new challenges upon mutation may reflect the nonpolar nature of their active sites as well as their high degree of conformational variability. PMID:21411308

  15. Enhanced expression of cytochrome P450 in stomach cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G. I.; Taylor, M. C.; Burke, M. D.; Melvin, W. T.

    1998-01-01

    The cytochromes P450 have a central role in the oxidative activation and detoxification of a wide range of xenobiotics, including many carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. Thus the cytochrome P450 enzyme system has important roles in both tumour development and influencing the response of tumours to chemotherapy. Stomach cancer is one of the commonest tumours of the alimentary tract and environmental factors, including dietary factors, have been implicated in the development of this tumour. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and responds poorly to current therapies. In this study, the presence and cellular localization of several major forms of P450, CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A have been investigated in stomach cancer and compared with their expression in normal stomach. There was enhanced expression of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer with CYP1A present in 51% and CYP3A present in 28% of cases. In contrast, no P450 was identified in normal stomach. The presence of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer provides further evidence for the enhanced expression of specific forms of cytochrome P450 in tumours and may be important therapeutically for the development of anti-cancer drugs that are activated by these forms of P450. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9569036

  16. Effects of methoxychlor and 2,2-bis ( p -hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane on cytochrome P450 enzyme activities in human and rat livers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingbing; Pan, Peipei; Wang, Li; Chen, Menchun; Dong, Yaoyao; Ge, Ren-Shan; Hu, Guo-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Human and rat liver microsomes were used to investigate the inhibitory effects of methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) on the activities of corresponding human and rat CYPs. Probe drugs were used to test the inhibitory effects of MXC and HPTE on human and rat CYPs. The results showed that MXC and HPTE inhibited both human CYP2C9 and rat liver CYP2C11 activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.47 ± 0.36 (MXC) and 8.87 ± 0.53 μmol/l (HPTE) for human CYP2C9, and of 22.45 ± 1.48 (MXC) and 24.63 ± 1.35 μmol/l (HPTE) for rat CYP2C11. MXC and HPTE had no effects on human CYP2C19 activity but inhibited rat CYP2C6 activity with IC50 values of 14.84 ± 0.04 (MXC) and 8.72 ± 0.25 μmol/l (HPTE). With regard to human CYP2D6 and rat CYP2D2 activity, only HPTE potently inhibited human CYP2D6 activity, with an IC50 value of 16.56 ± 0.69 μmol/l. Both chemicals had no effect on human CYP3A4 and rat CYP3A1 activity. In summary, MXC and HPTE are potent inhibitors of some human and rat CYPs.

  17. Estimating pediatric doses of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, based on physiological liver development and serum protein levels.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Murayama, Yuka; Sugiyama, Erika; Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Saito, Kiyomi; Sekiyama, Masao; Sato, Hitoshi

    2010-04-01

    We established a method for estimating pediatric doses of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, using the free fraction of drug in plasma (fu), serum protein level (P), liver volume (LV), and CYP activity (Vmax/Km) as indices of physiological and biochemical development in children up to 15 years old. This method allows the child/adult dose ratio (D(C)/D(A))=child/adult oral clearance ratio (CL((PO)(C))/CL((PO)(A))) of drugs mainly metabolized in the liver to be estimated by the following equation: [formula: see text]. Major metabolism of drugs was ascribed to CYP1A2 for theophylline and caffeine, and CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 for propranolol and mexiletine. For theophylline and caffeine, CL((PO)(C))/CL((PO)(A)) calculated from the child/adult body surface area ratio (BSA ratio) and the value calculated by our method were compared, using CL((PO)(C))/CL((PO)(A)) calculated from the clearance ratio based on population pharmacokinetics (PPK ratio) as a reference. For all drugs, pediatric doses calculated from the Crawford equation and our equation were compared, with predetermined doses as the reference. For theophylline and caffeine, the relative accuracy of our method was significantly higher than that of BSA-based estimation when the PPK ratio was used for reference. For theophylline, caffeine, and propranolol, the relative accuracy of our method was significantly higher than that of BSA-based estimation when predetermined doses were used for reference. These findings indicate the validity of our method which considers the physiological and biochemical development (i.e., fu, P, LV, and CYP activity) for pediatric dose estimation. PMID:20372009

  18. Development of HepG2-derived cells expressing cytochrome P450s for assessing metabolism-associated drug-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiekun; Chen, Si; Ning, Baitang; Tolleson, William H; Guo, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The generation of reactive metabolites from therapeutic agents is one of the major mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In order to evaluate metabolism-related toxicity and improve drug efficacy and safety, we generated a battery of HepG2-derived cell lines that express 14 cytochrome P450s (CYPs) (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7) individually using a lentiviral expression system. The expression/production of a specific CYP in each cell line was confirmed by an increased abundance of the CYP at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of representative CYPs in the corresponding cell lines were also measured. Using our CYP-expressed HepG2 cells, the toxicity of three drugs that could induce DILI (amiodarone, chlorpromazine and primaquine) was assessed, and all of them showed altered (increased or decreased) toxicity compared to the toxicity in drug-treated wild-type HepG2 cells. CYP-mediated drug toxicity examined in our cell system is consistent with previous reports, demonstrating the potential of these cells for assessing metabolism-related drug toxicity. This cell system provides a practical in vitro approach for drug metabolism screening and for early detection of drug toxicity. It is also a surrogate enzyme source for the enzymatic characterization of a particular CYP that contributes to drug-induced liver toxicity.

  19. Liver-specific cytochrome P450 CYP2C22 is a direct target of retinoic acid and a retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linxi; Zolfaghari, Reza; Ross, A Catharine

    2010-07-01

    Several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalyze the C4-hydroxylation of retinoic acid (RA), a potent inducer of cell differentiation and an agent in the treatment of several diseases. Here, we have characterized CYP2C22, a member of the rat CYP2C family with homology to human CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. CYP2C22 was expressed nearly exclusively in hepatocytes, where it was one of the more abundant mRNAs transcripts. In H-4-II-E rat hepatoma cells, CYP2C22 mRNA was upregulated by all-trans (at)-RA, and Am580, a nonmetabolizable analog of at-RA. In comparison, in primary human hepatocytes, at-RA increased CYP2C9 but not CYP2C8 mRNA. Analysis of the CYP2C22 promoter region revealed a RA response element (5'-GGTTCA-(n)5-AGGTCA-3') in the distal flanking region, which bound the nuclear hormone receptors RAR and RXR and which was required for transcriptional activation response of this promoter to RA in CYP2C22-luciferase-transfected RA-treated HepG2 cells. The cDNA-expressed CYP2C22 protein metabolized [3H]at-RA to more polar metabolites. While long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids competed, 9-cis-RA was a stronger competitor. Our studies demonstrate that CYP2C22 is a high-abundance, retinoid-inducible, hepatic P450 with the potential to metabolize at-RA, providing additional insight into the role of the CYP2C gene family in retinoid homeostasis.

  20. Role of Cytochrome P450s in Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and hydroxylases play a regulatory role in the activation and suppression of inflammation by generating or metabolizing bioactive mediators. CYP2C and CYP2J epoxygenases convert arachidonic acid to anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which have protective effects in a variety of disorders including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. CYP4A and CYP4F hydroxylases have the ability to metabolize multiple substrates related to the regulation of inflammation and lipid homeostasis, and it is a challenge to determine which substrates are physiologically relevant for each enzyme; the best-characterized activities include generation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and inactivation of leukotriene B4. The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s is modulated by cytokines during inflammation, resulting in changes to the pharmacokinetics of prescribed medications. Cytochrome P450s are therefore the focus of intersecting challenges in the pharmacology of inflammation: not only do they represent targets for development of new anti-inflammatory drugs but they also contribute to variability in drug efficacy or toxicity in inflammatory disease. Animal models and primary hepatocytes have been used extensively to study the effects of cytokines on cytochrome P450 expression and activity. However, it is difficult to predict changes in drug exposure in patients because the response to inflammation varies depending on the disease state, its time course, and the cytochrome P450 involved. In these circumstances, the development of endogenous markers of cytochrome P450 metabolism might provide a useful tool to reevaluate drug dosage and choice of therapy.

  1. Lack of electron transfer from cytochrome b5 in stimulation of catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 3A4. Characterization of a reconstituted cytochrome P450 3A4/NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system and studies with apo-cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, H; Johnson, W W; Ueng, Y F; Shimada, T; Guengerich, F P

    1996-11-01

    Many catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4, the major human liver P450 enzyme, require cytochrome b5 (b5) for optimal rates. The stimulatory effect of b5 on P450 reactions has generally been thought to be due to transfer of electrons from ferrous b5 to the ferrous P450-O2-substrate complex. We found that apo-b5, devoid of heme, could substitute for b5 in stimulating two prototypic activities, testosterone 6beta hydroxylation and nifedipine oxidation. The stimulatory effect was not seen with albumin, hemoglobin, catalase, or cytochrome c. Apo-b5 could not substitute for b5 in a testosterone 6beta hydroxylation system composed of NADH-b5 reductase and P450 3A4. Rates of electron transfer from NADPH-P450 reductase to ferric P450 3A4 were too slow (<2 min-1) to support testosterone 6beta hydroxylation ( approximately 14 min-1) unless b5 or apo-b5 was present, when rates of approximately 700 min-1 were measured. The oxidation-reduction potential (Em,7) of the ferric/ferrous couple of P450 3A4 was unchanged ( approximately -310 mV) under different conditions in which the kinetics of reduction were altered by the addition of substrate and/or apo-b5. Rapid reduction of P450 3A4 required substrate and a preformed complex of P450 3A4, NADPH-P450 reductase, and b5; the rates of binding of the proteins to each other were 2-3 orders of magnitude less than reduction rates. We conclude that b5 can facilitate some P450 3A4-catalyzed oxidations by complexing with P450 3A4 and enhancing its reduction by NADPH-P450 reductase, without directly transferring electrons to P450. PMID:8910324

  2. Inhalation of butanols: changes in the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Aarstad, K; Zahlsen, K; Nilsen, O G

    1985-01-01

    After inhalation of different butanol isomers for 3 days (2000 ppm) and 5 days (500 ppm), liver and kidney parameters of the microsomal cytochrome P-450 enzyme system were increased. sec-Butanol caused the highest increase in cytochrome P-450 concentration with a 47% rise in the kidneys (500 ppm for 5 days) and 33% in the liver (2000 ppm for 3 days). A concomitant increase of the in vitro n-hexane metabolism in liver microsomes was observed with a 77% increased formation of the preneurotoxic metabolite 2-hexanol compared with control. iso-Butanol did not alter total cytochrome P-450 concentration but caused a significant 30% decrease in the formation of 2-hexanol. Inhalation of all butanols slightly decreased the enzyme levels in the lung. Changes in microsomal enzymes did not correlate with measured serum concentrations of the different butanols showing different inducing capacities among the butanol isomers themselves or the participation of metabolites in the inducing process. As a conclusion sec-butanol, probably through its metabolite methyl-ethyl-ketone, is the most potent inducer of microsomal cytochrome P-450 in liver and kidney while iso-butanol does not alter total cytochrome P-450.

  3. Interactions among Cytochromes P450 in Microsomal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Davydov, Dmitri R.; Davydova, Nadezhda Y.; Sineva, Elena V.; Halpert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The body of evidence of physiologically relevant P450-P450 interactions in microsomal membranes continues to grow. Here we probe oligomerization of human CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2E1 in microsomal membranes. Using a technique based on luminescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrate that all three proteins are subject to a concentration-dependent equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric states. We also observed the formation of mixed oligomers in CYP3A4/CYP3A5, CYP3A4/CYP2E1, and CYP3A5/CYP2E1 pairs and demonstrated that the association of either CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 with CYP2E1 causes activation of the latter enzyme. Earlier we hypothesized that the intersubunit interface in CYP3A4 oligomers is similar to that observed in the crystallographic dimers of some microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (Davydov, D. R., Davydova, N. Y., Sineva, E. V., Kufareva, I., and Halpert, J. R. (2013) Pivotal role of P450-P450 interactions in CYP3A4 allostery: the case of α-naphthoflavone. Biochem. J. 453, 219–230). Here we report the results of intermolecular cross-linking of CYP3A4 oligomers with thiol-reactive bifunctional reagents as well as the luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements of interprobe distances in the oligomers of labeled CYP3A4 single-cysteine mutants. The results provide compelling support for the physiological relevance of the dimer-specific peripheral ligand-binding site observed in certain CYP3A4 structures. According to our interpretation, these results reveal an important general mechanism that regulates the activity and substrate specificity of the cytochrome P450 ensemble through interactions between multiple P450 species. As a result of P450-P450 cross-talk, the catalytic properties of the cytochrome P450 ensemble cannot be predicted by simple summation of the properties of the individual P450 species. PMID:25533469

  4. Structural features of cytochrome P450 1A associated with the absence of EROD activity in liver of the of the loricariid catfish Pterygoplichthys sp

    PubMed Central

    Parente, T.E.M.; Rebelo, M.F.; da-Silva, M.L.; Woodin, B.R.; Goldstone, J. V.; Bisch, P.M.; Paumgartten, F.J.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Amazon catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae, Siluriformes) is closely related to the loricariid genus Hypostomus, in which at least two species lack detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, typically catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Pterygoplichthys sp. liver microsomes also lacked EROD, as well as activity with other substituted resorufins, but aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induced hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein suggesting structural/functional differences in Pterygoplichthys CYP1s from those in other vertebrates. Comparing the sequences of CYP1As of Pterygoplichthys sp. and of two phylogenetically-related siluriform species that do catalyze EROD (Ancistrus sp., Loricariidae and Corydoras sp., Callichthyidae) showed that these three proteins share amino acids at 17 positions that are not shared by any fish in a set of 24 other species. Pterygoplichthys and Ancistrus (the loricariids) have an additional 22 amino acid substitutions in common that are not shared by Corydoras or by other fish species. Pterygoplichthys has six exclusive amino acid substitutions. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations indicate that Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has a weak affinity for ER, which binds infrequently in a productive orientation, and in a less stable conformation than in CYP1As of species that catalyze EROD. ER also binds with the carbonyl moiety proximal to the heme iron. Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has amino acids substitutions that reduce the frequency of correctly oriented ER in the AS preventing the detection of EROD activity. The results indicate that loricariid CYP1As may have a peculiar substrate selectivity that differs from CYP1As of most vertebrates. PMID:21840383

  5. Cytochrome P450 system expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Zacco platypus following waterborne benzo(a)pyrene exposure: implications for biomarker determination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Yong Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2014-09-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that causes mutations and tumor formation. Zacco platypus is a sentinel species that is suitable for monitoring aquatic environments. We studied cytochrome P450 system (CYP system) expression and DNA adduct formation in the liver of Z. platypus following waterborne exposure to BaP. The results showed both dose and time dependency. The significant induction levels of CYP system mRNA and protein reached maximums at 2 days and 14 days, respectively, and hepatosomatic index was maximally induced at 4 days during 14 days BaP exposure. DNA adduct formation was significantly induced compared to corresponding controls (t-test, p < 0.01) after 4 days of exposure in 100 μg/L BaP. These results indicate that the only use of mRNA expression level of CYP system as a biomarker make us underestimate prolonged toxicity (4-14 days) of BaP and the only use of protein expression level of CYP system make us underestimate acute toxicity (1-2 days) of BaP. Therefore, we suggests that a combinational use of the mRNA expression level and protein expression level of CYP system, hepatosomatic index is a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure. In addition, DNA adduct formation was a useful biomarker in risk assessment of waterborne BaP exposure at 4 days. CYP1A was a more sensitive biomarker than CYP reductase for BaP exposure when considering both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, our results show that Z. platypus is a useful species for assessing the risk of waterborne BaP exposure. PMID:23192953

  6. Quantitative analysis of cytochrome P450 isoforms in human liver microsomes by the combination of proteomics and chemical probe-based assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xidong; Hu, Lianghai; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Bo; Ning, Jing; Sun, Shixin; Yang, Ling; Pors, Klaus; Gu, Jingkai

    2014-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzyme families, which participates in the biotransformation of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Quantitative analysis of CYP expression levels is important when studying the efficacy of new drug molecules and assessing drug-drug interactions in drug development. At present, chemical probe-based assay is the most widely used approach for the evaluation of CYP activity although there are cross-reactions between the isoforms with high sequence homologies. Therefore, quantification of each isozyme is highly desired in regard to meeting the ever-increasing requirements for carrying out pharmacokinetics and personalized medicine in the academic, pharmaceutical, and clinical setting. Herein, an absolute quantification method was employed for the analysis of the seven isoforms CYP1A2, 2B6, 3A4, 3A5, 2C9, 2C19, and 2E1 using a proteome-derived approach in combination with stable isotope dilution assay. The average absolute amount measured from twelve human liver microsomes samples were 39.3, 4.3, 54.0, 4.6, 10.3, 3.0, and 9.3 (pmol/mg protein) for 1A2, 2B6, 3A4, 3A5, 2C9, 2C19, and 2E1, respectively. Importantly, the expression level of CYP3A4 showed high correlation (r = 0.943, p < 0.0001) with the functional activity, which was measured using bufalin-a highly selective chemical probe we have developed. The combination of MRM identification and analysis of the functional activity, as in the case of CYP3A4, provides a protocol which can be extended to other functional enzyme studies with wide application in pharmaceutical research.

  7. Gomisin A is a Novel Isoform-Specific Probe for the Selective Sensing of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 in Liver Microsomes and Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Jing; Ge, Guang-Bo; He, Yu-Qi; Wang, Ping; Dai, Zi-Ru; Ning, Jing; Hu, Liang-Hai; Yang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of prescription medicines are metabolized by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. CYP3A4 and 3A5 are two major isoforms of human CYP3A and share most of the substrate spectrum. A very limited previous study distinguished the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, identifying the challenge in predicting CYP3A-mediated drug clearance and drug-drug interaction. In the present study, we introduced gomisin A (GA) with a dibenzocyclooctadiene skeleton as a novel selective probe of CYP3A4. The major metabolite of GA was fully characterized as 8-hydroxylated GA by LC-MS and NMR. CYP3A4 was assigned as the predominant isozyme involved in GA 8-hydroxylation by reaction phenotyping assays, chemical inhibition assays, and correlation studies. GA 8-hydroxylation in both recombinant human CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The intrinsic clearance values indicated that CYP3A4 contributed 12.8-fold more than CYP3A5 to GA 8-hydroxylation. Molecular docking studies indicated different hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, which might result in the different catalytic activity for GA 8-hydroxylation. Furthermore, GA exhibited a stronger inhibitory activity towards CYP3A4 than CYP3A5, which further suggested a preferred selectivity of CYP3A4 for the transformation of GA. More importantly, GA has been successfully applied to selectively monitor the modulation of CYP3A4 activities by the inducer rifampin in hepG2 cells, which is consistent with the level change of CYP3A4 mRNA expression. In summary, our results suggested that GA could be used as a novel probe for the selective sensing of CYP3A4 in tissue and cell preparations.

  8. Molecular evolutionary dynamics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases across kingdoms: Special focus on mycobacterial P450s

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Mohammad; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Bamal, Hans Denis; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Xie, Ting; Yang, Haoran; Chen, Hengye; Theron, Chrispian William; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Salewe, Vuyani; Mongale, Bogadi Lorato; Matowane, Retshedisitswe Godfrey; Abdalla, Sara Mohamed Hasaan; Booi, Wool Isaac; van Wyk, Mari; Olivier, Dedré; Boucher, Charlotte E.; Nelson, David R.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Blackburn, Jonathan Michael; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Chen, Wanping; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s), great progress has been made in understanding their structure-function relationship, diversity and application in producing compounds beneficial to humans. However, the molecular evolution of P450s in terms of their dynamics both at protein and DNA levels and functional conservation across kingdoms still needs investigation. In this study, we analyzed 17 598 P450s belonging to 113 P450 families (bacteria −42; fungi −19; plant −28; animal −22; plant and animal −1 and common P450 family −1) and found highly conserved and rapidly evolving P450 families. Results suggested that bacterial P450s, particularly P450s belonging to mycobacteria, are highly conserved both at protein and DNA levels. Mycobacteria possess the highest P450 diversity percentage compared to other microbes and have a high coverage of P450s (≥1%) in their genomes, as found in fungi and plants. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed the functional conservation of P450s despite belonging to different biological kingdoms, suggesting the adherence of P450s to their innate function such as their involvement in either generation or oxidation of steroids and structurally related molecules, fatty acids and terpenoids. This study’s results offer new understanding of the dynamic structural nature of P450s. PMID:27616185

  9. Molecular evolutionary dynamics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases across kingdoms: Special focus on mycobacterial P450s.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Mohammad; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Bamal, Hans Denis; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Xie, Ting; Yang, Haoran; Chen, Hengye; Theron, Chrispian William; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Salewe, Vuyani; Mongale, Bogadi Lorato; Matowane, Retshedisitswe Godfrey; Abdalla, Sara Mohamed Hasaan; Booi, Wool Isaac; van Wyk, Mari; Olivier, Dedré; Boucher, Charlotte E; Nelson, David R; Tuszynski, Jack A; Blackburn, Jonathan Michael; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Chen, Wanping; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s), great progress has been made in understanding their structure-function relationship, diversity and application in producing compounds beneficial to humans. However, the molecular evolution of P450s in terms of their dynamics both at protein and DNA levels and functional conservation across kingdoms still needs investigation. In this study, we analyzed 17 598 P450s belonging to 113 P450 families (bacteria -42; fungi -19; plant -28; animal -22; plant and animal -1 and common P450 family -1) and found highly conserved and rapidly evolving P450 families. Results suggested that bacterial P450s, particularly P450s belonging to mycobacteria, are highly conserved both at protein and DNA levels. Mycobacteria possess the highest P450 diversity percentage compared to other microbes and have a high coverage of P450s (≥1%) in their genomes, as found in fungi and plants. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed the functional conservation of P450s despite belonging to different biological kingdoms, suggesting the adherence of P450s to their innate function such as their involvement in either generation or oxidation of steroids and structurally related molecules, fatty acids and terpenoids. This study's results offer new understanding of the dynamic structural nature of P450s. PMID:27616185

  10. Unusual properties of the cytochrome P450 superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    During the early years of cytochrome P450 research, a picture of conserved properties arose from studies of mammalian forms of these monooxygenases. They included the protohaem prosthetic group, the cysteine residue that coordinates to the haem iron and the reduced CO difference spectrum. Alternatively, the most variable feature of P450s was the enzymatic activities, which led to the conclusion that there are a large number of these enzymes, most of which have yet to be discovered. More recently, studies of these enzymes in other eukaryotes and in prokaryotes have led to the discovery of unexpected P450 properties. Many are variations of the original properties, whereas others are difficult to explain because of their unique nature relative to the rest of the known members of the superfamily. These novel properties expand our appreciation of the broad view of P450 structure and function, and generate curiosity concerning the evolution of P450s. In some cases, structural properties, previously not found in P450s, can lead to enzymatic activities impacting the biological function of organisms containing these enzymes; whereas, in other cases, the biological reason for the variations are not easily understood. Herein, we present particularly interesting examples in detail rather than cataloguing them all. PMID:23297356

  11. Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:

    SciTech Connect

    Ornstein, R.; Paulsen, M.; Bass, M.; Arnold, G.

    1991-03-01

    Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Determining the IC50 Values for Vorozole and Letrozole, on a Series of Human Liver Cytochrome P450s, to Help Determine the Binding Site of Vorozole in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Lendelle; Rayani, Nikita; Polson, Grace; Sikorski, Kylie; Lian, Ailin; VanAlstine-Parris, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Vorozole and letrozole are third-generation aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1) inhibitors. [11C]-Vorozole can be used as a radiotracer for aromatase in living animals but when administered by IV, it collects in the liver. Pretreatment with letrozole does not affect the binding of vorozole in the liver. In search of finding the protein responsible for the accumulation of vorozole in the liver, fluorometric high-throughput screening assays were used to test the inhibitory capability of vorozole and letrozole on a series of liver cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4). It was determined that vorozole is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 (IC50 = 0.469 μM) and a moderate inhibitor of CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 (IC50 = 24.4 and 98.1 μM, resp.). Letrozole is only a moderate inhibitor of CYP1A1 and CYP2A6 (IC50 = 69.8 and 106 μM) and a very weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (<10% inhibition at 1 mM). Since CYP3A4 makes up the majority of the CYP content found in the human liver, and vorozole inhibits it moderately well but letrozole does not, CYP3A4 is a good candidate for the protein that [11C]-vorozole is binding to in the liver. PMID:26635974

  13. Cytochromes P450: History, Classes, Catalytic Mechanism, and Industrial Application.

    PubMed

    Cook, D J; Finnigan, J D; Cook, K; Black, G W; Charnock, S J

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450, a family of heme-containing monooxygenases that catalyze a diverse range of oxidative reactions, are so-called due to their maximum absorbance at 450nm, ie, "Pigment-450nm," when bound to carbon monoxide. They have appeal both academically and commercially due to their high degree of regio- and stereoselectivity, for example, in the area of active pharmaceutical ingredient synthesis. Despite this potential, they often exhibit poor stability, low turnover numbers and typically require electron transport protein(s) for catalysis. P450 systems exist in a variety of functional domain architectures, organized into 10 classes. P450s are also divided into families, each of which is based solely on amino acid sequence homology. Their catalytic mechanism employs a very complex, multistep catalytic cycle involving a range of transient intermediates. Mutagenesis is a powerful tool for the development of improved biocatalysts and has been used extensively with the archetypal Class VIII P450, BM3, from Bacillus megaterium, but with the increasing scale of genomic sequencing, a huge resource is now available for the discovery of novel P450s. PMID:27567486

  14. Effect of natamycin on cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Martínez, María Aránzazu; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa; Castellano, Victor; Martínez, Marta; Ares, Irma; Romero, Alejandro; Anadón, Arturo

    2013-12-01

    Natamycin is a polyene macrolide antibiotic widely used in the food industry as a feed additive to prevent mold contamination of foods. There are many contradictory results on the genotoxic effects of macrolides which could suggest a potential risk for humans. In the present study, the effects of natamycin on the activities of some drug metabolizing enzymes in rat liver microsomes were determined in vivo. Rats were treated orally with natamycin at doses of 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 6 days. Determinations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities were carried out in hepatic microsomes isolated from rats treated. The activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A1/2 CYP2B1/2 and CYP4A1/2 enzymes significantly decreased after treatment with 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg bw/day, in a dose-dependent manner as compared to control. This effect was not observed after natamycin treatment at dose of 0.3 mg/kg bw/day. Our results suggest that natamycin may not potentiate the toxicity of many xenobiotics via metabolic activation and/or accumulation of reactive metabolites but also might affect the clearance of other xenobiotics detoxified by the studied CYP enzymes.

  15. Spectroscopic features of cytochrome P450 reaction intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Abhinav; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Preface Cytochromes P450 constitute a broad class of heme monooxygenase enzymes with more than 11,500 isozymes which have been identified in organisms from all biological kingdoms [1]. These enzymes are responsible for catalyzing dozens chemical oxidative transformations such as hydroxylation, epoxidation, N-demethylation, etc., with very broad range of substrates [2-3]. Historically these enzymes received their name from ‘pigment 450’ due to the unusual position of the Soret band in UV-Vis absorption spectra of the reduced CO-saturated state [4-5]. Despite detailed biochemical characterization of many isozymes, as well as later discoveries of other ‘P450-like heme enzymes’ such as nitric oxide synthase and chloroperoxidase, the phenomenological term ‘cytochrome P450’ is still commonly used as indicating an essential spectroscopic feature of the functionally active protein which is now known to be due to the presence of a thiolate ligand to the heme iron [6]. Heme proteins with an imidazole ligand such as myoglobin and hemoglobin as well as an inactive form of P450 are characterized by Soret maxima at 420 nm [7]. This historical perspective highlights the importance of spectroscopic methods for biochemical studies in general, and especially for heme enzymes, where the presence of the heme iron and porphyrin macrocycle provides rich variety of specific spectroscopic markers available for monitoring chemical transformations and transitions between active intermediates of catalytic cycle. PMID:21167809

  16. Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by quinones and anthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Liu, Jiawang; Foroozesh, Maryam; Klein Stevens, Cheryl L

    2012-02-20

    In silico docking studies and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of a number of in-house cytochrome P450 inhibitors have revealed important structural characteristics that are required for a molecule to function as a good inhibitor of P450 enzymes 1A1, 1A2, 2B1, and/or 2A6. These insights were incorporated into the design of pharmacophores used for a 2D search of the Chinese medicine database. Emodin, a natural anthraquinone isolated from Rheum emodi and known to be metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, was one of the hits and was used as the lead compound. Emodin was found to inhibit P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1 with IC(50) values of 12.25, 3.73, and 14.89 μM, respectively. On the basis of the emodin molecular structure, further similarity searches of the PubChem and ZINC chemical databases were conducted resulting in the identification of 12 emodin analogues for testing against P450s 1A1-, 1A2-, 2B1-, and 2A6-dependent activities. 1-Amino-4-chloro-2-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (compound 1) showed the best inhibition potency for P450 1A1 with an IC(50) value of 0.40 μM. 1-Amino-4-chloro-2-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (compound 1) and 1-amino-4-hydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (compound 2) both inhibited P450 1A2 with the same IC(50) value of 0.53 μM. In addition, compound 1 acted as a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450s 1A1 and 1A2 with K(I) and K(inactivation) values of 5.38 μM and 1.57 min(-1) for P450 1A1 and 0.50 μM and 0.08 min(-1) for P450 1A2. 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione (compound 8) directly inhibited P450 2B1 with good selectivity and inhibition potency (IC(50) = 5.66 μM). Docking studies using the 3D structures of the enzymes were carried out on all of the compounds. The binding modes of these compounds revealed the structural characteristics responsible for their potency and selectivity. Compound 1, which is structurally similar to compound 2 with the presence of an amino group at position 1, showed a

  17. Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into the rat hepatic haemoproteins tryptophan pyrrolase and cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, J.F.; Gollan, J.L.; Settle, W.; Farrell, G.C.; Correia, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    After its administration to intact rats, haemoglobin haem was incorporated into hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase as shown by the marked increase in functional constitution of this enzyme. Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into cytochrome P-450 was demonstrated in intact rats and in the isolated rat liver perfused with haemoglogin-free medium. In both systems, haemoglobin haem restored cytochrome P-450 content and its dependent mixed-function-oxidase activity after substrate-induced destruction of the cytochrome P-450 haem moiety. Further confirmation that heamoglobin haem could be incorporated prosthetically into cytochrome P-450 was achieved by administration of (tritium) haemoglobin to rats and subsequent isolation and characterization of radiolabelled substrate-alkylated products of cytochrome P-450 haem. Findings indicate that, although hepatic uptake of parenteral haemoglobin is slower than that of haem, it appears to serve as an effective haem donor to the intrahepatic free haem pool. Thus parenteral haemoglobin may warrant consideration as a therapeutic alternative to haem in the acute hepatic porphyrias.

  18. NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  19. Computer-aided design of aptamers for cytochrome p450.

    PubMed

    Shcherbinin, Dmitrii S; Gnedenko, Oksana V; Khmeleva, Svetlana A; Usanov, Sergey A; Gilep, Andrei A; Yantsevich, Aliaksei V; Shkel, Tatsiana V; Yushkevich, Ivan V; Radko, Sergey P; Ivanov, Alexis S; Veselovsky, Alexander V; Archakov, Alexander I

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity. Usually, they are experimentally selected using the SELEX method. Here, we describe an approach toward the in silico selection of aptamers for proteins. This approach involves three steps: finding a potential binding site, designing the recognition and structural parts of the aptamers and evaluating the experimental affinity. Using this approach, a set of 15-mer aptamers for cytochrome P450 51A1 was designed using docking and molecular dynamics simulation. An experimental evaluation of the synthesized aptamers using SPR biosensor showed that these aptamers interact with cytochrome P450 51A1 with Kd values in the range of 10(-6)-10(-7) M. PMID:26166326

  20. Human cytochrome P450 oxidation of 5-hydroxythalidomide and pomalidomide, an amino analogue of thalidomide.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Shibata, Norio; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter

    2014-01-21

    The sedative and antiemetic drug thalidomide [α-(N-phthalimido)glutarimide] was withdrawn in the early 1960s because of its potent teratogenic effects but was approved for the treatment of lesions associated with leprosy in 1998 and multiple myeloma in 2006. The mechanism of teratogenicity of thalidomide still remains unclear, but it is well-established that metabolism of thalidomide is important for both teratogenicity and cancer treatment outcome. Thalidomide is oxidized by various cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, the major one being P450 2C19, to 5-hydroxy-, 5'-hydroxy-, and dihydroxythalidomide. We previously reported that P450 3A4 oxidizes thalidomide to the 5-hydroxy and dihydroxy metabolites, with the second oxidation step involving a reactive intermediate, possibly an arene oxide, that can be trapped by glutathione (GSH) to GSH adducts. We now show that the dihydroxythalidomide metabolite can be further oxidized to a quinone intermediate. Human P450s 2J2, 2C18, and 4A11 were also found to oxidize 5-hydroxythalidomide to dihydroxy products. Unlike P450s 2C19 and 3A4, neither P450 2J2, 2C18, nor 4A11 oxidized thalidomide itself. A recently approved amino analogue of thalidomide, pomalidomide (CC-4047, Actimid), was also oxidized by human liver microsomes and P450s 2C19, 3A4, and 2J2 to the corresponding phthalimide ring-hydroxylated product.

  1. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY RECOMBINANT RAT AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We report quantitative estimates of the parameters for metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by recombinant preparations of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) from rat and human. BDCM is a drinking water disinfectant byproduct that has been implicated in liver, kidn...

  2. Key Elements of the Chemistry of Cytochrome P-450: The Oxygen Rebound Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, John T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the structure and function of the liver protein cytochrome P-450, an important catalyst for a variety of detoxification reactions. Diagnostic substracts for this heme-containing monooxygenase, synthetic modes of the active site, and oxidations with synthetic metalloporphyrins are the major topic areas considered. (JN)

  3. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  4. Aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid and aspirin by human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-06-20

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids-salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid-and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1.

  5. Epoxidation Activities of Human Cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 enzymes epoxidize unsaturated substrates, but this activity has not been described for the steroid hydroxylases. Physiologic steroid substrates, however, lack carbon–carbon double bonds in the parts of the pregnane molecules where steroidogenic hydroxylations occur. Limited data on the reactivity of steroidogenic P450s toward olefinic substrates exist, and the study of occult activities toward alternative substrates is a fundamental aspect of the growing field of combinatorial biosynthesis. We reasoned that human P450c17 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, CYP17A1), which 17- and 16α-hydroxylates progesterone, might catalyze the formation of the 16α,17-epoxide from 16,17-dehydroprogesterone (pregna-4,16-diene-3,20-dione). CYP17A1 catalyzed the novel 16α,17-epoxidation and the ordinarily minor 21-hydroxylation of 16,17-dehydroprogesterone in a 1:1 ratio. CYP17A1 mutation A105L, which has reduced progesterone 16α-hydroxylase activity, gave a 1:5 ratio of epoxide:21-hydroxylated products. In contrast, human P450c21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase, CYP21A2) converted 16,17-dehydroprogesterone to the 21-hydroxylated product and only a trace of epoxide. CYP21A2 mutation V359A, which has significant 16α-hydroxylase activity, likewise afforded the 21-hydroxylated product and slightly more epoxide. CYP17A1 wild-type and mutation A105L do not 21- or 16α-hydroxylate pregnenolone, but the enzymes 21-hydroxylated and 16α,17-epoxidized 16,17-dehydropregnenolone (pregna-5,16-diene-3β-ol-20-one) in 4:1 or 12:1 ratios, respectively. Catalase and superoxide dismutase did not prevent epoxide formation. The progesterone epoxide was not a time-dependent, irreversible CYP17A1 inhibitor. Our substrate modification studies have revealed occult epoxidase and 21-hydroxylase activities of CYP17A1, and the fraction of epoxide formed correlated with the 16α-hydroxylase activity of the enzymes. PMID:25386927

  6. Protein-protein interactions between rat hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): evidence for the functionally active UGT in P450-UGT complex.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuji; Iwanaga, Megumi; Nishimura, Yoshio; Takeda, Shuso; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Mackenzie, Peter I; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    The interaction between cytochrome P450s (CYP, P450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) was studied by co-immunoprecipitation. P450 isoform-selective antibody was used as a probe to co-precipitate UGTs with the P450s from solubilized rat liver microsomes. Antibodies toward CYP3A2, CYP2B2, CYP2C11/13 and CYP1A2 co-precipitated UGTs with corresponding P450s. However, calnexin, a type-I membrane protein, in the endoplasmic reticulum was not co-precipitated by anti-P450 antibodies. UGT activity toward 4-methylumbelliferone was detected in all co-precipitates, suggesting that UGT in the complex with P450s is functionally active. Repeated washing of co-immunoprecipitates revealed differences among P450 isoforms with regard to the affinity for UGT. Larger amounts of UGT1A1 and UGT1A6, compared with UGT2B1, were washed out from UGTs-CYP2C11/13 co-precipitates, whereas UGT-CYP3A2 and UGT-CYP2Bs complexes were resistant to thorough washing. Thus, CYP2C11/13 could associate with UGTs, but the affinity is assumed to be weaker than that of CYP2B/3As. These results suggest that there is isoform specificity in the interaction between P450s and UGTs.

  7. Cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids: the neglected pathway in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaipainen, Arja; Greene, Emily R.; Huang, Sui

    2010-01-01

    Endogenously produced lipid autacoids are locally acting small molecule mediators that play a central role in the regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. A well-studied group of autacoids are the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, among which the prostaglandins and leukotrienes are the best known. They are generated by two pathways controlled by the enzyme systems cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, respectively. However, arachidonic acid is also substrate for a third enzymatic pathway, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. This third eicosanoid pathway consists of two main branches: ω-hydroxylases convert arachidonic acid to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxygenases convert it to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). This third CYP pathway was originally studied in conjunction with inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites have recently stimulated great interest in cancer biology; but, unlike prostaglandins and leukotrienes the link between cytochome P450 metabolites and cancer has received little attention. In this review, the emerging role in cancer of cytochrome P450 metabolites, notably 20-HETE and EETs, are discussed. PMID:20941528

  8. Polar bear hepatic cytochrome P450: Immunochemical quantitation, EROD/PROD activity and organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J. |

    1994-12-31

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are an ubiquitous mammal atop the arctic marine food chain and bioaccumulate lipophilic environmental contaminants. Antibodies prepared against purified rat liver cytochrome P450-1 Al, -1 A2, -2Bl and -3Al enzymes have been found to cross-react with structurally-related orthologues present in the hepatic microsomes of wild polar bears, immunochemically determined levels of P450-1 A and -2B proteins in polar bear liver relative to liver of untreated rats suggested enzyme induction, probably as a result of exposure to xenobiotic contaminants. Optical density quantitation of the most immunochemically responsive isozymes P450-I Al, -IA2 and -2Bi to polygonal rabbit anti-rat P450-IA/IA2 sera and -2BI antibodies in hepatic microsomes of 13 adult male polar bars from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic is presented. Correlations with EROD and PROD catalytic activities and levels of organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p-DDE) and their methyl sulfone (MeSO2-) metabolites are made to determine if compound-specific enzyme induction linkages exist. Inter-species immunochemical quantitation of isozymic P450 cytochromes can serve as an indicator of exposure to biologically active contaminant.

  9. Monoclonal antibody-directed phenotyping of cytochrome P-450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase in mammalian tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Fujino, T.; West, D.; Park, S.S.; Gelboin, H.V.

    1984-07-25

    The distribution of cytochromes P-450 that catalyze aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase were studied with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1-7-1 which completely inhibits these activities of a purified 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rat liver cytochrome P-450. The degree of inhibition by MAb 1-7-1 quantitatively assesses the contribution of different cytochromes P-450 in the liver, lung, and kidney microsomes from untreated, 3-methylcholanthrene- and phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats, mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters. Enzyme sensitivity to MAb 1-7-1 inhibition defines two types of cytochrome P-450 contributing to aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase. The MAb 1-7-1 sensitive cytochrome P-450 is a major contributor to aryl hydrocarbonhydroxylase in rat liver, lung, and kidney of 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats, C57BL/6 mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters. 7-Ethoxycoumarin 0-deethylase is also a function of both the MAb 1-7-1-sensitive and insensitive classes of cytochromeP-450. The ratio of the classes contributing to aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase differs in the various tissues and species and after inducer treatment. All of the 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity in guinea pigs and hamsters is a function of cytochromes P-450 different than the MAb 1-7-1-sensitive cytochrome P-450 responsible for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. Thus, the MAb 1-7-1 antigenically defines the type of cytochromes P-450 contributing to each reaction.

  10. Effect of cytochrome P450 inducers on cocaine-mediated hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bornheim, L M

    1998-05-01

    The effect of several cytochrome P450 (P450) inducers on cocaine metabolism were examined in order to characterize the metabolic events contributing to cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity. Phenobarbital (PB)-pretreatment of mice induced P450s 3A and 2B and markedly increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity after cocaine or norcocaine administration. Although dexamethasone (Dex) induced P450s 3A and 2B at least to the same extent as PB, no increase in serum ALT activity was observed after cocaine or norcocaine administration. Phencyclidine (PCP) pretreatment did not increase either P450s 3A or 2B, yet it markedly enhanced cocaine- or norcocaine-induced serum ALT activity. In contrast to the marked induction of P450s 3A and 2B, P450 2C was increased only 2.5-fold by PB and to an even lesser extent by Dex or PCP. Cannabidiol (CBD), which inactivates P450s 3A and 2C in mice, completely protected mice against cocaine- or norcocaine-induced hepatotoxicity irrespective of whether they were induced or not with PB or PCP. Both PB and Dex pretreatment increased the in vitro hepatic microsomal formation of the first two sequential oxidative metabolites of cocaine (norcocaine and N-hydroxynorcocaine), whereas PCP pretreatment did not. Hepatic esterase activity was also determined after pretreatment with P450 inducers, since this is the major detoxification pathway in cocaine metabolism. Dex pretreatment markedly increased (> 11-fold) total hepatic esterase activity, whereas PB pretreatment increased it more modestly (less than fourfold) and PCP pretreatment had little effect. This marked effect of Dex pretreatment may decrease liver cocaine concentrations and thus protect mice against cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity, despite their increased P450 2B and 3A contents.

  11. Computer modeling of 3D structures of cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y T; Stiffelman, O B; Loew, G H

    1996-01-01

    The understanding of structure-function relationship of enzymes requires detailed information of their three-dimensional structure. Protein structure determination by X-ray and NMR methods, the two most frequently used experimental procedures, are often difficult and time-consuming. Thus computer modeling of protein structures has become an increasingly active and attractive option for obtaining predictive models of three-dimensional protein structures. Specifically, for the ubiquitous metabolizing heme proteins, the cytochrome P450s, the X-ray structures of four isozymes of bacterial origin, P450cam, P450terp, P450BM-3 and P450eryF have now been determined. However, attempts to obtain the structure of mammalian forms by experimental means have thus far not been successful. Thus, there have been numerous attempts to construct models of mammalian P450s using homology modeling methods in which the known structures have been used to various extents and in various strategies to build models of P450 isozymes. In this paper, we review these efforts and then describe a strategy for structure building and assessment of 3D models of P450s recently developed in our laboratory that corrects many of the weaknesses in the previous procedures. The results are 3D models that for the first time are stable to unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations. The use of this method is demonstrated by the construction and validation of a 3D model for rabbit liver microsomal P450 isozyme 2B4, responsible for the oxidative metabolism of diverse xenobiotics including widely used inhalation anesthetics. Using this 2B4 model, the substrate access channel, substrate binding site and plausible surface regions for binding with P450 redox partners were identified. PMID:9010606

  12. [Cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions during intensified biosynthesis of coenzyme A in hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Sushko, L I; Sheĭbak, V M; Abakumov, G Z; Moĭseenok, A K

    1986-01-01

    After subcutaneous administration into male rats of 4-phosphopantothenic acid and pantethine during 10 days at a dose equivalent to 30 mg/kg of calcium pantothenate total content of CoA was increased in liver tissue. Both these preparations activated the liver endoplasmic reticulum monooxygenase system mainly at the step of substrate hydroxylation. The phenomenon observed appears to occur due to activation of cytochrome P-450 biosynthesis and/or to alterations in phospholipid composition of microsomal membranes. PMID:3765494

  13. Cytochrome P450 polymorphism--molecular, metabolic and pharmacogenetic aspects. I. Mechanisms of activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Pachecka, Jan; Tomaszewski, Piotr; Kubiak-Tomaszewska, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450, initially perceived as a type of cell pigment, was soon identified as a hemoprotein with an enzymatic activity characteristic for monooxygenases with an affinity for differentiated endo- or exogenous substrates, including drugs. So far in the human organism 58 CYP isoenzymes belonging to 18 families have been described. Most from the CYP monooxygenases superfamily turned out to be integral elements of hepatocytic reticular monooxygenase complexes which also contain NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Later investigations indicated the possibility of the participation in electron transport for reticular CYP isoenzymes, alternative NADH-dependent reticular system composed of cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR) and cytochrome b5. The demonstration of the activity of some CYP superfamily isoenzymes not only in hepatocytes but also in many other cells of the human organism, numerous plant and animal tissues and even in cells of fungi, protists and prokaryotes has contributed to the significantly increased understanding of the role of CYP in biological systems. In addition, some CYP isoenzymes were found to be characteristic for the inner mitochondrial membrane monooxygenase complexes which contain NADPH-dependent adrenodoxin reductase (AR) and adrenodoxin (Ad), which is identical with ferredoxin-1 (Fd-1) and hepatoredoxin (Hd).

  14. FTIR studies of the redox partner interaction in cytochrome P450: the Pdx-P450cam couple.

    PubMed

    Karyakin, Andrey; Motiejunas, Domantas; Wade, Rebecca C; Jung, Christiane

    2007-03-01

    Recently we have developed a new approach to study protein-protein interactions using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with titration experiments and principal component analysis (FTIR-TPCA). In the present paper we review the FTIR-TPCA results obtained for the interaction between cytochrome P450 and the redox partner protein in two P450 systems, the Pseudomonas putida P450cam (CYP101) with putidaredoxin (P450cam-Pdx), and the Bacillus megaterium P450BM-3 (CYP102) heme domain with the FMN domain (P450BMP-FMND). Both P450 systems reveal similarities in the structural changes that occur upon redox partner complex formation. These involve an increase in beta-sheets and alpha-helix content, a decrease in the population of random coil/3(10)-helix structure, a redistribution of turn structures within the interacting proteins and changes in the protonation states or hydrogen-bonding of amino acid carboxylic side chains. We discuss in detail the P450cam-Pdx interaction in comparison with literature data and conclusions drawn from experiments obtained by other spectroscopic techniques. The results are also interpreted in the context of a 3D structural model of the Pdx-P450cam complex.

  15. Regulation of cytochrome P-450Ia1 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kamps, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which cytochrome P-450IA1 gene expression is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins involves an intracellular protein known as the Ah receptor. Within the past few years, a second protein has been identified which binds to certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not to the receptor ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD). The protein, named the 4S PAH binding protein, has been reported to bind to a site on the DNA in the 5{prime} regulatory region for the cytochrome P-450IA1 gene. This finding led to the hypothesis that the 4S PAH binding protein may be involved in the trans-regulation of this gene. The work presented in this manuscript addressed this hypothesis by (1) screening animals and cell lines for the presence or absence of the Ah receptor and 4S PAH binding protein, (2) screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to identify ligands which specifically bind only the 4S protein, (3) determining dose-response curves for TCDD and 4S protein specific ligands in mammalian cell lines, (4) co-administering a 4S binding protein ligand and TCDD in mammalian cell lines to determine the effects of the 4S protein-ligand complex on TCDD-induced cytochrome P-450IA1 expression, and (5) co-administering TCDD and 6-methyl 1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF), a compound reported to be an antagonist of TCDD-induced benzo(a)pyrene-3-hydroxylase (AHH) activity, to determine whether antagonism occurs at the transcriptional level. The results of gradient assays show that the Ah receptor and the 4S binding protein were expressed in the rat strains which were studied. In the cell lines, H4IIE cells (rat hepatoma expressed only the receptor whereas Hepa1c1c7 cells mouse hepatoma) expressed both proteins.

  16. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  17. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  18. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury. PMID:20561902

  19. Regulation of cytochrome P450 expression in Drosophila: Genomic insights

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Maeva; Unnithan, G. Chandran; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Feyereisen, René

    2009-01-01

    Genomic tools such as the availability of the Drosophila genome sequence, the relative ease of stable transformation, and DNA microarrays have made the fruit fly a powerful model in insecticide toxicology research. We have used transgenic promoter-GFP constructs to document the detailed pattern of induced Cyp6a2 gene expression in larval and adult Drosophila tissues. We also compared various insecticides and xenobiotics for their ability to induce this cytochrome P450 gene, and show that the pattern of Cyp6a2 inducibility is comparable to that of vertebrate CYP2B genes, and different from that of vertebrate CYP1A genes, suggesting a degree of evolutionary conservation for the “phenobarbital-type” induction mechanism. Our results are compared to the increasingly diverse reports on P450 induction that can be gleaned from whole genome or from “detox” microarray experiments in Drosophila. These suggest that only a third of the genomic repertoire of CYP genes is inducible by xenobiotics, and that there are distinct subsets of inducers / induced genes, suggesting multiple xenobiotic transduction mechanisms. A relationship between induction and resistance is not supported by expression data from the literature. The relative abundance of expression data now available is in contrast to the paucity of studies on functional expression of P450 enzymes, and this remains a challenge for our understanding of the toxicokinetic aspects of insecticide action. PMID:20582327

  20. Kinetic Analysis of Lauric Acid Hydroxylation by Human Cytochrome P450 4A11

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4A11 is the only functionally active subfamily 4A P450 in humans. P450 4A11 catalyzes mainly ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids in liver and kidney; this process is not a major degradative pathway, but at least one product, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, has important signaling properties. We studied catalysis by P450 4A11 and the issue of rate-limiting steps using lauric acid ω-hydroxylation, a prototypic substrate for this enzyme. Some individual reaction steps were studied using pre-steady-state kinetic approaches. Substrate and product binding and release were much faster than overall rates of catalysis. Reduction of ferric P450 4A11 (to ferrous) was rapid and not rate-limiting. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments yielded low but reproducible values (1.2–2) for 12-hydroxylation with 12-2H-substituted lauric acid. However, considerable “metabolic switching” to 11-hydroxylation was observed with [12-2H3]lauric acid. Analysis of switching results [Jones, J. P., et al. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc.108, 7074–7078] and the use of tritium KIE analysis with [12-3H]lauric acid [Northrop, D. B. (1987) Methods Enzymol.87, 607–625] both indicated a high intrinsic KIE (>10). Cytochrome b5 (b5) stimulated steady-state lauric acid ω-hydroxylation ∼2-fold; the apoprotein was ineffective, indicating that electron transfer is involved in the b5 enhancement. The rate of b5 reoxidation was increased in the presence of ferrous P450 mixed with O2. Collectively, the results indicate that both the transfer of an electron to the ferrous·O2 complex and C–H bond-breaking limit the rate of P450 4A11 ω-oxidation. PMID:25203493

  1. Development and Characterization of Novel and Selective Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP26A1, the Human Liver Retinoic Acid Hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Philippe; Huang, Weize; Keyari, Charles M; Buttrick, Brian; Price, Lauren; Guilloteau, Nicolas; Tripathy, Sasmita; Sperandio, Vanessa G; Fronczek, Frank R; Astruc-Diaz, Fanny; Isoherranen, Nina

    2016-03-24

    Cytochrome P450 CYP26 enzymes are responsible for all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) clearance. Inhibition of CYP26 enzymes will increase endogenous atRA concentrations and is an attractive therapeutic target. However, the selectivity and potency of the existing atRA metabolism inhibitors toward CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 is unknown, and no selective CYP26A1 or CYP26B1 inhibitors have been developed. Here the synthesis and potent inhibitory activity of the first CYP26A1 selective inhibitors is reported. A series of nonazole CYP26A1 selective inhibitors was identified with low nM potency. The lead compound 3-{4-[2-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl] phenyl}4-propanoic acid (24) had 43-fold selectivity toward CYP26A1 with an IC50 of 340 nM. Compound 24 and its two structural analogues also inhibited atRA metabolism in HepG2 cells, resulting in increased potency of atRA toward RAR activation. The identified compounds have potential to become novel treatments aiming to elevate endogenous atRA concentrations and may be useful as cotreatment with atRA to combat therapy resistance.

  2. Effect of dietary eugenol on xenobiotic metabolism and mediation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and cytochrome P450 1A1 expression in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hidetomo; Ujita, Wakako; Nishikawa, Miyu; Ishii, Satomi; Inoue, Hiroki; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) play an important role in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and drugs. A variety of natural dietary agents are known to protect against cancer by inducing XME. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of XME induction, we examined the effect of dietary eugenol (4-allyl-1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene) on xenobiotic metabolism. In this study, rats were administered dietary eugenol for 4 weeks to investigate the various effects of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) expression. In rats administered dietary eugenol, expression levels of hepatic CYP1A 1 were reduced to 40% than of the controls, while expression of hepatic UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT2B1 increased to 2-3 times than observed in the controls. Hepatic protein levels of UGT1A6 and 2B1 were also elevated in the eugenol-treated rats. These results suggest that the natural compound eugenol improves the xenobiotic-metabolizing systems that suppress and induce the expression of CYP1A1 and UGT, respectively.

  3. The effect of 17β-estradiol on sex-dimorphic cytochrome P450 expression patterns induced by hyperoxia in the liver of male CBA/H mice.

    PubMed

    Šafranko, Željka Mačak; Balog, Tihomir; Musa, Marina; Bujak, Ivana Tartaro; Sobočanec, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment of male CBA/H mice with 17β-estradiol (E2) had protective effect on survival and hepatic oxidative damage of lipids and proteins against hyperoxia. Furthermore, we wanted to explore the effect of E2 treatment on the expression of sex-specific cytochrome P450 isoforms, and their possible involvement in E2-induced resistance to hyperoxia. Lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were analysed spectrophotometrically and were used as a measure of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to measure both gene and protein expression levels of Cyp2E1, Cyp7B1 and Cyp2A4, respectively. We found that treatment of male CBA/H mice with E2 increased survival upon hyperoxia exposure, and provided protection against hepatic lipid and protein oxidative damage. Hyperoxia had feminizing effect on the expression of sex-specific CYPs, which resembled the lifespan-promoting conditions. E2 administration had the opposite effect on the expression pattern of these CYPs in hyperoxic versus normoxic conditions. Results of this research proposed possible male strategy in adaptive response to oxidative stress, which may finally result in their longer lifespan. PMID:27576492

  4. Purification and immunochemical detections of ?-naphthoflavone- and phenobarbital-induced avian cytochrome P450 enzymes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Levi, P.E.; Hodgson, E.; Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Livers from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were treated with either -naphthoflavone (50 mg/kg) or phenobarbital (70 mg/kg). Purification of induced hepatic cytochrome P450 was accomplished using both DEAE and hydroxyapatite columns, as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation. Polyclonal antibodies to these proteins were then produced in young male New Zealand White rabbits. ?-naphthoflavone (?NF)- and phenobarbital(PB)-treated red-winged blackbird, screech owl, European starling and lesser scaup liver microsomes were analyzed in western blots for species cross-reactivity. Although all four of these avian species exhibited cross-reactivity with antibodies to ?NF-induced mallard P450, all but the lesser scaup revealed a protein of higher molecular weight than that of the ?NF-induced mallard. In addition, only the lesser scaup exhibited cross-reactivity with the anti-PB-induced mallard P450 antibodies.

  5. HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 UBIQUITINATION: CONFORMATIONAL PHOSPHODEGRONS FOR E2/E3 RECOGNITION?

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Almira; Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Guan, Shenheng

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral cytochromes P450 (P450s) are monooxygenases engaged in the biotransformation and elimination of endo- as well as xenobiotics. Of the human liver P450s, CYP3A4 is the major and most dominant catalyst, responsible for the biotransformation of over 50% of clinically prescribed drugs. CYP2E1 metabolizes smaller molecular weight compounds (EtOH), carcinogens, environmental toxins and endobiotics, and is justly implicated in various toxigenic/pathogenic mechanisms of human disease. Both P450s are notorious for their potential to generate pathogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) during futile oxidative cycling and/or oxidative uncoupling. Such ROS not only oxidatively damage the P450 catalytic cage, but on their escape into the cytosol, also the P450 outer surface and any surrounding cell organelles. Given their ER-monotopic topology coupled with this high potential to acquire oxidative lesions in their cytosolic (C) domain, not surprisingly these P450 proteins exhibit shorter lifespans and are excellent prototype substrates of ER-associated degradation (“ERAD-C”) pathway. Indeed, we have shown that both CYP3A4 and CYP2E1 incur ERAD-C, during which they are first phosphorylated by protein kinases A and C, which greatly enhance/accelerate their ubiquitination by UBC7/gp78 and UbcH5a/CHIP/Hsp70/Hsp40 E2/E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Such P450 phosphorylation occurs on Ser/Thr residues within linear sequences as well as spatially clustered acidic (Asp/Glu) residues. We propose that such S/T phosphorylation within these clusters creates a negatively charged patch i.e. conformational phosphodegrons, for interaction with positively charged E2/E3 domains. Such P450 S/T phosphorylation we posit serves as a switch to turn on its ubiquitination and ERAD-C. PMID:24488826

  6. Phyllanthus urinaria extract attenuates acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity: involvement of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1.

    PubMed

    Hau, Desmond Kwok Po; Gambari, Roberto; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Tong, Cindy Sze Wai; Zhu, Guo Yuan; Leung, Alexander Kai Man; Lai, Paul Bo San; Lau, Fung Yi; Chan, Andrew Kit Wah; Wong, Wai Yeung; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Kan, Chi Wai; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Chui, Chung Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Fong, David Wang Fun

    2009-08-01

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used drug for the treatment of patients with common cold and influenza. However, an overdose of acetaminophen may be fatal. In this study we investigated whether mice, administered intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of acetaminophen, when followed by oral administration of Phyllanthus urinaria extract, may be prevented from death. Histopathological analysis of mouse liver sections showed that Phyllanthus urinaria extract may protect the hepatocytes from acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Therapeutic dose of Phyllanthus urinaria extract did not show any toxicological phenomenon on mice. Immunohistochemical staining with the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 antibody revealed that Phyllanthus urinaria extract reduced the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 protein level in mice pre-treated with a lethal dose of acetaminophen. Phyllanthus urinaria extract also inhibited the cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzymatic activity in vitro. Heavy metals, including arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, as well as herbicide residues were not found above their detection limits. High performance liquid chromatography identified corilagin and gallic acid as the major components of the Phyllanthus urinaria extract. We conclude that Phyllanthus urinaria extract is effective in attenuating the acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 enzyme may be an important factor for its therapeutic mechanism.

  7. Expression, function and regulation of mouse cytochrome P450 enzymes: comparison with human P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hrycay, E G; Bandiera, S M

    2009-12-01

    The present review focuses on the expression, function and regulation of mouse cytochrome P450 (Cyp) enzymes. Information compiled for mouse Cyp enzymes is compared with data collected for human CYP enzymes. To date, approximately 40 pairs of orthologous mouse-human CYP genes have been identified that encode enzymes performing similar metabolic functions. Recent knowledge concerning the tissue expression of mouse Cyp enzymes from families 1 to 51 is summarized. The catalytic activities of microsomal, mitochondrial and recombinant mouse Cyp enzymes are discussed and their involvement in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds is highlighted. The role of nuclear receptors, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and pregnane X receptor, in regulating the expression of mouse Cyp enzymes is examined. Targeted disruption of selected Cyp genes has generated numerous Cyp null mouse lines used to decipher the role of Cyp enzymes in metabolic, toxicological and biological processes. In conclusion, the laboratory mouse is an indispensable model for exploring human CYP-mediated activities.

  8. Deletion of 30 murine cytochrome p450 genes results in viable mice with compromised drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Nico; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Rode, Anja; Macleod, A Kenneth; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland

    2014-06-01

    In humans, 75% of all drugs are metabolized by the cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase system. Enzymes encoded by the CYP2C, CYP2D, and CYP3A gene clusters account for ∼80% of this activity. There are profound species differences in the multiplicity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, and the use of mouse models to predict pathways of drug metabolism is further complicated by overlapping substrate specificity between enzymes from different gene families. To establish the role of the hepatic and extrahepatic P450 system in drug and foreign chemical disposition, drug efficacy, and toxicity, we created a unique mouse model in which 30 cytochrome P450 genes from the Cyp2c, Cyp2d, and Cyp3a gene clusters have been deleted. Remarkably, despite a wide range of putative important endogenous functions, Cyp2c/2d/3a KO mice were viable and fertile, demonstrating that these genes have evolved primarily as detoxification enzymes. Although there was no overt phenotype, detailed examination showed Cyp2c/2d/3a KO mice had a smaller body size (15%) and larger livers (20%). Changes in hepatic morphology and a decreased blood glucose (30%) were also noted. A five-drug cocktail of cytochrome P450 isozyme probe substrates were used to evaluate changes in drug pharmacokinetics; marked changes were observed in either the pharmacokinetics or metabolites formed from Cyp2c, Cyp2d, and Cyp3a substrates, whereas the metabolism of the Cyp1a substrate caffeine was unchanged. Thus, Cyp2c/2d/3a KO mice provide a powerful model to study the in vivo role of the P450 system in drug metabolism and efficacy, as well as in chemical toxicity. PMID:24671958

  9. Identification of the main human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in safrole 1'-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw; Chi, Chin-Wen; Ho, Li-Kang

    2004-08-01

    Safrole is a natural plant constituent, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. The carcinogenicity of safrole is mediated through 1'-hydroxysafrole formation, followed by sulfonation to an unstable sulfate that reacts to form DNA adducts. To identify the main cytochrome P450 (P450) involved in human hepatic safrole 1'-hydroxylation (SOH), we determined the SOH activities of human liver microsomes and Escherichia coli membranes expressing bicistronic human P450s. Human liver (n = 18) microsomal SOH activities were in the range of 3.5-16.9 nmol/min/mg protein with a mean value of 8.7 +/- 0.7 nmol/min/mg protein. In human liver (n = 3) microsomes, the mean K(m) and V(max) values of SOH were 5.7 +/- 1.2 mM and 0.14 +/- 0.03 micromol/min/nmol P450, respectively. The mean intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) was 25.3 +/- 2.3 microL/min/nmol P450. SOH was sensitive to the inhibition by a CYP2C9 inhibitor, sulfaphenazole, and CYP2E1 inhibitors, 4-methylpyrazole and diethyldithiocarbamate. The liver microsomal SOH activity showed significant correlations with tolbutamide hydroxylation (r = 0.569) and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation (r = 0.770) activities, which were the model reactions catalyzed by CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, respectively. Human CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 showed SOH activities at least 2-fold higher than the other P450s. CYP2E1 showed an intrinsic clearance 3-fold greater than CYP2C9. These results demonstrated that CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 were the main P450s involved in human hepatic SOH.

  10. In Vitro Metabolism of Montelukast by Cytochrome P450s and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Josiane de Oliveira; Oliveira, Regina Vincenzi; Lu, Jessica Bo Li; Desta, Zeruesenay

    2015-12-01

    Montelukast has been recommended as a selective in vitro and in vivo probe of cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2C8 activity, but its selectivity toward this enzyme remains unclear. We performed detailed characterization of montelukast metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs), expressed P450s, and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Kinetic and inhibition experiments performed at therapeutically relevant concentrations reveal that CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 are the principal enzymes responsible for montelukast 36-hydroxylation to 1,2-diol. CYP3A4 was the main catalyst of montelukast sulfoxidation and stereoselective 21-hydroxylation, and multiple P450s participated in montelukast 25-hydroxylation. We confirmed direct glucuronidation of montelukast to an acyl-glucuronide. We also identified a novel peak that appears consistent with an ether-glucuronide. Kinetic analysis in HLMs and experiments in expressed UGTs indicate that both metabolites were exclusively formed by UGT1A3. Comparison of in vitro intrinsic clearance in HLMs suggest that direct glucuronidation may play a greater role in the overall metabolism of montelukast than does P450-mediated oxidation, but the in vivo contribution of UGT1A3 needs further testing. In conclusion, our in vitro findings provide new insight toward montelukast metabolism. The utility of montelukast as a probe of CYP2C8 activity may be compromised owing to involvement of multiple P450s and UGT1A3 in its metabolism. PMID:26374173

  11. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  12. Biotransformation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by cytochrome P450cam and P450BM-3.

    PubMed

    Sowden, Rebecca J; Yasmin, Samina; Rees, Nicholas H; Bell, Stephen G; Wong, Luet-Lok

    2005-01-01

    The sesquiterpenoids are a large class of naturally occurring compounds with biological functions and desirable properties. Oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene by wild type and mutants of P450cam from Pseudomonas putida, and of P450BM-3 from Bacillus megaterium, have been investigated as a potential route to (+)-nootkatone, a fine fragrance. Wild type P450cam did not oxidise (+)-valencene but the mutants showed activities up to 9.8 nmol (nmol P450)(-1) min(-1), with (+)-trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone constituting >85% of the products. Wild type P450BM-3 and mutants had higher activities (up to 43 min(-1)) than P450cam but were much less selective. Of the many products, cis- and trans-(+)-nootkatol, (+)-nootkatone, cis-(+)-valencene-1,10-epoxide, trans-(+)-nootkaton-9-ol, and (+)-nootkatone-13S,14-epoxide were isolated from whole-cell reactions and characterised. The selectivity patterns suggest that (+)-valencene has one binding orientation in P450cam but multiple orientations in P450BM-3. PMID:15602599

  13. Role of inducer binding in cytochrome P-450 IA2-mediated uroporphyrinogen oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J M; Sinclair, P R; Lambrecht, R W; Sinclair, J F; Jacobs, N J

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation of uroporphyrinogen, an intermediate of the heme biosynthetic pathway, by methylcholanthrene-inducible isozymes(s) of cytochrome P-450 has been proposed to play a role in the development of chemically induced uroporphyria. Prior work from this laboratory indicated that although addition of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl is required for uroporphyrinogen oxidation by methylcholanthrene-induced chick embryo liver microsomes, this biphenyl is not required for the oxidation catalyzed by hepatic microsomes from methylcholanthrene-induced rodents. Here we investigated whether rodent microsomes catalyze uroporphyrinogen oxidation without addition of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl because the chemical used as an inducer remains bound to cytochrome P-450. Hepatic microsomes containing almost no residual inducer were isolated from rats treated with a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). These microsomes oxidized uroporphyrinogen at high rates without addition of 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Inducer-free microsomal cytochrome P-450 was also obtained by inducing cytochrome P-450 in rats and mice with isosafrole, which was then removed from the isolated microsomes by butanol treatment. This procedure resulted in microsomes with high activity for uroporphyrinogen oxidation. Furthermore, addition of chlorobiphenyl to these inducer-free microsomes was inhibitory. Hepatic microsomes from isosafrole-induced C57BL/6 and DBA mice, rendered inducer-free by butanol treatment, oxidized uroporphyrinogen at the same rate even though these two strains differ markedly in their susceptibility to chemically induced uroporphyria. We conclude that uroporphyrinogen oxidation is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 that is free of inducer.

  14. Role of hepatic cytochromes P450 in bioactivation of the anticancer drug ellipticine: Studies with the hepatic NADPH:Cytochrome P450 reductase null mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Stiborova, Marie Arlt, Volker M.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland; Kotrbova, Vera; Moserova, Michaela; Hudecek, Jiri; Phillips, David H.; Frei, Eva

    2008-02-01

    Ellipticine is an antineoplastic agent, which forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. We evaluated the role of hepatic versus extra-hepatic metabolism of ellipticine, using the HRN (Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Reductase Null) mouse model, in which cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is deleted in hepatocytes, resulting in the loss of essentially all hepatic CYP function. HRN and wild-type (WT) mice were treated i.p. with 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight of ellipticine. Multiple ellipticine-DNA adducts detected by {sup 32}P-postlabelling were observed in organs from both mouse strains. Highest total DNA binding levels were found in liver, followed by lung, kidney, urinary bladder, colon and spleen. Ellipticine-DNA adduct levels in the liver of HRN mice were up to 65% lower relative to WT mice, confirming the importance of CYP enzymes for the activation of ellipticine in livers, recently shown in vitro with human and rat hepatic microsomes. When hepatic microsomes of both mouse strains were incubated with ellipticine, ellipticine-DNA adduct levels with WT microsomes were up to 2.9-fold higher than with those from HRN mice. The ratios of ellipticine-DNA adducts in extra-hepatic organs between HRN and WT mice of up to 4.7 suggest that these organs can activate ellipticine and that more ellipticine is available in the circulation. These results and the DNA adduct patterns found in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that both CYP1A or 3A and peroxidases participate in activation of ellipticine to reactive species forming DNA adducts in the mouse model used in this study.

  15. Cytochrome P-450 dependent ethanol oxidation. Kinetic isotope effects and absence of stereoselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstroem, G.; Norsten, C.; Cronholm, T.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.

    1987-11-17

    Deuterium isotope effects (/sup D/(V/K)) and stereoselectivity of ethanol oxidation in cytochrome P-450 containing systems and in the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system were compared with those of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. The isotope effects were determined by using both a noncompetitive method, including incubation of unlabeled of (1,1-/sup 2/H/sub 2/) ethanol at various concentrations, and a competitive method, where 1:1 mixtures of (1-/sup 13/C)- and (/sup 2/H/sub 6/) ethanol or (2,2,2-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)- and (1,1-/sup 2/H/sub 2/) ethanol were incubated and the acetaldehyde formed was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The /sup D/(V/K) isotope effects of the cytochrome P-450 dependent ethanol oxidation were about 4 with liver microsomes from imidazole-, phenobarbital- or acetone-treated rabbits or with microsomes from acetone- or ethanol-treated rats. Similar isotope effects were reached with reconstituted membranes containing the rabbit ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-450 (LMeb), whereas control rat microsomes and membranes containing rabbit phenobarbital-inducible P-450 LM/sub 2/ oxidized the alcohol with /sup D/(V/K) of about 2.8 and 1.8, respectively. Addition of Fe/sup III/EDTA either to microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rabbits or to membranes containing P-450 LMeb significantly lowered the isotope effect. Incubations of all cytochrome P-450 containing systems of the xanthine-xanthine oxidase systems with (1R)- and (1S)-(1-/sup 2/H) ethanol, revealed, taking the isotope effects into account, that 44-66% of the ethanol oxidized had lost the 1-pro-R hydrogen. The data indicate that cytochrome P-450 dependent ethanol oxidation is not stereospecific and that cleavage of the C/sub 1/-H bond appears to be a rate-determining step in the catalysis by the ethanol-inducible form of P-450. The contribution of hydroxyl radicals in ethanol oxidation by the various enzymic systems is discussed.

  16. Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Iyanagi, Takashi . E-mail: iyanagi@spring8.or.jp

    2005-12-09

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH {sup {center_dot}}/FMNH{sub 2} couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the assumptions of an ontogeny model of rat hepatic cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Alcorn, Jane; Elbarbry, Fawzy A; Allouh, Mohammed Z; McNamara, Patrick J

    2007-12-01

    We previously reported an ontogeny model of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) activity that predicts in vivo P450 elimination from in vitro intrinsic clearance. The purpose of this study was to conduct investigations into key assumptions of the P450 ontogeny model using the developing rat model system. We used two developmentally dissimilar enzymes, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2, and male rats (n = 4) at age groups representing critical developmental stages. Total body and liver weights and hepatic microsomal protein contents were measured. Following high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, apparent K(M) and V(max) estimates were calculated using nonlinear regression analysis for CYP2E1- and CYP1A2-mediated chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation and methoxyresorufin O-dealkylation, and V(max) estimates for p-nitrophenol and phenacetin hydroxylations, respectively. Hepatic scaling factors and V(max) values provided estimates for infant scaling factors (ISF). The data show microsomal protein contents increased with postnatal age and reached adult values after postnatal day (PD) 7. Apparent K(M) values were similar at all developmental stages except at < or =PD7. Developmental increases in probe substrate V(max) values did not correlate with the biphasic increase in immunoquantifiable P450. The activity of two different probe substrates for each P450 covaried as a function of age. A plot of observed ISF values as a function of age reflected the developmental pattern of rat hepatic P450. In summation, these observations diverge from several of the model's assumptions. Further investigations are required to explain these inconsistencies and to investigate whether the developing rat may provide a predictive paradigm for pediatric risk assessment for P450-mediated elimination processes.

  18. Electrochemistry of cytochromes p450: analysis of current-voltage characteristics of electrodes with immobilized cytochromes p450 for the screening of substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shumyantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Kuznetsova, G P; Samenkova, N F; Archakov, A I

    2009-04-01

    In the current study, an approach to elucidating the substrate specificity of cytochromes P450 based on the analysis of current-voltage characteristics of voltammograms and amperograms is proposed. Data on the electrochemical behavior of bioelectrodes with immobilized cytochromes P450 2B4, 1A2, 3A4, 11A1 (P450scc), and 51b1 (Mycobacterium tuberculosis sterol 14alpha-demethylase or CYP51 MT) in the presence of typical substrates and inhibitors for these hemoprotein forms are reported. Immobilization of the enzymes was accomplished by using graphite screen-printed electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and with the synthetic membrane-like compound didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. The method of electro-analysis can be applied to the search of potential substrates and inhibitors of cytochromes P450 and to creation of multichannel electrochemical plates (chips, panels) with immobilized cytochromes P450.

  19. Nanoscale Electron Transport Measurements of Immobilized Cytochrome P450 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bostick, Christopher D.; Flora, Darcy R.; Gannett, Peter M.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Lederman, David

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanopillars, functionalized with an organic self-assembled monolayer, can be used to measure the electrical conductance properties of immobilized proteins without aggregation. Measurements of the conductance of nanopillars with cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) proteins using conducting probe atomic force microscopy demonstrate that a correlation exists between the energy barrier height between hopping sites and CYP2C9 metabolic activity. Measurements performed as a function of tip force indicate that, when subjected to a large force, the protein is more stable in the presence of a substrate. This agrees with the hypothesis that substrate entry into the active site helps to stabilize the enzyme. The relative distance between hopping sites also increases with increasing force, possibly because protein functional groups responsible for electron transport depend on the structure of the protein. The inhibitor sulfaphenazole, in addition to the previously studied aniline, increased the barrier height for electron transfer and thereby makes CYP2C9 reduction more difficult and inhibits metabolism. This suggests that P450 Type II binders may decrease the ease of electron transport processes in the enzyme, in addition to occupying the active site. PMID:25804257

  20. Interactions of phospholipase D and cytochrome P450 protein stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2004-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested a relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) conformation and the phospholipid composition of the associated membrane. In this study, we utilized a novel microsomal incubation system that mimics many of the characteristics of CYP3A degradation pathway that have been observed in vivo and in cultured cells to study the effects of phospholipid composition on protein stability. We found that addition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PLD) stabilized CYP3A in this system, but that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) was without effect. Addition of phosphatidic acid also stabilized CYP3A protein in the microsomes. The use of 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline), an inhibitor of PLD activity, decreased CYP3A stability in incubated microsomes. Similarly, 6-h treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with phenanthroline resulted in nearly complete loss of CYP3A protein. Treatment of rats with nicardipine or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which have been shown to affect CYP3A stability, altered the phospholipid composition of hepatic microsomes. It did not appear, though, that the changes in phospholipid composition that resulted from these in vivo treatments accounted for the change in CYP3A stability observed in hepatic microsomes from these animals.

  1. Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C

    2015-02-14

    The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.

  2. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are oxidized by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases to PUFA epoxides which function as potent lipid mediators. The major metabolic pathways of PUFA epoxides are incorporation into phospholipids and hydrolysis to the corresponding PUFA diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase stabilize PUFA epoxides and potentiate their functional effects. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) synthesized from arachidonic acid produce vasodilation, stimulate angiogenesis, have anti-inflammatory actions, and protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. EETs produce these functional effects by activating receptor-mediated signaling pathways and ion channels. The epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids synthesized from eicosapentaenoic acid and epoxydocosapentaenoic acids synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid are potent inhibitors of cardiac arrhythmias. Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids also inhibit angiogenesis, decrease inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and reduce tumor metastasis. These findings indicate that a number of the beneficial functions of PUFA may be due to their conversion to PUFA epoxides. PMID:25093613

  3. Cytochrome P450 as dimerization catalyst in diketopiperazine alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Takayoshi; Yagishita, Fumitoshi; Mino, Takashi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Hotta, Kinya; Watanabe, Kenji

    2014-03-21

    As dimeric natural products frequently exhibit useful biological activities, identifying and understanding their mechanisms of dimerization is of great interest. One such compound is (−)-ditryptophenaline, isolated from Aspergillus flavus, which inhibits substance P receptor for potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Through targeted gene knockout in A. flavus and heterologous yeast gene expression, we determined for the first time the gene cluster and pathway for the biosynthesis of a dimeric diketopiperazine alkaloid. We also determined that a single cytochrome P450, DtpC, is responsible not only for pyrroloindole ring formation but also for concurrent dimerization of N-methylphenylalanyltryptophanyl diketopiperazine monomers into a homodimeric product. Furthermore, DtpC exhibits relaxed substrate specificity, allowing the formation of two new dimeric compounds from a non-native monomeric precursor, brevianamide F. A radical-mediated mechanism of dimerization is proposed.

  4. A web-based resource for the Arabidopsis P450, cytochromes b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductases, and family 1 glycosyltransferases (http://www.P450.kvl.dk).

    PubMed

    Paquette, Suzanne M; Jensen, Kenneth; Bak, Søren

    2009-12-01

    Gene and genome duplication is a key driving force in evolution of plant diversity. This has resulted in a number of large multi-gene families. Two of the largest multi-gene families in plants are the cytochromes P450 (P450s) and family 1 glycosyltransferases (UGTs). These two families are key players in evolution, especially of plant secondary metabolism, and in adaption to abiotic and biotic stress. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana there are 246 and 112 cytochromes P450 and UGTs, respectively. The Arabidopsis P450, cytochromes b(5), NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductases, and family 1 glycosyltransferases website (http://www.P450.kvl.dk) is a sequence repository of manually curated sequences, multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees, sequence motif logos, 3D structures, intron-exon maps, and customized BLAST datasets.

  5. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 isozymes and ornithine decarboxylase activities by polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with Phellinus igniarius or Agrocybe cylindracea.

    PubMed

    Shon, Yun-Hee; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharides (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg ml(-1)) from soybeans and soybeans fermented with Phellinus igniarius or Agrocybe cylindracea inhibited cytochrome P450 1A1, cytochrome P450 1A2 and cytochrome P450 2B1 activities in rat liver microsomes. The polysaccharides (5, 10 and 25 microg ml(-1)) also suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity. The most potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isozymes and ornithine decarboxylase activities were the polysaccharides from soybeans fermented with Agrocybe cylindracea. PMID:15000485

  6. Mechanistic Scrutiny Identifies a Kinetic Role for Cytochrome b5 Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, P450 17A1)

    PubMed Central

    Simonov, Alexandr N.; Holien, Jessica K.; Yeung, Joyee Chun In; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Zheng, Jie; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Auchus, Richard J.; Conley, Alan J.; Bond, Alan M.; Parker, Michael W.; Rodgers, Raymond J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c17 (P450 17A1, CYP17A1) is a critical enzyme in the synthesis of androgens and is now a target enzyme for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cytochrome P450c17 can exhibit either one or two physiological enzymatic activities differentially regulated by cytochrome b5. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, comprehensive in silico, in vivo and in vitro analyses were undertaken. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis showed close interactions within living cells between cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. In silico modeling identified the sites of interaction and confirmed that E48 and E49 residues in cytochrome b5 are essential for activity. Quartz crystal microbalance studies identified specific protein-protein interactions in a lipid membrane. Voltammetric analysis revealed that the wild type cytochrome b5, but not a mutated, E48G/E49G cyt b5, altered the kinetics of electron transfer between the electrode and the P450c17. We conclude that cytochrome b5 can influence the electronic conductivity of cytochrome P450c17 via allosteric, protein-protein interactions. PMID:26587646

  7. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, T; Yamano, S; Guzelian, P S; Gelboin, H V; Gonzalez, F J

    1990-06-01

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B1 to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B1 to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B1 as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B1 activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450. PMID:2162057

  8. Cytochrome p450nor, a novel class of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 involved in nitrate respiration in the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Takaya, N; Suzuki, S; Kuwazaki, S; Shoun, H; Maruo, F; Yamaguchi, M; Takeo, K

    1999-12-15

    Fusarium oxysporum, an imperfect filamentous fungus performs nitrate respiration under limited oxygen. In the respiratory system, Cytochrome P450nor (P450nor) is thought to catalyze the last step; reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. We examined its intracellular localization using enzymatic, spectroscopic, and immunological analyses to show that P450nor is found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. Translational fusions between the putative mitochondrial targeting signal on the amino terminus of P450nor and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase resulted in significant beta-galactosidase activity in the mitochondrial fraction of nitrate-respiring cells, suggesting that one of the isoforms of P450nor (P450norA) is in anaerobic mitochondrion of F. oxysporum and acts as nitric oxide reductase. Furthermore, these findings suggest the involvement of P450nor in nitrate respiration in mitochondria.

  9. A targeted proteomics approach for profiling murine cytochrome P450 expression.

    PubMed

    Hersman, Elisabeth M; Bumpus, Namandjé N

    2014-05-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450) superfamily of enzymes plays a prominent role in drug metabolism. Although mice are a widely used preclinical model in pharmacology, the expression of murine P450 enzymes at the protein level has yet to be fully defined. Twenty-seven proteins belonging to P450 subfamilies 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, 2J, 2U, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4F, and 4V were readily detectable in Balb/c mouse tissue using a global mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach. Subsequently, a targeted mass spectrometry-based assay was developed to simultaneously quantify these enzymes in ranges of femtomoles of P450 per microgram of total protein concentration range. This screen was applied to mouse liver microsomes and tissue lysates of kidney, lung, intestine, heart, and brain isolated from mixed-sex fetuses; male and female mice that were 3-4 weeks, 9-10 weeks, and 8-10 months of age; and pregnant mice. CYP1A2 was consistently more abundant in male mouse liver microsomes compared with age-matched females. Hepatic expression of CYP2B9 was more abundant in 3- to 4-week-old male and female mice than in mice of other ages; in addition, CYP2B9 was the only enzyme that was detectable at higher levels in pregnant mouse liver microsomes compared with age-matched females. Interestingly, sexually dimorphic expression of CYP2B9, 2D26, 2E1, and 4B1 was observed in kidney only. The targeted proteomics assay described here can be broadly used as a tool for investigating the expression patterns of P450 enzymes in mice.

  10. Cytochrome P-450 dependent binding of methapyrilene to DNA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lampe, M A; Kammerer, R C

    1987-10-01

    Methapyrilene ([14C]MPH) was found to bind to calf thymus DNA only after activation by both rat liver microsomes and NADPH. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitors 2,4-dichloro-6-phenylphenoxyethylamine, 2-diethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate and metyrapone inhibited binding, but methimazole, a flavin-dependent monooxygenase inhibitor, had no effect. However, 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane, an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, decreased binding by 30%. Pre-treatment of rats with isosafrole, pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile or phenobarbital had little or no effect on binding while 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment decreased binding by 37%. Incubations in the presence of either N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, catalase or glutathione-peroxidase decreased binding to DNA while superoxide dismutase had no effect. These data suggest that MPH is metabolically activated to a species which binds to DNA and that this activation may be mediated by cytochrome P-450 isozymes. PMID:3115619

  11. Inhibitory effects of H2-receptor antagonists on cytochrome P450 in male ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Kim, E J; Han, S S; Roh, J K; Jeong, T C; Park, J H

    1995-08-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of H2-receptor antagonists including newly developed mifentidine derivatives, IY-80843 and IY-80845, on cytochrome P450(P450) in vitro and in vivo. 2. Initially, 3-methylcholanthrene-, phenobarbital-, ethanol- and dexamethasone-induced liver microsomes were prepared from male ICR mice to study in vitro effects of above chemicals on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase(EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase(PROD), p-nitrophenol hydroxylase and erythromycin N-demethylase(ERDM) activities, respectively. It was found that histamine, cimetidine and famotidine were not inhibitory to four enzyme activities. Meanwhile, mifentidine slightly inhibited EROD and PROD activities and its derivatives IY-80843 and IY-80845 strongly inhibited PROD, EROD and ERDM activities. 3. Prolongation of hexobarbital-induced sleeping time was determined in male ICR mice to confirm in vitro inhibitory effects of mifentidine and its derivatives in vivo. It was observed that cimetidine, mifentidine, IY-80843 and IY-80845 caused dose-dependent increases in the sleeping time, indicating the inhibition of P450 responsible for hexobarbital metabolism. 4. It was concluded that mifentidine and its derivatives are P450 inhibitors and that our newly synthesized IY-80843 is most inhibitory. 5. The present results indicate that mifentidine and its derivatives not only antagonise the H2-receptor but also inhibit P450 enzymes. PMID:7576828

  12. Directed-evolution analysis of human cytochrome P450 2A6 for enhanced enzymatic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwayoun; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Han, Songhee; Lim, Young-Ran; Park, Hyoung-Goo; Chun, Young-Jin; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Donghak

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (P450 2A6) is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of coumarin, nicotine, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in human liver. In this study, the catalytic turnover of coumarin oxidation was improved by directed-evolution analysis of P450 2A6 enzyme. A random mutant library was constructed using error-prone polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the open reading frame of the P450 2A6 gene and individual mutant clones were screened for improved catalytic activity in analysis of fluorescent coumarin 7-hydroxylation. Four consecutive rounds of random mutagenesis and screening were performed and catalytically enhanced mutants were selected in each round of screening. The selected mutants showed the sequentially accumulated mutations of amino acid residues of P450 2A6: B1 (F209S), C1 (F209S, S369G), D1 (F209S, S369G, E277K), and E1 (F209S, S369G, E277K, A10V). E1 mutants displayed approximately 13-fold increased activity based on fluorescent coumarin hydroxylation assays at bacterial whole cell level. Steady-state kinetic parameters for coumarin 7-hydroxylation and nicotine oxidation were measured in purified mutant enzymes and indicated catalytic turnover numbers (kcat) of selected mutants were enhanced up to sevenfold greater than wild-type P450 2A6. However, all mutants displayed elevated Km values and therefore catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) were not improved. The increase in Km values was partially attributed to reduction in substrate binding affinities measured in the analysis of substrate binding titration. The structural analysis of P450 2A6 indicates that F209S mutation is sufficient to affect direct interaction of substrate at the active site. PMID:25343290

  13. Effect of protein-calorie malnutrition on cytochromes P450 and glutathione S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Parentau, H; Greenly, R L; Metz, C A; Aggarwal, S; Wainer, I W; Tracy, T S

    1999-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) can develop both from inadequate food intake and as a consequence of diseases such as cancer and AIDS. Several studies have shown that PCM can alter drug clearance but little information is available on the effect of PCM on individual cytochrome P450 isoforms and phase II conjugation enzymes. The aim of the present study was to begin a systematic evaluation of the effect of PCM on the activity of individual drug metabolizing enzymes in a rat model of PCM. Control and PCM rats received isocaloric diets which contained either 21% or 5% (deficient) protein. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and microsomal and cytosolic fractions prepared. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation, dextromethorphan N- and O-demethylation and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugation were used as measures of CYP1A, CYP2E1, CYP3A2, CYP2D1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, respectively. Additionally, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was measured in the liver microsomes. PCM significantly reduced the maximum velocity (Vmax) of all model reactions studied. However, differential effects were observed with respect to K(m) values of the reactions. The K(m) values for EROD and dextromethorphan N-demethylation were significantly increased in PCM animals, whereas the K(m) values for chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation and dextromethorphan O-demethylation were decreased. In contrast, the K(m) value for CDNB conjugation was unchanged. When NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity was compared, a 29% reduction in reductase activity was noted in PCM animals as compared to controls. Thus, it appears that PCM decreases the overall activity of certain phase I and phase II metabolism enzymes in rat liver while exhibiting differential effects on K(m). Furthermore, this reduction in activity may be due in part to diminished activity of cytochrome P450 reductase.

  14. Enantioselective metabolism of the endocrine disruptor pesticide methoxychlor by human cytochromes P450 (P450s): major differences in selective enantiomer formation by various P450 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiding; Kupfer, David

    2002-12-01

    Methoxychlor, a currently used pesticide that in mammals elicits proestrogenic/estrogenic activity and reproductive toxicity, has been classified as a prototype endocrine disruptor. Methoxychlor is prochiral, and its metabolites 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane (mono-OH-M); 1,1,1-trichloro- 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethane (catechol-M); and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethane (tris-OH-M) are chiral; whereas 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane (bis-OH-M) is achiral. These metabolites are formed during methoxychlor incubation with liver microsomes or recombinant cytochrome p450s (rp450s). Since methoxychlor-metabolite enantiomers may have different estrogenic/antiestrogenic/antiandrogenic activities than corresponding racemates, the possibility that p450s preferentially generate or use R or S enantiomers, was examined. Indeed, rCYP1A2 and r2A6 mono-demethylated methoxychlor primarily into (R)-mono-OH-M at 91 and 75%, respectively, whereas rCYP1A1, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 formed the (S)-enantiomer at 69, 66, 75, 95, 96, and 80%, respectively. However, rCYP3A4, 3A5, and 2B1(rat) weakly demethylated methoxychlor without enantioselectivity. Human liver microsomes generated (S)-mono-OH-M (77-87%), suggesting that CYP1A2 and 2A6 display only minor catalytic contribution. P450 inhibitors demonstrated that CYP2C9 and possibly 2C19 are major hepatic catalysts forming (S)-mono-OH-M, and CYP1A2 is primarily involved in forming the (R)-mono-OH-M. Demethylation rate of (S)-mono-OH-M versus (R)-mono-OH-M forming achiral bis-OH-M by rCYP1A2 was 97/3, compared with 15/85 and 17/83 for rCYP2C9 and 2C19, respectively, indicating opposite substrate enantioselectivity of rCYP1A2 versus 2C9 and 2C19. Also, rCYP1A2 preferentially O-demethylated (R)-catechol-M into (R)-tris-OH-M (at 80%), contrasting r2C9 and r2C19 that yielded (S)-tris-OH-M at 80 and 77%, respectively. Ortho-hydroxylation of

  15. Bacterial Cytochrome P450 System Catabolizing the Fusarium Toxin Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Michihiro; Sato, Ikuo; Ishizaka, Masumi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a natural toxin of fungi that cause Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals. DON accumulates in infected grains and promotes the spread of the infection on wheat, posing serious problems to grain production. The elucidation of DON-catabolic genes and enzymes in DON-degrading microbes will provide new approaches to decrease DON contamination. Here, we report a cytochrome P450 system capable of catabolizing DON in Sphingomonas sp. strain KSM1, a DON-utilizing bacterium newly isolated from lake water. The P450 gene ddnA was cloned through an activity-based screening of a KSM1 genomic library. The genes of its redox partner candidates (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]-dependent ferredoxin reductase and mitochondrial-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin) were not found adjacent to ddnA; the redox partner candidates were further cloned separately based on conserved motifs. The DON-catabolic activity was reconstituted in vitro in an electron transfer chain comprising the three enzymes and NADH, with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 6.4 mM−1 s−1. The reaction product was identified as 16-hydroxy-deoxynivalenol. A bioassay using wheat seedlings revealed that the hydroxylation dramatically reduced the toxicity of DON to wheat. The enzyme system showed similar catalytic efficiencies toward nivalenol and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, toxins that frequently cooccur with DON. These findings identify an enzyme system that catabolizes DON, leading to reduced phytotoxicity to wheat. PMID:23275503

  16. Ethynyl and Propynylpyrene Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Naijue; Lightsey, Danielle; Liu, Jiawang; Foroozesh, Maryam; Morgan, Kathleen M.; Stevens, Edwin D.

    2010-01-01

    The single-crystal X-ray structures and in vivo activities of three aryl acetylenic inhibitors of cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, and 2B1 have been determined and are reported herein. These are 1-ethynylpyrene, 1-propy-nylpyrene, and 4-propynylpyrene. To investigate electronic influences on the mechanism of enzyme inhibition, the experimental electron density distribution of 1-ethynylpy-rene has been determined using low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements, and the resulting net atomic charges compared with various theoretical calculations. A total of 82,390 reflections were measured with Mo Kα radiation to a (sinθ/λ)max = 0.985 Å−1. Averaging symmetry equivalent reflections yielded 8,889 unique reflections. A least squares refinement procedure was used in which multipole parameters were added to describe the distortions of the atomic electron distributions from spherical symmetry. A map of the model electron density distribution of 1-ethynylpyrene was obtained. Net atomic charges calculated from refined monopole population parameters yielded charges that showed that the terminal acetylenic carbon atom (C18) is more negative than the internal carbon (C17). Net atomic charges calculated by ab initio, density functional theory, and semi-empirical methods are consistent with this trend suggesting that the terminal acetylenic carbon atom is more likely to be the site of oxidation. This is consistent with the inhibition mechanism pathway that results in the formation of a reactive ketene intermediate. This is also consistent with assay results that determined that 1-ethynylpyrene acts as a mechanism-based inhibitor of P450s 1A1 and 1A2 and as a reversible inhibitor of P450 2B1. Crystallographic data: 1-ethynylpyrene, C18H10, P21/c, a = 14.571(2) Å, b = 3.9094(5) Å, c = 20.242(3) Å, β = 105.042(2)°, V = 1,113.5(2) Å3; 1-propynylpyrene, C19H12, P21/n, a = 8.970(2) Å, b = 10.136(1) Å, c = 14.080(3) Å, β = 99.77(2)°, V = 1,261.5(4) Å3; 4

  17. Identification of a microsomal retinoic acid synthase as a microsomal cytochrome P-450-linked monooxygenase system.

    PubMed

    Tomita, S; Tsujita, M; Matsuo, Y; Yubisui, T; Ichikawa, Y

    1993-12-01

    1. To characterize an enzyme which metabolizes retinal in liver microsomes, several properties of the enzymatic reaction from retinal to retinoic acid were investigated using rabbit liver microsomes. 2. The maximum pH of the reaction in the liver microsomes was 7.6. 3. The Km and Vmax values for all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis-retinals were determined. 4. The reaction proceeded in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. 5. The incorporation of one atom of molecular oxygen into retinal was confirmed by using oxygen-18, showing that the reaction comprised monooxygenation, not dehydrogenation. 6. The monooxygenase activity was inhibited by carbon monoxide, phenylisocyanide and anti-NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase IgG, but not by anti-cytochrome b5 IgG. 7. The enzymatic activity inhibited by carbon monoxide was photoreversibly restored by light of a wavelength of around 450 nm. 8. The retinal-induced spectra of liver microsomes with three isomeric retinals were type I spectra. 9. The microsomal monooxygenase activity induced by phenobarbital or ethanol were more effective than that by 3-methylcholanthrene, clotrimazole or beta-naphthoflavone. 10. These results showed that the monooxygenase reaction from retinal to retinoic acid in liver microsomes is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450-linked monooxygenase system. PMID:8138015

  18. Gadolinium chloride reduces cytochrome P450: relevance to chemical-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Badger, D A; Kuester, R K; Sauer, J M; Sipes, I G

    1997-08-15

    The Kupffer cell inhibitor, gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), protects the liver from a number of toxicants that require biotransformation to elicit toxicity (i.e. 1,2-dichlorobenzene and CCl4), as well as compounds that do not (i.e. cadmium chloride and beryllium sulfate). The mechanism of this protection is thought to result from reduced secretion of inflammatory and cytotoxic products from Kupffer cells (KC). However, since other lanthanides have been shown to decrease cytochrome P450 (P450) activity, the following studies were designed to determine if GdCl3 pretreatment alters hepatic P450 levels or activity. The toxicological relevance of GdCl3-mediated alterations in P450 activity was also estimated by determining the effect of GdCl3 pretreatment on the susceptibility of primary cultured hepatocytes to CCl4 and cadmium chloride (CdCl2). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given GdCl3 (i.v., 10 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours later, livers were either processed for preparation of microsomes or for primary cultures of hepatocytes. Gadolinium chloride treatment reduced total hepatic microsomal P450 as well as aniline hydroxylase activity by approximately 30% in males and 20% in females. In hepatocytes isolated from rats pretreated with GdCl3, the toxicity caused by CCl4, but not CdCl2 was reduced. Interestingly, when GdCl3 was administered in vitro to microsomes, there was no effect on either the microsomal P450 difference spectra or p-hydroxylation of aniline. However, when GdCl3 was incubated with isolated hepatocytes, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 (but not CdCl2) was partially attenuated. These results suggest that, in addition to its inhibitory effects on KC, GdCl3 produces other effects which may alter the susceptibility of hepatocytes to toxicity caused by certain chemicals.

  19. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. Methods We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Results Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. Conclusions In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. PMID:24486949

  20. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw

    2005-05-01

    The hepatotoxin, safrole is a methylenedioxy phenyl compound, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. Recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) and human liver microsomes were studied to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of safrole on human P450 enzymes and the mechanisms of action. Using Escherichia coli-expressed human P450, our results demonstrated that safrole was a non-selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in the IC(50) order CYP2E1 < CYP1A2 < CYP2A6 < CYP3A4 < CYP2D6. Safrole strongly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 activities with IC(50) values less than 20 microM. Safrole caused competitive, non-competitive, and non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. The inhibitor constants were in the order CYP1A2 < CYP2E1 < CYP2A6. In human liver microsomes, 50 microM safrole strongly inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, coumarin hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activities. These results revealed that safrole was a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. With relatively less potency, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were also inhibited.

  1. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, "nanodiscs", and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and -300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s(-1). POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products. PMID:27386958

  2. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, “nanodiscs”, and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and −300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s−1. POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products. PMID:27386958

  3. Effects of icaritin on cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong-Lou; Zheng, Shuang-Li

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether icaritin influences the effect on rat cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4) using cocktail probe drugs in vivo. A cocktail solution at a dose of 5 mL/kg, which contained phenacetin (20 mg/kg), tolbutamide (5 mg/kg), chlorzoxazone (20 mg/kg) and midazolam (10 mg/kg), was orally administered to rats treated with multiple doses of icaritin. Blood samples were collected at a series of time-points and the concentrations of probe drugs in plasma were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by the software of DAS 2.0. Treatment with multiple doses of icaritin had inhibitive effects on rat CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities. However, icaritin has no inductive or inhibitory effect on the activity of CYP2E1. Therefore, caution is needed when icaritin is co-administered with some CYP1A2, CYP2C9 or CYP3A4 substrates, which may result in treatment failure and herb-drug interactions.

  4. Three-dimensional model of cytochrome P450 human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Loge, Cedric; Le Borgne, Marc; Marchand, Pascal; Robert, Jean-Michel; Le Baut, Guillaume; Palzer, Martina; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2005-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) structure of human aromatase (CYP 19) was modeled on the basis of the crystal structure of rabbit CYP2C5, the first solved X-ray structure of an eukaryotic cytochrome P450 and was evaluated by docking S-fadrozole and the steroidal competitive inhibitor (19R)-10-thiiranylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, into the enzyme active site. According to a previous pharmacophoric hypothesis described in the literature, the cyano group of S-fadrozole partially mimics the steroid backbone C(17) carbonyl group of (19R)-10-thiiranylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, and was oriented in a favorable position for H-bonding with the newly identified positively charged residues Lys 119 and Arg435. In addition, this model is consistent with the recent combined mutagenesis/modeling studies already published concerning the roles ofAsp309 and His480 in the aromatization of the steroid A ring. PMID:16408794

  5. Cytochrome P450 ω-Hydroxylases in Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amanda L.; Edson, Katheryne Z.; Totah, Rheem A.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-dependent ω-hydroxylation is a prototypic metabolic reaction of CYP4 family members that is important for the elimination and bioactivation of not only therapeutic drugs, but also endogenous compounds, principally fatty acids. Eicosanoids, derived from arachidonic acid, are key substrates in the latter category. Human CYP4 enzymes, mainly CYP4A11, CYP4F2, and CYP4F3B, hydroxylate arachidonic acid at the omega position to form 20-HETE, which has important effects in tumor progression and on angiogenesis and blood pressure regulation in the vasculature and kidney. CYP4F3A in myeloid tissue catalyzes the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 to 20-hydroxy leukotriene B4, an inactivation process that is critical for the regulation of the inflammatory response. Here, we review the enzymology, tissue distribution, and substrate selectivity of human CYP4 ω-hydroxylases and their roles as catalysts for the formation and termination of the biological effects of key eicosanoid metabolites in inflammation and cancer progression. PMID:26233909

  6. Pharmacogenetic biomarkers: cytochrome P450 3A5.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Iain A M

    2012-09-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs used for solid organ transplantation all have a narrow therapeutic index with wide variation between individuals in the blood concentration achieved by a given dose. Therapeutic drug monitoring is employed routinely but may not allow optimisation of drug exposure during the critical period two to three days following transplantation. A key factor in the inter-individual variability for tacrolimus, and probably sirolimus, is whether an individual is genetically predicted to express the drug metabolising enzyme cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5). Individuals predicted to express CYP3A5 by possession of at least one wild-type CYP3A5*1 allele require 1.5-2 times higher doses of tacrolimus to achieve target blood concentrations than individuals homozygous for the CYP3A5*3 allele who are functional non-expressers of CYP3A5. Planning the initial tacrolimus dose based on the CYP3A5 genotype has been shown to allow more rapid achievement of target blood concentrations after transplantation than a standard dose given to all patients. However, it remains to be demonstrated that use of this approach as an adjunct to therapeutic drug monitoring can reduce either efficacy failure (transplant rejection) or toxicity. Use of a pharmacogenetic approach to dosing sirolimus awaits testing and it is unlikely to be useful for ciclosporin or everolimus.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cytochrome P450 in HIV pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. S. S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of cigarette smoking in HIV patients is associated with increased HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. While the effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung cancer has been studied extensively, the association between smoking and HIV pathogenesis is poorly studied. We have recently shown the possible role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in smoking/nicotine-mediated viral replication. In this review, we focus on the potential role of CYP pathway in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), important constituents of cigarette smoke, mediated HIV pathogenesis. More specifically, we will discuss the role of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which are the major PAH-activating CYP enzymes. Our results have shown that treatment with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases viral replication in HIV-infected macrophages. CSC contains PAH, which are known to be activated by CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 into procarcinogens/toxic metabolites. The expression of these CYPs is regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHR), the cellular target of PAH, and an important player in various diseases including cancer. We propose that PAH/AHR-mediated CYP pathway is a novel target to develop new interventions for HIV positive smokers. PMID:26082767

  8. Versatile biocatalysis of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, the nature's most versatile biological catalysts have unique ability to catalyse regio-, chemo-, and stereospecific oxidation of a wide range of substrates under mild reaction conditions, thereby addressing a significant challenge in chemocatalysis. Though CYP enzymes are ubiquitous in all biological kingdoms, the divergence of CYPs in fungal kingdom is manifold. The CYP enzymes play pivotal roles in various fungal metabolisms starting from housekeeping biochemical reactions, detoxification of chemicals, and adaptation to hostile surroundings. Considering the versatile catalytic potentials, fungal CYPs has gained wide range of attraction among researchers and various remarkable strategies have been accomplished to enhance their biocatalytic properties. Numerous fungal CYPs with multispecialty features have been identified and the number of characterized fungal CYPs is constantly increasing. Literature reveals ample reviews on mammalian, plant and bacterial CYPs, however, modest reports on fungal CYPs urges a comprehensive review highlighting their novel catalytic potentials and functional significances. In this review, we focus on the diversification and functional diversity of fungal CYPs and recapitulate their unique and versatile biocatalytic properties. As such, this review emphasizes the crucial issues of fungal CYP systems, and the factors influencing efficient biocatalysis. PMID:27431996

  9. CYTOCHROME P450 REGULATION: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ITS HEME AND APOPROTEIN MOIETIES IN SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, REPAIR AND DISPOSAL123

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R.; De Matteis, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biotransformation of both endo- and xenobiotics. This well-recognized functional role notwithstanding, heme also regulates P450 protein synthesis, assembly, repair and disposal. These less well-appreciated aspects are reviewed herein. PMID:20860521

  10. Molecular genetic analysis of the cytochrome P450-debrisoquine hydroxylase locus and association with cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C A; Moss, J E; Gough, A C; Spurr, N K; Wolf, C R

    1992-01-01

    The cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases play a central role in the metabolism of chemical carcinogens. The action of these enzymes can lead to either carcinogen detoxication or activation. Differences in P450 expression in animal models give rise to large differences in susceptibility to chemical carcinogens, so genetic polymorphisms in P450 expression may be expected to be an important factor in individual human susceptibility to cancer. Of particular interest is the genetic polymorphism at the cytochrome P450-debrisoquine/sparteine hydroxylase locus (CYP2D6). Although this is a minor liver P450, its polymorphic expression is associated with the abnormal metabolism of at least 30 therapeutic drugs, including beta-blockers and tricyclic antidepressants. Conflicting reports have been made on the association of this polymorphism with cancer susceptibility. This disagreement may be attributable to limitations of the phenotyping assay used to identify affected individuals (poor metabolizers, PMs). In order to clarify these anomalies, we have developed a simple DNA-based assay with which we can identify the majority of PMs. The assay is centered around the primary gene defect responsible for the polymorphism, a G to A transition at the junction of intron 3/exon 4 which results in a frame-shift in the resultant mRNA. The frequency of this mutation is 70-80% in PMs. We have studied the frequency of mutated alleles in a control population and in a wide range of cancer patients. No association between this polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility was observed; however, in other populations of cancer patients some very interesting shifts were found in the proportion of PMs and heterozygotes from that in the normal population. PMID:1486838

  11. Characterization of the effects of musk ketone on mouse hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stuard, S B; Caudill, D; Lehman-McKeeman, L D

    1997-12-01

    Nitroaromatic musks, including musk ketone (MK; 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitro-4-t-butylacetophenone), are chemicals used as perfume ingredients in household products, cosmetics, and toiletries. Musk xylene (MX; 1,3,5-trinitro-2-t-butylxylene), another nitromusk, is not genotoxic but has been reported to produce mouse liver tumors in a chronic bioassay. In addition, MX has been shown to both induce and inhibit mouse liver cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) isozymes. The ability of MX to inhibit CYP2B enzyme activity is attributable to inactivation of the enzyme by a specific amine metabolite. MK is structurally similar to MX, but lacks the nitro substitution that is reduced to the inactivating amine metabolite. Therefore, we hypothesized that MK would induce, but not inhibit, CYP2B isozymes. To test this hypothesis, and to evaluate the effects of MK on mouse liver cytochrome P450 enzymes, two sets of experiments were performed. To evaluate the ability of MK to induce cytochromes P450, mice were dosed daily by oral gavage at dosages ranging from 5 to 500 mg/ kg MK for 7 days. This treatment resulted in a pleiotropic response in mouse liver, including increased liver weight, increased total microsomal protein, and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy. At the highest dose tested, MK caused a 28-fold increase in CYP2B enzyme activity and a small (approximately 2-fold) increase in both cytochromes P450 1A and 3A (CYP1A and CYP3A) enzyme activities over control levels. Protein and mRNA analyses confirmed the relative levels of induction for CYP2B, CYP1A, and CYP3A. In addition, the no-observable-effect level (NOEL) for CYP2B induction by MK was 20 mg/kg. To evaluate the ability of MK to inhibit phenobarbital-induced CYP2B activity, mice were given 500 ppm phenobarbital (PB) in the drinking water for 5 days to induce CYP2B isozymes, followed by a single equimolar (0.67 mmol/kg) oral gavage dose of either MK (198 mg/kg) or MX (200 mg/kg), and microsomes were prepared 18 h later

  12. Hepatic metabolism of cyclodiene insecticides by constitutive forms of cytochrome P-450 from lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ronis, M J; Walker, C H; Peakall, D

    1987-01-01

    1. Multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 were separated from the hepatic microsomes of untreated male rats, pigeons (Columbia livia), razorbills (Alca torda), puffins (Fratercula arctica), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), using anion exchange chromatography and DEAE-cellulose. 2. In some cases cytochrome P-450 forms were further purified on hydroxylapatite and carboxymethyl-sephadex columns. 3. Considerable differences in the distribution of forms between these five species were evident from elution profiles on DEAE cellulose, and on analysis of the cytochrome P-450 containing pools by SDS-PAGE. 4. The metabolism of two organochlorine compounds, aldrin and the dieldrin analogue HCE, were studied in (a) intact microsomes and (b) reconstituted systems containing cytochrome P-450, from each of the five species. 5. In spite of their close structural similarity, significant differences were found between the two substrates in the distribution of catalytic activity between the cytochrome P-450 isozymes of each species. PMID:2888582

  13. Ocular cytochrome P450s and transporters: roles in disease and endobiotic and xenobiotic disposition

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Mariko; Lockhart, Catherine M.; Kelly, Edward J.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Drug metabolism and transport processes in the liver, intestine and kidney that affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic agents have been studied extensively. In contrast, comparatively little research has been conducted on these topics as they pertain to the eye. Recently, however, catalytic functions of ocular cytochrome P450 enzymes have gained increasing attention, in large part due to the roles of CYP1B1 and CYP4V2 variants in primary congenital glaucoma and Bietti’s corneoretinal crystalline dystrophy, respectively. In this review, we discuss challenges to ophthalmic drug delivery, including Phase I drug metabolism and transport in the eye, and the role of three specific P450s, CYP4B1, CYP1B1 and CYP4V2 in ocular inflammation and genetically determined ocular disease. PMID:24856391

  14. Cytochrome P-450 3A enzymes are responsible for biotransformation of FK506 and rapamycin in man and rat.

    PubMed

    Sattler, M; Guengerich, F P; Yun, C H; Christians, U; Sewing, K F

    1992-01-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450 responsible for metabolism of the structurally related macrolides FK506 and rapamycin in humans was identified using in vitro studies. FK506 and rapamycin metabolism was significantly correlated with nifedipine oxidation in human liver microsomes of eight different individuals. Immunoinhibition with anti-P450 3A4 abolished almost all FK506 and rapamycin metabolite formation. Inactivation of P450 3A4 by incubation of human liver microsomes with triacetyl oleandomycin (50 microM) or gestodene (10 microM) inhibited metabolism of FK506 and rapamycin. In liver microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats FK506 and rapamycin metabolism was increased compared to liver microsomes from uninduced, phenobarbital-, or 3-methylcholanthrene-induced rats. FK506 and rapamycin were metabolized by reconstituted recombinant human liver P450 3A4. It is concluded that in human and rat liver FK506 and rapamycin are metabolized primarily by cytochrome P-450 3A4. PMID:1385058

  15. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  16. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  17. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  18. Size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, Eleonore; Kueznik, Tatjana; Samberger, Claudia; Roblegg, Eva; Wrighton, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Nanoparticles are known to be able to interfere with cellular metabolism and to cause cytotoxicity and moreover may interfere with specific cellular functions. Serious effects on the latter include changes in liver cell function. The cytochrome P450 system is expressed in many cells but is especially important in hepatocytes and hormone-producing cells. The interaction of polystyrene nanoparticles with the most important drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2A1 expressed individually in insect cells (BACULOSOMES) was studied by the cleavage of substrates coupled to a fluorescent dye. The data obtained for individual isoenzymes were compared to metabolism in microsomes isolated from normal liver and from the hepatoma cell line H4-II-E-C3. Small (20-60 nm) carboxyl polystyrene particles but not larger (200 nm) ones reached high intracellular concentrations in the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum. These small particles inhibited the enzymatic activity of CYP450 isoenzymes in BACULOSOMES and substrate cleavage in normal liver microsomes. They moreover increased the effect of known inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 system (cimetidine, phenobarbital and paclitaxel). Substrate cleavage by the hepatoma cell line H4-II-E-C3 in contrast was undetectable, making this cell line unsuitable for this type of study. Our results thus demonstrate that nanoparticles can inhibit the metabolism of xenobiotics by the CYP450 system in model systems in vitro. Such inhibition could also potentially occur in vivo and possibly cause adverse effects in persons receiving medication.

  19. A Mechanism of O-Demethylation of Aristolochic Acid I by Cytochromes P450 and Their Contributions to This Reaction in Human and Rat Livers: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Stiborová, Marie; Bárta, František; Levová, Kateřina; Hodek, Petr; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Arlt, Volker M; Martínek, Václav

    2015-11-18

    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a plant alkaloid causing aristolochic acid nephropathy, Balkan endemic nephropathy and their associated urothelial malignancies. AAI is detoxified by cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated O-demethylation to 8-hydroxyaristolochic acid I (aristolochic acid Ia, AAIa). We previously investigated the efficiencies of human and rat CYPs in the presence of two other components of the mixed-functions-oxidase system, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase and cytochrome b₅, to oxidize AAI. Human and rat CYP1A are the major enzymes oxidizing AAI. Other CYPs such as CYP2C, 3A4, 2D6, 2E1, and 1B1, also form AAIa, but with much lower efficiency than CYP1A. Based on velocities of AAIa formation by examined CYPs and their expression levels in human and rat livers, here we determined the contributions of individual CYPs to AAI oxidation in these organs. Human CYP1A2 followed by CYP2C9, 3A4 and 1A1 were the major enzymes contributing to AAI oxidation in human liver, while CYP2C and 1A were most important in rat liver. We employed flexible in silico docking methods to explain the differences in AAI oxidation in the liver by human CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C9, and 3A4, the enzymes that all O-demethylate AAI, but with different effectiveness. We found that the binding orientations of the methoxy group of AAI in binding centers of the CYP enzymes and the energies of AAI binding to the CYP active sites dictate the efficiency of AAI oxidation. Our results indicate that utilization of experimental and theoretical methods is an appropriate study design to examine the CYP-catalyzed reaction mechanisms of AAI oxidation and contributions of human hepatic CYPs to this metabolism.

  20. A Mechanism of O-Demethylation of Aristolochic Acid I by Cytochromes P450 and Their Contributions to This Reaction in Human and Rat Livers: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Stiborová, Marie; Bárta, František; Levová, Kateřina; Hodek, Petr; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Arlt, Volker M.; Martínek, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a plant alkaloid causing aristolochic acid nephropathy, Balkan endemic nephropathy and their associated urothelial malignancies. AAI is detoxified by cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated O-demethylation to 8-hydroxyaristolochic acid I (aristolochic acid Ia, AAIa). We previously investigated the efficiencies of human and rat CYPs in the presence of two other components of the mixed-functions-oxidase system, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase and cytochrome b5, to oxidize AAI. Human and rat CYP1A are the major enzymes oxidizing AAI. Other CYPs such as CYP2C, 3A4, 2D6, 2E1, and 1B1, also form AAIa, but with much lower efficiency than CYP1A. Based on velocities of AAIa formation by examined CYPs and their expression levels in human and rat livers, here we determined the contributions of individual CYPs to AAI oxidation in these organs. Human CYP1A2 followed by CYP2C9, 3A4 and 1A1 were the major enzymes contributing to AAI oxidation in human liver, while CYP2C and 1A were most important in rat liver. We employed flexible in silico docking methods to explain the differences in AAI oxidation in the liver by human CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C9, and 3A4, the enzymes that all O-demethylate AAI, but with different effectiveness. We found that the binding orientations of the methoxy group of AAI in binding centers of the CYP enzymes and the energies of AAI binding to the CYP active sites dictate the efficiency of AAI oxidation. Our results indicate that utilization of experimental and theoretical methods is an appropriate study design to examine the CYP-catalyzed reaction mechanisms of AAI oxidation and contributions of human hepatic CYPs to this metabolism. PMID:26593908

  1. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  2. A New Marmoset P450 4F12 Enzyme Expressed in Small Intestines and Livers Efficiently Metabolizes Antihistaminic Drug Ebastine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yuki, Yukako; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are attracting attention as animal models in preclinical studies for drug development. However, cytochrome P450s (P450s), major drug-metabolizing enzymes, have not been fully identified and characterized in marmosets. In this study, based on the four novel P450 4F genes found on the marmoset genome, we successfully isolated P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 cDNAs in marmoset livers. Deduced amino acid sequences of the four marmoset P450 4F forms exhibited high sequence identities (87%-93%) to the human and cynomolgus monkey P450 4F homologs. Marmoset P450 4F3B and 4F11 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in livers, whereas marmoset P450 4F2 and 4F12 mRNAs were highly expressed in small intestines and livers. Four marmoset P450 4F proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 In addition, marmoset P450 4F12 effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of antiallergy drug ebastine, a human P450 2J/4F probe substrate. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by small intestine and liver microsomes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys showed greatly higher values than those of humans. Ebastine hydroxylation activities by marmoset and cynomolgus monkey small intestine microsomes were inhibited (approximately 60%) by anti-P450 4F antibodies, unlike human small intestine microsomes, suggesting that contribution of P450 4F enzymes for ebastine hydroxylation in the small intestine might be different between marmosets/cynomolgus monkeys and humans. These results indicated that marmoset P450 4F2, 4F3B, 4F11, and 4F12 were expressed in livers and/or small intestines and were functional in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds, similar to those of cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:27044800

  3. Domains of the catalytically self-sufficient cytochrome P-450 BM-3. Genetic construction, overexpression, purification and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Miles, J S; Munro, A W; Rospendowski, B N; Smith, W E; McKnight, J; Thomson, A J

    1992-01-01

    1. The gene CYP102 encoding cytochrome P-450 BM-3 and subgenes encoding the cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome P-450 reductase domains have been cloned in Escherichia coli. 2. The protein products of these genes have been overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. 3. The cytochrome P-450 domain is purified in the ferric low-spin state, but is readily converted into the high-spin state by addition of the substrate palmitate (Ks = 1 microM). The cytochrome P-450 reductase domain readily reduces cytochrome c. Mixing the two domains reconstitutes only about one-thousandth of the fatty acid hydroxylase activity associated with the intact cytochrome P-450 BM-3. 4. The X-band e.p.r. spectra of both the cytochrome P-450 domain and intact cytochrome P-450 BM-3 give g-values indicating low-spin ferric haem. The spectra are virtually identical with those of the equivalent form of cytochrome P-450 cam indicating that the haem ligation in cytochrome P-450 BM-3 is identical with that of cytochrome P-450 cam. 5. Resonance Raman spectra of the substrate-free and substrate-bound forms of the cytochrome P-450 domain are given. Spectral differences in comparison with cytochrome P-450 cam may reflect subtle electronic differences between the respective haem environments. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1334408

  4. The role of cytochrome b5 structural domains in interaction with cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, G V; Gilep, A A; Usanov, S A

    2014-05-01

    To understand the role of the structural elements of cytochrome b5 in its interaction with cytochrome P450 and the catalysis performed by this heme protein, we carried out comparative structural and functional analysis of the two major mammalian forms of membrane-bound cytochrome b5 - microsomal and mitochondrial, designed chimeric forms of the heme proteins in which the hydrophilic domain of one heme protein is replaced by the hydrophilic domain of another one, and investigated the effect of the highly purified native and chimeric heme proteins on the enzymatic activity of recombinant cytochromes P4503A4 and P45017A1 (CYP3A4 and CYP17A1). We show that the presence of a hydrophobic domain in the structure of cytochrome b5 is necessary for its effective interaction with its redox partners, while the nature of the hydrophobic domain has no significant effect on the ability of cytochrome b5 to stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions. Thus, the functional properties of cytochrome b5 are mainly determined by the structure of the heme-binding domain.

  5. Regio- and stereochemical studies on the alpha-carbon oxidation of (S)-nicotine by cytochrome P-450 model systems.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L A; Castagnoli, N

    1988-03-01

    Results from previous studies indicate that rabbit liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the C-5' two-electron oxidation of (S)-nicotine stereoselectivity with preferential loss of the pro-(E)-hydrogen atom trans to the pyridine ring. We now have examined the regio- and stereochemical features of the oxidation of (S)-nicotine by peroxides in the presence of various hemoproteins and by electrochemical and photochemical methods. None of these systems gave rise to the stereochemical outcomes observed with the cytochrome P-450 mediated reaction. The results of these studies are interpreted as additional evidence for the formation of a highly ordered complex between (S)-nicotine and cytochrome P-450 that directs the regio- and diasterioselective alpha-carbon oxidation of this substrate.

  6. Structure and Function of an NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in an Open Conformation Capable of Reducing Cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdane, Djemel; Xia, Chuanwu; Im, Sang-Choul; Zhang, Haoming; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Waskell, Lucy

    2010-01-20

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) catalyzes the transfer of electrons to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. A CYPOR variant, with a 4-amino acid deletion in the hinge connecting the FMN domain to the rest of the protein, has been crystallized in three remarkably extended conformations. The variant donates an electron to cytochrome P450 at the same rate as the wild-type, when provided with sufficient electrons. Nevertheless, it is defective in its ability to transfer electrons intramolecularly from FAD to FMN. The three extended CYPOR structures demonstrate that, by pivoting on the C terminus of the hinge, the FMN domain of the enzyme undergoes a structural rearrangement that separates it from FAD and exposes the FMN, allowing it to interact with its redox partners. A similar movement most likely occurs in the wild-type enzyme in the course of transferring electrons from FAD to its physiological partner, cytochrome P450. A model of the complex between an open conformation of CYPOR and cytochrome P450 is presented that satisfies mutagenesis constraints. Neither lengthening the linker nor mutating its sequence influenced the activity of CYPOR. It is likely that the analogous linker in other members of the diflavin family functions in a similar manner.

  7. Effects of cadmium and environmental pollution on metallothionein and cytochrome P450 in Tilapia

    SciTech Connect

    Ueng, Y.F.; Meng, L.M.; Hung, Y.Y.; Ueng, T.H.; Liu, C.; Lai, C.F.

    1996-07-01

    Tilapia are widely distributed freshwater fish frequently used for environmental toxicology, comparative biochemistry and physiology studies. Tilapia can persist in a highly polluted habitat and have the potential for the development as a biological monitor of environmental pollution. Metallothioneins (MTs) are a group of small-molecular-weight cytoplasmic proteins induced in many animals including fish, following exposure to metals such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury. An increasing number of reports have indicated that fish MT induction is a sensitive measure of metal contamination in the environment. Fish cytochrome (P450)-dependent monooxygenases are inducible by many environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Extensive studies have suggested that fish monooxygenase can serve as a biochemical marker for exposure to PAH- and PCB-types of pollutants. Tilapia P450 is highly responsive to the inductive effects of PAH and PCBs. Tilapia collected from a polluted section of a river showed higher levels of P450 and dependent monooxygenase activities than tilapia collected from an unpolluted section. Previous studies showed that pretreatment with Cd decreased microsomal monooxygenase activities in fish such as plaice, bass, and trout. However, direct information regarding the effects of heavy metals on tilapia P450 are not available. Reports concerning the effect of heavy metal on tilapia MT are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of cadmium to modulate P450 and MT in tilapia liver and gill. In addition, we have extended our study to feral tilapia collected from Er-Jen Stream, a polluted river in Taiwan. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Comparison of intrinsic dynamics of cytochrome p450 proteins using normal mode analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, Mariah E; McMunn, Ryan D; Bartholow, Thomas G; Calhoon, Brecken E; Conlon, Michelle R; Dulli, Jessica M; Fehling, Samuel C; Fisher, Cody R; Hodgson, Shane W; Keenan, Shawn W; Kruger, Alyssa N; Mabin, Justin W; Mazula, Daniel L; Monte, Christopher A; Olthafer, Augustus; Sexton, Ashley E; Soderholm, Beatrice R; Strom, Alexander M; Hati, Sanchita

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are hemeproteins that catalyze the monooxygenation of a wide-range of structurally diverse substrates of endogenous and exogenous origin. These heme monooxygenases receive electrons from NADH/NADPH via electron transfer proteins. The cytochrome P450 enzymes, which constitute a diverse superfamily of more than 8,700 proteins, share a common tertiary fold but < 25% sequence identity. Based on their electron transfer protein partner, cytochrome P450 proteins are classified into six broad classes. Traditional methods of pro are based on the canonical paradigm that attributes proteins' function to their three-dimensional structure, which is determined by their primary structure that is the amino acid sequence. It is increasingly recognized that protein dynamics play an important role in molecular recognition and catalytic activity. As the mobility of a protein is an intrinsic property that is encrypted in its primary structure, we examined if different classes of cytochrome P450 enzymes display any unique patterns of intrinsic mobility. Normal mode analysis was performed to characterize the intrinsic dynamics of five classes of cytochrome P450 proteins. The present study revealed that cytochrome P450 enzymes share a strong dynamic similarity (root mean squared inner product > 55% and Bhattacharyya coefficient > 80%), despite the low sequence identity (< 25%) and sequence similarity (< 50%) across the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Noticeable differences in Cα atom fluctuations of structural elements responsible for substrate binding were noticed. These differences in residue fluctuations might be crucial for substrate selectivity in these enzymes. PMID:26130403

  9. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity, Abundance, and Expression Throughout Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s are oxidative metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes varies considerably throughout human development; the deficit in our understanding of these dynamics limits our ability to predict environmental and pharmaceutical exposure effects. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 enzymes, we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. Modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s were used as chemical probes for isolating active P450 proteoforms in human hepatic microsomes with developmental stages ranging from early gestation to late adult. High-resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify probe-labeled P450s, allowing for a functional profile of P450 ontogeny. Total protein abundance profiles and P450 rRNA was also measured, and our results reveal life-stage–dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that these results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics. PMID:27084891

  10. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity, Abundance, and Expression Throughout Human Development.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Natalie C; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N; Smith, Jordan N; Corley, Richard A; Wright, Aaron T

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are oxidative metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes varies considerably throughout human development; the deficit in our understanding of these dynamics limits our ability to predict environmental and pharmaceutical exposure effects. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 enzymes, we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. Modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s were used as chemical probes for isolating active P450 proteoforms in human hepatic microsomes with developmental stages ranging from early gestation to late adult. High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify probe-labeled P450s, allowing for a functional profile of P450 ontogeny. Total protein abundance profiles and P450 rRNA was also measured, and our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that these results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics. PMID:27084891

  11. Expression and Characterization of Truncated Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 2J2

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Songhee

    2014-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 2J2 catalyzes an epoxygenase reaction to oxidize various fatty acids including arachidonic acid. In this study, three recombinant enzyme constructs of P450 2J2 were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and their P450 proteins were successfully purified using a Ni2+-NTA affinity column. Deletion of 34 amino acid residues in N-terminus of P450 2J2 enzyme (2J2-D) produced the soluble enzyme located in the cytosolic fraction. The enzymatic analysis of this truncated protein indicated the typical spectral characteristics and functional properties of P450 2J2 enzyme. P450 2J2-D enzymes from soluble fraction catalyzed the oxidation reaction of terfenadine to the hydroxylated product. However, P450 2J2-D enzymes from membrane fraction did not support the P450 oxidation reaction although it displayed the characteristic CO-binding spectrum of P450. Our finding of these features in the N-terminal modified P450 2J2 enzyme could help understand the biological functions and the metabolic roles of P450 2J2 enzyme and make the crystallographic analysis of the P450 2J2 structure feasible for future studies. PMID:24795797

  12. Suppression of male-specific cytochrome P450 2c and its mRNA by 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl in rat liver is not causally related to changes in serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Yeowell, H N; Waxman, D J; LeBlanc, G A; Linko, P; Goldstein, J A

    1989-06-01

    Rat cytochrome P450 2c (P450 gene IIC11) is a constitutive, male-specific hepatic enzyme which is suppressed greater than 90% by treatment with 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) [H. N. Yeowell et al. (1987) Mol. Pharmacol. 32, 340-347]. HCB also decreases serum testosterone levels in adult male rats (greater than 98% loss). The present study assesses whether the suppression of P450 2c by HCB is a direct result of its effects on serum testosterone levels. Further, the site along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis at which HCB acts to depress testosterone secretion was examined. Administration of the synthetic androgen methyltrienolone to HCB-treated rats failed to prevent the suppression of P450 2c mRNA and its associated microsomal steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity under conditions where it effectively reversed the large decrease in P450 2c mRNA and steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity produced by castration. Hepatic steroid 6 beta-hydroxylase activity, which is catalyzed primarily by P450 2a (P450 gene IIIA2), was also suppressed by HCB and was not protected by methyltrienolone. Administration of either human chorionic gonadotropin, an analog of pituitary-derived luteinizing hormone, or the hypothalamic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone elevated serum testosterone levels to a much smaller extent in HCB-treated rats than in control rats. These results indicate that the effects of HCB on serum testosterone levels reflect its effects on testicular function rather than the pituitary or hypothalamus. However, the present study demonstrates that the consequential reduction in serum testosterone levels in HCB-treated rats is not causally related to the reduction in hepatic P450 2c levels. Thus, HCB must also act on some other regulatory mechanism involved in the expression of this protein.

  13. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  14. Propiconazole increases reactive oxygen species levels in mouse hepatic cells in culture and in mouse liver by a cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated process

    EPA Science Inventory

    Propiconazole induces hepatocarcinomas and hepatoadenomas in mice and is a rat liver tumor promoter. Transcriptional, proteomic, metabolomic and biochemical studies of hepatic tissues from mice treated with propiconazole under the conditions of the chronic bioassay indicate that ...

  15. Induction of different species of cytochrome P-450 by coplanar and noncoplanar isomers of hexachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K.K.; Philpot, R.M.; Albro, P.W.; McKinney, J.D.

    1980-03-24

    The effects of coplanar/sup +/ 3, 4, 5, 3', 4', 5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) and noncoplanar 2, 4, 5, 2', 4', 5'-HCB, 2, 3, 5, 2', 3', 5'-HCB, phenobarbitone (PB) and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) on drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied 72 hr after dosing in male rat liver. The results, along with the reduced, CO difference spectra, demonstrate that 3, 4, 5, 3', 4', 5'-HCB induces the synthesis of cytochrome P-448 and resembled 3-MC in its mechanism of action, while noncoplanar isomers induced the synthesis of cytochrome P-450 and resembled PB in its mechansism of action. Further administration of various doses of 3, 4, 5, 3', 4', 5'-HCB to genetically responsive mice (C57BL/6J), induced cytochrome P-450, caused one nm shift in the difference spectrum of reduced microsomes and induced the activity of ethoxyresorufin deethylase, whereas it did not induce the activity of ethoxyresorufin deethylase in nonresponsive mice (DBA-2J) even at the highest dose studied. These studies indicate the fact that coplanar and noncoplanar isomers have differential interaction with Ah locus.

  16. Five of 12 forms of vaccinia virus-expressed human hepatic cytochrome P450 metabolically activate aflatoxin B sub 1

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Toshifumi; Yamano, Shigeru; Gelboin, H.V.; Gonzalez, F.J. ); Guzelian, P.S. )

    1990-06-01

    Twelve forms of human hepatic cytochrome P450 were expressed in hepatoma cells by means of recombinant vaccinia viruses. The expressed P450s were analyzed for their abilities to activate the potent hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B{sub 1} to metabolites having mutagenic or DNA-binding properties. Five forms, P450s IA2, IIA3, IIB7, IIIA3, and IIIA4, activated aflatoxin B{sub 1} to mutagenic metabolites as assessed by the production of His revertants of Salmonella typhimurium in the Ames test. The same P450s catalyzed conversion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} to DNA-bound derivatives as judged by an in situ assay in which the radiolabeled carcinogen was incubated with cells expressing the individual P450 forms. Seven other human P450s, IIC8, IIC9, IID6, IIE1, IIF1, and IIIA5, and IVB1, did not significantly activate aflatoxin B{sub 1} as measured by both the Ames test and the DNA-binding assay. Moreover, polyclonal anti-rat liver P450 antibodies that crossreact with individual human P450s IA2, IIA3, IIIA3, and IIIA4 each inhibited aflatoxin B{sub 1} activation catalyzed by human liver S-9 extracts. Inhibition ranged from as low as 10% with antibody against IIA3 to as high as 65% with antibody against IIIA3 and IIIA4. These results establish that metabolic activation of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in human liver involves the contribution of multiple forms of P450.

  17. Conformational changes of the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase in the course of electron transfer to cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Tomas; Jensen, Kenneth; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2011-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is a key electron donor to eucaryotic cytochromes P450 (CYPs). CPR shuttles electrons from NADPH through the FAD and FMN-coenzymes into the iron of the prosthetic heme-group of the CYP. In the course of these electron transfer reactions, CPR undergoes large conformational changes. This mini-review discusses the new evidence provided for such conformational changes involving a combination of a "swinging" and "rotating" model and highlights the molecular mechanisms by which formation of these conformations are controlled and thereby enables CPR to serve as an effective electron transferring "nano-machine".

  18. Gene expression and enzyme function of two cytochrome P450 3A isoenzymes in rat and cattle precision cut liver slices.

    PubMed

    Maté, María Laura; Ballent, Mariana; Larsen, Karen; Lifschitz, Adrian; Lanusse, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    1. Precision-cut liver slices are one of the in vitro models used in studies concerning xenobiotic metabolism. Sparse information on this field is actually available for cattle and other veterinary species. 2. The aim of the current work was to study the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on the gene expression and function of CYP3A23 (in rat), CYP3A28 (in cattle) and the transcriptional factors involved in their regulation. 3. DEX (at 100 µM) up-regulated CYP3A23 mRNA (3.2-fold, p = 0.028) in rat liver slices after 12 h culture, whereas the gene expression profiles of transcriptional factors involved in CYP3A regulation were unaffected. A CYP3A-dependent enzyme activity (triacetyl-oleandomycin N-demethylase) increased 3.4-fold (p < 0.05) in rat liver slices cultured in the presence of DEX. 4. The protocol used for rat liver slices was used as reference to study the expression of a CYP3A isoenzyme in cattle liver slices. Oppositely, DEX did neither affect the gene expression profile of CYP3A28 nor the CYP3A activity tested in cattle liver slices. 5. The data reported here are a further contribution to demonstrate the usefulness of liver slices as an in vitro tool for studies on the expression and function of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in cattle and in other ruminant species. PMID:25630049

  19. Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod

    SciTech Connect

    Kreamer, G.L.; Squibb, K.; Gioeli, D.; Garte, S.J.; Wirgin, I. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of {beta}-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers.

  20. Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod.

    PubMed

    Kreamer, G L; Squibb, K; Gioeli, D; Garte, S J; Wirgin, I

    1991-06-01

    We sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, we found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of beta-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers. PMID:1855491

  1. Engineering cytochrome c peroxidase into cytochrome P450: a proximal effect on heme-thiolate ligation.

    PubMed

    Sigman, J A; Pond, A E; Dawson, J H; Lu, Y

    1999-08-24

    In an effort to investigate factors required to stabilize heme-thiolate ligation, key structural components necessary to convert cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) into a thiolate-ligated cytochrome P450-like enzyme have been evaluated and the H175C/D235L CcP double mutant has been engineered. The UV-visible absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra for the double mutant at pH 8.0 are reported herein. The close similarity between the spectra of ferric substrate-bound cytochrome P450cam and those of the exogenous ligand-free ferric state of the double mutant with all three techniques support the conclusion that the latter has a pentacoordinate, high-spin heme with thiolate ligation. Previous efforts to prepare a thiolate-ligated mutant of CcP with the H175C single mutant led to Cys oxidation to cysteic acid [Choudhury et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 25656-25659]. Therefore it is concluded that changing the proximal Asp235 residue to Leu is critical in forming a stable heme-thiolate ligation in the resting state of the enzyme. To further probe the versatility of the CcP double mutant as a ferric P450 model, hexacoordinate low-spin complexes have also been prepared. Addition of the neutral ligand imidazole or of the anionic ligand cyanide results in formation of hexacoordinate adducts that retain thiolate ligation as determined by spectral comparison to the analogous derivatives of ferric P450cam. The stability of these complexes and their similarity to the analogous forms of P450cam illustrates the potential of the H175C/D235L CcP double mutant as a model for ferric P450 enzymes. This study marks the first time a stable cyanoferric complex of a model P450 has been made and demonstrates the importance of the environment around the primary coordination ligands in stabilizing metal-ligand ligation. PMID:10460168

  2. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  3. Modulation of carcinogen metabolizing cytochromes P450 in rat liver and kidney by cabbage and sauerkraut juices: comparison with the effects of indole-3-carbinol and phenethyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Szaefer, Hanna; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of raw cabbage and sauerkraut juices on the activity and expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1 and 2B in Wistar rat liver and kidney. The results were compared with those of two commercially available products of glucosinolates degradation: indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). Significant differences in the effect of the cabbage juices as well as I3C and PEITC between the liver and kidney were found. In the liver, both juices decreased the activities of enzymatic markers of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after 10 days of the experiment, while in the kidney an enhancement of the activity of these enzymes was observed on days 4 and 10. The increased activity of these enzymes and CYP1A1/1A2 protein level in the liver was found after 30 days of treatment with sauerkraut juice. A similar effect was observed as a result of PEITC treatment. I3C increased the expression and activity of hepatic CYPs at all time points investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that raw cabbage and sauerkraut juices may affect CYPs involved in the activation of carcinogens/xenobiotics and in this way exert anticarcinogenic activity. The final effects, however, depend on the time-frame of exposure and the type of tissue.

  4. Monooxygenation of small hydrocarbons catalyzed by bacterial cytochrome p450s.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Osami; Watanabe, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) catalyze the NAD(P)H/O2-dependent monooxygenation of less reactive organic molecules under mild conditions. The catalytic activity of bacterial P450s is very high compared with P450s isolated from animals and plants, and the substrate specificity of bacterial P450s is also very high. Accordingly, their catalytic activities toward nonnative substrates are generally low especially toward small hydrocarbons. However, mutagenesis approaches have been very successful for engineering bacterial P450s for the hydroxylation of small hydrocarbons. On the other hand, "decoy" molecules, whose structures are very similar to natural substrates, can be used to trick the substrate recognition of bacterial P450s, allowing the P450s to catalyze oxidation reactions of nonnative substrates without any substitution of amino acid residues in the presence of decoy molecules. Thus, the hydroxylation of small hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane and benzene can be catalyzed by P450BM3, a long-alkyl-chain hydroxylase, using substrate misrecognition of P450s induced by decoy molecules. Furthermore, a number of H2O2-dependent bacterial P450s can catalyze the peroxygenation of a variety of nonnative substrates through a simple substrate-misrecognition trick, in which catalytic activities and enantioselectivity are dependent on the structure of decoy molecules.

  5. A novel class of self-sufficient cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    De Mot, René; Parret, Annabel H A

    2002-11-01

    The Bacillus cytochrome P450 BM3 integrates an entire P450 system in one polypeptide and represents a convenient prokaryotic model for microsomal P450s. This self-sufficient class II P450 is also present in actinomycetes and fungi. By genome analysis we have identified additional homologues in the pathogenic species Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, and in Ralstonia metallidurans. This analysis also revealed a novel class of putative self-sufficient P450s, P450 PFOR, comprising a class I P450 that is related to Rhodococcus erythropolis CYP116, and a phthalate family oxygenase reductase (PFOR) module. P450 PFOR genes are found in a Rhodococcus strain, three pathogenic Burkholderia species and in the R. metallidurans strain that possesses a P450 BM3 homologue. Co-evolution of P450 and reductase domains is apparent in both types of self-sufficient enzymes. The new class of P450 enzymes is of potential interest for various biotechnological applications. PMID:12419614

  6. Cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation.

    PubMed Central

    White, P C; New, M I; Dupont, B

    1984-01-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone encoding a bovine adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21-hydroxylation (P-450C21). Serum from rabbits immunized with purified P-450C21 precipitated a single protein from the products of an in vitro translation reaction using bovine adrenal mRNA. This protein migrated with P-450C21 on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After sucrose gradient sedimentation, mRNA encoding P-450C21 was found in the 19S fraction. This fraction was reverse transcribed into double-stranded cDNA and inserted into the Pst I site of pBR322 by the dC X dG tailing procedure. Escherichia coli cells transformed with recombinant plasmids were screened with an in situ immunoassay using anti-P-450C21 serum and 125I-labeled staphylococcal protein A. Two colonies consistently bound anti-P-450C21 serum. They were identified as carrying the same plasmid by restriction mapping. This plasmid, pC21a, contains an insert of 520 base pairs. It hybridizes with mRNA encoding P-450C21. The peptide encoded by the insert in pC21a is highly homologous to two peptides isolated from porcine P-450C21 and shows limited homology to the P-450 induced by phenobarbital in rat liver. This clone may be useful in studying the molecular genetics of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Images PMID:6609358

  7. Defective Cytochrome P450-Catalysed Drug Metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Elena-Raluca; Al Eisa, Nada; Cluzeau, Celine V M; Wassif, Christopher A; Gray, James; Burkert, Kathryn R; Smith, David A; Morris, Lauren; Cologna, Stephanie M; Peer, Cody J; Sissung, Tristan M; Uscatu, Constantin-Daniel; Figg, William D; Pavan, William J; Vite, Charles H; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. NPC is characterised by storage of multiple lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, resulting in cellular and organ system dysfunction. The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the range of clinical presentations in NPC are not fully understood. While evaluating potential small molecule therapies in Npc1-/- mice, we observed a consistent pattern of toxicity associated with drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, suggesting a potential drug metabolism defect in NPC1 disease. Investigation of the P450 system in the context of NPC1 dysfunction revealed significant changes in the gene expression of many P450 associated genes across the full lifespan of Npc1-/- mice, decreased activity of cytochrome P450 reductase, and a global decrease of multiple cytochrome P450 catalysed dealkylation reactions. In vivo drug metabolism studies using a prototypic P450 metabolised drug, midazolam, confirmed dysfunction in drug clearance in the Npc1-/- mouse. Expression of the Phase II enzyme uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was also significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice. Interestingly, reduced activity within the P450 system was also observed in heterozygous Npc1+/- mice. The reduced activity of P450 enzymes may be the result of bile acid deficiency/imbalance in Npc1-/- mice, as bile acid treatment significantly rescued P450 enzyme activity in Npc1-/- mice and has the potential to be an adjunctive therapy for NPC disease patients. The dysfunction in the cytochrome P450 system were recapitulated in the NPC1 feline model. Additionally, we present the first evidence that there are alterations in the P450 system in NPC1 patients. PMID:27019000

  8. Defective Cytochrome P450-Catalysed Drug Metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wassif, Christopher A.; Gray, James; Burkert, Kathryn R.; Smith, David A.; Morris, Lauren; Cologna, Stephanie M.; Peer, Cody J.; Sissung, Tristan M.; Uscatu, Constantin-Daniel; Figg, William D.; Pavan, William J.; Vite, Charles H.; Porter, Forbes D.; Platt, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. NPC is characterised by storage of multiple lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, resulting in cellular and organ system dysfunction. The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the range of clinical presentations in NPC are not fully understood. While evaluating potential small molecule therapies in Npc1-/- mice, we observed a consistent pattern of toxicity associated with drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, suggesting a potential drug metabolism defect in NPC1 disease. Investigation of the P450 system in the context of NPC1 dysfunction revealed significant changes in the gene expression of many P450 associated genes across the full lifespan of Npc1-/- mice, decreased activity of cytochrome P450 reductase, and a global decrease of multiple cytochrome P450 catalysed dealkylation reactions. In vivo drug metabolism studies using a prototypic P450 metabolised drug, midazolam, confirmed dysfunction in drug clearance in the Npc1-/- mouse. Expression of the Phase II enzyme uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was also significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice. Interestingly, reduced activity within the P450 system was also observed in heterozygous Npc1+/- mice. The reduced activity of P450 enzymes may be the result of bile acid deficiency/imbalance in Npc1-/- mice, as bile acid treatment significantly rescued P450 enzyme activity in Npc1-/- mice and has the potential to be an adjunctive therapy for NPC disease patients. The dysfunction in the cytochrome P450 system were recapitulated in the NPC1 feline model. Additionally, we present the first evidence that there are alterations in the P450 system in NPC1 patients. PMID:27019000

  9. Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of P450terp and the hemoprotein domain of P450BM-3, enzymes belonging to two distinct classes of the cytochrome P450 superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Boddupalli, S S; Hasemann, C A; Ravichandran, K G; Lu, J Y; Goldsmith, E J; Deisenhofer, J; Peterson, J A

    1992-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 are members of a superfamily of hemoproteins that are involved in the metabolism of various physiologic and xenobiotic organic compounds. This superfamily of proteins can be divided into two classes based on the electron donor proximal to the P450: an iron-sulfur protein for class I P450s or a flavoprotein for class II. The only known tertiary structure of any of the cytochromes P450 is that of P450cam, a class I soluble enzyme isolated from Pseudomonas putida (product of the CYP101 gene). To understand the details of the structure-function relationships within and between the two classes, structural studies on additional cytochromes P450 are crucial. We report here characterization of the crystal forms of two soluble, bacterial enzymes: cytochrome P450terp [class I enzyme from a Pseudomonas species (product of CYP108 gene)] and the hemoprotein domain of cytochrome P450BM-3 [class II enzyme from Bacillus megaterium (product of the CYP102 gene)]. The crystals of cytochrome P450terp are hexagonal and belong to the space group P6(1)22 (or its enantiomorph, P6(5)22) with unit cell dimensions a = b = 68.9 A and c = 458.7 A. The crystals of the hemoprotein domain of cytochrome P450BM-3 are monoclinic and belong to the space group P2(1) with unit cell dimensions a = 59.4 A, b = 154.0 A, c = 62.2 A, and beta = 94.7 degrees. Diffraction data for the crystals of these two proteins were obtained to a resolution better than 2.2 A. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit for the hemoprotein domain of P450BM-3 and one molecule for P450terp, the calculated values of Vm are 2.6 and 3.3 A3/Da, respectively. Images PMID:1608967

  10. Citrulline-malate effect on microsome phospholipids and cytochrome P450 in Euglena grown with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Thuillier-Bruston, F; Julistiono, H; Briand, J

    1991-04-01

    This study indicates for the first time the presence of cytochrome P450 in the microsomes of Euglena grown in lactate medium and substantiates the use of Euglena as a hepatic cell model. Similar effects of ethanol on Euglena and on rat hepatic microsomes were demonstrated: (i) decrements in the quantities of FA per milligram of proteins; (ii) increases in the proportions of PE; (iii) decreases in the proportions of PC; and (iv) production of cytochrome P450, degraded in P420. The citrulline-malate reestablishes in the microsomes the phospholipid environment and the cytochrome P450 concentration. These findings illustrate that the complex acts on the lipid peroxidation via the changes in cytochrome P450 activity. PMID:1909150

  11. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 inhibits the activity of drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 and binds to cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Szczesna-Skorupa, Elzbieta; Kemper, Byron

    2011-03-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) has been shown to interact with several cytochromes P450 (P450s) and to activate enzymatic activity of P450s involved in sterol biosynthesis. We analyzed the interactions of PGRMC1 with the drug-metabolizing P450s, CYP2C2, CYP2C8, and CYP3A4, in transfected cells. Based on coimmunoprecipitation assays, PGRMC1 bound efficiently to all three P450s, and binding to the catalytic cytoplasmic domain of CYP2C2 was much more efficient than to a chimera containing only the N-terminal transmembrane domain. Down-regulation of PGRMC1 expression levels in human embryonic kidney 293 and HepG2 cell lines stably expressing PGRMC1-specific small interfering RNA had no effect on the endoplasmic reticulum localization and expression levels of P450s, whereas enzymatic activities of CYP2C2, CYP2C8, and CYP3A4 were slightly higher in PGRMC1-deficient cells. Cotransfection of cells with P450s and PGRMC1 resulted in PGRMC1 concentration-dependent inhibition of the P450 activities, and this inhibition was partially reversed by increased expression of the P450 reductase (CPR). In contrast, CYP51 activity was decreased by down-regulation of PGRMC1 and expression of PGRMC1 in the PGRMC1-deficient cells increased CYP51 activity. In cells cotransfected with CPR and PGRMC1, strong binding of CPR to PGRMC1 was observed; however, in the presence of CYP2C2, interaction of PGRMC1 with CPR was significantly reduced, suggesting that CYP2C2 competes with CPR for binding to PGRMC1. These data show that in contrast to sterol synthesizing P450, PGRMC1 is not required for the activities of several drug-metabolizing P450s, and its overexpression inhibits those P450 activities. Furthermore, PGRMC1 binds to CPR, which may influence P450 activity.

  12. Identification and localization of amino acid substitutions between two phenobarbital-inducible rat hepatic microsomal cytochromes P-450 by micro sequence analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, P M; Ryan, D E; Levin, W; Shively, J E

    1983-01-01

    Two isozymes of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450--P-450b and P-450e--were compared by micro sequence analyses of their NH2 termini and tryptic fragments. These two phenobarbital-inducible hemoproteins, which are immunochemically indistinguishable with antibody against cytochrome P-450b, have extensive sequence homology. Automated Edman degradation of the native proteins revealed identical amino acids for the first 35 residues. Sequence determinations of the tryptic peptides, which constitute approximately 75% of each protein molecule, have thus far shown 10 amino acid differences between the two isozymes. Results of our amino acid sequence analyses established that two of the cDNAs, pcP-450pb1 and pcP-450pb4, reported by Fujii-Kuriyama et al. [Fujii-Kuriyama, Y., Mizukami, Y., Kamajiri, K., Sogawa, K. & Muramatsu, M. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2793-2797] encode cytochrome P-450b whereas pcP-450pb2, a third cDNA whose nucleotide sequence differed slightly from that of the other two (six amino acid substitutions), encodes cytochrome P-450e. In addition to establishing the identity of these cloned cDNAs we provide direct evidence for seven additional amino acid differences between cytochromes P-450b and P-450e that occur beyond the region (Arg358) encoded by the cloned cDNA for cytochrome P-450e. Together, the amino acid sequences determined by micro sequence analysis and recombinant DNA techniques reveal 13 amino acid differences between these two isozymes. This report highlights the complementary nature of two different molecular approaches to elucidation of the amino acid sequences of isozymes with extensive structural homology. PMID:6572377

  13. Gemfibrozil modulates cytochrome P450 and peroxisome proliferation-inducible enzymes in the liver of the yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Thibaut, Rémi; Gisbert, Enric; Porte, Cinta

    2014-01-01

    The human lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) has been shown to induce peroxisome proliferation in rodents leading to hepatocarcinogenesis. Since GEM is found at biological active concentrations in the aquatic environment, the present study investigates the effects of this drug on the yellow European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Eels were injected with different concentrations of GEM (0.1 to 200 μg/g) and sampled 24- and 96-h post-injection. GEM was shown to inhibit CYP1A, CYP3A and CYP2K-like catalytic activities 24-h post-injection, but at 96-h post-injection, only CYP1A was significantly altered in fish injected with the highest GEM dose. On the contrary, GEM had little effect on the phase II enzymes examined (UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase). Peroxisome proliferation inducible enzymes (liver peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and catalase) were very weakly induced. No evidence of a significant effect on the endocrine system of eels was observed in terms of plasmatic steroid levels or testosterone esterification in the liver.

  14. Zonal differences in DNA synthesis activity and cytochrome P450 gene expression in livers of male F344 rats treated with five nongenotoxic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhi-Ying; White, C.C.; He, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ying-Fei; Eaton, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Both increased cell proliferation and {open_quotes}altered{close_quotes}CYP gene expression are prominent phenomena associated with liver tumor promotion by nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. BRDU-labeled parenchymal nuclei were observed primarily in the periportal area of groups of rats, independent of nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. Treatment with each of the 5 nongenotoxic carcinogens resulted in profound alterations in CPY gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Expression of CYP1A1, 1A1/2, 3A1, 2B1/2, and 4A immunoproteins demonstrated nongenotoxic carcinogen-specific patterns in both magnitude and zonal distribution. In agreement with the CYP immunoprotein data, treatment with each of the five nongenotoxic carcinogens resulted in a unique composition of mRNAs of CYP2B1, 2B2, 2C6, 2C11, 3A1, 3A2, and 4A1, which were variably increased or decreased relative to the untreated control livers, depending on the treatment. Similarly, the rate and pattern of CYP enzyme-mediated hydroxylation toward testosterone, 17{beta}-estradiol, corticosterone, and lauric acid were greatly altered by nongenotoxic carcinogen treatment. Because many endogenous substrates are modulators of DNA and RNA synthesis, intracellular kinetics of endogenous substrates of CYP enzymes in the corresponding hepatocytes could contribute, at least in part, to the differences in gene expression, differentiation, and cell proliferation among the hepatocytes in the cell plate. 64 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Cytochrome P450 dependent metabolism of the new designer drug 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP). In vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats as well as in vitro studies in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Paul, Liane D; Springer, Dietmar; Kraemer, Thomas; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-01-15

    1-(3-Trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a designer drug with serotonergic properties. Previous studies with male Wistar rats (WI) had shown, that TFMPP was metabolized mainly by aromatic hydroxylation. In the current study, it was examined whether this reaction may be catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 by comparing TFMPP vs. hydroxy TFMPP ratios in urine from female Dark Agouti rats, a model of the human CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), male Dark Agouti rats, an intermediate model, and WI, a model of the human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype. Furthermore, the human hepatic CYPs involved in TFMPP hydroxylation were identified using cDNA-expressed CYPs and human liver microsomes. Finally, TFMPP plasma levels in the above mentioned rats were compared. The urine studies suggested that TFMPP hydroxylation might be catalyzed by CYP2D6 in humans. Studies using human CYPs showed that CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed TFMPP hydroxylation, with CYP2D6 being the most important enzyme accounting for about 81% of the net intrinsic clearance, calculated using the relative activity factor approach. The hydroxylation was significantly inhibited by quinidine (77%) and metabolite formation in poor metabolizer genotype human liver microsomes was significantly lower (63%) compared to pooled human liver microsomes. Analysis of the plasma samples showed that female Dark Agouti rats exhibited significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels compared to those of male Dark Agouti rats and WI. Furthermore, pretreatment of WI with the CYP2D inhibitor quinine resulted in significantly higher TFMPP plasma levels. In conclusion, the presented data give hints for possible differences in pharmacokinetics in human PM and human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype subjects relevant for risk assessment.

  16. Stereoselective formations of K-region and non-K-region epoxides in the metabolism of chrysene by rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 isozymes.

    PubMed

    Yang, S K; Bao, Z P

    1987-07-01

    The K-region 5,6-epoxide and non-K-region 1,2- and 3,4-epoxides of chrysene were isolated by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from a mixture of products formed in the metabolism of chrysene by liver microsomes from untreated (control), phenobarbital-treated, or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats in the presence of an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 3,3,3-trichloropropylene 1,2-oxide. Epoxides were characterized by ultraviolet, mass, and circular dichroism spectral and chiral stationary phase HPLC analyses. Each of the metabolically formed epoxides was hydrated by rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase to a trans-dihydrodiol. The metabolically formed chrysene 5,6-epoxides were determined by chiral stationary phase HPLC and were found to contain (5S,6R):(5R,6S) enantiomer ratios of 68:32 (control), 71:29 (phenobarbital), and 5:95 (3-methylcholanthrene), respectively. The enantiomers of chrysene 1,2-epoxide and 3,4-epoxide were also resolved by chiral stationary phase HPLC. However, the enantiomeric compositions of the metabolically formed chrysene 1,2- and 3,4-epoxides, which racemized rapidly at room temperature, could not be directly determined. By using molecular oxygen-18 in the in vitro incubation of chrysene and by mass spectral analyses of the resulting oxygen-18-containing dihydrodiol metabolites and their acid-catalyzed dehydration (phenolic) products, both 1,2-epoxide and 3,4-epoxide were found to be converted by microsomal epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed water attack at predominantly (greater than or equal to 97%) the allylic carbons.

  17. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center); Woodin, B.R.; Stegeman, J.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital. Compared to controls, 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p[prime]-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP1B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens.

  18. Effect of cytochrome P450 inducers on the metabolism and toxicity of thiram in rats.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Prasad S; Wilder-Ofie, Temeri; Mares, Bernadette; Lane, Candace; Dalvi, Ramesh R; Billups, Leonard H

    2002-12-01

    Thiram is a dithiocarbamate compound widely used as an agricultural fungicide. This study examined the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducers on the metabolism and toxicity of thiram in rats. Rats were pretreated with 3-methyl cholathrene (3-MC), phenobarbital (PB), isoniazid (INH), or pregnenolone-16a-carbonitrile (PCN) as selective inducers of CYP 1A1, 2B1, 2E1 and 3A2, respectively. Thiram was administered ip to induced rats at 0.1 or 0.5 mmol/kg, and the animals were sacrificed 3 or 24 h later to assess P450 interaction and liver damage, respectively. No significant inhibition of 3-me-induced CYP1A1 was observed with either thiram dose at 3 or 24 h after treatment; similar results were noted for rats induced with PB or PCN. By contrast, when INH was the selective inducer of CYP2E1, there was significant inhibition by thiram 3 h and 24 h after treatment, suggesting that thiram was metabolized by the induced CYP2E1; there was a significant increase in ALT activity reflective of liver damage in the rats treated with thiram. The results suggest that CYP2EI induced by INH may be significantly involved in the metabolism of thiram, and the associated liver damage.

  19. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases: an update on perspectives for synthetic application.

    PubMed

    Urlacher, Vlada B; Girhard, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are versatile biocatalysts that catalyze the regio- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated hydrocarbons under mild conditions, which is a challenging task for chemical catalysts. Over the past decade impressive advances have been achieved via protein engineering with regard to activity, stability and specificity of P450s. In addition, a large pool of newly annotated P450s has attracted much attention as a source for novel biocatalysts for oxidation. In this review we give a short up-to-date overview of recent results on P450 engineering for technical applications including aspects of whole-cell biocatalysis with engineered recombinant enzymes. Furthermore, we focus on recently identified P450s with novel biotechnologically relevant properties.

  20. Metabolism of the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane by rat and human liver microsomes: the role of cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Urban, G; Speerschneider, P; Dekant, W

    1994-01-01

    1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) has been developed as a substitute for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. The atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-123 is expected to be much shorter than those of chlorofluorocarbons; however, due to its lower stability and the presence of carbon-hydrogen bonds, metabolism of HCFC-123 in mammals and metabolism-dependent toxicity is likely. We compared the metabolism of HCFC-123 and its analog halothane in rat and human liver microsomes. 19F-NMR studies showed that trifluoroacetic acid is a major metabolite of HCFC-123. Besides trifluoroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride were identified as products of the enzymatic oxidation of HCFC-123 in rat and human liver microsomes by 19F-NMR and mass spectrometry. The metabolites were not detected in incubations with halothane. HCFC-123 and halothane were transformed by liver microsomes from untreated rats at low rates. Microsomes from ethanol-and pyridine-treated rats metabolized both HCFC-123 and halothane at much higher rates. These microsomes also exhibited high rates of p-nitrophenol oxidation. p-Nitrophenol is a model substrate mainly oxidized by P450 2E1 to p-nitrocatechol. Samples of human liver microsomes showed considerable differences in the extent of HCFC-123, p-nitrophenol oxidation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation. In human liver microsomes, rabbit anti-rat P450 2E1 IgG recognized a single protein band corresponding in apparent molecular weight to human P450 2E1. Immunoblot analysis revealed considerable heterogenity in the P450 2E1 protein content of the human liver samples. Trifluoroacetic acid formation from HCFC-123 and halothane and p-nitrocatechol formation from p-nitrophenol were significantly reduced by the P450 2E1 inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8199305

  1. Metabolism of the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane by rat and human liver microsomes: the role of cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Urban, G; Speerschneider, P; Dekant, W

    1994-01-01

    1,1-Dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) has been developed as a substitute for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons. The atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-123 is expected to be much shorter than those of chlorofluorocarbons; however, due to its lower stability and the presence of carbon-hydrogen bonds, metabolism of HCFC-123 in mammals and metabolism-dependent toxicity is likely. We compared the metabolism of HCFC-123 and its analog halothane in rat and human liver microsomes. 19F-NMR studies showed that trifluoroacetic acid is a major metabolite of HCFC-123. Besides trifluoroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride were identified as products of the enzymatic oxidation of HCFC-123 in rat and human liver microsomes by 19F-NMR and mass spectrometry. The metabolites were not detected in incubations with halothane. HCFC-123 and halothane were transformed by liver microsomes from untreated rats at low rates. Microsomes from ethanol-and pyridine-treated rats metabolized both HCFC-123 and halothane at much higher rates. These microsomes also exhibited high rates of p-nitrophenol oxidation. p-Nitrophenol is a model substrate mainly oxidized by P450 2E1 to p-nitrocatechol. Samples of human liver microsomes showed considerable differences in the extent of HCFC-123, p-nitrophenol oxidation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation. In human liver microsomes, rabbit anti-rat P450 2E1 IgG recognized a single protein band corresponding in apparent molecular weight to human P450 2E1. Immunoblot analysis revealed considerable heterogenity in the P450 2E1 protein content of the human liver samples. Trifluoroacetic acid formation from HCFC-123 and halothane and p-nitrocatechol formation from p-nitrophenol were significantly reduced by the P450 2E1 inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Pentachlorophenol Transformation in a White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min−1 (mg protein)−1, which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and was significantly inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (a P450 inhibitor). Tetrachlorohydroquinone was also found in the cultures, while the extracellular ligninases which were reported to be involved in tetrachlorohydroquinone formation were undetectable. The formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone was not detectable in the cultures added with either piperonyl butoxide or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis). These results revealed the pentachlorophenol oxidation by induced P450 in the fungus, and it should be the first time that P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation was demonstrated in a microorganism. Furthermore, the addition of the P450 inhibitor to the cultures led to obvious increase of pentachlorophenol, suggesting that the relationship between P450 and pentachlorophenol methylation is worthy of further research. PMID:23029295

  3. Biotransformation of methyl tert-butyl ether by human cytochrome P450 2A6.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Miran Beigi, Ali Akbar; Teymouri, Mohammad; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Mostafavi, S Mojtaba; Soleimani, Parviz; Chitsazian, Fereshteh; Tash, Shahram Abolhassan

    2012-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as gasoline oxygenate and octane number enhancer for more complete combustion in order to reduce the air pollution caused by motor vehicle exhaust. The possible adverse effects of MTBE on human health are of major public concern. However, information on the metabolism of MTBE in human tissues is scarce. The present study demonstrates that human cytochrome P450 2A6 is able to metabolize MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a major circulating metabolite and marker for exposure to MTBE. As CYP2A6 is known to be constitutively expressed in human livers, we infer that it may play a significant role in metabolism of gasoline ethers in liver tissue. PMID:21915685

  4. Absence of hepatic cytochrome P450bufI causes genetically deficient debrisoquine oxidation in man

    SciTech Connect

    Zanger, U.M.; Vilbois, F.; Hardwick, J.P.; Meyer, U.A.

    1988-07-26

    The common genetic deficiency of drug oxidation known as debrisoquine/sparteine-type polymorphism was investigated with bufuralol as prototype substrate. In human liver microsomes the 1'-hydroxylation of bufuralol is catalyzed by two functionally distinct P-450 isozymes, the high-affinity/highly stereoselective P450bufI and the low-affinity/nonstereoselective P450bufII. The authors demonstrate that P450bufI is unique in hydroxylating bufuralol in a cumene hydroperoxide (CuOOH) mediated reaction whereas P450bufII is active only in the classical NADPH- and O/sub 2/-supported monooxygenation. In microsomes of liver biopsies of in vivo phenotyped poor metabolizers of debrisoquine or sparteine, the CuOOH-mediated activity was drastically reduced. Rabbit antibodies against a rat P-450 isozyme with high bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activity (P450db1) precipitated exclusively P450bufI-type activity from solubilized microsomes. Western blotting of microsomes with these antibodies revealed a close correlation between the immunoreactive protein and CuOOH-mediated (+)-bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. No immunoreactive protein was detected in liver microsomes of in vivo phenotyped poor metabolizers. These data provide evidence for a specific deficiency of P450bufI and are consistent with the complete or almost complete absence of this protein in the liver of poor metabolizers.

  5. SMARTCyp: A 2D Method for Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Patrik; Gloriam, David E; Zaretzki, Jed; Breneman, Curt; Olsen, Lars

    2010-06-10

    SMARTCyp is an in silico method that predicts the sites of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of druglike molecules. The method is foremost a reactivity model, and as such, it shows a preference for predicting sites that are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform. SMARTCyp predicts the site of metabolism directly from the 2D structure of a molecule, without requiring calculation of electronic properties or generation of 3D structures. This is a major advantage, because it makes SMARTCyp very fast. Other advantages are that experimental data are not a prerequisite to create the model, and it can easily be integrated with other methods to create models for other cytochrome P450 isoforms. Benchmarking tests on a database of 394 3A4 substrates show that SMARTCyp successfully identifies at least one metabolic site in the top two ranked positions 76% of the time. SMARTCyp is available for download at http://www.farma.ku.dk/p450.

  6. TLR4-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 in Mice with Chemically-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaluvadi, Madhusudana R.; Nyagode, Beatrice A.; Kinloch, Ryan D.; Morgan, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    The transcription and protein expression of many cytochrome P450 (P450) genes are down-regulated in animal models of inflammation and infection. We determined previously that hepatic P450 mRNAs are selectively regulated in a mouse model of enteropathogenic bacterial infection, and that this regulation was not dependent on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor protein toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of chemically-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the reduction in activities of several hepatic P450 enzymes were concluded to be partially dependent on LPS from commensal bacteria (Masubuchi Y and Horie T (2004) Drug Metab. Dispos. 32: 437–441). In the present study, we sought to determine whether colitis induced by LPS regulates hepatic P450 mRNA and protein expression similarly to infectious colitis, and to determine the role of TLR4 in the response to DSS colitis. The role of LPS in the response to DSS was further examined by comparison with the effects of injected LPS. We demonstrate that administration of DSS results in the down-regulation of multiple P450 enzymes in mouse liver. However, there are discernable differences in the pattern of P450 expression in the two models. Some effects of DSS-induced colitis are TLR4-dependent, and others are not. In contrast, the effects of injected LPS on hepatic P450 mRNA expression are entirely TLR4-dependent. Thus, our results indicate that the pattern of hepatic P450 expression, and the mechanism of regulation, during inflammation of the bowel depend on the etiology of the disease. PMID:19027721

  7. Classification and characterization of putative cytochrome P450 genes from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer.

    PubMed

    Devi, Balusamy Sri Renuka; Kim, Yu-Jin; Sathiyamoorthy, Subramaniyum; Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Gayathri, Sathiyaraj; Parvin, Shohana; Yang, Dong-Uk; Selvi, Senthil Kalai; Lee, Ok Ran; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2011-12-01

    In plants heme containing cytochrome P450 (P450) is a superfamily of monooxygenases that catalyze the addition of one oxygen atom from O2 into a substrate, with a substantial reduction of the other atom to water. The function of P450 families is attributed to chemical defense mechanism under terrestrial environmental conditions; several are involved in secondary and hormone metabolism. However, the evolutionary relationships of P450 genes in Panax ginseng remain largely unknown. In the present study, data mining methods were implemented and 116 novel putative P450 genes were identified from Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) of a ginseng database. These genes were classified into four clans and 22 families by sequence similarity conducted at amino acid level. The representative putative P450 sequences of P. ginseng and known P450 family from other plants were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. By comparing with other genomes, we found that most of the P450 genes from P. ginseng can be found in other dicot species. Depending on P450 family functions, seven P450 genes were selected, and for that organ specific expression, abiotic, and biotic studies were performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Different genes were found to be expressed differently in different organs. Biotic stress and abiotic stress transcript level was regulated diversely, and upregulation of P450 genes indicated the involvement of certain genes under stress conditions. The upregulation of the P450 genes under methyl jasmonate and fungal stress justifies the involvement of specific genes in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Our results provide a foundation for further elucidating the actual function and role of P450 involved in various biochemical pathways in P. ginseng.

  8. 4-Alkyl radical extrusion in the cytochrome P-450-catalyzed oxidation of 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Jacobsen, N.E.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. )

    1988-10-04

    Rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 oxidizes the 4-methyl, 4-ethyl (DDEP), and 4-isopropyl derivatives of 3,5-bis(carbethoxy)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4,-dihydropyridine to mixtures of the corresponding 4-alkyl and 4-dealkyl pyridines. A fraction of the total microsomal enzyme is destroyed in the process. The 4-dealkyl to 4-alkyl pyridine metabolite ratio, the extent of cytochrome P-450 destruction, and the rate of spin-trapped radical accumulation are correlated in a linear inverse manner with the homolytic or heterolytic bond energies of the 4-alkyl groups of the 4-alkyl-1,4-dihydropyridines. No isotope effects are observed on the pyridine matabolite ratio, the destruction of cytochrome P-450, or the formation of ethyl radicals when (4-{sup 2}H)DDEP is used instead of DDEP. N-Methyl- and N-ethyl-DDEP undergo N-dealkylation rather than aromatization but N-phenyl-DDEP is oxidized to a mixture of the 4-ethyl and 4-deethyl N-phenylpyridinium metabolites. In contrast to the absence of an isotope effect in the oxidation of DDEP, the 4-deethyl to 4-ethyl N-phenylpyridinium metabolite ratio increases 6-fold when N-phenyl(4-{sup 2}H)DDEP is used. The results support the hypothesis that cytochrome P-450 catalyzes the oxidation of dihydropyridines to radical cations and show that the radical cations decay to nonradical products by multiple, substituent-dependent, mechanisms.

  9. Interaction of fluoroethane chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes with microsomal cytochrome P450. Stimulation of P450 activity and chlorodifluoroethene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Olson, M J; Baker, M T

    1993-07-01

    The abilities of halothane and the fluoroethane chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes, FC-123, FC-133a, FC-124, FC-134a and FC-125, to stimulate cytochrome P450 activities and 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethene (CDE) defluorination in hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rabbits were compared. At 1% (v/v) each, halothane and FC-123 similarly increased the consumption of NADPH and O2 by 300 and 100%, respectively, over that in microsomes without substrate. FC-133a and FC-124 were less effective, increasing NADPH and O2 consumption by 150-200 and 70%. FC-134a and FC-125 were the least effective, increasing NADPH and O2 consumption by only 70 and 50%, respectively. No metabolism of any fluoroethane could be detected under the incubation conditions used. Halothane and FC-123 were most effective in stimulating CDE metabolism with increases of CDE defluorination ranging from 1.5- to 2-fold. FC-133a and FC-124 enhanced CDE oxidation 89 and 74%, respectively, and FC-134a and FC-125 had no effect. While CDE metabolism was enhanced in the presence of the fluoroethanes, no additional NADPH or O2 was consumed when halothane or FC-124 was incubated with CDE compared with incubations containing only halothane or FC-124. Log-log plots of NADPH consumption and CDE metabolism with the olive oil/gas partition coefficients of each fluoroethane showed linear relationships. These data demonstrate that the activity of the fluoroethanes in stimulating P450 activity and CDE metabolism is a function of their lipid solubility, and fluoroethane-enhanced CDE metabolism is related to the ability of these compounds to increase uncoupled P450 activity.

  10. Induction of cytochrome P-450 in cultured rat hepatocytes. The heterogeneous localization of specific isoenzymes using immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bars, R G; Mitchell, A M; Wolf, C R; Elcombe, C R

    1989-08-15

    Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were exposed to phenobarbitone, clofibric acid, beta-naphthoflavone, isosafrole or dexamethasone for 3 days, and the induction of several cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes was demonstrated by increased catalytic activity, by Western blotting and by immunocytochemistry. The profiles of isoenzymes induced in vitro were compared with those induced in liver microsomes of rats dosed with the same agents. Clofibric acid, an agent which has not been thoroughly investigated previously, was shown to induce both in vivo and in vitro several P-450 isoenzymes normally inducible by phenobarbitone (PB1a, PB3a and PB3b) or steroids (PB2c). Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that the inducible isoenzymes of cytochrome P-450 are not distributed evenly throughout the hepatocyte population, and increasing concentrations of phenobarbitone or beta-naphthoflavone in the medium results in an increasing proportion of 'induced' cells. However, whereas maximal concentrations of beta-naphthoflavone resulted in virtually all cells containing induced levels of MC1b, a maximal concentration of phenobarbitone resulted in only 30% of the cells containing induced levels of PB3a/PB3b. These results are discussed in relation to the heterogeneous distribution and induction of cytochrome P-450 in the intact liver.

  11. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system.

  12. An artificial electron donor supported catalytic cycle of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450{sub cam}

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Swati . E-mail: swati@scripps.edu; Murugan, Rajamanickam; Mitra, Samaresh

    2005-09-23

    Putidaredoxin (PdX), the physiological effector of cytochrome P450{sub cam} (P450{sub cam}), serves to gate electron transfer into oxy-P450{sub cam} during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. Redox-linked structural changes in PdX are necessary for the effective P450{sub cam} turnover reaction. PdX is believed to be difficult to be replaced by an artificial electron donor in the reaction pathway of P450{sub cam}. We demonstrate that the catalytic cycle of wild-type P450{sub cam} can be supported in the presence of an artificial reductant, potassium ferrocyanide. Upon rapid mixing of ferrocyanide ion with P450{sub cam}, we observed an intermediate with spectral features characteristic of compound I. The rate constant for the formation of compound I in the presence of ferrocyanide supported reaction cycle was found to be comparable to the ones observed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supported compound I formation in wild-type P450{sub cam}, but was much lower than those observed for classical peroxidases. The results presented in this paper form the first kinetic analysis of this intermediate for an artificial electron-driven P450{sub cam} catalytic pathway in solution.

  13. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu-g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than five-fold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p, p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

  14. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O- dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black- crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross- reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450- associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

  15. Fatty acid signals in Bacillus megaterium are attenuated by cytochrome P-450-mediated hydroxylation.

    PubMed Central

    English, N; Palmer, C N; Alworth, W L; Kang, L; Hughes, V; Wolf, C R

    1997-01-01

    In previous publications [English, Hughes and Wolf (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 26836-26841; English, Hughes and Wolf (1996) Biochem. J. 316, 279-283], we have demonstrated that peroxisome proliferators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inducers of the cytochrome P-450BM-3 gene in Bacillus megaterium ATCC14581. Their mechanism of action involves binding to and subsequent displacement of the transcriptional repressor, Bm3R1, from its operator site, which results in the activation of cytochrome P-450BM-3 gene transcription. We now present evidence that the branched-chain fatty acid, phytanic acid, is a potent inducer of cytochrome P-450BM-3. We have also observed that phytanic acid and peroxisome proliferators are inducers of Bm3R1 protein accumulation and associated DNA-binding activity. In contrast, several barbiturates, although capable of inducing cytochrome P-450BM-3 and Bm3R1 gene transcription, were unable to induce the Bm3R1 protein. We also demonstrate that cytochrome P-450BM-3 readily oxidizes phytanic acid, and provide evidence that, although the omega-1 hydroxy acid derivatives of phytanic acid can associate with Bm3R1, they do so with an affinity two orders of magnitude lower than the unmodified fatty acid. As a consequence, the ability of the hydroxylated product to induce cytochrome P-450BM-3 gene expression in vivo is markedly reduced. These data collectively suggest that metabolism of fatty acids by cytochrome P-450BM-3 leads to an attenuation of their ability to activate the transcription of the BM-3 operon. This work places the action of bacterial fatty acid hydroxylases in an autoregulatory loop where they may be responsible for the inactivation or clearance of the inducing fatty acid signal. PMID:9359402

  16. HPLC Determination of Caffeine and Paraxanthine in Urine: An Assay for Cytochrome P450 1A2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furge, Laura Lowe; Fletke, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of heme-containing proteins located throughout the body with roles in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Among exogenous compounds, clinically relevant pharmaceutical agents are nearly all metabolized by P450 enzymes. However, the activity of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes varies among…

  17. Structure of a bovine gene for P-450c21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase) defines a novel cytochrome P-450 gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, B C; Matteson, K J; Miller, W L

    1986-01-01

    P-450c21, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme [steroid 21-monooxygenase (steroid 21-hydroxylase), EC 1.14.99.10], mediates the 21-hydroxylation of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones in the adrenal gland. The complete sequence of a bovine P-450c21 gene shows it is 3447 base pairs long and contains 10 exons. The intron/exon organization and encoded amino acid sequence indicate that P-450c21 represents a unique family of genes in the P-450 gene superfamily. Primer extension and S1 nuclease protection experiments identified several cap sites for initiation of transcription; the principal cap site produces mRNA with a 5' untranslated region only 11 bases long. S1 nuclease protection experiments confirm that P-450c21 is actively expressed in the adrenal and the testis, an organ not known to secrete 21-hydroxylated steroids. Images PMID:3487086

  18. Polymer phase partition in the purification of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b5 from the yeast Brettanomyces anomalus.

    PubMed

    Kärenlampi, S O; Nikkilä, H; Hynninen, P H

    1986-02-01

    About 0.5% of the total cellular protein in the yeast Brettanomyces anomalus is membrane-bound cytochrome P-450, when this yeast is grown in the presence of 5% glucose as the main carbon and energy source. A partial purification of cytochrome P-450 by phase partition is described. Breakdown of yeast cell walls with microbial enzyme preparations led to extensive losses of this hemoprotein. Instead, by a carefully controlled mechanical breakage as much as 50% of the total cellular cytochrome P-450 could be recovered. During the solubilization of cytochrome P-450 from the cell homogenate with Triton X-100, the protective agents dithiothreitol, EDTA, and butylated hydroxytoluene prevented major losses of the hemoprotein. Applying a three-phase partition system (polyethylene glycol-Ficoll-dextran) to the solubilized whole cell homogenate in the presence of 1 M sodium chloride, followed by a precipitation of the top "oily layer" with 25% polyethylene glycol, a 25- to 60-fold enrichment of cytochrome P-450 was obtained. This corresponds to a specific content of 0.8-2.2 nmol of cytochrome P-450 per milligram of protein. Cytochrome b5 enriched (41%) to the PEG-Ficoll interphase, and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and "cytochromes P-420" to the Ficoll and dextran phases. The polymer phase partition system thus serves as an excellent initial purification step of cytochrome P-450 without a need for the preparation of the microsomal fraction. Another advantage of the method is that it allows the simultaneous partial purification of cytochrome b5. PMID:3828082

  19. Evaluation of six proton pump inhibitors as inhibitors of various human cytochromes P450: focus on cytochrome P450 2C19.

    PubMed

    Zvyaga, Tatyana; Chang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Cliff; Yang, Zheng; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Hurley, Jeremy; Thorndike, Denise; Wagner, Andrew; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Rodrigues, A David

    2012-09-01

    Six proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, dexlansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole, were shown to be weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, -2B6, -2D6, -2C9, -2C8, and -1A2) in human liver microsomes. In most cases, IC₅₀ values were greater than 40 μM, except for dexlansoprazole and lansoprazole with CYP1A2 (IC₅₀ = ∼8 μM) and esomeprazole with CYP2C8 (IC₅₀ = 31 μM). With the exception of CYP2C19 inhibition by omeprazole and esomeprazole (IC₅₀ ratio, 2.5 to 5.9), there was no evidence for a marked time-dependent shift in IC₅₀ (IC₅₀ ratio, ≤ 2) after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH. In the absence of preincubation, lansoprazole (IC₅₀ = 0.73 μM) and esomeprazole (IC₅₀ = 3.7 μM) were the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors, followed by dexlansoprazole and omeprazole (IC₅₀ = ∼7.0 μM). Rabeprazole and pantoprazole (IC₅₀ = ≥ 25 μM) were the weakest. A similar ranking was obtained with recombinant CYP2C19. Despite the IC₅₀ ranking, after consideration of plasma levels (static and dynamic), protein binding, and metabolism-dependent inhibition, it is concluded that omeprazole and esomeprazole are the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors. This was confirmed after the incubation of the individual PPIs with human primary hepatocytes (in the presence of human serum) and by monitoring their impact on diazepam N-demethylase activity at a low concentration of diazepam (2 μM). Data described herein are consistent with reports that PPIs are mostly weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 in vivo. However, two members of the PPI class (esomeprazole and omeprazole) are more likely to serve as clinically relevant inhibitors of CYP2C19.

  20. Cytochromes P450--a family of proteins and scientists-understanding their relationships.

    PubMed

    Sue Masters, Bettie; Marohnic, Christopher C

    2006-01-01

    The unifying thread of this review involves NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR), the microsomal enzyme responsible for transferring electrons to cytochromes P450, as well as several other monooxygenase systems, a lifelong interest of the corresponding author. The intersection of her research with that of Dr. David Kupfer, their resulting collaboration, and the beginning of a long-standing study of fatty acid- and eicosanoid-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (CYP4A gene subfamily), including the role of cytochrome b5, will be reported. The culmination of this interest now involves purification and characterization of the human mutants of CYPOR that have been implicated in pathologies, such as Antley-Bixler syndrome.

  1. Evaluation of cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} reactivity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Eduardo; Hayen, Heiko; Niemeyer, Christof M.; E-mail: christof.niemeyer@uni-dortmund.de

    2007-03-30

    The oxidation of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} using three different electron acceptors is reported. Three PAH were found to be substrates for the oxidation by P450{sub BS{beta}}, namely anthracene, 9-methyl-anthracene and azulene. The respective oxidation products were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In addition, 10 drug-like compounds were investigated for their effects on the catalytic activity of P450{sub BS{beta}} by carrying out inhibition studies. The stability of P450{sub BS{beta}} against hydrogen peroxide, cumene, and ter-butyl hydroperoxide was determined. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the P450{sub BS{beta}} enzyme represents a powerful catalyst in terms of the catalytic activity and operational stability.

  2. Furafylline is a potent and selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450IA2 in man.

    PubMed Central

    Sesardic, D; Boobis, A R; Murray, B P; Murray, S; Segura, J; de la Torre, R; Davies, D S

    1990-01-01

    1. Furafylline (1,8-dimethyl-3-(2'-furfuryl)methylxanthine) is a methylxanthine derivative that was introduced as a long-acting replacement for theophylline in the treatment of asthma. Administration of furafylline was associated with an elevation in plasma levels of caffeine, due to inhibition of caffeine oxidation, a reaction catalysed by one or more hydrocarbon-inducible isoenzymes of P450. We have now investigated the selectivity of inhibition of human monooxygenase activities by furafylline. 2. Furafylline was a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of high affinity phenacetin O-deethylase activity of microsomal fractions of human liver, a reaction catalysed by P450IA2, with an IC50 value of 0.07 microM. 3. Furafylline had either very little or no effect on human monooxygenase activities catalysed by other isoenzymes of P450, including P450IID1, P450IIC, P450IIA. Of particular interest, furafylline did not inhibit P450IA1, assessed from aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity of placental samples from women who smoked cigarettes. 4. It is concluded that furafylline is a highly selective inhibitor of P450IA2 in man. 5. Furafylline was a potent inhibitor of the N3-demethylation of caffeine and of a component of the N1- and N7-demethylation. This confirms earlier suggestions that caffeine is a selective substrate of a hydrocarbon-inducible isoenzyme of P450 in man, and identifies this as P450IA2. Thus, caffeine N3-demethylation should provide a good measure of the activity of P450IA in vivo in man. 6. Although furafylline selectively inhibited P450IA2, relative to P450IA1, in the rat, this was at 1000-times the concentration required to inhibit the human isoenzyme, suggesting a major difference in the active site geometry between the human and the rat orthologues of P50IA2. PMID:2378786

  3. Cloning and Sequencing of Cytochrome P450 1A Complementary DNA in Eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Mitsuo; Itakura; Sato

    1999-07-01

    : Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) complementary DNA was isolated from eel (Anguilla japonica) liver treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. The cDNA contained a 5' untranslated region of 163 bp, an open reading flame of 1560 bp coding for 519 amino acids and a stop codon, and a 3' untranslated region of 1730 bp. The predicted molecular weight was approximately 58.4 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited identities with reported CYP1A sequences of 80% for rainbow trout, 79% for scup, 76% for plaice and butterfly fish, and 74% for toadfish. When compared with mammalian CYP proteins, the eel CYP1A was more similar to CYP1A1 (54%-56%) than to CYP1A2 (49%-52%). Northern and Southern blot analyses showed two distinct bands, suggesting the existence of another 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible CYP1A gene in eel.

  4. Covalent binding to apoproteins is a major fate of heme in a variety of reactions in which cytochrome P-450 is destroyed

    SciTech Connect

    Guengerich, F.P.

    1986-07-16

    The heme in rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H and the microsomes were fractionated after in vitro incubations with a variety of agents known to destroy cytochrome P-450 heme. A major fraction of the heme label was irreversibly bound to apoprotein in all cases, including incubations with fluroxene, 1-octene, vinyl bromide, trichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, parathion, cumene hydroperoxide, NaN/sub 3/, or iron-ADP complex. Label was also extensively bound to apoprotein when purified and reconstituted cytochrome P-450 was incubated with NADPH and vinyl chloride. This process appears to be widespread and involved to a significant extent in the cytochrome P-450 heme destruction observed with many compounds.

  5. Environmentally persistent free radical-containing particulate matter competitively inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A2.

    PubMed

    Reed, James R; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Lomnicki, Slawo M; Backes, Wayne L

    2015-12-01

    Combustion processes generate different types of particulate matter (PM) that can have deleterious effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) represent a type of particulate matter that is generated after combustion of environmental wastes in the presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are membrane-bound enzymes that are essential for the phase I metabolism of most lipophilic xenobiotics. The EPFR formed by chemisorption of 2-monochlorophenol to silica containing 5% copper oxide (MCP230) has been shown to generally inhibit the activities of different forms of P450s without affecting those of cytochrome P450 reductase and heme oxygenase-1. The mechanism of inhibition of rat liver microsomal CYP2D2 and purified rabbit CYP2B4 by MCP230 has been shown previously to be noncompetitive with respect to substrate. In this study, MCP230 was shown to competitively inhibit metabolism of 7-benzyl-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin by the purified, reconstituted rabbit CYP1A2. MCP230 is at least 5- and 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP1A2 than silica containing 5% copper oxide and silica, respectively. Thus, even though PM generally inhibit multiple forms of P450, PM interacts differently with the forms of P450 resulting in different mechanisms of inhibition. P450s function as oligomeric complexes within the membrane. We also determined the mechanism by which PM inhibited metabolism by the mixed CYP1A2-CYP2B4 complex and found that the mechanism was purely competitive suggesting that the CYP2B4 is dramatically inhibited when bound to CYP1A2.

  6. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  7. Natural variation in the expression of cytochrome P-450 and dimethylnitrosamine demethylase in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.C.; Simms, S.I.; Nix, C.E.

    1984-09-28

    Electrophoresis of Drosophila microsomes resolves two major heme-containing protein bands with apparent molecular weights of 59,290 (band a) and 55,750 (band b). The hemoproteins in these two bands can account for most of the cytochrome P-450 in the organism. Band a is present in all strains examined: band b is not. Dimethylnitrosamine demethylase, a P-450 enzyme, is a component of band b. 22 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B₁.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB₁ in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB₁ to form AFB₁-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB₁ by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB₁. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB₁ binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB₁. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB₁ in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB₁. PMID:27626447

  9. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1. PMID:27626447

  10. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  11. Catalytic and immunochemical characterization of hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    White, R D; Hahn, M E; Lockhart, W L; Stegeman, J J

    1994-05-01

    Understanding the effects of environmental contaminants on cetaceans and other marine mammals will require information on the biochemistry of xenobiotic metabolism in these species. We characterized the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 system in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the Canadian Arctic. The content of native P450 averaged 0.203 and 0.319 nmol/mg microsomal protein, cytochrome b5 content averaged 0.199 and 0.236 nmol/mg, and rates of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase were 79 and 76 nmol/min/mg, for females and males respectively. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD), and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) hydroxylase (AHH) activities were significantly greater in males than in females, and were highly correlated with one another (r2 between 0.853 and 0.912). HPLC analysis of in vitro BP metabolites revealed benzo-ring (7,8- and 9,10-) dihydrodiols, consistent with activation of this compound, as well as 4,5-dihydrodiol,3-OH-, 7-OH-, and 9-OH-BP and 1,6- and 3,6-quinones. Estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity did not differ between sexes, and rates did not correlate with those of the other activities. Antibodies against scup P450B (an apparent teleost CYP2B) and rat CYP2B1 did not recognize proteins in beluga liver microsomes, but there was a protein detected by antibodies to PB-inducible rabbit CYP2B4. Antibodies to ethanol and ketone-inducible rat CYP2E1 reacted with two proteins in beluga liver microsomes. Antibodies specific to hydrocarbon-inducible CYP1A1 and/or CYP1A2 forms showed a single protein band, apparently more closely related to CYP1A1. The content of CYP1A was fivefold greater in male than in female beluga. CYP1A content was highly correlated with EROD, PROD, and AHH activities, suggesting that this P450 form is a primary catalyst for these reactions in beluga. CYP1A content and activity were highly correlated with the concentrations in blubber of non-ortho and mono-ortho PCB congeners, compounds that induce CYP1A

  12. Fusion of Ferredoxin and Cytochrome P450 Enables Direct Light-Driven Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are key enzymes in the synthesis of bioactive natural products in plants. Efforts to harness these enzymes for in vitro and whole-cell production of natural products have been hampered by difficulties in expressing them heterologously in their active form, and their requirement for NADPH as a source of reducing power. We recently demonstrated targeting and insertion of plant P450s into the photosynthetic membrane and photosynthesis-driven, NADPH-independent P450 catalytic activity mediated by the electron carrier protein ferredoxin. Here, we report the fusion of ferredoxin with P450 CYP79A1 from the model plant Sorghum bicolor, which catalyzes the initial step in the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Fusion with ferredoxin allows CYP79A1 to obtain electrons for catalysis by interacting directly with photosystem I. Furthermore, electrons captured by the fused ferredoxin moiety are directed more effectively toward P450 catalytic activity, making the fusion better able to compete with endogenous electron sinks coupled to metabolic pathways. The P450-ferredoxin fusion enzyme obtains reducing power solely from its fused ferredoxin and outperforms unfused CYP79A1 in vivo. This demonstrates greatly enhanced electron transfer from photosystem I to CYP79A1 as a consequence of the fusion. The fusion strategy reported here therefore forms the basis for enhanced partitioning of photosynthetic reducing power toward P450-dependent biosynthesis of important natural products. PMID:27119279

  13. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health. PMID:27123158

  14. Expression of a Ripening-Related Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P450 in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Bozak, K R; O'keefe, D P; Christoffersen, R E

    1992-12-01

    One of the mRNAs that accumulates during the ripening of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) has been previously identified as a cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenase and the corresponding gene designated CYP71A1. In this report we demonstrate that during ripening the accumulation of antigenically detected CYP71A1 gene product (CYP71A1) correlates with increases in total P450 and two P450-dependent enzyme activities: para-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase, and trans-cinnamic acid hydroxylase (tCAH). To determine whether both of these activities are derived from CYP71A1, we have expressed this protein in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using a galactose-inducible yeast promoter. Following induction, the microsomal fraction of transformed yeast cells undergoes a large increase in P450 level, attributable almost exclusively to the plant CYP71A1 protein. These membranes exhibit NADPH-dependent para-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase activity at a rate comparable to that in avocado microsomes but have no detectable tCAH. These results demonstrate both that the CYP71A1 protein is not a tCAH and that a plant P450 is fully functional upon heterologous expression in yeast. These findings also indicate that the heterologous P450 protein can interact with the yeast NADPH:P450 reductase to produce a functional complex.

  15. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-04-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health. PMID:27123158

  16. Evolution of the cytochrome P450 superfamily: sequence alignments and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Watson, E; Lake, B G

    1998-06-01

    The evolution of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is described, with particular reference to major events in the development of biological forms during geological time. It is noted that the currently accepted timescale for the elaboration of the P450 phylogenetic tree exhibits close parallels with the evolution of terrestrial biota. Indeed, the present human P450 complement of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes may have originated from coevolutionary 'warfare' between plants and animals during the Devonian period about 400 million years ago. A number of key correspondences between the evolution of P450 system and the course of biological development over time, point to a mechanistic molecular biology of evolution which is consistent with a steady increase in atmospheric oxygenation beginning over 2000 million years ago, whereas dietary changes during more recent geological time may provide one possible explanation for certain species differences in metabolism. Alignment between P450 protein sequences within the same family or subfamily, together with across-family comparisons, aid the rationalization of drug metabolism specificities for different P450 isoforms, and can assist in an understanding of genetic polymorphisms in P450-mediated oxidations at the molecular level. Moreover, the variation in P450 regulatory mechanisms and inducibilities between different mammalian species are likely to have important implications for current procedures of chemical safety evaluation, which rely on pure genetic strains of laboratory bred rodents for the testing of compounds destined for human exposure.

  17. Metabolic engineering of light-driven cytochrome P450 dependent pathways into Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Artur; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Zulu, Nodumo Nokolunga; Mellor, Silas Busck; Luckner, Manja; Thøfner, Jens Frederik Bang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Mottawie, Mohammed Saddik; Burow, Meike; Pribil, Mathias; Feussner, Ivo; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides the energy input for the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. Some secondary metabolites are high value compounds, and typically their biosynthesis requires the involvement of cytochromes P450s. In this proof of concept work, we demonstrate that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an eminent heterologous host for expression of metabolically engineered cytochrome P450-dependent pathways exemplified by the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor comprising two membrane bound cytochromes P450s (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glycosyltransferase (UGT85B1). We show that it is possible to express multiple genes incorporated into a bacterial-like operon by using a self-replicating expression vector in cyanobacteria. We demonstrate that eukaryotic P450s that typically reside in the endoplasmic reticulum membranes can be inserted in the prokaryotic membranes without affecting thylakoid membrane integrity. Photosystem I and ferredoxin replaces the native P450 oxidoreductase enzyme as an efficient electron donor for the P450s both in vitro and in vivo. The engineered strains produced up to 66mg/L of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and 5mg/L of dhurrin in lab-scale cultures after 3 days of cultivation and 3mg/L of dhurrin in V-shaped photobioreactors under greenhouse conditions after 9 days cultivation. All the metabolites were found to be excreted to the growth media facilitating product isolation.

  18. Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, N.M.; Smith, B.D.; Urban, M.J.; Scott, E.E.

    2009-05-14

    Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the K{sub D} values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu{sup 370}.

  19. The regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 during LPS-induced inflammation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, Dalya; Goralski, Kerry B.; Renton, Kenneth W. . E-mail: Ken.Renton@dal.ca

    2006-10-01

    It is well known that inflammatory and infectious conditions differentially regulate cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated drug metabolism in the liver. We have previously outlined a potential pathway for the downregulation in hepatic cytochrome P450 following LPS-mediated inflammation in the CNS (Abdulla, D., Goralski, K.B., Garcia Del Busto Cano, E., Renton, K.W., 2005. The signal transduction pathways involved in hepatic cytochrome P450 regulation in the rat during an LPS-induced model of CNS inflammation. Drug Metab. Dispos). The purpose of this study was to outline the effects of LPS-induced peripheral and central nervous system inflammation on hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in vivo, an enzyme that plays an important role in various physiological and pathological states. We report an increase in hepatic mRNA expression of CYP2E1 that occurred as early as 2-3 h following either the intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5 mg/kg LPS or i.c.v. administration of 25 {mu}g of LPS. This increase in CYP2E1 mRNA expression was sustained for 24 h. In sharp contrast to the increase in hepatic CYP2E1 mRNA, we observed a significant reduction in the catalytic activity of this enzyme 24 h following either the i.c.v. or i.p. administration of LPS. Cycloheximide or actinomycin-D did not change the LPS-mediated downregulation in hepatic CYP2E1 catalytic activity. Our results support the idea that LPS acts at two different levels to regulate hepatic CYP2E1: a transcriptional level to increase CYP2E1 mRNA expression and a post-transcriptional level to regulate CYP2E1 protein and activity.

  20. Cytochrome P450 Initiates Degradation of cis-Dichloroethene by Polaromonas sp. Strain JS666

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Shirley F.; Shin, Kwanghee A.; Gossett, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Polaromonas sp. strain JS666 grows on cis-1,2-dichoroethene (cDCE) as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions, but the degradation mechanism and the enzymes involved are unknown. In this study, we established the complete pathway for cDCE degradation through heterologous gene expression, inhibition studies, enzyme assays, and analysis of intermediates. Several lines of evidence indicate that a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzes the initial step of cDCE degradation. Both the transient accumulation of dichloroacetaldehyde in cDCE-degrading cultures and dichloroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of JS666 support a pathway for degradation of cDCE through dichloroacetaldehyde. The mechanism minimizes the formation of cDCE epoxide. The molecular phylogeny of the cytochrome P450 gene and the organization of neighboring genes suggest that the cDCE degradation pathway recently evolved in a progenitor capable of degrading 1,2-dichloroethane either by the recruitment of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene from an alkane catabolic pathway or by selection for variants of the P450 in a preexisting 1,2-dichloroethane catabolic pathway. The results presented here add yet another role to the broad array of productive reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:23354711

  1. Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome P450 4F2, Vitamin E Level and Histological Response in Adults and Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Who Participated in PIVENS and TONIC Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Wei, Rongrong; Zhang, Min; Bai, Shaochun; Traber, Maret G.; Yates, Katherine; Cummings, Oscar W.; Molleston, Jean; Liu, Wanqing; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin E improved liver histology in children and adults with NAFLD who participated in TONIC and PIVENS clinical trials, but with significant inter-individual variability in its efficacy. Cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) is the major enzyme metabolizing Vit E, with two common genetic variants (V433M, rs2108622 and W12G, rs3093105) found to alter its activity. We investigated the relationship between CYP4F2 genotypes, α-tocopherol levels and histological improvement in these two trials. V433M and W12G variants were genotyped in TONIC (n = 155) and PIVENS (n = 213) DNA samples. The relationships between CYP4F2 genotypes, plasma α-tocopherol levels at baseline and weeks 48 (w48) and 96 (w96) and histological end points (overall improvement in liver histology and resolution of NASH) were investigated. As a result, the V433M genotype was significantly associated with baseline plasma α-tocopherol in the TONIC trial (p = 0.004), but not in PIVENS. Among those receiving Vit E treatment, CYP4F2 V433M genotype was associated with significantly decreased plasma α-tocopherol levels at w48 (p = 0.003 for PIVENS and p = 0.026 for TONIC) but not at w96. The w96 α-tocopherol level was significantly associated with resolution of NASH (p = 0.006) and overall histology improvement (p = 0.021)in the PIVENS, but not in the TONIC trial. There was no significant association between CYP4F2 genotypes and histological end points in either trial. Our study suggested the a moderate role of CYP4F2 polymorphisms in affecting the pharmacokinetics of Vit E as a therapeutic agent. In addition, there may be age-dependent relationship between CYP4F2 genetic variability and Vit E pharmacokinetics in NAFLD. PMID:24759732

  2. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio . E-mail: n-shimamoto@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole and 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as {alpha}-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.

  3. Scutellarin inhibits cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jian, Tun-Yu; He, Jian-Chang; He, Gong-Hao; Feng, En-Fu; Li, Hong-Liang; Bai, Min; Xu, Gui-Li

    2012-08-01

    Scutellarin is the most important flavone glycoside in the herbal drug Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It is used frequently in the clinic to treat ischemic vascular diseases in China. However, the direct relationship between scutellarin and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of scutellarin on cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP 1A2) metabolism. According to in vitro experiments, scutellarin (10-250 µM) decreased the formation of 4-acetamidophenol in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC₅₀ value of 108.20 ± 0.657 µM. Furthermore, scutellarin exhibited a weak mixed-type inhibition against the activity of CYP1A2 in rat liver microsomes, with a K(i) value of 95.2 µM. Whereas in whole animal studies, scutellarin treatment for 7 days (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the clearance (CL), and increased the T(1/2) (at 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), it did not affect the V(d) of phenacetin. Scutellarin treatment (at 5, 15, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the AUC(0-∞) by 14.3%, 67.3% and 159.2%, respectively. Scutellarin at 30 mg/kg also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 activity, in accordance with our in vitro study. Thus, the results indicate that CYP1A2 is inhibited directly, but weakly, by scutellarin in vivo, and provide useful information on the safe and effective use of scutellarin in clinical practice.

  4. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  5. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states. PMID:27452076

  6. Effector Roles of Putidaredoxin on Cytochrome P450cam Conformational States.

    PubMed

    Liou, Shu-Hao; Mahomed, Mavish; Lee, Young-Tae; Goodin, David B

    2016-08-17

    In this study, the effector role of Pdx (putidaredoxin) on cytochrome P450cam conformation is refined by attaching two different spin labels, MTSL or BSL (bifunctional spin-label) onto the F or G helices and using DEER (double electron-electron resonance) to measure the distance between labels. Recent EPR and crystallographic studies have observed that oxidized Pdx induces substrate-bound P450cam to change from the closed to the open state. However, this change was not observed by DEER in the reduced Pdx complex with carbon-monoxide-bound P450cam (Fe(2+)CO). In addition, recent NMR studies have failed to observe a change in P450cam conformation upon binding Pdx. Hence, resolving these issues is important for a full understanding the effector role of Pdx. Here we show that oxidized Pdx induces camphor-bound P450cam to shift from the closed to the open conformation when labeled on either the F or G helices with MTSL. BSL at these sites can either narrow the distance distribution widths dramatically or alter the extent of the conformational change. In addition, we report DEER spectra on a mixed oxidation state containing oxidized Pdx and ferrous CO-bound P450cam, showing that P450cam remains closed. This indicates that CO binding to the heme prevents P450cam from opening, overriding the influence exerted by Pdx binding. Finally, we report the open form P450cam crystal structure with substrate bound, which suggests that crystal packing effects may prevent conformational conversion. Using multiple labeling approaches, DEER provides a unique perspective to resolve how the conformation of P450cam depends on Pdx and ligand states.

  7. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  8. Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Marinello, A.J.; Bansal, S.K.; Paul, B.; Koser, P.L.; Love, J.; Struck, R.F.; Gurtoo, H.L.

    1984-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism and metabolic activation of (chloroethyl-3H)cyclophosphamide (( chloroethyl-3H)CP) and (4-14C)cyclophosphamide (( 4-14C)CP) were investigated in vitro in the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats. In addition, hepatic microsomal binding and the hepatic microsome-mediated metabolism of (14C)acrolein, a metabolite of (4-14C)CP, were also investigated. The metabolism of (chloroethyl-3H)CP and (4-14C)CP to polar metabolites was found to depend on the presence of NADPH and showed concentration dependence with respect to cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Km and Vmax values were essentially similar. The patterns of inhibition by microsomal mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, anti-cytochrome P-450 antibody, and heat denaturation of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially similar, with subtle differences between (4-14C)CP and (chloroethyl-3H)CP metabolism. The in vitro metabolic activation of CP in the reconstituted system demonstrated predominant binding of (chloroethyl-3H)CP to nucleic acids and almost exclusive binding of (4-14C)CP to proteins. Gel electrophoresis-fluorography of the proteins in the reconstituted system treated with (4-14C)CP demonstrated localization of the 14C label in the cytochrome P-450 region. To examine this association further, hepatic microsomes were modified with (14C)acrolein in the presence and the absence of NADPH. The results confirmed covalent association between (14C)acrolein and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomes and also demonstrated further metabolism of (14C)acrolein, apparently to an epoxide, which is capable of binding covalently to proteins. The results of these investigations not only confirm the significance of primary metabolism but also emphasize the potential role of the secondary metabolism of cyclophosphamide in some of its toxic manifestations.

  9. Third international symposium: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity. Final report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    The Symposium was held on October 8-12, 1995 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole Massachusetts. Other international symposia promote cytochrome P450 research but have a primary focus on mammalian systems. This symposium is exclusively devoted to research in other organisms, and major topics reflect the distribution and dominance of non-mammalian species in the biosphere. The five sessions focused on basic mechanism, regulation, biodiversity, host-parasite interactions, and practical applications. 170 Scientists contributed 38 oral presentations and 91 posters, with a truly international composition of the symposium. Practical applications were a recurring feature, linking reports on mechanism and regulation to studies on the engineering of substrate specificity, microorganisms to degrade halogenated hydrocarbons and herbicides, and the production of in vitro P450 electrochemical bioreactors. At the time of the symposium there were 477 cytochrome P450 sequences in the database. Expansion of the known plant P450 genes was reported, with 20 new plant P450 families added in the last 3 years. Of these only 5 families have a physiological function associated with them. A growing number of identified invertebrate P450s was documented, where in insects, the forms identified are primarily involved in inducible xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification of toxic plant substances.

  10. Process development for oxidations of hydrophobic compounds applying cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Brummund, Jan; Müller, Monika; Schmitges, Thomas; Kaluzna, Iwona; Mink, Daniel; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Liese, Andreas

    2016-09-10

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a unique family of enzymes that are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific oxidations for a broad substrate range. However, due to limited enzyme activities and stabilities, hydrophobicity of substrates, as well as the necessity of a continuous electron and oxygen supply the implementation of P450s for industrial processes remains challenging. Aim of this study was to point out key aspects for the development of an efficient synthesis concept for cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidations. In order to regenerate the natural cofactor NADPH, a glucose dehydrogenase was applied. The low water soluble terpene α-ionone was used as substrate for the model reaction system. The studies reveal that an addition of surfactants in combination with low volumetric amounts of co-solvent can significantly increase substrate availability and reaction rates. Furthermore, these additives facilitated a reliable sampling procedure during the process. Another key factor for the process design was the oxygen supply. Based on various investigations, a bubble-aerated stirred tank reactor in batch mode represents a promising reactor concept for P450 oxidations. Main restriction of the investigated reaction system was the low process stability of the P450 monooxygenase, characterized by maximum total turnover numbers of ∼4100molα-ionone/molP450. PMID:27396939

  11. Process development for oxidations of hydrophobic compounds applying cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Brummund, Jan; Müller, Monika; Schmitges, Thomas; Kaluzna, Iwona; Mink, Daniel; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Liese, Andreas

    2016-09-10

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a unique family of enzymes that are able to catalyze regio- and stereospecific oxidations for a broad substrate range. However, due to limited enzyme activities and stabilities, hydrophobicity of substrates, as well as the necessity of a continuous electron and oxygen supply the implementation of P450s for industrial processes remains challenging. Aim of this study was to point out key aspects for the development of an efficient synthesis concept for cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidations. In order to regenerate the natural cofactor NADPH, a glucose dehydrogenase was applied. The low water soluble terpene α-ionone was used as substrate for the model reaction system. The studies reveal that an addition of surfactants in combination with low volumetric amounts of co-solvent can significantly increase substrate availability and reaction rates. Furthermore, these additives facilitated a reliable sampling procedure during the process. Another key factor for the process design was the oxygen supply. Based on various investigations, a bubble-aerated stirred tank reactor in batch mode represents a promising reactor concept for P450 oxidations. Main restriction of the investigated reaction system was the low process stability of the P450 monooxygenase, characterized by maximum total turnover numbers of ∼4100molα-ionone/molP450.

  12. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS: IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW P450 FAMILY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The P450alk gene, which is inducible by the assimilation of alkane in Candida tropicalis, was sequenced and characterized. Structural features described in promoter and terminator regions of Saccharomyces yeast genes are present in the P450alk gene and some particular structures ...

  14. Downregulation of Mouse Hepatic CYP3A Protein by 3-Methylcholanthrene Does Not Require Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chunja; Ding, Xinxin

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)–dependent induction of cytochromes P450 (P450) such as CYP1A1 by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is well characterized. We reported previously that MC treatment triggers a pronounced downregulation, particularly at the protein level, of mouse hepatic Cyp3a11, a counterpart of the key human drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. To determine whether this effect of MC requires hepatic microsomal P450 activity, we studied liver Cpr-null (LCN) mice with hepatocyte-specific conditional deletion of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase gene. In vehicle-treated animals, basal levels of CYP3A11 mRNA and CYP3A protein immunoreactivity were elevated by approximately 9-fold in LCN mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas CYP3A catalytic activity was profoundly compromised in LCN mice. MC treatment caused suppression of CYP3A11 mRNA, CYP3A protein immunoreactivity, and CYP3A catalytic activity in WT mice, and the MC effects at the mRNA and protein levels were maintained in LCN mice. Flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 (Fmo3) induction by MC was suggested previously to occur via an AHR-dependent mechanism requiring conversion of the parent compound to DNA-damaging reactive metabolites; however, hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels were dramatically increased by MC in both WT and LCN mice. MC did not function as a mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from untreated WT mice, under conditions in which 1-aminobenzotriazole caused marked NADPH-dependent loss of total P450 content and CYP3A catalytic activity. These results indicate that MC downregulates mouse hepatic CYP3A protein via a pretranslational mechanism that does not require hepatic microsomal P450-dependent activity. PMID:23846873

  15. Cytochrome P450 107U1 is required for sporulation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhenghua; Cheng, Qian; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Lei, Li; Lamb, David C.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle involving the formation of hair-like aerial mycelia on the colony surface, which differentiate into chains of spores. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed ‘bld’ (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. We report the identification of a new bld gene designated as sco3099 and biochemical analysis of its encoded enzyme, cytochrome P450 (P450, or CYP) 107U1. Deletion of sco3099 resulted in a mutant defective in aerial hyphae sporulation and sensitive to heat shock, indicating that P450 107U1 plays a key role in growth and development of S. coelicolor. This is the first P450 reported to participate in a sporulation process in Streptomycetes. The substrate and catalytic properties of P450 107U1 were further investigated in mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies. Glycocholic acid (from the medium) was identified as a substrate of P450 107U1 and was oxidized to glyco-7-oxo-deoxycholic acid. Although this reaction is apparently not relevant to the observed sporulation deficiency, it suggests that P450 107U1 might exert its physiological function by oxidizing other steroid-like molecules. PMID:23357279

  16. Cytochrome P450 107U1 is required for sporulation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhenhua; Cheng, Qian; Yoshimoto, Francis K; Lei, Li; Lamb, David C; Guengerich, F Peter

    2013-02-15

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle involving the formation of hair-like aerial mycelia on the colony surface, which differentiate into chains of spores. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed 'bld' (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. We report the identification of a new bld gene designated as sco3099 and biochemical analysis of its encoded enzyme, cytochrome P450 (P450, or CYP) 107U1. Deletion of sco3099 resulted in a mutant defective in aerial hyphae sporulation and sensitive to heat shock, indicating that P450 107U1 plays a key role in growth and development of S. coelicolor. This is the first P450 reported to participate in a sporulation process in Streptomycetes. The substrate and catalytic properties of P450 107U1 were further investigated in mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies. Glycocholic acid (from the medium) was identified as a substrate of P450 107U1 and was oxidized to glyco-7-oxo-deoxycholic acid. Although this reaction is apparently not relevant to the observed sporulation deficiency, it suggests that P450 107U1 might exert its physiological function by oxidizing other steroid-like molecules.

  17. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  18. Functional evolution and structural conservation in chimeric cytochromes p450: calibrating a structure-guided approach.

    PubMed

    Otey, Christopher R; Silberg, Jonathan J; Voigt, Christopher A; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Bandara, Geethani; Arnold, Frances H

    2004-03-01

    Recombination generates chimeric proteins whose ability to fold depends on minimizing structural perturbations that result when portions of the sequence are inherited from different parents. These chimeric sequences can display functional properties characteristic of the parents or acquire entirely new functions. Seventeen chimeras were generated from two CYP102 members of the functionally diverse cytochrome p450 family. Chimeras predicted to have limited structural disruption, as defined by the SCHEMA algorithm, displayed CO binding spectra characteristic of folded p450s. Even this small population exhibited significant functional diversity: chimeras displayed altered substrate specificities, a wide range in thermostabilities, up to a 40-fold increase in peroxidase activity, and ability to hydroxylate a substrate toward which neither parent heme domain shows detectable activity. These results suggest that SCHEMA-guided recombination can be used to generate diverse p450s for exploring function evolution within the p450 structural framework. PMID:15123260

  19. Approaches to Deorphanization of Human and Microbial Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F. Peter; Tang, Zhongmei; Cheng, Qian; Salamanca-Pinzón, S. Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    One of the general problems in biology today is that we are characterizing genomic sequences much faster than identifying the functions of the gene products, and the same problem exists with cytochromes P450 (P450). One-fourth of the human P450s are not well-characterized and therefore considered “orphans.” A number of approaches to deorphanization are discussed generally. Several liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches have been applied to some of the human and Streptomyces coelicolor P450s. One current limitation is that too many fatty acid oxidations have been identified and we are probably missing more relevant substrates, possibly due to limits of sensitivity. PMID:20493973

  20. Cytochromes P450 and species differences in xenobiotic metabolism and activation of carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V

    1998-01-01

    The importance of cytochrome P450 isoforms to species differences in the metabolism of foreign compounds and activation of procarcinogens has been identified. The possible range of P450 isozymes in significant variations in toxicity exhibited by experimental rodent species may have a relevance to chemical risk assessment, especially as human P450s are likely to show changes in the way they metabolize xenobiotics. Consequently, in the safety evaluation of chemicals, we should be cautious in extrapolating results from experimental animal models to humans. This paper focuses on examples in which species differences in P450s lead to significant alterations in carcinogenic response, and includes a discussion of the current procedures for toxicity screening, with an emphasis on short-term tests. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9755138

  1. Optimization of the Bacterial Cytochrome P450 BM3 System for the Production of Human Drug Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Drug metabolism in human liver is a process involving many different enzymes. Among them, a number of cytochromes P450 isoforms catalyze the oxidation of most of the drugs commercially available. Each P450 isoform acts on more than one drug, and one drug may be oxidized by more than one enzyme. As a result, multiple products may be obtained from the same drug, and as the metabolites can be biologically active and may cause adverse drug reactions (ADRs), the metabolic profile of a new drug has to be known before this can be commercialized. Therefore, the metabolites of a certain drug must be identified, synthesized and tested for toxicity. Their synthesis must be in sufficient quantities to be used for metabolic tests. This review focuses on the progresses done in the field of the optimization of a bacterial self-sufficient and efficient cytochrome P450, P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium, used for the production of metabolites of human enzymes. The progress made in the improvement of its catalytic performance towards drugs, the substitution of the costly NADPH cofactor and its immobilization and scale-up of the process for industrial application are reported. PMID:23443101

  2. Phenobarbital induction of a soluble cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1982-03-10

    A soluble, cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase-epoxidase isolated from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 can be induced about 28-fold by the addition of phenobarbital (8 mM) to the growth medium. Phenobarbital is not a substrate for the enzyme nor does it activate the monooxygenase in the cell-free system. The level of the P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity in cultures harvested during the early stationary phase of growth increased linearly with phenobarbital concentration up to its solubility limit (8 mM) at 35 degrees C. The time course of induction during culture growth in the presence of 4 mM phenobarbital showed an interesting dichotomy. The specific content of cytochrome P-450 increased until the early stationary phase of growth and then leveled off. P-450-dependent monooxygenase activity, however, continued to increase rapidly to midstationary phase and then decreased just as rapidly after this time. At maximum specific activity, a turnover number of about 2,450 was obtained for palmitoleate hydroxylation-epoxidation by the cytochrome P-450 system. PMID:6801029

  3. Effect of cytochrome P450 and aldo-keto reductase inhibitors on progesterone inactivation in primary bovine hepatic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lemley, C O; Wilson, M E

    2010-10-01

    Progesterone is required for maintenance of pregnancy, and peripheral concentrations of progesterone are affected by both production and inactivation. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (EC 1.14.14.1) and aldo-keto reductase (EC 1.1.1.145-151) enzymes play a pivotal role in the first step of steroid inactivation, which involves the addition of hydroxyl groups to various sites of the cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus. The current objective was to discern the proportional involvement of hepatic progesterone inactivating enzymes on progesterone decay using specific enzyme inhibitors. Ticlopidine, diltiazem, curcumin, dicumarol, and naproxen were used because of their selective inhibition of cytochrome P450s, aldo-keto reductases, and glucuronosyltransferases. Liver biopsies were collected from 6 lactating Holstein dairy cows, and cells were dissociated using a nonperfusion technique. Confluent wells were preincubated for 4 h with enzyme inhibitor and then challenged with progesterone for 1 h. Cell viability was unaffected by inhibitor treatment and averaged 84±1%. In control wells, 50% of the progesterone had been inactivated after a 1-h challenge with 5 ng/mL of progesterone. Preincubation with curcumin, ticlopidine, or naproxen caused the greatest reduction in progesterone inactivation compared with controls and averaged 77, 39, or 37%, respectively. Hydroxylation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-nitrocatechol in intact cells was inhibited by approximately 65% after treatment with curcumin or ticlopidine. Glucuronidation of phenol red or 4-nitrocatechol in intact cells was inhibited by treatment with curcumin, dicumarol, or naproxen. In cytoplasmic preparations, aldo-keto reductase 1C activity was inhibited by curcumin, dicumarol, or naproxen treatment. Microsomal cytochrome P450 2C activity was inhibited by treatment with curcumin or ticlopidine, whereas cytochrome P450 3A activity was inhibited by treatment with curcumin or diltiazem. The contribution of cytochrome P450 2C and

  4. Cytochrome P450 system proteins reside in different regions of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Reed, James R; Brignac-Huber, Lauren M; Backes, Wayne L

    2014-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) function is dependent on the ability of these enzymes to successfully interact with their redox partners, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because the ER is heterogeneous in lipid composition, membrane microdomains with different characteristics are formed. Ordered microdomains are more tightly packed, and enriched in saturated fatty acids, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, whereas disordered regions contain higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids. The goal of the present study was to determine whether the P450 system proteins localize to different regions of the ER. The localization of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CYP2E1 within the ER was determined by partial membrane solubilization with Brij 98, centrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose gradient and immune blotting of the gradient fractions to identify ordered and disordered microdomains. CYP1A2 resided almost entirely in the ordered regions of the ER with CPR also localized predominantly to this region. CYP2B4 was equally distributed between the ordered and disordered domains. In contrast, CYP2E1 localized to the disordered membrane regions. Removal of cholesterol (an important constituent of ordered domains) led to the relocation of CYP1A2, CYP2B4 and CPR to the disordered regions. Interestingly, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 localized to different membrane microdomains, despite their high degree of sequence similarity. These data demonstrate that P450 system enzymes are organized in specific membrane regions, and their localization can be affected by depletion of membrane cholesterol. The differential localization of different P450 in specific membrane regions may provide a novel mechanism for modulating P450 function. PMID:25236845

  5. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  6. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests.

  7. Adaptive hepatic and intestinal alterations in mice after deletion of NADPH-cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (Cpr) in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingguo; Gu, Jun; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) play an important role in first-pass metabolism in both the intestine and liver. NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Cpr) is an essential electron transfer protein required for microsomal P450 activity. Mice with conditional knockout of Cpr in hepatocytes develop normally and survive even with complete loss of liver microsomal P450 activity. Our current studies were performed to determine whether alternative drug-metabolizing pathways increase in an attempt to maintain whole-body homeostasis. In addition to the liver, Cpr is mainly expressed in tissues such as lung, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In livers of H-Cpr-null mice, there is a marked increase in mRNA expression of phase I enzymes (Aldh1a1, 1a7, 3a2; Ces1b2, 2a6, and 2a12), antioxidant enzymes (Ho-1, Nqo1, and epoxide hydrolase), phase II enzymes (Ugt1a9; Gsta1/2, m3, m4, m6, t1, and t3; and Sult1a1 and 1d1), and drug transporters (Oatp1a4, Oct3, Mate1, Mdr1a, and Mrp3 and 4). In addition, glucuronide-conjugated bilirubin concentrations are doubled in serum of H-Cpr-null mice. Both constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein in nuclei are higher in the livers of H-Cpr-null mice, indicating that CAR and Nrf2 are activated. In the small intestine of H-Cpr-null mice, mRNA expression of Cyp3a11 and Mdr1a, two genes critical for intestinal first-pass metabolism, are markedly up-regulated. In addition, nutrient (Pept1) and cholesterol (Npc1l1) transporters are induced in the small intestine of H-Cpr-null mice. In conclusion, in H-Cpr-null mice, adaptive regulation of alternative detoxification genes in liver and small intestine appear to partially compensate for the loss of microsomal P450 function in liver.

  8. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  9. An extensive (co-)expression analysis tool for the cytochrome P450 superfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ehlting, Jürgen; Sauveplane, Vincent; Olry, Alexandre; Ginglinger, Jean-François; Provart, Nicholas J; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Background Sequencing of the first plant genomes has revealed that cytochromes P450 have evolved to become the largest family of enzymes in secondary metabolism. The proportion of P450 enzymes with characterized biochemical function(s) is however very small. If P450 diversification mirrors evolution of chemical diversity, this points to an unexpectedly poor understanding of plant metabolism. We assumed that extensive analysis of gene expression might guide towards the function of P450 enzymes, and highlight overlooked aspects of plant metabolism. Results We have created a comprehensive database, 'CYPedia', describing P450 gene expression in four data sets: organs and tissues, stress response, hormone response, and mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, based on public Affymetrix ATH1 microarray expression data. P450 expression was then combined with the expression of 4,130 re-annotated genes, predicted to act in plant metabolism, for co-expression analyses. Based on the annotation of co-expressed genes from diverse pathway annotation databases, co-expressed pathways were identified. Predictions were validated for most P450s with known functions. As examples, co-expression results for P450s related to plastidial functions/photosynthesis, and to phenylpropanoid, triterpenoid and jasmonate metabolism are highlighted here. Conclusion The large scale hypothesis generation tools presented here provide leads to new pathways, unexpected functions, and regulatory networks for many P450s in plant metabolism. These can now be exploited by the community to validate the proposed functions experimentally using reverse genetics, biochemistry, and metabolic profiling. PMID:18433503

  10. Placental expression and molecular characterization of aromatase cytochrome P450 in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Conley, A J; Corbin, C J; Browne, P; Mapes, S M; Place, N J; Hughes, A L; Glickman, S E

    2007-07-01

    At birth, the external genitalia of female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are the most masculinized of any known mammal, but are still sexually differentiated. Placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) is an important route of androgen metabolism protecting human female fetuses from virilization in utero. Therefore, placental P450arom expression was examined in spotted hyenas to determine levels during genital differentiation, and to compare molecular characteristics between the hyena and human placental enzymes. Hyena placental P450arom activity was determined at gestational days (GD) 31, 35, 45, 65 and 95 (term, 110), and the relative sensitivity of hyena and human placental enzyme to inhibition by the specific inhibitor, Letrozole, was also examined. Expression of hyena P450arom in placenta was localized by immuno-histochemistry, and a full-length cDNA was cloned for phylogenetic analysis. Aromatase activity increased from GD31 to a peak at 45 and 65, apparently decreasing later in gestation. This activity was more sensitive to inhibition by Letrozole than was human placental aromatase activity. Expression of P450arom was localized to syncytiotrophoblast and giant cells of mid-gestation placentas. The coding sequence of hyena P450arom was 94% and 86% identical to the canine and human enzymes respectively, as reflected by phylogenetic analyses. These data demonstrate for the first time that hyena placental aromatase activity is comparable to that of human placentas when genital differentiation is in progress. This suggests that even in female spotted hyenas clitoral differentiation is likely protected from virilization by placental androgen metabolism. Decreased placental aromatase activity in late gestation may be equally important in allowing androgen to program behaviors at birth. Although hyena P450arom is closely related to the canine enzyme, both placental anatomy and P450arom expression differ. Other hyaenids and carnivores must be investigated to

  11. The cytochrome P450scc system opens an alternate pathway of vitamin D3 metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Zjawiony, Jordan; Wortsman, Jacobo; Li, Wei; Szczesniewski, Andre; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    We show that cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in either a reconstituted system or in isolated adrenal mitochondria can metabolize vitamin D3. The major products of the reaction with reconstituted enzyme were 20-hydroxycholecalciferol and 20,22-dihydroxycholecalciferol, with yields of 16 and 4%, respectively, of the original vitamin D3 substrate. Trihydroxycholecalciferol was a minor product, likely arising from further metabolism of dihydroxycholecalciferol. Based on NMR analysis and known properties of P450scc we propose that hydroxylation of vitamin D3 by P450scc occurs sequentially and stereospecifically with initial formation of 20(S)-hydroxyvitamin D3. P450scc did not metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, indicating that modification of C25 protected it against P450scc action. Adrenal mitochondria also metabolized vitamin D3 yielding 10 hydroxyderivatives, with UV spectra typical of vitamin D triene chromophores. Aminogluthimide inhibition showed that the three major metabolites, but not the others, resulted from P450scc action. It therefore appears that non-P450scc enzymes present in the adrenal cortex to some extent contribute to metabolism of vitamin D3. We conclude that purified P450scc in a reconstituted system or P450scc in adrenal mitochondria can add one hydroxyl group to vitamin D3 with subsequent hydroxylation being observed for reconstituted enzyme but not for adrenal mitochondria. Additional vitamin D3 metabolites arise from the action of other enzymes in adrenal mitochondria. These findings appear to define novel metabolic pathways involving vitamin D3 that remain to be characterized. PMID:16098191

  12. Orphans in the Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily: Approaches to Discovering Functions and Relevance in Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian

    2011-01-01

    As a result of technical advances in recombinant DNA technology and nucleotide sequencing, entire genome sequences have become available in the past decade and offer potential in understanding diseases. However, a central problem in the biochemical sciences is that the functions of only a fraction of the genes/proteins are known, and this is also an issue in pharmacology. This review is focused on issues related to the functions of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. P450 functions can be categorized in several groups: 1) Some P450s have critical roles in the metabolism of endogenous substrates (e.g., sterols and fat-soluble vitamins). 2) Some P450s are not generally critical to normal physiology but function in relatively nonselective protection from the many xenobiotic chemicals to which mammals (including humans) are exposed in their diets [as well as more anthropomorphic chemicals (e.g., drugs, pesticides)]. 3) Some P450s have not been extensively studied and are termed “orphans” here. With regard to elucidation of any physiological functions of the orphan P450s, the major subject of this review, it is clear that simple trial-and-error approaches with individual substrate candidates will not be very productive in addressing questions about function. A series of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/informatics approaches are discussed, along with some successes with both human and bacterial P450s. Current information on what are still considered “orphan” P450s is presented. The potential for application of some of these approaches to other enzyme systems is also discussed. PMID:21737533

  13. Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases as Reporters for Circadian-Regulated Pathways1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yinghong; Michael, Todd P.; Hudson, Matthew E.; Kay, Steve A.; Chory, Joanne; Schuler, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play important roles in the synthesis of diverse secondary compounds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparison of four data sets analyzing seedlings harvested over a 2-d period of constant conditions after growth with varying photoperiods and thermocycles recorded a total of 98 P450 loci as circadian regulated for at least one of the four conditions. Here, we further describe the circadian-regulated pathways using, as reporters, individual P450 loci that are likely to be rate limiting in secondary metabolic pathways. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction gel blot analyses have confirmed circadian regulation of P450s in phenylpropanoid, carotenoid, oxylipin, glucosinolate, and brassinosteroid biosyntheses and have shown that both P450 and non-P450 genes in the many branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway have similar circadian patterns of expression. In silico analyses of the subsets of coregulated promoters have identified overrepresented promoter elements in various biosynthetic pathway genes, including MYB and MYB4 elements that are significantly more abundant in promoters for the core and lignin sections of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Interactions with these elements important for circadian regulation do not involve the MYB transcription factor PAP1, as previously proposed, since the expression patterns of circadian-regulated P450s are the same in pap1-D mutant seedlings as in wild-type seedlings. Further analysis of circadian-regulated promoters in other biochemical pathways provides us with the opportunity to identify novel promoter motifs that might be important in P450 circadian regulation. PMID:19386812

  14. Adrenodoxin supports reactions catalyzed by microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Pechurskaya, Tatiana A. . E-mail: usanov@iboch.bas-net.by

    2007-02-16

    The interaction of adrenodoxin (Adx) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) with human microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s was studied. It is found that Adx, mitochondrial electron transfer protein, is able to support reactions catalyzed by human microsomal P450s: full length CYP17, truncated CYP17, and truncated CYP21. CPR, but not Adx, supports activity of truncated CYP19. Truncated and the full length CYP17s show distinct preference for electron donor proteins. Truncated CYP17 has higher activity with Adx compared to CPR. The alteration in preference to electron donor does not change product profile for truncated enzymes. The electrostatic contacts play a major role in the interaction of truncated CYP17 with either CPR or Adx. Similarly electrostatic contacts are predominant in the interaction of full length CYP17 with Adx. We speculate that Adx might serve as an alternative electron donor for CYP17 at the conditions of CPR deficiency in human.

  15. Alternative Sampling Strategies for Cytochrome P450 Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-02-01

    Interindividual variability in the expression and function of drug metabolizing cytochrome P (CYP) 450 enzymes, determined by a combination of genetic, non-genetic and environmental parameters, is a major source of variable drug response. Phenotyping by administration of a selective enzyme substrate, followed by the determination of a specific phenotyping metric, is an appropriate approach to assess the in vivo activity of CYP450 enzymes as it takes into account all influencing factors. A phenotyping protocol should be as simple and convenient as possible. Typically, phenotyping metrics are determined in traditional matrices, such as blood, plasma or urine. Several sampling strategies have been proposed as an alternative for these traditional sampling techniques. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of available methods using dried blood spots (DBS), hair, oral fluid, exhaled breath and sweat for in vivo CYP450 phenotyping. We discuss the relation between phenotyping metrics measured in these samples and those in conventional matrices, along with the advantages and limitations of the alternative sampling techniques. Reliable phenotyping procedures for several clinically relevant CYP450 enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, are currently available for oral fluid, breath or DBS, while additional studies are needed for other CYP450 isoforms, such as CYP3A4. The role of hair analysis for this purpose remains to be established. Being non- or minimally invasive, these sampling strategies provide convenient and patient-friendly alternatives for classical phenotyping procedures, which may contribute to the implementation of CYP450 phenotyping in clinical practice.

  16. Evaluation of α-cyano ethers as fluorescent substrates for assay of cytochrome P450 enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung-Don; Jones, Paul D.; Huang, Huazhang; Zhang, Rong; Mostovich, Lyudmila A.; Wheelock, Craig E.; Watanabe, Takaho; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously reported the synthesis of four α-cyano-containing ethers based on 2-naphthaldehyde (2-NA) as cytochrome P450 (P450) fluorescent substrates. Activity detection was based on the formation of fluorescent 2-NA following substrate hydrolysis. A major limitation of these substrates was the need to remove NADPH, a required cofactor for P450 oxidation, before measuring 2-NA fluorescence. In this article, we report the synthesis of a new series of novel P450 substrates using 6-dimethylamino-2-naphthaldehyde (6-DMANA), which has a green fluorescent emission that is well separated from the NADPH spectrum. A major advantage of the 6-DMANA substrates is that NADPH removal is not required before fluorescence detection. We used eight α-cyano ether-based substrates to determine the O-dealkylation activity of human, mouse, and rat liver microsomes. In addition, substrate activities were compared with the commercial substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin (7-ER). The catalytic turnover rates of both the 6-DMANA- and 2-NA-based substrates were in some cases threefold faster than the catalytic turnover rate of 7-ER. The 2-NA-based substrates had greater turnover than did the 6-DMANA-based substrates. Murine and rat liver microsomes prepared from animals that had been treated with various P450 inducers were used to examine for isozyme-selective turnover of the substrates. The vastly improved optical properties and synthetic flexibility of the α-cyano ether compounds suggest that they are possibly good general P450 substrates. PMID:16083846

  17. Evaluation of alpha-cyano ethers as fluorescent substrates for assay of cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Don; Jones, Paul D; Huang, Huazhang; Zhang, Rong; Mostovich, Lyudmila A; Wheelock, Craig E; Watanabe, Takaho; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila F; Hammock, Bruce D

    2005-09-15

    We have previously reported the synthesis of four alpha-cyano-containing ethers based on 2-naphthaldehyde (2-NA) as cytochrome P450 (P450) fluorescent substrates. Activity detection was based on the formation of fluorescent 2-NA following substrate hydrolysis. A major limitation of these substrates was the need to remove NADPH, a required cofactor for P450 oxidation, before measuring 2-NA fluorescence. In this article, we report the synthesis of a new series of novel P450 substrates using 6-dimethylamino-2-naphthaldehyde (6-DMANA), which has a green fluorescent emission that is well separated from the NADPH spectrum. A major advantage of the 6-DMANA substrates is that NADPH removal is not required before fluorescence detection. We used eight alpha-cyano ether-based substrates to determine the O-dealkylation activity of human, mouse, and rat liver microsomes. In addition, substrate activities were compared with the commercial substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin (7-ER). The catalytic turnover rates of both the 6-DMANA- and 2-NA-based substrates were in some cases threefold faster than the catalytic turnover rate of 7-ER. The 2-NA-based substrates had greater turnover than did the 6-DMANA-based substrates. Murine and rat liver microsomes prepared from animals that had been treated with various P450 inducers were used to examine for isozyme-selective turnover of the substrates. The vastly improved optical properties and synthetic flexibility of the alpha-cyano ether compounds suggest that they are possibly good general P450 substrates.

  18. Degradation of Morpholine by an Environmental Mycobacterium Strain Involves a Cytochrome P-450

    PubMed Central

    Poupin, P.; Truffaut, N.; Combourieu, B.; Besse, P.; Sancelme, M.; Veschambre, H.; Delort, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    A Mycobacterium strain (RP1) was isolated from a contaminated activated sludge collected in a wastewater treatment unit of a chemical plant. It was capable of utilizing morpholine and other heterocyclic compounds, such as pyrrolidine and piperidine, as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The use of in situ 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy allowed the determination of two intermediates in the biodegradative pathway, 2-(2-aminoethoxy)acetate and glycolate. The inhibitory effects of metyrapone on the degradative abilities of strain RP1 indicated the involvement of a cytochrome P-450 in the biodegradation of morpholine. This observation was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis and 1H NMR. Reduced cell extracts from morpholine-grown cultures, but not succinate-grown cultures, gave rise to a carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a peak near 450 nm, which indicated the presence of a soluble cytochrome P-450. 1H NMR allowed the direct analysis of the incubation medium containing metyrapone, a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. The inhibition of morpholine degradation was dependent on the morpholine/metyrapone ratio. The heme-containing monooxygenase was also detected in pyrrolidine- and piperidine-grown cultures. The abilities of different compounds to support strain growth or the induction of a soluble cytochrome P-450 were assayed. The results suggest that this enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of the C—N bond of the morpholine ring. PMID:9435074

  19. Cloning and expression of an atrazine inducible cytochrome P450 from Chironomus tentans (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies performed in our lab have measured the effect of atrazine exposure on cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activity and have found increased activity in midge larvae (Chironomus tentans) as a result of atrazine exposure (1-10 ppm). Here we report the cloning and expression of a ...

  20. FLUCONAZOLE-INDUCED HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RATS AND MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of the triazole antifungal agent fluconazole on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes and the activities of Cyp enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice. Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (AROD) methods w...

  1. Cytochrome P450, CYP93A1, as a defense marker in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CYP93A1 is a cytochrome P450 that is involved in the synthesis of the phytoalexin glyceollin in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr). The gene encoding CYP93A1 has been used as a defense marker in soybean cell cultures, however, little is known regarding how this gene is expressed in the intact plant. To f...

  2. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. An open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. This ORF includes a charact...

  3. EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2. T M Ross1, B P Anderson1, G Zhao2, R A Pegram1 and J W Allis1. 1U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Sponsor: H Barton

    Bromodichlorometh...

  4. Screening and identification of novel cytochrome P450s in ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450s are the major phase I drug metabolizing enzymes found in most species, including those belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Much of the work within the area of xenobiotic metabolism in this phylum has centered on mosquito species such as Anopheles gambiae due to their role as vectors...

  5. Aryl Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Diclofop by a Wheat Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, Alfred; Durst, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Etoile de Choisy) microsomes catalyzed the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of the herbicide diclofop to three hydroxy-diclofop isomers. Hydroxylation was predominant at carbon 4, with migration of chlorine to carbon 5 (67%) and carbon 3 (25%). The 2,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy isomer was identified as a minor reaction product (8%). Substrate-specificity studies showed that the activity was not inhibited or was weakly inhibited by a range of xenobiotic or physiological cytochrome P-450 substrates, with the exception of lauric acid. Wheat microsomes also catalyze the metabolism of the herbicides chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and of the model substrate ethoxycoumarin, as well as the hydroxylation of the endogenous substrates cinnamic and lauric acids. Treatments of wheat seedlings with phenobarbital or the safener naphthalic acid anhydride enhanced the cytochrome P-450 content of the microsomes and all related activities except that of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, which was reduced. The stimulation patterns of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase were similar, in contrast with the other activities tested. Lauric acid inhibited competitively (Ki = 9 μm) the oxidation of diclofop and reciprocally. The similarity of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase was further investigated by alternative substrate kinetics, autocatalytic inactivation, and computer-aided molecular modelisation studies, and the results suggest that both reactions are catalyzed by the same cytochrome P-450 isozyme. PMID:16653070

  6. Purification and characterization of pentobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450BM-1 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581.

    PubMed

    Schwalb, H; Narhi, L O; Fulco, A J

    1985-03-01

    When Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 is grown in the presence of barbiturates, a cytochrome P-450-dependent fatty acid monooxygenase (Mr 120000) is induced (Kim, B.-H. and Fulco, A.J. (1983) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 116, 843-850). Gel filtration chromatography of a crude monooxygenase preparation from pentobarbital-induced B. megaterium indicated that not all of the induced cytochrome P-450 present in the extract was accounted for by this high-molecular-weight component. Further purification revealed the presence of two additional but smaller cytochrome P-450 species. The minor component, designated cytochrome P-450BM-2, had a molecular mass of about 46 kDa, but has not yet been completely purified or further characterized. The major component, designated cytochrome P-450BM-1, was obtained in pure form, exhibited fatty acid monooxygenase activity in the presence of iodosylbenzenediacetate, and has been extensively characterized. Its Mr of 38000 makes it the smallest cytochrome P-450 yet purified to homogeneity. Although it is a soluble protein, a complete amino acid analysis indicated that it contains 42% hydrophobic residues. By the dansyl chloride procedure the NH2-terminal amino acid is proline; the penultimate NH2-terminal residue is alanine. The absolute absorption spectra of cytochrome P-450BM-1 show maxima in the same general regions as do P-450 cytochromes from mammalian or other bacterial sources, but they differ in detail. The oxidized form of P-450BM-1 has absorption maxima at 414, 533 and 567 nm, while the reduced form has peaks at 410 and 540 nm. The absorption maxima for the CO-reduced form of P-450BM-1 are found at 415, 448 and 550 nm. Antisera from rabbits immunized with pure P-450BM-1 strongly reacted with and precipitated this P-450, but showed no detectable affinity for either the 46 kDa P-450 or the 120 kDa fatty acid monooxygenase. PMID:3918581

  7. Structural and Kinetic Studies of Novel Cytochrome P450 Small-Alkane Hydroxylases

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-02-27

    The goals of this project are to investigate (1) the kinetics and stabilities of engineered cytochrome P450 (P450) small alkane hydroxylases and their evolutionary intermediates, (2) the structural basis for catalytic proficiency on small alkanes of these engineered P450s, and (3) the changes in redox control resulting from protein engineering. To reach these goals, we have established new methods for determining the kinetics and stabilities of multicomponent P450s such as CYP153A6. Using these, we were able to determine that CYP153A6 is proficient for hydroxylation of alkanes as small as ethane, an activity that has never been observed previously in any natural P450. To elucidate the structures of the engineered P450s, we obtained x-ray diffraction data for two variants in the P450PMO (propane monooxygenase) lineage and a preliminary structure for the most evolved variant. This structure shows changes in the substrate binding regions of the enzyme and a reduction in active site volume that are consistent with the observed changes in substrate specificity from fatty acids in the native enzyme to small alkanes in P450PMO. We also constructed semi-rational designed libraries mutating only residues in the enzyme active site that in one round of mutagenesis and screening produced variants that achieved nearly half of the activity of the most evolved enzymes of the P450PMO lineage. Finally, we found that changes in redox properties of the laboratory-evolved P450 alkane hydroxylases did not reflect the improvement in their electron transfer efficiency. The heme redox potential remained constant throughout evolution, while activity increased and coupling efficiency improved from 10% to 90%. The lack of correlation between heme redox potential and enzyme activity and coupling efficiency led us to search for other enzyme properties that could be better predictors for activity towards small alkanes, specifically methane. We investigated the oxidation potential of the radical

  8. Update on allele nomenclature for human cytochromes P450 and the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele (CYP-allele) Nomenclature Database.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sarah C; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Interindividual variability in xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is extensive and genetic factors play an important role in this variation. A majority of clinically used drugs are substrates for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system and interindividual variability in expression and function of these enzymes is a major factor for explaining individual susceptibility for adverse drug reactions and drug response. Because of the existence of many polymorphic CYP genes, for many of which the number of allelic variants is continually increasing, a universal and official nomenclature system is important. Since 1999, all functionally relevant polymorphic CYP alleles are named and published on the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele (CYP-allele) Nomenclature Web site (http://www.cypalleles.ki.se). Currently, the database covers nomenclature of more than 660 alleles in a total of 30 genes that includes 29 CYPs as well as the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene. On the CYP-allele Web site, each gene has its own Webpage, which lists the alleles with their nucleotide changes, their functional consequences, and links to publications identifying or characterizing the alleles. CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 are the most important CYPs in terms of drug metabolism, which is also reflected in their corresponding highest number of Webpage hits at the CYP-allele Web site.The main advantage of the CYP-allele database is that it offers a rapid online publication of CYP-alleles and their effects and provides an overview of peer-reviewed data to the scientific community. Here, we provide an update of the CYP-allele database and the associated nomenclature.

  9. Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B).

    PubMed

    Matsui, K; Shibutani, M; Hase, T; Kajiwara, T

    1996-09-23

    Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C-C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene family, we have cloned cDNA encoding fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from immature bell pepper fruits. The cDNA encodes 480 amino acids, and shares homology with P450s mostly at the C terminus. The heme binding cysteine is recognizable at position 441. The most closely related P450 is allene oxide synthase (CYP74A), with which it has 40% identity. It qualifies the lyase as a member of a new P450 subfamily, CYP74B. From this finding, the enzyme is thought to be a novel member of P450 specialized for the metabolism of lipid peroxides.

  10. Characterization of a novel ACTH inducible cytochrome P-450 from rat adrenal microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, S.A.; Marcus, C.M.; Jefcoate, C.R. )

    1990-02-26

    In rat adrenal cortex 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) causes massive necrosis that is dependent of ACTH. This is related to an ACTH inducible adrenal microsomal cytochrome P-450 that catalyzes hydrocarbon metabolism. Rat adrenal microsomes, catalyze the formation of DMBA 3,4 diol a precursor of the bay region reactive electrophile DMBA 3,4 diol 1,2 oxide. Both DMBA metabolism and a 57Kd protein have disappeared from microsomes 30 days after hypophysectomy, but are restored by 14 days treatment with ACTH. Dexamethasone which fully suppresses ACTH only partially suppresses this activity. The 57 Kd protein was partially purified to a single major band in one step from solubilized microsomes by h.p.l.c. chromatography using detergent elution from a novel column that mimics phospholipid membranes. This preparation exhibits a specific content of 2 nm P-450/mg protein and a turnover number of 1,500pm DMBA/nm P-450/minutes. A polyclonal antisera raised against this preparation provides a single western blot corresponding to the 57Kd ACTH sensitive protein. This antibody did not blot microsomal P-450 c21, nor did selected antibodies from known families react with this adrenal P-450 protein, suggesting substantial sequence differences from known P-450's.

  11. Non-natural olefin cyclopropanation catalyzed by diverse cytochrome P450s and other hemoproteins.

    PubMed

    Heel, Thomas; McIntosh, John A; Dodani, Sheel C; Meyerowitz, Joseph T; Arnold, Frances H

    2014-11-24

    Recent work has shown that engineered variants of cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP102A1) efficiently catalyze non-natural reactions, including carbene and nitrene transfer reactions. Given the broad substrate range of natural P450 enzymes, we set out to explore if this diversity could be leveraged to generate a broad panel of new catalysts for olefin cyclopropanation (i.e., carbene transfer). Here, we took a step towards this goal by characterizing the carbene transfer activities of four new wild-type P450s that have different native substrates. All four were active and exhibited a range of product selectivities in the model reaction: cyclopropanation of styrene by using ethyl diazoacetate (EDA). Previous work on P450BM3 demonstrated that mutation of the axial coordinating cysteine, universally conserved among P450 enzymes, to a serine residue, increased activity for this non-natural reaction. The equivalent mutation in the selected P450s was found to activate carbene transfer chemistry both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, serum albumins complexed with hemin were also found to be efficient in vitro cyclopropanation catalysts.

  12. Improving the cytochrome P450 enzyme system for electrode-driven biocatalysis of styrene epoxidation.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, M P; Reipa, V; Holden, M J; Vilker, V L

    2000-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyze a vast array of oxidative and reductive biotransformations that are potentially useful for industrial and pharmaceutical syntheses. Factors such as cofactor utilization and slow reaction rates for nonnatural substrates limit their large-scale usefulness. This paper reports several improvements that make the cytochrome P450cam enzyme system more practical for the epoxidation of styrene. NADH coupling was increased from 14 to 54 mol %, and product turnover rate was increased from 8 to 70 min(-1) by introducing the Y96F mutation to P450cam. Styrene and styrene oxide mass balance determinations showed different product profiles at low and high styrene conversion levels. For styrene conversion less than about 25 mol %, the stoichiometry between styrene consumption and styrene oxide formation was 1:1. At high styrene conversion, a second doubly oxidized product, alpha-hydroxyacetophenone, was formed. This was also the exclusive product when Y96F P450cam acted on racemic, commercially available styrene oxide. The alpha-hydroxyacetophenone product was suppressed in reactions where styrene was present at saturating concentrations. Finally, styrene epoxidation was carried out in an electroenzymatic reactor. In this scheme, the costly NADH cofactor and one of the three proteins (putidaredoxin reductase) are eliminated from the Y96F P450cam enzyme system. PMID:10933836

  13. Steroid hydroxylations: A paradigm for cytochrome P450 catalyzed mammalian monooxygenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, Ronald W. . E-mail: Ronald.estabrook@utsouthwestern.edu

    2005-12-09

    The present article reviews the history of research on the hydroxylation of steroid hormones as catalyzed by enzymes present in mammalian tissues. The report describes how studies of steroid hormone synthesis have played a central role in the discovery of the monooxygenase functions of the cytochrome P450s. Studies of steroid hydroxylation reactions can be credited with showing that: (a) the adrenal mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the 11{beta}-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone was the first mammalian enzyme shown by O{sup 18} studies to be an oxygenase; (b) the adrenal microsomal enzyme catalyzing the 21-hydroxylation of steroids was the first mammalian enzyme to show experimentally the proposed 1:1:1 stoichiometry (substrate:oxygen:reduced pyridine nucleotide) of a monooxygenase reaction; (c) application of the photochemical action spectrum technique for reversal of carbon monoxide inhibition of the 21-hydroxylation of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone was the first demonstration that cytochrome P450 was an oxygenase; (d) spectrophotometric studies of the binding of 17{alpha}-OH progesterone to bovine adrenal microsomal P450 revealed the first step in the cyclic reaction scheme of P450, as it catalyzes the 'activation' of oxygen in a monooxygenase reaction; (e) purified adrenodoxin was shown to function as an electron transport component of the adrenal mitochondrial monooxygenase system required for the activity of the 11{beta}-hydroxylase reaction. Adrenodoxin was the first iron-sulfur protein isolated and purified from mammalian tissues and the first soluble protein identified as a reductase of a P450; (f) fractionation of adrenal mitochondrial P450 and incubation with adrenodoxin and a cytosolic (flavoprotein) fraction were the first demonstration of the reconstitution of a mammalian P450 monooxygenase reaction.

  14. Simultaneous Screening of Activities of Five Cytochrome P450 and Four Uridine 5'-Diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase Enzymes in Human Liver Microsomes Using Cocktail Incubation and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Ji, Hyeon-Kyeong; Lee, Taeho; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) are major metabolizing enzymes in the biotransformation of most drugs. Altered P450 and UGT activities are a potential cause of adverse drug-drug interaction. A method for the simultaneous evaluation of the activities of five P450s (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A) and four UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7) was developed using in vitro cocktail incubation and tandem mass spectrometry. The nine probe substrates used in this assay were phenacetin (CYP1A2), diclofenac (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38) (UGT1A1), trifluoperazine (UGT1A4), mycophenolic acid (UGT1A9), and naloxone (UGT2B7). This new method involves incubation of two cocktail doses and single cassette analysis. The two cocktail doses and the concentration of each probe substrate in vitro were determined to minimize mutual drug interactions among substrates. Cocktail A comprised phenacetin, diclofenac, S-mephenytoin, dextromethorphan, and midazolam, whereas cocktail B comprised SN-38, trifluoperazine, mycophenolic acid, and naloxone. In the incubation study of these cocktails, the reaction mixtures were pooled and simultaneously analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method was validated by comparing inhibition data obtained from the incubation of each probe substrate alone with data from the cocktail method. The IC50 values obtained in both cocktail and individual incubations were in agreement with values previously reported in the literature. This cocktail method offers a rapid and robust way to simultaneously evaluate phase I and II enzyme inhibition profiles of many new chemical entities. This new method will also be useful in the drug discovery process and for advancing the mechanistic understanding of drug interactions. PMID:25904760

  15. Menthol reduces the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by inducing cytochrome P450 2C expression.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Motohiro; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Tsukui, Makoto; Kurokawa, Asako; Naito, Rina; Suzuki, Midori; Yokobori, Kohsuke; Ochiai, Takumi; Ishii, Makoto; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, it was reported that the anticoagulant effect of warfarin was reduced when patients receiving warfarin also took menthol. The purpose of this study is to reveal the mechanism of this reduced anticoagulant effect of warfarin from the pharmacokinetic point of view. Warfarin was orally administered to mice 24h after the administration of menthol for 2 days, and the plasma warfarin concentration was measured. In the menthol administration group, the area under the blood concentration time curve of warfarin was decreased by approximately 25%, while total clearance was increased to 1.3-fold compared to the control group. The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C protein expression level in the menthol administration group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group. An increase in the nuclear translocation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) was also observed. The addition of menthol to human hepatic cells, HepaRG cells, caused an increase in the mRNA expression level of CYP2C9. The results of this study revealed that menthol causes an increase in CYP2C expression levels in the liver, which leads to an enhancement of warfarin metabolism, resulting in a decreased anticoagulant effect of warfarin. It was also suggested that menthol acted directly on the liver and increased the expression level of CYP2C by enhancing the nuclear translocation of CAR. PMID:24594507

  16. Coleus forskohlii extract induces hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Virgona, Nantiga; Yokotani, Kaori; Yamazaki, Yuko; Shimura, Fumio; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Taki, Yuko; Yamada, Shizuo; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Murata, Masatsune; Umegaki, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    Coleus forskohlii root extract (CFE) is popular for use as a weight loss dietary supplement. In this study, the influence of standardized CFE containing 10% active component forskolin on the hepatic drug metabolizing system was investigated to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. Male ICR mice were fed AIN93G-based diets containing 0-5% CFE or 0.05% pure forskolin for 2-3 weeks. Intake of two different sources of 0.5% CFE significantly increased the relative liver weight, total content of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and induced CYPs (especially 2B, 2C, 3A types) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. CFE significantly increased mRNA expression of CYPs and GST with dose related responses. However, unlike the CFE, intake of 0.05% pure forskolin was found to be associated with only weak induction in CYP3A and GST activities with no significant increases in relative liver weight, total hepatic content or other CYPs activities. The inductions of CYPs and GST by CFE were observed at 1 week of feeding and rapidly recovered by discontinuation of CFE. These results indicated the induction potential of CFE on CYPs, and that this effect was predominantly due to other, as yet unidentified constituents, and not forskolin contained in CFE. PMID:22178802

  17. Multiple, Ligand-Dependent Routes from the Active Site of Cytochrome P450 2C9

    SciTech Connect

    Cojocaru, Vlad; Winn, Peter J.; Wade, Rebecca C.

    2012-02-13

    The active site of liver-specific, drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases is deeply buried in the protein and is connected to the protein surface through multiple tunnels, many of which were found open in different CYP crystal structures. It has been shown that different tunnels could serve as ligand passage routes in different CYPs. However, it is not understood whether one CYP uses multiple routes for substrate access and product release and whether these routes depend on ligand properties. From 300 ns of molecular dynamics simulations of CYP2C9, the second most abundant CYP in the human liver we found four main ligand exit routes, the occurrence of each depending on the ligand type and the conformation of the F-G loop, which is likely to be affected by the CYP-membrane interaction. A non-helical F-G loop favored exit towards the putative membrane-embedded region. Important protein features that direct ligand exit include aromatic residues that divide the active site and whose motions control access to two pathways. The ligands interacted with positively charged residues on the protein surface through hydrogen bonds that appear to select for acidic substrates. The observation of multiple, ligand-dependent routes in a CYP aids understanding of how CYP mutations affect drug metabolism and provides new possibilities for CYP inhibition.

  18. Use of Human Plasma Samples to Identify Circulating Drug Metabolites that Inhibit Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Eng, Heather; Obach, R Scott

    2016-08-01

    Drug interactions elicited through inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are important in pharmacotherapy. Recently, greater attention has been focused on not only parent drugs inhibiting P450 enzymes but also on possible inhibition of these enzymes by circulating metabolites. In this report, an ex vivo method whereby the potential for circulating metabolites to be inhibitors of P450 enzymes is described. To test this method, seven drugs and their known plasma metabolites were added to control human plasma at concentrations previously reported to occur in humans after administration of the parent drug. A volume of plasma for each drug based on the known inhibitory potency and time-averaged concentration of the parent drug was extracted and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the fractions were tested for inhibition of six human P450 enzyme activities (CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4). Observation of inhibition in fractions that correspond to the retention times of metabolites indicates that the metabolite has the potential to contribute to P450 inhibition in vivo. Using this approach, norfluoxetine, hydroxyitraconazole, desmethyldiltiazem, desacetyldiltiazem, desethylamiodarone, hydroxybupropion, erythro-dihydrobupropion, and threo-dihydrobupropion were identified as circulating metabolites that inhibit P450 activities at a similar or greater extent as the parent drug. A decision tree is presented outlining how this method can be used to determine when a deeper investigation of the P450 inhibition properties of a drug metabolite is warranted. PMID:27271369

  19. Occurrence of a barbiturate-inducible catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 dalton cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase in bacilli.

    PubMed

    Fulco, A J; Ruettinger, R T

    1987-05-01

    In a recent publication (Narhi, L.O. and Fulco, A.J.[1986] J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7160-7169) we described the characterization of a catalytically self-sufficient 119,000 Dalton cytochrome P-450 fatty acid monooxygenase (P-450BM-3) induced by barbiturates in Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581. We have now examined cell-free preparations from 12 distinct strains of B. megaterium and from one or two strains each of B. alvei, B. brevis, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. pumilis and B. subtilis for the presence of this inducible enzyme. Using Western blot analyses in combination with assays for fatty acid hydroxylase activity and cytochrome P-450, we were able to show that 11 of the 12 B. megaterium strains contained not only a strongly pentobarbital-inducible fatty acid monooxygenase identical to or polymorphic with P-450BM-3 but also significant levels of two smaller P-450 cytochromes that were the same as or similar to cytochromes P-450BM-1 and P-450BM-2 originally found in ATCC 14581. Unlike the 119,000 Dalton P-450, however, the two smaller P-450s were generally easily detectable in cultures grown to stationary phase in the absence of barbiturates and, with some exceptions, were not strongly induced by pentobarbital. None of the non-megaterium species of Bacillus tested exhibited significant levels of either fatty acid monooxygenase activity or cytochrome P-450. The one strain of B. megaterium that lacked inducible P-450BM-3 was also negative for BM-1 and BM-2. However, this strain (ATCC 13368) did contain a small but significant level of another P-450 cytochrome that others have identified as the oxygenase component of a steroid 15-beta-hydroxylase system. Our evidence suggests that the BM series of P-450 cytochromes is encoded by chromosomal (rather than by plasmid) DNA. PMID:3573977

  20. Suppressive effect of accumulated aluminum trichloride on the hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme system in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanzhu; Han, Yanfei; Zhao, Hansong; Li, Jing; Hu, Chongwei; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a low toxicological metal and can accumulate in the liver. The hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYPS) plays important role in the transformation of the toxic materials. It is not clear if the CYPS is affected by Al exposure. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of aluminum trichloride (AlCl(3)) on CYPS in rats. Forty male Wistar rats (5weeks old) weighing 110-120g were randomly allocated and orally exposed to 0, 64.18, 128.36 and 256.72mg/kg body weight (BW) AlCl(3) in drinking water for 120days. The body weight (BW) of rats, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic Al content, the concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome B5 (B5), microsomal protein and the activities of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase (CR), aminopyrin N-demethylase (AND), erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and aniline-4-hydeoxylase (AH) were assessed at the end of the experiment. The results showed that the increase in Al concentration decreased BW, HIS, concentrations of CYP450, B5, microsomal protein and the activity of CR, AND, ERND and AH in hepatic microsomes. The results revealed that exposure to AlCl(3) inhibited the microsomal CYP450 dependent enzyme system of liver. Our findings suggest that long term daily exposure of AlCl(3) exerts the suppressive effects and thus may cause dysfunction of hepatic CYP450 dependent enzyme system of rat.

  1. Mechanistic aspects of CYP74 allene oxide synthases and related cytochrome P450 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of CYP5, CYP8A, and the CYP74 enzymes specialized for reaction with fatty acid peroxide substrates presents opportunities for a “different look” at the catalytic cycle of the cytochrome P450s. This review considers how the properties of the peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are distinctive, and how they tie in with those of the conventional monooxygenase enzymes. Some unusual reactions of each class have parallels in the other. As new enzyme reactions and new P450 structures emerge there will be possibilities for finding their special properties and edging this knowledge into the big picture. PMID:19747698

  2. Ab Initio Electronic Structure Calculations of Cytochrome P450 -- Ligand Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.

    1997-03-01

    The Cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes are of great interest in pharmacology as they participate in an enormous range of physiological processes including drug deactivation and xenobiotic detoxification. We apply ab initio electronic structure calculations to model the interactions of the haem molecule at the P450 active site with substrate and inhibitor ligands. These calculations, based on density function theory, were performed with the CETEP code which uses a plane wave basis set and pseudopotentials to perform efficient LDA, GGA and spin dependent calculations. A change in the spin state of the haem iron atom is observed on binding of a substrate molecule, consistent with the accepted reaction mechanism.

  3. Cytochrome P450 3A4 and CYP3A5-Catalyzed Bioactivation of Lapatinib.

    PubMed

    Towles, Joanna K; Clark, Rebecca N; Wahlin, Michelle D; Uttamsingh, Vinita; Rettie, Allan E; Jackson, Klarissa D

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic activation of the dual-tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib by cytochromes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 has been implicated in lapatinib-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity; however, the relative enzyme contributions have not been established. The objective of this study was to examine the roles of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in lapatinib bioactivation leading to a reactive, potentially toxic quinoneimine. Reaction phenotyping experiments were performed using individual human recombinant P450 enzymes and P450-selective chemical inhibitors. Lapatinib metabolites and quinoneimine-glutathione (GSH) adducts were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A screen of cDNA-expressed P450s confirmed that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are the primary enzymes responsible for quinoneimine-GSH adduct formation using lapatinib or O-dealkylated lapatinib as the substrate. The mean kinetic parameters (Km and kcat) of lapatinib O-dealkylation revealed that CYP3A4 was 5.2-fold more efficient than CYP3A5 at lapatinib O-dealkylation (CYP3A4 kcat/Km = 6.8 μM(-1) min(-1) versus CYP3A5 kcat/Km = 1.3 μM(-1) min(-1)). Kinetic analysis of GSH adduct formation indicated that CYP3A4 was also 4-fold more efficient at quinoneimine-GSH adduct formation as measured by kcat (maximum relative GSH adduct levels)/Km (CYP3A4 = 0.0082 vs. CYP3A5 = 0.0021). In human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations, CYP3A4-selective inhibitors SR-9186 and CYP3cide reduced formation of GSH adducts by 78% and 72%, respectively, compared with >90% inhibition by the pan-CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. The 16%-22% difference between CYP3A- and CYP3A4-selective inhibition indicates the involvement of remaining CYP3A5 activity in generating reactive metabolites from lapatinib in pooled HLMs. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 are quantitatively important contributors to lapatinib bioactivation. PMID:27450182

  4. Role of Protein–Protein Interactions in Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Through their unique oxidative chemistry, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) catalyze the elimination of most drugs and toxins from the human body. Protein–protein interactions play a critical role in this process. Historically, the study of CYP–protein interactions has focused on their electron transfer partners and allosteric mediators, cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5. However, CYPs can bind other proteins that also affect CYP function. Some examples include the progesterone receptor membrane component 1, damage resistance protein 1, human and bovine serum albumin, and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in addition to other CYP isoforms. Furthermore, disruption of these interactions can lead to altered paths of metabolism and the production of toxic metabolites. In this review, we summarize the available evidence for CYP protein–protein interactions from the literature and offer a discussion of the potential impact of future studies aimed at characterizing noncanonical protein–protein interactions with CYP enzymes. PMID:25133307

  5. DISRUPTION OF THE SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE GENE FOR NADPH-CYTOCHROME P450-REDUCTASE CAUSES INCREASED SENSITIVITY TO KETOCONAZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted in the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene by transplacement are 200-fold more sensitive to ketoconazole, an inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase. Resistance is restored through complementation by the plasmid-born...

  6. Biological activity of phenolic compounds. Hepatic cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/ and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats fed phenolic monomers, polymers, and glycosides

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, S.A.; Mora, M.I.; Wilson, W.C.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Garst, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine effects of a phenolic polymer (Kraft wood lignin, Indulin), phenolic glycosides (cane molasses and wood molasses), and phenolic monomers (vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid) on liver cytochromes P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/, and NADPH cytochrome c reductase in chicks and rats. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin had a higher cytochromes P-450 content than did chicks fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, or 6.0% arenaceous flour. Chicks fed 12.0% wood molasses had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed 0% fiber or 6.0% wood molasses. Cane molasses incorporated at both 6.0 and 12.0% of the diet induced cytochromes P-450 content over those of control-fed birds. Chicks fed 6.0% lignin, with or without antibiotic, had a higher cytochromes P-450 level than did chicks fed control diets, with or without antibiotic. Additionally, chicks fed 6.0% lignin had lower intestinal diaminopimelic acid (DAP) levels than did chicks fed 0% fiber. Rats fed 0% fiber, 6.0% wood cellulose, 6.0% arenaceous flour, or 6.0% lignin exhibited no difference in cytochrome level or activity among treatments. Chicks fed 0.5% vanillin, 0.5% vanillic acid, 0.5% ferulic acid, or 0.5% p-coumaric acid had comparable cytochromes level and activity compared with chicks fed no phenolics. Chicks fed 0.5% p-coumaric acid had lower rates of gain than did chicks fed control or other phenolic-containing diets. Rats fed these phenolics had similar cytochromes P-450 content among treatments.

  7. [Overexpression, homology modeling and coenzyme docking studies of the cytochrome P450nor2 from Cylindrocarpon tonkinense].

    PubMed

    Li, N; Zhang, Y Z; Li, D D; Niu, Y H; Liu, J; Li, S X; Yuan, Y Z; Chen, S L; Geng, H; Liu, D L

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450nor catalyzes an unusual reaction that transfers electrons from NADP/NADPH to bound heme directly. To improve the expression level of P450nor2 from Cylindrocarpon tonkinense (C.P450nor2), Escherichia coli system was utilized to substitute the yeast system we constructed for expression of the P450nor2 gene, and the protein was purified in soluble form using Ni(+)-NTA affinity chromatography. In contrast to P450nor from Fusarium oxysporum (F.P450nor) and P450nor1 from Cylindrocarpon tonkinense (C.P450nor1), C.P450nor2 shows a dual specificity for using NADH or NADPH as electron donors. The present study developed a computational approach in order to illustrate the coenzyme specificity of C.P450nor2 for NADH and NADPH. This study involved homology modeling of C.P450nor2 and docking analyses of NADH and NADPH into the crystal structure of F.P450nor and the predictive model of C.P450nor2, respectively. The results suggested that C.P450nor2 and F.P450nor have different coenzyme specificity for NADH and NADPH; whilst the space around the B'-helix of the C.P450nor2, especially the Ser79 and Gly81, play a crucial role for the specificity of C.P450nor2. In the absence of the experimental structure of C.P450nor2, we hope that our model will be useful to provide rational explanation on coenzyme specificity of C.P450nor2.

  8. In Silico Docking of Ligands to Drug Oxidation Enzymes Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Cytochrome P450 1A2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Glenn, Marsch; Peter, Guengerich F.

    2009-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) oxidize most drugs in humans. Protein modeling toolkits from OpenEye Scientific Software were used to examine the interaction of drug substrates with CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Conformers and partial atomic charges were generated for each drug molecule. User-defined volumes were defined around CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 active sites. Ligands were docked assuming protein and substrates as rigid bodies. To assess rigid docking accuracy, x-ray diffraction coordinates of CYP3A4-erythromycin and CYP3A4-metyrapone complexes were obtained. Rigid re-docking of erythromycin and metyrapone into CYP3A4 yielded poses similar to the crystal structures. Rigid docking revealed two other energetically-favorable CYP3A4-metyrapone poses. The best poses were obtained by using all the Open Eye scoring functions. Optimization of protein-ligand interactions within 5-10 Angstroms of the docked ligand was then performed using the Merck Molecular Force Field in which the protein was assumed to be flexible and the ligand to be rigid. Nearby protein residues pulled slightly closer to the substrate, reducing the volume of the active site.

  9. Structure, genetic mapping, and function of the cytochrome P450 3A37 gene in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Rawal, S; Mendoza, K M; Reed, K M; Coulombe, R A

    2009-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (P450 for protein; CYP for gene) are a superfamily of membrane-bound hemoproteins that oxidize a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Through oxidation reactions, these enzymes are often responsible for the toxic and carcinogenic effects of natural food-borne toxicants, such as the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the extreme sensitivity of turkeys to AFB1 is in part explained by efficient hepatic P450-mediated epoxidation to the toxic and reactive metabolite the exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Using 3'-5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we amplified CYP3A37 from turkey liver RNA, the E. coli-expressed protein which efficiently epoxidates AFB(1). Turkey CYP3A37 has an ORF of 1512 bp, and the protein is predicted to be 504 amino acids with 97% homology to chicken CYP3A37. The turkey gene is organized into 13 exons and 12 introns. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 11th intron was used to assign CYP3A37 to turkey linkage group 10 (corresponding to chicken chromosome 14, GGA14). Because of the important role of P450s in the extreme sensitivity of turkeys to the toxic effects of AFB(1), this study will contribute to the identifying allelic variants of this important gene in poultry.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolizing cytochrome P450s in freshly prepared uncultured rat blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Kumar; Sharma, Amit; Yadav, Sanjay; Parmar, Devendra

    2010-04-15

    In an attempt to develop blood lymphocyte cytochrome P450 expression profile as a surrogate to monitor tissue enzyme, the present study aimed to identify the expression and regulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) responsive CYPs in freshly prepared rat blood lymphocytes. Semi-quantitative and RT-PCR studies demonstrated constitutive and inducible mRNA expression of CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1 isoenzymes and the associated transcription factors, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR translocator (ARNT) in blood lymphocytes. Absolute quantification using RT-PCR revealed several fold lower basal expression of CYP1A1, 1A2 and 1B1 in lymphocytes when compared to the liver. However, significant increase in the mRNA expression of these isoenzymes as well as AhR and ARNT in lymphocytes following pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) have demonstrated that responsiveness is retained in the blood lymphocytes, though the magnitude of increase is several fold lower when compared to liver. This increase in the mRNA expression was found to be associated with an increase in the protein expression of CYP1A1 and 1A2 in blood lymphocytes. Further, CYPs expressed in blood lymphocytes catalysed the O-dealkylation of 7-ethoxy- and 7-methoxyresorufins (ER or MR), though the reactivity was several fold lower in lymphocytes when compared to the liver enzyme. Our data providing quantitative evidence for similarities in the regulation of PAH-regulated CYP in uncultured and non-mitogen stimulated blood lymphocytes with the liver enzyme has led us to suggest that blood lymphocytes could be used as a surrogate to monitor tissue expression of CYPs.

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 3A4: RECENT ADVANCES AND REMAINING PROBLEMS

    PubMed Central

    Sevrioukova, Irina F.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) represent a diverse group of heme-thiolate proteins found in almost all organisms. CYPs share a common protein fold but differ in substrate selectivity and catalyze a wide variety of monooxygenation reactions via activation of molecular oxygen. Among 57 human P450s, the 3A4 isoform (CYP3A4) is the most abundant and the most important because it metabolizes the majority of the administered drugs. A remarkable feature of CYP3A4 is its extreme promiscuity in substrate specificity and cooperative substrate binding, which often leads to undesirable drug-drug interactions and toxic side effects. Owing to its importance in drug development and therapy, CYP3A4 has been the most extensively studied mammalian P450. In this review we provide an overview on recent progress and remaining problems in the CYP3A4 research. PMID:23018626

  12. Export of cytochrome P450 105D1 to the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kaderbhai, M A; Ugochukwu, C C; Kelly, S L; Lamb, D C

    2001-05-01

    CYP105D1, a cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseus, was appended at its amino terminus to the secretory signal of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and placed under the transcriptional control of the native phoA promoter. Heterologous expression in E. coli phosphate-limited medium resulted in abundant synthesis of recombinant CYP105D1 that was translocated across the bacterial inner membrane and processed to yield authentic, heme-incorporated P450 within the periplasmic space. Cell extract and whole-cell activity studies showed that the periplasmically located CYP105D1 competently catalyzed NADH-dependent oxidation of the xenobiotic compounds benzo[a]pyrene and erythromycin, further revealing the presence in the E. coli periplasm of endogenous functional redox partners. This system offers substantial advantages for the application of P450 enzymes to whole-cell biotransformation strategies, where the ability of cells to take up substrates or discard products may be limited.

  13. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M; van Nierop, F Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug metabolism. In a randomized crossover study design, nine healthy subjects ingested a cocktail consisting of five P450-specific probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), S-warfarin (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4)] on two occasions (control study after an overnight fast and after 36 h of fasting). Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. In addition, we studied in Wistar rats the effects of short-term fasting on hepatic mRNA expression of P450 isoforms corresponding with the five studied P450 enzymes in humans. In the healthy subjects, short-term fasting increased oral caffeine clearance by 20% (P = 0.03) and decreased oral S-warfarin clearance by 25% (P < 0.001). In rats, short-term fasting increased mRNA expression of the orthologs of human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of the ortholog of CYP2C9 (P < 0.001) compared with the postabsorptive state. These results demonstrate that short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in a nonuniform pattern. Therefore, short-term fasting is another factor affecting cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

  14. Human Cytochrome P450 21A2, the Major Steroid 21-Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Wang, Chunxue; Lei, Li; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Auchus, Richard J.; Waterman, Michael R.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Egli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, and deficiency of this enzyme is involved in ∼95% of cases of human congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of adrenal steroidogenesis. A structure of the bovine enzyme that we published previously (Zhao, B., Lei, L., Kagawa, N., Sundaramoorthy, M., Banerjee, S., Nagy, L. D., Guengerich, F. P., and Waterman, M. R. (2012) Three-dimensional structure of steroid 21-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 21A2) with two substrates reveals locations of disease-associated variants. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 10613–10622), containing two molecules of the substrate 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, has been used as a template for understanding genetic deficiencies. We have now obtained a crystal structure of human P450 21A2 in complex with progesterone, a substrate in adrenal 21-hydroxylation. Substrate binding and release were fast for human P450 21A2 with both substrates, and pre-steady-state kinetics showed a partial burst but only with progesterone as substrate and not 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. High intermolecular non-competitive kinetic deuterium isotope effects on both kcat and kcat/Km, from 5 to 11, were observed with both substrates, indicative of rate-limiting C–H bond cleavage and suggesting that the juxtaposition of the C21 carbon in the active site is critical for efficient oxidation. The estimated rate of binding of the substrate progesterone (kon 2.4 × 107 m−1 s−1) is only ∼2-fold greater than the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 1.3 × 107 m−1 s−1) with this substrate, suggesting that the rate of substrate binding may also be partially rate-limiting. The structure of the human P450 21A2-substrate complex provides direct insight into mechanistic effects of genetic variants. PMID:25855791

  15. Significance of neuronal cytochrome P450 activity in opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Hough, Lindsay B; Nalwalk, Julia W; Yang, Weizhu; Ding, Xinxin

    2014-08-26

    Stressful environmental changes can suppress nociceptive transmission, a phenomenon known as "stress-induced analgesia". Depending on the stressor and the subject, opioid or non-opioid mechanisms are activated. Brain μ opioid receptors mediate analgesia evoked either by exogenous agents (e.g. morphine), or by the release of endogenous opioids following stressful procedures. Recent work with morphine and neuronal cytochrome P450 (P450)-deficient mice proposed a signal transduction role for P450 enzymes in µ analgesia. Since µ opioid receptors also mediate some forms of stress-induced analgesia, the present studies assessed the significance of brain P450 activity in opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia. Two widely-used models of opioid stress-induced analgesia (restraint and warm water swim) were studied in both sexes of wild-type control and P450-deficient (Null) mice. In control mice, both stressors evoked moderate analgesic responses which were blocked by pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone, confirming the opioid nature of these responses. Consistent with literature, sex differences (control female>control male) were seen in swim-induced, but not restraint-induced, analgesia. Null mice showed differential responses to the two stress paradigms. As compared with control subjects, Null mice showed highly attenuated restraint-induced analgesia, showing a critical role for neuronal P450s in this response. However, warm water swim-induced analgesia was unchanged in Null vs. control mice. Additional control experiments confirmed the absence of morphine analgesia in Null mice. These results are the first to show that some forms of opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia require brain neuronal P450 activity.

  16. Fusion to Hydrophobin HFBI Improves the Catalytic Performance of a Cytochrome P450 System

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Sebastian; Schumacher, Dominik; Raszkowski, Daniel; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are heme-containing enzymes that oxidize a broad range of substrates in the presence of molecular oxygen and NAD(P)H. For their activity, most P450s rely on one or two redox proteins responsible for the transfer of electrons from the cofactor NAD(P)H to the heme. One of the challenges when using P450s in vitro, especially when non-physiological redox proteins are applied, is the inefficient transfer of electrons between the individual proteins resulting in non-productive consumption of NAD(P)H – referred to as uncoupling. Herein, we describe the improvement of the coupling efficiency between a P450 and its redox partner – diflavin reductase – by fusing both enzymes individually to the hydrophobin HFBI – a small self-assembling protein of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The separated monooxygenase (BMO) and reductase (BMR) domains of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium were chosen as a P450-reductase model system and individually fused to HFBI. The fusion proteins could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. When HFBI-fused BMO and BMR were mixed in vitro, substantially higher coupling efficiencies were measured as compared with the respective non-fused enzymes. Consequently, myristic acid conversion increased up to 20-fold (after 6 h) and 5-fold (after 24 h). Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that in vitro the hydrophobin-fused enzymes build multimeric protein assemblies. Thus, the higher activity is hypothesized to be due to HFBI-mediated self-assembly arranging BMO and BMR in close spatial proximity in aqueous solution. PMID:27458582

  17. Fusion to Hydrophobin HFBI Improves the Catalytic Performance of a Cytochrome P450 System.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Sebastian; Schumacher, Dominik; Raszkowski, Daniel; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are heme-containing enzymes that oxidize a broad range of substrates in the presence of molecular oxygen and NAD(P)H. For their activity, most P450s rely on one or two redox proteins responsible for the transfer of electrons from the cofactor NAD(P)H to the heme. One of the challenges when using P450s in vitro, especially when non-physiological redox proteins are applied, is the inefficient transfer of electrons between the individual proteins resulting in non-productive consumption of NAD(P)H - referred to as uncoupling. Herein, we describe the improvement of the coupling efficiency between a P450 and its redox partner - diflavin reductase - by fusing both enzymes individually to the hydrophobin HFBI - a small self-assembling protein of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The separated monooxygenase (BMO) and reductase (BMR) domains of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium were chosen as a P450-reductase model system and individually fused to HFBI. The fusion proteins could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. When HFBI-fused BMO and BMR were mixed in vitro, substantially higher coupling efficiencies were measured as compared with the respective non-fused enzymes. Consequently, myristic acid conversion increased up to 20-fold (after 6 h) and 5-fold (after 24 h). Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that in vitro the hydrophobin-fused enzymes build multimeric protein assemblies. Thus, the higher activity is hypothesized to be due to HFBI-mediated self-assembly arranging BMO and BMR in close spatial proximity in aqueous solution. PMID:27458582

  18. Evolution of the scientific literature of cytochrome P450 from 1977 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Robert, Claude; Wilson, Concepción S; Guengerich, F Peter; Arreto, Charles-Daniel

    2010-02-01

    This study traces the evolution of the scientific literature on cytochrome P450 (P450) published during the last 30+ years (1977-2008). Using the Web of Science, P450 articles